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Sample records for canadian organizations

  1. Canadian Civil Society Organizations and Human Rights and Global ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to strengthen the capacity of Canadian civil society organizations (CSOs) to inform Canadian policy on human rights and global justice. The Canadian Council for International Co-operation (CCIC) receives core funding from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). This grant will provide ...

  2. Planning and Evaluation by Canadian Civil Society Organizations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Planning and Evaluation by Canadian Civil Society Organizations : Bridging Gaps between Methodologies. In the current global context, Canadian civil society organizations (CSOs) are finding it increasingly difficult to assess their efficiency and effectiveness, and report to external stakeholders, both donor agencies and ...

  3. The Future of Management Training in Canadian Healthcare Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Robert

    1997-01-01

    A case study of a Canadian health care organization and a Delphi study with a sample of subject-matter experts identified five themes for management training and development: continued tight financial constraints; greater accountability; need for better staff development and evaluation; cooperative resource sharing for management training; and…

  4. Breaking the Deadlock: Lessons from Pan-Canadian Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelmer, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The authors of the lead essay in this issue propose a set of fiscal and other levers for accelerating Canadian healthcare reform. Among the mechanisms they endorse is the concept of a learning health system, which would encourage collaboration and information sharing between jurisdictions. From health system performance measurement to exchange of best practices, a number of the foundational elements of learning health systems have parallels or antecedents in functions undertaken by pan-Canadian organizations that address healthcare issues relevant to multiple jurisdictions. Experiences and outcomes of these organizations may therefore be instructive when considering proposals for healthcare reform, such as those made by Gardner, Fierlbeck, and Levy. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  5. Organ donation and transplantation in Canada: insights from the Canadian Organ Replacement Register

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Joseph; Fenton, Stanley SA; Kappel, Joanne; Moist, Louise M.; Klarenbach, Scott W; Samuel, Susan M.; Singer, Lianne G; Kim, Daniel H; Young, Kimberly; Webster, Greg; Wu, Juliana; Ivis, Frank; de Sa, Eric; Gill, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview of the transplant component of the Canadian Organ Replacement Register (CORR). Findings CORR is the national registry of organ failure in Canada. It has existed in some form since 1972 and currently houses data on patients with end-stage renal disease and solid organ transplants (kidney and/or non-kidney). The transplant component of CORR receives data on a voluntary basis from individual transplant centres and organ procurement organizations across th...

  6. Organized extracurricular activities of Canadian children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèvremont, Anne; Findlay, Leanne; Kohen, Dafna

    2008-09-01

    This article presents rates of participation in organized extracurricular activity by Canadian children and youth aged 6 to 17 years, and examines how these rates vary by sociodemographic and socio-economic characteristics. The data are from Cycle 4 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (2000/2001). The majority of children and youth (86%) participated in at least one extracurricular activity. Girls were more likely than boys to be involved in non-sport activities and in clubs or community groups. Young children who lived in urban areas and those who lived with two parents had relatively high rates of participation in extracurricular activities. Participation rose with family income for children aged 6 to 13, but not for 14- to 17-year-olds. Children of all ages in the Western provinces had high participation rates in each type of activity; rates tended to be low in Quebec.

  7. The Canadian Corps in the Great War: A Learning Organization in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    of the Canadian Corps revealed that the Corps’ excellent performance during the war – especially in the later years – resulted from its...of the Canadian Corps revealed that the Corps’ excellent performance during the war—particularly in the later years— resulted from its transformation...adaptation cost over 230,000 dead and wounded.4 Learning organization theory provides a method to illustrate how the Canadian Corps dealt with the challenges

  8. Organ donation and transplantation in Canada: insights from the Canadian Organ Replacement Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Joseph; Fenton, Stanley Sa; Kappel, Joanne; Moist, Louise M; Klarenbach, Scott W; Samuel, Susan M; Singer, Lianne G; Kim, Daniel H; Young, Kimberly; Webster, Greg; Wu, Juliana; Ivis, Frank; de Sa, Eric; Gill, John S

    2014-01-01

    To provide an overview of the transplant component of the Canadian Organ Replacement Register (CORR). CORR is the national registry of organ failure in Canada. It has existed in some form since 1972 and currently houses data on patients with end-stage renal disease and solid organ transplants (kidney and/or non-kidney). The transplant component of CORR receives data on a voluntary basis from individual transplant centres and organ procurement organizations across the country. Coverage for transplant procedures is comprehensive and complete. Long-term outcomes are tracked based on follow-up reports from participating transplant centres. The longitudinal nature of CORR provides an opportunity to observe the trajectory of a patient's journey with organ failure over their life span. Research studies conducted using CORR data inform both practitioners and health policy makers alike. The importance of registry data in monitoring and improving care for Canadian transplant candidates/recipients cannot be over-stated. This paper provides an overview of the transplant data in CORR including its history, data considerations, recent findings, new initiatives, and future directions.

