Sample records for canadian organizations

  1. Canadian inter-laboratory organically bound tritium (OBT) analysis exercise. (United States)

    Kim, S B; Olfert, J; Baglan, N; St-Amant, N; Carter, B; Clark, I; Bucur, C


    Tritium emissions are one of the main concerns with regard to CANDU reactors and Canadian nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima accident, the Canadian Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggested that models used in risk assessment of Canadian nuclear facilities be firmly based on measured data. Procedures for measurement of tritium as HTO (tritiated water) are well established, but there are no standard methods and certified reference materials for measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples. This paper describes and discusses an inter-laboratory comparison study in which OBT in three different dried environmental samples (fish, Swiss chard and potato) was measured to evaluate OBT analysis methods currently used by CANDU Owners Group (COG) members. The variations in the measured OBT activity concentrations between all laboratories were less than approximately 20%, with a total uncertainty between 11 and 17%. Based on the results using the dried samples, the current OBT analysis methods for combustion, distillation and counting are generally acceptable. However, a complete consensus OBT analysis methodology with respect to freeze-drying, rinsing, combustion, distillation and counting is required. Also, an exercise using low-level tritium samples (less than 100 Bq/L or 20 Bq/kg-fresh) would be useful in the near future to more fully evaluate the current OBT analysis methods.

  2. Circulating metals and persistent organic pollutant concentrations in Canadian and non-Canadian born primiparous women from five Canadian centres: Results of a pilot biomonitoring study

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    Foster, Warren G., E-mail: [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Cheung, Anthony P. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Davis, Karelyn [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Graves, Gillian [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Jarrell, John [University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Leblanc, Alain [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Leech, Tara [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Walker, Mark [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Weber, Jean Philippe [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Van Oostdam, Jay [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)


    The developing foetus is thought to be at increased risk from exposure to environmental contaminants; however, developmental exposure data is notably lacking for many contaminants. Moreover, potential regional differences or effect of place of birth on residue levels measured in pregnant women is also unknown. Therefore, as part of a multinational biomonitoring study, 125 primiparous pregnant Canadian women were recruited from five Canadian centres (Vancouver, Calgary, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Halifax). Metals in whole blood and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in plasma were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), respectively. Of the 125 women recruited to this study, complete data sets were available for 123 of which 103 were Canadian born. Data were analysed by analysis of covariance and linear mixed models using age and body mass index as covariates. The metals cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and total mercury (Hg) were detected in more than 93% of the samples tested. {beta}-Hexachlorohexane ({beta}-HCH), oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p Prime -DDE), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (PBDE-153, PBDE-47), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB-138, -153, and -180), and the dioxin-like PCB congener PCB-118 were quantified in greater than 70% of the samples tested. Significant differences in the concentrations of Cd, Ni, PCB-153, and p,p Prime -DDE were found between the centres studied. Furthermore, foreign-born pregnant women had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, {beta}-HCH, PBDE-47, PCB-138, -153, -180, and p,p Prime -DDE compared to Canadian born pregnant women. Taken together, the data suggest that there are potential regional differences in contaminant body burden and place of birth may also contribute to differences in maternal residue concentrations. -- Highlights: Black

  3. Ethical Leadership in Canadian School Organizations: Tensions and Possibilities (United States)

    Langlois, Lyse; Lapointe, Claire


    This study, which was sponsored by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, was conducted in French-language minority schools in seven Canadian provinces: British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia. Using an open-ended interview guide, 47 principals were asked about the…

  4. Measures of organizational effectiveness of Canadian national sport organizations. (United States)

    Chelladurai, P; Haggerty, T R


    This study of national sport organizations (NSOs) investigated the interrelationships among (a) administrators' perceptions of the effectiveness of the processes of organization, decision making, and personnel relations; (b) administrators' job satisfaction; and (c) Sport Canada ratings of NSOs in high performance, domestic sport, and combined categories. The subjects, 153 volunteer and 84 professional administrators of the 51 NSOs in Ottawa, were grouped on the basis of work status (volunteer/professional) and Olympic status (Olympic/non-Olympic). The four subgroups did not differ in levels of job satisfaction. Volunteer administrators viewed their respective NSO's processes more favourably than did the professional administrators. Higher ratings of decision making and personnel relations related positively to higher levels of job satisfaction. There was minimal association between Sport Canada ratings and administrators' job satisfaction or their perceptions of process effectiveness.

  5. Dissolved organic matter photolysis in Canadian arctic thaw ponds (United States)

    Laurion, Isabelle; Mladenov, Natalie


    The abundant thaw lakes and ponds in the circumarctic receive a new pool of organic carbon as permafrost peat soils degrade, which can be exposed to significant irradiance that potentially increases as climate warms and ice cover shortens. Exposure to sunlight is known to accelerate the transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into molecules that can be more readily used by microbes. We sampled the water from two common classes of ponds found in the ice-wedge system of continuous permafrost regions of Canada, polygonal and runnel ponds, and followed the transformation of DOM over 12 days by looking at dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and DOM absorption and fluorescence properties. The results indicate a relatively fast decay of color (3.4 and 1.6% loss d-1 of absorption at 320 nm for the polygonal and runnel pond, respectively) and fluorescence (6.1 and 8.3% loss d-1 of total fluorescent components, respectively) at the pond surface, faster in the case of humic-like components, but insignificant losses of DOC over the observed period. This result indicates that direct DOM mineralization (photochemical production of CO2) is apparently minor in thaw ponds compared to the photochemical transformation of DOM into less chromophoric and likely more labile molecules with a greater potential for microbial mineralization. Therefore, DOM photolysis in arctic thaw ponds can be considered as a catalytic mechanism, accelerating the microbial turnover of mobilized organic matter from thawing permafrost and the production of greenhouse gases, especially in the most shallow ponds. Under a warming climate, this mechanism will intensify as summers lengthen.

  6. Analysis of the Science and Technology Narrative within Organ Donation and Transplantation Coverage in Canadian Newspapers

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    Jennifer Cheung


    Full Text Available Organ failure is one cause of death. Advancements in scientific research and technological development made organ transplantation possible and continue to find better ways to substitute failed organs with other organs of biological origin or artificial organs. Media, including newspapers, are one source of information for the public. The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent and how science and technology research and development are covered in the organ transplantation and organ donation (ODOT coverage of n = 300 Canadian newspapers, including the two Canadian newspapers with national reach (The Globe and Mail, National Post. The study generated qualitative and quantitative data addressing the following issues: (1 which scientific and technological developments are mentioned in the ODOT coverage; and (2 what issues are mentioned in the coverage of scientific and technological advancements linked to ODOT. We found little to no coverage of many technological and scientific advancements evident in academic and grey literature covering ODOT, and we found little engagement with social and ethical issues already raised about these advancements in the literature. The only area we found to be covered to a broader extent was xenotransplantation, although the coverage stopped after 2002. We argue that the newspaper coverage of ODOT under reports scientific and technological advancements related to ODOT and the issues these advancements might raise.

  7. Presence of anionic perfluorinated organic compounds in serum collected from Northern Canadian populations

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    Tittlemier, S.; Ryan, J.J. [Food Research Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Oostdam, J. van [Management of Toxic Substances Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    Perfluorinated organic compounds are used in a wide variety of consumer and industrial products and applications, ranging from personal care products and cleaning solutions, to grease resistant coatings for fabric and paper and emulsifiers in the production of polymers. Perfluorinated compounds such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are persistent and bioaccumulative. PFOS and PFOA have been detected in biota sampled from around the world2, including the Canadian Arctic. Evidence from various laboratory experiments suggest that these perfluorinated compounds can elicit negative effects, including peroxisome proliferation5 and possibly hepatocarcinogenesis. PFOA and PFOS also appear to biomagnify in marine food webs, in a similar fashion as traditional organohalogenated POPs like the recalcitrant PCB congeners. Indigenous northern Canadian populations such as the Inuit and Inuvialuit often hunt and consume marine mammals, including beluga, narwhal, and seal, as part of their traditional diet. Thus, segments of these populations are often exposed to higher levels of POPs than southern populations and other consumers of market foods. This higher exposure is reflected in plasma concentrations of traditional POPs such PCBs. There is a question of whether a similar situation occurs for PFOS, PFOA, and similar perfluorinated compounds. This preliminary survey analyzed a suite of perfluorinated sulfonates and carboxylates in 23 pooled archived samples of human plasma collected from various northern Canadian populations.

  8. Canadian society of transplantation consensus workshop on cytomegalovirus management in solid organ transplantation final report. (United States)

    Preiksaitis, Jutta K; Brennan, Daniel C; Fishman, Jay; Allen, Upton


    The Canadian Society of Transplantation sponsored a Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Consensus Working Group that met on March 19, 2003. The objectives of this group were to determine the current burden of CMV-associated disease in the setting of solid organ transplantation in Canada, make recommendations regarding optimal strategies for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of CMV infection and disease, highlight gaps in knowledge and outline priorities for research and other initiatives that might further reduce the burden of CMV-associated effects in this setting. This report summarizes the recommendations of the working group including ratings of the strength of evidence supporting the recommendations.

  9. Association between organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming among Canadian public health organizations. (United States)

    Hanusaik, Nancy; Sabiston, Catherine M; Kishchuk, Natalie; Maximova, Katerina; O'Loughlin, Jennifer


    In the context of the emerging field of public health services and systems research, this study (i) tested a model of the relationships between public health organizational capacity (OC) for chronic disease prevention, its determinants (organizational supports for evaluation, partnership effectiveness) and one possible outcome of OC (involvement in core chronic disease prevention practices) and (ii) examined differences in the nature of these relationships among organizations operating in more and less facilitating external environments. OC was conceptualized as skills and resources/supports for chronic disease prevention programming. Data were from a census of 210 Canadian public health organizations with mandates for chronic disease prevention. The hypothesized relationships were tested using structural equation modeling. Overall, the results supported the model. Organizational supports for evaluation accounted for 33% of the variance in skills. Skills and resources/supports were directly and strongly related to involvement. Organizations operating within facilitating external contexts for chronic disease prevention had more effective partnerships, more resources/supports, stronger skills and greater involvement in core chronic disease prevention practices. Results also suggested that organizations functioning in less facilitating environments may not benefit as expected from partnerships. Empirical testing of this conceptual model helps develop a better understanding of public health OC.

  10. Body burden of metals and persistent organic pollutants among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. (United States)

    Laird, Brian D; Goncharov, Alexey B; Chan, Hing Man


    Inuit living in the Arctic are exposed to elevated levels of environmental contaminants primarily due to long-range atmospheric transport. Blood sampling and contaminant biomonitoring was conducted as part of the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey in 2007-2008. The body burden of metals (e.g. Cd, Pb) and persistent organic pollutants (e.g. PCBs, DDT & DDE, toxaphene, chlordane, PBDEs) were measured for Inuit participants (n=2172) from 36 communities in Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, in Canada. The geometric mean of blood concentrations for Cd, Pb, PCBs, DDE & DDT, toxaphene, and chlordane were higher than those in the Canadian general population. A total of 9% of study participants exceeded the intervention guideline of 100μgL(-1) for Pb, 11% of participants exceeded the trigger guideline of 5μgL(-1) for Cd, and 1% exceeded the intervention guideline of 100μgL(-1) for PCBs. Also, 3% of women of child-bearing age exceeded blood Pb of 100μgL(-1) while 28% of women of child-bearing age exceeded 5μgL(-1) of PCBs. This work showed that most Inuit Health Survey participants were below blood contaminant guidelines set by Health Canada but that metal and POP body burdens commonly exceed exposures observed in the general population of Canada.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Cryoconite Organic Matter from the Athabasca Glacier, Canadian Rocky Mountains (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Simpson, M. J.; Eyles, N.; Simpson, A.; Baer, A. J.


    Cryoconite is a dark-colored, dust-like material found on the surfaces of glaciers. Cryoconite holes, which are produced by accelerated ice melt due to more solar radiation absorption by cryoconite than bare ice, act as habitats for microbial life and biologically mediated chemical reactions on otherwise relatively inert glacier surfaces. Cryoconite holes may behave as bacterial shelters during "Snowball Earth" events postulated for the Neoproterozoic Earth. In this study organic matter (OM) biomarkers and a host of one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques were used to characterize cryoconite organic matter (COM) collected from the Athabasca Glacier in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Solvent extracts contain large quantities of fatty acids, n-alkanols, n- alkanes, wax esters and sterols. A large contribution of C23 and C25 relative to C29 and C31 n-alkanes ([C23/(C23+C29)] = 0.51) suggests that allochthonous COM is derived mainly from lower order plants such as mosses and lichens. This is confirmed by the absence of lignin-derived phenols, a biomarker of terrestrial vascular plants, after copper (II) oxidation in extracts and NMR analyses of COM. Solution-state 1H NMR reveals prominent peptide/protein structures which are characteristic of microbial inputs, while solid-state 13C CP/MAS NMR analysis shows a very high alkyl/O-alkyl ratio (2.16), suggesting that COM is unique compared to organic matter found in nearby soils which have alkyl/O-alkyl ratio of ~0.39. Our NMR results suggest that COM is dominated by microbial-derived compounds, which is also confirmed by phospholipid fatty acid results (6,950µg/gOC) which show significant microbial contributions to COM primarily from bacteria and minor microeukaryotes. Both biomarker and NMR data suggest that COM likely supports active microbial communities on the Athabasca Glacier. Given that such material is incorporated within the glacier in the accumulation zone or flushed by meltwaters into subglacial environments

  12. Comparison of the optical properties of dissolved organic matter in two river-influenced coastal regions of the Canadian Arctic (United States)

    Retamal, Leira; Vincent, Warwick F.; Martineau, Christine; Osburn, Christopher L.


    The optical characteristics of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were analyzed in the Great Whale River and adjacent Hudson Bay (55° N, 77° W) in the eastern Canadian Low Arctic, and in the Mackenzie River and adjacent Beaufort Sea in the western Canadian High Arctic (70° N, 133° W). Sampling was during ice-free open water conditions. Both rivers contained high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (3 and 6 mg DOC l -1 in the Great Whale River and Mackenzie River, respectively) and CDOM ( a320 of 11 and 14 m -1), resulting in a substantial load of organic matter to their coastal seas. There were pronounced differences in the CDOM characteristics of the two rivers, notably in their synchronous fluorescence scans (SFS). The latter showed that the Mackenzie River was depleted in humic materials, implying a more mature catchment relative to the younger, more recently glaciated Great Whale River system. SFS spectra had a similar shape across the freshwater-saltwater transition zone of the Great Whale plume, and DOC was linearly related to salinity implying conservative mixing and no loss by flocculation or biological processes across the salt front. In contrast, there were major differences in SFS spectral shape from the Mackenzie River to the freshwater-influenced coastal ocean, with a marked decrease in the relative importance of fulvic and humic acid materials. The SFS spectra for the coastal Beaufort Sea in September-October strongly resembled those recorded for the Mackenzie River during the high discharge, CDOM-rich, snowmelt period in June, but with some loss of autochthonous materials. These results are consistent with differences in freshwater residence time between the Mackenzie River and Great Whale River coastal ocean systems. Models of arctic continental shelf responses to present and future climate regimes will need to consider these striking regional differences in the organic matter content, biogeochemistry and optics between waters from

  13. Biomarker responses associated with halogenated organic contaminants in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) breeding in the Canadian Arctic

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    Braune, Birgit M., E-mail: [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Trudeau, Suzanne [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Jeffrey, Deborah A. [Bancroft, Ontario, K0L 1C0 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L. [Environment Canada, Box 1714, Iqaluit, Nunavut, X0A 0H0 (Canada)


    We examined relationships between hepatic concentrations of halogenated organic contaminants and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and retinoid (vitamin A) concentrations in livers, as well as retinol and thyroid hormone (TT{sub 3}, TT{sub 4}) levels in blood plasma, of northern fulmars at two breeding colonies in the Canadian High Arctic. Biomarker levels or responses did not differ significantly between males and females at either colony, nor was there any significant difference between colonies. No significant relationships were found between thyroid hormone or hepatic retinoid concentrations and any of the dioxin-like compounds or their Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) although significant positive correlations were found with plasma retinol (p < 0.03). EROD activity was significantly correlated with hepatic dioxin-like compounds and their TEQs (p < 0.001) as well as total PCBs (p < 0.01), which suggests that EROD induction occurs in northern fulmars at environmentally-relevant concentrations. - Highlights: > EROD induction occurs in northern fulmars at environmentally-relevant concentrations. > No relationships between hepatic retinoid or plasma thyroid hormone levels and dioxin-like compounds or TEQs. > Biomarker responses did not differ between males and females or between colonies. - EROD induction occurs in northern fulmars in the Canadian Arctic at environmentally-relevant concentrations.

  14. Nationally representative levels of selected volatile organic compounds in Canadian residential indoor air: population-based survey. (United States)

    Zhu, Jiping; Wong, Suzy L; Cakmak, Sabit


    A comprehensive, population-based national indoor air survey was conducted in 2009-2011 in Canada. A total of 84 volatile organic carbons (VOCs) from 3218 houses, 546 apartments, and 93 other dwelling types were measured using passive sampling followed by thermal desorption GC/MS. A total of 12 VOCs were measured in both this study and the 1992 Canadian national study. Arithmetic means of VOCs in this study were 2-5 times lower than those in the 1992 study with the exception of a higher styrene level (1.13 μg · m(-3)). Comparing the geometric means of the 24 VOCs showed that levels for the VOCs in this study were comparable to those reported in Europe. They were generally within a factor of 2; 1,4-dichlorobenzene (0.21 μg · m(-3)) and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (0.51 μg · m(-3)) were noticeably lower in this study than in the European studies. There were 47 VOCs detected in more than 50% of Canadian households; 33 of them were higher in houses than in apartments for all nonsmoking homes, while only 4 were lower in houses than in apartments. A total of 11 of 47 VOCs were higher in smoking homes compared to nonsmoking homes, while the rest had similar levels. Principal component analysis identified several groups of VOCs with possible common sources.

  15. Persistent halogenated organic contaminants and mercury in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Canadian Arctic

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    Braune, Birgit M., E-mail: birgit.braune@ec.gc.c [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L. [Environment Canada, Box 1714, Iqaluit, Nunavut, X0A 0H0 (Canada); Butt, Craig M.; Mabury, Scott A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H6 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada)


    Northern fulmars from two breeding colonies in the Canadian Arctic, Cape Vera and Prince Leopold Island, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and total mercury (Hg). Hepatic concentrations of organochlorines and Hg were highest in the male fulmars from Cape Vera. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations did not vary significantly between sexes or colonies. However, concentrations of the perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) were higher in fulmars from Cape Vera than Prince Leopold Island. The C{sub 11}-C{sub 15} PFCAs averaged 90% of the PFCA profile at both colonies. Polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho PCBs (NO-PCBs) were measured only in birds from Prince Leopold Island. Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, NO-PCBs and Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) did not differ significantly between sexes. {Sigma}TEQ was comprised mainly of {Sigma}TEQ{sub PCDF}. Concentrations of Hg and the persistent halogenated compounds reported in this study were below published toxicological threshold values for wild birds. - Northern fulmars in the Canadian Arctic demonstrate sex-specific, colony-specific, and regional differences in contaminant profiles.

  16. Persistent halogenated organic contaminants and mercury in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Canadian Arctic. (United States)

    Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L; Butt, Craig M; Mabury, Scott A; Muir, Derek C G


    Northern fulmars from two breeding colonies in the Canadian Arctic, Cape Vera and Prince Leopold Island, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and total mercury (Hg). Hepatic concentrations of organochlorines and Hg were highest in the male fulmars from Cape Vera. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations did not vary significantly between sexes or colonies. However, concentrations of the perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) were higher in fulmars from Cape Vera than Prince Leopold Island. The C(11)-C(15) PFCAs averaged 90% of the PFCA profile at both colonies. Polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho PCBs (NO-PCBs) were measured only in birds from Prince Leopold Island. Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, NO-PCBs and Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) did not differ significantly between sexes. ΣTEQ was comprised mainly of ΣTEQ(PCDF). Concentrations of Hg and the persistent halogenated compounds reported in this study were below published toxicological threshold values for wild birds.

  17. Composition of carbonaceous smoke particles from prescribed burning of a Canadian boreal forest: 1. Organic aerosol characterization by gas chromatography

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    Mazurek, M.A.; Laterza, C.; Newman, L.; Daum, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center; Winstead, E.L. [Science Applications International Corporation, Hampton, VA (United States)


    In this study we examine the molecular organic constituents (C8 to C40 lipid compounds) collected as smoke particles from a Canadian boreal forest prescribed burn. Of special interest are (1) the molecular identity of polar organic aerosols, and (2) the amount of polar organic matter relative to the total mass of aerosol particulate carbon. Organic extracts of smoke aerosol particles show complex distributions of the lipid compounds when analyzed by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The molecular constituents present as smoke aerosol are grouped into non-polar (hydrocarbons) and polar {minus}2 oxygen atoms) subtractions. The dominant chemical species found in the boreal forest smoke aerosol are unaltered resin compounds (C20 terpenes) which are abundant in unburned conifer wood, plus thermally altered wood lignins and other polar aromatic hydrocarbons. Our results show that smoke aerosols contain molecular tracers which are related to the biofuel consumed. These smoke tracers can be related structurally back to the consumed softwood and hardwood vegetation. In addition, combustion of boreal forest materials produces smoke aerosol particles that are both oxygen-rich and chemically complex, yielding a carbonaceous aerosol matrix that is enriched in polar substances. As a consequence, emissions of carbonaceous smoke particles from large-scale combustion of boreal forest land may have a disproportionate effect on regional atmospheric chemistry and on cloud microphysical processes.

  18. Assessing determinants of maternal blood concentrations for persistent organic pollutants and metals in the eastern and western Canadian Arctic

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    Curren, Meredith S., E-mail: [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Avenue West, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei, E-mail: [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Davis, Karelyn, E-mail: [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Kandola, Kami, E-mail: [Government of the Northwest Territories, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada); Brewster, Janet, E-mail: [Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada); Potyrala, Mary, E-mail: [Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada); Chan, Hing Man, E-mail: [Center for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie-Curie, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)


    Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals mainly through their consumption of a traditional diet of wildlife items. Recent studies indicate that many human chemical levels have decreased in the north, likely due to a combination of reduced global chemical emissions, dietary shifts, and risk mitigation efforts by local health authorities. Body burdens for chemicals in mothers can be further offset by breastfeeding, parity, and other maternal characteristics. We have assessed the impact of several dietary and maternal covariates following a decade of awareness of the contaminant issue in northern Canada, by performing multiple stepwise linear regression analyses from blood concentrations and demographic variables for 176 mothers recruited from Nunavut and the Northwest Territories during the period 2005–2007. A significant aboriginal group effect was observed for the modeled chemicals, except for lead and cadmium, after adjusting for covariates. Further, blood concentrations for POPs and metals were significantly associated with at least one covariate of older age, fewer months spent breastfeeding, more frequent eating of traditional foods, or smoking during pregnancy. Cadmium had the highest explained variance (72.5%) from just two significant covariates (current smoking status and parity). Although Inuit participants from the Northwest Territories consumed more traditional foods in general, Inuit participants from coastal communities in Nunavut continued to demonstrate higher adjusted blood concentrations for POPs and metals examined here. While this is due in part to a higher prevalence of marine mammals in the eastern Arctic diet, it is possible that other aboriginal group effects unrelated to diet may also contribute to elevated chemical body burdens in Canadian Arctic populations. - Highlights: • In 2005–07, younger age was related to lower levels of chemicals in northern Canada. • Eastern

  19. Monopoly's moment: The organization and regulation of Canadian utilities, 1830-1930

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    Armstrong, C.; Nelles, H.V.


    This book explores the struggle to build and regulate Canada's utilities, and the response to the problem of monopoly inherent in these technologies. Using primary sources, the authors have chosen examples from all regions of the country. The book illustrates how regionally distinctive operations of utilities, which relied heavily on public ownership, created a diverse, yet highly integrated utilities sector. It shows that regulation, even more than monopoly, was a social and political product. It also shows that, for purposes of analyzing technological diffusion, the Canadian-American border scarcely existed; the firms that applied the new technologies in Canada also behaved very much like their U.S. counterparts. The first part of the book surveys the history of the first urban utilities in the 19th century. The second part deals with the transfer of technology and the transformation brought by electricity and modern capitalism. The third part deals with regions and regulations, the political crisis of the private industry and the problem of monopoly. The fourth part analyzes and compares the different outcomes of the regulatory process. 731 refs., 5 figs., 46 tabs.

  20. Relationship between child abuse exposure and reported contact with child protection organizations: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey. (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Turner, Sarah; Tonmyr, Lil; Hovdestad, Wendy


    Much of what is known about child abuse in Canada has come from reported cases of child abuse and at-risk samples, which likely represent the most severe cases of child abuse in the country. The objective of the current study is to examine the prevalence of a broad range of child abuse experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to IPV) and investigate how such experiences and sociodemographic variables are related to contact with child protection organizations in Canada using a representative general population sample. Data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health collected from the 10 provinces using a multistage stratified cluster design (n=23,395; household response rate=79.8%; aged 18 years and older). Physical abuse only (16.8%) was the most prevalent child abuse experience reported with the exposure to specific combinations of two or more types of child abuse ranging from 0.4% to 3.7%. Only 7.6% of the adult population with a history of child abuse reported having had contact with child protection organizations. Experiencing all three types of child abuse was associated with the greatest odds of contact with child protection organizations (AOR=15.8; 95% CI=10.1 to 24.6). Physical abuse only was associated with one of the lowest odds of contact with child protection organizations. Preventing child abuse is widely acknowledged as an important, but challenging public health goal. Strategies to increase reporting of child abuse may help to protect children and to connect families with necessary services. One obvious priority would be physical abuse.

  1. Persistent organic pollutant and mercury concentrations in eggs of ground-nesting marine birds in the Canadian high Arctic. (United States)

    Peck, Liam E; Gilchrist, H Grant; Mallory, Conor D; Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L


    We collected eggs of eight marine bird species from several colony sites in the Canadian high Arctic located at approximately 76°N and analyzed them for concentrations of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury. We provide the first report on concentrations of POPs in eggs of three Arctic species (Thayer's gull Larus thayeri, Sabine's gull Xema sabini, Ross's Gull Rhodostethia rosea), and we found significant differences in each of the POP profiles among the five species with sufficient data for statistical comparisons (Thayer's gull, black guillemot Cepphus grylle, Sabine's gull, Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea and common eider Somateria mollissima borealis). The Ross's Gull had unexpectedly high POP concentrations relative to the other species examined, although this was based on a single egg, while glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus eggs from our sampling location had very low POPs. Sabine's gulls had the lowest Hg of the eggs studied, consistent with their low trophic position, but concentrations of their legacy POPs were higher than expected. We also noted that total hexachlorocyclohexanes were higher than reported elsewhere in the circumpolar Arctic in three species.

  2. Impact of forest harvesting on water quality and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter in Eastern Canadian Boreal Shield lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Glaz


    Full Text Available Forestry activities in the Canadian Boreal region have increased in the last decades, raising concerns about their potential impact on aquatic ecosystems. Water quality and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM were measured over a three-year period in eight Eastern Boreal Shield lakes: four lakes were studied before, one and two years after forest harvesting (perturbed lakes and compared with four undisturbed reference lakes (unperturbed lakes sampled at the same time. ANOVAs showed a significant increase in total phosphorus (TP in perturbed lakes when the three sampling dates were considered and in DOC concentrations when considering one year before and one year after the perturbation only. At one year post-clear cutting DOC concentrations were about 15 % greater in the perturbed lakes at ~15 mg C L−1 compared to 12.5 mg C L−1 in the unperturbed lakes. In contrast, absorbance and fluorescence measurements showed that all metrics remained within narrow ranges compared to the range observed in natural waters, indicating that forest harvesting did not affect the nature of DOM characterised with spectroscopic techniques. Multivariate statistical analysis showed lakes to be significantly different one year after the perturbation. These results confirm an impact of forestry activities one year after the perturbation. However, this effect seems to be mitigated two years after, indicating that the system shows high resilience and may be able to return to its original condition.

  3. Birth of the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation


    Beck, Ivan T.


    The Canadian Digestive Disease Foundation, renamed the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation -- Fondation canadienne pour la promotion de la santé digestive -- in December 2001, is the culmination of ongoing efforts by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology to establish an independent charitable organization. In February 2001, it was officially endorsed as the Foundation for the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology. The initial efforts to establish this Foundation, led by Dr Richa...

  4. Association between organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming among Canadian public health organizations


    Hanusaik, Nancy; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Kishchuk, Natalie; Maximova, Katerina; O’Loughlin, Jennifer


    In the context of the emerging field of public health services and systems research, this study (i) tested a model of the relationships between public health organizational capacity (OC) for chronic disease prevention, its determinants (organizational supports for evaluation, partnership effectiveness) and one possible outcome of OC (involvement in core chronic disease prevention practices) and (ii) examined differences in the nature of these relationships among organizations operating in mor...

  5. Effect of Organic Layer Thickness on Black Spruce Aging Mistakes in Canadian Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Laamrani


    Full Text Available Boreal black spruce (Picea mariana forests are prone to developing thick organic layers (paludification. Black spruce is adapted to this environment by the continuous development of adventitious roots, masking the root collar and making it difficult to age trees. Ring counts above the root collar underestimate age of trees, but the magnitude of age underestimation of trees in relation to organic layer thickness (OLT is unknown. This age underestimation is required to produce appropriate age-correction tools to be used in land resource management. The goal of this study was to assess aging errors that are done with standard ring counts of trees growing in sites with different degrees of paludification (OLT; 0–25 cm, 26–65 cm, >65 cm. Age of 81 trees sampled at three geographical locations was determined by ring counts at ground level and at 1 m height, and real age of trees was determined by cross-dating growth rings down to the root collar (root/shoot interface. Ring counts at 1 m height underestimated age of trees by a mean of 22 years (range 13–49 and 52 years (range 14–112 in null to low vs. moderately to highly paludified stands, respectively. The percentage of aging-error explained by our linear model was relatively high (R2adj = 0.71 and showed that OLT class and age at 0-m could be used to predict total aging-error while neither DBH nor geographic location could. The resulting model has important implications for forest management to accurately estimate productivity of these forests.

  6. Exploring Canadian Identity through Canadian Children's Literature. (United States)

    Pantaleo, Sylvia


    Considers what commonplaces of culture and identity are being, could be, transmitted through the use of children's literature in classrooms. Explores what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Describes a study which involved Canadian elementary school children who read Canadian children's books. Concludes that literature plays a…

  7. Scenario Modeling Potential Eco-Efficiency Gains from a Transition to Organic Agriculture: Life Cycle Perspectives on Canadian Canola, Corn, Soy, and Wheat Production (United States)

    Pelletier, N.; Arsenault, N.; Tyedmers, P.


    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola ( Brassica rapa), corn ( Zea mays), soy ( Glycine max), and wheat ( Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  8. Scenario modeling potential eco-efficiency gains from a transition to organic agriculture: life cycle perspectives on Canadian canola, corn, soy, and wheat production. (United States)

    Pelletier, N; Arsenault, N; Tyedmers, P


    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola (Brassica rapa), corn (Zea mays), soy (Glycine max), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  9. Policy Dialogue and Engagement between Non-Governmental Organizations and Government: A Survey of Processes and Instruments of Canadian Policy Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Mitchell Evans


    Full Text Available Various analysts have raised concerns respecting declining research, evaluation and analytical capacities within public services. Typically, the decline is attributed to reforms associated with neoliberal restructuring of the state and its concomitant managerial expression in New Public Management (NPM.  This has given rise to a conceptual shift now commonly captured as a movement from ‘government’ to ‘governance’. Policy advising from a new governance perspective entails an image of a more distributed policy advisory system where a plurality of actors, including non-state actors, engages with government in deliberating policy interventions to address collective problems.The original research presented here suggests that those responsible for policy work across four policy communities in the three Canadian provinces surveyed differ in terms of their capacities, depth of commitment to a specific policy file/field, roles and functions, as well as perceptions of the policy work that they undertake. Over the past several years, a number of primarily quantitative analyses examining the processes, tools and perspectives of Canadian federal and provincial government policy analysts have been published.  Consequently, a significant knowledge-base has been acquired respecting what government policy analysts do and their attitudes toward their work but very little is known about external interactions with non-governmental organizations (NGOs.

  10. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe


    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  11. Organ donation after medical assistance in dying or cessation of life-sustaining treatment requested by conscious patients: the Canadian context. (United States)

    Allard, Julie; Fortin, Marie-Chantal


    In June 2016, following the decision of the Supreme Court of Canada to decriminalise assistance in dying, the Canadian government enacted Bill C-14, legalising medical assistance in dying (MAID). In 2014, the province of Quebec had passed end-of-life care legislation making MAID available as of December 2015. The availability of MAID has many implications, including the possibility of combining this practice with organ donation through the controlled donation after cardiac death (cDCD) protocol. cDCD most often occurs in cases where the patient has a severe neurological injury but does not meet all the criteria for brain death. The donation is subsequent to the decision to withdraw life-sustaining treatment (LST). Cases where patients are conscious prior to the withdrawal of LST are unusual, and have raised doubts as to the acceptability of removing organs from individuals who are not neurologically impaired and who have voluntarily chosen to die. These cases can be compared with likely scenarios in which patients will request both MAID and organ donation. In both instances, patients will be conscious and competent. Organ donation in such contexts raises ethical issues regarding respect for autonomy, societal pressure, conscientious objections and the dead-donor rule. In this article, we look at relevant policies in other countries and examine the ethical issues associated with cDCD in conscious patients who choose to die.

  12. Origin and fate of particulate organic matter in the southern Beaufort Sea - Amundsen Gulf region, Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magen, Cedric; Chaillou, Gwenaelle; Crowe, Sean;


    To establish the relative importance of terrigenous and marine organic matter in the southern Beaufort Sea, we measured the concentrations and the stable isotopic compositions of organic carbon and total nitrogen in sediments and in settling particles intercepted by sediment traps. The organic ca....... This process continues in the bottom sediment with the result that the sedimentary organic matter becomes dominated by the refractory terrigenous and marine components. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......To establish the relative importance of terrigenous and marine organic matter in the southern Beaufort Sea, we measured the concentrations and the stable isotopic compositions of organic carbon and total nitrogen in sediments and in settling particles intercepted by sediment traps. The organic......) in the sediment samples were strongly correlated, with the highest values, indicative of a more marine contribution, in the Amundsen Gulf In contrast, the organic matter content, elemental (CORG:NTOT ratio) and isotopic (delta C-13(ORG); and delta N-15(TOT)) composition of the settling particles was different...

  13. Impact of forest harvesting on water quality and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter in eastern Canadian Boreal Shield lakes in summer (United States)

    Glaz, P.; Gagné, J.-P.; Archambault, P.; Sirois, P.; Nozais, C.


    Forestry activities in the Canadian Boreal region have increased in the last decades, raising concerns about their potential impact on aquatic ecosystems. Water quality and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were measured over a 3-year period in eight eastern Boreal Shield lakes: four lakes were studied before, 1 and 2 years after forest harvesting (perturbed lakes) and compared with four undisturbed reference lakes (unperturbed lakes) sampled at the same time. ANOVAs showed a significant increase in total phosphorus (TP) in perturbed lakes when the three sampling dates were considered and in DOC concentrations when considering 1 year before and 1 year after the perturbation only. At 1 year post-clear cutting DOC concentrations were about 15 % greater in the perturbed lakes at ~ 15 mgC L-1 compared to 12.5 mgC L-1 in the unperturbed lakes. In contrast, absorbance and fluorescence measurements showed that all metrics remained within narrow ranges compared to the range observed in natural waters, indicating that forest harvesting did not affect the nature of DOM characterized with spectroscopic techniques. These results confirm an impact of forestry activities 1 year after the perturbation. However, this effect seems to be mitigated 2 years after, indicating that the system shows high resilience and may be able to return to its original condition in terms of water quality parameters assessed in this study.

  14. The "Canadian" in Canadian Children's Literature. (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Wolodko, Brenda


    Notes that a rich body of Canadian children's literature exists that reflects the country's literary and socio-cultural values, beliefs, themes and images, including those of geography, history, language and identity. Discusses how Canadians tend to identify themselves first by region or province and then by nation. (SG)

  15. Canadian Children's Literature. (United States)

    School Libraries in Canada, 2001


    Includes 15 articles that relate to Canadian children's literature, including the power of literature; using Canadian literature in Canada; the principal's role in promoting literacy; Canadian Children's Book Centre; the National Library of Canada's children's literature collection; book promotion; selection guide; publisher's perspective; and…

  16. Impact of Next Generation Sequencing on the Organization and Funding of Returning Research Results: Survey of Canadian Research Ethics Boards Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Jaitovich Groisman

    Full Text Available Research Ethics Boards (REBs are expected to evaluate protocols planning the use of Next Generation Sequencing technologies (NGS, assuring that any genomic finding will be properly managed. As Canadian REBs play a central role in the disclosure of such results, we deemed it important to examine the views and experience of REB members on the return of aggregated research results, individual research results (IRRs and incidental findings (IFs in current genomic research. With this intent, we carried out a web-based survey, which showed that 59.7% of respondents viewed the change from traditional sequencing to NGS as more than a technical substitution, and that 77% of respondents agreed on the importance of returning aggregated research results, the most compelling reasons being the recognition of participants' contribution and increasing the awareness of scientific progress. As for IRRs specifically, 50% of respondents were in favour of conveying such information, even when they only indicated the probability that a condition may develop. Current regulations and risk to participants were considered equally important, and much more than financial costs, when considering the return of IRRs and IFs. Respondents indicated that the financial aspect of offering genetic counseling was the least important matter when assessing it as a requisite. Granting agencies were named as mainly responsible for funding, while the organizing and returning of IRRs and IFs belonged to researchers. However, views in these matters differ according to respondents' experience. Our results draw attention to the need for improved guidance when considering the organizational and financial aspects of returning genetic research results, so as to better fulfill the ethical and moral principles that are to guide such undertakings.

  17. Does accreditation stimulate change? A study of the impact of the accreditation process on Canadian healthcare organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabah Abdo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background One way to improve quality and safety in healthcare organizations (HCOs is through accreditation. Accreditation is a rigorous external evaluation process that comprises self-assessment against a given set of standards, an on-site survey followed by a report with or without recommendations, and the award or refusal of accreditation status. This study evaluates how the accreditation process helps introduce organizational changes that enhance the quality and safety of care. Methods We used an embedded multiple case study design to explore organizational characteristics and identify changes linked to the accreditation process. We employed a theoretical framework to analyze various elements and for each case, we interviewed top managers, conducted focus groups with staff directly involved in the accreditation process, and analyzed self-assessment reports, accreditation reports and other case-related documents. Results The context in which accreditation took place, including the organizational context, influenced the type of change dynamics that occurred in HCOs. Furthermore, while accreditation itself was not necessarily the element that initiated change, the accreditation process was a highly effective tool for (i accelerating integration and stimulating a spirit of cooperation in newly merged HCOs; (ii helping to introduce continuous quality improvement programs to newly accredited or not-yet-accredited organizations; (iii creating new leadership for quality improvement initiatives; (iv increasing social capital by giving staff the opportunity to develop relationships; and (v fostering links between HCOs and other stakeholders. The study also found that HCOs' motivation to introduce accreditation-related changes dwindled over time. Conclusions We conclude that the accreditation process is an effective leitmotiv for the introduction of change but is nonetheless subject to a learning cycle and a learning curve. Institutions invest

  18. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yang


    Full Text Available Boreal regions comprise about 17 % of the global land area, and they both affect and are influenced by climate change. To better understand boreal forest fire emissions and plume evolution, 947 whole air samples were collected aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft in summer 2008 as part of the ARCTAS-B field mission, and analyzed for 79 non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs using gas chromatography. Together with simultaneous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, CH2O, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN, these measurements represent the most comprehensive assessment of trace gas emissions from boreal forest fires to date. Based on 105 air samples collected in fresh Canadian smoke plumes, 57 of the 80 measured NMVOCs (including CH2O were emitted from the fires, including 45 species that were quantified from boreal forest fires for the first time. After CO2, CO and CH4, the largest emission factors (EFs for individual species were formaldehyde (2.1 ± 0.2 g kg−1, followed by methanol, NO2, HCN, ethene, α-pinene, β-pinene, ethane, benzene, propene, acetone and CH3CN. Globally, we estimate that boreal forest fires release 2.4 ± 0.6 Tg C yr−1 in the form of NMVOCs, with approximately 41 % of the carbon released as C1-C2 NMVOCs and 21 % as pinenes. These are the first reported field measurements of monoterpene emissions from boreal forest fires, and we speculate that the pinenes, which are relatively heavy molecules, were detected in the fire plumes as the result of distillation of stored terpenes as the vegetation is heated. Their inclusion in smoke chemistry models is expected to improve model predictions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. The fire-averaged EF of dichloromethane or CH2Cl2, (6.9 ± 8.6 × 10−4 g kg−1, was not significantly different from zero and supports recent findings that its global biomass burning source appears to have been overestimated. Similarly, we found no evidence for emissions of chloroform (CHCl3 or methyl

  19. Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools and Canadian Community Colleges: A Comparison Using the School as an Organization and Social Institution as a Conceptual Framework (United States)

    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, Wiilliam Allan


    The aim of this study is to compare Polish post-secondary vocational institutions with Canadian community colleges. The research concentrates upon programs in tourism and information technology delivered by the two following Polish schools: "Policealne Studium Zawodowe" (Cracow, Poland), Cracow School of Information Technology; and three Canadian…

  20. Abstracts from the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society Quebec City, April 2012


    Morin, S.; Finch, L.; Sara', A; Muir, Susan; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Kennedy, C. C.; Giangregorio, L. M.; Adachi, J. D.; Morin, S.N.; Crilly, R G; Marr, S; Josse, R G; Matta, J.; Dionne, I.; Payette, H


    The opinions expressed in the abstracts are those of the authors and are not to be construed as the opinion of the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) or the organizers of the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society. Although the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) has made every effort to accurately reproduce the abstracts, the Canadian Geriatrics Society and the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society assumes no responsibility and/...

  1. Birth of the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation. (United States)

    Beck, Ivan T


    The Canadian Digestive Disease Foundation, renamed the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation--Fondation canadienne pour la promotion de la santé digestive--in December 2001, is the culmination of ongoing efforts by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology to establish an independent charitable organization. In February 2001, it was officially endorsed as the Foundation for the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology. The initial efforts to establish this Foundation, led by Dr Richard McKenna in 1963, were unsuccessful. In 1991, Glaxo Canada (now GlaxoSmithKline) became a founding donor, and with the four founding physicians--Drs Ivan T Beck, Richard H Hunt, Suzanne E Lemire and Alan BR Thomson--the expenses to establish the Foundation were met. A charitable number was obtained in 1995 (0997427-11). The second founding donor was Janssen Canada (now Janssen-Ortho), and public education support came from Astra Canada (now AstraZeneca Canada). The Foundation initially relied on corporate donors, but now approaches physicians, patients and the general public. The objectives of the Foundation are to advance the science of gastroenterology and to provide knowledge of digestive diseases and nutrition to the general public, to enhance the quality of life of persons who are afflicted with these disorders. The major achievements of the Foundation are the provision of one-year operating grants to new investigators, which have allowed them to accumulate early data and subsequently obtain support from other major granting organizations. It also provides Fellowships and studentship support grants, in conjunction with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the pharmaceutical industry. The education committee found that there was little research support in this field, considering the large economic burden of digestive disease and the amount of outstanding work done by Canadian researchers. A bilingual Web site, a web-based specialist's discussion program and bilingual

  2. The Study of Canadian Culture (United States)

    Mandel, Eli


    Discussed are Canadian novels, short stories, poems and a film which revolve around man's confrontation with nature, the depression, the problem of isolation, realism in Canadian literature. (Author/AF)

  3. Teaching Canadian Literature: An Evaluation. (United States)

    Harker, W. John


    Suggests granting greater recognition to the artistic integrity of Canadian literature by removing it from the broader context of Canadian studies. Indicates that understanding and appreciation of Canadian literature as a representation of reality filtered through the perception of an author should be focus of literature in schools. (NEC)

  4. Twitter and Canadian Educators (United States)

    Cooke, Max


    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  5. Canadian Adult Basic Education. (United States)

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional…

  6. Introducing New Priority Setting and Resource Allocation Processes in a Canadian Healthcare Organization: A Case Study Analysis Informed by Multiple Streams Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neale Smith


    Full Text Available Background In this article, we analyze one case instance of how proposals for change to the priority setting and resource allocation (PSRA processes at a Canadian healthcare institution reached the decision agenda of the organization’s senior leadership. We adopt key concepts from an established policy studies framework – Kingdon’s multiple streams theory – to inform our analysis. Methods Twenty-six individual interviews were conducted at the IWK Health Centre in Halifax, NS, Canada. Participants were asked to reflect upon the reasons leading up to the implementation of a formal priority setting process – Program Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA – in the 2012/2013 fiscal year. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using Kingdon’s model as a template. Results The introduction of PBMA can be understood as the opening of a policy window. A problem stream – defined as lack of broad engagement and information sharing across service lines in past practice – converged with a known policy solution, PBMA, which addressed the identified problems and was perceived as easy to use and with an evidence-base from past applications across Canada and elsewhere. Conditions in the political realm allowed for this intervention to proceed, but also constrained its potential outcomes. Conclusion Understanding in a theoretically-informed way how change occurs in healthcare management practices can provide useful lessons to researchers and decision-makers whose aim is to help health systems achieve the most effective use of available financial resources.

  7. Proceedings of the symposium on air pollution and public health[Organized under the auspices of the Conference of New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen, D.; Drouin, L. [National Public Health Inst. of Quebec, PQ (Canada)]|[Direction de la sante publique de Montreal, PQ (Canada)


    Air pollution levels throughout New England and southeastern Canada generally exceed U.S. and Canadian ambient air quality limits, most notably for ozone and particulate matter. The pollutants can reduce respiratory function and trigger asthma attacks. Acute effects are also associated with short-term peaks in air pollution levels. This two-day symposium featured presentations by scientists from Canada, the United States and Europe who described recent advances in their areas of expertise and presented recommendations to reduce air pollution and its impact on human health. The recommendations, which were compiled according to individual presentations as well as the plenary sessions of the symposium, have been classified as follows: improving the air quality database; epidemiological and toxicological research needs; and, concrete intervention to reduce air pollution-related health impacts. The six sessions were entitled as follows: (1) levels and sources of air pollution in northeastern America, (2) specific sources of air pollution, (3) human health effects, (4) air pollution and asthma, (5) epidemiology, and (6) scientific basis for regulatory approaches to air pollution standards. refs.

  8. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada. (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph


    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  9. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L


    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  10. International surgery: definition, principles and Canadian practice. (United States)

    Lett, Ronald


    This article is dedicated to the Canadian international surgeon, Norman Bethune (1890-1939). International surgery is defined as a humanitarian branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of bodily injuries or disorders by incision or manipulations, emphasizing cooperation and understanding among nations and involving education, research, development and advocacy. In this article I review the colonial past, the dark ages following the Declaration of Alma-Ata, the progress made and the present challenges in international surgery. I present a definition of international surgery that recognizes the current era of surgical humanitarianism, validates a global understanding of surgical issues and promotes cooperation among nations. Included are the principles of international surgery: education, research, infrastructure development and advocacy. International surgical projects are classified according to type (clinical, relief, developmental) and integration strategy (vertical or horizontal). Also reviewed are the Canadian practice of international surgery by nongovernmental, professional and academic organizations and the requirements of international and Canadian funding agencies, the development concepts basic to all projects, including results-based management and the cross-cutting themes of gender equity, environmental protection and human safety. I recommend formalizing international surgery into a discipline as a means of promoting surgical care in low-income countries. If international surgery is to be sustained in Canada, infrastructure and support from Canadian surgeons is particularly important. An understanding of the history, definition and classification of international surgery should promote surgical care in low-income countries.

  11. CANLIT (Canadian Literature) Teachers' Crash Course. (United States)

    CANLIT, Toronto (Ontario).

    As a result of a study of the situation of Canadian literature in Canadian high schools and universities, this course was developed to provide teachers with useful information about Canadian literature. Included in this kit are sections on Canadian literature (the great debate about the importance of Canadian content), history and sources…

  12. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server


    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  13. Canadian identity: Implications for international social work by Canadians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder


    This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all......, to critically examine and unpack our ‘Canadian’ identity in order to practice international work that is socially just and anti-imperialist. Drawing on the work of post-colonial authors, critical race theorists, and those who study national myth-making, this essay revisits Canadian identity because...... it is this identity that Canadian social workers often carry into their international work....