  9. Canadian Civil Society Organizations Influencing Policy and Practice

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    those of the author(s), and do not necessarily represent those of IDRC or its Board of Governors. Canadian ...... The literature on policy-making is in many ways intertwined with what has been written on research ...... the access to education for indigenous girls, the consequences of the armed conflict on indigenous women ...

  10. Circulating metals and persistent organic pollutant concentrations in Canadian and non-Canadian born primiparous women from five Canadian centres: Results of a pilot biomonitoring study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Warren G., E-mail: fosterw@mcmaster.ca [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Cheung, Anthony P. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Davis, Karelyn [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Graves, Gillian [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Jarrell, John [University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Leblanc, Alain [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Leech, Tara [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Walker, Mark [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Weber, Jean Philippe [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Van Oostdam, Jay [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    The developing foetus is thought to be at increased risk from exposure to environmental contaminants; however, developmental exposure data is notably lacking for many contaminants. Moreover, potential regional differences or effect of place of birth on residue levels measured in pregnant women is also unknown. Therefore, as part of a multinational biomonitoring study, 125 primiparous pregnant Canadian women were recruited from five Canadian centres (Vancouver, Calgary, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Halifax). Metals in whole blood and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in plasma were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), respectively. Of the 125 women recruited to this study, complete data sets were available for 123 of which 103 were Canadian born. Data were analysed by analysis of covariance and linear mixed models using age and body mass index as covariates. The metals cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and total mercury (Hg) were detected in more than 93% of the samples tested. {beta}-Hexachlorohexane ({beta}-HCH), oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p Prime -DDE), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (PBDE-153, PBDE-47), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB-138, -153, and -180), and the dioxin-like PCB congener PCB-118 were quantified in greater than 70% of the samples tested. Significant differences in the concentrations of Cd, Ni, PCB-153, and p,p Prime -DDE were found between the centres studied. Furthermore, foreign-born pregnant women had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, {beta}-HCH, PBDE-47, PCB-138, -153, -180, and p,p Prime -DDE compared to Canadian born pregnant women. Taken together, the data suggest that there are potential regional differences in contaminant body burden and place of birth may also contribute to differences in maternal residue concentrations. -- Highlights: Black

  11. The Sustainability of Organic Grain Production on the Canadian Prairies—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Snyder

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Demand for organically produced food products is increasing rapidly in North America, driven by a perception that organic agriculture results in fewer negative environmental impacts and yields greater benefits for human health than conventional systems. Despite the increasing interest in organic grain production on the Canadian Prairies, a number of challenges remain to be addressed to ensure its long-term sustainability. In this review, we summarize Western Canadian research into organic crop production and evaluate its agronomic, environmental, and economic sustainability.

  12. Health care: a community concern? : developments in the organization of Canadian health services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crichton, Anne

    1997-01-01

    ... Canadian Health Care Organizational Policies 1967-86 IV Service Delivery Systems and Their Response to the Need for Change to a Collective Care Organization 9. Care in the Doctor's Office 10. Support Services for Physicians in General Practice 11. Medical Practice Organization: Alternative Medical Care Delivery Models 12. Evolution of Public H...

  13. Representing Canadian Muslims: Media, Muslim Advocacy Organizations, and Gender in the Ontario Shari’ah Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Sharify-Funk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a highly public conflict between two Muslim non-profit organizations, the Canadian Islamic Congress (CIC and the Muslim Canadian Congress (MCC, as it played out on the pages of Canadian newspapers and Internet websites. Sparked by profoundly divergent convictions about gender norms and fuelled by contradictory blueprints for “being Muslim in Canada”, this incendiary conflict was fanned by Canadian media coverage. Focusing especially, but not exclusively, on the 2003-2005 debate over Shari’ah-based alternative dispute resolution in Ontario, I will argue that the media have played a role in constructing internal Muslim debates and identity negotiations concerning what it means to be genuinely Canadian and authentically Muslim through controversy-driven journalism that has highlighted opposing ends of a liberal/progressive versus conservative/traditional axis in a search for “point/counter-point” views. Through short stories and commentaries on controversial topicsthat juxtapose two increasingly antagonistic organizational voices, the media have not merely reflected Muslim realities, but also helped to shape them and, more often than not, reinforce polarization between a “majority Muslim” culture seeking to secure space for itself within Canadian society and a “dissident Muslim” culture that seeks to consolidate external support for internal change.

  14. Building organizational capacity for evidence use: the experience of two Canadian healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Serena; Hampe, Tanis; Larsen, Derrick; Bowen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The use of evidence to inform decisions at the program level within healthcare organizations is a priority. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of an innovative collaboration between two Canadian healthcare organizations to build organizational capacity for evidence use in program planning, implementation, and evaluation. The lessons learned from the initiative suggest that other healthcare organizations would find the capacity-building strategies identified and developed through the initiative useful.

  15. Ethics Guide Recommendations for Organ-Donation-Focused Physicians: Endorsed by the Canadian Medical Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemie, Sam D; Simpson, Christy; Blackmer, Jeff; MacDonald, Shavaun; Dhanani, Sonny; Torrance, Sylvia; Byrne, Paul

    2017-05-01

    Donation physicians are specialists with expertise in organ and tissue donation and have been recognized internationally as a key contributor to improving organ and tissue donation services. Subsequent to a 2011 Canadian Critical Care Society-Canadian Blood Services consultation, the donation physician role has been gradually implemented in Canada. These professionals are generally intensive care unit physicians with an enhanced focus and expertise in organ/tissue donation. They must manage the dual obligation of caring for dying patients and their families while providing and/or improving organ donation services. In anticipation of actual, potential or perceived ethical challenges with the role, Canadian Blood Services in partnership with the Canadian Medical Association organized the development of an evidence-informed consensus process of donation experts and bioethicists to produce an ethics guide. This guide includes overarching principles and benefits of the DP role, and recommendations in regard to communication with families, role disclosure, consent discussions, interprofessional conflicts, conscientious objection, death determination, donation specific clinical practices in neurological determination of death and donation after circulatory death, end-of-life care, performance metrics, resources and remuneration. Although this report is intended to inform donation physician practices, it is recognized that the recommendations may have applicability to other professionals (eg, physicians in intensive care, emergency medicine, neurology, neurosurgery, pulmonology) who may also participate in the end-of-life care of potential donors in various clinical settings. It is hoped that this guidance will assist practitioners and their sponsoring organizations in preserving their duty of care, protecting the interests of dying patients, and fulfilling best practices for organ and tissue donation.

  16. Organizational capacity for chronic disease prevention: a survey of Canadian public health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanusaik, Nancy; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Kishchuk, Natalie; Paradis, Gilles; Cameron, Roy

    2010-04-01

    There are no national data on levels of organizational capacity within the Canadian public health system to reduce the burden of chronic disease. Cross-sectional data were collected in a national survey (October 2004 to April 2005) of all 216 national, provincial and regional-level organizations engaged in chronic disease prevention through primary prevention or healthy lifestyle promotion. Levels of organizational capacity (defined as skills and resources to implement chronic disease prevention programmes), potential determinants of organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming were compared in western, central and eastern Canada and across three types of organizations (formal public health organizations, non-governmental organizations and grouped organizations). Forty percent of organizations were located in Central Canada. Approximately 50% were formal public health organizations. Levels of skill and involvement were highest for activities that addressed tobacco control and healthy eating; lowest for stress management, social determinants of health and programme evaluation. The few notable differences in skill levels by provincial grouping favoured Central Canada. Resource adequacy was rated low across the country; but was lowest in eastern Canada and among formal public health organizations. Determinants of organizational capacity (organizational supports and partnerships) were highest in central Canada and among grouped organizations. These data provide an evidence base to identify strengths and gaps in organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming in the organizations that comprise the Canadian public health system.