  14. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

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    Vernon H Hoeppner


    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  15. Organization specific predictors of job satisfaction: findings from a Canadian multi-site quality of work life cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohfeld Lynne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational features can affect how staff view their quality of work life. Determining staff perceptions about quality of work life is an important consideration for employers interested in improving employee job satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to identify organization specific predictors of job satisfaction within a health care system that consisted of six independent health care organizations. Methods 5,486 full, part and causal time (non-physician staff on active payroll within six organizations (2 community hospitals, 1 community hospital/long-term care facility, 1 long-term care facility, 1 tertiary care/community health centre, and 1 visiting nursing agency located in five communities in Central West Ontario, Canada were asked to complete a 65-item quality of work life survey. The self-administered questionnaires collected staff perceptions of: co-worker and supervisor support; teamwork and communication; job demands and decision authority; organization characteristics; patient/resident care; compensation and benefits; staff training and development; and impressions of the organization. Socio-demographic data were also collected. Results Depending on the organization, between 15 and 30 (of the 40 potential predictor variables were found to be statistically associated with job satisfaction (univariate analyses. Logistic regression analyses identified the best predictors of job satisfaction and these are presented for each of the six organizations and for all organizations combined. Conclusions The findings indicate that job satisfaction is a multidimensional construct and although there appear to be some commonalities across organizations, some predictors of job satisfaction appear to be organization and context specific.

  16. Low-temperature formation and stabilization of rare allotropes of cyclooctasulfur (β-S8 and γ-S8) in the presence of organic carbon at a sulfur-rich glacial site in the Canadian High Arctic (United States)

    Lau, Graham E.; Cosmidis, Julie; Grasby, Stephen E.; Trivedi, Christopher B.; Spear, John R.; Templeton, Alexis S.


    Large-scale deposits of elemental sulfur form annually on a glacier's surface at Borup Fiord Pass in the Canadian High Arctic. However, the mechanisms of mineralization and stabilization of elemental sulfur at this site are currently unknown. Here we show that X-ray diffraction (XRD) data for fresh sulfur precipitates collected from the surface of a melt pool over sulfide-rich ice reveal the presence of three sulfur allotropes, α-S8, β-S8, and γ-S8 (the three solid forms of cyclooctasulfur (S8)). The detection of the β-S8 allotrope of elemental sulfur is notable, since β-S8 typically only forms in high temperature environments (>96 °C). The γ-S8 allotrope is also rare in natural settings and has previously been implicated as a signature of microbial sulfur cycling. Using combustion and infrared spectroscopy approaches, organic carbon is also detected within the sample bearing the three allotropes of elemental sulfur. Electron microscopy and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the C K-edge show that the sulfur precipitates are intimately associated with the organic carbon at the submicron scale. The occurrence of β-S8 and γ-S8 in this low-temperature setting indicates that there are unknown pathways for the formation and stabilization of these rare allotropes of elemental sulfur. In particular, we infer that the occurrence of these allotropes is related to their association with organic carbon. The formation of carbon-associated sulfur globules may not be a direct by-product of microbial activity; however, a potential role of direct or indirect microbial mediation in the formation and stabilization of β-S8 and γ-S8 remains to be assessed.

  17. On Realities of Canadian Multiculturalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Canada is a multicultural country which was mainly established by immigrants. Just because of that, Canadian govern⁃ment has carried out the policy of multiculturalism since1970s. However, it has encountered many problems such as policy con⁃flicts, national identity, democracy-inquiry and racial discrimination, etc. Hence the Canadian multiculturalism has been in a di⁃lemma.

  18. Canadian construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, M.


    The principal sectors of the Canadian construction industry - commercial, industrial, institutional and residential - are examined with regard to their technical considerations concerning the subject of sustainability. Apart from the different needs of each of the sectors of the industry there are also regional differences caused by population distribution, and differences in climate, that have to be identified and accommodated in considering attitudes to recycling and sustainable development. Some indications that there is growing awareness of recycling and reuse are: the increasing frequency of life cycle costing in the commercial and institutional sectors, the use of recycled or otherwise waste materials in concrete, examples of using steel supporting structures and roof joists salvaged from previous uncompleted projects in the industrial sector, improved building envelope and indoor air quality concerns, collective ground source heating, and new basement and framing technologies and construction materials in the residential sector. These improvements notwithstanding, there remains much to be done. The new objective-based National Building Code, for which comments are now being solicited across the country, is expected to identify new and innovative solutions and to kick-start serious efforts to come up with solutions towards increasing overall sustainability in all sectors of the Canadian construction industry.

  19. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.


    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  20. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Fluxes in the Hermine, a Forested Watershed of the Canadian Shield (United States)

    Turgeon, J.; Courchesne, F.; Turmel, M.


    Recent studies have established the essential role of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in the biogeochemical cycles of elements in forested ecosystems (McDowell and Likens, 1988). Carbon and N are essential nutrients for biological processes and growth (Kalbitz et al. 2000; Buffam et al. 2001), and they play a key role in soil acidification, pedogenesis, trace metal and nutrient transport and mineral weathering (Likens and Bormann, 1995; Williams et al. 2001). However, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the spatial and temporal variability of C and N fluxes in forested ecosystems. Moreover, the factors controlling the fluxes of dissolved C and N at the event scale is poorly understood (Prechtel et al. 2000; McHale et al. 2000; Buffam et al.2001). In this context, the first objective of this study is to quantify the fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and of dissolved N (NO3, NH4 and DON) between the biogeochemical compartments of a forested watershed (Hermine) at a range of temporal scales. The second objective is to identify the role of antecedent soil moisture conditions on the hydrochemistry of the stream, at the event scale. The results show that there is a significant difference (α = 0.05) in the concentrations of dissolved C and N between the five compartments (precipitation, throughfall, soil solution in the organic and mineral horizons and, stream). The fluxes of dissolved C and N increase as the water flows through the forest canopy to reach a maximum in the organic horizons. The decrease of dissolved C and N concentrations as the soil solution percolates through the mineral horizons is significant (α = 0.01) and is explained by the physico-chemical retention reactions (Guggenberger and Kaiser, 2003) and biological processes (Qualls and Haines, 1992). In all compartments, the speciation of total dissolved nitrogen is dominated by dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). As water flows through the soil profile, the absolute dissolved organic nitrogen (DON

  1. Science Traverses in the Canadian High Arctic (United States)

    Williamson, Marie-Claude


    The presentation is divided into three parts. Part I is an overview of early expeditions to the High Arctic, and their political consequences at the time. The focus then shifts to the Geological Survey of Canada s mapping program in the North (Operation Franklin), and to the Polar Continental Shelf Project (PCSP), a unique organization that resides within the Government of Canada s Department of Natural Resources, and supports mapping projects and science investigations. PCSP is highlighted throughout the presentation so a description of mandate, budgets, and support infrastructure is warranted. In Part II, the presenter describes the planning required in advance of scientific deployments carried out in the Canadian High Arctic from the perspective of government and university investigators. Field operations and challenges encountered while leading arctic field teams in fly camps are also described in this part of the presentation, with particular emphasis on the 2008 field season. Part III is a summary of preliminary results obtained from a Polar Survey questionnaire sent out to members of the Arctic research community in anticipation of the workshop. The last part of the talk is an update on the analog program at the Canadian Space Agency, specifically, the Canadian Analog Research Network (CARN) and current activities related to Analog missions, 2009-2010.

  2. Grade 3 Students Explore the Question, "What's Canadian about Canadian Children's Literature?" (United States)

    Pantaleo, Sylvia


    Explores third graders' responses to the question "What's Canadian about Canadian Children's Literature?" Describes 6 picture books and summarizes students' responses to each. Finds students mentioned geographical aspects as characteristic of Canadian literature, and they felt Canadian children's literature should reflect Canadian "experiences."…

  3. Problems in the Study of Canadian Literature. (United States)

    Cameron, Barry


    Considers reasons for studying Canadian literature. Notes the relative infancy of Canadian literature and the need for maintaining objectivity in the study of Canadian literature. Proposes that teachers of Canadian literature focus on individual, contemporary works, examining language, form, and craftsmanship. (RL)

  4. [Canadian Literature. "Featuring: CanLit." (United States)

    Haycock, Ken, Ed.; Haycock, Carol-Ann, Ed.


    The feature articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of Canadian literature. The articles include: (1) a discussion of who's who and what's what in Canadian literature; (2) reviews of worthwhile but overlooked Canadian children's literature; (3) a list of resource guides to Canadian literature and a short quiz over famous first…

  5. Kinetic models for pyrolysis and combustion of sewage sludge[Held jointly with the 4. Canadian organic residuals and biosolids managment conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, R.; Udaquiola, S. [Univ. Nacional de San Juan, San Juan (Argentina). Lab. Tec. Amb., Inst. de Ing. Qca; Gauthier, D; Flamant, G. [PROMES-CNRS, Font-Romeu Odeillo (France); Mazza, G. [Univ. Nacional Del Comahue, Neuquen (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica; Martinez, O. [Univ. Nacional de la Plata, La Plata (Argentina). CINDECA-CONICET


    In thermochemical conversion processes that produce energy, the kinetics of waste decomposition must be considered. The rate of mass loss due to thermal decomposition determines the available fuel on the fire triangle of heat, fuel and oxygen. Heating rates in thermobalance experiments are low, and are often used to study the primary reactions in the decomposition of solids since their cracking is negligible. Thermogravimetry is an option for determining the decomposition profile of a solid in terms of its temperature versus the kinetics of its decomposition. This paper presented the thermal analysis and results of a study that used thermogravimetric analyses on dry samples of sewage sludge from San Juan, Argentina in an inert and oxidative atmosphere. Three peaks were observed in all differential thermogravimetric curves during the organic matter decomposition. In order to explain the experimental data, various reaction schemes were set up. The first two schemes considered 3 fractions decomposing in parallel during pyrolysis, with oxidative pyrolysis of all fractions during combustion or only two. The third scheme considered the decomposition of 2 fractions only but with dissymmetrical behavior during the whole pyrolysis and combustion phenomenon. It was concluded that the simulations were a good agreement with the experimental data for the first 2 schemes only, and overall, the fit was better with the second scheme. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC) (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  7. Canadian Literature Is Comparative Literature. (United States)

    Blodgett, E. D.


    Argues that the way out of worn out analogies of Canadian literature is found not only by acquiring knowledge of other cultures, but also by abandoning the deceptive parallelisms that overcome differences only by hiding them. (RAE)

  8. University Supports for Open Access: A Canadian National Survey (United States)

    Greyson, Devon; Vezina, Kumiko; Morrison, Heather; Taylor, Donald; Black, Charlyn


    The advent of policies at research-funding organizations requiring grantees to make their funded research openly accessible alters the life cycle of scholarly research. This survey-based study explores the approaches that libraries and research administration offices at the major Canadian universities are employing to support the…

  9. In their own words: describing Canadian physician leadership. (United States)

    Snell, Anita J; Dickson, Graham; Wirtzfeld, Debrah; Van Aerde, John


    Purpose This is the first study to compile statistical data to describe the functions and responsibilities of physicians in formal and informal leadership roles in the Canadian health system. This mixed-methods research study offers baseline data relative to this purpose, and also describes physician leaders' views on fundamental aspects of their leadership responsibility. Design/methodology/approach A survey with both quantitative and qualitative fields yielded 689 valid responses from physician leaders. Data from the survey were utilized in the development of a semi-structured interview guide; 15 physician leaders were interviewed. Findings A profile of Canadian physician leadership has been compiled, including demographics; an outline of roles, responsibilities, time commitments and related compensation; and personal factors that support, engage and deter physicians when considering taking on leadership roles. The role of health-care organizations in encouraging and supporting physician leadership is explicated. Practical implications The baseline data on Canadian physician leaders create the opportunity to determine potential steps for improving the state of physician leadership in Canada; and health-care organizations are provided with a wealth of information on how to encourage and support physician leaders. Using the data as a benchmark, comparisons can also be made with physician leadership as practiced in other nations. Originality/value There are no other research studies available that provide the depth and breadth of detail on Canadian physician leadership, and the embedded recommendations to health-care organizations are informed by this in-depth knowledge.

  10. Harvey Cushing's Canadian connections. (United States)

    Feindel, William


    During his surgical career between 1896 and 1934, Harvey Cushing made eight visits to Canada. He had a broad impact on Canadian medicine and neurosurgery. Cushing's students Wilder Penfield and Kenneth McKenzie became outstanding leaders of the two major centers in Canada for neurosurgical treatment and training. On his first trip to Canada, shortly after completing his surgical internship in August 1896, Cushing traveled with members of his family through the Maritime Provinces and visited hospitals in Quebec and Montreal. Eight years later, in February 1904, as a successful young neurosurgeon at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, he reported to the Montreal Medico-Chirurgical Society on his surgical experience in 20 cases of removal of the trigeminal ganglion for neuralgia. In 1922, as the Charles Mickle Lecturer at the University of Toronto, Cushing assigned his honorarium of $1000 to support a neurosurgical fellowship at Harvard. This was awarded to McKenzie, then a general practitioner, for a year's training with Cushing in 1922-1923. McKenzie returned to initiate the neurosurgical services at the Toronto General Hospital, where he developed into a master surgeon and teacher. On Cushing's second visit to McGill University in October 1922, he and Sir Charles Sherrington inaugurated the new Biology Building of McGill's Medical School, marking the first stage of a Rockefeller-McGill program of modernization. In May 1929, Cushing attended the dedication of the Osler Library at McGill. In September 1934, responding to the invitation of Penfield, Cushing presented a Foundation Lecture-one of his finest addresses on the philosophy of neurosurgery-at the opening of the Montreal Neurological Institute. On that same trip, Cushing's revisit to McGill's Osler Library convinced him to turn over his own treasure of historical books to Yale University.

  11. How Should Canadian Literature Be Taught? (United States)

    Colborne, Garnet


    Discusses the rationale for and several approaches to teaching Canadian literature, including a cultural and regional approach to Canadian literature, a comparative approach, and a language study approach. (HTH)

  12. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  13. A Topography for Canadian Curriculum Theory. (United States)

    Chambers, Cynthia


    Presents challenges to Canadian curriculum theorists: (1) to create curriculum languages and genres that represent all of Canada; (2) to use Canadian scholars and indigenous languages to find these curriculum languages and genres; (3) to seek interpretive tools to understand what it means to be Canadian; and (4) to create curriculum theory that…

  14. Canadian Children's Literature: An Alberta Survey (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Carbonaro, Mike; Green, Nicole


    This article presents the findings of an online survey administered to Alberta elementary school teachers in 2000-2001. The survey explored the teachers' knowledge and use of Canadian children's literature and their thoughts about the role of Canadian literature in elementary school classrooms. Canadian children's trade books espouse particular…

  15. The Ideological Orientations of Canadian University Professors (United States)

    Nakhaie, M. Reza; Brym, Robert J.


    This paper analyzes the ideological orientations of Canadian university professors based on a unique 2000 study of a representative sample of Canadian academics (n=3,318). After summarizing methodological problems with extant research on this subject, and tentatively comparing the political views of Canadian and American academics, the paper…

  16. Transnational archives: the Canadian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Creet


    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.

  17. Canadian contributions studies for the WFIRST instruments (United States)

    Lavigne, J.-F.; Rowlands, N.; Grandmont, F. J.; Lafrenière, D.; Marois, C.; Daigle, O.; Thibault, S.; Schade, D.; Artigau, É.; Brousseau, D.; Maire, J.; Cretot-Richert, G.; Ducharme, M.-È.; Levesque, L. E.; Laurin, D.; Dupuis, J.


    WFIRST-AFTA is the NASA's highest ranked astrophysics mission for the next decade that was identified in the New World, New Horizon survey. The mission scientific drivers correspond to some of the deep questions identified in the Canadian LRP2010, and are also of great interest for the Canadian scientists. Given that there is also a great interest in having an international collaboration in this mission, the Canadian Space Agency awarded two contracts to study a Canadian participation in the mission, one related to each instrument. This paper presents a summary of the technical contributions that were considered for a Canadian contribution to the coronagraph and wide field instruments.

  18. The 1998 Canadian Contraception Study. (United States)

    Fisher, William A.; Boroditsky, Richard; Bridges, Martha L.


    Describes the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study, a mailed survey which asked women about contraceptive practices past, present, and future (including use of oral contraceptives, condoms, and sterilization); familiarity with and opinion about different contraception methods; and general sexual and reproductive health. The paper also examines…

  19. Universal values of Canadian astronauts (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina


    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  20. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy. (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti


    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  1. Canadian Literature in American Libraries (United States)

    Rogers, A. Robert


    Acquisition of Canadian literature by American libraries was investigated in three ways: questionnaires were sent to selected large libraries, titles were checked against the National Union Catalog'' and published literature describing major collections was examined. With the exception of the Library of Congress, American libraries purchase…

  2. Refining estimates of public health spending as measured in national health expenditure accounts: the Canadian experience. (United States)

    Ballinger, Geoff


    The recent focus on public health stemming from, among other things, severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian flu has created an imperative to refine health-spending estimates in the Canadian Health Accounts. This article presents the Canadian experience in attempting to address the challenges associated with developing the needed taxonomies for systematically capturing, measuring, and analyzing the national investment in the Canadian public health system. The first phase of this process was completed in 2005, which was a 2-year project to estimate public health spending based on a more classic definition by removing the administration component of the previously combined public health and administration category. Comparing the refined public health estimate with recent data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development still positions Canada with the highest share of total health expenditure devoted to public health than any other country reporting. The article also provides an analysis of the comparability of public health estimates across jurisdictions within Canada as well as a discussion of the recommendations for ongoing improvement of public health spending estimates. The Canadian Institute for Health Information is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides Canadians with essential statistics and analysis on the performance of the Canadian health system, the delivery of healthcare, and the health status of Canadians. The Canadian Institute for Health Information administers more than 20 databases and registries, including Canada's Health Accounts, which tracks historically 40 categories of health spending by 5 sources of finance for 13 provincial and territorial jurisdictions. Until 2005, expenditure on public health services in the Canadian Health Accounts included measures to prevent the spread of communicable disease, food and drug safety, health inspections, health promotion, community mental health programs, public

  3. Microplastics in aquatic environments: Implications for Canadian ecosystems. (United States)

    Anderson, Julie C; Park, Bradley J; Palace, Vince P


    Microplastics have been increasingly detected and quantified in marine and freshwater environments, and there are growing concerns about potential effects in biota. A literature review was conducted to summarize the current state of knowledge of microplastics in Canadian aquatic environments; specifically, the sources, environmental fate, behaviour, abundance, and toxicological effects in aquatic organisms. While we found that research and publications on these topics have increased dramatically since 2010, relatively few studies have assessed the presence, fate, and effects of microplastics in Canadian water bodies. We suggest that efforts to determine aquatic receptors at greatest risk of detrimental effects due to microplastic exposure, and their associated contaminants, are particularly warranted. There is also a need to address the gaps identified, with a particular focus on the species and conditions found in Canadian aquatic systems. These gaps include characterization of the presence of microplastics in Canadian freshwater ecosystems, identifying key sources of microplastics to these systems, and evaluating the presence of microplastics in Arctic waters and biota.

  4. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Norman Paterson School of International Affairs]|[Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Law


    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs.

  5. Economic security in an aging Canadian population. (United States)

    Brown, Robert L


    Recent research indicates that today's retirees are doing very well in terms of their replacement ratios and that Canadian poverty rates among the elderly are low relative to other Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Government-sponsored plans have been strengthened either through explicit expansion - for example, the Guaranteed Income Supplement (GIS) - or through the reform of the Canada/Quebec Pension Plans (C/QPP). Also important is the maturation of employer-sponsored pension plans, although coverage rates are down. Future generations of retirees may not achieve the standard of living that exists today, however, which is a concern. The author argues that today's economic security programs are affordable and that their costs could be stabilized if the retirement age were raised.

  6. Abstracts of the 48. Canadian chemical engineering conference : technical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The conference was organized into six concurrent sessions devoted to fluidized bed technology, multi-phase reactors, catalysis, environmental technology, new developments, and biotechnology. A total of 491 papers were presented. Papers of particular interest to energy technology emphasized new technologies and chemical engineering techniques involved in processing petroleum products. Fluidized beds for hydro-treatment and biochemical processing, conversion of biomass to bio-oils and strategies for reducing emissions from Canadian energy facilities were some of the topics addressed.

  7. Canadian Content in Video Games


    Paul, Leonard


    THEME: Internationalism: Worlds at Play Topics: Internationalism, Identity in Gaming and Learning to Play Abstract: How does Canada fit into the global cultural context of video games? This paper investigates the culture being reflected in video games being produced in Canada as Canada is one of the world's leading producers of video games. It examines the how Canadian culture is represented in current new media artistic output against the culture, or lack of culture, being represented in vid...

  8. Contexts for Ethnic Identity of Japanese Canadians


    浦田, 葉子; Yoko, URATA


    In this paper I reviewed the literature in order to gain a broad understanding of the contexts for ethnic identity of Japanese Canadians guided by the premise that ethnic identity is a situational as well as a primordial phenomenon. Two main areas were reviewed - the pattern of distribution of resources in Canadian society and the particular situation in which Japanese Canadians are placed. In the distribution of material resources, individual meritocracy for mass and social closure for elite...

  9. The Canadian Astronomy Education and Public Outreach Initiative (United States)

    Percy, J. R.


    In Canada, astronomers do not have access to science and mathematics education funding such as NSF and NASA provide in the USA. Nevertheless, the Canadian astronomical community has always been very active in education and public outreach (EPO) at the local, provincial, and national level, thanks to the initiative of astronomers -- both professional and amateur -- and their institutions and associations. In 2001, the Canadian astronomical community embarked on a major EPO initiative, led by the Canadian Astronomical Society (CAS) in partnership with the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada (RASC) and other organizations. The initiative was motivated by a new long-range plan for astronomy in Canada, by the availability of modest funding for EPO, by the appearance of astronomy in the school science curriculum in several provinces, and by a heightened national interest in science education and literacy. As Chair of the CAS Education Committee, and coordinator of the EPO initiative, I shall describe its origin, funding, goals and strategies, organization, partnerships, programs, and projects. Supported by a PromoScience grant from NSERC Canada.

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study to Compare Caregiver Distress Among Korean Canadian, Chinese Canadian, and Other Canadian Home Care Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Wook Chang


    Full Text Available This study examines the health of elderly Korean Canadians in home care and investigates the risk factors for caregiver distress of families caring for their elderly relatives. Korean Canadians, Chinese Canadians, and other Canadian home care clients were compared using the Resident Assessment Instrument–Home Care (RAI-HC. The assessments were done as a part of normal clinical practice between January 2002 and December 2010 within Ontario. A sample of 58,557 home care clients was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis at the bivariate level and multiple logistic regression models. The major finding of the present study is that Korean clients had higher physical impairments and higher prevalence of major chronic diseases, but they were less likely to receive personal support or nursing services. Moreover, the results provide clear evidence of the importance of language barriers for all linguistic minorities, including Korean Canadians.

  11. Medication use among Canadian seniors. (United States)

    McPherson, Mark; Ji, Hong; Hunt, Jordan; Ranger, Rob; Gula, Cheryl


    As they age, many seniors develop a progressively more complex mix of health conditions. Multiple prescription medications are often required to help manage these conditions and control symptoms, with the goal of maintaining seniors' health for as long as possible. This article explores trends in the number and types of medications used by seniors on public drug programs in Canada. Our findings suggest that a high proportion of Canadian seniors are taking several medications, highlighting the need for medication management systems focusing on this population.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Modern English is an international language inthe world.Besides Great Britain,English is spokenas first language in 39 countries.These countries arelocated in different regions with different naturalfeatures,history development and cultural character-istics.Thus,English used in these different regionscarries its own regional character—forming Englishregional varieties.The main English regional varieties are:BritishEnglish,American English,Canadian English andSouth African English.Canada is a rich country inNorth America with its own characteristics,which of

  13. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.


    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper sums up the applications of Statistical model such as ARIMA family timeseries models in Canadian lynx data time series analysis and introduces the method of datamining combined with Statistical knowledge to analysis Canadian lynx data series.

  15. A Boost for Sino-Canadian Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ If Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper's visit to China last December led to a thaw in the frozen Sino-Canadian relations in recent years, Chinese President Hu Jintao's latest trip to Ottawa appeared to usher in yet another warm period for these deep-rooted relations.

  16. Canadian Library Integrated Systems: Second Annual Survey. (United States)

    Merilees, Bobbie


    Reports the results of a survey of the Canadian integrated library systems market. The analysis includes comparisons of large versus microcomputer-based installations by type of library and across all libraries, foreign sales by Canadian vendors, and trends in the library systems market. (CLB)

  17. Do the Rights Thing?: The Canadian Museum for Human Rights and the MA in Cultural Studies at the University of Winnipeg (United States)

    Ready, Kathryn; Keshavjee, Serena


    Education is the self-declared "heart" of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR), already generating partnership projects and programs with such organizations as the Canadian Teachers' Federation, the Assembly of First Nations, the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, and the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights. The CMHR has…

  18. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System (United States)

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen


    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  19. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul


    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  20. Chinese Feelings Cherished By Canadians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>On March 30, "The Chinese Feelings Across the Pacific-The Century Exhibition of the Old Photos Treasured by the Canadians" was open in the Lu Xun Museum in Beijing. The exhibition lasted for one week. At the exhibition some old photos taken in the early 20th century were on display, showing James G. Endicott, envoy of world peace, together with Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai; the family of O. L. Kilborn, one of the founders of West China Union University, together with Chinese women with bound feet: O. L. Kilborn treating the wounded soldiers during the Revolution of 1911; Leslie Earl Willmott in Chinese tunic suit and his wife reluctant to bid farewell to China, as well as photos of Ashley Woodward Lindesay, founder of China’s modern


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Libby


    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the existence of a Canadian Political Business Cycle (PBC during the period 1946-1989. Logit analysis was used to determine if changes in the unemployment rate, growth of real GNE and the rate of inflation are significantly different in the period before an election than during the rest of the electoral term. It was found that the rate of growth in the unemployment rate declines and the rate of growth of real GNP increases in the four quarters before an election. The behavior of these variables reverses in the period after an election. These findings are consistent with a political business cycle. Policy variables, under a majority government, also behave in a manner associated with a PBC, with the government stimulating the economy approximately two years into its term so that good economic news will occur before it has to call an election. Minority governments tend to simulate the economy immediately after taking office.

  2. Canadian survey on pandemic flu preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy CS


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of pandemic influenza creates public health challenges. An ethical framework, 'Stand on Guard for Thee: ethical considerations in pandemic influenza preparedness' that served as a template for the World Health Organization's global consultation on pandemic planning, was transformed into a survey administered to a random sample of 500 Canadians to obtain opinions on key ethical issues in pandemic preparedness planning. Methods All framework authors and additional investigators created items that were pilot-tested with volunteers of both sexes and all socioeconomic strata. Surveys were telephone administered with random sampling achieved via random digit dialing (RDD. Eligible participants were adults, 18 years or older, with per province stratification equaling provincial percent of national population. Descriptive results were tabulated and logistic regression analyses were used to assess whether demographic factors were significantly associated with outcomes. Results 5464 calls identified 559 eligible participants of whom 88.5% completed surveys. Over 90% of subjects agreed the most important goal of pandemic influenza preparations was saving lives, with 41% endorsing saving lives solely in Canada and 50% endorsing saving lives globally as the highest priority. Older age (OR = 8.51, p Conclusions Results suggest trust in public health officials to make difficult decisions, providing emphasis on reciprocity and respect for individual rights.

  3. Isotopes and innovation: Canadian success in a global market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, S. [Nordion Inc., Kanata, Ontario (Canada)


    Canadian nuclear technology for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease has a global presence. Innovation has as much to do with the way you take a product to market as with the product itself. Nordion targeted therapies are used in the treatment in a variety of cancers. TheraSphere fills a specific medical need for a targeted liver cancer treatment. Nordion is the world's leading supplier of Cobalt-60, the isotope producing gamma radiation required to destroy micro-organisms. Nordion is a world leader in medical isotope processing, packaging and delivery.

  4. Constructions and Negotiations of Sexuality in Canadian Federal Men's Prisons. (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Rose; Grills, Sylvia; Craig, Ailsa


    Nuances lacing the organization of sexuality across cultures and contexts shape sexual behavior and identity. In this article, the culture and understandings of sexual identity and behavior in Canadian men's federal prisons are examined to reveal how prisoners construct and interpret their own sexuality, as well as that of others, within the heteronormative prison space. Drawing from interviews with formerly incarcerated men, we explore how sexuality constitutes a product of dominant cultural discourses that differentiates between sexual behavior and identity. We frame how sexuality is constructed and regulated in prison within the theoretical context of shame and stigmatization, finding definitions of heterosexuality that do not preclude same-sex sexual activity.

  5. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I., E-mail: [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Summerell, I. [Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Totland, M. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Jonkmans, G. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Whitlock, J. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); El-jaby, A. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Inrig, E. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)


    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  6. Canadian Law Schools: In Search of Excellence. (United States)

    Trakman, Leon E.


    Academically, Canadian education is at the crossroads between formalism and functionalism, with the latter prevailing in recent years. There now arises a demand for a more integrated approach, linking legal theory with legal practice. (MSE)

  7. Facts about Canadian musk-oxen (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the historical and current status of the Canadian musk-oxen. The musk-oxen's distribution, social structure, food and range, and breeding...

  8. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business? (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke


    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  9. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Canadian national identity is closely related to antiAmericanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  10. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Canadian national identity is closely related to anti-Americanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  11. Government, Coercive Power and the Perceived Legitimacy of Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions (United States)

    McQuarrie, Fiona A. E.; Kondra, Alex Z.; Lamertz, Kai


    Governments regulate and control organizations, yet their role in determining organizational legitimacy is largely unexamined. In the changing Canadian post-secondary landscape, legitimacy is an increasingly important issue for post-secondary institutions as they compete amongst themselves for access to ever-shrinking resources. Using an…

  12. Colluding with the Enemy?: Nationalism and Depictions of "Aboriginality" in Canadian Olympic Moments (United States)

    Adese, Jennifer


    The 1976 Montreal Summer Olympic closing ceremony, the 1988 Calgary Winter Olympic opening ceremony, and the 2010 Winter Olympic opening ceremony in Vancouver each placed Indigenous peoples at the heart of its expressions of regional, provincial, and Canadian national identity in one form or another. Why is it that organizing committees view…

  13. French-Canadian Business Philosophies in Corporate America: A Cross-Cultural Approach. (United States)

    Lenden, Darlene

    A cultural profile of the French-Canadian business community of Quebec is presented, focusing on seven aspects of business communication: language; environment and technology; social organization; degree of contextual understanding; authority conception; nonverbal behavior; and temporal conception. The history of French and English language use in…

  14. Canadian and United States Students' Performances on the OECD's PISA 2012 Problem-Solving Assessment (United States)

    Dossey, John A.; Funke, Joachim


    This article presents an overview of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 Problem-Solving assessment. The assessment examined the capabilities of 15-year-olds in 40 nations and four large international cities, as well as the Canadian Provinces, to solve a set…

  15. It Happens, Just Not to Me: Hazing on a Canadian University Campus (United States)

    Massey, Kyle D.; Massey, Jennifer


    Research on hazing in higher education has primarily focused on Greek-letter organizations and athletes, with little research beyond these two subsets of college students. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the attitudes of students from the general student population at a Canadian university with regard to hazing and identify…

  16. Canadian suppliers of mining goods and services: Links between Canadian mining companies and selected sectors of the Canadian economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    Economic links between Canada's minerals and metals industry and Canadian suppliers of mining goods and services are examined to provide an insight into the interdependencies of these two key resource-related components of Canada's economy. The impact of globalization of the mining industry, estimates of its economic potential and the potential for exporting goods and services in conjunction with Canadian mining projects abroad are also assessed. The study concludes that the links between Canadian mining companies and the rest of the economy are difficult to quantify, due to the absence of statistical data that would differentiate supplier transactions with mining companies from those with other areas of the economy. At best, the approaches used in this study give but an imperfect understanding of the complex relationships between mining companies and their suppliers. It is clear, however, that as much of the demand for mining products is global, so is the supply, therefore, globalization of the mining industry, while creating unprecedented opportunities for Canadian suppliers to provide expertise, goods and services to Canadian and other customers offshore, the fact remains that mining multinationals buy a lot of their supplies locally. As a result, only some of the opportunities created by mining companies based in Canada and elsewhere will translate into sales for Canadian suppliers. Nevertheless, Canadian suppliers appear to have considerable depth in products related to underground mining, environment protection, exploration, feasibility studies, mineral processing, and mine automation. There appear to be considerable opportunities to derive further benefits from these areas of expertise. Appendices contain information about methodological aspects of the survey. 8 tabs., 32 figs., 6 appendices.

  17. Sepsis in Canadian children: a national analysis using administrative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson GC


    Full Text Available Graham Thompson,1 Niranjan Kissoon2 1Alberta Children's Hospital, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2British Columbia Children’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaBackground: Severe infection resulting in sepsis is recognized as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The purpose of this study is to use longitudinal, population-based data to report national-level hospital metrics, providing a current assessment of the status of sepsis hospitalizations in Canadian children.Methods: We performed an analysis of previously abstracted data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI Discharge Abstract Database (DAD. Children aged 0–17 years at the time of hospital admission were identified from a cohort of patients with sepsis or severe sepsis using the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10-CA and the Canadian Classification of Health Interventions (CCI. Descriptive population-based statistics are reported.Results: Hospitalization data for 20,130 children admitted over 5 years were reviewed. The majority of children were young, with neonates (56.3% and infants under 2 months (18.8% representing the majority of cases. A decline in age-adjusted hospitalization rates was demonstrated in both overall and non-severe sepsis across the study period; however, no change was demonstrated for severe sepsis. While overall in-hospital crude mortality rates did not change significantly across the study period (range 5.1%–5.4%, a significant decrease was found in children aged 3–23 months and adolescents. Multi-organ failure was reported in more than one-quarter of children with severe sepsis. Odds of mortality increased significantly with number of organs failed.Conclusion: Sepsis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Canadian children, posing a significant burden on health care resources. Age continues to be associated

  18. Theorizing Gender in Contemporary Canadian Citizenship: Lessons Learned from the CBC's "Greatest Canadian" Contest (United States)

    Jubas, Kaela


    In this article, I have used the 2004 Greatest Canadian contest as an example of media's educational function. Contrary to mainstream discourse of gender-neutral citizenship, this contest reiterates a notion of Canadian citizenship as masculinized, classed, and raced. Gramsci's concepts of "hegemony," "ideology", and…

  19. Colonial Fantasies, Narrative Borders, and the Canadian North in the Works of Germany's Colin Ross(1885-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Pissowotzki


    Full Text Available This paper argues that the Canadian North is a discursive construction, within which German colonial fantasies emerge. In particular, I argue that it is through bordering that colonial fantasies of German Lebensraum ("living space" in the Canadian North are brought into being. I further argue that the German biologist and geographer Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904, with his view of the "organic state," provides the ideological framework for colonial fantasies in the travel writings of Colin Ross.I focus on the writer's colonial imagination and his perception of borders, and on how both relate to the Canadian North. I show that seemingly bare geographical information and demographical data, provided in Ross' travelogues, carry colonial fantasies of German spaces in the Canadian North. Those spaces are bordered by "shared histories" and "narrative boundaries," thus constructing a collective German colonial identity (cf. Eder 2006, 255-257.

  20. Community rights and corporate responsibility : Canadian mining and oil companies in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, L.; Clark, T.D.; Patroni, V. (eds.)


    This book presented papers given at a conference on Canadian mining companies in Latin America which was held at York University in 2002. The conference raised awareness about the impact of mining on the ecosystems and communities of Latin America. The conference provided a forum for non governmental organizations (NGOs), social activists, and academics to debate the growth of the mining industry in various Latin American countries. Issues related to international mining and community relations were discussed, and strategies for resolving conflicts between mining companies and communities were examined. The current regulatory environment surrounding mining was reviewed. Issues related to oppression and social resistance were also discussed. The activities of various Canadian mining companies were also discussed, as well as Canadian oil investment in Colombia. Issues related to corporate responsibility were also examined. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Medical cannabis - the Canadian perspective. (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M


    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.

  2. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  3. Diversity Management in the Canadian Workplace: Towards an Antiracism Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanmala Hiranandani


    Full Text Available Most diversity management programs in Canada maintain that enhancing workforce diversity is of tremendous significance for business organizations in today’s competitive global urban markets. Since well-meaning diversity management initiatives have been largely ineffective thus far in dealing with workplace discrimination and racism in the Canadian workplace, this paper underscores the need to decenter the focus of diversity management from a business imperative to an antidiscrimination and social justice imperative. Within this latter perspective, the paper examines the strengths and limitations of the antiracism approach that has been implemented in various developed countries in recent years. The antiracism approach is an action-oriented strategy for institutional and systemic change that has at its core the interrogation of privilege, power disparities, and other forms of inequity within the organization. Drawing from the lessons of various initiatives that have utilized this approach, the present paper emphasizes the need for a nuanced antiracism approach in the multicultural Canadian society if diversity management is to attain its goal of greater inclusion of all individuals in informal networks and formal organizational programs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McCormick


    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, the appointment of trial judges in Canada has generally involved an arms-length committee of professionals, although the structure of these committees and their role in the process has varied from province to province, as well as evolving over time. Yet these “new” structures and “new” processes did not prevent a major judicial appointment scandal in the province of Quebec in 2010, culminating in the formation of the Bastarache Committee to recommend changes. This paper summarizes the forty-year history of Canadian judicial appointment committees, identifies the major challenges that face those committees, and suggests the basic values toward which reforms to the appointment process might be directed. Depuis les années 1970, la nomination des juges de première instance au Canada a généralement mis à contribution un comité de professionnels indépendants, bien que la structure de ce comité et son rôle dans le processus de nomination aient varié d’une province à l’autre et évolué avec le temps. Ces « nouvelles » structures et « nouveaux » processus n’ont certes pas empêché l’éclatement du scandale sur la nomination des juges au Québec en 2010. Ce scandale a donné lieu à la formation de la Commission Bastarache qui avait notamment le mandat de recommander des changements. La présent document résume les quarante ans d’histoire des comités canadiens de nomination des juges, recense les principaux défis que ces comités doivent relever, et propose les valeurs fondamentales qui devraient inspirer les réformes du processus de nomination.

  5. Environmental contaminants and human health in the Canadian Arctic. (United States)

    Donaldson, S G; Van Oostdam, J; Tikhonov, C; Feeley, M; Armstrong, B; Ayotte, P; Boucher, O; Bowers, W; Chan, L; Dallaire, F; Dallaire, R; Dewailly, E; Edwards, J; Egeland, G M; Fontaine, J; Furgal, C; Leech, T; Loring, E; Muckle, G; Nancarrow, T; Pereg, D; Plusquellec, P; Potyrala, M; Receveur, O; Shearer, R G


    The third Canadian Arctic Human Health Assessment conducted under the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), in association with the circumpolar Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), addresses concerns about possible adverse health effects in individuals exposed to environmental contaminants through a diet containing country foods. The objectives here are to: 1) provide data on changes in human contaminant concentrations and exposure among Canadian Arctic peoples; 2) identify new contaminants of concern; 3) discuss possible health effects; 4) outline risk communication about contaminants in country food; and 5) identify knowledge gaps for future contaminant research and monitoring. The nutritional and cultural benefits of country foods are substantial; however, some dietary studies suggest declines in the amount of country foods being consumed. Significant declines were found for most contaminants in maternal blood over the last 10 years within all three Arctic regions studied. Inuit continue to have the highest levels of almost all persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among the ethnic groups studied. A greater proportion of people in the East exceed Health Canada's guidelines for PCBs and mercury, although the proportion of mothers exceeding these guidelines has decreased since the previous assessment. Further monitoring and research are required to assess trends and health effects of emerging contaminants. Infant development studies have shown possible subtle effects of prenatal exposure to heavy metals and some POPs on immune system function and neurodevelopment. New data suggest important beneficial effects on brain development for Inuit infants from some country food nutrients. The most successful risk communication processes balance the risks and benefits of a diet of country food through input from a variety of regional experts and the community, to incorporate the many socio-cultural and economic factors to arrive at a risk

  6. A Roadmap for Canadian Submillimetre Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Tracy; Di Francesco, James; Matthews, Brenda; Murray, Norm; Scott, Douglas; Wilson, Christine


    We survey the present landscape in submillimetre astronomy for Canada and describe a plan for continued engagement in observational facilities to ~2020. Building on Canada's decadal Long Range Plan process, we emphasize that continued involvement in a large, single-dish facility is crucial given Canada's substantial investment in ALMA and numerous PI-led submillimetre experiments. In particular, we recommend: i) an extension of Canadian participation in the JCMT until at least the unique JCMT Legacy Survey program is able to realize the full scientific potential provided by the world-leading SCUBA-2 instrument; and ii) involvement of the entire Canadian community in CCAT, with a large enough share in the partnership for Canadian astronomers to participate at all levels of the facility. We further recommend continued participation in ALMA development, involvement in many focused PI-led submillimetre experiments, and partnership in SPICA.

  7. A Course in Canadian Film for U.S. Students (United States)

    Gutenko, Gregory


    Canadian Film will be a new course in the Communications Studies department at the University of Missouri at Kansas City particularly designed for non-Canadian Midwestern US students. It will not only introduce students to the richness and significance of Canadian film as both art and entertainment (which is virtually unrecognized around here),…

  8. 47 CFR 101.1423 - Canadian and Mexican coordination. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian and Mexican coordination. 101.1423... GHz Band § 101.1423 Canadian and Mexican coordination. Pursuant to § 2.301 of this chapter, MVDDS systems in the United States within 56 km (35 miles) of the Canadian and Mexican border will be...

  9. Management of hereditary angioedema: 2010 Canadian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Tom


    Full Text Available Abstract C1-inhibitor (C1-INH deficiency is a rare blood disorder resulting in angioedema attacks that are debilitating and may be life-threatening. Prophylaxis and therapy of events has changed since our first Canadian Consensus Conference on the diagnosis, therapy and management of HAE. We have formed the Canadian Hereditary Angioedema Network (CHAEN/Réseau Canadien d'Angioédème Héréditaire (RCAH - to advance care of patients with this disorder in Canada. We here present a review of management of HAE in Canada.

  10. Statistics in action a Canadian outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F


    Commissioned by the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC), Statistics in Action: A Canadian Outlook helps both general readers and users of statistics better appreciate the scope and importance of statistics. It presents the ways in which statistics is used while highlighting key contributions that Canadian statisticians are making to science, technology, business, government, and other areas. The book emphasizes the role and impact of computing in statistical modeling and analysis, including the issues involved with the huge amounts of data being generated by automated processes.The first two c

  11. Canadian EdGEO National Workshop Program (United States)

    Clinton, L. A.; Haidl, F. M.; Hymers, L. A.; van der Flier-Keller, E.


    Established in the early 1970s, EdGEO supports locally driven geosciences workshops for Canadian teachers. Workshops are organized by geoscientists and teachers, and typically have field, laboratory and classroom components. Grants of up to $3000 per workshop are available from the National EdGEO Program. By providing educational opportunities for today's teachers and, through them, their students, EdGEO seeks to cultivate a heightened awareness of our planet. EdGEO workshops provide teachers with potential fieldtrip sites for their students and the knowledge, enthusiasm and materials to inspire their students to engage in geoscience. Networking opportunities with local experts promote the importance of the geoscience profession. The expected result is an improved capacity on the part of Canadians to understand the Earth and to make informed decisions, especially with regard to the use of mineral and energy resources, the maintenance and remediation of the environment, and response to geological hazards. There exists a critical need to provide teachers with training and resources to tackle their Earth science curricula. In 2008, EdGEO supported fourteen workshops, with an unprecedented 521 teachers attending. These teachers then used our resources to reach an estimated 14,000 students during that single academic year. EdGEO workshops are locally driven and are therefore very diverse. Workshops are strongly tied to the provincial curriculum, focus on a specific geoscience topic, or may be largely field-based to demonstrate and practice how field activities could be incorporated into Earth science teaching. Many strive to include all of these important components. Geoscientists and teachers work collaboratively to develop and deliver EdGEO workshops to ensure that the activities can be effectively used in the classroom. The length of these professional development opportunities range from two-hour sessions to several days, and can generally accommodate up to twenty

  12. Priority Setting Meets Multiple Streams: A Match to Be Further Examined?; Comment on “Introducing New Priority Setting and Resource Allocation Processes in a Canadian Healthcare Organization: A Case Study Analysis Informed by Multiple Streams Theory”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Margaret Cumming


    Full Text Available With demand for health services continuing to grow as populations age and new technologies emerge to meet health needs, healthcare policy-makers are under constant pressure to set priorities, ie, to make choices about the health services that can and cannot be funded within available resources. In a recent paper, Smith et al apply an influential policy studies framework – Kingdon’s multiple streams approach (MSA – to explore the factors that explain why one health service delivery organization adopted a formal priority setting framework (in the form of programme budgeting and marginal analysis [PBMA] to assist it in making priority setting decisions. MSA is a theory of agenda-setting, ie, how it is that different issues do or do not reach a decision-making point. In this paper, I reflect on the use of the MSA framework to explore priority setting processes and how the framework might be applied to similar cases in future.

  13. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation: Guidelines on Colon Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Leddin


    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer affecting both men and women in Canada. Many of these cancers are preventable, and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation (CDHF strongly support the establishment of screening programs for colorectal cancer. These guidelines discuss a number of screening options, listing the advantages and disadvantages of each. Ultimately, the test that is used for screening should be determined by patient preference, current evidence and local resources.

  14. The Canadian Hypertension Education Program – a unique Canadian knowledge translation program


    Tobe, Sheldon W; Touyz, Rhian M.; Campbell, Norm RC


    The Canadian Hypertension Education Program annually appraises data from hypertension research and updates clinical practice recommendation for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Enormous effort is devoted to disseminating these recommendations to target groups throughout the country and, through the use of institutional databases, to evaluating their effectiveness in improving the health of Canadians by lowering blood pressure in people with hypertension. The mission of the Canadi...

  15. Summary of Canadian Guidelines for the Initial Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia: An Evidence-Based Update by the Canadian Infectious Disease Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel A Mandell


    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is a serious illness with a significant impact on individual patients and society as a whole. Over the past several years, there have been significant advances in the knowledge and understanding of the etiology of the disease, and an appreciation of problems such as mixed infections and increasing antimicrobial resistance. The development of additional fluoroquinolone agents with enhanced activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae has been important as well. It was decided that the time had come to update and modify the previous CAP guidelines, which were published in 1993. The current guidelines represent a joint effort by the Canadian Infectious Diseases Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society, and they address the etiology, diagnosis and initial management of CAP. The diagnostic section is based on the site of care, and the treatment section is organized according to whether one is dealing with outpatients, inpatients or nursing home patients.

  16. Summary of Canadian Guidelines for the Initial Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia: An Evidence-Based Update by the Canadian Infectious Diseases Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel A Mandell


    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is a serious illness with a significant impact on individual patients and society as a whole. Over the past several years, there have been significant advances in our knowledge and understanding of the etiology of the disease, and an appreciation of problems such as mixed infections and increasing antimicrobial resistance. The development of additional fluoroquinolone agents with enhanced activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae has been important as well. It was decided that the time had come to update and modify the previous CAP guidelines, which were published in 1993. The current guidelines represent a joint effort by the Canadian Infectious Disease Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society, and they address the etiology, diagnosis and initial management of CAP. The diagnostic section is based on the site of care, and the treatment section is organized according to whether one is dealing with outpatients, inpatients or nursing home patients.