  17. Analysis of the Science and Technology Narrative within Organ Donation and Transplantation Coverage in Canadian Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cheung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organ failure is one cause of death. Advancements in scientific research and technological development made organ transplantation possible and continue to find better ways to substitute failed organs with other organs of biological origin or artificial organs. Media, including newspapers, are one source of information for the public. The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent and how science and technology research and development are covered in the organ transplantation and organ donation (ODOT coverage of n = 300 Canadian newspapers, including the two Canadian newspapers with national reach (The Globe and Mail, National Post. The study generated qualitative and quantitative data addressing the following issues: (1 which scientific and technological developments are mentioned in the ODOT coverage; and (2 what issues are mentioned in the coverage of scientific and technological advancements linked to ODOT. We found little to no coverage of many technological and scientific advancements evident in academic and grey literature covering ODOT, and we found little engagement with social and ethical issues already raised about these advancements in the literature. The only area we found to be covered to a broader extent was xenotransplantation, although the coverage stopped after 2002. We argue that the newspaper coverage of ODOT under reports scientific and technological advancements related to ODOT and the issues these advancements might raise.

  18. Presence of anionic perfluorinated organic compounds in serum collected from Northern Canadian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tittlemier, S.; Ryan, J.J. [Food Research Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Oostdam, J. van [Management of Toxic Substances Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorinated organic compounds are used in a wide variety of consumer and industrial products and applications, ranging from personal care products and cleaning solutions, to grease resistant coatings for fabric and paper and emulsifiers in the production of polymers. Perfluorinated compounds such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are persistent and bioaccumulative. PFOS and PFOA have been detected in biota sampled from around the world2, including the Canadian Arctic. Evidence from various laboratory experiments suggest that these perfluorinated compounds can elicit negative effects, including peroxisome proliferation5 and possibly hepatocarcinogenesis. PFOA and PFOS also appear to biomagnify in marine food webs, in a similar fashion as traditional organohalogenated POPs like the recalcitrant PCB congeners. Indigenous northern Canadian populations such as the Inuit and Inuvialuit often hunt and consume marine mammals, including beluga, narwhal, and seal, as part of their traditional diet. Thus, segments of these populations are often exposed to higher levels of POPs than southern populations and other consumers of market foods. This higher exposure is reflected in plasma concentrations of traditional POPs such PCBs. There is a question of whether a similar situation occurs for PFOS, PFOA, and similar perfluorinated compounds. This preliminary survey analyzed a suite of perfluorinated sulfonates and carboxylates in 23 pooled archived samples of human plasma collected from various northern Canadian populations.

  19. An exploratory spatial analysis of soil organic carbon distribution in Canadian eco-regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S.-Y.; Li, J.

    2014-11-01

    As the largest carbon reservoir in ecosystems, soil accounts for more than twice as much carbon storage as that of vegetation biomass or the atmosphere. This paper examines spatial patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) in Canadian forest areas at an eco-region scale of analysis. The goal is to explore the relationship of SOC levels with various climatological variables, including temperature and precipitation. The first Canadian forest soil database published in 1997 by the Canada Forest Service was analyzed along with other long-term eco-climatic data (1961 to 1991) including precipitation, air temperature, slope, aspect, elevation, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from remote sensing imagery. In addition, the existing eco-region framework established by Environment Canada was evaluated for mapping SOC distribution. Exploratory spatial data analysis techniques, including spatial autocorrelation analysis, were employed to examine how forest SOC is spatially distributed in Canada. Correlation analysis and spatial regression modelling were applied to determine the dominant ecological factors influencing SOC patterns at the eco-region level. At the national scale, a spatial error regression model was developed to account for spatial dependency and to estimate SOC patterns based on ecological and ecosystem factors. Based on the significant variables derived from the spatial error model, a predictive SOC map in Canadian forest areas was generated. Although overall SOC distribution is influenced by climatic and topographic variables, distribution patterns are shown to differ significantly between eco-regions. These findings help to validate the eco-region classification framework for SOC zonation mapping in Canada.

  20. Association between organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming among Canadian public health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanusaik, Nancy; Sabiston, Catherine M; Kishchuk, Natalie; Maximova, Katerina; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    In the context of the emerging field of public health services and systems research, this study (i) tested a model of the relationships between public health organizational capacity (OC) for chronic disease prevention, its determinants (organizational supports for evaluation, partnership effectiveness) and one possible outcome of OC (involvement in core chronic disease prevention practices) and (ii) examined differences in the nature of these relationships among organizations operating in more and less facilitating external environments. OC was conceptualized as skills and resources/supports for chronic disease prevention programming. Data were from a census of 210 Canadian public health organizations with mandates for chronic disease prevention. The hypothesized relationships were tested using structural equation modeling. Overall, the results supported the model. Organizational supports for evaluation accounted for 33% of the variance in skills. Skills and resources/supports were directly and strongly related to involvement. Organizations operating within facilitating external contexts for chronic disease prevention had more effective partnerships, more resources/supports, stronger skills and greater involvement in core chronic disease prevention practices. Results also suggested that organizations functioning in less facilitating environments may not benefit as expected from partnerships. Empirical testing of this conceptual model helps develop a better understanding of public health OC. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Representing Canadian Muslims: Media, Muslim Advocacy Organizations, and Gender in the Ontario Shari'ah Debate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meena Sharify-Funk

    2009-01-01

    ...s. Sparked by profoundly divergent convictions about gender norms and fuelled by contradictory blueprints for "being Muslim in Canada", this incendiary conflict was fanned by Canadian media coverage...

  2. The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: Implications for practitioners, professionals, and organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Copeland, Jennifer L; Fowles, Jonathon; Zehr, Lori; Duggan, Mary; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    The new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth emphasize the integration of all movement behaviours that occur over a whole day (i.e., light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep). These guidelines shift the paradigm away from considering each behaviour in isolation. This concept of the "whole day matters" not only calls for a change in thinking about movement but also for redevelopment of dissemination and implementation practice. Past guideline launch activities largely have aimed to create awareness through passive dissemination strategies (e.g., Website posts, distribution of print resources). For the integrated guidelines to have public health impact, we must move beyond dissemination and raising of awareness to implementation and behaviour change. Shifting this focus requires new, innovative approaches to intervention, including interdisciplinary collaboration, policy change, and refocused service provision. The purpose of this paper is to identify practitioners, professionals, and organizations with potential to disseminate and/or implement the guidelines, discuss possible implementation strategies for each of these groups, and describe the few resources being developed and those needed to support dissemination and implementation efforts. This discussion makes readily apparent the need for a well-funded, comprehensive, long-term dissemination, implementation, and evaluation plan to ensure uptake and activation of the guidelines.

  3. Degradation of sterols and terrigenous organic matter in waters of the Mackenzie Shelf, Canadian Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rontani, J.; Charriere, B; Sempere, R; Doxaran, D; Vaultier, F; Vonk, Jorien; Volkman, John

    2014-01-01

    Sterols and their biotic and abiotic degradation products were quantified in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from surface waters in the Mackenzie River mouth to the Beaufort Sea shelf (Canadian Arctic). 24-Ethylcholesterol (sitosterol) and 24-methylcholesterol (campesterol) appeared to be

  4. Knowledge and attitudes of Canadian First Nations people toward organ donation and transplantation: a quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Sara N; Jhangri, Gian S

    2014-11-01

    Organ donation and transplantation rates are low for aboriginal people in Canada, despite a high demand. An explanatory mixed-methods design was used to describe knowledge of and preferences for organ donation and transplantation among First Nations people and identify factors that may influence these preferences. We recruited on- and off-reservation First Nations adults. A 45-item survey was administered to 198 participants, of whom 21 were assessed further with a qualitative interview using a multiple case study approach. In an iterative process, themes were identified from qualitative data using critical realism as the theoretical framework. Critical realism is an approach that describes the interface between natural and social worlds to explain human behavior. Although 83% of participants were in favor of transplantation, only 38% were willing to donate their organs after death, 44% had not thought about organ donation, and 14% did not believe it was important. Only 18.7% of participants reported that their cultural beliefs influenced their views on organ donation and transplantation. In the multivariable analysis, the only factors associated with willingness to donate organs were higher education and considering organ donation important. Four themes emerged from qualitative data: importance of traditional beliefs, recognition of need due to the epidemic of diabetes among Canadian aboriginal people, reconciliation between traditional beliefs and need, and general apathy in the community. Cultural, socioeconomic, and political diversity exist between and within aboriginal groups. Findings may not be generalizable to other aboriginal communities. Willingness to donate organs was lower in these First Nations participants compared to the general population. Education to address knowledge deficits, emphasize the negative impact of organ failure on the community, and contextualize organ donation within the older traditional native beliefs to help First Nations people

  5. Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in marine biota of the Canadian Arctic: an overview of spatial and temporal trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braune, B M; Outridge, P M; Fisk, A T; Muir, D C G; Helm, P A; Hobbs, K; Hoekstra, P F; Kuzyk, Z A; Kwan, M; Letcher, R J; Lockhart, W L; Norstrom, R J; Stern, G A; Stirling, I