  17. Canadian Ethnohistory: A Source for Social Studies? (United States)

    Wickwire, Wendy


    Presents an overview of ethnohistory, a relatively new area of historical investigation that draws on anthropology, geography, and linguistics, as well as history, to document the pasts of predominantly indigenous peoples. Encourages social studies teachers to take notice of a major body of work being produced by Canadian ethnohistorians. (DSK)

  18. Who Are the Players in Canadian Curriculum? (United States)

    Milburn, Geoffrey


    Labels range of persons advocating different theoretical positions of Canadian curriculum as "players." Describes players as "managers,""predictors,""transformers,""sleuths,""analysts." Values varied viewpoints for attention to language regarding curriculum, critical review of ideas/concepts, examination of current policies, awareness of history…

  19. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland (United States)

    Ketovuori, Mikko


    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003-2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to…

  20. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement (United States)

    Nesbit, Tom


    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five…

  1. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement? (United States)

    Selman, Mark


    In this journal's Fall 2009 issue, the Forum section included an article by Gordon Selman and Mark Selman arguing that although Canadian adult education had existed as a social movement in the middle part of the 20th century, it is no longer a social movement. They also speculated about the causes of this change. In the Spring 2011 issue, Tom…

  2. Canadian Children's Perceptions of Spirituality: Diverse Voices (United States)

    Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria; Bosacki, Sandra


    Few researchers have explored children's understandings of spirituality. Thus, Canadian children from different religious, spiritual and cultural backgrounds were asked open-ended questions concerning their spiritual thoughts, beliefs and experiences. Parents of participants completed a demographic questionnaire and reported children's religious…

  3. Canadian Perspectives on Equity in the Classroom. (United States)

    Bowlby, Brenda; Komlen, Mile


    Canadian school board administrators are increasingly expected to meet the needs of disabled or other students requiring specific types of accommodation. The duty to accommodate arises when otherwise legitimate school rules or policies affect the customs and observances of nonmajoritarian religions. (Contains 12 references.) (MLH)

  4. Asian and Pacific Migration: The Canadian Experience. (United States)

    Samuel, T. John


    Examines the characteristics of landed immigrants (permanent settlers) from Asia, and explores their settlement, adaptation, and integration experience in Canada. It suggests that access to Canadian land does not always translate into equal opportunity in the economy and society, but notes that Canada may be more successful at assimilating Asian…

  5. Heat exposure in the Canadian workplace. (United States)

    Jay, Ollie; Kenny, Glen P


    Exposure to excessive heat is a physical hazard that threatens Canadian workers. As patterns of global climate change suggest an increased frequency of heat waves, the potential impact of these extreme climate events on the health and well-being of the Canadian workforce is a new and growing challenge. Increasingly, industries rely on available technology and information to ensure the safety of their workers. Current Canadian labor codes in all provinces employ the guidelines recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) that are Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) based upon Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT). The TLVs are set so that core body temperature of the workers supposedly does not exceed 38.0 degrees C. Legislation in most Canadian provinces also requires employers to install engineering and administrative controls to reduce the heat stress risk of their working environment should it exceed the levels permissible under the WBGT system. There are however severe limitations using the WGBT system because it only directly evaluates the environmental parameters and merely incorporates personal factors such as clothing insulation and metabolic heat production through simple correction factors for broadly generalized groups. An improved awareness of the strengths and limitations of TLVs and the WGBT index can minimize preventable measurement errors and improve their utilization in workplaces. Work is on-going, particularly in the European Union to develop an improved individualized heat stress risk assessment tool. More work is required to improve the predictive capacity of these indices.

  6. Family Business Training: A Canadian Perspective (United States)

    Ibrahim, A. B.; Soufani, K.; Lam, Jose


    Family firms play an important role in the working of the Canadian economy; despite their importance to the economic activities and job creation it is observed that family businesses have lower survival rates than non-family firms, some argue that this can possibly be attributed (amongst other factors) to the lack of training. Most of the training…

  7. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born. (United States)

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M


    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia.

  8. Opportunities for Canadian stakeholders in the North American large wind turbine supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Wind energy is the fastest growing source of electricity in terms of annual installed capacity. This report presented a study of the North American large wind turbine generator supply chain and technological innovation challenges, and identified opportunities for Canadian industrial and research stakeholders to increase their participation in the wind industry. The study was conducted in three phases. The report described each of these phases, which included identification of the North American turbine supply chain needs and opportunities and its technological innovation challenges; identification of Canadian industrial and research stakeholders, either currently involved in the wind sector or external to it, which had strong transferable skills or capabilities to respond to the specific opportunities; and an assessment of the overall likelihood of Canadian stakeholders being able to respond to specific opportunities within the large wind turbine manufacturing segment of the supply chain. The report provided a market overview of the global, American and Canadian markets and discussed the key North American market drivers and potential economic benefits of wind power. The report also presented an overview of drivers for success in major markets jurisdictions and discussed the large wind turbine supply chain. Several strategic recommendations were offered, such as establishing and maintaining an open line of communication with key contacts within prime contractor and component manufacturer organizations; and maintaining and strengthening wind market policies and creating long-term market signals. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Canadian health expenditures: Where do we really stand internationally? (United States)

    Deber, R; Swan, B


    There are different ways to measure how much Canada spends on health care and the quality of these measurements may vary. This paper examines Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development data for 3 common standards of measure: health expenditures as a proportion of gross domestic product (GDP), nominal spending per capita (US dollars) and spending per capita in purchasing power parities (PPP) equivalents. In 1994, the most recent year for which there were firm data. Canada spent 9.9% of its GDP on health care (rank 3 of 29), and $1999 PPPs per capita (rank 3). However, actual spending was only US$1824 per capita (rank 14). In the same year Japan spent 7% of GDP on health care (rank 22), $1478 in PPPs per capita (rank 16), but actually spent US$2614 per capita (rank 3). Although each measure is suitable for some policy purposes, Canadian spending remains modest by international standards. PMID:10410638

  10. Masaru Shintani: The Making of a Modern Canadian Karate Master

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Toth


    Full Text Available This article looks at the life of Japanese/Canadian karate pioneer, Masaru Shintani, from his birth in Vancouver, British Columbia, until his death in Kapuskasing, Ontario. After more than thirty years of teaching, Shintani created one of the largest karate organizations in North America with over 27,000 members. Shintani also invented Shindo, a martial art facilitating the use of an ancient weapon, the short stick, with modern techniques. For this article, many of Shintani’s senior students helped to reconstruct his life and explain his complex personality with recollections of their teacher. From the beginning of his karate training in an internment camp, to the eventual achievement of 9th-degree black belt, Masaru Shintani epitomized the modern karate master.

  11. Pursuing enterprise risk management: a local road map for Canadian healthcare leaders. (United States)

    Haney, James R; Church, John; Cockerill, Rhonda


    An in-depth analysis of organizational risk management in healthcare, and in particular the concepts of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM), has identified a 5-part model that can be used by Canadian healthcare leaders as an evidence-supported approach to successful organizational risk management. The Model for Organizational Risk Management, termed "the Model," has been developed as a basis for linking the components of an ERM Framework into a Canadian health organization to overcome the barriers that commonly disrupt strategic risk management. The Model addresses how an ERM Framework can fit within an existing health organization by building off and enhancing existing processes and resources to ensure familiarity, acceptance, and sustainability of the risk management program. By approaching the Model in a stepwise fashion (based on individual organizational context), healthcare leaders are provided with a road map from which to advance their own organizational risk management program.

  12. Seeing Oneself in a Book: The Changing Face of Canadian Children's Literature. (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Fayjean, Janet


    Takes a look at children's literature over time, and its recent emergence as a respected body of literary work. Discusses what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Annotates six picture books. Notes that Canadian literature reflects the diversity of the Canadian population, the vast differences in the Canadian landscape, and the…

  13. Proceedings of the 1982 Annual Meeting. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, June 3-7, 1982). (United States)

    Drost, Dale R., Ed.

    Papers from the 1982 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group are organized similarly to the meeting, presenting materials from the lectures, working groups, topic groups and panel groups. One lecture, by Davis, discussed a philosophy of computation in relation to computing. Vergnaud lectured on cognitive and developmental…

  14. Cognitive Differences for Ages 16 to 89 Years (Canadian WAIS-III): Curvilinear with Flynn and Processing Speed Corrections (United States)

    Lee, Hoyee Flora; Gorsuch, Richard L.; Saklofske, Donald H.; Patterson, Colleen A.


    Adult cognitive age differences in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Canadian normative data were curvilinear for most scales and for the Verbal Comprehension (VC), Perceptual Organization (PO), and Working Memory (WM) factors. These showed stable or increasing scores in early adulthood followed by decreasing scores, necessitating a…

  15. Canadian petroleum history bibliography. Release update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.


    The petroleum history bibliography was created over several years as a record dedicated to preserving the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. It comprises a list of more than 5000 publications, including books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles and stories of the many companies that have come and gone. It aims to include all publications and audio visual products from the Social Sciences and Humanities on company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry and humour. An author index is included. Most government documents are excluded as they are accessible through Library and Archives Canada. This bibliography is an ongoing piece of work, and welcomes any additions relating to the study and preservation of Canadian petroleum industry history.

  16. Webpages on copyright in Canadian academic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony G Horava


    Full Text Available Academic libraries value the web as being a vital channel for communicating information and policies to their user community. Designing a webpage on copyright is a challenging task that requires a consideration of the medium and the message. This article proposes a conceptual model and proactive approach for integrating policy objective and goals into the development of a copyright webpage, based on key elements of the library’s involvement in academia. To complement this theoretical approach, an analysis of Canadian academic library websites was conducted in order to gage the effectiveness of copyright webpages, in the Canadian legal context, according to the model as well as related design issues of visibility and access.

  17. 2003 Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines Executive Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Allan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma have been published over the last 15 years; however, there has been little focus on issues relating to asthma in childhood. Since the last revision of the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report, important new studies, particularly in children, have highlighted the need to incorporate new information into the asthma guidelines. The objectives of this article are to review the literature on asthma published between January 2000 and June 2003 and to evaluate the influence of new evidence on the recommendations made in the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report and its 2001 update, with a major focus on pediatric issues. Methods The diagnosis of asthma in young children and prevention strategies, pharmacotherapy, inhalation devices, immunotherapy, and asthma education were selected for review by small expert resource groups. The reviews were discussed in June 2003 at a meeting under the auspices of the Canadian Network For Asthma Care and the Canadian Thoracic Society. Data published through December 2004 were subsequently reviewed by the individual expert resource groups. Results This report evaluates early-life prevention strategies and focuses on treatment of asthma in children, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and preventive therapy, the benefits of additional therapy, and the essential role of asthma education. Conclusion We generally support previous recommendations and focus on new issues, particularly those relevant to children and their families. This document is a guide for asthma management based on the best available published data and the opinion of health care professionals, including asthma experts and educators.

  18. Morbidity Experiences and Disability Among Canadian Women (United States)

    DesMeules, Marie; Turner, Linda; Cho, Robert


    Health Issue Women are more frequently affected by chronic conditions and disability than men. Although some of these sex differences have been in part attributed to biological susceptibility, social determinants of health and other factors, these gaps have not been fully explained in the current literature. This chapter presents comparisons of hospitalization rates, and the prevalence of chronic conditions and physical disability between Canadian women and men and between various subgroups of women, adjusting for selected risk factors. The Canadian Hospital Morbidity Database (2000–2001) and Canadian Community Health Survey (2000–2001) were used to examine inpatient hospital morbidity, prevalence of chronic conditions and disability. Key Findings Hospitalization rates were 20% higher among women than men. This was due to the large number of hospitalizations for pregnancies and childbirth. When "normal" deliveries were excluded, hospitalization rates remained higher among women. Women had slightly lower rates of hospitalizations for ambulatory-care sensitive conditions than men. Prevalence of activity limitation (mild and severe) was higher among women than men, and differences remained after adjusting for age, chronic conditions, socio-economic status, and smoking. Women who reported a disability were less likely than men to be in a partnered relationship, have less tangible social support, and have lower income and employment rates. Data Gaps and Recommendations The impact of morbidity and disability on Canadian women is substantial. These results identify areas for interventions among more vulnerable subgroups, and point to the need for further research in the area of risk factors for the prevention of morbidity and disability in the population. PMID:15345073

  19. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagreen, L.A.; Lourie, B.A. [Summerhill Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada).

  20. Canadian Multiculturalism, Same as it ever Was?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hoyos


    Full Text Available After the Second World War ended, Canada was no longer mainly composed of its two dominant ethnocultural groups, French and English, but rather constituted by polyethnicity; meaning, Canadian culture was made up of many different ethnic groups. Since then, Canada has actively embraced multiculturalism and on 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, ‘An Act for the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada’. The Canadian multicultural experience has been much portrayed as a celebration of ethnicity where different cultural groups share their customs and learn from each other. However, it is recently being rumoured that the multiculturalism hype is not all it is cut out to be and segregates communities rather than integrate. According to Canadian authors Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, “in much of the world and particularly in Europe, there is a widespread perception that multiculturalism has failed” (44. In this paper, I examine some recent common issues of concern, especially, racism and discrimination, through the literary expression of Canadian playwrights and writers such as George F. Walker, Cecil Foster, and Mordecai Richler. These writers are not meant to represent any ethnic group as a whole, but rather try to project a general feeling about the nation in individual ways. I will finally explore the idea of how perhaps multiculturalism in Canada is evolving into another state since migratory patterns and the social circumstances that Canada is facing in the 21st century have changed. Today, the idea of celebrating different ethnicities and customs is no longer as important as celebrating the transcultural or “transnational” aspects of relations between individuals and groups of immigrants.

  1. The Canadian Assessment of Physical literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Claire E; Longmuir, Patricia E; Boyer, Charles


    Background: The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) was conceptualized as a tool to monitor children's physical literacy. The original model (fitness, activity behavior, knowledge, motor skill) required revision and relative weights for calculating/interpreting scores were required....... Methods: Nineteen childhood physical activity/fitness experts completed a 3-round Delphi process. Round 1 was open-ended questions. Subsequent rounds rated statements using a 5-point Likert scale. Recommendations were sought regarding protocol inclusion, relative importance within composite scores...

  2. Canadian Light Infantry in Adaptive Dispersed Operations (United States)


    Sources Bercuson, David . Significant Incident: Canada’s Army, the Airborne and the murder in Somalia. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1996. Bernier...36 David Bercuson, Significant Incident: Canada’s Army, the Airborne and the Murder in Somalia...Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1996), 54-58. 37 Bernd Horn and M. Wyczynski, Hook-up! The Canadian Airborne Compendium (St.Catharines: Vanwell

  3. Canadian oil and gas survey 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberge, R.B. [ed.


    The year 1997 brought record levels of financing for the Canadian oil and gas industry which led to record levels of capital spending and unprecedented merger and acquisition activity. Production records were achieved, but soft commodity prices in the fourth quarter resulted in a significant downturn in the equity markets. El Nino reduced demand for natural gas and heating oil, resulting in increased storage levels for both commodities. Record drilling and capital spending fueled the Canadian oilfield service industry as total market capitalization rose to $10 billion. As for the 1998 outlook, the industry has turned to natural gas as the favoured commodity, as indicated by the conclusion of the Alliance pipeline hearings and the Nova/TCPL merger. This survey presents a review of crude oil and natural gas production, prices, and capital spending for development and exploratory wells, and the financial and operating results for fiscal year 1997 of selected oil and gas companies and income trusts. All listed companies are Canadian public companies, or publicly traded income trusts, traded on one of the country`s four major stock exchanges. They are ranked according to gross oil and gas production revenue only (before royalties). Syncrude and oil sands production is also included. The remaining data in the financial statistics tables includes all business segments of each company included. The survey excluded companies that were wholly-owned subsidiaries, divisions or U.S. subsidiaries and private companies. tabs., figs.

  4. Flexing the PECs: Predicting environmental concentrations of veterinary drugs in Canadian agricultural soils. (United States)

    Kullik, Sigrun A; Belknap, Andrew M


    Veterinary drugs administered to food animals primarily enter ecosystems through the application of livestock waste to agricultural land. Although veterinary drugs are essential for protecting animal health, their entry into the environment may pose a risk for nontarget organisms. A means to predict environmental concentrations of new veterinary drug ingredients in soil is required to assess their environmental fate, distribution, and potential effects. The Canadian predicted environmental concentrations in soil (PECsoil) for new veterinary drug ingredients for use in intensively reared animals is based on the approach currently used by the European Medicines Agency for VICH Phase I environmental assessments. The calculation for the European Medicines Agency PECsoil can be adapted to account for regional animal husbandry and land use practices. Canadian agricultural practices for intensively reared cattle, pigs, and poultry differ substantially from those in the European Union. The development of PECsoil default values and livestock categories representative of typical Canadian animal production methods and nutrient management practices culminates several years of research and an extensive survey and analysis of the scientific literature, Canadian agricultural statistics, national and provincial management recommendations, veterinary product databases, and producers. A PECsoil can be used to rapidly identify new veterinary drugs intended for intensive livestock production that should undergo targeted ecotoxicity and fate testing. The Canadian PECsoil model is readily available, transparent, and requires minimal inputs to generate a screening level environmental assessment for veterinary drugs that can be refined if additional data are available. PECsoil values for a hypothetical veterinary drug dosage regimen are presented and discussed in an international context. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:331-341. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

  5. Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL (United States)


    Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Prepared by: Guy Jonkmans Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River ON...INSTALLATION OF THE CANADIAN MUON CARGO INSPECTION SYSTEM AT CRL 153-30100-REPT-001 Revision 0 2013/02/19 UNRESTRICTED 2013/02/19 ILLIMITÉ 153...30100-REPT-001 2013/02/19 Report, General Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Research and Development 153-30100

  6. Should investors prefer Canadian hedge funds or stocks?


    Ma, Xiao Yan; Zhou, Weihui


    This paper updates Brulhart and Klein (2006) by comparing the magnitude of extreme returns from Tremont, HFRI hedge fund indices with stock indices. It also compares the magnitude of extreme returns from Canadian hedge fund indices with stock indices. We found that the results from Brulhart and Klein hold for the updated US data. However, the results do not hold for the Canadian hedge fund indices. The magnitude of extreme returns from Canadian hedge fund indices is lower than the magnitude o...

  7. Cross-language acoustic similarity predicts perceptual assimilation of Canadian English and Canadian French vowels. (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Vasiliev, Polina


    Monolingual Peruvian Spanish listeners identified natural tokens of the Canadian French (CF) and Canadian English (CE) /ɛ/ and /æ/, produced in five consonantal contexts. The results demonstrate that while the CF vowels were mapped to two different native vowels, /e/ and /a/, in all consonantal contexts, the CE contrast was mapped to the single native vowel /a/ in four out of five contexts. Linear discriminant analysis revealed that acoustic similarity between native and target language vowels was a very good predictor of context-specific perceptual mappings. Predictions are made for Spanish learners of the /ɛ/-/æ/ contrast in CF and CE.

  8. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Driving: A Canadian Thoracic Society and Canadian Sleep Society Position Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Ayas


    Full Text Available Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA experience sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality that results in daytime sleepiness, which impairs performance during driving and leads to an increased risk for collisions. Not surprisingly, observational studies have shown that patients with OSA experience a two- to 10-fold higher risk for collision compared with healthy controls. Although treatment would clearly mitigate these risks, there is no current Canadian position on driving and OSA. This article, the first Canadian position statement addressing the issue, provides an overview of provincial regulations and proposes recommendations with regard to driving in patients with OSA.

  9. Attitudes towards the Canadian quality milk program and use of good production practices among Canadian dairy producers. (United States)

    Young, I; Rajić, A; Hendrick, S; Parker, S; Sanchez, J; McClure, J T; McEwen, S A


    To harmonize good production practices (GPP) for dairy producers in Canada, the Canadian dairy industry has developed and is implementing a program called Canadian Quality Milk (CQM). A postal questionnaire was administered to all Canadian dairy producers enrolled in dairy herd-improvement organizations in 2008 (n=10,474) to investigate their attitudes towards the program and to establish baseline information on their use of GPP. The response percentage was 20.9% (2185/10,474). Two-thirds of producers (67.6%) reported participation in CQM and 61.4% of these indicated that the requirements were easy to implement. Most producers (85.0%) reported the use of cats as a pest-control method in their barns. For dead-livestock disposal, 65.0% and 38.0% indicated use of a collection service and burial, respectively. Nearly 40.0% of respondents indicated that they purchase replacement cattle, and somatic cell-count score was the main health indicator considered before purchase. Over 70% of producers reported that they clean and disinfect maternity, calf and weaned-calf pens, while only 34.1% and 53.1% reported that they provide visitors and employees, respectively, with clean clothes and boots. Through latent-class analysis, five groups (classes) of producers with distinctive patterns of reported use of GPP were identified. These were labelled as "minimal", "sanitation-only", "employee-visitor hygiene", "typical" and "ideal" user groups, with 11.1%, 23.8%, 20.2%, 37.1% and 7.7% of respondents, respectively. Respondents in the "ideal users" group had a higher probability of reporting the use of each GPP and were more likely to have completed an educational course in food safety compared to respondents in each other group. They were also more likely to have a herd size in the uppermost quartile (>65 cows) and report participation in CQM compared to each other group except the "employee-visitor hygiene users". The greatest differences were observed when compared to the "minimal

  10. The use of Ethics Decision-Making Frameworks by Canadian Ethics Consultants: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Kaposy, Chris; Brunger, Fern; Maddalena, Victor; Singleton, Richard


    In this study, Canadian healthcare ethics consultants describe their use of ethics decision-making frameworks. Our research finds that ethics consultants in Canada use multi-purpose ethics decision-making frameworks, as well as targeted frameworks that focus on reaching an ethical resolution to a particular healthcare issue, such as adverse event reporting, or difficult triage scenarios. Several interviewees mention the influence that the accreditation process in Canadian healthcare organizations has on the adoption and use of such frameworks. Some of the ethics consultants we interviewed also report on their reluctance to use these tools. Limited empirical work has been done previously on the use of ethics decision-making frameworks. This study begins to fill this gap in our understanding of the work of healthcare ethics consultants.

  11. Future human health research directions for the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn G. Donaldson


    Full Text Available Studies conducted in the mid-1980s and early 1990s demonstrated that persistent organic pollutants (POPs and metals were reaching the Arctic ecosystem at unexpectedly high levels, many of which had no Arctic or Canadian sources. Epidemiological and toxicological studies in Canada and in other countries have found that these contaminants may pose a risk to human health. The objective of this paper is to provide the foundation for the discussion on future northern human health research under the Northern Contaminants Program (NCP in Canada. This short discussion of human health priorities will help guide a path forward for future northern human health research in Canada to address on-going and new health concerns related to contaminants exposure in the Canadian Arctic.

  12. The Canadian Teaching Commons: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Canadian Higher Education (United States)

    Wuetherick, Brad; Yu, Stan


    This chapter reports on a national study exploring the current state of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) and assessing the perceptions of Canadian SoTL scholars at the micro (individual), meso (departmental), macro (institutional), and mega (disciplinary) contexts.

  13. The Canadian Niagara Power Company story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, N.R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering


    This book chronicles the history and contributions of the Canadian Niagara Power Company and its employees toward the establishment of electricity generation and distribution in Niagara Falls and Fort Erie, Ontario, dating back to its founding in 1892. Through historical photographs, maps and drawings, the book demonstrates the impact of electricity on the Niagara region. It emphasizes the many skills and jobs required to run the company that generated electricity and maintained a complete system to deliver power, metering, and billing services through the depression, wars, and postwar booms, even during lightning, snow and ice storms. The company began producing power in 1905 with what had been the world's largest-capacity turbines and generators that supplied power to both sides of the Niagara River. Initially, most of the electricity was exported to New York State. The company eventually expanded its Canadian customer service area from Niagara Falls, Ontario, to Fort Erie, Bridgeburg, Amigari, Ridgeway, Stevensville, Crystal Beach and Point Abino. Throughout its history, the Canadian Niagara Power Company provided power at a lower cost than its neighbouring competitors. The William Birch Rankine Generating Station became an important tourist attraction, showcasing the latest electrical appliances of the time in an effort to promote the use of electricity in homes and offices. Today, the station remains a tribute to the fact that natural beauty can coincide with industry. The book also chronicles the difficult business challenges caused by restructuring in the electric power industry in the 1990s, repairing aging equipment and applying the latest in automation and remote sensing technology. Today, the company as FortisOntario is expanding to other communities around Ontario. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin


    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  15. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin


    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  16. Reinventing an industry at Western Canadian Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.


    Western Canadian Coal is applying lessons learned from past disruptions to coal production operations in British Columbia in order to build a low cost, long term production operation. Northeast British Columbia has huge coal deposits and an established infrastructure that includes the town of Tumbler Ridge, rail facilities, and access to Port Rupert. The company is developing 50,000 hectares of coal-bearing property. Production commenced in 2004, and it is planned to produce four million tonnes of coal per year by the end of 2007, increasing to 10 million tonnes by 2012. Equipment, staffing, and activities at the Dillon, Wolverine, and Brule mines are described. 2 photos.

  17. Refugees and education in Canadian schools (United States)

    Kaprielian-Churchill, Isabel


    This article summarizes some of the findings and recommendations of a research project focusing on the nature and needs of refugee students in Canadian schools. The school performance of refugee students is examined under the following headings: immigration regulations; initial identification, assessment, placement and monitoring; unaccompanied youngsters; "at risk" students; academic needs; the conflict of cultures. In particular, the article discusses the changing role of the school in the light of recent immigration trends. Many of the findings are applicable to other national settings.

  18. 47 CFR 101.1527 - Canadian and Mexican coordination. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian and Mexican coordination. 101.1527 Section 101.1527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Canadian and Mexican coordination. (a) A licensee of bands 71.0-76.0, 81.0-86.0, 92-94 GHz and 94.1-95...

  19. International Disputes and Cultural Ideas in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    of the Canadian-Arctic relationship. Using Canada as the focus for the analysis, the purpose of this project is to contribute to the existing Arctic studies and international relations literature by examining how interests and disputes in the Canadian Arctic region have been affected by domestic cultural...

  20. The Canadian Context: Monolingual Education in an "Officially" Multilingual Country (United States)

    Kiernan, Julia E.


    This article will examine the sociopolitical language contexts that exist in institutions of Canadian post-secondary education, through investigating how government policies affect the consumption and teaching of language in writing classrooms. A survey of Canadian multiculturalist policy, multilingualism, and post-secondary education in terms of…

  1. Attitudes Toward Oral Contraception Among Canadian University Students. (United States)

    Bardis, Panos D.

    The author conducted a cross-cultural survey of attitudes toward the pill among university students, part of this international sample being a group of young Canadians. The subjects were students from a southwestern Canadian university and were stratified as to sex and amount of education. The author employed his Pill Scale, a 25-item Likert type…

  2. Characters with Exceptionalities Portrayed in Contemporary Canadian Children's Books (United States)

    Emmerson, Jean; Brenna, Beverley


    This article examines the ways in which exceptionality is addressed in Canadian children's literature, offering critical literacy as an avenue toward social justice. A content analysis (Berg, 2009) of 134 Canadian children's books offers a wide scope of contemporary titles to include in classrooms. We developed conceptual categories to explore…

  3. Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Child Health:A Canadian Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stuart Macleod


    @@ Introduction Canadian academic centres and children's hospitals have had a longstanding interest in the improvement of drug therapy for children through research conducted across the four pillars of activity identified as being of critical importance by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research(viz,basic research,clinical research,population health research,applied health and policy research)[1].

  4. Indigenous knowledge in Canadian science curricula: cases from Western Canada (United States)

    Kim, Mijung


    To enhance Aboriginal students' educational opportunities in sciences, culturally relevant science curriculum has been examined and practiced in Western Canadian science classrooms. This article shares some examples of inclusion of indigenous knowledge in science curricula and discusses the improvement and challenges of culturally relevant science curricula in Canadian contexts.

  5. Seeking Internationalization: The State of Canadian Higher Education (United States)

    Anderson, Tim


    This article explores the internationalization of Canadian universities, with a focus on the rise of foreign postsecondary students in Canada, the economic impacts, and the various benefits, challenges, and adjustments that have been influenced by the continuing demographic shifts on Canadian campuses since 2000. Rooted in recent global and…

  6. How Canadian Universities Use Social Media to Brand Themselves (United States)

    Bélanger, Charles H.; Bali, Suchita; Longden, Bernard


    This paper explores social media marketing strategies applied by Canadian universities as a tool for institutional branding, recruitment and engagement of home and international students. The target sample involves the total population of Canadian university-status institutions ("N" = 106). Qualitative data were collected from two major…

  7. School Autonomy and 21st Century Learning: The Canadian Context (United States)

    Newton, Paul; da Costa, Jose


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the policy and practice contexts for school autonomy and twenty-first century learning in Canadian provinces. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on an analysis of policies in Canadian provinces (particularly the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan). The authors review policies…

  8. Workforce utilization of visible and linguistic minorities in Canadian nursing. (United States)

    Premji, Stephanie; Etowa, Josephine B


    Aim  This study seeks to develop a diversity profile of the nursing workforce in Canada and its major cities. Background  There is ample evidence of ethnic and linguistic segregation in the Canadian labour market. However, it is unknown if there is equitable representation of visible and linguistic minorities in nursing professions. Methods  We cross-tabulated aggregate data from Statistics Canada's 2006 Census. Analyses examined the distribution of visible and linguistic minorities, including visible minority sub-groups, among health managers, head nurses, registered nurses, licensed nurses and nurse aides for Canada and major cities as well as by gender. Results  In Canada and its major cities, a pyramidal structure was found whereby visible and linguistic minorities, women in particular, were under-represented in managerial positions and over-represented in lower ranking positions. Blacks and Filipinos were generally well represented across nursing professions; however, other visible minority sub-groups lacked representation. Conclusions  Diversity initiatives at all levels can play a role in promoting better access to and quality of care for minority populations through the increased cultural and linguistic competence of care providers and organizations. Implications for Nursing Management  Efforts to increase diversity in nursing need to be accompanied by commitment and resources to effectively manage diversity within organizations.

  9. Canadian Asthma Consensus Conference Summary of Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ernst


    Full Text Available The Asthma Committee of the Canadian Thoracic Society invited a group of Canadian physicians with a particular interest in asthma to meet in Montebello, Quebec, March 9-12, 1995 to arrive at a consensus statement on the optimal approach to the management of asthma in the pediatric and adult ambulatory care settings. The societies and associations represented are listed in the appendix with the names of the contributors to this document. The objectives of the Montebello conference were: 1. To review the current ambulatory care management of asthma in Canada; 2. To develop guidelines with the participation of family physicians and specialists; 3. To develop guidelines which are evidence-based; 4. In creating evidence-based guidelines to focus attention on aspects of asthma management that are currently not supported by randomized controlled trials; 5. To develop strategies that allow for the implementation of rational guidelines at a local level. Recommendations were based on a critical review of the scientific literature by small groups prior to the meeting and are categorized according to the strength of the scientific evidence supporting each recommendation (Table 1.

  10. Exploring Canadian Echinoderm Diversity through DNA Barcodes (United States)


    DNA barcoding has proven an effective tool for species identification in varied groups of marine invertebrates including crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes and echinoderms. In this study, we further validate its utility by analyzing almost half of the 300 species of Echinodermata known from Canadian waters. COI sequences from 999 specimens were assigned to 145 BINs. In most cases, species discrimination was straightforward due to the large difference (25-fold) between mean intra- (0.48%) and inter- (12.0%) specific divergence. Six species were flagged for further taxonomic investigation because specimens assigned to them fell into two or three discrete sequence clusters. The potential influence of larval dispersal capacity and glacial events on patterns of genetic diversity is discussed for 19 trans-oceanic species. Although additional research is needed to clarify biogeographic patterns and resolve taxonomic questions, this study represents an important step in the assembly of a DNA barcode library for all Canadian echinoderms, a valuable resource for future biosurveillance programs. PMID:27870868

  11. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system. (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin


    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian prairie agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellert, B.H.; Janzen, H.H. [Agriculture and Agri-food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB, (Canada)


    There is a close relationship between soil and air quality, on the one hand, and the exchange of greenhouse gases between the earth and atmosphere, on the other. International efforts by people such as soil conservationists and climatologists to control emissions of these gases and negotiations surrounding the Kyoto Protocol have increased the debate regarding the role of agricultural activities. From evaluation of both data available before global change became important and recent research efforts, much information on greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian agriculture has been gained. A summary is included of the contribution of Canadian prairie agriculture to emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane gas. A stress is placed on the subject of the carbon cycle and on how land management practices could influence soil carbon storage capacity. The potential for increasing this carbon storage capacity is described in relation to land use, historical changes in agricultural land, and recent observations on the influence of agricultural parctices, and obstacles to estimating changes in soil carbon dioxide emissions and carbon storage, and extending the estimates to large land areas are examined. Emissions of nitrous oxide and methane gas are considered in relation to the influence of agricultural management practices. (Abstract only)

  13. Work and High-Risk Alcohol Consumption in the Canadian Workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ève Blanc


    Full Text Available This study examined the associations between occupational groups; work-organization conditions based on task design; demands, social relations, and gratifications; and weekly high-risk alcohol consumption among Canadian workers. A secondary data analysis was performed on Cycle 2.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 2003. The sample consisted of 76,136 employees 15 years of age and older nested in 2,451 neighbourhoods. High-risk alcohol consumption is defined in accordance with Canadian guidelines for weekly low-risk alcohol consumption. The prevalence of weekly high-risk alcohol consumption is estimated to be 8.1% among workers. The results obtained using multilevel logistic regression analysis suggest that increased work hours and job insecurity are associated with elevated odds of high-risk alcohol consumption. Gender female, older age, being in couple and living with children associated with lower odds of high-risk drinking, while increased education, smoking, physical activities, and, and economic status were associated with higher odds. High-risk drinking varied between neighbourhoods, and gender moderates the contribution of physical demands. The results suggest that work made a limited contribution and non-work factors a greater contribution to weekly high-risk alcohol consumption. Limits and implications of these results are discussed.

  14. Canadian Industry for Energy Conservation (CIPEC) annual report 2007 : seven ideas that can change your world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC) was founded in 1975 as an umbrella organization to oversee partnerships between government and private industry. Its primary objective was to promote energy efficiency within the Canadian industrial sector. This report described the energy efficiency initiatives taken by CIPEC member companies for the year 2005 and highlighted CIPEC's accomplishments in 2006-2007. Several successes achieved by individual companies in various industrial sectors were also documented. Many energy-savings ideas have been implemented as a result of programs and services offered by Natural Resources Canada through CIPEC. This report reviewed the following 7 ideas that can be adapted to fit a variety of operating environments: (1) improve processes, (2) transform employee mindsets, (3) upgrade equipment, (4) adopt new technologies, (5) measure energy performance, (6) rethink facility design, and (7) introduce alternative sources of energy. This report revealed that 2005 was a successful year in terms of the energy efficiency accomplishments of Canadian industry. Energy intensity improved by 1.4 per cent in 2005 compared with 2004, contributing to an average annual improvement in energy intensity of 0.7 per cent since 1990 for all of CIPEC industries. Through CIPEC, the mining, manufacturing and construction sectors have voluntarily met and exceeded annual targets to reduce their energy intensity. Upstream oil and gas companies have implemented projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by millions of tonnes and electrical utilities have significantly increased their production of alternative energy. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. 22 CFR 41.33 - Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC). (United States)


    ... identification card (BCC). 41.33 Section 41.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION... Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC). (a) Validity of Canadian BCC. A Canadian BCC or the BCC portion of a Canadian B-1/B-2 Visa/BCC issued to a permanent resident of...

  16. Sex and gender considerations in Canadian clinical practice guidelines: a systematic review (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Clow, Barbara; Haworth-Brockman, Margaret; Voss, Patrice


    Background: The importance of sex and gender in the diagnosis and management of health conditions is well established, but the extent to which this evidence is integrated into clinical practice guidelines remains unknown. We aimed to determine the proportion of Canadian clinical practice guidelines that integrate evidence on sex and gender considerations. Methods: We searched the Canadian Medical Association's CPG Infobase, PubMed, all provincial/territorial websites and websites of professional organizations for English- and French-language Canadian clinical practice guidelines published between January 2013 and June 2015 on selected conditions identified as priorities by policy-makers and practitioners. Citations and text were searched electronically using keyword terms related to sex and gender. Three investigators independently analyzed and categorized the content of text-positive clinical practice guidelines based on clinical relevance for practitioners. Results: Of the 118 clinical practice guidelines that met the inclusion criteria, 79 (66.9%) were text-positive for sex and/or gender keywords; 8 (10%) of the 79 used the keywords only in relation to pregnancy. Of the remaining 71 guidelines, 25 (35%) contained sex-related diagnostic or management recommendations. An additional 5 (7%) contained recommendations for sex-specific laboratory reference values, 29 (41%) referred to differences in epidemiologic features or risk factors only, and 12 (17%) contained nonrelevant mentions of search keywords. Twenty-five (35%) of the text-positive guidelines used the terms "sex" and/or "gender" correctly. Interpretation: Recommendations related to sex and gender are inconsistently reported in Canadian clinical practice guidelines. Guidelines such as the Sex and Gender Equity in Research guidelines may help inform the meaningful inclusion of sex and gender evidence in the development of clinical practice guidelines.

  17. An inventory of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies: research in progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joly Marie-Pier


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A web-based inventory was developed as a voluntary registry of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies, with the objective to foster collaboration and sharing of research tools among cohort study groups as a means to enrich research in maternal and child health across Canada. Description Information on existing birth cohort studies conducted in Canada exclusively or as part of broader international initiatives was accessed by searching the literature in PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Additional studies were identified by enquiring about the research activities of researchers at Canadian universities or working in affiliated hospitals or research centres or institutes. Of the fifty-eight birth cohort studies initially identified, forty-six were incorporated into the inventory if they were of a retrospective and/or prospective longitudinal design and with a minimum of two phases of data collection, with the first period having occurred before, during, or shortly after pregnancy and had an initial study sample size of a minimum of 200 participants. Information collected from each study was organized into four main categories: basic information, data source and period of collection, exposures, and outcome measures and was coded and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The information incorporated into the Excel spreadsheet was double checked, completed when necessary, and verified for completeness and accuracy by contacting the principal investigator or research coordinator. All data collected were then uploaded onto the website of the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Subsequently, the database was updated and developed as an online searchable inventory on the website of the Maternal, Infant, Child and Youth Research Network. Conclusions This inventory is unique, as it represents detailed information assembled for the first time on a large number of Canadian

  18. The Canadian National Dairy Study 2015-Adoption of milking practices in Canadian dairy herds. (United States)

    Belage, E; Dufour, S; Bauman, C; Jones-Bitton, A; Kelton, D F


    Several studies have investigated which management practices have the greatest effect on udder health, but little information is available on how broadly the recommended milking practices are adopted across Canada. The National Dairy Study 2015 was designed to gather dairy cattle health and management data on dairy farms across Canada. The objectives of the present study were to describe the current proportions of adoption of milking practices on Canadian dairy farms, and identify factors associated with their use on farms. A bilingual questionnaire measuring use of various practices, including an udder health-specific section, was developed and sent to all Canadian dairy farms. The questions in the udder health section of the questionnaire were adapted from a bilingual questionnaire previously validated and containing questions regarding general milking hygiene and routine, and on-farm mastitis management. Chi-squared tests were used to investigate simple associations between adoption of practices and various explanatory variables including region, milking system, herd size, and bulk tank somatic cell count. In total, 1,373 dairy producers completed the survey. The regional distribution of the participants was representative of the Canadian dairy farm population, and milk quality was, on average, similar to nonparticipants. Overall, Canadian dairy producers followed the recommendations for milking procedures, but some were more extensively used than others. Fore-stripping, cleaning teats, wiping teats dry, using single-cow towels, and use of postmilking teat disinfectant were widely adopted. Use of gloves and glove hygiene, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, and use of automatic takeoffs were not as extensively implemented. Adoption percentages for several practices, including use of gloves, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, teat drying methods, and use of automatic takeoffs were significantly associated with milking system, herd size, and region. It

  19. The Canadian war on drugs: structural violence and unequal treatment of Black Canadians. (United States)

    Khenti, Akwatu


    This paper examines the impact of Canada's war on drugs on segments of the Black community, specifically with respect to the impact of structural violence, over-policing, and high incarceration rates. It offers evidence of the systemic nature of these dynamics by examining the early context of the war, growing stigma against Blacks, globalizing influences, and the punitive focus of funding and policy. The paper also explores how Black men have been identified as the main enemy and how drug control efforts have served to diminish the health, well-being, and self-image of Black men via discriminatory and inequitable treatment before the law. The current high rates of imprisonment of Black men are an indicator of systematic deprivation of significant social capital, which will perpetuate socioeconomic harm and cycles of violence. This commentary calls for an immediate dissolution of policies regulating the war on drugs as the first step in remedying the injustices experienced by Black Canadians. Due to the lack of Canadian data in this important area, the paper also emphasizes the critical need for more research to shed more light on the Canadian-specific complexities.

  20. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ian D


    Full Text Available Abstract The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  1. CanWEA Pan-Canadian wind integration study paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Martin [GL Garrad Hassan Canada Inc, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gardner, Paul [GL Garrad Hassan and Partners, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Price, Doug; Le, Don [GL Garrad Hassan America, San Diego, CA (United States)


    GL Garrad Hassan has been contracted by CanWEA to undertake a scoping study for a future Pan-Canadian Wide-Scale Wind Integration Study. The scoping study provides the methodology and the rationale on which the actual wind integration study and request for proposals will be based on. Major system operators and owners of each Canadian Province along with experts involved in major US wind integration studies have been consulted and contributed to the decisional process. This paper provides a summary of the factors considered in the study and outline the actual methodology that was adopted for the future Pan-Canadian wind integration study. (orig.)

  2. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. (United States)

    Graham, Ian D


    The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  3. Pulsus Group, the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and CDDW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available At the recent Canadian Digestive Diseases Week in Banff, Alberta, the third annual Dr ABR Thomson - Dr CN Williams Award was presented to Dr Krikor Kichian. This Award was initiated in 2002 by Pulsus Group in honour of Drs Alan Thomson and Noel Williams, the founding Co- Editors-in-Chief of The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, who served from 1987 to 2000. Robert Kalina, publisher of The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, invited Dr Williams to present the award to Dr Kichian.

  4. A Canadian paradox: Tommy Douglas and eugenics. (United States)

    Shevell, Michael


    Tommy Douglas is an icon of Canadian 20th Century political history and is considered by many as the "Father" of Medicare, a key component of our national identity. Throughout his career, he was associated at both the provincial and federal levels with progressive causes concerning disadvantaged populations. In his sociology Master's thesis written in the early 1930's, Douglas endorsed eugenic oriented solutions such as segregation and sterilization to address what was perceived to be an endemic and biologically determined problem. At first glance, this endorsement of eugenics appears to be paradoxical, but careful analysis revealed that this paradox has multiple roots in religion, political belief, historical exposure and our own desire to view our collective history in a favourable light.

  5. Feminist Approaches to Journalism Studies: Canadian Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrude J. Robinson


    Full Text Available One of the orthodoxies of communication scholarship is that much of the gender-based differences between males and females with regard to experiences in newsrooms can be attributed to demographics. The discussion presented in this paper challenges this claim by comparing the findings of two national surveys that measured the professional progress of Canadian press and television journalists. The first survey was undertaken in 1975, and the second in 1995. While the historical evidence points to reductions in gender-based structural inequalities over time, it also identifies the continued presence of gender-based assumptions about how work and family obligations should be combined. Such assumptions, it is argued, help to foster and reproduce systemic biases in the newsroom culture that still resonate today in the journalism profession and which can be best understood as a manifestation of the meaning of gender at three levels: as a classifying system, as a structuring structure, and as an ideology.

  6. Review of Canadian literature to estimate risks associated with Salmonella in broilers from retail to consumption in Canadian homes. (United States)

    Smadi, Hanan; Sargeant, Jan M


    The objective was to review the literature related to the risk of salmonellosis from chicken consumed in private homes in Canada. The pathway of concern was retail-to-consumption at private homes due to the direct link between this pathway and public health. A qualitative review was conducted by searching Canadian governmental agencies' webpages, published peer-reviewed journals, and by contacting experts in the field. Overall, with the data available, estimating risk from Salmonella in chicken breasts using only Canadian information was limited. Enumeration data for Salmonella in retail raw chicken at different regions across Canada are needed to be able to generalize the risk of salmonellosis in the Canadian population. Few Canadian surveys were found to describe consumers' food safety behaviors at Canadians' private homes. Observational designs to study food safety practices and Canadian consumers' behavior in private kitchens are needed to ensure that consumer behavior is consistent with consumer perceptions of their behavior. The results of such studies will give valuable input for designing educational programs needed to increase awareness of safe food handling practices by Canadian consumers when preparing food at their homes.

  7. Survive Bravely——Main Features of Contemporary Canadian Literature Themes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Fang


    The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada’s particular history,geograph y,climate,religion,demographic factors,generation,development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures.The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Literature:keep working hard for survival and love bravely.Meanwhile,modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic literary works.

  8. Survive Bravely——Main Features of Contemporary Canadian Literature Themes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada's particular history,geograph y,climate,religion,demographic factors,generation,development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures.The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Literature:keep working hard for survival and love bravely.Meanwhile,modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic literary works.

  9. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender


    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  10. The isotope crisis - a Canadian viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    From the fall of 2007 the summer of 2010 there were repeated cries in the media of North America and Europe of an -isotope crisis-. This concerned the on-going shortage of the isotope Molybdenum 99 and more specifically of its daughter product Technetium Mo 99. The latter is used in about 80 percent of medical imagining procedures in North America, Europe, Japan and a number of other countries. Both isotopes are short-lived and can not be stock-piled. Mo 99 is produced in only a handful of reactors around the world. The fifty-year old Nru reactor in Canada and the equally old Hfr reactor in the Netherlands have each traditionally supplied about a third of the world's supply. In late 2007 the Canadian nuclear regulator ordered the owner and operator of Nru, to shut down the reactor over a matter that was not a clear licence condition. Sensing the impending shortage of Mo 99, the nuclear medicine community raised a major concern sufficient to convince the Canadian government to overrule the regulator. Then in early 2009 a major leak was observed in the Nru reactor vessel. Although it did not present a safety concern it was decided to shut down the reactor to conduct an inspection. This proved to be extremely difficult since the leaks were near the bottom of the 10 metre tall vessel and the only access was through a 20 cm diameter hole at the top of the vessel. The reactor was finally restarted in August 2010, just as the Hfr reactor was shut down for a lengthy overhaul. The paper provides a background on Canada's pioneering involvement in the production and use of radioactive isotopes for medical purposes, a brief account of the Nru repair and an overview of Mo 99 production. (Author)

  11. Measuring information technology investment among Canadian academic health sciences centres. (United States)

    Pederson, Lorraine; Leonard, Kevin


    Many recent studies have attempted to accurately measure the expenditure by hospitals in the area of new information technology (IT), for example see Leonard 1998 and Pink et al. 2001. This is usually done as an exercise to compare the healthcare sector with other industries that have had much more success in implementing and leveraging their IT investment (Willcocks 1992; Chan 2000). It is normally hoped that such investigation would help explain some of the differences among the various industries and provide insight into where (and how much) future IT spending should occur in healthcare (Leonard 2004). Herein, we present the results from a study of eight Canadian academic health sciences centres that contributed data in order to analyze the amount of information technology spending in their organizations. Specifically, we focus on one specific indicator: the IT spend ratio. This ratio is defined as the percentage of total IT net costs to total hospital net operating costs, and aims to provide a "relative (or percentage) measure of spending" so as to make the comparisons meaningful. One such comparison shows that hospitals spend only 55% of the amount the financial services sector spends.

  12. In situ petroleum hydrocarbon bioremediation in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greer, C.; Bell, T.; Lee, K.; Delisle, S.; Kovanen, D.; Craig, D.; Juck, D. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.


    This presentation reported on the in-situ bioremediation of diesel contaminated soils at the Canadian Forces Station CFS-Alert, in the Arctic. The soil was amended with monoammonium phosphate (MAP). The operation was designed to take place in a 2 month period during the brief thaw season. This presentation described the installation of the bioventing stacks, the turning of soil, and the application of an oxygen release compound (ORC) at the surface of the permafrost. A significant decrease in petroleum hydrocarbons (PC) was noted over 2 months. The effect of MAP amendment was a slight decrease in biomass in the pristine environment and a significant increase in biomass in the contaminated environment. The alkB gene was found to be important in the biodegradation of alkanes. Stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify active organisms. This bioremediation study showed that even in harsh Arctic climates, soils that are moderately contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons can be remediated effectively and economically via biodegradation. tabs., figs.

  13. The ecology and biological affinity of Arctic dinoflagellates and their paleoceanographical significance in the Canadian High Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochon, A [ISMER-UQAR, 310 allee des Ursulines, Rimouski QC, G5L 3A1 (Canada)], E-mail:


    Dinoflagellates are eukaryotic organisms and constitute an important group of marine primary producers. Approximately 10-15% of living dinoflagellates produce a highly resistant dormant cyst that is fossilisable, and which constitute an excellent proxy indicator of the upper water column conditions and productivity. Relatively little is known on the distribution in time and space of the dinoflagellate life cycle (i.e., vegetative and cyst stages) in the Canadian Arctic; most studies usually focusing on other groups of organisms (e.g., diatoms). Here, we present information on the ecology of dinoflagellate cysts and how they relate to their counterpart plankton stages. We discuss the importance of considering the biological affinities of dinoflagellates cysts and their relevance for paleoceanographical interpretations. We also provide insight on the actual lack of such knowledge for the Canadian Arctic cyst and plankton assemblages.

  14. Use of Oral Miltefosine for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Canadian Soldiers Returning from Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Keynan


    Full Text Available Old world cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is caused by Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica, and is endemic to several Asian and Middle-Eastern countries where the rates of infection can be substantial. CL is one of the most common vector-transmitted parasitic infections in Afghanistan. Six cases of CL in Canadian soldiers returning from Afghanistan are reported in the present study. Their lesions did not improve with fluconazole therapy, and the organism demonstrated in vitro resistance. Oral miltefosine seemed effective.

  15. Origins of the Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver: A Personal Memoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome B Simon


    Full Text Available The Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver (CASL (Association Canadienne Pour L’Étude Du Foie is a thriving organization. Although it was established more than a quarter of a century ago and has been successful since the beginning, most members are unaware of how CASL came into being or of its humble origins as a precursor club in the 1970s. The present article reviews those early days. It is written as a memoir because of the author’s personal involvement and is based on detailed records, correspondence and handwritten notes from that era.

  16. English for Academic Purposes through Canadian Literature and History. (United States)

    Young, Lynne; O'Brien, Trudy


    Describes a program designed to improve English skills in university students learning English as a second language through a Canadian literature and history component. Reading lists are appended. (AM)

  17. Interpreting Critical Resource Issues in US and Canadian National Parks. (United States)

    Whatley, Michael E.


    A wide range of examples gathered in U.S. and Canadian national park service areas during several years of field study reinforce the value of matching issues and messages with interpretive techniques and audiences. (LZ)

  18. Antioxidant activity of selected wild Canadian prairie fruits



    Background. Canadian prairies are a habitat for unique wild plants. The main object of the present study was to investigate phytochemicals content and antioxidant activity in seven wild Canadian prairie fruits. Material and methods. The presence of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity were identified in the extracts according to standard procedure. Results. Wild rose had the highest amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids, whereas ...

  19. The evolution of PAs in the Canadian Armed Forces. (United States)

    Mertens, Jonathan; Descoteaux, Marc


    This study documents the growing role of the physician assistant (PA) in the Canadian Armed Forces. PAs have served as the backbone of the Royal Canadian Medical Services' frontline medical operations since 1984, on land, aboard ships and submarines, and domestically in garrison. Candidates begin as medical technicians and receive advanced training to become PAs at midcareer. The current rank of PAs as warrant officers is evolving and a commissioned status is under consideration.

  20. "Complicated Bearers of Cultural Difference" : Canadian Magazines and Trade Policy


    McKend, Heather


    Describes the history of Canadian policy on magazines, policy designed primarily to protect Canadian culture in a market heavily dominated by U.S. magazines. Canada's traditional strategy has been to consider magazines as a "cultural exception" to trade regulations. In 2005, Canada was the country first to ratify the UNESCO Convention supporting the protection of cultural diversity as a “sovereign responsibility.”

  1. Canadian Impressions Title: Impresiones canadienses Title: Impressions canadiennes


    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)


    Canadian Impressions pays tribute to Canada and Calgary, Alberta, home of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors of the Inter-American Development Bank. Twelve Canadian artists who were selected in an open call, present a total of 34 prints in various techniques from etching to monotype. Among the participating artists are: Briar Craig, Delio Delgado, René Derouin, Katie Fife, Joscelyn Gardner, Michel Gautier, Vanessa Hall-Patch, Miriam Rudolph, Tracy Lynn Templeton, Todd Treme, Os...

  2. Word Segmentation in Monolingual Infants Acquiring Canadian English and Canadian French: Native Language, Cross-Dialect, and Cross-Language Comparisons (United States)

    Polka, Linda; Sundara, Megha


    In five experiments, we tested segmentation of word forms from natural speech materials by 8-month-old monolingual infants who are acquiring Canadian French or Canadian English. These two languages belong to different rhythm classes; Canadian French is syllable-timed and Canada English is stress-timed. Findings of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 show that…

  3. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1995 Annual Meeting (Ontario, Canada, May 26-30, 1995). (United States)

    Pothier, Yvonne M., Ed.

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at the 1995 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are organized into four sections: (1) plenary lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic sessions; and (4) ad hoc sessions. Papers include: (1) "The Role of Epistemology in the Analysis of Teaching/Learning…

  4. Fuel condition in Canadian CANDU 6 reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, R.H.; Macici, N [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gibb, R. [New Brunswick Power, Lepreau, NB (Canada); Purdy, P.L.; Manzer, A.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Kohn, E. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)


    The cornerstone of the CANDU concept is its natural uranium fuel, and the success of its reactor operation hinges on the fuel condition in the reactor. Neutron economy, on power refuelling, and simple fuel design are among the unique characteristics of CANDU fuel. In Canadian CANDU 6 reactors (Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau), the 37-element fuel has provided an enviable record of safe, economic and reliable plant operation for 29 reactor years to date. The fuelling cost is among the lowest in the world - a corollary of high neutron economy, simple fuel design, and judicial fuelling scheme. The reliability of fuel is high: only 21 of the 60000 bundles discharged from Gentilly 2 were confirmed defective and the five-year period from March 1992 to February 1997 saw no defect at all at Gentilly-2. Also, thanks to the inherent on-power refuelling capability and an effective defect detection and removal system, the primary coolant loops are kept extremely clean (very low activity level) - benefiting both maintenance and safety. Moreover, the inventories of fission products in the core and in the channel are maintained within the safety analysis envelope, due to on-power fuelling and sophisticated fuel management. In this paper, CANDU 6 fuel performance is reviewed against the feedback from post-irradiation examinations, and the findings from our ongoing R and D program. The results suggest that the fuel behavior m reactor are basically as originally anticipated, despite an evolutionary 3% increase in bundle uranium mass in the 1980's. For operating conditions within the CANDU 6 37-element experience, the average strains are typically 0.09%; and fission gas release, 2.7%. The UO{sub 2} fuel remains stoichiometric after irradiation. In-core measurements of pressure tube fitting are generally low. All these observations are consistent with the excellent fuel performance statistics coming out of the two Canadian CANDU 6 reactors. Additionally, this paper will briefly

  5. Identifying Canadian freshwater fishes through DNA barcodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Hubert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding aims to provide an efficient method for species-level identifications using an array of species specific molecular tags derived from the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene. The efficiency of the method hinges on the degree of sequence divergence among species and species-level identifications are relatively straightforward when the average genetic distance among individuals within a species does not exceed the average genetic distance between sister species. Fishes constitute a highly diverse group of vertebrates that exhibit deep phenotypic changes during development. In this context, the identification of fish species is challenging and DNA barcoding provide new perspectives in ecology and systematics of fishes. Here we examined the degree to which DNA barcoding discriminate freshwater fish species from the well-known Canadian fauna, which currently encompasses nearly 200 species, some which are of high economic value like salmons and sturgeons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We bi-directionally sequenced the standard 652 bp "barcode" region of COI for 1360 individuals belonging to 190 of the 203 Canadian freshwater fish species (95%. Most species were represented by multiple individuals (7.6 on average, the majority of which were retained as voucher specimens. The average genetic distance was 27 fold higher between species than within species, as K2P distance estimates averaged 8.3% among congeners and only 0.3% among concpecifics. However, shared polymorphism between sister-species was detected in 15 species (8% of the cases. The distribution of K2P distance between individuals and species overlapped and identifications were only possible to species group using DNA barcodes in these cases. Conversely, deep hidden genetic divergence was revealed within two species, suggesting the presence of cryptic species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study evidenced that freshwater fish

  6. Canadian plans for participation in GSETT 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. North


    Full Text Available The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC is making preparations for Canadian participation in GSETT 3 but will be unable to make a formal commitment until the necessary resources have been secured. As Canada is expected to provide at least four alpha stations, and a significant number of beta stations, the financial resources that will be needed are substantial, even though in many respccts the GSC is, with the recent modernization of the Yellowknife array and the ongoing installation of the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN, well positioned to make a significant contribution to GSETT 3. The CNSN currently (October 1993 consists of 17 broad band stations and will grow to 23 and 33 such stations by December 1993 and December 1994 respectively. Some 40 50 short period stations will complete the network. Data from all sites are continuously telemetered in real time to network acquisition centres in Ottawa and Sidney, British Columbia, archived to optical disk, and kept on line in a 72 h ring buffer. Most of the broadband sites could serve as either alpha or beta stations once the necessary software for continuous data transfer, or on request provision, of data from the selected sites has been completed. This software wili be configured so that changes in station selection are easy to implement, and this will provide considerable flexibility to the GSETT 3 planning and operations working groups in selecting the optimum network. Backup stations can be designated in the case of station failures, and the network centre in British Columbia will serve, at least for beta stations, as a backup NDC to that in Ottawa. Data from. the Yellowknife array are collected in Yellowknife and forwarded in ten minute files to Ottawa, where processing is completed and the results archived. This arrangement would not meet the deadlines for receipt of alpha station data at the IDC and new hardware and software will be needed to forward the data more immediately from

  7. Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Bandura, Kevin; Amiri, Mandana; Bond, J Richard; Campbell-Wilson, Duncan; Connor, Liam; Cliche, Jean-Francois; Davis, Greg; Deng, Meiling; Denman, Nolan; Dobbs, Matt; Fandino, Mateus; Gibbs, Kenneth; Gilbert, Adam; Halpern, Mark; Hanna, David; Hincks, Adam D; Hinshaw, Gary; Hofer, Carolin; Klages, Peter; Landecker, Tom L; Masui, Kiyoshi; Mena, Juan; Newburgh, Laura B; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Recnik, Andre; Shaw, J Richard; Sigurdson, Kris; Sitwell, Michael; Smecher, Graeme; Smegal, Rick; Vanderlinde, Keith; Wiebe, Don


    A pathfinder version of CHIME (the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment) is currently being commissioned at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) in Penticton, BC. The instrument is a hybrid cylindrical interferometer designed to measure the large scale neutral hydrogen power spectrum across the redshift range 0.8 to 2.5. The power spectrum will be used to measure the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale across this poorly probed redshift range where dark energy becomes a significant contributor to the evolution of the Universe. The instrument revives the cylinder design in radio astronomy with a wide field survey as a primary goal. Modern low-noise amplifiers and digital processing remove the necessity for the analog beamforming that characterized previous designs. The Pathfinder consists of two cylinders 37\\,m long by 20\\,m wide oriented north-south for a total collecting area of 1,500 square meters. The cylinders are stationary with no moving parts, and form a transit instrument ...

  8. The bituminous sands : a Canadian mirage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousse, D.R. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Nasr, G.J. [Lebanese Univ., Roumieh (Lebanon). Faculty of Engineering; Turcotte, S.F. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre d' Etudes Internationales et Mondialisation; Salah, N.B. [Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques De Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia). LMMP


    This paper examined the controversy about the potential role of a significant increase in Canadian oil sands production in order to bridge the upcoming gap between the world's increasing energy demand and the total recoverable oil supply. The paper presented the actual potential of different scenarios and considered the prediction cost forecasts. A brief overview of environmental impacts and the real return on investments were also provided. Environmental impacts that were considered included land degradation; water contamination; ecosystem damage; and air pollution. Nuclear energy was also presented as a possible solution. The paper demonstrated that even in a very optimistic scenario, Canada's oil sands accelerated production has a negligible effect on the aforementioned gap, has a considerable impact on environment that has yet to be accounted for. Energy ratios that were presented included energy return on energy investment; energy available on energy used; and energy payback. It was concluded that enhanced recovery techniques are clearly needed for future sustainable exploitation of these bituminous sands. 32 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Managing occupational HIV exposures: a Canadian study. (United States)

    Reutter, L I; Northcott, H C


    The findings reported in this paper are part of a larger study that explored how nurses cope with the risk of acquiring HIV infection while caring for persons with AIDS (PWAs). The data were collected through in-depth interviews with 13 nurses who cared for PWAs in a large Western Canadian hospital. Seven of these nurses perceived that they had been exposed to HIV-infected blood or body fluids. This paper describes how these seven nurses coped with actual exposures to HIV-infected blood or body fluids. Data were analyzed using the methodology of grounded theory. Nurses' coping efforts after exposure were grouped into four categories: minimizing the effect of exposures, reducing a sense of vulnerability, selective disclosure to others, and assigning meaning. Nurses minimized the physical effects of exposure through measures such as 'bleeding' the needlestick injury and immersing the affected area in bleach solution. Nurses reduced their sense of vulnerability by assessing the possibility of harm, avoiding situations that aroused fear, and confronting the decision for HIV testing. Nurses limited their disclosures to co-workers to avoid rejection and to preserve professional self-esteem. Disclousre to significant others was influenced primarily by the support nurses perceived they would receive. Finally, nurses attempted to assign meaning to the exposure by determining why the event occurred and by evaluating the implications it has had on their lives. The article concludes with implications for nursing practice.

  10. Medical cannabis – the Canadian perspective (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M


    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol – the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts. PMID:27757048

  11. The strongest links : the Canadian coal chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, E.


    Issues related to the transportation of coal in Canada were discussed. Coal mines in Alberta and British Columbia are often required to transport their products over 1000 km for export at Pacific ports to countries in Asia or power plants in Ontario. The effectiveness of the supply chain is dependent on the inter-relationships between mine, rail, terminals, and ship transport. Coal customers are typically required to hire shipping companies and nominate vessels for terminals that have contracts with coal suppliers. Mines typically inform railway lines of the amounts of coal that will need to be transported each month. Many railways have increased the amounts of coal they are transporting by using lighter-weight aluminum train cars. Further efficiencies have been realized due to new braking and power distribution technologies in trains. Multiple locomotives are now also being used to provide improved control over the cars that carry the coal. Despite advances in rail technologies, coal deliveries are often delayed by harsh weather conditions and rain. It was concluded that the Canadian coal industry's success relies on its ability to transport large amounts of coal across long distances. 2 figs.

  12. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example. (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria


    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.

  13. Discovery of herpesviruses in Canadian wildlife. (United States)

    Dalton, Chimoné S; van de Rakt, Karen; Fahlman, Åsa; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen; Neuhaus, Peter; Popko, Richard; Kutz, Susan; van der Meer, Frank


    Herpesviruses (HVs) have a wide range of hosts in the animal kingdom. The result of infection with HVs can vary from asymptomatic to fatal diseases depending on subtype, strain, and host. To date, little is known about HVs naturally circulating in wildlife species and the impact of these viruses on other species. In our study, we used genetic and comparative approaches to increase our understanding of circulating HVs in Canadian wildlife. Using nested polymerase chain reaction targeting a conserved region of the HV DNA polymerase gene, we analyzed material derived from wildlife of western and northern Canada collected between February 2009 and Sept 2014. For classification of new virus sequences, we compared our viral sequences with published sequences in GenBank to identify conserved residues and motifs that are unique to each subfamily, alongside phylogenetic analysis. All alphaherpesviruses shared a conserved tryptophan (W856) and tyrosine (Y880), betaherpesviruses all shared a serine (S836), and gammaherpesviruses had a conserved glutamic acid (E835). Most of our wildlife HV sequences grouped together with HVs from taxonomically related host species. From Martes americana, we detected previously uncharacterized alpha- and beta-herpesviruses.

  14. Implementing E-Health through CHI: A Very Canadian Solution to a Very Canadian Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Daniels


    Full Text Available Canada Health Infoway (CHI was established as an arms-length body by the federal government in 2001 to provide funding to provinces for the development of interoperable e-health systems. CHI was established in response to a number of reports calling on the government to act to make use of technological advances to improve health care quality and provide more rigorous data. In addition to these explicit goals, through establishing CHI the federal government also sought to avoid potential criticism if the implementation of e-health failed, increase its own popularity ahead of the 2000 election and subtly redistribute wealth between the provinces. The paper suggests that the major influence behind the policy to establish CHI came from Canadian institutions and the fact that the federal government was hamstrung by the Canadian Constitution and Canada Health Act. Evaluation of the reform shows that progress has been made by CHI in implementing e-health solutions, but that Canada still lags behind other comparable health systems in the use of technologies. SWOT analysis of the CHI implementation highlights the criticism that CHI could stifle provincial innovation but recognizes that it also offers the opportunity for best practice dissemination across Canada and ensures that ring-fenced funding is available for e-health implementation across the provinces. In conclusion, the paper suggests that, because of constitutional constraints, the federal government was limited in options to implement e-health and that CHI represents a fair compromise.

  15. Implementing e-Health through CHI: A Very Canadian Solution to a Very Canadian Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Daniels


    Full Text Available Canada Health Infoway (CHI was established as an arms-length body by the federal government in 2001 to provide funding to provinces for the development of interoperable e-health systems. CHI was established in response to a number of reports calling on the government to act to make use of technological advances to improve health care quality and provide more rigorous data. In addition to these explicit goals, through establishing CHI the federal government also sought to avoid potential criticism if the implementation of e-health failed, increase its own popularity ahead of the 2000 election and subtly redistribute wealth between the provinces. The paper suggests that the major influence behind the policy to establish CHI came from Canadian institutions and the fact that the federal government was hamstrung by the Canadian Constitution and Canada Health Act. Evaluation of the reform shows that progress has been made by CHI in implementing e-health solutions, but that Canada still lags behind other comparable health systems in the use of technologies. SWOT analysis of the CHI implementation highlights the criticism that CHI could stifle provincial innovation but recognizes that it also offers the opportunity for best practice dissemination across Canada and ensures that ring-fenced funding is available for e-health implementation across the provinces. In conclusion, the paper suggests that, because of constitutional constraints, the federal government was limited in options to implement e-health and that CHI represents a fair compromise.

  16. Canadian initiatives to prevent hypertension by reducing dietary sodium. (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Willis, Kevin J; L'Abbe, Mary; Strang, Robert; Young, Eric


    Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO), and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada's dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the recommendations of

  17. Predictors of Canadian legislators' support for tobacco control policies. (United States)

    Cohen, Joanna E; de Guia, Nicole A; Ashley, Mary Jane; Ferrence, Roberta; Northrup, David A; Studlar, Donley T


    It is clear that regulatory strategies can be effective in reducing tobacco use. Because legislators ultimately determine whether many of these policies are enacted, they are a key focus for tobacco policy research. This study identifies political and personal predictors of Canadian legislators' support for tobacco control policies. Data are from a 1996-97 survey of federal, provincial and territorial legislators. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess relationships between five groups of variables (political factors including political ideology, personal characteristics, tobacco experiences, tobacco knowledge, interest group saliency) and support for tobacco control based on an 11-item scale. Support for tobacco control varied by political party. Support was higher among legislators who thought government had a duty to promote healthy lifestyles, knew second-hand smoke could cause lung cancer, knew tobacco caused more deaths than alcohol, and said they wanted more contact with medical associations about tobacco issues. Support was lower among current smokers and those with tobacco industry jobs in their ridings. The findings indicate that political party membership cannot be ignored in enlisting legislator support for tobacco control. It also appears that legislators who oppose tobacco control measures may not be opposed to tobacco control per se, but are more generally opposed to a government role in health promotion. Thus, public health professionals and tobacco control advocates need to be more attentive to the way tobacco control issues are framed for particular legislators. Further, meetings with health groups about tobacco issues would be welcomed by many legislators; non-governmental organizations and other health advocates could work to increase tobacco knowledge among legislators.

  18. Barium and carbon fluxes in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (United States)

    Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth; Dehairs, Frank; Lansard, Bruno; Mucci, Alfonso; Navez, Jacques; Gratton, Yves; Prowe, Friederike; Chierici, Melissa; Fransson, Agneta; Papakyriakou, Tim N.; Sternberg, Erika; Miller, Lisa A.; Tremblay, Jean-ÉRic; Monnin, Christophe


    The seasonal and spatial variability of dissolved Barium (Ba) in the Amundsen Gulf, southeastern Beaufort Sea, was monitored over a full year from September 2007 to September 2008. Dissolved Ba displays a nutrient-type behavior: the maximum water column concentration is located below the surface layer. The highest Ba concentrations are typically observed at river mouths, the lowest concentrations are found in water masses of Atlantic origin. Barium concentrations decrease eastward through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Barite (BaSO4) saturation is reached at the maximum dissolved Ba concentrations in the subsurface layer, whereas the rest of the water column is undersaturated. A three end-member mixing model comprising freshwater from sea-ice melt and rivers, as well as upper halocline water, is used to establish their relative contributions to the Ba concentrations in the upper water column of the Amundsen Gulf. Based on water column and riverine Ba contributions, we assess the depletion of dissolved Ba by formation and sinking of biologically bound Ba (bio-Ba), from which we derive an estimate of the carbon export production. In the upper 50 m of the water column of the Amundsen Gulf, riverine Ba accounts for up to 15% of the available dissolved Ba inventory, of which up to 20% is depleted by bio-Ba formation and export. Since riverine inputs and Ba export occur concurrently, the seasonal variability of dissolved Ba in the upper water column is moderate. Assuming a fixed organic carbon to bio-Ba flux ratio, carbon export out of the surface layer is estimated at 1.8 ± 0.45 mol C m-2 yr-1. Finally, we propose a climatological carbon budget for the Amundsen Gulf based on recent literature data and our findings, the latter bridging the surface and subsurface water carbon cycles.

  19. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Strang


    Full Text Available Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity. The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO, and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the

  20. Mining Legal and Business Resources on Canadian Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Johal


    Full Text Available Given the distinct nature of the Canadian banking system, it is important for novice researchers to know which business and legal resources to consult in order to quickly find information that is particular to Canadian banking. However, there are very few articles or monographs in the library literature that describe how to find information sources exclusively on this subject from a Canadian perspective. Most available publications tend to specialize in sources for the US banking and Federal Reserve System with little attention to Canada. The paper begins with a brief introduction to Canadian banking. From there, the authors demonstrate where researchers can find primary sources such as legislation, regulations and case law. In addition, this article identifies and discusses the different types of information found on the websites of associations and government agencies such as the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, which supervises and regulates various areas of Canada’s financial system. Also discussed are secondary sources such as industry research and reports that are available from reliable websites and subscription-based resources. This paper also explores the best business and legal databases for researchers. Based on results from searching in periodical directories and indexes, the paper additionally provides a description of the most pertinent academic, trade and general publications relevant to the Canadian banking system and where their contents are indexed.

  1. A scoping review of interprofessional education within Canadian nursing literature. (United States)

    Grant, Rachel Elizabeth; Goldman, Joanne; LeGrow, Karen; MacMillan, Kathleen M; van Soeren, Mary; Kitto, Simon


    The purpose of this scoping review is to examine the nature of the interprofessional education (IPE) discussion that the Canadian nursing profession is having within the Canadian peer-reviewed nursing literature. An electronic database search of CINAHL was conducted using a modified Arksey & O'Malley scoping review framework. Peer-reviewed, English-language articles published in Canadian nursing journals from January 1981 to February 2016 were retrieved. Articles were included if they discussed IPE, or described an educational activity that met our conceptual definition of IPE. A total of 88 articles were screened, and 11 articles were eligible for analysis. Analysis revealed that this body of literature does not seem to be purposefully engaging Canadian nurses in a critical discourse about the role of IPE. The majority of articles located were reflective or commentaries. At the time of this review, there was a paucity of theoretically informed empirical research articles on IPE in the nursing literature. While IPE may be viewed by some critical scholars as a means of shifting the control of healthcare delivery traditionally held by medicine to other professions, our results suggest that this may not be the case in the Canadian nursing profession.

  2. Combining communication technology utilization and organizational innovation: evidence from Canadian healthcare decision makers. (United States)

    Jbilou, Jalila; Landry, Réjean; Amara, Nabil; El Adlouni, Salaheddine


    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Organizational Innovation (OI) are seen as the miracle of post-modernity in organizations. In this way, they are supposed to resolve most organizational problems, efficiently and rapidly. OI is highly dependent on the capacity and the investment in knowledge management (internal and external) to support decision making process and to implement significant changes. We know what explains ICT utilization (ICTU) and what determines OI development (OID) in healthcare services. Moreover, the literature tends to link ICTU to OID and vice versa. However, this dependency has never been explored empirically through the lens of roles combination. To identify the existing combined roles profiles of ICTU and OID among healthcare decision makers and determine factors of the shift from a profile to another. We did the following: (1) a structured review of the literature on healthcare management by focusing on ICTU and OID which allowed us to build two indexes and a comprehensive framework; (2) a copula methodology to identify with high precision the thresholds for ICTU and OID; and (3) a cross-sectional study based on a survey done with a sample of 942 decision makers from Canadian healthcare organizations through a multinomial logit model to identify determinants of the shift. ICTU and OID are correlated at 22% (Kendal's Tau). The joint distribution (combination) of ICTU and OID shows that four major profiles exist among decision makers in Canadian healthcare organizations: the traditional decision maker, the innovative decision maker, the technologic decision maker and the contemporary decision maker. We found out that classic factors act as barriers to the shift from one profile to the desired profile (from 1 to 4, from 2 to 4 and from 3 to 4). We have identified that the attitude toward research and relational capital are transversal barriers of shift. We have also found that some factors have a specific impact such as

  3. From the Fur Trade to Acid Rain: A Study of Canadian Natural Resources. (United States)

    Winans, Linda


    Presents a teaching module for upper elementary students that devotes eight class periods of study to Canadian resources. Includes study of the Canadian fur trade, fishing industry, forestry, and the problems caused by acid rain. Includes the unit evaluation. (DB)

  4. Canadian Content in School Texts and the Changing Goals of Education. (United States)

    Orpwood, Graham


    The lack of "Canadian content" in Canadian public school textbooks can be more easily explained by changing national educational goals than by foreign ownership of the publishing industry. Science textbooks are used to illustrate. (SB)

  5. Worksite health and wellness programs: Canadian achievements & prospects. (United States)

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Alméras, Natalie; Gauvin, Lise


    Canada has experienced a substantial reduction in mortality related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is a general consensus that more effective and widespread health promotion interventions may lead to further reductions in CVD risk factors and actual disease states. In this paper, we briefly outline the prevalence of selected risk factors for CVD in Canada, describe characteristics of the Canadian labor market and workforce, and depict what is known about health and wellness program delivery systems in Canadian workplaces. Our review indicates that there have been numerous and diverse relevant legislative and policy initiatives to create a context conducive to improve the healthfulness of Canadian workplaces. However, there is still a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of the delivery system and the actual impact of workplace health and wellness programs in reducing CVD risk in Canada. Thus, while a promising model, more research is needed in this area.

  6. Internationalization at Canadian Universities: Where are we Now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Weber


    Full Text Available Internationalization is powerfully impacting the missions, planning documents, and learning environments of Canadian universities. Internationalization within Canadian universities is viewed from a local as well as global context. Accounts of the composition of domestic students studying abroad and international students studying in Canada, and the implications of these statistics, are related. Emphasis is given to a discussion of the contribution that economic factors play in internationalization decisions. Economic factors have undeniably shaped the face of internationalization at Canadian universities. Complexities of the relationship between global context and educational goals are outlined and educators are challenged to responsibly interpret and implement university changes resulting from internationalization while prioritizing the learning needs of students.

  7. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology: go...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ......: government and parliament ideology. The results suggest that government ideology influenced labor market reforms: market-oriented governments promoted liberalization of the labor market. Parliamentary ideology did not influence economic liberalization at all. This finding (1) identifies differences between...

  8. Residential water demand with endogenous pricing: The Canadian Case (United States)

    Reynaud, Arnaud; Renzetti, Steven; Villeneuve, Michel


    In this paper, we show that the rate structure endogeneity may result in a misspecification of the residential water demand function. We propose to solve this endogeneity problem by estimating a probabilistic model describing how water rates are chosen by local communities. This model is estimated on a sample of Canadian local communities. We first show that the pricing structure choice reflects efficiency considerations, equity concerns, and, in some cases, a strategy of price discrimination across consumers by Canadian communities. Hence estimating the residential water demand without taking into account the pricing structures' endogeneity leads to a biased estimation of price and income elasticities. We also demonstrate that the pricing structure per se plays a significant role in influencing price responsiveness of Canadian residential consumers.

  9. Reference Values of Pulmonary Function Tests for Canadian Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gutierrez


    Full Text Available A multicentre, cross-sectional study was carried out in six centres across Canada to establish a national standard for pulmonary function tests using healthy, lifetime nonsmokers, with each centre aiming to test 10 men and 10 women from each decade from 20 to 80 years of age. Data from each centre were used to derive prediction equations for each centre, and pooled data from all centres (total: 327 women and 300 men were used to derive Canadian predicted equations. The predictive models were compared with three widely used published models for selected tests. It was found that, in general, the equations modelled for each centre could be replaced by the models obtained when pooling all data (Canadian model. Comparisons with the published references showed good agreement and similar slopes for most tests. The results suggest that pulmonary function test results obtained from different centres in Canada were comparable and that standards currently used remain valid for Canadian Caucasians.

  10. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Education Committee Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J Bridges


    Full Text Available I am pleased to provide an update regarding the activities and future directions of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG Education Committee. The mandate of the CAG Education Committee is to facilitate, develop and promote excellence as it pertains to educational initiatives for the Canadian gastroenterology community. Professional education has long remained a priority of the CAG - a fact well recognized by the membership. The 2002 CAG Strategic Planning Survey showed that members rate Canadian Digestive Diseases Week (CDDW as the most important CAG service, on par with Digestive Diseases Week regarding its usefulness (1. CDDW 2004 offered delegates a variety of basic science and clinical symposia, the popular and well received 'Breakfast with the Expert' sessions and a comprehensive Postgraduate Course reviewing key developments in gastroenterology, nutrition and hepatology.

  11. Canadian support for population stabilization. The Rome draft Plan of Action. Dr. Jean Augustine, MP (Canada). (United States)


    Canada strongly believes in the central role to be played by the civil sector in the process leading to the World Food Summit. Dr. Augustine, Member of Parliament of Canada, described how the Canadian Government involved 350 national organizations over an eight-month period in the creation of the country's official position on food security. Canada has also negotiated with several other countries and international organizations on issues such as trade, human rights, the right to food, and follow-up to the Plan of Action. Dr. Augustine summarized Canada's 18 priorities for the World Food Summit. The priorities include human rights and good governance; poverty reduction; peace, security and conflict resolution; national responsibility for food security; national and global partnerships; nutrition and health; human resource development; gender equity; population stabilization; trade liberalization; agricultural adjustment to international markets; post-harvest marketing and food marketing; the role of the private sector; capacity building; environment and sustainable production; and research and technology transfer.

  12. Implications and Challenges to Using Data Mining in Educational Research in the Canadian Context (United States)

    ElAtia, Samira; Ipperciel, Donald; Hammad, Ahmed


    Canadian institutions of higher education are major players on the international arena for educating future generations and producing leaders around the world in various fields. In the last decade, Canadian universities have seen an influx in their incoming international students, who contribute over $3.5 billion to the Canadian economy (Madgett…

  13. Official Portrait of STS-52 Canadian Payload Specialist Steve G. MacLean (United States)


    STS-52 Canadian Payload Specialist Steven G. MacLean, wearing a launch and entry suit (LES), poses with a launch and entry helmet (LEH) and Canadian flag for his Official portrait. MacLean representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) will fly aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, for the STS-52 mission.

  14. The Contemporary Reality of Canadian Imperialism: Settler Colonialism and the Hybrid Colonial State (United States)

    Barker, Adam J.


    The author's fundamental contention is this: Canadian society remains driven by the logic of imperialism and engages in concerted colonial action against Indigenous peoples whose claims to land and self-determination continue to undermine the legitimacy of Canadian authority and hegemony. The imperial ambitions of the Canadian state and its…

  15. Integrated Library Systems in Canadian Public, Academic and Special Libraries: Fifth Annual Survey. (United States)

    Merilees, Bobbie


    Discusses the results of the fifth annual survey of integrated library systems in Canadian public, academic, and special libraries. Highlights include systems based on personal computers; bilingual systems; the use of consultants; differences between Canadian and U.S. markets; Canadian international sales; and vendor information. (LRW)

  16. Computers behind bars : Information technology in Canadian prison libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prange, Laurie

    This report is the result of an independent study undertaken with the Faculty of Information and Media Studies (FIMS) at The University of Western Ontario (UWO) and advised by Dr. Carole Farber, Professor. The focus of this study is upon the impact the increased popularity of electronic provision...... of information can have upon Canadian prison libraries. Gathered information is compared with the results of Canadian policy regarding the provision of information to inmates. The analysis of the collected facts can provide insight to help prison librarians deal with the increasing popularity of electronic...... provision of information in relation to legal constraints....

  17. Has Multiculturalism Really Failed? A Canadian Muslim Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljit Nagra


    Full Text Available In recent years, claims that multiculturalism has created segregated communities, encouraged terrorism, and failed to foster shared national identities in western nations have gained popularity. In this paper, we use young Canadian Muslims’ lived experience of multiculturalism to reflect on this debate. Contrary to popular rhetoric, our interviews of 50 young Muslim adults show that many maintain a dual Canadian-Muslim identity by utilizing the ideology of multiculturalism, even though they are increasingly stigmatized for their religion. These findings lead us to problematize the discourse surrounding the ‘failure’ of multiculturalism and to highlight the contradictions within it.

  18. Assessing Canadian Bank Branch Operating Efficiency Using Data Envelopment Analysis (United States)

    Yang, Zijiang


    In today's economy and society, performance analyses in the services industries attract more and more attention. This paper presents an evaluation of 240 branches of one big Canadian bank in Greater Toronto Area using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Special emphasis was placed on how to present the DEA results to management so as to provide more guidance to them on what to manage and how to accomplish the changes. Finally the potential management uses of the DEA results were presented. All the findings are discussed in the context of the Canadian banking market.

  19. Social Problems in Canadian Ice Hockey: An Exploration Through Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogel Curtis A.


    Full Text Available While celebrated as a highly popular sport in Canada, there are many social problems existing within and around Canadian ice hockey. These problems are often overlooked and rarely depicted in academic and journalistic research on sport. These social problems include, but are not limited to: extreme violence resulting in injuries and death, hazing rituals, multiple types of sexual violence, drug abuse, financial corruption, as well as various forms of prejudice and discrimination. Prompted by pop-cultural depictions in films, this paper further identifies and explores social problems in Canadian ice hockey revealing the realism embedded within various seemingly fictional films.

  20. Advancing intercultural competency: Canadian engineering employers' experiences with immigrant engineers (United States)

    Friesen, Marcia; Ingram, Sandra


    This paper explores Canadian engineering employers' perceptions of and experiences with internationally educated engineers (recent immigrants to Canada) employed in their organisations for varying lengths of time. Qualitative data were collected from employers using focus group methodology. Findings reflected employers' observations of culturally different behaviours and characteristics in their internationally educated employees, employers' reactions to cultural differences ranging from negative attributions to tolerance, and the implementation of largely ad hoc intra-organisational strategies for managing cultural differences in employer-employee relationships. Findings exposed the lack of corporate intercultural competency in the Canadian engineering profession. Equity and gatekeeping implications are discussed.

  1. Writing on Boundaries: The Split Subject in Chinese Canadian Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shaobo


    This article provides a conceptual grasp of the corpus of work produced by Chinese Canadian writers and a framework for analysing its tropes and interpreting their political resonance. It defines the Chinese Canadian work as a three-phase counterhegemonic discourse: Writing back into a forbidden past; negotiating into the present; writing on boundaries. For the ambivalent, split diasporic subject to negotiate into the present from the forbidden past is to reinscribe itself as a locus of crisis, a non-identity, a doubling, a third term. Writing on boundaries can be read as a strategy of decolonization deployed by the subaltern in striving for self-vindication and self-fulfilment.

  2. Speciation of iodine (I-127) in the natural environment around Canadian CANDU sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, S.J.; Kotzer, T.G.; Chant, L.A


    In Canada, very little data is available regarding the concentrations and chemical speciation of iodine in the environment proximal and distal to CANDU Nuclear Power Generating Stations (NPGS). In the immediate vicinity of CANDU reactors, the short-lived iodine isotope {sup 131}I (t{sub 1/2} = 8.04 d), which is produced from fission reactions, is generally below detection and yields little information about the environmental cycling of iodine. Conversely, the fission product {sup 129}I has a long half-life (t{sub 1/2} = 1.57x10{sup 7} y) and has had other anthropogenic inputs (weapons testing, nuclear fuel reprocessing) other than CANDU over the past 50 years. As a result, the concentrations of stable iodine ({sup 127}I) have been used as a proxy. In this study, a sampling system was developed and tested at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) to collect and measure the particulate and gaseous inorganic and organic fractions of stable iodine ({sup 127}I) in air and associated organic and inorganic reservoirs. Air, vegetation and soil samples were collected at CRL, and at Canadian CANDU Nuclear Power Generating Stations (NPGS) at OPG's (Ontario Power Generation) Pickering (PNGS) and Darlington NPGS (DNGS) in Ontario, as well as at NB Power's Pt. Lepreau NPGS in New Brunswick. The concentrations of particulate and inorganic iodine in air at CRL were extremely low, and were often found to be below detection. The concentrations are believed to be at this level because the sediments in the CRL area are glacial fluvial and devoid of marine ionic species, and the local atmospheric conditions at the sampling site are very humid. Concentrations of a gaseous organic species were comparable to worldwide levels. The concentrations of particulate and inorganic iodine in air were also found to be low at PNGS and DNGS, which may be attributed to reservoir effects of the large freshwater lakes in southern Ontario, which might serve to dilute the atmospheric iodine

  3. Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Szeman


    Full Text Available In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil and Canada in their respective attempts to create genuine national cultures. As in many postcolonial situations, the problem of creating an authentic culture is directly related to the sense that postcolonial culture is necessarily imitative and belated. In Misplaced Ideas, Roberto Schwarz exposes the hidden class character of the problem of cultural authenticity in Brazil, and in so doing, shows that the trauma of national-cultural identity merely reflects the contradictory structural position of Brazil’s postcolonial elite. Using Schwarz’s insights to explore the Canadian situation, the author shows that the same forces are at work in Canada. Though the crisis of a lack of an authentic Canadian culture has recently been surmounted as a result of the apparent international success of Canadian culture (especially literary fiction, that author cautions that this “success” story hides the class basis of Canadian culture in both its belated and isochronic phases (the latter being the moment when cultural belatedness is overcome. Making use of Brazilian theory to examine problems in Canadian culture allows us to see that Canadian modernity, long thought to be simply a derivative of the UK and USA, has similarities with Brazilian modernity that are essential to understanding the space and place Canada occupies in globalization. In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil

  4. 研究、教学和试验中的动物保护和使用--加拿大监督系统%Animal Care and Use in Research, Teaching and Testing -- the Canadian System of Surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the 1960s, while there was a dramatic increase in animals used in research and teaching in most of the Canadian research institutions, Canada did not have a federal system pertaining specifically to the humane use of animals in science. There was a national organization, the Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Science (CALAS/ACSAL),established by veterinarians, technicians and animal care givers who recognized the need to ensure that all people caring for, or performing procedures on the animals were properly educated. However, recognition and support of this organization by institutions who employed these people, was needed to effect the changes identified.

  5. Targeting improved patient outcomes using innovative product listing agreements: a survey of Canadian and international key opinion leaders (United States)

    Thompson, Melissa; Henshall, Chris; Garrison, Louis P; Griffin, Adrian D; Coyle, Doug; Long, Stephen; Khayat, Zayna A; Anger, Dana L; Yu, Rebecca


    Objectives To address the uncertainty associated with procuring pharmaceutical products, product listing agreements (PLAs) are increasingly being used to support responsible funding decisions in Canada and elsewhere. These agreements typically involve financial-based rebating initiatives or, less frequently, outcome-based contracts. A qualitative survey was conducted to improve the understanding of outcome-based and more innovative PLAs (IPLAs) based on input from Canadian and international key opinion leaders in the areas of drug manufacturing and reimbursement. Methods Results from a structured literature review were used to inform survey development. Potential participants were invited via email to partake in the survey, which was conducted over phone or in person. Responses were compiled anonymously for review and reporting. Results Twenty-one individuals participated in the survey, including health technology assessment (HTA) key opinion leaders (38%), pharmaceutical industry chief executive officers/vice presidents (29%), ex-payers (19%), and current payers/drug plan managers/HTA (14%). The participants suggested that ~80%–95% of Canadian PLAs are financial-based rather than outcomes-based. They indicated that IPLAs offer important benefits to patients, payers, and manufacturers; however, several challenges limit their use (eg, administrative burden, lack of agreed-upon endpoint). They noted that IPLAs are useful in rapidly evolving therapeutic areas and those associated with high unmet need, a quantifiable endpoint, and/or robust data systems. The Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, the pan-Canadian Pharmaceutical Alliance, and other arms-length organizations could play important roles in identifying uncertainty and endpoints and brokering pan-Canadian PLAs. Industry should work collaboratively with payers to identify uncertainty and develop innovative mechanisms to address it. Conclusion The survey results indicated that while

  6. Gut Microbiome of the Canadian Arctic Inuit (United States)

    Tromas, Nicolas; Amyot, Marc


    ABSTRACT Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and “traditional” diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome. We used deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to compare the gut microbiomes of Montrealers with a Western diet to those of the Inuit consuming a range of traditional and Western diets. At the overall microbial community level, the gut microbiomes of Montrealers and Inuit were indistinguishable and contained similar levels of microbial diversity. However, we observed significant differences in the relative abundances of certain microbial taxa down to the subgenus level using oligotyping. For example, Prevotella spp., which have been previously associated with high-fiber diets, were enriched in Montrealers and among the Inuit consuming a Western diet. The gut microbiomes of Inuit consuming a traditional diet also had significantly less genetic diversity within the Prevotella genus, suggesting that a low-fiber diet might not only select against Prevotella but also reduce its diversity. Other microbes, such as Akkermansia, were associated with geography as well as diet, suggesting limited dispersal to the Arctic. Our report provides a snapshot of the Inuit microbiome as Western-like in overall community structure but distinct in the relative abundances and diversity of certain genera and strains. IMPORTANCE Non-Western populations have been shown to have distinct gut microbial communities shaped by traditional diets. The hitherto-uncharacterized microbiome of the Inuit may help us to

  7. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in terrestrial biota from the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamberg, Mary [Gamberg Consulting, Box 10460, Whitehorse, YT, Y1A 7A1 (Canada)]. E-mail:; Braune, Birgit [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Davey, Eric [Athabasca Tribal Council, Environmental Affairs, 9206 McCormick Drive, Fort McMurray, AB, T9H 1C7 (Canada); Elkin, Brett [Northwest Territories Department of Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development, Yellowknife, NT X1A 3S8 (Canada); Hoekstra, Paul F. [Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Kennedy, David [Northwest Territories Department of Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development, Yellowknife, NT X1A 3S8 (Canada); Macdonald, Colin [Northern Environmental Consulting, Pinawa, MB, R0E 1L0 (Canada); Muir, Derek [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Nirwal, Amar [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Box 17000, Stn Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Wayland, Mark [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Prairie and Northern Region, 115 Perimeter Road, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Box 17000, Stn Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)


    Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic have been studied over the last twelve years under the guidance of the Northern Contaminants Program. This paper summarizes results from that program from 1998 to 2003 with respect to terrestrial animals in the Canadian Arctic. The arctic terrestrial environment has few significant contaminant issues, particularly when compared with freshwater and marine environments. Both current and historical industrial activities in the north may have a continuing effect on biota in the immediate area, but effects tend to be localized. An investigation of arctic ground squirrels at a site in the Northwest Territories that had historically received applications of DDT concluded that DDT in arctic ground squirrels livers was the result of contamination and that this is an indication of the continuing effect of a local point source of DDT. Arsenic concentrations were higher in berries collected from areas around gold mines in the Northwest Territories than from control sites, suggesting that gold mining may significantly affect arsenic levels in berries in the Yellowknives Dene traditional territory. Although moose and caribou from the Canadian Arctic generally carry relatively low contaminant burdens, Yukon moose had high renal selenium concentrations, and moose and some woodland caribou from the same area had high renal cadmium levels, which may put some animals at risk of toxicological effects. Low hepatic copper levels in some caribou herds may indicate a shortage of copper for metabolic demands, particularly for females. Similarities in patterns of temporal fluctuations in renal element concentrations for moose and caribou suggest that environmental factors may be a major cause of fluctuations in renal concentrations of some elements. Concentrations of persistent organochlorines and metals in beaver and muskrat from the Northwest Territories, and carnivores from across the Canadian Arctic were very low and considered normal for terrestrial

  8. Resource utilisation by deep-sea megabenthos in the Canadian High Arctic (Baffin Bay and Parry Channel) (United States)

    Bourgeois, Solveig; Witte, Ursula; Harrison, Ailish M.; Makela, Anni; Kazanidis, Georgios; Archambault, Philippe


    Ongoing climate change in the Arctic is causing drastic alteration of the Arctic marine ecosystem functioning, such as shifts in patterns of primary production, and modifying the present tight pelagic-benthic coupling. Subsequently benthic communities, which rely upon organic matter produced in the top layers of the Ocean, will also be affected by these changes. The benthic megafaunal communities play a significant role in ecological processes and ecosystem functioning (i.e. organic matter recycling, bioturbation, food source for the higher trophic levels…). Yet, information is scarce regarding the main food sources for dominant benthic organisms, and therefore the impact of the ongoing changes is difficult to assess. The goal of this study is to investigate the preferential feeding of different carbon sources by megabenthic organisms in the Canadian High Arctic and to identify environmental drivers which explain the observed trends. In summer 2013, benthic megafauna was collected at 9 stations spread along latitudinal (58 to 81°N) and longitudinal (62 to 114°W) transects in the Baffin Bay and Parry Channel, respectively. Carbon and nitrogen bulk stable isotope analyses (δ13C and δ15N) were performed on several species divided into groups according to their feeding type. This study highlights distinct trends in δ13C values of benthic organisms suggesting the importance of both phytoplankton and ice algae as carbon sources for megafauna in the Canadian High Arctic. The importance of physical and biological parameters as drivers of food web structure will be furthermore discussed.

  9. Examining Why the Canadian Federal Government Placed an Orphan Drug Strategy on Their Decision Agenda Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Gary Embrett


    Full Text Available The Ministry of Health’s announcement of a National Orphan Drug Framework on 3 October 2012 was the first federal public acknowledgement of orphan drugs since the 1997 Drugs Directorate (DD policy statement. The reform primarily announced an Orphan Drug Policy for Canada. This paper explains why the government decided to make this announcement now. Media and Parliamentary documents were analyzed for their use of symbols, numbers, and language in causal stories told by political actors. The initial story was that Canada’s population was too small and the cost too high for an orphan drug policy. Over the next fifteen years, a powerful interest group, the Canadian Organization for Rare Disorders (CORD, mobilized the rare disease community into a cooperative effort that generated collective action. They redefined the DD story from one of natural causes, to inadvertence, and finally to intentional causation. Their story invoked a federal response because it blamed the government directly for not acting on behalf of the 3 million Canadians with rare diseases, when patients in other countries were receiving better care.

  10. Talent Management Programmes at British, American and Canadian Universities: Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boichenko Maryna


    Full Text Available The article deals with the peculiarities of talent management programmes implementation at the top British, American and Canadian universities. The essence of the main concepts of research - talent and talent management - has been revealed. Talent management is referred to as the systematic attraction, identification, development, engagement, retention and deployment of those individuals who are of particular value to an organization, either in view of their “high potential” for the future or because they are fulfilling business/ operation-critical roles. The factors that drive the development of talent management at the universities have been defined. The benefits that can be obtained as a result of talent management programmes implementation in higher education institutions have been pointed out. The differences in talent management programmes implementation at the universities of Great Britain, the USA and Canada have been found out. These differences depend mainly on the human resources policy of the institution represented in its strategic plan. It has been concluded that most top British and American higher education institutions run talent development programmes, but the target categories and forms of their implementation greatly differ. Canadian universities in the human resources policy focus on professional development of staff and faculty, but do not have special talent management programmes. Progressive conceptual ideas of foreign experience that can be used in practice of Ukrainian universities have been considered.