    2005-12-01

    This review summarizes and synthesizes the significant amount of data which was generated on mercury (Hg) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Canadian Arctic marine biota since the first Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report (CACAR) was published in 1997. This recent body of work has led to a better understanding of the current levels and spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in biota, including the marine food species that northern peoples traditionally consume. Compared to other circumpolar countries, concentrations of many organochlorines (OCs) in Canadian Arctic marine biota are generally lower than in the European Arctic and eastern Greenland but are higher than in Alaska, whereas Hg concentrations are substantially higher in Canada than elsewhere. Spatial coverage of OCs in ringed seals, beluga and seabirds remains a strength of the Arctic contaminant data set for Canada. Concentrations of OCs in marine mammals and seabirds remain fairly consistent across the Canadian Arctic although subtle differences from west to east and south to north are found in the proportions of various chemicals. The most significant development since 1997 is improvement in the temporal trend data sets, thanks to the use of archived tissue samples from the 1970s and 1980s, long-term studies using archeological material, as well as the continuation of sampling. These data cover a range of species and chemicals and also include retrospective studies on new chemicals such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers. There is solid evidence in a few species (beluga, polar bear, blue mussels) that Hg at some locations has significantly increased from pre-industrial times to the present; however, the temporal trends of Hg over the past 20-30 years are inconsistent. Some animal populations exhibited significant increases in Hg whereas others did not. Therefore, it is currently not possible to determine if anthropogenic Hg is generally increasing in Canadian Arctic biota. It is

  6. Biomarker responses associated with halogenated organic contaminants in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) breeding in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braune, Birgit M., E-mail: birgit.braune@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Trudeau, Suzanne [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Jeffrey, Deborah A. [Bancroft, Ontario, K0L 1C0 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L. [Environment Canada, Box 1714, Iqaluit, Nunavut, X0A 0H0 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    We examined relationships between hepatic concentrations of halogenated organic contaminants and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and retinoid (vitamin A) concentrations in livers, as well as retinol and thyroid hormone (TT{sub 3}, TT{sub 4}) levels in blood plasma, of northern fulmars at two breeding colonies in the Canadian High Arctic. Biomarker levels or responses did not differ significantly between males and females at either colony, nor was there any significant difference between colonies. No significant relationships were found between thyroid hormone or hepatic retinoid concentrations and any of the dioxin-like compounds or their Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) although significant positive correlations were found with plasma retinol (p < 0.03). EROD activity was significantly correlated with hepatic dioxin-like compounds and their TEQs (p < 0.001) as well as total PCBs (p < 0.01), which suggests that EROD induction occurs in northern fulmars at environmentally-relevant concentrations. - Highlights: > EROD induction occurs in northern fulmars at environmentally-relevant concentrations. > No relationships between hepatic retinoid or plasma thyroid hormone levels and dioxin-like compounds or TEQs. > Biomarker responses did not differ between males and females or between colonies. - EROD induction occurs in northern fulmars in the Canadian Arctic at environmentally-relevant concentrations.

  7. Composition of carbonaceous smoke particles from prescribed burning of a Canadian boreal forest: 1. Organic aerosol characterization by gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurek, M.A.; Laterza, C.; Newman, L.; Daum, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center; Winstead, E.L. [Science Applications International Corporation, Hampton, VA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In this study we examine the molecular organic constituents (C8 to C40 lipid compounds) collected as smoke particles from a Canadian boreal forest prescribed burn. Of special interest are (1) the molecular identity of polar organic aerosols, and (2) the amount of polar organic matter relative to the total mass of aerosol particulate carbon. Organic extracts of smoke aerosol particles show complex distributions of the lipid compounds when analyzed by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The molecular constituents present as smoke aerosol are grouped into non-polar (hydrocarbons) and polar {minus}2 oxygen atoms) subtractions. The dominant chemical species found in the boreal forest smoke aerosol are unaltered resin compounds (C20 terpenes) which are abundant in unburned conifer wood, plus thermally altered wood lignins and other polar aromatic hydrocarbons. Our results show that smoke aerosols contain molecular tracers which are related to the biofuel consumed. These smoke tracers can be related structurally back to the consumed softwood and hardwood vegetation. In addition, combustion of boreal forest materials produces smoke aerosol particles that are both oxygen-rich and chemically complex, yielding a carbonaceous aerosol matrix that is enriched in polar substances. As a consequence, emissions of carbonaceous smoke particles from large-scale combustion of boreal forest land may have a disproportionate effect on regional atmospheric chemistry and on cloud microphysical processes.