  11. Barriers Preventing Liver Transplantation in Canadians with HIV Infection – Perceptions of HIV Specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis L Cooper


    Full Text Available Liver transplantation is a life-saving procedure with demonstrated utility. There are accumulating data indicating that this procedure is helpful in HIV-infected patients as well. Liver transplantation is currently largely unavailable to those living with HIV in Canada. Understanding the obstacles to this procedure is the first step to increasing access. Between August 2005 and November 2005, HIV physicians, one from each Canadian HIV Trials Network site, were asked to complete a quantitative questionnaire on adult liver transplant access and need. Forty-six per cent (16 of 35 of sites responded. A median 20% of the nearly 12,700 HIV patients followed at these sites had concurrent liver disease (20% caused by hepatitis C virus, 5% caused by hepatitis B virus and 5% were alcohol-related. On average, two patients per site were thought to be appropriate candidates for liver transplant evaluation. Eighty per cent of respondents anticipated increased need for liver transplantation over the next five years. Organ supply was universally identified as the chief obstacle to transplantation in patients with HIV. Other key issues included risk of hepatitis C virus reinfection and transplant surgical team willingness. Based on these data, it is believed that these issues should be the focus of efforts designed to increase access to transplantation in Canadians with end-stage liver disease and concurrent HIV.

  12. Limnological characteristics of 56 lakes in the Central Canadian Arctic Treeline Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. SMOL


    Full Text Available Measured environmental variables from 56 lakes across the Central Canadian Treeline Region exhibited clear limnological differences among subpolar ecozones, reflecting strong latitudinal changes in biome characteristics (e.g. vegetation, permafrost, climate. Principal Components Analysis (PCA clearly separated forested sites from tundra sites based on distinct differences in limnological characteristics. Increases in major ions and related variables (e.g. dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC were higher in boreal forest sites in comparison to arctic tundra sites. The higher values recorded in the boreal forest lakes may be indirectly related to differences in climatic factors in these zones, such as the degree of permafrost development, higher precipitation and runoff, duration of ice-cover on the lakes, and thicker and better soil development. Similar to trends observed in DIC, substantially higher values for dissolved organic carbon (DOC were measured in boreal forest lakes than in arctic tundra lakes. This was likely due to higher amounts of catchment-derived DOC entering the lakes from coniferous leaf litter sources. Relative to arctic tundra lakes, boreal forest lakes had higher nutrient concentrations, particularly total nitrogen (TN, likely due to warmer conditions, a longer growing season, and higher precipitation, which would enhance nutrient cycling and primary productivity. Results suggest that modern aquatic environments at opposite sides of the central Canadian arctic treeline (i.e. boreal forest and arctic tundra exhibit distinct differences in water chemistry and physical conditions. These limnological trends may provide important information on possible future changes with additional warming.

  13. Exit competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine for graduating medical students: the Canadian approach. (United States)

    Ford, Jason; Pambrun, Chantale


    Physicians in every medical and surgical field must be able to use pathology concepts and skills in their practice: for example, they must order and interpret the correct laboratory tests, they must use their understanding of pathogenesis to diagnose and treat, and they must work with the laboratory to care for their patients. These important concepts and skills may be ignored by medical schools and even national/international organizations setting graduation expectations for medical students. There is an evolving international consensus about the importance of exit competencies for medical school graduates, which define the measurable or observable behaviors each graduate must be able to demonstrate. The Canadian Association of Pathologists (CAP) Education Group set out to establish the basic competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine which should be expected of every medical graduate: not competencies for pathologists, but for medical graduates who intend to enter any residency program. We defined 4 targets for pathology and laboratory medicine exit competencies: that they represent only measurable behaviors, that they be clinically focused, that they be generalizable to every medical graduate, and that the final competency document be user-friendly. A set of competencies was developed iteratively and underwent final revision at the 2012 CAP annual meeting. These competencies were subsequently endorsed by the CAP executive and the Canadian Leadership Council on Laboratory Medicine. This clinically focused consensus document provides the first comprehensive list of exit competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine for undergraduate medical education.

  14. Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

  15. Return on Investment for Workplace Training: The Canadian Experience (United States)

    Percival, Jennifer C.; Cozzarin, Brian P.; Formaneck, Steven D.


    One of the central problems in managing technological change and maintaining a competitive advantage in business is improving the skills of the workforce through investment in human capital and a variety of training practices. This paper explores the evidence on the impact of training investment on productivity in 14 Canadian industries from 1999…

  16. Electronic Commerce: Canadian Community Colleges and Institutes of Technology. (United States)

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges.

    This paper reports on the Canadian college system's collaboration with industry and community services in the development and delivery of non-credit e-commerce courses offered through continuing education departments at community colleges and institutes of technology. The paper argues that, in today's changing economy, the accelerated need for…

  17. The Canadian Labour Market: Readings in Manpower Economics. (United States)

    Kruger, A.M., Ed.; Meltz, N.M., Ed.

    Canadian manpower problems were researched by a group of economists at the University of Toronto in areas of interest to manpower planners and students of the labor market. The dissatisfaction of policy makers with the present operation of the labor market is discussed in three areas: (1) inadequate output due to alleged labor shortages, (2)…

  18. Stages Of Gender Education In Canadian Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukovskyi Vasyl


    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of educational preconditions of gender education formation and development in Canadian secondary schools. On the basis of conducted scientific and pedagogical literature analysis it has been determined that gender education has undergone three main stages and is currently developing during its fourth, modern period.

  19. Giving Canadian Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education an Independent Voice (United States)

    Hodson, Derek


    It is noted that the "Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education" (CJSMTE) was founded with the support of a donation of $1.0 million from the Imperial Oil Charitable Foundation. Four goals were uppermost in the thinking behind the journal: first, it should be bilingual; second, it should be cross-disciplinary;…

  20. Financial Management of Canadian Universities: Adaptive Strategies to Fiscal Constraints (United States)

    Deering, Darren; Sá, Creso M.


    Decreasing government funding and regulated tuition policies have created a financially constrained environment for Canada's universities. The conventional response to such conditions is to cut programme offerings and services in an attempt to lower costs throughout the institution. However, we argue that three Canadian universities have reacted…

  1. Global Education in Canadian Elementary Schools: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Mundy, Karen; Manion, Caroline


    This article reports on the implementation of global education in Canadian elementary schools. Curriculum analysis and 76 interviews at school, ministry, and district levels revealed limited coordination among ministry, district and NGO efforts and little support for curriculum development and teacher training. In schools, fund-raising for…

  2. Baselines for the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework. (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng


    Using a Canadian student achievement assessment database, the Science Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP), and employing the Rasch partial credit measurement model, this study estimated the difficulties of items corresponding to the learning outcomes in the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework and the latent abilities of students of grades 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 and OAC (Ontario Academic Course). The above estimates serve as baselines for validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework in terms of the learning progression of learning outcomes and expected mastery of learning outcomes by grades. It was found that there was no statistically significant progression in learning outcomes from grades 4-6 to grades 7-9, and from grades 7-9 to grades 10-12; the curriculum framework sets mastery expectation about 2 grades higher than students' potential abilities. In light of the above findings, this paper discusses theoretical issues related to deciding progression of learning outcomes and setting expectation of student mastery of learning outcomes, and highlights the importance of using national assessment data to establish baselines for the above purposes. This paper concludes with recommendations for further validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum frameworks.

  3. Enhancing Canadian Teacher Education Using a Story Framework (United States)

    Drake, Susan M.


    The "Accord on Initial Teacher Education" was created by the Canadian Deans of Education in 2006 to guide teacher educators across Canada. The "Story Model" (Drake et al., 1992) is aligned with the principles in the Accord and has proven useful in teacher education. Here it is explored as a framework for curriculum development…

  4. Intersectionality and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (United States)

    Dhamoon, Rita Kaur; Hankivsky, Olena


    In this commentary, the authors propose than an intersectionality perspective can transform understandings of the contentious content of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR). The use of an intersectionality perspective starts from the position that such discourses as racialization, gendering, capitalism, and ableism are mutually…

  5. Canadian Physicians’ Choices for Their Own Colon Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoon Raza


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compliance with colorectal cancer (CRC screening in Canada is low. The aim of the present survey was to determine whether Canadian physicians older than 50 years were pursuing colon cancer screening. Specifically, physicians were asked to identify their modality of choice and identify their barriers to screening.

  6. Canadian Indian Children Who Had Never Attended School (United States)

    Wilson, Lolita


    This study was designed to compare the performance on selected intelligence tests of a group of Canadian Indian children who had never been to school with the performance of a similar group of children who were attending school regularly. (Author/RK)

  7. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Canadian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réjeanne Gougeon


    Full Text Available The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a clinical tool designed to facilitate implementation of therapeutic lifestyle recommendations for people with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG recommendations is essential to address varied patient populations within and among diverse regions worldwide. The Canadian version of tDNA supports and targets behavioural changes to improve nutritional quality and to promote regular daily physical activity consistent with Canadian Diabetes Association CPG, as well as channelling the concomitant management of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycaemia in primary care. Assessing glycaemic index (GI (the ranking of foods by effects on postprandial blood glucose levels and glycaemic load (GL (the product of mean GI and the total carbohydrate content of a meal will be a central part of the Canadian tDNA and complement nutrition therapy by facilitating glycaemic control using specific food selections. This component can also enhance other metabolic interventions, such as reducing the need for antihyperglycaemic medication and improving the effectiveness of weight loss programs. This tDNA strategy will be adapted to the cultural specificities of the Canadian population and incorporated into the tDNA validation methodology.

  8. Children's Experiences of Cyberbullying: A Canadian National Study (United States)

    Beran, Tanya; Mishna, Faye; McInroy, Lauren B.; Shariff, Shaheen


    This national study reports the prevalence of cyberbullying among youths in Canada according to demographic characteristics, its impact, and its relationship to six forms of victimization and perpetration. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a national household panel of families living in all Canadian provinces. The sample included 1,001…

  9. Assessing Patterns of Admixture and Ancestry in Canadian Honey Bees (United States)

    Canada has a large beekeeping industry comprised of 8483 beekeepers managing 672094 23 colonies. Canadian honey bees, like all honey bees in the New World, originate from centuries of importation of predominately European honey bees, but their precise ancestry remains unknown. There have been no i...

  10. Canadian Cultural Materialism: Personal Values and Television Advertising. (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.; Squire, Larry A.

    A study examined the relationship between social and material values and attitudes toward television advertising. Using the Rokeach Value Survey Form E, 157 Canadian college students ranked the 18 terminal and 18 instrumental values in order of their importance as guiding principles for life. The values were classified as either material, social,…

  11. Irreversible mass loss of Canadian Arctic Archipelago glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van Angelen, J.H.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Gardner, A.S.; Wouters, Bert; van Meijgaard, E.


    The Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) contains the largest volume of glacier ice on Earth outside of Antarctica and Greenland. In the absence of significant calving, CAA glacier mass balance is governed by the difference between surface snow accumulation and meltwater runoff—surface mass balance. He

  12. Canadian Community College Counselling Services--How Are They Staffed? (United States)

    Johnston, E. F.; Miles, F. A.


    Because little is known about counselling services in Canadian community colleges, the authors sent questionnaires to 179 post-secondary, non-university, educational institutions and received replies from 83. Data on numbers of counseling personnel, their educational level, salaries, counsellor-student ratios, support staff, and other relevant…

  13. A Blended Approach to Canadian First Nations Education (United States)

    Sacher, Martin; Sacher, Mavis; Vaughan, Norman


    The purpose of this research study was to investigate if and how a blended approach to Canadian First Nations education could be used to foster student engagement and success. The study examined the SCcyber E-Learning Community program (2012) through the lens of the "Seven Principles of Effective Teaching" (Chickering & Gamson,…

  14. Un vocabulaire juridique bilingue canadien (A Canadian Bilingual Legal Vocabulary). (United States)

    Lauziere, Lucie


    Describes a project called JURIVOC which sought to deal with the problem of a duality of language and a duality in legal systems in Canada. The development of a bilingual lexicon is discussed, and an example is given of the classic language/legal system duality in Canadian law. (AM)

  15. The Role of Canadian Children's Literature in National Identity Formation. (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce M.


    Seeks to understand teachers' practices in relation to selecting children's literature for use in classrooms, and to understand the wider issues associated with book selection and in particular with Canadian children's literature. Supports a strong need for rethinking the implications of the literacy events that occur on an everyday basis in…

  16. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Canadian Perspective (United States)

    Sievenpiper, John L.; Jenkins, David; Yale, Jean-François; Bell, Rhonda; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ransom, Thomas P. P.; Dupre, John; Kendall, Cyril; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Marchetti, Albert; Hamdy, Osama; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.


    The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a clinical tool designed to facilitate implementation of therapeutic lifestyle recommendations for people with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG) recommendations is essential to address varied patient populations within and among diverse regions worldwide. The Canadian version of tDNA supports and targets behavioural changes to improve nutritional quality and to promote regular daily physical activity consistent with Canadian Diabetes Association CPG, as well as channelling the concomitant management of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycaemia in primary care. Assessing glycaemic index (GI) (the ranking of foods by effects on postprandial blood glucose levels) and glycaemic load (GL) (the product of mean GI and the total carbohydrate content of a meal) will be a central part of the Canadian tDNA and complement nutrition therapy by facilitating glycaemic control using specific food selections. This component can also enhance other metabolic interventions, such as reducing the need for antihyperglycaemic medication and improving the effectiveness of weight loss programs. This tDNA strategy will be adapted to the cultural specificities of the Canadian population and incorporated into the tDNA validation methodology. PMID:24550982

  17. Culture and Parenting: Psychological Adjustment among Chinese Canadian Adolescents (United States)

    Yoo, Cynthia S. M.; Miller, Lynn D.


    This study examined the relationships between adolescents' cultural identification, perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting, and psychological adjustment with a sample of 192 Chinese Canadian adolescents. Participants were recruited from public urban high schools and completed 4 self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed using…

  18. Religiosity and Music Copyright Theft among Canadian Baptist Youth (United States)

    Fawcett, Bruce G.; Francis, Leslie J.; Henderson, Amanda J.; Robbins, Mandy; Linkletter, Jody


    This study examines the views of 706 Canadian Baptist youth (between the ages of 14 and 18 years) on the moral issue of music copyright theft, and explores the influence on these views of age, sex, Sunday church attendance, personal prayer, personal Bible reading, and conservative Bible believing. The participants were attending Springforth 2005…

  19. The Management of Retrenchment in Canadian Academic Libraries. (United States)

    Denis, Laurent-G.; Auster, Ethel

    This exploratory study focuses on the management of decline as characterized by shrinking resources and substantial reductions in operating budgets (retrenchment) in academic research libraries in Canada. The first of four major sections of the report addresses the management of retrenchment in Canadian research libraries, including the design of…

  20. Graduate Writing Assignments across Faculties in a Canadian University (United States)

    Shi, Ling; Dong, Yanning


    This study examines 143 graduate assignments across 12 faculties or schools in a Canadian university in order to identify types of writing tasks. Based on the descriptions provided by the instructors, we identified nine types of assignments, with scholarly essay being the most common, followed by summary and response, literature review, project,…

  1. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.


    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  2. The Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors: Instructor Certification Model. (United States)

    Hanna, Glenda

    Since its formation in 1976, the Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors (CANSI) has certified over 2600 instructors across Canada. CANSI aims to provide a standard of excellence in certified nordic ski instruction by maintaining uniform and current nordic techniques, to encourage the skiing public to take advantage of the benefits of…

  3. Canadian Youth Volunteering Abroad: Rethinking Issues of Power and Privilege (United States)

    Ngo, Mai


    This paper discusses the role of institutions in the ethical engagement of Canadian youth volunteers abroad. In recent years, researchers and practitioners in the international field have questioned the ethics of volunteering as part of development, with scrutiny on who actually benefits from volunteering initiatives. Since the 1960s, over 65,000…

  4. Knowledge Matters: Skills and Learning for Canadians. Canada's Innovation Strategy. (United States)

    Human Resources Development Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This paper outlines the skills and learning challenges that Canada faces to ensure it meets its skills and learning requirements for the 21st century. It proposes a series of national goals and milestones against which progress can be measured over time and reported on regularly to Canadians. Following an introduction, Sections 2-5 discuss the…

  5. Canadian Space Launch: Exploiting Northern Latitudes For Efficient Space Launch (United States)


    AU/ACSC/KLEMEN, J/AY15 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY CANADIAN SPACE LAUNCH: EXPLOITING NORTHERN LATITUDES FOR EFFICIENT...large provincial wildlife park, the environmental impact posed by any development would be certain to draw extensive criticism. This site is also

  6. Canadian Women's Labor Force Behavior: A Forty Year Review. (United States)

    Fast, Janet E.; Skrypnek, Berna J.


    Describes three dimensions of labor force behavior: participation, attachment, and commitment. Presents a picture of trends in Canadian women's labor force behavior over the last 40 years using existing data. Discusses the implications of these trends for family life and corporate and public policy. (JOW)

  7. Entrepreneurship and Educational Leadership Development: Canadian and Australian Perspectives (United States)

    Webber, Charles F.; Scott, Shelleyann


    This article reports the entrepreneurial activities of two university faculties, one Canadian and the other Australian, that were designed to meet the educational needs of students and to garner the resources necessary for program delivery. A conceptual framework for educational entrepreneurship, containing six dimensions, is proposed. The…

  8. Educational Goal-Setting in a Native-Canadian Community. (United States)

    Murphy, H. Joseph

    A revitalization of Canadian Indian culture occurred as a result of the 1967 Hawthorn Report, which advocated the integration of Canada natives into white society. On the Eskasoni Indian Reserve, home of 1700 Micma Indians in Nova Scotia, the revitalization was shown in the results of two questionnaires about local education. On the first…

  9. Strategic Planning for Academic Research: A Canadian Perspective (United States)

    Sa, Creso M.; Tamtik, Merli


    This paper reports on an empirical study of research planning in Canadian universities. Drawing on data compiled during interviews with senior administrators from 27 academic units in 10 universities, the paper analyses how strategic planning has been applied to the research mission over the past decade. Findings reveal variability in processes…

  10. Financial Management of Canadian Universities: Adaptive Strategies to Fiscal Constraints (United States)

    Deering, Darren; Sá, Creso M.


    Decreasing government funding and regulated tuition policies have created a financially constrained environment for Canada's universities. The conventional response to such conditions is to cut programme offerings and services in an attempt to lower costs throughout the institution. However, we argue that three Canadian universities have…

  11. Entrepreneurialism for Canadian Principals: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow (United States)

    Scott, Shelleyann; Webber, Charles F.


    This article explores the various elements of Canadian educational entrepreneurialism as manifested yesterday, today, and tomorrow and in relation to the social and political influences of the time. This discussion is informed by the findings of the International Study of the Preparation of Principals (ISPP) and represents an expansion of the…

  12. Marginalizing Significant Others: The Canadian Contribution to Educational Technology. (United States)

    Hlynka, Denis


    Considers Canadian contributions to the philosophical basis of educational technology which have helped shape the model shifts now occurring in the field. Four individuals are highlighted: Harold Innis and his work on media; Marshall McLuhan, who built on Innis' work; Ursula Franklin and her philosophical analysis of technology; and Arthur Kroker.…

  13. Canadian Decisions in a Shifting North American Security Landscape (United States)


    who definitely piqued my interests in Canadian politics, if nothing else, just to be able to follow their satirical interpretation of the news. Now...naval exercises and operations outside of NATO. Now this planning has been transferred from JFCOM in Norfolk, Virginia , to NORTHCOM in Colorado

  14. Epidemiological and Economic Burden of Pneumococcal Disease in Canadian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Petit


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the arrival of a new conjugate pneumococcal vaccine, it is important to estimate the burden of pneumococcal diseases in Canadian children. The epidemiological data and the economic cost of these diseases are crucial elements in evaluating the relevance of a vaccination program.

  15. System architecture for the Canadian interim mobile satellite system (United States)

    Shariatmadar, M.; Gordon, K.; Skerry, B.; Eldamhougy, H.; Bossler, D.


    The system architecture for the Canadian Interim Mobile Satellite Service (IMSS) which is planned for commencement of commercial service in late 1989 is reviewed. The results of an associated field trial program which was carried out to determine the limits of coverage and the preliminary performance characteristics of the system are discussed.

  16. Research Integrity/Misconduct Policies of Canadian Universities (United States)

    Schoenherr, Jordan; Williams-Jones, Bryn


    In a context of increasing attention to issues of scientific integrity in university research, it is important to reflect on the governance mechanisms that universities use to shape the behaviour of students, researchers, and faculty. This paper presents the results of a study of 47 Canadian university research integrity/misconduct (RIM) policies:…

  17. A Glimpse of Canadian Education: 1990-1999. (United States)

    Burns, Mildred


    As for every aspect of Canadian life, duality of origins has defined and shaped education. French Catholic religious personnel created an elementary education system for fur traders, farmers, and native peoples; elites had a privately funded system. English Protestants oriented their systems toward extraction industries and trade. (Contains 41…

  18. Nomads, Pilgrims, Tourists: Women Teachers in the Canadian North (United States)

    Harper, Helen


    Drawing on notions of the modern pilgrim and postmodern tourist, this paper explores the discursive resources concerning women, travel, and transience as they apply to female teachers working in the Canadian north. In particular, it traces the discourses evident in the talk of twenty-five women teachers currently working in northern First Nations…

  19. How Well Do Canadian Distance Education Students Understand Plagiarism? (United States)

    Kier, Cheryl Ann


    This project ascertains how well students taking online, distance education courses at a Canadian university recognize plagiarised material and how well they paraphrase. It also assesses the types of errors made. Slightly more than half of 420 psychology students correctly selected plagiarised phrases from four multiple choice questions. Only a…

  20. The Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure and health mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Yi, Xiaolun


    Due to the recent outbreak of SARS and the danger of pandemic Bird Flu, the ability to strengthen health surveillance and disease control is a growing need among governments. The development of the Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (CGDI) has shown great potential in many industries...

  1. Association of Canadian Community Colleges Annual Report, 2009-2010 (United States)

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2010


    Established in 1972, the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) is the national and international voice of Canada's colleges, institutes, cegeps, university colleges, and polytechnics. This report outlines highlights of the Association's activities over the 2009-2010 year. The auditors' report is also included. [For "Association of…

  2. The War's Positive Impact on the Canadian Astronomical Community (United States)

    Broughton, Peter


    At the beginning of WWI, the Canadian astronomical community was tiny and astrophysical research was just beginning. By the end of the war, the country had established the forerunner of its National Research Council and had the world's largest fully operational telescope, thanks to the late entry of the USA into the conflict. By 1918, Canada was on the verge of making significant contributions to science.In spite of the immense loss of life in this pointless war, I am aware of only one casualty affecting Canadian professional astronomers, and that was the indirect death of James Chant, son of University of Toronto's only professor of astronomy. Other Canadian astronomers, including Tom Parker, Bert Topham, and Harry Plaskett were on active service; each of their stories is unique.Among those engaged in scientific work during the war were two Canadians temporarily in England: John McLennan whose helium research for dirigibles led him to establish a cryogenic lab in Toronto where the green line in the spectrum of the aurora was identified in 1925, and Allie Douglas who worked as a statistician in the War Office. Later work with Eddington led her to become his biographer and to her distinction as the first person in Canada to earn a PhD in astronomy (in 1926).

  3. Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Society of Cardiac Surgeons/Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery Joint Position Statement on Open and Endovascular Surgery for Thoracic Aortic Disease. (United States)

    Appoo, Jehangir J; Bozinovski, John; Chu, Michael W A; El-Hamamsy, Ismail; Forbes, Thomas L; Moon, Michael; Ouzounian, Maral; Peterson, Mark D; Tittley, Jacques; Boodhwani, Munir


    In 2014, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) published a position statement on the management of thoracic aortic disease addressing size thresholds for surgery, imaging modalities, medical therapy, and genetics. It did not address issues related to surgical intervention. This joint Position Statement on behalf of the CCS, Canadian Society of Cardiac Surgeons, and the Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery provides recommendations about thoracic aortic disease interventions, including: aortic valve repair, perfusion strategies for arch repair, extended arch hybrid reconstruction for acute type A dissection, endovascular management of arch and descending aortic aneurysms, and type B dissection. The position statement is constructed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology, and has been approved by the primary panel, an international secondary panel, and the CCS Guidelines Committee. Advent of endovascular technology has improved aortic surgery safety and extended the indications of minimally invasive thoracic aortic surgery. The combination of safer open surgery with endovascular treatment has improved patient outcomes in this rapidly evolving subspecialty field of cardiovascular surgery.

  4. Changing dynamics in the Canadian voluntary sector: challenges in sustaining organizational capacity to support healthy communities. (United States)

    Steedman, Eric; Rabinowicz, Jane


    The voluntary sector is recognized, by citizens, industry and government, as an increasingly vital contributor to healthy communities within Canadian society, called upon to provide front-line service delivery in areas of community support that were in the past often served by government and or religious charity. (The voluntary sector is large, consisting of an estimated 180,000 non-profit organizations [of which 80,000 are registered as charities] and hundreds of thousands more volunteer groups that are not incorporated [Statistics Canada, 2002].) The dynamics of the sector have changed considerably over the past decade, as government has pulled back the level of core organizational funding support and the role of the church has diminished. As community health is directly related to the organizational health of service-providing non-profits and charities, these organizations are looking increasingly towards corporate and individual donors, along with new self-financing approaches that generate revenues. They are also facing challenges in attracting and retaining skilled and motivated volunteers. As the scope of the voluntary sector and its overall influence grows, so do the organizational and financial challenges it faces. This article will address in particular the issue of funding support for healthy communities and examine a number of potential and existing best practices for sustaining community health in Canada. We will also look at the issue of volunteerism and human resource capacity challenges for organizations. This is an area in which the Canadian government has decided to focus as a result of explicit policy decisions taken in the late 1990s.

  5. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Leigh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Methods Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1 where in Canada these businesses are located; 2 the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3 the medical procedures they promote; 4 core marketing messages; and 5 whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Results Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism

  6. Live And Love-Brave Theme Features In Canadian Classical Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fang


    Canadian classical works are becoming more and more popular all over the world. People began to understand and mar⁃vel at the Canadian literatures that are quite life-meaningful and full of lessons and tips for lives. The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada's particular history, geography, climate, religion, demographic factors, generation, development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures. The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Litera⁃ture:keep working hard for survival and love bravely. Meanwhile, modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic lit⁃erary works.

  7. Unravelling the mystery of reality : typical Canadian elements in the short stories of Alice Munro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kustec


    Full Text Available The contemporary Canadian short story has a specific place among literary genres in Canadian literature. It culminated in the sixties of this century, when the Canadians looked to their literature with greater interest. Canadian short story writers started to write in a different tone, and showed special interest for new themes. After 1960 authors, such as Henry Kreisel, Norman Levine, Anne Hebert, Mavis Gallant, Ethel Wilson, Joyce Marshall, Hugh Hood, Hugh Garner, Margaret Laurence, Audrey Callahan Thomas, Mordecai Richler, and Alice Munro, refused to use the traditional plot, and showed more interest for characterisation. By using a typical Canadian setting, their stories began to reflect social events of their time. A new awareness of identity stepped forward, and above all their stories became a reflection of the diversity of life in all Canadian provinces. The contemporary Canadian short story writers began to overstep the boundaries of their imagination.

  8. Cohort Working Life Tables for Older Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer, Byron G.


    Full Text Available AbstractWe construct cohort working life tables for Canadian men and women aged 50and older and, for comparison, corresponding period tables. The tables arederived using annual single-age time series of participation rates for 1976-2006from the master files of the Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey. The cohortcalculations are based on stochastic projections of mortality coupled withalternative assumptions about future participation rates. Separate tables areprovided for the years 1976, 1991, and 2006, thus spanning a period ofsubstantial gains in life expectancy and strong upward trends in femaleparticipation. Life expectancies based on the cohort tables are greater thanthose based on the period tables, for both men and women, and that is reflectedin increased retirement expectancies. For example, a male aged 50 in 1976could have expected to live three years longer and to have almost four moreyears in retirement, based on the male cohort table under medium assumptions,as compared with the corresponding period table.RésuméNous avons établis des tables de vie active par génération pour les Canadiens etCanadiennes âgés de 50 ans ou plus ainsi que des tables du momentcorrespondantes pour servir de comparaison. Les tables sont dérivées à l'aidede séries chronologiques annuelles d'un seul âge pour le taux d'activité pour lesannées 1976 à 2006 provenant des fichiers maîtres de l'Enquête sur lapopulation active de Statistique Canada. Les calculs par génération sont baséessur des projections stochastiques de mortalité et sur des suppositions quant àde futurs taux d'activité possibles. Des tables séparées ont été établies pour lesannées 1976, 1991 et 2006 ; ce qui représente une période qui a vu des gainssubstantiels en ce qui concerne l'espérance de vie et une forte hausse d'activitéchez les femmes. Les espérance de vie basées sur les tables par génération sontplus élevées que celles basées sur les tables du

  9. Canadian tax policy and renewable energy : are the benefits illusory : a comparison of Canadian and US approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chant, A. [Ortech International, Mississauga, ON (Canada)


    Tax policies for targeted activities such as wind energy need to be efficient and effective in promoting activities that may not otherwise take place. An efficient tax policy will not have unintended consequences that may lead to tax leakage or benefits outside the targeted activity, and will be consistent with other incentives promoting the target activity. This presentation discussed Canadian tax policies related to wind power and then compared them to tax policies in the United States directed at promoting wind energy development. Benefits and subsidies available to Canadian wind energy producers include the ecoEnergy program, the Canadian Renewable and Conservation Expense (CRCE) program; and Class 43.2 directed at high efficiency and renewable energy generation equipment. The Canadian valuation methodology considers capacity factors; capital costs; leverage; interest rates; corporate tax rates; and required equity. While the ecoEnergy program is valuable as it removes the tax risk for the recipient, the CRCE may be more valuable as it does not expire and is not subject to limitations on amounts deductible. Class 43.2 is valuable but constrained by the limitations of a project's income. The United States has a production tax credit (PTC) for wind developers based on a tax credit of $15 per MWh subject to adjustment, and is available for a 10-year period, is transferable to taxable investors, and has a current value of $20. It was concluded that while Canadian subsidies are the equivalent of $7.15, US subsidies are the equivalent of $17. tabs., figs.

  10. DNA-based identification of invasive alien species in relation to Canadian federal policy and law, and the basis of rapid-response management. (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon G; Hanner, Robert H; Borisenko, Alex V


    Managing invasive alien species in Canada requires reliable taxonomic identification as the basis of rapid-response management. This can be challenging, especially when organisms are small and lack morphological diagnostic features. DNA-based techniques, such as DNA barcoding, offer a reliable, rapid, and inexpensive toolkit for taxonomic identification of individual or bulk samples, forensic remains, and even environmental DNA. Well suited for this requirement, they could be more broadly deployed and incorporated into the operating policy and practices of Canadian federal departments and should be authorized under these agencies' articles of law. These include Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Transport Canada, Environment Canada, Parks Canada, and Health Canada. These efforts should be harmonized with the appropriate provisions of provincial jurisdictions, for example, the Ontario Invasive Species Act. This approach necessitates that a network of accredited, certified laboratories exists, and that updated DNA reference libraries are readily accessible. Harmonizing this approach is vital among Canadian federal agencies, and between the federal and provincial levels of government. Canadian policy and law must also be harmonized with that of the USA when detecting, and responding to, invasive species in contiguous lands and waters. Creating capacity in legislation for use of DNA-based identifications brings the authority to fund, train, deploy, and certify staff, and to refine further developments in this molecular technology.

  11. The Canadian Dollar versus the Collection: How Canadian University Libraries are Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Scott


    Full Text Available Through 2015 and into 2016, Canadian academic libraries’ collections budgets were severely strained due to the steady decline of the CAD/USD exchange rate. As most subscription fees for electronic resources (e-resources are billed in US dollars, the falling value of the Canadian dollar significantly reduced libraries’ purchasing power. This study is based on a survey of the English-speaking member institutions of the Canadian Research Knowledge Network (CRKN, a Canadian collections consortium, carried out to determine the impact of the poor exchange rate on collections development and how libraries are coping with new budgetary pressures. Librarians from 33 universities provided survey responses. Of these, 22 participated in telephone interviews to further discuss concerns and ideas regarding the current crisis. The study finds that all participant libraries have taken actions to address the budgetary shortfall, including cancelling serial and database subscriptions, negotiating lower costs with vendors, purchasing fewer monographs, and soliciting additional funding from their institutions. While the financial strain resulting from exchange rate fluctuations is indeed a significant problem for which solutions should be sought, several respondents stressed that it only exacerbates the ongoing inflation of e-resource subscriptions. This deeper and enduring issue, which is expected to outlast the present exchange rate crisis, is enabled by an inherently flawed scholarly publishing system. Thus, librarians engaged in discussions with their wider academic communities concerning collections budgets should not focus exclusively on the exchange rate but should leverage the opportunity to explore alternatives to the current scholarly communication model. If solutions exist, they will likely only be achieved through the support of faculty and university administrators, as well as cooperation among post-secondary institutions and library consortia. Au

  12. Similarities and Differences Between Yoruba Traditional Healers (YTH) and Native American and Canadian Healers (NACH). (United States)

    Adekson, Mary Olufunmilayo


    Indigenous people of the world have used the services of medicine men and traditional healers from time immemorial. According to the World Health Organization, 80 % of the world's populations consult traditional healers. With an emerging globalization of health services in the world, there is a need for western mental health practitioners to learn and understand the practices of indigenous healers across the globe. This paper will not only highlight the similarities and differences between Yoruba traditional healers of Western Nigeria and Native American and First Nation Canadian traditional healers, but it will also allow practitioners to gain clearer perspectives of indigenous clients from Yoruba land and those from the United States of America and Canada. This ultimately will inform culturally sensitive clinical practice with these populations.

  13. International research collaboration as social relation: an Ethiopian-Canadian example. (United States)

    Bender, Amy; Guruge, Sepali; Aga, Fekadu; Hailemariam, Damen; Hyman, Ilene; Tamiru, Melesse


    International collaboration in nursing and other health disciplines is vital for addressing global health issues. While the results and processes of such collaborations have been reported, few publications have addressed their philosophical or theoretical underpinnings, particularly with respect to collaboration between those in low- and high-income countries. Piaget's notion of social relations of cooperation and constraint and Habermas's notion of "lifeworld" provide a theoretical lens through which to examine international collaboration as a construction of knowledge. This article is an exploration of these ideas as seen in the collective experience of Canadians and Ethiopians organizing an interdisciplinary forum on intimate partner violence in Ethiopia. The project is presented as a case study for reflecting on international collaboration as a manifestation of social relations. Such re-visioning of international collaboration may be useful for improving collaborative processes and their outcomes.

  14. Mechanization, the labor process, and injury risks in the Canadian meat packing industry. (United States)

    Novek, J; Yassi, A; Spiegel, J


    During the 1980s, Canada's major manufacturing industries experienced considerable financial restructuring and technological transformation, largely in response to recessionary pressures. At the same time, the rate of lost-time injuries in Canadian manufacturing rose steadily. This article explores the relationship between these sets of factors. The meat packing industry has been selected as a case study of the interaction between industrial organization, the labor process, and the risk of workplace injuries. The authors suggest that the following factors have contributed to high and rising injury rates in the meat industry during the 1980s: consolidation into a smaller number of large, highly specialized, and mechanized plants; deteriorating labor relations in the face of falling profits; and an intensified labor process stressing line speedups and a growing risk of repetitive strain injuries. These observations are supported by a detailed analysis of the relationship between the labor process and workplace injuries at one packing plant considered typical for the industry.

  15. Evolution of health technology assessment: best practices of the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocchi A


    Full Text Available Angela Rocchi,1 Isabelle Chabot,2 Judith Glennie3 1Athena Research Inc., Burlington, ON, 2EvAccess Inc., Vaudreuil-Dorion, QC, 3JL Glennie Consulting Inc., Aurora, ON, Canada Background: In 2007, Canada chose to develop a separate and distinct path for oncology drug health technology assessment (HTA. In 2013, the decision was made to transfer the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR to the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH, to align the pCODR and CADTH Common Drug Review processes while building on the best practices of both. The objective of this research was to conduct an examination of the best practices established by the pCODR. Methods: A qualitative research approach was taken to assess the policies, processes, and practices of the pCODR, based on internationally accepted best practice “principles” in HTA, with a particular focus on stakeholder engagement. Publicly available information regarding the approach of the pCODR was used to gauge the agency's performance against these principles. In addition, stakeholder observations and real-world experiences were gathered through key informant interviews to be inclusive of perspectives from patient advocacy groups, provincial and/or cancer agency decision-makers, community and academic oncologists, industry, expert committee members, and health economists. Results: This analysis indicated that, through the pCODR, oncology stakeholders have had a voice in and have come to trust the quality and relevance of oncology HTA as a vital tool to ensure the best decisions for Canadians with cancer and their health care system. It could be expected that adoption of the principles and processes of the pCODR would bring a similar level of engagement and trust to other HTA organizations in Canada and elsewhere. Conclusion: The results of this research led to recommendations for improvement and potential extrapolation of these best practices to other HTA organizations

  16. An assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, Aaron T. [Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2152 (United States)]. E-mail:; Wit, Cynthia A. de [Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Wayland, Mark [Prairie and Northern Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada); Kuzyk, Zou Zou [Environmental Sciences Group, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Burgess, Neil [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, 6 Bruce St. Mt. Pearl, NL, A1N4T3 (Canada); Letcher, Robert [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Braune, Birgit [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Norstrom, Ross [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Blum, Susan Polischuk [Office of Research Services, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 4J8 (Canada); Sandau, Courtney [Jacques Whitford Limited, Calgary, AB, T2R 0E4 (Canada); Lie, Elisabeth [National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 8156, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Larsen, Hans Jorgen S. [Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Skaare, Janneche Utne [National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 8156, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Muir, Derek C.G. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)


    Anthropogenic contaminants have been a concern in the Canadian arctic for over 30 years due to relatively high concentrations of bioaccumulating and biomagnifying organochlorine contaminants (OCs) and toxic metals found in some arctic biota and humans. However, few studies have addressed the potential effects of these contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife. Prior to 1997, biological effects data were minimal and insufficient at any level of biological organization. The present review summarizes recent studies on biological effects related to contaminant exposure, and compares new tissue concentration data to threshold effects levels. Weak relationships between cadmium, mercury and selenium burdens and health biomarkers in common eider ducks (Somateria mollissima borealis) in Nunavut were found but it was concluded that metals were not influencing the health of these birds. Black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) examined near PCB-contaminated Saglek Bay, Labrador, had enlarged livers, elevated EROD and liver lipid levels and reduced retinol (vitamin A) and retinyl palmitate levels, which correlated to PCB levels in the birds. Circulating levels of thyroid hormones in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were correlated to PCB and HO-PCB plasma concentrations, but the impact at the population level is unknown. High PCB and organochlorine pesticide concentrations were found to be strongly associated with impaired humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in polar bears, implying an increased infection risk that could impact the population. In beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), cytochromes P450 (phase I) and conjugating (phase II) enzymes have been extensively profiled (immunochemically and catalytically) in liver, demonstrating the importance of contaminants in relation to enzyme induction, metabolism and potential contaminant bioactivation and fate. Concentrations of OCs and metals in arctic terrestrial wildlife, fish and seabirds are generally below effects thresholds

  17. Canadian experiences with avian influenza: a look at regional disease control--past, present, and future. (United States)

    Vaillancourt, J-P


    Over the past 5 yr, the poultry industry in Canada has had a few H5 or H7 avian influenza (AI) epidemics. An analysis of these outbreaks by government officials highlighted the need to establish a better partnership between those responsible for controlling the disease and public health officials responsible for protecting the public and those participating in eradication efforts. These officials also agreed that compensations had to be reviewed, that national biosecurity standards needed to be established to better prevent AI, that a national mortality disposal plan was needed, and finally that the current emergency disease management protocols had to be reviewed. Industry representatives stressed the need for early detection and reporting; for more effective tools for decision making, including using local expertise for trace-back activities and quick interventions; for better communications within industry, but mainly between industry and governmental authorities at the federal, provincial, and municipal levels; and finally, for better planning to minimize the impact of eradication efforts on poultry production and for the recovery following the epidemic. These observations triggered a series of initiatives. A National Office of Animal Biosecurity was created by federal authorities, with the mandate to establish national biosecurity standards. A Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network was also put in place to improve the capacity of early detection of the disease and to increase the surge capacity of the Canadian laboratory system. Wildlife and commercial poultry AI surveillance programs have also been put in place. Provincial poultry grower organizations have established AI control and eradication plans that are increasing their ability to intervene early and to assist government authorities once AI is confirmed in the field. This includes the creation of industry incident command centers with emphasis on confidentiality agreements between government and

  18. Dietary Sodium Intakes and Food Sources of Sodium in Canadian-Born and Asian-Born Individuals of Chinese Ethnicity at a Canadian University Campus (United States)

    Yu, Yan Han; Farmer, Anna; Mager, Diana; Willows, Noreen


    Objective: To document the sodium intake and food sources of sodium of Canadian-born Chinese (CBC) and Asian-born Chinese (ABC) individuals at a Canadian university campus. Participants: Healthy adults aged 18-58 years originating from Canada, China, Hong Kong, or Taiwan were recruited from the University of Alberta (n = 40 CBC, n = 41 ABC)…

  19. A Continuation of Policy by other Means: World War I as a Vehicle for Transformation in Canadian Governance and Military Capability (United States)


    towards autonomy. Canada may not have had a say in entering the Great War, but it was a signatory to the Treaty of Versailles , which ended the war in...Imperial Munitions Board IWC Imperial War Cabinet IWO Imperial War Office NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization OJT On-the-job Training...Line 21 September – 9 October 1918: Canadian assault crosses Canal du Nord and seizes Cambrai 11 November 1918: Armistice 28 June 1919: Treaty of

  20. Combined impacts of future climate and land use changes on discharge, nitrogen and phosphorus loads for a Canadian river basin. (United States)

    El-Khoury, A; Seidou, O; Lapen, D R; Que, Z; Mohammadian, M; Sunohara, M; Bahram, D


    Both climate and land use changes can influence water quality and quantity in different ways. Thus, for predicting future water quality and quantity trends, simulations should ideally account for both projected climate and land use changes. In this paper, land use projections and climate change scenarios were integrated with a hydrological model to estimate the relative impact of climate and land use projections on a suite of water quality and quantity endpoints for a Canadian watershed. Climatic time series representing SRES change scenario A2 were generated by downscaling the outputs of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (version 4.1.1) using a combination of quantile-quantile transformation and nearest neighbor search. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was used to simulate streamflow, nitrogen and phosphorus loading under different climate and land use scenarios. Results showed that a) climate change will drive up maximum monthly streamflow, nitrate loads, and organic phosphorus loads, while decreasing organic nitrogen and nitrite loads; and b) land use changes were found to drive the same water quality/quantity variables in the same direction as climate change, except for organic nitrogen loads, for which the effects of the two stressors had a reverse impact on loading.

  1. Trends and variability in summer sea ice cover in the Canadian Arctic based on the Canadian Ice Service Digital Archive (United States)

    Howell, S.; Tivy, A. C.; Alt, B.; McCourt, S.; Chagnon, R.; Crocker, G.; Carrieres, T. G.; Yackel, J.


    The Canadian Ice Service Digital Archive (CISDA) is a compilation of weekly ice charts that cover Canadian Waters; the data set is continually updated and it extends back to the early 1960s. The ice charts are represent and integration of remotely sensed sea ice data, surface observations, airborne and ship reports, operational model results and the expertise of experience ice forecasters. Although the accuracy, type and detail of information far exceeds what is attainable from a single satellite source, errors and uncertainties in the data are non-uniform in both space and time. In part one of this study the main sources of uncertainty in the database are reviewed and the data are validated for use in climate studies. In part two, trends and variability in summer sea ice in the Canadian Arctic are investigated using CISDA. These data revealed that between 1968 and 2008, summer sea ice cover has decreased by 8.9% ± 3.1% per decade in Hudson Bay, 2.9% ± 1.2% per decade in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, 8.9% ± 3.1% per decade in Baffin Bay, and 5.2% ± 2.4% per decade in the Beaufort Sea. In general, these reductions in sea ice cover are linked to increases in early summer surface air temperature (SAT); significant increases in SAT were observed in every season and with the exception of the Hudson Bay region they are consistently greater than the pan-Arctic change by up to ~0.2oC per decade. Within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index correlates well with multi-year ice coverage (positive correlation) and first-year ice coverage (negative correlation) suggesting that El Nino episodes precede summers with more multi-year ice and less first-year ice. Extending the trend calculations back to 1960 along the major shipping routes through the Canadian Arctic revealed significant decreases in summer sea ice coverage ranging between 11% and 15% per decade along the shipping route through Hudson Bay, the western

  2. Exporting a Canadian parenting education program to the Dominican Republic. (United States)

    McLennan, John D; Leon, Tina; Haffey, Sue; Barker, Leslie A S


    The framework of a Canadian-developed parent education program, Nobody's Perfect, was used in the development of a new parent education program offered to parents attending a child nutrition rehabilitation program in the Dominican Republic. While key teaching elements of the original program were retained (e.g., encouraging active participation, emphasizing facilitation over didactic teaching, using experiential learning), locally relevant content was inserted (e.g., diarrhea prevention and treatment strategies). A Canadian team trained a group of Dominicans to deliver the new program to parents of children recovering from malnutrition. This paper describes the development, implementation, and resulting parenting program from this effort. This 8-week program may find use in other settings. In addition, the experience gained from this exportation endeavor may be useful for others undertaking similar initiatives.

  3. The influence of power in the Canadian healthcare system. (United States)

    Seenandan-Sookdeo, Kendra-Ann I


    This article presents a review of the literature as it relates to the influence of the word power in the context of the Canadian healthcare system. The concept of power is used to explore issues of gender and the evolution of advanced nurse practice in the development of the Canadian healthcare system. Furthermore, issues related to the call for interprofessional collaboration are addressed. Healthcare workers, in particular nurses, are trusted in a society that seeks, promotes, and aspires for power and control. In addition, societal norms continue to shape our healthcare reform. As a consequence, the discussion centers on a call for true collaboration among our healthcare providers and concludes with implications for nursing.

  4. Gray whale sightings in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, September 2014 (United States)

    Iwahara, Yuka; Fujiwara, Amane; Ito, Keizo; Miyashita, Kazushi; Mitani, Yoko


    Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) are distributed within the productive neritic and estuarine waters of the North Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea, and adjacent waters of the Arctic Ocean. They migrate to high-latitude feeding grounds each spring. Their main feeding grounds in the Arctic include the Chirikov Basin, the northeastern Chukchi Sea from Pt. Hope to Cape Lisburne and Pt. Lay to Pt. Barrow, and the northwestern Chukchi Sea along the Chukotka coast. Although sightings are rare in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, we observed three gray whales in two groups in this area in September 2014. A mud plume was observed near one of the whales, suggesting the animal had been feeding. In the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, large-scale monitoring of the distributions of marine mammals has been continuously conducted since 1979; however, there has been less monitoring in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Therefore, it is necessary to record opportunistic sightings, such as those described here.

  5. Expressive freedom and tobacco advertising: a Canadian perspective. (United States)

    Manfredi, Christopher P


    In 1989, Canada enacted the Tobacco Products Control Act (TPCA), which prohibited tobacco advertising, required health warnings on tobacco packaging, and restricted promotional activities. Canada's tobacco companies challenged the TPCA's constitutionality, arguing that it infringed on freedom of expression. Although it seemed likely that the Canadian Supreme Court would uphold the legislation, in 1995 the court declared the impugned provisions to be unconstitutional. The decision is testimony to the constraining force of liberalism on tobacco regulation, but it is also evidence of the power of political will. While the Canadian government could have used the decision to justify withdrawing from further confrontations with powerful commercial interests, it chose instead to enact new tobacco control legislation in 1997.

  6. Canadian-Acquired Hydatid Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al Saghier


    Full Text Available Echinococcal cysts are unusual in Canada, and most cases seen are in immigrants. In northern Canadian communities, Echinococcus granulosis infection occasionally is acquired from dogs that feed on the entrails of caribou or moose. Seventeen patients with Canadian-acquired hydatid cysts were seen over an 11-year period. One challenging case is described in detail. An 18-year-old aboriginal woman presented with jaundice, pain, lower extremity edema and coagulopathy from a 26 cm echinococcal hepatic cyst. She was successfully treated with a combination of oral albendazole, percutaneous drainage and surgery. One-year follow-up showed no recurrence of disease. The management options for echinococcal cysts are extensively reviewed.

  7. 1st Workshop of the Canadian Society for Virology (United States)

    McCormick, Craig; Grandvaux, Nathalie


    The 1st Workshop of the Canadian Society for Virology (CSV2016) was a Special Workshop of the 35th Annual Meeting for the American Society for Virology, held on 18 June 2016 on the beautiful Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, Virginia. The workshop provided a forum for discussion of recent advances in the field, in an informal setting conducive to interaction with colleagues. CSV2016 featured two internationally-renowned Canadian keynote speakers who discussed translational virology research; American Society for Virology President Grant McFadden (then from University of Florida, now relocated to Arizona State University) who presented his studies of oncolytic poxviruses, while Matthew Miller (McMaster University) reviewed the prospects for a universal influenza vaccine. The workshop also featured a variety of trainee oral and poster presentations, and a panel discussion on the topic of the future of the CSV and virus research in Canada. PMID:28335511

  8. Consequences of BSE disease outbreaks in the Canadian beef industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Čechura


    Full Text Available This study examines farm to wholesale prices spreads to measure the impact of the BSE disease outbreak on the Canadian beef industry. The study uses structure break tests developed by Gregory and Hansen (1996 and Hansen (1992 examine possible breaks within co integrating relationships. The study finds evidence that the industry began realignment as a result of the UK BSE disease outbreak, and the Canadian BSE disease outbreak was simply the largest realignment of the process beginning with the UK disease outbreak. However, the only statistically significant break was the BSE disease outbreak itself in May 2003. Stability was not restored until the border was reopened in 2005. Specific results indicated that the processing sector exploited the border closure in May 2003 to enhance its market power and that the system returned to a competitive one after the border re-opened in July 2005.

  9. Attitudes Toward Chiropractic: A Survey of Canadian Obstetricians. (United States)

    Weis, Carol Ann; Stuber, Kent; Barrett, Jon; Greco, Alexandra; Kipershlak, Alexander; Glenn, Tierney; Desjardins, Ryan; Nash, Jennifer; Busse, Jason


    We assessed the attitudes of Canadian obstetricians toward chiropractic with a 38-item cross-sectional survey. Ninety-one obstetricians completed the survey, for a response rate of 14% (91 of 659). Overall, 30% of respondents held positive views toward chiropractic, 37% were neutral, and 33% reported negative views. Most (77%) reported that chiropractic care was effective for some musculoskeletal complaints, but 74% disagreed that chiropractic had a role in treatment of non-musculoskeletal conditions. Forty percent of respondents referred at least some patients for chiropractic care each year, and 56% were interested in learning more about chiropractic care. Written comments from respondents revealed concerns regarding safety of spinal manipulation and variability among chiropractors. Canadian obstetricians' attitudes toward chiropractic are diverse and referrals to chiropractic care for their patients who suffer from pregnancy-related low back pain are limited. Improved interprofessional relations may help optimize care of pregnant patients suffering from low back pain.

  10. Current issues in occupational health nursing. A Canadian perspective. (United States)

    Hunter, C


    The National Association of Occupational Health Nurses is still in its infancy and is striving to become an interest group under the umbrella of the Canadian Nurses Association. This will bring together the provincial associations in a common goal of promoting worker health and safety. The diversity of the country and the sheer magnitude of the various occupations of Canadians reflect the need for the occupational health nurse to be well educated and kept abreast of new developments. Changes in the worksite echo changes in health and safety legislation that will help to improve conditions in the workplace. Future challenges arise from changes in the work force and the nature of work and include: ergonomic issues, job stress, older workers, EAPs, and increased competition.

  11. The Use of Phallometric Evidence in Canadian Criminal Law. (United States)

    Purcell, Michael S; Chandler, Jennifer A; Fedoroff, J Paul


    The use of phallometric evidence by Canadian criminal courts has steadily increased since the early 1980s. Phallometry was initially considered by courts to be a potentially useful tool in the determination of accused persons' culpability; however, its contemporary use is limited to the postconviction contexts of sentencing and dangerous and long-term offender applications, as one of several means of diagnosing offenders, determining recidivism risk, and assessing treatment prospects. We provide an overview and assessment of the use of phallometric evidence by Canadian criminal courts and conclude that its contemporary application appears to be consistent with the expert psychiatric consensus on its proper role and function in the forensic context. We further identify potential difficulties associated with the adequacy of offenders' consent and the occasional divergence of expert opinion about the reliability and validity of phallometry for diagnosis and risk assessment.

  12. Ebooks Licensing and Canadian Copyright Legislation: A Few Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony G Horava


    Full Text Available Ebooks have become increasingly common in collection development strategies. The availability and delivery of monographs in digital formats has gained significantly in popularity in many libraries, particularly in the academic sector. Licensing is the common method of acquiring ebooks, whether as a subscription or a purchase. Libraries have had to transform selection and workflow processes in order to acquire ebooks in an efficient manner. Little attention, however, has been paid to the interplay between licensing as a contractual arrangement and the statutory rights available under Canadian copyright law. Fair dealing is a concept of critical importance in Canadian copyright, as it provides the foundation for user rights in support of culture, learning, and innovation. There are other provisions of specific value for libraries, such as interlibrary loans and access by persons with perceptual disabilities. This article will examine these issues and proposes a few strategies that libraries can adopt to ensure that statutory rights are not eroded in licensing agreements

  13. Community engagement in US and Canadian medical schools


    Goldstein, Adam O.; Rachel Sobel Bearman


    Adam O Goldstein, Rachel Sobel BearmanDepartment of Family Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAIntroduction: This study examines the integration of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship at all accredited US and Canadian medical schools in order to better understand and assess their current state of engagement.Methods: A 32-question data abstraction instrument measured the role of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship...

  14. Mercury in the Canadian Arctic terrestrial environment: an update. (United States)

    Gamberg, Mary; Chételat, John; Poulain, Alexandre J; Zdanowicz, Christian; Zheng, Jiancheng


    Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic have been studied over the last twenty years under the guidance of the Northern Contaminants Program. This paper provides the current state of knowledge on mercury (Hg) in the Canadian Arctic terrestrial environment. Snow, ice, and soils on land are key reservoirs for atmospheric deposition and can become sources of Hg through the melting of terrestrial ice and snow and via soil erosion. In the Canadian Arctic, new data have been collected for snow and ice that provide more information on the net accumulation and storage of Hg in the cryosphere. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) in terrestrial snow are highly variable but on average, relatively low (Arctic glaciers are much lower than those reported on terrestrial lowlands or sea ice. Hg in snow may be affected by photochemical exchanges with the atmosphere mediated by marine aerosols and halogens, and by post-depositional redistribution within the snow pack. Regional accumulation rates of THg in Canadian Arctic glaciers varied little during the past century but show evidence of an increasing north-to-south gradient. Temporal trends of THg in glacier cores indicate an abrupt increase in the early 1990 s, possibly due to volcanic emissions, followed by more stable, but relatively elevated levels. Little information is available on Hg concentrations and processes in Arctic soils. Terrestrial Arctic wildlife typically have low levels of THg (<5 μg g(-1) dry weight) in their tissues, although caribou (Rangifer tarandus) can have higher Hg because they consume large amounts of lichen. THg concentrations in the Yukon's Porcupine caribou herd vary among years but there has been no significant increase or decrease over the last two decades.

  15. Strategic Planning for Sustainability in Canadian Higher Education


    Andrew Bieler; Marcia McKenzie


    This paper reviews representations of sustainability in the strategic plans of Canadian higher education institutions (HEIs). A content analysis of the strategic plans of 50 HEIs was undertaken to determine the extent to which sustainability is included as a significant policy priority in the plans, including across the five domains of governance, education, campus operations, research, and community outreach. We found 41 strategic plans with some discussion of sustainability, and identified ...

  16. The use of neuroscientific evidence in Canadian criminal proceedings. (United States)

    Chandler, Jennifer A


    This article addresses the question of how neuroscientific evidence is currently used in the Canadian criminal justice system, with a view to identifying the main contexts in which this evidence is raised, as well as to discern the impact of this evidence on judgements of responsibility, dangerousness, and treatability. The most general Canadian legal database was searched for cases in the five-year period between 2008 and 2012 in which neuroscientific evidence related to the responsibility and recidivism risk of criminal offenders was considered. Canadian courts consider neuroscientific evidence of many types, particularly evidence of prenatal alcohol exposure, traumatic brain injury, and neuropsychological testing. The majority of the cases are sentencing decisions, which is useful given that it offers an opportunity to observe how judges wrestle with the tension that evidence of diminished capacity due to brain damage tends to reduce moral blameworthiness, while it also tends to increase perceptions of risk and dangerousness. This so-called double-edged sword of the biological explanation of criminal behavior was reflected in this study, and raises questions about whether and when the pursuit of such evidence is advisable from the defense perspective.

  17. Attrition of Canadian Internet pharmacy websites: what are the implications? (United States)

    Veronin, Michael A; Clancy, Kristen M


    Background The unavailability of Internet pharmacy websites may impact a consumer’s drug purchases and health care. Objective To address the issue of attrition, a defined set of Canadian Internet pharmacy websites was examined at three separate time intervals. Methods In February to March 2006, 117 distinct, fully functional “Canadian Internet pharmacy” websites were located using the advanced search options of Google and the uniform resource locator (URL) for each website was recorded. To determine website attrition, each of the 117 websites obtained and recorded from the previous study was revisited at two later periods of time within a 4-year period. Results After approximately 4 years and 5 months, only 59 (50.4%) sites were found in the original state. Thirty-four sites (29.1%) had moved to a new URL address and were not functioning as the original Internet pharmacy. For 24 sites (20.5%) the viewer was redirected to another Canadian Internet pharmacy site. Conclusion Of concern for patients if Internet pharmacy sites were suddenly inaccessible would be the disruption of continuity of care. PMID:23983491

  18. Comparison between Canadian Canola Harvest and Export Surveys. (United States)

    Barthet, Véronique J


    Parameters, such as oil, protein, glucosinolates, chlorophyll content and fatty acid composition, were determined using reference methods for both harvest survey samples and Canadian Canola exports. Canola harvest survey and export data were assessed to evaluate if canola harvest survey data can be extrapolated to predict the quality of the Canadian canola exports. There were some differences in some measured parameters between harvest and export data, while other parameters showed little difference. Protein content and fatty acid composition showed very similar data for harvest and export averages. Canadian export data showed lower oil content when compared to the oil content of harvest survey was mainly due to a diluting effect of dockage in the export cargoes which remained constant over the years (1.7% to 1.9%). Chlorophyll was the least predictable parameter; dockage quality as well as commingling of the other grades in Canola No. 1 Canada affected the chlorophyll content of the exports. Free fatty acids (FFA) were also different for the export and harvest survey. FFA levels are affected by storage conditions; they increase during the shipping season and, therefore, are difficult to predict from their harvest survey averages.

  19. Canadian R&D on oil-fired integrated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, A.C.S.; Entchev, E. [CCRL/ERL/CANMET, Ottawa (Canada)


    This presentation will describe research and development presently being conducted on oil-fired space and water heating systems at the Combustion & Carbonization Research Laboratory (CCRL) in Ottawa, Canada. It will focus on R& D activities at CCRL in support of the Canadian Oil Heat Association (COHA); in particular, progress will be reported on activities to develop suitable oil-fired integrated systems to satisfy the low energy demands of new homes and to define outstanding issues and recommend solutions relating to sidewall venting, particularly in cold climates. Additional activities to be discussed relate to the development of appropriate seasonal efficiency standards for oil-fired combustion systems, in support of Canadian federal and provincial policy initiatives. The first activity in this standards area is a determination of the most appropriate measure of seasonal efficiency of complex integrated space/water heating systems. Performance of a range of existing and prototype integrated systems will be examined and their overall performances defined, using heat loss, heat balance and combined methods, for a wide range of cyclic operations and demands. The draft standard may be either a (slight or detailed) modification of the existing ASHRAE standard, or may be a new more appropriate test and analysis procedure, for the range of present and future systems suitable for Canadian applications in both new, low energy housing and in existing housing. The second standards activity is the development of an appropriate measure for the seasonal efficiency of sidewall vented oil-fired appliances.

  20. Comparison between Canadian Canola Harvest and Export Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique J. Barthet


    Full Text Available Parameters, such as oil, protein, glucosinolates, chlorophyll content and fatty acid composition, were determined using reference methods for both harvest survey samples and Canadian Canola exports. Canola harvest survey and export data were assessed to evaluate if canola harvest survey data can be extrapolated to predict the quality of the Canadian canola exports. There were some differences in some measured parameters between harvest and export data, while other parameters showed little difference. Protein content and fatty acid composition showed very similar data for harvest and export averages. Canadian export data showed lower oil content when compared to the oil content of harvest survey was mainly due to a diluting effect of dockage in the export cargoes which remained constant over the years (1.7% to 1.9%. Chlorophyll was the least predictable parameter; dockage quality as well as commingling of the other grades in Canola No. 1 Canada affected the chlorophyll content of the exports. Free fatty acids (FFA were also different for the export and harvest survey. FFA levels are affected by storage conditions; they increase during the shipping season and, therefore, are difficult to predict from their harvest survey averages.

  1. Antioxidant activity of selected wild Canadian prairie fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Klensporf-Pawlik


    Full Text Available Background. Canadian prairies are a habitat for unique wild plants. The main object of the present study was to investigate phytochemicals content and antioxidant activity in seven wild Canadian prairie fruits. Material and methods. The presence of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity were identified in the extracts according to standard procedure. Results. Wild rose had the highest amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids, whereas elderberry ex- hibited the highest amount of anthocyanins. All extracts showed good scavenging activities towards DPPH radicals. The results showed a good linear relationship between oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total phenolics indicating that radicals are scavenged at a greater rate as the total phenolics content increases. Addi- tionally, all extracts when applied at concentration of 800 ppm, showed ability to inhibit oxidation of canola oil. In SOT test the best results were obtained when extract of American mountain ash was used. In general, wild rose followed by American mountain ash demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity among assessed Canadian prairie fruits. Conclusion. From the results it can be concluded that prairie fruit extracts are a rich source of phenolic compounds and poses a high antioxidant activity, confirmed by assessment with different type of radicals employed.

  2. Coalbed methane : Canadian potential : is it analogous to the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatens, M. [MGV Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    A historical review of coalbed methane (CBM) evolution in North America was presented with reference to development in Canada and recent advances in technology. The Canadian CBM resource is estimated at several hundred Tcf. It was noted that the characteristics of CBM development in Canada are unique. The issues faced in Canadian CBM basins are different from those in the United States. Non-technical issues, such as CBM ownership and environmental concerns in the United States are having a growing impact on the pace of Canadian CBM development. For example, the problem of handling produced water in the Powder River Basin is inhibiting Canadian CBM development. However, the author pointed out that there is no produced water in Canadian CBM development. The author emphasized that stakeholders should be educated in Canadian CBM facts to ensure that CBM development in Canada proceeds responsibly, without confusion of U.S. issues that are non-issues in Canada.

  3. Job displacement effects of Canadian immigrants by country of origin and occupation. (United States)

    Roy, A S


    "Some previous Canadian studies have shown that considering the labor market as a whole and also pooling all immigrants as a group, immigrants do not have any job displacement effects on the Canadian born. This study presents some new evidence. It disaggregates immigrants by country of origin and by occupation groups and provides an analysis of job displacement effects of immigrants on the native-born Canadians by these dimensions. The study finds that (1) U.S. immigrants and the Canadians are substitutes [for] competing groups in the labor market and the effect is quite significant; (2) Canadians and Europeans are competing groups in certain occupations, while they have complementary skills in others; and (3) immigrants from the Third World and the Canadians are slightly competing groups in certain occupations."

  4. The Canadian community health survey as a potential recruitment vehicle for the Canadian longitudinal study on aging. (United States)

    Wolfson, Christina; Raina, Parminder S; Kirkland, Susan A; Pelletier, Amélie; Uniat, Jennifer; Furlini, Linda; Angus, Camille L; Strople, Geoff; Keshavarz, Homa; Szala-Meneok, Karen


    ABSTRACTThe goal of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) is to recruit 50,000 participants aged 45 to 85 years of age and follow them for at least 20 years. The sampling and recruitment processes for a study of this scope and magnitude present important challenges. Statistics Canada was approached to collaborate with the CLSA with the goal of determining whether the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) could be used as a recruitment vehicle for the CLSA. In this pilot study conducted in 2004, it was determined that 63.8 per cent and 75.8 per cent of the respondents agreed to share their contact information and their survey responses with the CLSA, respectively. The most commonly reported concerns were confidentiality/privacy issues, lack of interest, and commitment issues. This pilot study identified some challenges to the use of the CCHS as a recruitment vehicle for the CLSA.

  5. What Makes a Leader: Identifying the Strengths of Canadian Physical Therapists


    Chan, Zachary; Bruxer, Ashley; Lee, Jonathan; Sims, Katelin; Wainwright, Matthew; Brooks, Dina; Desveaux, Laura


    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the personal strengths of Canadian physical therapists who hold leadership positions and compare them with the strengths of Canadian physical therapists who do not occupy positions of leadership. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional online survey was distributed to registered Canadian physical therapists. We used the Clifton StrengthsFinder to evaluate 34 characteristics and determine which characteristics described a participant's strengths. Population demog...

  6. Canadian Space Agency Space Station Freedom utilization plans (United States)

    Faulkner, James; Wilkinson, Ron

    Under the terms of the NASA/CSA Memorandum of Understanding, Canada will contribute the Mobile Servicing System and be entitled to use 3 percent of all Space Station utilization resources and user accommodations over the 30 year life of the Station. Equally importantly Canada, like NASA, can begin to exploit these benefits as soon as the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) phase begins, in early 1997. Canada has been preparing its scientific community to fully utilize the Space Station for the past five years; most specifically by encouraging, and providing funding, in the area of Materials Science and Applications, and in the area of Space Life Sciences. The goal has been to develop potential applications and an experienced and proficient Canadian community able to effectively utilize microgravity environment facilities such as Space Station Freedom. In addition, CSA is currently supporting four facilities; a Laser Test System, a Large Motion Isolation Mount, a Canadian Float Zone Furnace, and a Canadian Protein Crystallization Apparatus. In late April of this year CSA sent out a Solicitation of Interest (SOI) to potential Canadian user from universities, industry, and government. The intent of the SOI was to determine who was interested, and the type of payloads which the community at large intended to propose. The SOI will be followed by the release of an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) following governmental approval of the Long Term Space plan later this year, or early next year. Responses to the AO will be evaluated and prioritized in a fair and impartial payload selection process, within the guidelines set by our international partners and the Canadian Government. Payload selection is relatively simple compared to the development and qualification process. An end-to-end user support program is therefore also being defined. Much of this support will be provided at the new headquarters currently being built in St. Hubert, Quebec. It is recognized that utilizing the

  7. U. S. consumer perceptions of U. S. and Canadian beef quality grades. (United States)

    Tedford, J L; Rodas-González, A; Garmyn, A J; Brooks, J C; Johnson, B J; Starkey, J D; Clark, G O; Derington, A J; Collins, J A; Miller, M F


    A U.S. consumer (n = 642) study (Baltimore, MD; Phoenix, AZ; and Lubbock, TX) was conducted to compare consumer sensory scores of U.S. beef (83 USDA Choice [Choice] and 96 USDA Select [Select]) and Canadian beef (77 AAA and 82 AA) strip loins. Strip loins (n = 338) were obtained from beef processors in Canada and the United States and were wet aged until 21 d postmortem at 2°C. Marbling scores were assigned at 21 d and loins were paired according to quality grades and marbling score. Strip loins were fabricated into 2.54-cm thick steaks; steaks were vacuum packaged and frozen until further evaluations. Proximate analysis was performed to compare fat, moisture, and protein. Choice and Canadian AAA had similar marbling scores and intramuscular fat. Both Choice and Canadian AAA had greater (P grades (P > 0.05). Consumers' opinions did not differ when comparing equivalent grades (Choice with Canadian AAA and Select with Canadian AA), but they rated Choice and Canadian AAA more palatable than Select and Canadian AA for all sensory attributes (P grade carcasses (Choice and Canadian AAA) than lower quality grade carcasses (Select and Canada AA). Additionally, consumers gave their opinion of Canadian beef, where its quality and safety were rated as "good" to "excellent" for both attributes (76.72% and 88.36%, respectively; P grades; however, strip loin steaks from higher quality grades were more palatable than lower quality grades according to consumer scores for eating quality traits.

  8. As Canadian as possible ... under what circumstances?: Public opinion on national identity in Canada outside Quebec. (United States)

    Raney, Tracey


    Public opinion on national identity in Canada is changing. Using data from the International Social Science Programme, this essay presents evidence that most Canadians have a strong national identity rooted in universal conceptions that everyone can share, such as citizenship. Data also show, however, that a growing number of Canadians define their national identity narrowly, such as through birthplace and religion. Drawing on research from social psychology, the essay suggests that theories of Canadian identity need to take into account the fact that many Canadians have strong national identities that do not fit cleanly into the civic/ethnic theoretical dichotomy.

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance among Salmonella and Shigella Isolates in Five Canadian Provinces (1997 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah J Martin


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR among Salmonella and Shigella isolates reported in five Canadian provinces, focusing on clinically important antimicrobials.

  10. Noninvasive Ventilation Practice Patterns for Acute Respiratory Failure in Canadian Tertiary Care Centres: A Descriptive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève C Digby


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extent of noninvasive ventilation (NIV use for patients with acute respiratory failure in Canadian hospitals, indications for use and associated outcomes are unknown.

  11. The Canadian Geoscience Education Network: a collaborative grassroots effort to support geoscience education (United States)

    Bank, C.; Halfkenny, B.; Hymers, L.; Clinton, L.; Heenan, S.; Jackson, D.; Nowlan, G.; Haidl, F.; Vodden, C.


    The Canadian Geoscience Education Network (CGEN) numbers over 300 members who are active in promoting geoscience to the general public and especially in schools. Our membership spreads from coast to coast to coast in Canada and represents the wide range of geosciences. Most members work in education, government, industry, academia, or not-for-profit organizations. Our common goals are to (1) provide resources to teachers for the K-12 curriculum, (2) encourage students to pursue higher education and a rewarding career in geoscience, and (3) lobby to effect change to the school curriculum. Our strength is grounded in a grassroots approach (eg, regional chapters), flexible organization, and emphasis on a cost-effective style. Together we have created and maintain resources for teachers; for example, EdGEO (local workshops for teachers), Geoscape (community-based posters and lesson plans), and EarthNet (virtual resource centre). A new website showcases careers in the Earth sciences. CGEN members ensure that these resources remain current, promote them at individual outreach activities, and see to it that they are maintained. Although we have limited funding we draw strength from the networks of our members and capitalize on partnerships between seemingly disparate organizations and groups to get experts involved in the education of future geoscientists. (Details about CGEN may be found at

  12. Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation: 1997/1998 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report reviews the achievements of the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC) during the fiscal year 1997/1998. Notable initiatives include: regular sector task force meetings in which energy-efficiency-related information is exchanged; energy forums to share ideas and information; support for energy management seminars sponsored by NRCan`s Office of Energy Efficiency; the development of individual sector leadership nuclei capable of expanding CIPEC participation within the sector; the creation of communication programs to bolster public and industry awareness; participation in energy efficiency benchmarking and other activities initiated by the Office of Energy Efficiency. CIPEC also cooperates with the Canadian Industry Energy End-Use Database and Analysis Centre (CIEEDAC) at Simon Fraser University in BC, working together to improve the quality of the data used in measuring energy intensity performance. Similarly, CIPEC focuses on transforming the sector-level commitments made by the Task Forces into company-level action by helping to overcome obstacles to energy efficiency. As of the end of 1998, some 250 companies representing 75 per cent of industrial energy use have been participants in the Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry. Voluntary actions of CIPEC sectors are focused on energy intensity improvements, thereby controlling and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. The report contains the reports of the various industry sectors, and highlights the efforts of 12 the many CIPEC participants who are making innovative changes to improve the effectiveness of energy use within their organizations. The sector reports contain a record of the challenges, a summary of the actions taken, achievements and objectives and targets. A list of the member companies in each sector is also included.

  13. High Methylmercury in Arctic and Subarctic Ponds is Related to Nutrient Levels in the Warming Eastern Canadian Arctic. (United States)

    MacMillan, Gwyneth A; Girard, Catherine; Chételat, John; Laurion, Isabelle; Amyot, Marc


    Permafrost thaw ponds are ubiquitous in the eastern Canadian Arctic, yet little information exists on their potential as sources of methylmercury (MeHg) to freshwaters. They are microbially active and conducive to methylation of inorganic mercury, and are also affected by Arctic warming. This multiyear study investigated thaw ponds in a discontinuous permafrost region in the Subarctic taiga (Kuujjuarapik-Whapmagoostui, QC) and a continuous permafrost region in the Arctic tundra (Bylot Island, NU). MeHg concentrations in thaw ponds were well above levels measured in most freshwater ecosystems in the Canadian Arctic (>0.1 ng L(-1)). On Bylot, ice-wedge trough ponds showed significantly higher MeHg (0.3-2.2 ng L(-1)) than polygonal ponds (0.1-0.3 ng L(-1)) or lakes (waters of Subarctic thaw ponds near Kuujjuarapik (0.1-3.1 ng L(-1)). High water MeHg concentrations in thaw ponds were strongly correlated with variables associated with high inputs of organic matter (DOC, a320, Fe), nutrients (TP, TN), and microbial activity (dissolved CO2 and CH4). Thawing permafrost due to Arctic warming will continue to release nutrients and organic carbon into these systems and increase ponding in some regions, likely stimulating higher water concentrations of MeHg. Greater hydrological connectivity from permafrost thawing may potentially increase transport of MeHg from thaw ponds to neighboring aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Divergent modes of integration: the Canadian way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izzat Jiwani


    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper highlights key trajectories and outcomes of the recent policy developments toward integrated health care delivery systems in Quebec and Ontario in the primary care sector and in the development of regional networks of health and social services. It particularly explores how policy legacies, interests and cultures may be mitigated to develop and sustain different models of integrated health care that are pertinent to the local contexts.Policy developments: In Quebec, three decades of iterative developments in health and social services evolved in 2005 into integrated centres for health and social services at the local levels (CSSSs. Four integrated university-based health care networks provide ultra-specialised services. Family Medicine Groups and network clinics are designed to enhance access and continuity of care. Ontario's Family Health Teams (2004 constitute an innovative public funding for private delivery model that is set up to enhance the capacity of primary care and to facilitate patient-based care. Ontario's Local Health Integration Networks (LHINs with autonomous boards of provider organizations are intended to coordinate and integrate care.Conclusion: Integration strategies in Quebec and Ontario yield clinical autonomy and power to physicians while simultaneously making them key partners in change. Contextual factors combined with increased and varied forms of physician remunerations and incentives mitigated some of the challenges from policy legacies, interests and cultures. Virtual partnerships and accountability agreements between providers promise positive but gradual movement toward integrated health service systems.

  15. Divergent modes of integration: the Canadian way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izzat Jiwani


    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper highlights key trajectories and outcomes of the recent policy developments toward integrated health care delivery systems in Quebec and Ontario in the primary care sector and in the development of regional networks of health and social services. It particularly explores how policy legacies, interests and cultures may be mitigated to develop and sustain different models of integrated health care that are pertinent to the local contexts. Policy developments: In Quebec, three decades of iterative developments in health and social services evolved in 2005 into integrated centres for health and social services at the local levels (CSSSs. Four integrated university-based health care networks provide ultra-specialised services. Family Medicine Groups and network clinics are designed to enhance access and continuity of care. Ontario's Family Health Teams (2004 constitute an innovative public funding for private delivery model that is set up to enhance the capacity of primary care and to facilitate patient-based care. Ontario's Local Health Integration Networks (LHINs with autonomous boards of provider organizations are intended to coordinate and integrate care. Conclusion: Integration strategies in Quebec and Ontario yield clinical autonomy and power to physicians while simultaneously making them key partners in change. Contextual factors combined with increased and varied forms of physician remunerations and incentives mitigated some of the challenges from policy legacies, interests and cultures. Virtual partnerships and accountability agreements between providers promise positive but gradual movement toward integrated health service systems.

  16. A Pliocene chronostratigraphy for the Canadian western and high Arctic (United States)

    Gosse, John; Braschi, Lea; Rybczynski, Natalia; Lakeman, Thomas; Zimmerman, Susan; Finkel, Robert; Barendregt, Rene; Matthews, John


    The Beaufort Formation comprises an extensive (1200 km long, more than 1 km thick) clastic wedge that formed during the Pliocene along the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). In the western Arctic, the Ballast Brook (BB) site on Banks Is. exposes more than 20 km of section through the sandy and pebble sandy braided stream deposits with detrital organic beds. Farther north, Beaufort Fm fluvial and estuarine facies have been examined on Meighen Is. In the high Arctic, high terrace gravels (450 m high surface) at the Fyles Leaf Bed (FLB) and Beaver Pond (BP) sites on Ellesmere Is. are not considered part of the Beaufort Fm but have similar paleoenvironmental records. Fossil plant and faunal material from these sediments is often very well preserved and provides evidence of a boreal-type forest and peatlands. The BP fossil site preserves the remains of fossil vertebrates including fish, frog, horse, beaver, deerlet, and black bear, consistent with a boreal type forest habitat. The FLB site has recently yielded the first fossil evidence for a High Arctic camel, identified with the help of collagen fingerprinting from a fragmentary limb bone (tibia). Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Ellesmere sites has yielded a Mean Annual Temperature of between 14 to 22 degrees Celsius warmer than today. Minimum cosmogenic nuclide burial ages of 3.4 and 3.8 Ma obtained for the BP and FLB sites, respectively, are consistent with vertebrate and floral biostratigraphic evidence. The paleoenvironmental records from the Beaufort Fm in the western CAA sites have revealed a similar ecosystem with noteworthy differences in MAT and perhaps seasonality. New burial ages from Meighen Is. indicate a maximum age of 6.1 Ma, consistent with yet much older than previous age estimates, but supportive of paleomagnetic and biostratigraphy at the same location. The age differences may account for some of the interpreted variations in paleoenvironments, in addition to spatial differences in

  17. Method-dependent variability in determination of prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Canadian retail poultry. (United States)

    Carrillo, Catherine D; Plante, Daniel; Iugovaz, Irène; Kenwell, Robyn; Bélanger, Ghislaine; Boucher, Francine; Poulin, Nathalie; Trottier, Yvon-Louis


    Campylobacter is the most frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Canada, and the illness is commonly associated with poultry consumption. Whereas Canadian retail poultry is often contaminated with campylobacters, studies on the prevalence of this organism are inconsistent due to variability in sampling and microbiological methodology. To determine the current microbiological status of Canadian poultry, and to evaluate two commonly used microbiological methods, 348 raw poultry samples were collected at retail across Canada over a period of 3 years (2007 to 2010) and were analyzed for the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter species. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found to be 42.8% by a combination of the two testing methods, with 33.9% of the samples positive for C. jejuni, 3.7% of the samples positive for C. coli, and 5.2% of the samples positive for both. Variability in Campylobacter spp. prevalence was observed in samples obtained from different regions across Canada and from poultry with or without skin, but this was not statistically significant. In co-contaminated samples, C. jejuni was preferentially recovered from Preston agar compared with mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar, with an increase in recovery of C. coli on all selective media after 48 h of enrichment. A subset of 214 of the poultry rinses were analyzed by both Health Canada's standard method, MFLP-46 (enrichment in Park and Sanders broth), and a second method requiring enrichment in Bolton broth. Significantly more positive samples were obtained with the MFLP-46 method (40.6%) than with the alternate method (35.0%). This improved recovery with MFLP-46 may be due to the omission of cycloheximide from this method. These results demonstrate that determination of prevalence of Campylobacter spp. on poultry products may be significantly impacted by the choice of microbiological methods used. Canadian poultry continues to be a source of exposure to Campylobacter spp.

  18. Experience with Emergency Ultrasound Training by Canadian Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kim


    Full Text Available Introduction: Starting in 2008, emergency ultrasound (EUS was introduced as a core competency to the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (Royal College emergency medicine (EM training standards. The Royal College accredits postgraduate EM specialty training in Canada through 5-year residency programs. The objective of this study is to describe both the current experience with and the perceptions of EUS by Canadian Royal College EM senior residents. Methods: This was a web-based survey conducted from January to March 2011 of all 39 Canadian Royal College postgraduate fifth-year (PGY-5 EM residents. Main outcome measures were characteristics of EUS training and perceptions of EUS. Results: Survey response rate was 95% (37/39. EUS was part of the formal residency curriculum for 86% of respondents (32/37. Residents most commonly received training in focused assessment with sonography for trauma, intrauterine pregnancy, abdominal aortic aneurysm, cardiac, and procedural guidance. Although the most commonly provided instructional material (86% [32/37] was an ultrasound course, 73% (27/37 of residents used educational resources outside of residency training to supplement their ultrasound knowledge. Most residents (95% [35/37] made clinical decisions and patient dispositions based on their EUS interpretation without a consultative study by radiology. Residents had very favorable perceptions and opinions of EUS. Conclusion: EUS training in Royal College EM programs was prevalent and perceived favorably by residents, but there was heterogeneity in resident training and practice of EUS. This suggests variability in both the level and quality of EUS training in Canadian Royal College EM residency programs.

  19. Perceived lactose intolerance in adult Canadians: a national survey. (United States)

    Barr, Susan I


    Although double-blind studies show that lactose-intolerant individuals can consume moderate quantities of milk products without perceptible symptoms, many who perceive that they are lactose intolerant limit or avoid milk products, potentially compromising calcium and vitamin D intakes. Adult Canadians are at risk of inadequate intakes of these nutrients, but no data exist on the prevalence, correlates, and potential impact of perceived lactose intolerance among Canadians. To address this, a Web-based survey of a population-representative sample of 2251 Canadians aged ≥19 years was conducted. Overall, 16% self-reported lactose intolerance. This was more common in women (odds ratio (OR), 1.84; 95% CI, 1.46-2.33) and in nonwhites (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.24-2.58) and less common in those >50 years of age (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.90) and in those completing the survey in French (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99). Those with self-reported lactose intolerance had lower covariate-adjusted milk product and alternative intakes (mean ± SE; 1.40 ± 0.08 servings·day(-1) vs. 2.33 ± 0.03 servings·day(-1), p lactose intolerance by sex, age, and language preference was unexpected and suggests that some groups may be more vulnerable to the perception that they are lactose intolerant. Regardless of whether lactose intolerance is physiologically based or perceptual, education is required to ensure that calcium intakes are not compromised.

  20. Tele-Epidemiology and Public Health in the Canadian Context (United States)

    Brazeau, Stephanie; Kotchi, Serge Olivier; Ludwig, Antoinette; Turgeon, Patricia; Pelcat, Yann; Aube, Guy; Ogden, Nicholas H.


    The management of key public health issues requires solid evidence-based knowledge for the prevention and control of various emerging or re-emerging vector borne diseases (e.g. Lyme disease, West Nile virus, etc.) and environmentally-linked diseases (e.g. enteric infections from recreational water contamination). Earth observation (EO) images enhance knowledge and capacity to characterize risk of illness across the vast Canadian territory by deriving new and up-to-date data from population, climatic and environmental determinants of health relevant to public health actions such as risk mapping, risk communication and identification of vulnerable populations.Modeling of infectious disease transmission has made possible the identification of risk areas and the underlying factors (human activities, ecology, environment and climate) that may explain this emergence. New data products derived from Earth observation satellites pertaining to climate, land cover and land use, and distribution and density of animal and human populations have greatly improved the resolution and the specificity of explanatory and predictive models.This article focuses on the scope of tele-epidemiology activities of the Canadian public health community as well as current and potential future fields of application for Earth observation data. It will demonstrate the strength, sustainability and innovative character of these approaches to improve scale-dependent decision- making at different levels of government in Canada (federal, provincial/territorial and regional) and increase the efficiency of many preventive, preparedness and response actions.Examples of tele-epidemiology applications will be presented such as the risk assessment of microbial contamination of recreational waters and modelling the risk of vector borne diseases in the Canadian context.

  1. Patterns of DNA barcode variation in Canadian marine molluscs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara K S Layton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molluscs are the most diverse marine phylum and this high diversity has resulted in considerable taxonomic problems. Because the number of species in Canadian oceans remains uncertain, there is a need to incorporate molecular methods into species identifications. A 648 base pair segment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene has proven useful for the identification and discovery of species in many animal lineages. While the utility of DNA barcoding in molluscs has been demonstrated in other studies, this is the first effort to construct a DNA barcode registry for marine molluscs across such a large geographic area. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study examines patterns of DNA barcode variation in 227 species of Canadian marine molluscs. Intraspecific sequence divergences ranged from 0-26.4% and a barcode gap existed for most taxa. Eleven cases of relatively deep (>2% intraspecific divergence were detected, suggesting the possible presence of overlooked species. Structural variation was detected in COI with indels found in 37 species, mostly bivalves. Some indels were present in divergent lineages, primarily in the region of the first external loop, suggesting certain areas are hotspots for change. Lastly, mean GC content varied substantially among orders (24.5%-46.5%, and showed a significant positive correlation with nearest neighbour distances. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DNA barcoding is an effective tool for the identification of Canadian marine molluscs and for revealing possible cases of overlooked species. Some species with deep intraspecific divergence showed a biogeographic partition between lineages on the Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific coasts, suggesting the role of Pleistocene glaciations in the subdivision of their populations. Indels were prevalent in the barcode region of the COI gene in bivalves and gastropods. This study highlights the efficacy of DNA barcoding for providing insights into sequence variation

  2. How Well do Canadian Distance Education Students Understand Plagiarism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Ann Kier


    Full Text Available This project ascertains how well students taking online, distance education courses at a Canadian university recognize plagiarised material and how well they paraphrase. It also assesses the types of errors made. Slightly more than half of 420 psychology students correctly selected plagiarised phrases from four multiple choice questions. Only a minority was able to rewrite a phrase properly in their own words. A more diverse sample of university students also had difficulty recognizing plagiarised passages from multiple choice options. The poor ability of students to identify plagiarised passages may suggest poor understanding of the concept. Students may benefit from training to improve their understanding of plagiarism.

  3. Indigenous housing and health in the Canadian North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julia


    In this article, I explore the relationship between housing, home and health amongst Indigenous homeless people living in the Canadian North. In particular, I examine the ways in which Indigenous homemaking practices conflict with housing policy, and exacerbate individual pathways to homelessness....... I argue that integral components in northern Indigenous conceptualizations of home and, in turn, health are not only unrecognized in housing policy, but actively discouraged. The potential for homemaking to inform health and housing policy speaks to the relevance of cultural safety not only...... to Indigenous health services, but also to a comprehensive framing of Indigenous health....

  4. Research Use by Leaders in Canadian School Districts

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    Amanda Cooper


    Full Text Available This paper, part of a larger study, investigates the ways research is used by leaders in Canadian schools and districts, an area in which there is relatively little empirical evidence. The paper analyzes survey results from 188 education leaders in 11 school districts across Canada about school and district practices related to the use of research. Results indicate a growing awareness in districts of the importance of research use, reported district capacity, and many kinds of support available for research-related activities; however, actual research use remains modest. Districts appear to have relatively weak processes and systems for finding, sharing, and using relevant research.

  5. Policy and evidence in Canadian health human resources planning. (United States)

    Wilson, C Ruth


    The health human resources supply in Canada swings reactively between over- and under-supply. There are numerous policy actors in this arena, each of whom could contribute to good data collection and an agreed-on process for decision-making. This could form the basis for evidence-informed policy. Absent these tools for pan-Canadian health human resources policy development, smaller health jurisdictions are experimenting with quality improvement initiatives which, when properly evaluated, can discover useful methods of aligning patient and community needs with healthcare resources.

  6. Rapid Oligocene Exhumation of the Western Canadian Rocky Mountains (United States)

    Szameitat, A.; Parrish, R. R.; Stuart, F. M.; Carter, A.; Fishwick, S.


    As part of the North American Cordillera the Rocky Mountains of Canada impact the deflection of weather systems and the jet stream and form a distinct barrier to Pacific moisture reaching the continental interior. The extent to which this climatic pattern extended into the past is at present uncertain, so improving our understanding of the elevation history of the Rockies is critical to determining the controls on climate change within the Northern Hemisphere. We have undertaken a comprehensive apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission track study of the southeastern Canadian Cordillera, i.e. the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains, in order to provide insight into the mid to late Cenozoic uplift and exhumation history of this region. Thermal history and exhumation models of widespread low elevation samples in combination with 6 vertical profiles covering elevations from 500 up to 3100 m a.s.l. show at least 1500 m of rapid exhumation west of the Rocky Mountain Trench (RMT) during the Oligocene (Figure 1). In contrast, the ranges east of the RMT low elevation samples provide Eocene ages throughout. The data show a very different history of recent uplift of the Canadian Rockies compared to what is currently known from published work, which mostly infer that the eastern Canadian Cordillera has not experienced significant uplift since the Eocene. We propose that the most likely cause of this rock uplift was upwelling of asthenosphere around the eastward subducting Farallon Plate. This also led to the eruption of the nearby mainly Miocene Chilcotin Group flood basalts and could have caused underplating of the thin lithosphere west of the RMT, adding to the buoyancy of the plate and lifting the range. Because the Trench marks the edge of the normal thickness craton which was underthrust beneath the Rocky Mountains during the initial upper Cretaceous orogeny, the eastern Rockies have a normal lithosperic thickness. This would impede recent uplift and provides an explanation for the

  7. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome: Report of the First Canadian Paediatric Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonita E Lee


    Full Text Available Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS was first recognized as a severe respiratory illness transmitted through rodent excreta in the southwestern United States in 1993. As of November 1997, 175 cases have been reported in the United States. The mortality rate of this disease has been reported to be as high as 52% in the United States, and the majority of the cases (94% involved adults. Twenty-one cases have been recognized in Canada. This paper describes the first Canadian paediatric case and discusses some of the clinical features of this disease.

  8. The importance of being first: evidence from Canadian generic pharmaceuticals. (United States)

    Hollis, Aidan


    This paper uses pooled cross-section data on Canadian ethical drug sales to examine the effect of entry timing on sales of generic drugs. The data is for all drugs for which the first generic competitor entered during the years 1994-1997. It is found that the first generic entrant has a lasting competitive advantage: being first into the market appears to lead to an increase of around 30% in market share (among generics) over a period of at least 4 years. This finding has considerable implications for the current policy of allowing brandname drug companies to issue pseudo-generic equivalents as a preemptive strike against true generic competitors.

  9. Human resources needs in the Canadian wind energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittholz, H. [Synova International Business Development, London, ON (Canada)


    This paper reviewed human resources issues related to wind energy expansion. As the fastest growing energy source in the world, wind energy has the potential to provide thousands of jobs. With the signing of the Kyoto Protocol, the Canadian government and industry will take measures to increase the use of renewable energy. As such, forecasters predict that Canada's total installed capacity will increase from 444 MW in 2004 to 5,600 MW by 2012. Initially, employment opportunities will be in the service industry, followed by an increased demand for scientists, engineers, technicians and other personnel with specialized knowledge in the wind industry. This paper described the assumptions on which the forecasted demand for skilled labour is based. Approximately 2,230 technicians will be required by 2012 to develop and manufacture wind turbines and to establish an infrastructure that would maximize the benefits of the emerging industry for Canadians. Wind energy initiatives include the establishment of a competitive manufacturing and service base; the provision of specialized training and education to meet the human resources demands of the industry; and, support from research and development to reduce the knowledge gap between Canada and Europe. Canada also holds the potential to establish a niche market for hybrid wind-diesel-storage systems. Insurance companies and investors will require high standards to safeguard their investments. A breakdown of various jobs in the wind power industry was presented along with forecasts of revenues and employment in Canada's wind energy industry. This paper also outlined the wind energy research programs available at Canadian universities, colleges and institutes. It was recommended that education and training programs in this field of study should be developed based on proven programs with a governing body to ensure industry requirements are met. It was also suggested that partnerships should be formed with successful

  10. Performance of municipal waste stabilization ponds in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragush, Colin M.; Schmidt, Jordan J.; Krkosek, Wendy H.


    The majority of small remote communities in the Canadian arctic territory of Nunavut utilize waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) for municipal wastewater treatment because of their relatively low capital and operational costs, and minimal complexity. New national effluent quality regulations have been...... implemented in Canada, but not yet applied to Canada’s Arctic due to uncertainty related to the performance of current wastewater treatment systems. Waste stabilization pond (WSP) treatment performance is impacted by community water use, pond design, and climate. The greatest challenge arctic communities...

  11. Canadian political science and medicare: six decades of inquiry. (United States)

    O'Neill, Michael A; McGuinty, Dylan; Teskey, Bryan


    Based on an extensive sample of the literature, this critical review dissects the principal themes that have animated the Canadian political science profession on the topic of medicare. The review considers the coincidence of economic eras and how these are reflected in the methodological approaches to the study of medicare. As is to be expected, most of the scholarly activity coincides with the economic era marked by fiscal restraint and decreases in social investments (1993-2003). At the same time, the review notes the prevalence of institutionalism as an approach to the topic and the scholarly community's near-consensus on medicare as a defining characteristic of the country and its people.

  12. Management of Hepatitis B: A Longitudinal National Survey – Impact of the Canadian Hepatitis B Consensus Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Marotta


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver, and The Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Canada, jointly developed the Canadian Chronic Hepatitis B (HBV Consensus Guidelines to assist practitioners involved in the management of this complex disease. These guidelines were published in The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology in June 2007 and distributed to all Canadian gastroenterologists and hepatologists.

  13. Intelligent Use of Intelligence Tests: Empirical and Clinical Support for Canadian WAIS-IV Norms (United States)

    Miller, Jessie L.; Weiss, Lawrence G.; Beal, A. Lynne; Saklofske, Donald H.; Zhu, Jianjun; Holdnack, James A.


    It is well established that Canadians produce higher raw scores than their U.S. counterparts on intellectual assessments. As a result of these differences in ability along with smaller variability in the population's intellectual performance, Canadian normative data will yield lower standard scores for most raw score points compared to U.S. norms.…

  14. 47 CFR 90.1337 - Operation near Canadian and Mexican borders. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation near Canadian and Mexican borders. 90.1337 Section 90.1337 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... § 90.1337 Operation near Canadian and Mexican borders. (a) Fixed devices generally must be located...

  15. 40 CFR 1033.650 - Incidental use exemption for Canadian and Mexican locomotives. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incidental use exemption for Canadian and Mexican locomotives. 1033.650 Section 1033.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Provisions § 1033.650 Incidental use exemption for Canadian and Mexican locomotives. You may ask us to...

  16. The Canadian occupational performance measure for patients with stroke: a systematic review (United States)

    Yang, Shang-Yu; Lin, Chung-Ying; Lee, Ya-Chen; Chang, Jer-Hao


    [Purpose] This study investigated whether the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure is a suitable outcome measure for assessing patients with stroke in research and clinical settings. [Subjects and Methods] The study included into two parts: (1) an investigation of the reliability and validity of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure for patients with stroke and (2) an exploration of Canadian Occupational Performance Measure results in randomized controlled trials of patients with stroke. For this review, the study searched the MEDLINE, PubMed, and CINAHL Plus with Full Text databases for articles published before September 2015. [Results] Finally, three eligible articles were collected in part 1, and ten randomized controlled trials studies were collected in part 2. The findings of part 1 revealed that the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure had efficient test–retest reliability, however, the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure revealed weak associations with other assessment tools such as Barthel Index used for patients with stroke. Six of the randomized controlled trials studies used the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure as a primary outcome and two as a secondary outcome, while the other two as a goal-setting instrument. [Conclusion] This review indicates that the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure is appropriate for clinicians, including physiotherapists, in assessing outcome for patients with stroke. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure can assist patients in identifying their outcome performance and provide therapists with directions on interventions. PMID:28356652

  17. Frequency of Scholarship on Counselling Males in the "Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy" (United States)

    Hoover, Stuart M.; Bedi, Robinder P.; Beall, Lauren K.


    This article examines the frequency with which studies on boys/men are represented in Canadian counselling scholarship, as embodied in the "Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy" (CJCP). To address this question, a quantitative content analysis was conducted of articles published in CJCP from 2000 (Volume 34, Number 1) to 2011 (Volume…

  18. 75 FR 61508 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) (United States)


    ... Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I- ] 68). This request for comment is being made... Form I-68. Abstract: The Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) allows...

  19. 78 FR 73875 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) (United States)


    ... Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... requirement concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I-68). This request for comment is being... Form I-68. Abstract: The Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) allows...