  8. Assessing determinants of maternal blood concentrations for persistent organic pollutants and metals in the eastern and western Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curren, Meredith S., E-mail: meredith.curren@hc-sc.gc.ca [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Avenue West, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei, E-mail: chun.lei.liang@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Davis, Karelyn, E-mail: karelyn.davis@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Kandola, Kami, E-mail: Kami_Kandola@gov.nt.ca [Government of the Northwest Territories, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada); Brewster, Janet, E-mail: jbrewster@gov.nu.ca [Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada); Potyrala, Mary, E-mail: mary_potyrala@yahoo.ca [Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada); Chan, Hing Man, E-mail: laurie.chan@uottawa.ca [Center for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie-Curie, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals mainly through their consumption of a traditional diet of wildlife items. Recent studies indicate that many human chemical levels have decreased in the north, likely due to a combination of reduced global chemical emissions, dietary shifts, and risk mitigation efforts by local health authorities. Body burdens for chemicals in mothers can be further offset by breastfeeding, parity, and other maternal characteristics. We have assessed the impact of several dietary and maternal covariates following a decade of awareness of the contaminant issue in northern Canada, by performing multiple stepwise linear regression analyses from blood concentrations and demographic variables for 176 mothers recruited from Nunavut and the Northwest Territories during the period 2005–2007. A significant aboriginal group effect was observed for the modeled chemicals, except for lead and cadmium, after adjusting for covariates. Further, blood concentrations for POPs and metals were significantly associated with at least one covariate of older age, fewer months spent breastfeeding, more frequent eating of traditional foods, or smoking during pregnancy. Cadmium had the highest explained variance (72.5%) from just two significant covariates (current smoking status and parity). Although Inuit participants from the Northwest Territories consumed more traditional foods in general, Inuit participants from coastal communities in Nunavut continued to demonstrate higher adjusted blood concentrations for POPs and metals examined here. While this is due in part to a higher prevalence of marine mammals in the eastern Arctic diet, it is possible that other aboriginal group effects unrelated to diet may also contribute to elevated chemical body burdens in Canadian Arctic populations. - Highlights: • In 2005–07, younger age was related to lower levels of chemicals in northern Canada. • Eastern

  9. Transplantation in Canada: review of the last decade from the Canadian Organ Replacement Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Vivian C; Badovinac, Kim; Fenton, Stanley S A; Greig, Paul D

    2003-01-01

    The descriptive analyses presented in this chapter provide a brief overview of transplant activity in Canada. While Canada's cadaveric organ donation rate has remained static, between 13-14 per million population, transplant rates increased from 1992-2001. This growth was due to more organs being retrieved per cadaveric donor and increased rates of living donor transplants for kidney, most notably, but also liver. The steady climb of the transplant waiting list continued to outstrip the number of patients transplanted on an annual basis. In 2002, 237 people died will waiting for an organ transplant. Canada is a net importer of organs from the US, particularly hearts and lungs. Heart transplantation activity has varied least of all organ transplant types from 1992-2001, reflecting in large part the stagnant cadaveric donation rate and the fact that fewer than 40% of hearts were retrieved and transplanted from the available cadaveric donors. Liver, lung, most notably double lung, and pancreas/kidney-pancreas transplant activity all grew significantly from 1992-2001. Accumulated expertise in the surgical realm combined with improved donor management and organ preservation techniques have facilitated this growth. Patient and graft survival continue to increase in Canada both for patients who are very ill at the time of their transplant, and those not as ill. Future growth areas for transplantation in Canada will likely be in the area of living kidney and liver donation, continued kidney-pancreas transplantation and islet cell transplantation. Without significant improvements in cadaveric organ donation rates in Canada, exploration of expanded donation criteria like non-heartbeating donors as well as continued improvements in donor management for the purposes of increased organ retrieval, the transplantation rates for hearts, livers, and lungs are not expected to increase, and the gap between the number of patients waiting for a transplant and the number of patients

  10. Implementation of evidence-based practices in the context of a redevelopment project in a Canadian healthcare organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Richer, Marie-Claire; Marchionni, Caroline; Cyr, Guylaine; Biron, Alain D; Aubry, Monique; Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle; Vézina, Michel