  20. The legend of the Canadian horse: genetic diversity and breed origin. (United States)

    Khanshour, Anas; Juras, Rytis; Blackburn, Rick; Cothran, E Gus


    The Canadian breed of horse invokes a fascinating chapter of North American history and as such it is now a heritage breed and the national horse of Canada. The aims of this study were to determine the level of genetic diversity in the Canadian, investigate the possible foundation breeds and the role it had in the development of the US horse breeds, such as Morgan Horse. We tested a total of 981 horses by using 15 microsatellite markers. We found that Canadian horses have high values of genetic diversity indices and show no evidence of a serious loss of genetic diversity and the inbreeding coefficient was not significantly different from zero. Belgian, Percheron, Breton and Dales Pony, unlike the light French horses, may have common ancestries with the Canadian and could be important founders. However, the Shire and Clydesdale influenced the Canadian to a lesser extent than French and Belgian draft breeds. Furthermore, our finding indicated that there was no evidence of a clear relationship between Canadian and Oriental or Iberian breeds. Also, the Canadian likely contributed to the early development of the Morgan. Finally, these findings support the ancient legends of the Canadian Horse as North America’s first equine breed and the foundation bloodstock to many American breeds and may help in the management and breeding program of this outstanding breed in North America.

  1. Modern Campuses, Local Connections and Unconventional Symbols: Promotional Practises in the Canadian Community College Sector (United States)

    Pizarro Milian, Roger


    Canadian community colleges operate within a trying market environment. They compete against a diversified group of post-secondary institutions, ranging from small and relatively unknown for-profit vocational colleges to larger and more prestigious public universities. To date, there has been no effort to empirically examine how Canadian community…

  2. Strategies for Overcoming Barriers to Training and Education for Canadians with Disabilities. Lessons in Learning (United States)

    Canadian Council on Learning, 2009


    If stronger skills and more education are key to greater labour force participation, then it is important to identify critical barriers to education and training for Canadians with disabilities. In 2008, the Canadian Council on Learning's Adult Learning Knowledge Centre funded a "Community Outreach Initiative for Learner's with…

  3. What's for Sale at Canadian Universities? A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Promotional Strategies (United States)

    Pizarro Milian, Roger


    The current fiscal environment has driven Canadian universities to become more entrepreneurial, seeking out and competing over new sources of funding. Despite such intensifying competition, little effort has been made to document the promotional tactics that Canadian universities are using to render themselves appealing to external audiences. This…

  4. Immigrants Outperform Canadian-Born Groups in French Immersion: Examining Factors That Influence Their Achievement (United States)

    Mady, Callie


    This paper examines the French achievement results of three groups of students: Canadian-born English/French bilingual, Canadian-born multilingual and immigrant multilingual Grade 6 French immersion students, by investigating how the variables of integrative and instrumental motivations, attitudes to the learning situation, French language…

  5. An Analysis of Voluntary Disclosure of Performance Indicators by Canadian Universities (United States)

    Maingot, Michael; Zeghal, Daniel


    Managing by performance indicators (PIs) is an important and controversial issue for many stakeholders concerned with higher education in the university systems all over the world. This study analyzes the voluntary disclosures of PIs by Canadian universities. The sample consisted of the 44 universities used by Maclean's Canadian Universities…

  6. Literature and Social Studies: Reading the Hyphenated Spaces of Canadian Identity. (United States)

    Johnston, Ingrid


    Considers the ideological and imaginative potential of literature for questioning notions of Canadian identity in the social studies classroom. Compares various literary texts and considers how writers attempt to create a unified metanarrative. Contrasts texts from the early twentieth century with contemporary Canadian literature. (CMK)

  7. Rethinking International Migration of Human Capital and Brain Circulation: The Case of Chinese-Canadian Academics (United States)

    Blachford, Dongyan Ru; Zhang, Bailing


    This article examines the dynamics of brain circulation through a historical review of the debates over international migration of human capital and a case study on Chinese-Canadian academics. Interviews with 22 Chinese-Canadian professors who originally came from China provide rich data regarding the possibilities and problems of the contemporary…

  8. The Dividend and Share Repurchase Policies of Canadian Firms : Empirical Evidence based on New Research Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.; van Dijk, R.; Veld, C.H.


    We empirically investigate dividend and share repurchase policies of Canadian firms. We use several logit regression analyses to test the structure and determinants of the dividend and share repurchase choice. We have sent a questionnaire to the 500 largest non-financial Canadian companies listed on

  9. The Roles of Canadian Universities in Heterogeneous Third-Age Learning: A Call for Transformation (United States)

    Ratsoy, Ginny


    This article makes the case that Canadian universities--both within and beyond their campuses--must broaden their visions of third-age learners. Canadian third-age learners--defined for the purposes of this article as persons seeking formalized education who are in the stage of life beginning at retirement--are more numerous, active, financially…

  10. Frequency of Scholarship on Counselling Males in the "Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy" (United States)

    Hoover, Stuart M.; Bedi, Robinder P.; Beall, Lauren K.


    This article examines the frequency with which studies on boys/men are represented in Canadian counselling scholarship, as embodied in the "Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy" (CJCP). To address this question, a quantitative content analysis was conducted of articles published in CJCP from 2000 (Volume 34, Number 1) to…

  11. Cultural and Other Sovereignties: Canadian-American Relations at the Crunch. (United States)

    Moore, Christopher


    Explains that the fundamental issue in recent Canadian politics has been the debate over the free trade negotiations between the United States and Canada. Specifically, the issue of cultural sovereignty makes some Canadians wonder if their power would be limited when setting and implementing policy if the treaty is adopted. (BSR)

  12. Banal Race Thinking: Ties of Blood, Canadian History Textbooks and Ethnic Nationalism (United States)

    Montgomery, Ken


    This paper examines how the idea of "race" is represented in high school Canadian history textbooks. It looks at textbooks authorized by the Province of Ontario between 1940 and 1960 and those authorized after 2000. It is argued in this paper that even though historical racisms have increasingly made their way into Canadian history…

  13. On the Integration of Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) by Canadian Mathematicians: Results of a National Survey (United States)

    Buteau, Chantal; Jarvis, Daniel H.; Lavicza, Zsolt


    In this article, we outline the findings of a Canadian survey study (N = 302) that focused on the extent of computer algebra systems (CAS)-based technology use in postsecondary mathematics instruction. Results suggest that a considerable number of Canadian mathematicians use CAS in research and teaching. CAS use in research was found to be the…

  14. The Risk of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss During Simulated Dives in Canadian Forces Hyperbaric Facilities (United States)


    The risk of noise-induced hearing loss during simulated dives in Canadian Forces hyperbaric facilities Sharon M...2012-084 October 2012 The risk of noise-induced hearing loss during simulated dives in Canadian Forces hyperbaric ...transferred into the dive chamber of a hyperbaric facility. The mechanism is audible and sufficiently high in level in adjacent areas to warrant the

  15. Using Microsimulation to Help Design Pilot Demonstrations: An Illustration from the Canadian Self-Sufficiency Project. (United States)

    Greenberg, David H.; And Others


    This article describes how microsimulation analysis was used to help design a social experiment in two Canadian provinces. The microsimulation was used to choose among alternative program models, to refine the selected model, and to project costs for the Canadian government's program of financial incentives for leaving welfare. (SLD)

  16. Canadian Innovation: A Brief History of Canada's First Online School Psychology Graduate Program (United States)

    Drefs, Michelle A.; Schroeder, Meadow; Hiebert, Bryan; Panayotidis, E. Lisa; Winters, Katherine; Kerr, Jamie


    This article presents a brief historical review and survey of the current landscape of online graduate psychology programs within the Canadian context. Specific focus is given to outlining the establishment and evolution of the first Canadian online professional specialization program in school psychology. The article argues that given the virtual…

  17. Canadian History and Cultural History: Thoughts and Notes on a New Departure. (United States)

    Smith, Allan


    Seeks to define the study of Canadian cultural history, tracing the development of cultural history from the Enlightenment to the present. Discusses books on cultural history that had an impact on theories of culture and society. Ties this general discussion of cultural history and its roots to Canadian cultural history. (RW)

  18. Disseminating Chronic Disease Prevention "to or with" Canadian Public Health Systems (United States)

    Masuda, Jeffrey R.; Robinson, Kerry; Elliott, Susan; Eyles, John


    This article follows a conceptual article published in this journal by Elliott et al. and provides an empirical evaluation of the Canadian Heart Health Initiative-Dissemination Phase. Between 1994 and 2005, seven provincial research teams of the Canadian Heart Health Initiative-Dissemination Phase undertook projects to disseminate and evaluate the…

  19. Integration of Students with Physical Impairment in Canadian University Rehabilitation Sciences Programs (United States)

    Guitard, Paulette; Duguay, Elise; Theriault, France-Andree; Sirois, Nathalie Julie; Lajoie, Melissa


    The purpose of this research was two-fold. First, it sought to determine if Canadian rehabilitation science programs are equipped to admit students with physical impairments and, second, to document the experience of these students. A survey (questionnaire) conducted among all Canadian university rehabilitation science programs (n = 34) and…

  20. Canadian and Japanese Teachers' Conceptions of Critical Thinking: A Comparative Study (United States)

    Howe, Edward R.


    Canadian and Japanese secondary teachers' conceptions of critical thinking were compared and contrasted. Significant cross-cultural differences were found. While Canadian teachers tended to relate critical thinking to the cognitive domain, Japanese teachers emphasized the affective domain. The quantitative data, effectively reduced through factor…

  1. People, Processes, and Policy-Making in Canadian Post-secondary Education, 1990-2000 (United States)

    Axelrod, Paul; Desai-Trilokekar, Roopa; Shanahan, Theresa; Wellen, Richard


    Policy-making in Canadian post-secondary education is rarely the subject of intensive, systematic study. This paper seeks to identify the distinctive ways in which Canadian post-secondary education policy decisions were constructed and implemented, and to posit an analytical framework for interpreting policy-making process in post-secondary…

  2. Cantonese versus Canadian Evaluation of Directive and Non-Directive Therapy. (United States)

    Waxer, Peter H.


    Examined differences between Canadian and Cantonese university students who read transcripts of Carl Rogers and Albert Ellis counseling sessions and rated these counselors on directiveness, forcefulness, repetitiveness, sensitivity, politeness, and willingness to see either Ellis or Rogers. Found Canadians more willing to see Rogers than Chinese…

  3. Looking for Work: The Coverage of Work in Canadian Introductory Sociology Textbooks (United States)

    Dixon, Shane Michael; Quirke, Linda


    This paper examines the textual coverage of the topic of work in Canadian English--language introductory sociology textbooks. Our findings are based on a content analysis of 21 Canadian texts published between 2008 and 2012. We found that only 12 of 21 textbooks included a chapter on work, suggesting that work occupies a peripheral position in…

  4. Patterns and predictors of sitting time over ten years in a large population-based Canadian sample: Findings from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos)


    Gebel, Klaus; Pont, Sarah; Ding, Ding, W.; Bauman, Adrian E.; Chau, Josephine Y; Berger, Claudie; Prior, Jerilynn C; ,


    Our objective was to describe patterns and predictors of sedentary behavior (sitting time) over 10 years among a large Canadian cohort. Data are from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, a prospective study of women and men randomly selected from the general population. Respondents reported socio-demographics, lifestyle behaviors and health outcomes in interviewer-administered questionnaires; weight and height were measured. Baseline data were collected between 1995 and 1997 (n = 9418...

  5. The Arctic--A Global Hot Spot: Resources for Teaching the Geography of the Contemporary Canadian Arctic (United States)

    Arntzen, Betsy; Sotherden, Amy


    Canadian geography is a fascinating topic, particularly the Canadian North. The North is central to Canadian identity as can be seen by the choice of the far north "inukshuk" standing stones as the emblem for the 2010 Winter Olympics held in Vancouver, southern British Columbia. Canada's Arctic is receiving increasing attention by media,…

  6. Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools vs. Canadian Community Colleges: A Comparison of Information Accessibility and Accountability (United States)

    Butler, Norman L.; Smith, Catherine; Davidson, Barry S.; Tanner, Tyrone; Kritsonis, William Allan


    Recent reforms in Polish education, Canadian interest in cooperative education, and differences in government involvement in Polish vs. Canadian education motivate the current comparative study of Polish post-secondary vocational schools (PVSs) and Canadian community colleges (CCs). While PVSs and CCs may initially appear equivalent (e.g., both…

  7. Comparing Canadian and American normative scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition. (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G; Armstrong, Irene T; Harrison, Laura E; Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L


    Psychologists practicing in Canada must decide which set of normative data to use for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). The purpose of this study was to compare the interpretive effects of applying American versus Canadian normative systems in a sample of 432 Canadian postsecondary-level students who were administered the WAIS-IV as part of an evaluation for a learning disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or other mental health problems. Employing the Canadian normative system yielded IQ, Index, and subtest scores that were systematically lower than those obtained using the American norms. Furthermore, the percentage agreement in normative classifications, defined as American and Canadian index scores within five points or within the same classification range, was between 49% and 76%. Substantial differences are present between the American and Canadian WAIS-IV norms. Clinicians should consider carefully the implications regarding which normative system is most appropriate for specific types of evaluations.

  8. The obesity penalty in the labor market using longitudinal Canadian data. (United States)

    Chu, Filmer; Ohinmaa, Arto


    A Canadian study of weight discrimination also known as the obesity wage-penalty. This paper adds to the limited Canadian literature while also introducing a causal model, which can be applied to future Canadian studies. A general working-class sample group is utilized with personal income, which removes many biases introduced in other studies. The evidence suggests that a 1-unit increase in lagged BMI is associated with a 0.7% decrease in personal for obese Canadian females. Similar to other studies, the male results are inconsistent. The evidence brought forward in this study can provide an effective financial incentive for health promotion among Canadians for law and policy makers. Beyond health reasons, these results can also be applied as empirical evidence of gender discrimination based on body image perception. The evidence suggests that male physique is not a contributing factor in income, but larger female physique is associated with lower personal income.

  9. Servant leadership: a case study of a Canadian health care innovator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderpyl TH


    Full Text Available Tim H VanderpylSchool of Global Leadership, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA, USAAbstract: Both servant leadership and innovation are easier to theorize than to actually implement in practice. This article presents a case study of a Canadian health care executive who led a remarkable turnaround of St Michael's Health Centre, a floundering and almost bankrupt nursing home. In less than 7 years, Kevin Cowan turned around the finances and changed numerous broken relationships into strategic alliances. Under his leadership, St Michael's Health Centre went from being one of the most underperforming health care organizations in Canada, to one of the most innovative. This article describes some of Cowan's strategies and argues that a servant leadership approach has a direct impact on an organization's ability to innovate. As far as the author is aware, this is the first published article on this specific change effort, which presents a unique perspective on the topics of servant leadership and innovation.Keywords: servant leadership, innovation, Canada, health care, case study

  10. Forensic source differentiation of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic hydrocarbons in Canadian oil sands environmental samples. (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Parrott, J L; Frank, R A; Yang, Z; Brown, C E; Hollebone, B P; Landriault, M; Fieldhouse, B; Liu, Y; Zhang, G; Hewitt, L M


    To facilitate monitoring efforts, a forensic chemical fingerprinting methodology has been applied to characterize and differentiate pyrogenic (combustion derived) and biogenic (organism derived) hydrocarbons from petrogenic (petroleum derived) hydrocarbons in environmental samples from the Canadian oil sands region. Between 2009 and 2012, hundreds of oil sands environmental samples including water (snowmelt water, river water, and tailings pond water) and sediments (from river beds and tailings ponds) have been analyzed. These samples were taken from sites where assessments of wild fish health, invertebrate communities, toxicology and detailed chemistry are being conducted as part of the Canada-Alberta Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan (JOSMP). This study describes the distribution patterns and potential sources of PAHs from these integrated JOSMP study sites, and findings will be linked to responses in laboratory bioassays and in wild organisms collected from these same sites. It was determined that hydrocarbons in Athabasca River sediments and waters were most likely from four sources: (1) petrogenic heavy oil sands bitumen; (2) biogenic compounds; (3) petrogenic hydrocarbons of other lighter fuel oils; and (4) pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and biomarkers detected in snowmelt water samples collected near mining operations imply that these materials are derived from oil sands particulates (from open pit mines, stacks and coke piles).

  11. Comparing plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and metals in primiparous women from northern and southern Canada. (United States)

    Curren, Meredith S; Davis, Karelyn; Liang, Chun Lei; Adlard, Bryan; Foster, Warren G; Donaldson, Shawn G; Kandola, Kami; Brewster, Janet; Potyrala, Mary; Van Oostdam, Jay


    The exposure of Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals through the consumption of traditional food items is well recognized; however, less information is available for Canadian immigrants. The direct comparison of blood chemical concentrations for expectant primiparous women sampled in the Inuvik and Baffin regions of the Canadian Arctic, as well as Canadian- and foreign-born women from five southern Canadian centers (Halifax, Vancouver, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Calgary), provides relative exposure information for samples of northern and southern mothers in Canada. Based on our analyses, Canadian mothers are exposed to a similar suite of contaminants; however, Inuit first birth mothers residing in the Canadian Arctic had higher age-adjusted geometric mean concentrations for several legacy POPs regulated under the Stockholm Convention, along with lead and total mercury. Significant differences in exposure were observed for Inuit mothers from Baffin who tended to demonstrate higher blood concentrations of POPs and total mercury compared with Inuit mothers from Inuvik. Conversely, northern mothers showed a significantly lower age-adjusted geometric mean concentration for a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-153) compared to southern mothers. Furthermore, southern Canadian mothers born outside of Canada showed the highest individual concentrations measured in the study: 1700 μg/kg lipids for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 990 μg/kg lipids for β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Data from Cycle 1 (2007-2009) of the nationally-representative Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) places these results in a national biomonitoring context and affirms that foreign-born women of child-bearing age experience higher exposures to many POPs and metals than their Canadian-born counterparts in the general population.

  12. Lean and the Learning Organization in Higher Education (United States)

    Francis, David E.


    Canadian post-secondary institutions are seeking enhanced efficiencies due to ongoing funding shortfalls and expanding teaching, research, and service mandates. These institutions have considered or enacted Lean methodology based on results reported by public service and healthcare organizations worldwide. Lean requires a high level of…

  13. Establishing a database of Canadian feline mitotypes for forensic use. (United States)

    Arcieri, M; Agostinelli, G; Gray, Z; Spadaro, A; Lyons, L A; Webb, K M


    Hair shed by pet animals is often found and collected as evidence from crime scenes. Due to limitations such as small amount and low quality, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is often the only type of DNA that can be used for linking the hair to a potential contributor. mtDNA has lower discriminatory power than nuclear DNA because multiple, unrelated individuals within a population can have the same mtDNA sequence, or mitotype. Therefore, to determine the evidentiary value of a match between crime scene evidence and a suspected contributor, the frequency of the mitotype must be known within the regional population. While mitotype frequencies have been determined for the United States' cat population, the frequencies are unknown for the Canadian cat population. Given the countries' close proximity and similar human settlement patterns, these populations may be homogenous, meaning a single, regional database may be used for estimating cat population mitotype frequencies. Here we determined the mitotype frequencies of the Canadian cat population and compared them to the United States' cat population. The two cat populations are statistically homogenous, however mitotype B6 was found in high frequency in Canada and extremely low frequency in the United States, meaning a single database would not be appropriate for North America. Furthermore, this work calls attention to these local spikes in frequency of otherwise rare mitotypes, instances of which exist around the world and have the potential to misrepresent the evidentiary value of matches compared to a regional database.

  14. Dietary supplementation practices in Canadian high-performance athletes. (United States)

    Lun, Victor; Erdman, Kelly A; Fung, Tak S; Reimer, Raylene A


    Dietary supplementation is a common practice in athletes with a desire to enhance performance, training, exercise recovery, and health. Supplementation habits of elite athletes in western Canada have been documented, but research is lacking on supplement use by athletes across Canada. The purpose of this descriptive study was to evaluate the dietary supplementation practices and perspectives of high-performance Canadian athletes affiliated with each of the country's eight Canadian Sport Centres. Dietitians administered a validated survey to 440 athletes (63% women, 37% men; M=19.99±5.20 yr) representing 34 sports who predominantly trained≥16 hr/wk, most competing in "power" based sports. Within the previous 6 months, 87% declared having taken≥3 dietary supplements, with sports drinks, multivitamin and mineral preparations, carbohydrate sports bars, protein powder, and meal-replacement products the most prevalent supplements reported. Primary sources of information on supplementation, supplementation justification, and preferred means of supplementation education were identified. Fifty-nine percent reported awareness of current World Anti-Doping Agency legislation, and 83% subjectively believed they were in compliance with such anti-doping regulations. It was concluded that supplementation rates are not declining in Canada, current advisors on supplementation for this athletic population are not credible, and sports medicine physicians and dietitians need to consider proactive strategies to improve their influence on supplementation practices in these elite athletes.

  15. Community engagement in US and Canadian medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam O Goldstein


    Full Text Available Adam O Goldstein, Rachel Sobel BearmanDepartment of Family Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAIntroduction: This study examines the integration of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship at all accredited US and Canadian medical schools in order to better understand and assess their current state of engagement.Methods: A 32-question data abstraction instrument measured the role of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship as represented on the Web sites of all accredited US and Canadian medical schools. The instrument targeted a medical school's mission and vision statements, institutional structure, student and faculty awards and honors, and faculty tenure and promotion guidelines.Results: Medical school Web sites demonstrate little evidence that schools incorporate community engagement in their mission or vision statements or their promotion and tenure guidelines. The majority of medical schools do not include community service terms and/or descriptive language in their mission statements, and only 8.5% of medical schools incorporate community service and engagement as a primary or major criterion in promotion and tenure guidelines.Discussion: This research highlights significant gaps in the integration of community engagement or community-engaged scholarship into medical school mission and vision statements, promotion and tenure guidelines, and service administrative structures.Keywords: medical school, education, community service, mission, tenure, engagement

  16. Canadian macromolecular crystallography facility: a suite of fully automated beamlines. (United States)

    Grochulski, Pawel; Fodje, Michel; Labiuk, Shaunivan; Gorin, James; Janzen, Kathryn; Berg, Russ


    The Canadian light source is a 2.9 GeV national synchrotron radiation facility located on the University of Saskatchewan campus in Saskatoon. The small-gap in-vacuum undulator illuminated beamline, 08ID-1, together with the bending magnet beamline, 08B1-1, constitute the Canadian Macromolecular Crystallography Facility (CMCF). The CMCF provides service to more than 50 Principal Investigators in Canada and the United States. Up to 25% of the beam time is devoted to commercial users and the general user program is guaranteed up to 55% of the useful beam time through a peer-review process. CMCF staff provides "Mail-In" crystallography service to users with the highest scored proposals. Both beamlines are equipped with very robust end-stations including on-axis visualization systems, Rayonix 300 CCD series detectors and Stanford-type robotic sample auto-mounters. MxDC, an in-house developed beamline control system, is integrated with a data processing module, AutoProcess, allowing full automation of data collection and data processing with minimal human intervention. Sample management and remote monitoring of experiments is enabled through interaction with a Laboratory Information Management System developed at the facility.

  17. Drinking water consumption patterns in Canadian communities (2001-2007). (United States)

    Roche, S M; Jones, A Q; Majowicz, S E; McEwen, S A; Pintar, K D M


    A pooled analysis of seven cross-sectional studies from Newfoundland and Labrador, Waterloo and Hamilton Regions, Ontario and Vancouver, East Kootenay and Northern Interior Regions, British Columbia (2001 to 2007) was performed to investigate the drinking water consumption patterns of Canadians and to identify factors associated with the volume of tap water consumed. The mean volume of tap water consumed was 1.2 L/day, with a large range (0.03 to 9.0 L/day). In-home water treatment and interactions between age and gender and age and bottled water use were significantly associated with the volume of tap water consumed in multivariable analyses. Approximately 25% (2,221/8,916) of participants were classified as bottled water users, meaning that 75% or more of their total daily drinking water intake was bottled. Approximately 48.6% (4,307/8,799) of participants used an in-home treatment method to treat their tap water for drinking purposes. This study provides a broader geographic perspective and more current estimates of Canadian water consumption patterns than previous studies. The identified factors associated with daily water consumption could be beneficial for risk assessors to identify individuals who may be at greater risk of waterborne illness.

  18. Multilingualism in Canadian schools: Myths, realities and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Duff


    Full Text Available Abstract Bilingualism and multiculturalism have for four decades been official ideologies and policies in Canada but, as is often the case, the implementation and outcomes of such government policies nationally are less impressive than the rhetoric would suggest. This article reviews the political, theoretical and demographic contexts justifying support for the learning and use of additional languages in contemporary Canadian society and schools, and summarizes research demonstrating that bilingualism and multilingualism are indeed cognitively, socially, and linguistically advantageous for children (and adults, as well as for society. The five studies in this special issue are then previewed with respect to the following themes that run across them: (1 the potential for bilingual synergies and transformations in language awareness activities and crosslinguistic knowledge construction; (2 the role of multiliteracies and multimodality in mediated learning; and (3 the interplay of positioning, identity, and agency in language learning by immigrant youth. The article concludes that more Canadian schools and educators must, like the researchers in this volume, find ways to embrace and build upon students’ prior knowledge, their creativity, their collaborative problem-solving skills, their potential for mastering and manipulating multiple, multilingual semiotic tools, and their desire for inclusion and integration in productive, engaging learning communities.

  19. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Canadian Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) (United States)

    Movassat, Mohammad; Bailey, Joanne; Yetisir, Metin


    A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed on the proposed design for the Canadian SuperCritical Water Reactor (SCWR). The proposed Canadian SCWR is a 1200 MW(e) supercritical light-water cooled nuclear reactor with pressurized fuel channels. The reactor concept uses an inlet plenum that all fuel channels are attached to and an outlet header nested inside the inlet plenum. The coolant enters the inlet plenum at 350 C and exits the outlet header at 625 C. The operating pressure is approximately 26 MPa. The high pressure and high temperature outlet conditions result in a higher electric conversion efficiency as compared to existing light water reactors. In this work, CFD simulations were performed to model fluid flow and heat transfer in the inlet plenum, outlet header, and various parts of the fuel assembly. The ANSYS Fluent solver was used for simulations. Results showed that mass flow rate distribution in fuel channels varies radially and the inner channels achieve higher outlet temperatures. At the outlet header, zones with rotational flow were formed as the fluid from 336 fuel channels merged. Results also suggested that insulation of the outlet header should be considered to reduce the thermal stresses caused by the large temperature gradients.

  20. Climate change impacts and adaptation: a Canadian perspective. Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A brief summary of research over the past five years in the field of climate change, as it relates to key sectors in Canada, is presented in the report entitled: Climate change impacts and adaptation: a Canadian perspective. The emphasis of this chapter is on transportation, the role of adaptation in reducing vulnerabilities, and capitalizing on potential opportunities. Other sectors, such as fisheries, the coastal zone, tourism and human health might be affected by decisions made with regard to transportation. The areas that seem most vulnerable to climate change in transportation include northern ice roads, Great Lakes shipping, coastal infrastructure threatened by sea-level rise, and infrastructure located on permafrost. Most of the attention has been devoted to infrastructure and operations issues in northern Canada, despite most of the transportation activities taking place in southern Canada. Milder and or shorter winters might lead to savings, but additional knowledge is required before quantitative estimates can be made. The changed frequency of extreme climate events, and or changes in precipitation may influence other weather hazards or inefficiencies. If Canadians are prepared to be proactive, the report indicated that the effects of climate change on transportation may be largely manageable. 77 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  1. The Thai-Canadian nuclear human resources development linkage project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumitra, Tatchai; Chankow, Nares [Chulalongkorn university (Thailand); Bradley, K.; Bereznai, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada)


    The Thai-Canadian Nuclear Human Resources Development Linkage Project (the ''Project'') was initiated in 1994 in order to develop the engineering and scientific expertise needed for Thailand to decide whether and how the country can best benefit from the establishment of a nuclear power program. The Project was designed to upgrade current academics and people in industry, and to develop an adequate supply of new technical personnel for academic, industry, utility, regulatory and other government institutions. The key Project objectives included the establishment of a Chair in Nuclear Engineering at Chulalongkorn University, the upgrading of the current Masters level curriculum, the establishment of undergraduate and doctorate level curricula, development and delivery of an industrial training program for people in industry and government, exchanges of Thai and Canadian academics and industry experts to establish common research programs and teaching interests, and a public education program that was to test in Thailand some of the techniques that have been successfully used in Canada. (author)

  2. Factors Associated with Chronic Noncancer Pain in the Canadian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifudin Rashiq


    Full Text Available Chronic noncancer pain (CNCP is a prevalent health problem with pervasive negative effects on the individual’s quality of life. Previous epidemiological studies of CNCP have suggested a number of individual biological, psychological and societal correlates of CNCP, but it has rarely been possible to simultaneously compare the relative strengths of many such correlates in a Canadian population sample. With data provided by the 1996/1997 Canadian National Population Health Survey, ordinal logistic regression was used to examine the extent to which a number of population variables are associated with CNCP in a large (n=69,365 dataset. The analysis revealed cross-sectional correlations of varying strengths between CNCP and 27 factors. Increasing age, low income, low educational achievement, daily cigarette smoking, physical inactivity and abstention from alcohol were among the factors found to increase CNCP risk. The considerable impact of distress and depression on CNCP are also highlighted. A number of comorbid medical illnesses increased CNCP risk, including some (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, epilepsy and thyroid disease that have not hitherto been associated with pain. White race and the affirmation of an important role for spirituality or faith reduced CNCP risk. In contrast to some previous studies, female sex did not emerge as an independent CNCP risk. The present exploratory analysis describes associations between CNCP and a number of characteristics from several domains, thus suggesting many areas for further research.

  3. Physician assisted suicide: the great Canadian euthanasia debate. (United States)

    Schafer, Arthur


    A substantial majority of Canadians favours a change to the Criminal Code which would make it legally permissible, subject to careful regulation, for patients suffering from incurable physical illness to opt for either physician assisted suicide (PAS) or voluntary active euthanasia (VAE). This discussion will focus primarily on the arguments for and against decriminalizing physician assisted suicide, with special reference to the British Columbia case of Lee Carter vs. Attorney General of Canada. The aim is to critique the arguments and at the same time to describe the contours of the current Canadian debate. Both ethical and legal issues raised by PAS are clarified. Empirical evidence available from jurisdictions which have followed the regulatory route is presented and its relevance to the slippery slope argument is considered. The arguments presented by both sides are critically assessed. The conclusion suggested is that evidence of harms to vulnerable individuals or to society, consequent upon legalization, is insufficient to support continued denial of freedom to those competent adults who seek physician assistance in hastening their death.

  4. Taenia ovis infection and its control: a Canadian perspective. (United States)

    De Wolf, B D; Peregrine, A S; Jones-Bitton, A; Jansen, J T; Menzies, P I


    Distributed worldwide, Taenia ovis infection is responsible for the condemnation of sheep carcasses in many countries. This review highlights the programme used in New Zealand to successfully control T. ovis in sheep, and discusses how similar approaches may be modified for use in Canada, given what is currently known about the epidemiology of T. ovis. The lifecycle of the parasite is well known, involving dogs as the definitive host and sheep or goats as the intermediate host. An effective vaccine does exist, although it is not presently commercially available. In New Zealand an industry-based, non-regulatory programme was created to educate producers about T. ovis and necessary control strategies, including the need to treat farm dogs with cestocides regularly. This programme resulted in a substantial decrease in the prevalence of T. ovis infections between 1991 and 2012. Historically, T. ovis was not a concern for the Canadian sheep industry, but more recently the percentage of lamb condemnations due to T. ovis has increased from 1.5% in 2006 to 55% in 2012. It has been suggested that coyotes may be transmitting T. ovis, but this has not been confirmed. Recommendation are made for the Canadian sheep industry to adopt a control programme similar to that used in New Zealand in order to reduce the prevalence of T. ovis infection.

  5. Targeting improved patient outcomes using innovative product listing agreements: a survey of Canadian and international key opinion leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson M


    Canadian PLAs are financial-based rather than outcomes-based. They indicated that IPLAs offer important benefits to patients, payers, and manufacturers; however, several challenges limit their use (eg, administrative burden, lack of agreed-upon endpoint. They noted that IPLAs are useful in rapidly evolving therapeutic areas and those associated with high unmet need, a quantifiable endpoint, and/or robust data systems. The Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, the pan-Canadian Pharmaceutical Alliance, and other arms-length organizations could play important roles in identifying uncertainty and endpoints and brokering pan-Canadian PLAs. Industry should work collaboratively with payers to identify uncertainty and develop innovative mechanisms to address it. Conclusion: The survey results indicated that while challenging, use of IPLAs may be associated with various benefits. Collaboration among stakeholders remains key: Canadian agencies could play an important role in the success of these agreements, while industry should be proactive in offering solutions that will help improve outcomes across the entire health care system. Keywords: product listing agreement, survey, innovative, Canada, CADTH, pCPA

  6. The 2014 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for blood pressure measurement, diagnosis, assessment of risk, prevention, and treatment of hypertension. (United States)

    Dasgupta, Kaberi; Quinn, Robert R; Zarnke, Kelly B; Rabi, Doreen M; Ravani, Pietro; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Rabkin, Simon W; Trudeau, Luc; Feldman, Ross D; Cloutier, Lyne; Prebtani, Ally; Herman, Robert J; Bacon, Simon L; Gilbert, Richard E; Ruzicka, Marcel; McKay, Donald W; Campbell, Tavis S; Grover, Steven; Honos, George; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Bolli, Peter; Wilson, Thomas W; Lindsay, Patrice; Hill, Michael D; Coutts, Shelagh B; Gubitz, Gord; Gelfer, Mark; Vallée, Michel; Prasad, G V Ramesh; Lebel, Marcel; McLean, Donna; Arnold, J Malcolm O; Moe, Gordon W; Howlett, Jonathan G; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Larochelle, Pierre; Leiter, Lawrence A; Jones, Charlotte; Ogilvie, Richard I; Woo, Vincent; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Burns, Kevin D; Petrella, Robert J; Hiremath, Swapnil; Milot, Alain; Stone, James A; Drouin, Denis; Lavoie, Kim L; Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; Tremblay, Guy; Hamet, Pavel; Fodor, George; Carruthers, S George; Pylypchuk, George B; Burgess, Ellen; Lewanczuk, Richard; Dresser, George K; Penner, S Brian; Hegele, Robert A; McFarlane, Philip A; Khara, Milan; Pipe, Andrew; Oh, Paul; Selby, Peter; Sharma, Mukul; Reid, Debra J; Tobe, Sheldon W; Padwal, Raj S; Poirier, Luc


    Herein, updated evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in Canadian adults are detailed. For 2014, 3 existing recommendations were modified and 2 new recommendations were added. The following recommendations were modified: (1) the recommended sodium intake threshold was changed from ≤ 1500 mg (3.75 g of salt) to approximately 2000 mg (5 g of salt) per day; (2) a pharmacotherapy treatment initiation systolic blood pressure threshold of ≥ 160 mm Hg was added in very elderly (age ≥ 80 years) patients who do not have diabetes or target organ damage (systolic blood pressure target in this population remains at hypertension to only those ≥ 50 years of age. The 2 new recommendations are: (1) advice to be cautious when lowering systolic blood pressure to target levels in patients with established coronary artery disease if diastolic blood pressure is ≤ 60 mm Hg because of concerns that myocardial ischemia might be exacerbated; and (2) the addition of glycated hemoglobin (A1c) in the diagnostic work-up of patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. The rationale for these recommendation changes is discussed. In addition, emerging data on blood pressure targets in stroke patients are discussed; these data did not lead to recommendation changes at this time. The Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations will continue to be updated annually.

  7. Investigation of O2, NO3-, and associated parameters as indicators of Canadian Basin Deep Water ventilation (United States)

    McAlister, J. A.; Orians, K. J.


    Ventilation of Canadian Basin Deep Waters (CBDW) may provide a mechanism to export and preserve organic matter in the Arctic Ocean. Ventilation mechanisms of CBDW, however, are not fully understood. Multiple age models suggest CBDW ages of 300 -500 years. These ages may represent a single renewal event 500 years ago, a steady state average, indicative of ongoing ventilation processes, or a combination of past renewal and a possible recent cessation or decrease in the renewal of Canadian Basin Deep Water (CBDW). Past ventilation of CBDW may have been allowed by cooler, more dense, Atlantic waters. Current potential sources to CBDW include brine rejection during sea ice formation or prospective inputs from the Eurasian Basin via the Makarov Basin. This work examines utilization of O2 and NO3- data to identify markers of CBDW ventilation. Parameters investigated also include the calculated values of apparent oxygen utilization (AOU), NO (NO = 9NO3- + O2), and preformed NO3-. Calculation of conservative NO and preformed NO3- provide indicators of potential distinctive water mass sources along isopycnal surfaces across the Basin. Interannual comparisons allow evaluation of potentially differing source water mass signatures in different years. Application of this method is performed based on data from Louis S. St.-Laurent cruises from 2003 - 2009. Determination of CBDW ventilation is important to assess opportunities for carbon sequestration in the Arctic resulting from climate change, modification of spatial and temporal sea ice extent, and potential primary productivity shifts in the Arctic.

  8. Survivorship services for adult cancer populations: a pan-Canadian guideline (United States)

    Howell, D.; Hack, T.F.; Oliver, T.K.; Chulak, T.; Mayo, S.; Aubin, M.; Chasen, M.; Earle, C.C.; Friedman, A.J.; Green, E.; Jones, G.W.; Jones, J.M.; Parkinson, M.; Payeur, N.; Sabiston, C.M.; Sinclair, S.


    Objective Our goal was to develop evidence-based recommendations for the organization and structure of cancer survivorship services, and best-care practices to optimize the health and well-being of post–primary treatment survivors. This review sought to determine the optimal organization and care delivery structure for cancer survivorship services, and the specific clinical practices and interventions that would improve or maximize the psychosocial health and overall well-being of adult cancer survivors. Data Sources We conducted a systematic search of the Inventory of Cancer Guidelines at the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, the U.S. National Guideline Clearinghouse, the Canadian Medical Association InfoBase, medline (ovid: 1999 through November 2009), embase (ovid: 1999 through November 2009), Psychinfo (ovid: 1999 through November 2009), the Cochrane Library (ovid; Issue 1, 2009), and cinahl (ebsco: 1999 through December 2009). Reference lists of related papers and recent review articles were scanned for additional citations. Methods Articles were selected for inclusion as evidence in the systematic review if they reported on organizational system components for survivors of cancer, or on psychosocial or supportive care interventions HOWELL et al. designed for survivors of cancer. Articles were excluded from the systematic review if they focused only on pediatric cancer survivor populations or on populations that transitioned from pediatric cancer to adult services; if they addressed only pharmacologic interventions or diagnostic testing and follow-up of cancer survivors; if they were systematic reviews with inadequately described methods; if they were qualitative or descriptive studies; and if they were opinion papers, letters, or editorials. Data Extraction and Synthesis Evidence was selected and reviewed by three members of the Cancer Journey Survivorship Expert Panel (SM, TC, TKO). The resulting summary of the evidence was guided further and reviewed

  9. HIV Testing and Care in Canadian Aboriginal Youth: A community based mixed methods study

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    Myers Ted


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection is a serious concern in the Canadian Aboriginal population, particularly among youth; however, there is limited attention to this issue in research literature. The purpose of this national study was to explore HIV testing and care decisions of Canadian Aboriginal youth. Methods A community-based mixed-method design incorporating the Aboriginal research principles of Ownership, Control, Access and Possession (OCAP was used. Data were collected through surveys (n = 413 and qualitative interviews (n = 28. Eleven community-based organizations including urban Aboriginal AIDS service organizations and health and friendship centres in seven provinces and one territory assisted with the recruitment of youth (15 to 30 years. Results Average age of survey participants was 21.5 years (median = 21.0 years and qualitative interview participants was 24.4 years (median = 24.0. Fifty-one percent of the survey respondents (210 of 413 youth and 25 of 28 interview participants had been tested for HIV. The most common reason to seek testing was having sex without a condom (43.6% or pregnancy (35.4% while common reasons for not testing were the perception of being low HIV risk (45.3% or not having had sex with an infected person (34.5%. Among interviewees, a contributing reason for not testing was feeling invulnerable. Most surveyed youth tested in the community in which they lived (86.5% and 34.1% visited a physician for the test. The majority of surveyed youth (60.0% had tested once or twice in the previous 2 years, however, about one-quarter had tested more than twice. Among the 26 surveyed youth who reported that they were HIV-positive, 6 (23.1% had AIDS at the time of diagnosis. Delays in care-seeking after diagnosis varied from a few months to seven years from time of test. Conclusion It is encouraging that many youth who had tested for HIV did so based on a realistic self-assessment of HIV risk behaviours; however, for others

  10. 2010 Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Society of Echocardiography Guidelines for Training and Maintenance of Competency in Adult Echocardiography. (United States)

    Burwash, Ian G; Basmadjian, Arsene; Bewick, David; Choy, Jonathan B; Cujec, Bibiana; Jassal, Davinder S; MacKenzie, Scott; Nair, Parvathy; Rudski, Lawrence G; Yu, Eric; Tam, James W


    Guidelines for the provision of echocardiography in Canada were jointly developed and published by the Canadian Cardiovascular Society and the Canadian Society of Echocardiography in 2005. Since their publication, recognition of the importance of echocardiography to patient care has increased, along with the use of focused, point-of-care echocardiography by physicians of diverse clinical backgrounds and variable training. New guidelines for physician training and maintenance of competence in adult echocardiography were required to ensure that physicians providing either focused, point-of-care echocardiography or comprehensive echocardiography are appropriately trained and proficient in their use of echocardiography. In addition, revision of the guidelines was required to address technological advances and the desire to standardize echocardiography training across the country to facilitate the national recognition of a physician's expertise in echocardiography. This paper summarizes the new Guidelines for Physician Training and Maintenance of Competency in Adult Echocardiography, which are considerably more comprehensive than earlier guidelines and address many important issues not previously covered. These guidelines provide a blueprint for physician training despite different clinical backgrounds and help standardize physician training and training programs across the country. Adherence to the guidelines will ensure that physicians providing echocardiography have acquired sufficient expertise required for their specific practice. The document will also provide a framework for other national societies to standardize their training programs in echocardiography and will provide a benchmark by which competency in adult echocardiography may be measured.

  11. Acoustic-phonetics of coronal stops: A cross-language study of Canadian English and Canadian French (United States)

    Sundara, Megha


    The study was conducted to provide an acoustic description of coronal stops in Canadian English (CE) and Canadian French (CF). CE and CF stops differ in VOT and place of articulation. CE has a two-way voicing distinction (in syllable initial position) between simultaneous and aspirated release; coronal stops are articulated at alveolar place. CF, on the other hand, has a two-way voicing distinction between prevoiced and simultaneous release; coronal stops are articulated at dental place. Acoustic analyses of stop consonants produced by monolingual speakers of CE and of CF, for both VOT and alveolar/dental place of articulation, are reported. Results from the analysis of VOT replicate and confirm differences in phonetic implementation of VOT across the two languages. Analysis of coronal stops with respect to place differences indicates systematic differences across the two languages in relative burst intensity and measures of burst spectral shape, specifically mean frequency, standard deviation, and kurtosis. The majority of CE and CF talkers reliably and consistently produced tokens differing in the SD of burst frequency, a measure of the diffuseness of the burst. Results from the study are interpreted in the context of acoustic and articulatory data on coronal stops from several other languages.

  12. Acoustic-phonetics of coronal stops: a cross-language study of Canadian English and Canadian French. (United States)

    Sundara, Megha


    The study was conducted to provide an acoustic description of coronal stops in Canadian English (CE) and Canadian French (CF). CE and CF stops differ in VOT and place of articulation. CE has a two-way voicing distinction (in syllable initial position) between simultaneous and aspirated release; coronal stops are articulated at alveolar place. CF, on the other hand, has a two-way voicing distinction between prevoiced and simultaneous release; coronal stops are articulated at dental place. Acoustic analyses of stop consonants produced by monolingual speakers of CE and of CF, for both VOT and alveolar/dental place of articulation, are reported. Results from the analysis of VOT replicate and confirm differences in phonetic implementation of VOT across the two languages. Analysis of coronal stops with respect to place differences indicates systematic differences across the two languages in relative burst intensity and measures of burst spectral shape, specifically mean frequency, standard deviation, and kurtosis. The majority of CE and CF talkers reliably and consistently produced tokens differing in the SD of burst frequency, a measure of the diffuseness of the burst. Results from the study are interpreted in the context of acoustic and articulatory data on coronal stops from several other languages.

  13. Ethical orientation, functional linguistics, and the codes of ethics of the Canadian Nurses Association and the Canadian Medical Association. (United States)

    Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Malloy, David C; Douaud, Patrick; Smythe, William E


    The literature on codes of ethics suggests that grammatical and linguistic structures as well as the theoretical ethical orientation conveyed in codes of ethics have implications for the manner in which such codes are received by those bound by them. Certain grammatical and linguistic structures, for example, tend to have an authoritarian and disempowering impact while others can be empowering. The authors analyze and compare the codes of ethics of the Canadian Nurses Association (CNA) and the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) in terms of their ethical orientation and grammatical/linguistic structures. The results suggest that the two codes differ substantially along these two dimensions. The CNA code contains proportionally more statements that provide a rationale for ethical behaviour; the statements of the CMA code tend to be more dogmatic. Functional grammar analysis suggests that both codes convey a strong deontological tone that does not enhance the addressee's ability to engage in discretionary decision-making. The nurses' code nonetheless implies a collaborative relationship with the client, whereas the medical code implies that the patient is the recipient of medical wisdom. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Canadian Government industrial security policy : potential value added service for the Canadian oil and natural gas private sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, R.


    Responses to the terrorist attacks of September 11 have enhanced a number of national security policy programs, standards and resources to assess, advise, and protect critical energy infrastructure in Canada. It is expected that resolutions related to energy security and interdependence will reflect private sector concerns and solutions. However, the private energy sector does not currently qualify for sponsorship in the Industrial Security Policy Program. This paper argued that the security systems and standards in place in the Canadian private energy sector should be reinforced by government policies. A joint commission model developed by government agencies with the participation of the private sector was recommended. It was suggested that academic, security and intelligence professionals within government departments that provide services for energy infrastructure protection share their expectations under the leadership of the Canadian Centre of Intelligence and Security Studies. An outline of Canada's industrial security policy and program was presented, as well as details of the role of the industrial security advisory board. 31 refs.

  15. Hydrological modelling of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts transport to investigate contaminated snowmelt runoff as a potential source of infection for marine mammals in the Canadian Arctic. (United States)

    Simon, Audrey; Rousseau, Alain N; Savary, Stéphane; Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Ogden, Nicholas H


    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a zoonotic protozoan that sometimes causes serious illness in humans and other animals worldwide, including the Canadian Arctic. Wild and domestic felids, the only hosts able to shed T. gondii oocysts, are practically non-existent in the Canadian Arctic. So here the hypothesis that T. gondii oocysts, shed in the southern areas of the boreal watershed, could contaminate the Arctic coastal marine environment via surface runoff, particularly during the spring snowmelt period, was explored. A watershed model was applied to simulate the hydrological transport of T. gondii oocysts during the snowmelt period and test the possible efficiency of river-to-sea transport as a potential source of marine organisms' exposure to this pathogen. Simulations were run for two pilot watersheds with the ultimate aim of extrapolating the results across the Canadian Arctic watersheds. Results suggest that daily stream flow concentrations of T. gondii oocysts at the river outlet are likely to be very low. However, accumulation of oocysts in the estuarine areas may be large enough to contaminate estuarine/marine filter-feeding molluscs and snails on which seals and other marine mammals may feed. Potential maximum concentrations of T. gondii oocysts in runoff are reached at the beginning of the snowmelt period with maxima varying with discharge rates into rivers and how far upstream oocysts are discharged. Meteorological conditions during the snowmelt period can affect simulated concentrations of oocysts. These findings support the hypothesis that T. gondii oocysts carried in snowmelt runoff could be a source of T. gondii infection for marine mammals in the Canadian Arctic, and for Arctic human populations that hunt and consume raw meat from marine mammals.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald G. Haycock


    Full Text Available In early 1997, the Canadian Minister of National Defence publicly issued an excoriating report that roundly condemned the poor state of leadership, ethics discipline, professional knowledge and education in the Canadian Armed Forces particularly among officers. His public exposure stemmed from a series of traumatic events that occurred in the four previous years. The most damning one had been the appalling revelation that some soldiers of the Canadian Airborne Regiment, then on a peacekeeping mission in Somalia, had beaten to death a young Somali teenager. The trail led right back to senior officers in Canada and there was evidence of a cover-up. The embarrassed government was forced into appointing a top level Somalia Commission of Inquiry1. Then, in the next several months, followed revelations recorded on camera of grotesque initiation rites and racism in airborne units and others. The usually complacent and unmilitary Canadian public was shocked and indignant.2 The government promptly disbanded the Canadian Airborne Regiment. How, many asked, did the Canadian Forces get here from its excellent performance in past decades? It had fought well in both World Wars, in Korea and had served with great distinction in the many United Nations missions since that time. Canadians, after all prided themselves believing that their forces were the humanitarian ‘honest northern brokers’ and perhaps the world’s best peacekeepers.

  17. The Sea Stacks Project: Enhancing the Use of Regional Literature in Atlantic Canadian Schools

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    Vivian Howard


    Full Text Available Research over the past two decades has amply demonstrated the importance of literature to the formation of both regional and national cultural identity, particularly in the face of mass market globalization of children’s book publishing in the 21st century as well as the predominance of non-Canadian content from television, movies, books, magazines and internet media. However, Canadian children appear to have only very limited exposure to Canadian authors and illustrators. In Atlantic Canada, regional Atlantic Canadian authors and illustrators for children receive very limited critical attention, and resources for the study and teaching of Atlantic Canadian children’s literature are few. Print and digital information sources on regional children’s books, publishing, authors and illustrators are scattered and inconsistent in quality and currency. This research project directly addresses these key concerns by summarizing the findings of a survey of Atlantic Canadian teachers on their use of regional books. In response to survey findings, the paper concludes by describing the creation of the Sea Stacks Project an authoritative web-delivered information resource devoted to contemporary Atlantic Canadian literature for children and teens.

  18. Injuries at a Canadian National Taekwondo Championships: a prospective study

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    Pieter Willy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the injury rates in male and female adult Canadian Taekwondo athletes relative to total number of injuries, type and body part injured. Methods Subjects (219 males, 99 females participated in the 1997 Canadian National Taekwondo Championships in Toronto, Canada. Injuries were recorded on an injury form to documents any injury seen and treatment provided by the health care team. These data were later used for this study. The injury form describes the athlete and nature, site, severity and mechanism of the injury. Results The overall rate of injuries was 62.9/1,000 athlete-exposures (A-E. The males (79.9/1,000 A-E sustained significantly more injuries than the females (25.3/1,000 A-E. The lower extremities were the most commonly injured body region in the men (32.0 /1,000 A-E, followed by the head and neck (18.3/1,000 A-E. Injuries to the spine (neck, upper back, low back and coccyx were the third most often injured body region in males (13.8/1,000 A-E. All injuries to the women were sustained to the lower extremities. The most common type of injury in women was the contusion (15.2/1,000 A-E. However, men's most common type of injury was the sprain (22.8/1,000 A-E followed by joint dysfunction (13.7/1,000A-E. Concussions were only reported in males (6.9/1,000 A-E. Compared to international counterparts, the Canadian men and women recorded lower total injury rates. However, the males incurred more cerebral concussions than their American colleagues (4.7/1,000 A-E. Conclusions Similar to what was found in previous studies, the current investigation seems to suggest that areas of particular concern for preventive measures involve the head and neck as well as the lower extremities. This is the first paper to identify spinal joint dysfunction.

  19. Mapping Collaborative Relations among Canada's Chronic Disease Prevention Organizations. (United States)

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Hanusaik, Nancy; Maximova, Katerina; Paradis, Gilles; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L


    In the field of chronic disease prevention (CDP), collaborations between organizations provide a vital framework for intersectoral engagement and exchanges of knowledge, expertise and resources. However, little is known about how the structures of preventive health systems actually articulate with CDP capacity and outcomes. Drawing upon data from the Public Health Organizational Capacity Study - a repeat census of all public health organizations in Canada - we used social network analysis to map and examine interorganizational collaborative relationships in the Canadian preventive health system. The network of relationships obtained through our study shows that provincial boundaries remain a major factor influencing collaborative patterns. Not only are collaborations scarce on the interprovincial level but they are also mostly limited to links with federal and multi-provincial organizations. Given this finding, federal or multi-provincial organizations that occupy central bridging positions in the Canadian CDP collaborative structure should serve as key players for shaping CDP practices in the country.

  20. Management and Prevention of Herpes Zoster: A Canadian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Boivin


    Full Text Available Varicella-zoster virus reactivation leads to herpes zoster – the main complication of which is postherpetic neuralgia (PHN. Rapid antiviral therapy initiated within 72 h of rash onset has been shown to accelerate rash healing, reduce the duration of acute pain and, to some extent, attenuate the development and duration of PHN. Other adjunctive therapies such as analgesics, antidepressants and some anticonvulsants are frequently required in the management of severe PHN. A live, attenuated zoster vaccine has been recently shown to significantly decrease herpes zoster incidence, PHN and the overall burden of illness when administered to adults older than 60 years of age. This new prophylactic modality has been reported to be cost-effective in the Canadian context, especially in the 60- to 75-year-old age group.

  1. 2009 Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Educational Needs Assessment Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Rostom


    Full Text Available The annual survey of Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG members’ educational needs was conducted via an online survey during April 2009. A total of 261 individuals completed the survey. Similar to previous years, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD topics – particularly Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (UC therapeutics, and difficult IBD cases – were most in demand for future educational events. Other highly rated areas were endoscopic techniques and therapeutics, celiac disease, approach to gastrointestinal (GI infections and live endoscopy. The two most popular educational formats were ‘Lectures/presentations streamed to computer/podcasts’ and ‘A CAG educational portal to on-line presentations, self-assessments and maintenance of certification (MainCert point tracking’.

  2. Guide to energy efficiency opportunities in Canadian foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In Canada, the foundry sector employs about 15000 people and most of the companies are members of the Canadian Foundry Association (CFA). The CFA is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions and is therefore looking for energy savings which, in addition to reducing emissions, would help the industry save costs and improve its competitiveness. The aim of this document is to provide operators with a guide to improving energy efficiency in their foundries. The report provides guidance on carrying out energy audits, gathering energy saving ideas, prioritizing projects, and charting the course of improved energy performance. Many different energy saving ideas for many kinds of operation are presented in this guidebook as a help to operators in finding where they could improve their energy efficiency; references to energy saving methods from all over the world are provided. This guidebook is a useful tool for helping foundry operators improve energy efficiency in their operations.

  3. Carbon footprint of Canadian dairy products: calculations and issues. (United States)

    Vergé, X P C; Maxime, D; Dyer, J A; Desjardins, R L; Arcand, Y; Vanderzaag, A


    The Canadian dairy sector is a major industry with about 1 million cows. This industry emits about 20% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the main livestock sectors (beef, dairy, swine, and poultry). In 2006, the Canadian dairy herd produced about 7.7 Mt of raw milk, resulting in about 4.4 Mt of dairy products (notably 64% fluid milk and 12% cheese). An integrated cradle-to-gate model (field to processing plant) has been developed to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of 11 Canadian dairy products. The on-farm part of the model is the Unified Livestock Industry and Crop Emissions Estimation System (ULICEES). It considers all GHG emissions associated with livestock production but, for this study, it was run for the dairy sector specifically. Off-farm GHG emissions were estimated using the Canadian Food Carbon Footprint calculator, (cafoo)(2)-milk. It considers GHG emissions from the farm gate to the exit gate of the processing plants. The CF of the raw milk has been found lower in western provinces [0.93 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/L of milk] than in eastern provinces (1.12 kg of CO2e/L of milk) because of differences in climate conditions and dairy herd management. Most of the CF estimates of dairy products ranged between 1 and 3 kg of CO2e/kg of product. Three products were, however, significantly higher: cheese (5.3 kg of CO2e/kg), butter (7.3 kg of CO2e/kg), and milk powder (10.1 kg of CO2e/kg). The CF results depend on the milk volume needed, the co-product allocation process (based on milk solids content), and the amount of energy used to manufacture each product. The GHG emissions per kilogram of protein ranged from 13 to 40 kg of CO2e. Two products had higher values: cream and sour cream, at 83 and 78 kg of CO2e/kg, respectively. Finally, the highest CF value was for butter, at about 730 kg of CO2e/kg. This extremely high value is due to the fact that the intensity indicator per kilogram of product is high and that butter is almost exclusively

  4. Monitoring of the Canadian Oil Sands from the Aura Satellite (United States)

    McLinden, C. A.; Shephard, M. W.; Fioletov, V.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Krotkov, N. A.; Boersma, K. F.; Li, C.; Luo, M.; Joiner, J.; Bhartia, P. K.


    Two instruments on-board the NASA Aura satellite, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), have been used to monitor air pollution over the Canadian oil sands region. Between them they provide a unique perspective on the distributions, evolution, and sources of several key pollutants. This presentation will detail some highlights from these Aura-based oil sands studies: (i) the evolution of OMI-measured nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide enhancements over the past decade, including comparisons with other nearby sources, (ii) two years of ammonia, carbon monoxide, methanol, and formic acid observations from TES special-observation transects, and (iii) preliminary insights into emissions derived from these observations.

  5. Canadian Laboratory Standards for Sexually Transmitted Infections: Best Practice Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky


    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI continue to spread, and show no international boundaries. Diseases such as gonorrhea and syphilis, which we thought were under control in Canadian populations, have increased in incidence. Sexually transmitted or associated syndromes such as cervicitis, enteric infections, epididymitis, genital ulcers, sexually related hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis and vulvovaginitis present a challenge for the physician to identify the microbial cause, treat the patient and manage contacts. During the past 10 years, new technologies developed for the diagnosis of STIs have provided a clearer understanding of the real accuracy of traditional tests for the diagnosis of infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis B virus, human papillomaviruses, HIV, Haemophilus ducreyi, Trichomonas vaginalis and mycoplasmas. This has presented a major challenge to the diagnostic laboratory, namely, selecting the most sensitive and specific test matched with the most appropriate specimens to provide meaningful and timely results to facilitate optimal patient care.

  6. Sustainable development at Canadian Electrolytic Zinc -- recent improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centomo, L.; Seyer, S. [Canadian Electrolytic Zinc Inc., Valleyfield, PQ (Canada)


    A series of modifications which increased the capacity of Canadian Electrolytic Zinc's Valleyfield plant from 220,000 MT/year to 260,000 MT/year during the last decade is discussed, combined with an an overview of the plant's operations. The modifications included modernisation of the waste disposal methods and facilities, such as a new high-density sludge wastewater treatment process, a new process to remove selenium from weak acid solutions and the jarofix process. Roasting capacity also has been improved by recent investments in new cooling coils, rebricking, oxygen enrichment and process automation. In addition to increases in refining capacity, the improvements also enabled the company to minimize its impact on the environment and the community.

  7. Physics in canadian secondary schools: Intentions, perceptions, and achievement (United States)

    Finegold, Menahem; Raphael, Dennis

    This article examines secondary-school physics teaching with respect to three levels of curriculum. These are the curriculum as designed by educational authorities and intended for school guidance, as perceived by teachers and translated into classroom practice, and as internalized by students and expressed by achievement on physics tests. In keeping with international usage we refer to these levels of curriculum as the intended, the translated and the achieved. The article is based upon the analysis of curriculum documents and guidelines, teacher assessments of opportunity provided students to learn, and student achievement on a comprehensive physics test. The context for analysis is provided by an ongoing international study of science education in which some 30 participating countries analyze the three curriculum levels and attempt to draw conclusions concerning possible relationships among them. The article reports limited but nevertheless significant relationships found among intentions, translations, and achievement in the teaching of physics in Canadian secondary schools.

  8. The Canadian Microgravity Sciences Program - Past present and future (United States)

    Wetter, Barry; Saghir, Ziad; Mortimer, Alan


    An overview is given of the Canadian microgravity sciences program emphasizing the development and progress of microgravity-related research in the areas of materials and life sciences. Activities in the area of materials include: (1) materials processing by means of lasers; (2) crystal growth from melts solutions, and/or biological materials; (3) composite, glass, metal, and alloy materials research; and (4) combustion and fluid physics studies. The life-sciences segment incorporates studies of: cardiovascular/muscular acclimatization, radiation dosimetry, aquatic biology, bone decalcification, neurovestibular adaptations, cell cultures, and metabolism. Experimental payloads and processes are described for such infrastructures as the Mir space station, sounding rockets, drop towers, and the International Microgravity Laboratory. In addition to a significant body of useful scientific data the program contributes to the development of useful R&D hardware such as laser systems and a float-zone furnace.

  9. Cultural schemas for racial identity in Canadian television advertising. (United States)

    Baumann, Shyon; Ho, Loretta


    What meanings are attached to race in advertising? We analyze a sample of prime-time Canadian television advertising to identify cultural schemas for what it means to be White, Black, and East/Southeast Asian. Our empirical focus is on food and dining advertising. Through quantitative content analysis of associations between race and food subtypes, we show that there are systematic differences in the types of foods that groups are associated with. Through a qualitative content analysis of the commercials, we illuminate these quantitative patterns and discuss six cultural schemas for racial identity. The schemas allow for both diversity and privilege in the representation of Whites, and poignant contrasts regarding status and emotionality in the narrow representations of the other two groups.

  10. Canadian R&D on oil-fired combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, A.C.S.; Entchev, E. [CCRL/ERL/CANMET, Ottawa (Canada)


    This paper describes research and development presently being conducted on oil-fired space and tap water heating systems by the Advanced Combustion Technology Group, CCRL/ERL/CANMET, in Ottawa, Canada. The presentation will focus on R&D activities at CCRL in support of the Canadian Oil Heat Association (COHA) and of the energy policy initiatives of Natural Resources Canada. Progress will be reported on activities to develop suitable oil-fired integrated systems to satisfy the low energy demands of new homes. The utilization of fuzzy logic-based control heating systems including fan coils for a complete range of old and new North American housing will be discussed. Additional activities to be discussed in the presentation will relate to the development of appropriate seasonal efficiency standards for complex integrated space/water heating systems, as well as an evaluation of alternative sidewall venting technologies and their implications for seasonal energy efficiency.

  11. International immigration, internal migration, and homicide in Canadian provinces. (United States)

    Andresen, Martin A


    The relationship between immigration and crime is politically charged and often fueled by the presence (or lack) of xenophobia. Many theoretical and empirical assessments of this relationship indicate that immigration does indeed lead to increased crime, but more recent (and very early) research investigating homicide calls this finding into question. The current analysis investigates the relationship between immigration and homicide using multiple measures of migration and Canadian provinces as the unit of analysis. It is found that the link between immigration and homicide is complex and dependent on the measure of migration used. Generally speaking, the results presented here are consistent with the more recent and very early research. Immigration, in and of itself, does not increase homicide. Rather it is the increase in the most criminogenic subpopulation that matters, that is young males.

  12. Advocacy--answering old mail. Canadian Association of General Surgeons. (United States)

    Keith, R G


    Since its inception in 1977, the Canadian Association of General Surgeons (CAGS) has struggled with its responsibility to represent general surgeons in practices across this country. The CAGS has tended to be mute in the presentation of many of its accomplishments, which have improved the role of specialists in community practice, training programs and the subspecialties of general surgery. With the forthcoming changes in direction for the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, based on a recent external survey, the CAGS has a golden opportunity to advocate for a clear identity, autonomous from the Royal College for the purposes of scientific meetings, continuing professional development, scientific and practice affiliation with other surgical specialty societies, and new developments with corporate sector support for advancements in science technology and education. Advocacy for general surgery must be stressed as the priority for the CAGS into the future.

  13. Treatment optimization in MS: Canadian MS Working Group updated recommendations. (United States)

    Freedman, Mark S; Selchen, Daniel; Arnold, Douglas L; Prat, Alexandre; Banwell, Brenda; Yeung, Michael; Morgenthau, David; Lapierre, Yves


    The Canadian Multiple Sclerosis Working Group (CMSWG) developed practical recommendations in 2004 to assist clinicians in optimizing the use of disease-modifying therapies (DMT) in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. The CMSWG convened to review how disease activity is assessed, propose a more current approach for assessing suboptimal response, and to suggest a scheme for switching or escalating treatment. Practical criteria for relapses, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) progression and MRI were developed to classify the clinical level of concern as Low, Medium and High. The group concluded that a change in treatment may be considered in any RRMS patient if there is a high level of concern in any one domain (relapses, progression or MRI), a medium level of concern in any two domains, or a low level of concern in all three domains. These recommendations for assessing treatment response should assist clinicians in making more rational choices in their management of relapsing MS patients.

  14. Variability in captan residues in apples from a Canadian orchard. (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Quade, Sue C; Shields, J Brian; Conca, Giacomo; Sun, Wing-Fung; Lacroix, Gladys M A; Smith, Mark; Fouquet, André; Bélanger, André


    Apple trees in an orchard in Quebec, Canada were treated, following label directions, with the fungicide captan (1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-N-(trichloromethylthio)phthalimide) during the 2003 agricultural season. A total of 142 apples from three rows of trees were selected for determination of captan by GC/MS. Individual apples were found to contain captan levels ranging from 16.9 to 6350 ng g-1. Only two individual apple samples exceeded the Canadian maximum residue limit (5000 ng g-1) for captan in apples. Six composite samples, comprising half portions of eight individual apples, were analysed from each of the three experimental rows. Composite samples ranged in concentration from 166 to 2620 ng g-1. The greatest uncertainty associated with the measured concentrations was due to variability among apples rather than the measurement of residue levels.

  15. Reaching Rural Canadian Communities in the Yukon and Alberta (United States)

    Van Laerhoven, Christa L.


    Canada is very large geographically, so many rural communities are very far from major centers. People in such communities are at a severe disadvantage when it comes to in-person interaction with science or scientists because resources tend to be directed at large population centers, where more people can be reached for the same amount of effort. While this geographic distance can be mitigated by doing outreach over the internet, there is at some level no substitute for showing up in person with e.g. meteorites in hand. Due to where various members of my family are located, I have occasion to visit Whitehorse, YT and Andrew, AB (~1.5 hour drive north-east of Edmonton) and have taken advantage of trips to these locations to do astronomy outreach in both schools and public libraries. I will discuss how I arranged school and library visits and general observations from my experience doing outreach in rural Canadian communities.

  16. Canadian Occidental joins Hunt as Yemen oil producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, J.


    On 23 September 1993, the Canadian Occidental Petroleum Company initiated the export of 120,000 b/d (barrels a day) of low sulphur, medium gravity crude oil from its Masila Block concession in Yemen. The oil is transported from Masila via a pipeline built by CanOxy and its partners to a new terminal at Ash Shihr, near Mukalla, in the Gulf of Aden. CanOxy is the third operator oil company to produce oil commercially in Yemen. The first, the Hunt Oil Company, began production in December 1987 and its output now totals about 187,000 b/d. The second, Nimir Petroleum, a Saudi venture which took over the facilities developed in the 1980s by two Soviet companies, is currently producing about 10,000 b/d and expects to increase its output to 25,000 b/d during this year. (Author)

  17. 13th Conference of the Canadian Number Theory Association

    CERN Document Server

    Alaca, Şaban; Williams, Kenneth


    The theory of numbers continues to occupy a central place in modern mathematics because of both its long history over many centuries as well as its many diverse applications to other fields such as discrete mathematics, cryptography, and coding theory. The proof by Andrew Wiles (with Richard Taylor) of Fermat’s last theorem published in 1995 illustrates the high level of difficulty of problems encountered in number-theoretic research as well as the usefulness of the new ideas arising from its proof. The thirteenth conference of the Canadian Number Theory Association was held at Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada from June 16 to 20, 2014. Ninety-nine talks were presented at the conference on the theme of advances in the theory of numbers. Topics of the talks reflected the diversity of current trends and activities in modern number theory. These topics included modular forms, hypergeometric functions, elliptic curves, distribution of prime numbers, diophantine equations, L-functions, Diophantine app...

  18. Trees in Canadian Cities: Indispensable Life Form for Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N. Duinker


    Full Text Available We argue that a healthy urban forest contributes immensely to the sustainability of cities. The argument is based on a comprehensive array of values elicited from Canadians in several cities. To begin, we define the urban forest as inclusive of all the trees in the city and thus representing the predominant contributor to a city’s green infrastructure. Then we enumerate and explain the broad diversity of ways in which urban people value trees in the city. We, thus, show the myriad pathways by which trees contribute positively to any city’s social, economic, and ecological sustainability. Following a short summary of the ways in which trees may detract from people’s quality of life, we present promising management directions for urban-forest improvement, as we understand the situation in Canada. We conclude that all cities can enhance their sustainability by improving the urban forest.

  19. 48th Canadian Chemical Engineering conference: technical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is the official CD-ROM for the Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering annual conference. The documents on the disk can be navigated in the same way as a Web site on the Internet. Web pages are located on the disk. A Web browser is required to view most of the files. The conference program contains abstracts of the more than 300 papers presented at 78 sessions covering all aspects of chemical engineering: fluidized bed, reaction catalysis, environment, new developments, biotechnology, process control, polymers, fluid mechanics, pulp and paper, thermodynamics, multiphase reactors, reaction catalysis, rheology, chemical engineering fundamentals, chemical technology, oil and gas, education, and industrial issues. Five of the abstracts have been abstracted separately.

  20. Eye injuries in Canadian sports and recreational activities. (United States)

    Pashby, T J


    Over 4000 eye injuries, including 449 blind eyes, have been reported in sports and recreational activities in Canada over the past 20 years. This is not only a great personal loss but also a financial loss, both to the injured person and to the community. Statistics should be tabulated on catastrophic injuries that leave the person with a physical or mental deficit, such as a blind eye, and efforts should be directed toward preventing such injuries. Changing and enforcing game rules and providing proper eye protection has proved very beneficial in Canadian hockey, racket sports and war games. Educational programs supported by the media and government that alert players to the need for eye protection are required. Such measures may lead to the prevention of up to 90% of injuries in sports and recreational activities in Canada.

  1. Forming of Future Teachers’ ICT-Competence: Canadian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demchenko Iryna


    Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon of digital divide in the education in Canada. The domestic and foreign scientific and educational publications have been studied and analyzed. It has been found out that traditional means for training pedagogical specialists are gradually losing their relevance due to lack of educational dialogue between a teacher and a student. Information and communication technologies have entered today’s youth everyday life and become an essential means of communication, receiving and transmitting information. Based on the source study, the essence and reasons of digital divide have been revealed. Canadian researchers consider that it is possible to overcome this problem by revising the approach to teacher training which will focus on the forming of future teachers’ information and communication competence. Various definitions of the terms “information competence”, “ICT competence”, “digital literacy”, “e-literacy” have been described. The model of ICT competence, its structure and the process of its integration into education have been analyzed. The examples of forming future teachers’ ICT competence in universities of Canada have been given. It has been revealed that the problem of effective ICT implementation into educational activities is in the range of many Canadian studies, but in fact the phenomenon of digital divide in education is still topical due to insufficient activity of teachers of pedagogical faculties and students’ ignoring the problem. A number of studies have been examined, the authors of which give practical recommendations aimed at enhancing the role of new technologies in teacher training in Canada.

  2. Creating a Culture of Innovation in Canadian Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Dibbon


    Full Text Available Since its inception in 1996, the GrassRoots Program has been instrumental in facilitating the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT into the classrooms of Canadian schools. By linking the GrassRoots Program to the school curriculum and providing incentives for teachers to engage students in the process of co-creating electronic curriculum resources for the Internet, it has been influential in transforming classrooms into authentic centres of learning. There is overwhelming evidence supporting the concept that the GrassRoots Program is a powerful connector between ICT and new teaching theories. This paper provides an overview of innovation, a background to some of the challenges associated with large-scale innovation in the Canadian K-12 school system and the findings from a collection of 16 case studies conducted in innovative schools in Canada. An analysis of the data contained in the case studies indicates that the GrassRoots Program is having a positive impact on the diffusion of ICT in the classrooms of schools that are members of the Network of Innovation (NIS, and it is making a significant contribution to the development of a culture of innovation. The existence of GrassRoots projects has also increased the capacity for innovation by empowering and enabling the schools and teachers to work on multiple innovations simultaneously. Also, there is sufficient evidence to show that GrassRoots has had a major impact on: teacher professional learning; teacher technology skill development; student technology skill development, student employability skill development; access to teaching resources; leadership opportunities; and school growth and development.

  3. Accuracy of Canadian Food Labels for Sodium Content of Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fitzpatrick


    Full Text Available The accuracy of the Nutrition Facts table (NFt has a significant impact on Canadian efforts to reduce dietary sodium and monitor sodium content in foods. This study assessed the accuracy of sodium (and calories, trans fat, saturated fat, sugar reported on the NFt for selected foods and beverages in Canada. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA sampled over 1000 foods and beverages from supermarkets, bakeries, and restaurants across Canada between January 2006 and December 2010. The samples were analyzed in CFIA laboratories. Results were requested for products with ≥1 of the following nutrients tested: sodium, calories, saturated fat, trans fat, and sugar. Differences between the label and laboratory values were calculated for each product. Overall, 16.7% (n = 169 of products were “unsatisfactory” with laboratory values exceeding ±20% of the NFt value. Sodium had the highest number of unsatisfactory products (n = 49, 18.4% and trans fat had the lowest number of unsatisfactory products (n = 16, 4.3%. The proportion of unsatisfactory products for saturated fat, calories, and sugar was 15.8%, 14.2%, and 12.9%, respectively. All of the unsatisfactory products had excess nutrient content relative to the NFt. Sodium and calories were consistently underreported (p < 0.05, while NFt values for the other nutrients were not statistically different than laboratory values. Increased monitoring of NFt sodium values is recommended in order to increase consumer confidence in this nutrition tool, to encourage industry to accurately report nutrient content and to continue using the NFt to guide research, education, and policy development.

  4. Publication outcomes for research presented at a Canadian surgical conference (United States)

    Crawford, Sean A.; Roche-Nagle, Graham


    Background The failure of investigators to publish research in peer-reviewed journals following acceptance at a national or international meeting can lead to significant publication biases in the literature. Our objective was to evaluate the abstract to manuscript conversion rate for abstracts presented at the Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery (CSVS) annual meeting and to evaluate the conversion rate for CSVS-awarded research grants. Methods We searched for authors of abstracts accepted at the CSVS Annual Meeting (2007–2013) and recipients of CSVS research awards (2005–2013) on Scopus and PubMed databases to identify related publications. Results We identified 84 publications from 188 research abstracts (45%) and 17 publications from 39 research grants (44%). The mean time to publication was 1.8 years and the mean impact factor was 2.7. Studies related to endovascular therapies demonstrated a trend toward a higher rate of publication relative to open surgical therapies (64 [56%] v. 37 [27%]). Additionally, we observed a similar trend in research grant topics related to endovascular therapies relative to open surgical therapies (9 [67%] v. 8 [38%]). Finally, CSVS research grant recipients who subsequently published had a significantly higher h-index at the time of receipt than those who had not published. Conclusion The CSVS annual meeting’s abstract to publication conversion rate is comparable to that of its Canadian peers as well as to other medical specialties; however, a substantial publication gap remains. We identified several potential areas that may help to improve the effectiveness of CSVS research grants. PMID:28234220

  5. Optimizing care in osteoporosis: The Canadian quality circle project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvern Brent


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the Osteoporosis Canada 2002 Canadian guidelines provided evidence based strategies in preventing, diagnosing, and managing this condition, publication and distribution of guidelines have not, in and of themselves, been shown to alter physicians clinical approaches. We hypothesize that primary care physicians enrolled in the Quality Circle project would change their patient management of osteoporosis in terms of awareness of osteoporosis risk factors and bone mineral density testing in accordance with the guidelines. Methods The project consisted of five Quality Circle phases that included: 1 Training & Baseline Data Collection, 2 First Educational Intervention & First Follow-Up Data Collection 3 First Strategy Implementation Session, 4 Final Educational Intervention & Final Follow-up Data Collection, and 5 Final Strategy Implementation Session. A total of 340 circle members formed 34 quality circles and participated in the study. The generalized estimating equations approach was used to model physician awareness of risk factors for osteoporosis and appropriate utilization of bone mineral density testing pre and post educational intervention (first year of the study. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated. Results After the 1st year of the study, physicians' certainty of their patients' risk factor status increased. Certainty varied from an OR of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.8 for prior vertebral fracture status to 6.3 (95% CI: 2.3, 17.9 for prior hip fracture status. Furthermore, bone mineral density testing increased in high risk as compared with low risk patients (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2, 1.7. Conclusion Quality Circle methodology was successful in increasing both physicians' awareness of osteoporosis risk factors and appropriate bone mineral density testing in accordance with the 2002 Canadian guidelines.

  6. ParticipACTION: Baseline assessment of the 'new ParticipACTION': A quantitative survey of Canadian organizational awareness and capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauman Adrian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background ParticipACTION is a Canadian physical activity (PA communications and social marketing organization that was relaunched in 2007 after a six-year hiatus. This study assesses the baseline awareness and capacity of Canadian organizations that promote physical activity, to adopt, implement and promote ParticipACTION's physical activity campaign. The three objectives were: (1 to determine organizational awareness of both the 'original' and 'new' ParticipACTION; (2 to report baseline levels of three organizational capacity domains (i.e., to adopt, implement and externally promote physical activity initiatives; and, (3 to explore potential differences in those domains based on organizational size, sector and primary mandate. Methods Organizations at local, provincial/territorial, and national levels were sent an invitation via email prior to the official launch of ParticipACTION to complete an on-line survey. The survey assessed their organization's capacity to adopt, implement and externally promote a new physical activity campaign within their organizational mandates. Descriptive statistics were employed to address the first two study objectives. A series of one-way analysis of variance were conducted to examine the third objective. Results The response rate was 29.7% (268/902. The majority of responding organizations had over 40 employees and had operated for over 10 years. Education was the most common primary mandate, followed by sport and recreation. Organizations were evenly distributed between government and not-for-profits. Approximately 96% of respondents had heard of the 'original' ParticipACTION while 54.6% had heard of the 'new' ParticipACTION (Objective 1. Findings indicate good organizational capacity in Canada to promote physical activity (Objective 2 based on reported means of approximately 4.0 (on 5-point scales for capacity to adopt, implement, and externally promote new physical activity campaigns. Capacity to

  7. Sex with Neighbors: Canada and Canadians in the "U.S." Homophile Press. (United States)

    Stein, Marc


    This article examines U.S. homophile magazine contributions from and representations of Canada from 1953 to 1964. Drawing on 240 articles, letters, and other items that were published in ONE, Mattachine Review, and The Ladder, the essay first reviews Canadian-authored materials and then shows that U.S. gay and lesbian movement periodicals depicted Canada as more sexually conservative than the United States in three ways and more sexually liberal in one way. The magazines presented Canada as more sexually conservative in its failure to develop an organized gay and lesbian movement, its policies and practices of sexual censorship, and its opposition to progressive homosexual law reform. They portrayed Canada as more sexually liberal in the ways that its mainstream media covered homosexuality. The essay argues that U.S. homophile representations of Canada participated in the ongoing construction and reconstruction of U.S. nationalism. In demonstrating that the magazines generally represented Canada as more sexually conservative than the United States in the years from 1953 to 1964, the essay also shows that more recent depictions of Canada as more sexually liberal are relatively new.

  8. Defining the role of omics in assessing ecosystem health: Perspectives from the Canadian environmental monitoring program. (United States)

    Bahamonde, Paulina A; Feswick, April; Isaacs, Meghan A; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Martyniuk, Christopher J


    Scientific reviews and studies continue to describe omics technologies as the next generation of tools for environmental monitoring, while cautioning that there are limitations and obstacles to overcome. However, omics has not yet transitioned into national environmental monitoring programs designed to assess ecosystem health. Using the example of the Canadian Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program, the authors describe the steps that would be required for omics technologies to be included in such an established program. These steps include baseline collection of omics endpoints across different species and sites to generate a range of what is biologically normal within a particular ecosystem. Natural individual variability in the omes is not adequately characterized and is often not measured in the field, but is a key component to an environmental monitoring program, to determine the critical effect size or action threshold for management. Omics endpoints must develop a level of standardization, consistency, and rigor that will allow interpretation of the relevance of changes across broader scales. To date, population-level consequences of routinely measured endpoints such as reduced gonad size or intersex in fish is not entirely clear, and the significance of genome-wide molecular, proteome, or metabolic changes on organism or population health is further removed from the levels of ecological change traditionally managed. The present review is not intended to dismiss the idea that omics will play a future role in large-scale environmental monitoring studies, but rather outlines the necessary actions for its inclusion in regulatory monitoring programs focused on assessing ecosystem health.

  9. Dissipation of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in water and sediment of two Canadian prairie wetlands. (United States)

    Degenhardt, Dani; Humphries, David; Cessna, Allan J; Messing, Paul; Badiou, Pascal H; Raina, Renata; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Pennock, Dan J


    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is the active ingredient of several herbicide products first registered for use in 1974 under the tradename Roundup. The use of glyphosate-based herbicides has increased dramatically over the last two decades particularly in association with the adoption of glyphosate-tolerant crops. Glyphosate has been detected in a range of surface waters but this is the first study to monitor its fate in prairie wetlands situated in agricultural fields. An ephemeral wetland (E) and a semi-permanent wetland (SP) were each divided into halves using a polyvinyl curtain. One half of each wetland was fortified with glyphosate with the added mass simulating an accidental direct overspray. Glyphosate dissipated rapidly in the water column of the two prairie wetlands studied (DT(50) values of 1.3 and 4.8 d) which may effectively reduce the impact of exposure of aquatic biota to the herbicide. Degradation of glyphosate to its major metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and sorption of the herbicide to bottom sediment were more important pathways for the dissipation of glyphosate from the water column than movement of the herbicide with infiltrating water. Presently, we are not aware of any Canadian guidelines for glyphosate residues in sediment of aquatic ecosystems. Since a substantial portion of glyphosate entering prairie wetlands will become associated with bottom sediments, particularly in ephemeral wetlands, guidelines would need to be developed to assess the protection of organisms that spend all or part of their lifecycle in sediment.

  10. Student activism, mental health, and English-Canadian universities in the 1960s. (United States)

    Jasen, Patricia


    Student mental health services were created at many American universities during the interwar years in association with the mental hygiene movement of that era. In Canada, psychologists and psychiatrists became focused on the well-being of schoolchildren during this period, but services for university students were minimal or non-existent at most institutions until well after the Second World War. Influenced by American trends and in tune with rising public concern over the problems students were experiencing on Canada's burgeoning campuses, student organizations, in co-operation with the Canadian Mental Health Association, began a concerted campaign for improved services in the early 1960s. Through conferences, seminars, and surveys, they revealed the extent of student distress, and by 1965 their efforts were attracting increasing media attention and having a direct impact on university student health policies. Their campaign then entered a new phase, transformed by the same radicalization that infused the wider student movement in the wake of the Berkeley free speech protests. Dissatisfied with the institutional response and distrustful of the motives behind the services now provided, activists questioned the very meaning of 'mental health' in the context of their deeper critique of the university and society. By the end of the decade, the student mental health movement had run its course, but it left a lasting legacy in the ongoing reform of university health services and in attitudes towards student mental health.

  11. Forever productive: the discursive shaping of later life workers in contemporary Canadian newspapers. (United States)

    Rudman, Debbie Laliberte; Molke, Daniel


    Increasingly, ;productive aging' is promoted within government policies and reports in several Western nations, as well as those of international organizations. The ways in which ;productive aging' comes to be shaped within texts, that is, its discursive shaping, influences what aging individuals view as possible and ideal ways to be and do in later life, as well as what collectivities view as required services and programs to support such identities and occupations. Drawing on governmentality theory, in concert with occupational science, a critical discourse analysis of 72 Canadian newspaper articles pertaining to work and retirement published in 2006 was conducted to examine how 'productive aging' is shaped within such print media texts and the possibilities for identity and occupation promoted. This work critically analyzes ways 'later life workers' have come to be discursively shaped within neoliberal sociopolitical contexts, characterized by emphases on fostering individual responsibility, decreasing state dependency, and increasing privatization. The authors raises concerns related to occupational injustice, arguing for continuing vigilance regarding the ways 'productive aging' discourses might be drawn on to justify further state and workplace retreat from policies and programs that support those who face challenges to continued engagement in work or who cannot, or chose not to, be 'forever productive'.

  12. Heavy oil components sorbed onto clay minerals in Canadian oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendel, A.; Schwochau, K. (Institute for Petroleum and Organic Geochemistry, Nuclear Research Centre (KFA), Julich (DE))


    In siliciclastic reservoir rocks the surface-active clay minerals are presumed to be predominantly responsible for the sorption of polar oil components. In order to achieve a better insight into the nature of the oil components sorbed onto clay minerals, unconsolidated Canadian Oil Sands (Cold Lake, Athabasca) were exhaustively extracted with dichloromethane to remove the free oil. The clay minerals (grain fraction less than or equal to2 were then separated by gravitational sedimentation. After the extraction up to 3 wt of organic carbon still remained on the clays. The amount of aliphatic carbon adhering to the clays was assessed by means of IR-spectroscopy. The clay minerals were successively extracted with solvent mixtures of increasing polarity in order to release the bound oil components. The extracts were fractionated into chemically defined compound classes by semi-preparative liquid chromatography and MPLC. The fractions were characterized by GC, GC-MS and IR-spectroscopy. Components containing oxygen functions (carboxylic acids, esters, alcohols, ketones) appear to be preferentially bound by clays. Moreover, a small amount of hydrocarbons, in particular saturates, are sorbed by clays.

  13. Industry Response to the Challenge of Sustainability: The Case of the Canadian Nonferrous Mining Sector (United States)



    / The paper investigates how the Canadian nonferrous sector is tackling the challenge of sustainable development. Although there is no consensus as to what sustainable development means in practice for management in the sector, at least three dimensions must be taken into account: (1) metals are recyclable, the availability of this resource is not a concern for the foreseeable future; (2) the need to minimize environmental impacts of metals exploration, extraction, transformation, consumption, and recycling; and (3) production activities should not be socially or culturally disruptive. The nonferrous mining industry faces several environmental problems. Some of the most significant are acid mine drainage, sulfur emissions, recycling, and metals toxicity. The industry has developed a number of responses to address these specific concerns as well as other more general challenges. Six strategies are described and analyzed: (1) research and development, (2) an effort of consensus building among stakeholders known as the Whitehorse Mining Initiative, (3) international networking, (4) active involvement in the development of environmental management standards, (5) management reorganization and (6) voluntary agreements. The importance of external factors in the shaping of corporate environmental management practices is discussed, in particular the role of government. Progress has been achieved in three areas: (1) managerial practices and organization, (2) reducing the impacts of ongoing operations and (3) minimizing future liabilities, but two significant fields of conflict remain, namely mining in wilderness areas and projects on aboriginal lands.KEY WORDS: Canada; Environmental management; Minerals industry; Nonferrous metals; Sustainable development; Whitehorse Mining Initiative

  14. Joint production of timber, carbon, and wildlife habitat in the Canadian boreal plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarney, G.R.; Adamowicz, W.L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Rural Economy; Armstrong, G.W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources


    The relationships between forest carbon management, sustained timber yield, and the maintenance of wildlife habitats in the Canadian Boreal plain region were investigated. The aim of the study was to provide an estimation of the costs and challenges faced by forest managers in Canada's Boreal mixedwood region. The study used a model that previously analyzed the joint production of timber supplies and wildlife habitats using a natural disturbance model. A carbon budget model was used to separate biomass and dead organic matter carbon pools for individual forest cover types. An extensive marginal cost analysis of the production trade-offs between timber, carbon, and wildlife habitat was conducted. Results were used to demonstrate the potential for cost thresholds in timber supply and carbon sequestration. Thresholds were linked to switch-points in multiple use and specialized land management practices. Results showed that the optimal allocation of sequestered carbon across forest cover type differed with habitat constraints versus timber and carbon management alone. Results indicated that national policy discussions concerning carbon market regulations may wish to consider the potential for thresholds in production cost. Benefits of the management approach were influenced by ecological parameters, harvest flow regulations, and financial incentives for timber supply. 54 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  15. Pollution in the Summertime Canadian High Arctic observed during NETCARE 2014: Investigation of origin and composition (United States)

    Köllner, Franziska; Schneider, Johannes; Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter; Willis, Megan; Burkart, Julia; Leaitch, Richard; Abbatt, Jon; Herber, Andreas; Borrmann, Stephan


    The clean and sensitive Arctic atmosphere is influenced by transport of air masses from lower latitudes that bring pollution in the form of aerosol particles and trace gases into the Arctic regions. However, the transport processes causing such pollution events are yet not sufficiently well understood. Here we report on results from the aircraft campaign NETCARE 2014 that took place in July 2014 in Resolute Bay, Nunavut (Canada) as part of the "Network on Climate and Aerosols: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Environment" (NETCARE). These airborne measurements add to only a very few of such measurements conducted in the Arctic during the summertime. The instrumentation on board the research aircraft Polar 6 (operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research) included a large set of physico-chemical aerosol analysis instruments, several trace gas measurements and basic meteorological parameters. Here we focus on observed pollution events that caused elevated trace gas and aerosol concentrations in the summertime Canadian High Arctic between 50 and 3500 m. In order to better understand the chemical composition and the origin of those polluted air masses, we use single particle aerosol composition obtained using the Aircraft-based Laser Ablation Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ALABAMA), combined with aerosol size distributions and number concentrations from an Optical Particle Counter as well as trace gas measurements of CO and CO2. CO and CO2 are important tracers to study pollution events, which are connected to anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic combustion processes, respectively biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion. The ALABAMA provides a detailed single particle aerosol composition analysis from which we identify different particle types like soot-, biomass burning-, organics-, diesel exhaust- and metallic particles. The measurements were compared to Lagrangian models like FLEXPART and LAGRANTO to find the pollution sources

  16. STEM Outreach to the African Canadian Community - The Imhotep Legacy Academy (United States)

    Hewitt, Kevin


    Like the African American community in the US, the African Canadian community is underrepresented in the Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields. To serve these communities two outreach organizations emerged in Canadian cities where there is a critical mass of learners of African Descent - Toronto and Halifax. I will describe the Imhotep's Legacy Academy, which began in the Physics labs of Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia and has grown to a province-wide program serving three-quarters of the school boards in the province with an annual budget that has grown to 400,000 in 2011-12. It follows the learner from the time they enter grade 7 to the time they graduate from university, through three programs: (a) Weekly After-School science enrichment for junior high learners, (b) Virtual High school tutoring program and (c) Summer student internships and research scholarships for post-secondary students. This year, the program was the beneficiary of funding from TD Bank to establish scholarships for program participants to enter Dalhousie university. Modeled on the Meyerhoff scholarships the program participants are identified at an early stage and are promised a subset of funding as they meet selected criteria during participation in the program. The program enjoys support from the Department of Education and the highest levels of government. A tri-mentoring system exists where faculty of African descent train mentors, who are science students of African descent at associated universities, to deliver hands-on enrichment activities to learners of African Descent. Evidence supporting the success of the program will be highlighted. Project outcomes measured include (i) recruitment; (ii) attendance; (iii) stakeholder relationships; (iv) programming; (v) staff training; (vi) perception of ILASP's value; (vii) academic performance. The end results are new lessons and best practices that are incorporated into a strategic plan for the new project

  17. Hypnotic use in a population-based sample of over thirty-five thousand interviewed Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Scott B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As with most medications, benzodiazepine and similar sedative hypnotics (BDZ/SSH can produce both beneficial and adverse effects. Pharmacoepidemiological studies have been limited in their capacity to evaluate the relationship between these medications and psychiatric diagnoses in non-clinical populations. The objective of this study was to provide a description of the pattern of use of BDZ/SSH medications in relation to both demographic and diagnostic data in a community population. Methods The source of data for this study was the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS 1.2, also known as the Canadian National Study of Mental Health and Well-being. This study was based on a nationally representative sample that included over 35 thousand subjects with a response rate of 77%. The survey interview included the latest version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, which was developed for the World Health Organization's WHO Mental Health 2000 project. Current medication use was also recorded. Results As expected, BDZ/SSH use was more common in women than in men (4.2%, 95% CI 3.9 to 4.6 vs. 2.5%, 95% CI 2.2 to 2.8 and its frequency increased with age, 8.5% (95% CI 7.7 to 9.4 of those over the age of 65 compared to 2.4% (95% CI 2.2 to 2.7 of those aged 18 to 64 years. These medications were more frequently used in subjects with low levels of education (4.8%, 95% CI% 4.3 to 5.2 vs. high levels of education (2.4%, 95% CI 2.1 to 2.6 and low personal incomes (5.7%, 95% CI 5.2 to 6.3 vs. high personal incomes (2.3%, 95% CI 2.0 to 2.6. BDZ/SSH use was strongly associated with the presence of mood or anxiety disorders, but not with substance use disorders. Demographic differences persisted after statistical adjustment for diagnosis. Conclusion The observation that benzodiazepine use is more frequent in women, increases with age and is higher in low income and education groups supports previous findings. These results

  18. Regional Modelling of Air Quality in the Canadian Arctic: Impact of marine shipping and North American wild fire emissions (United States)

    Gong, W.; Beagley, S. R.; Zhang, J.; Cousineau, S.; Sassi, M.; Munoz-Alpizar, R.; Racine, J.; Menard, S.; Chen, J.


    Arctic atmospheric composition is strongly influenced by long-range transport from mid-latitudes as well as processes occurring in the Arctic locally. Using an on-line air quality prediction model GEM-MACH, simulations were carried out for the 2010 northern shipping season (April - October) over a regional Arctic domain. North American wildfire emissions and Arctic shipping emissions were represented, along with other anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Sensitivity studies were carried out to investigate the principal sources and processes affecting air quality in the Canadian Northern and Arctic regions. In this paper, we present an analysis of sources, transport, and removal processes on the ambient concentrations and atmospheric loading of various pollutants with air quality and climate implications, such as, O3, NOx, SO2, CO, and aerosols (sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon components). Preliminary results from a model simulation of a recent summertime Arctic field campaign will also be presented.

  19. Diagnosis and management of asthma in preschoolers: A Canadian Thoracic Society and Canadian Paediatric Society position paper. (United States)

    Ducharme, Francine M; Dell, Sharon D; Radhakrishnan, Dhenduka; Grad, Roland M; Watson, Wade T A; Yang, Connie L; Zelman, Mitchell


    Asthma often starts before six years of age. However, there remains uncertainty as to when and how a preschool-age child with symptoms suggestive of asthma can be diagnosed with this condition. This delays treatment and contributes to both short- and long-term morbidity. Members of the Canadian Thoracic Society Asthma Clinical Assembly partnered with the Canadian Paediatric Society to develop a joint working group with the mandate to develop a position paper on the diagnosis and management of asthma in preschoolers. In the absence of lung function tests, the diagnosis of asthma should be considered in children one to five years of age with frequent (≥ 8 days/month) asthma-like symptoms or recurrent (≥ 2) exacerbations (episodes with asthma-like signs). The diagnosis requires the objective document of signs or convincing parent-reported symptoms of airflow obstruction (improvement in these signs or symptoms with asthma therapy), and no clinical suspicion of an alternative diagnosis. The characteristic feature of airflow obstruction is wheezing, commonly accompanied by difficulty breathing and cough. Reversibility with asthma medications is defined as direct observation of improvement with short-acting ß2-agonists (SABA) (with or without oral corticosteroids) by a trained health care practitioner during an acute exacerbation (preferred method). However, in children with no wheezing (or other signs of airflow obstruction) on presentation, reversibility may be determined by convincing parental report of a symptomatic response to a three-month therapeutic trial of a medium dose of inhaled corticosteroids with as-needed SABA (alternative method), or as-needed SABA alone (weaker alternative method). The authors provide key messages regarding in whom to consider the diagnosis, terms to be abandoned, when to refer to an asthma specialist and the initial management strategy. Finally, dissemination plans and priority areas for research are identified.

  20. 55th Annual Canadian Society for Molecular Biosciences Conference on Epigenetics and Genomic Stability. Whistler, British Columbia, Canada, 14–18 March 2012. (United States)

    Nelson, Christopher J; Ausió, Juan


    The 55th Annual Canadian Society for Molecular Biosciences Conference on Epigenetics and Genomic Stability in Whistler, Canada, 14-18 March 2012, brought together 31 speakers from different nationalities. The organizing committee, led by Jim Davie (Chair) at the University of Manitoba (Manitoba, Canada), consisted of several established researchers in the fields of chromatin and epigenetics from across Canada. The meeting was centered on the contribution of epigenetics to gene expression, DNA damage and repair, and the role of environmental factors. A few interesting talks on replication added some insightful information on the controversial issue of histone post-translational modifications as genuine epigenetic marks that are inherited through cell division.