    2012-12-01

    The recent introduction of a project management office (PMO) in a major healthcare center, led by a nurse, provides a unique opportunity to understand how a PMO facilitates successful implementation of evidence-based practices in care delivery. A case study with embedded units (individuals, projects, and organization). In this study, the case is operationally defined as the PMO deployed in a Canadian healthcare center. The sources of evidence used in this study were diverse. They consisted of 38 individual interviews, internal documents, and administrative data. The data were collected from March 2009 to November 2011. Content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. PMO experts help improve practices, and the patients thus receive safer and better quality care. Several participants point out that they could not make the changes without the PMO's support. They mention that they succeeded in changing their practices based on the evidence and acquired knowledge of change management with the PMO members that can be transferred to their practice. With the leadership of the nurse director of the PMO, members provide a range of expertise and fields in evidence-based change management, project management, and evaluation. PMO facilitates the implementation of clinical and organizational practices based on evidence to improve the quality and safety of care provided to patients. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. Entrepreneurial Growth Aspirations and Familiarity with Economic Development Organizations: Evidence from Canadian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Dossou-Yovo, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the entrepreneurship ecosystem and the entrepreneur’s willingness to grow. This study is particularly interested in exploring the relationship between entrepreneur’s familiarity with the key economic development organizations in the entrepreneurship ecosystem and the willingness to grow. Several studies have investigated the growth process in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) since the case has been ...

  12. Entrepreneurial Growth Aspirations and Familiarity with Economic Development Organizations: Evidence from Canadian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Dossou-Yovo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the entrepreneurship ecosystem and the entrepreneur’s willingness to grow. This study is particularly interested in exploring the relationship between entrepreneur’s familiarity with the key economic development organizations in the entrepreneurship ecosystem and the willingness to grow. Several studies have investigated the growth process in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs since the case has been made that high growth SMEs contribute to economic growth through job creation. To date, these studies have identified multiple internal and external determinants including their effects on small business growth. There is evidence in the literature that characteristics of the entrepreneurs such as the willingness to grow and the entrepreneur’s network are important factors in growth process. However, the relationship between growth process and the entrepreneur’s networking behavior is yet to be fully understood. Drawing from the entrepreneurship ecosystem literature, the growth process literature and the resource dependence theory, this study uses the business confidence survey from 2011 to 2013, which targeted all businesses across all of Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM in Nova Scotia, Canada, to explore the relationship between the entrepreneur willingness to grow and the propensity to network with key economic development organizations of the entrepreneurial ecosystem. The findings support the assumption that the proportion of businesses that are willing to grow (i.e. hire additional staff and enter new markets within the next twelve months is higher for the group of businesses that are familiar with the key economic development organizations than for the group of businesses that are not familiar with them. However, the results are not homogeneous across all populations. Our findings also indicate that the higher the expectation to enter new markets over the next

  13. Effect of Organic Layer Thickness on Black Spruce Aging Mistakes in Canadian Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Laamrani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Boreal black spruce (Picea mariana forests are prone to developing thick organic layers (paludification. Black spruce is adapted to this environment by the continuous development of adventitious roots, masking the root collar and making it difficult to age trees. Ring counts above the root collar underestimate age of trees, but the magnitude of age underestimation of trees in relation to organic layer thickness (OLT is unknown. This age underestimation is required to produce appropriate age-correction tools to be used in land resource management. The goal of this study was to assess aging errors that are done with standard ring counts of trees growing in sites with different degrees of paludification (OLT; 0–25 cm, 26–65 cm, >65 cm. Age of 81 trees sampled at three geographical locations was determined by ring counts at ground level and at 1 m height, and real age of trees was determined by cross-dating growth rings down to the root collar (root/shoot interface. Ring counts at 1 m height underestimated age of trees by a mean of 22 years (range 13–49 and 52 years (range 14–112 in null to low vs. moderately to highly paludified stands, respectively. The percentage of aging-error explained by our linear model was relatively high (R2adj = 0.71 and showed that OLT class and age at 0-m could be used to predict total aging-error while neither DBH nor geographic location could. The resulting model has important implications for forest management to accurately estimate productivity of these forests.

  14. Effects of metal-contaminated forest soils from the Canadian shield to terrestrial organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feisthauer, Natalie C; Stephenson, Gladys L; Princz, Juliska I; Scroggins, Richard P

    2006-03-01

    The effects of elevated metal concentrations in forest soils on terrestrial organisms were investigated by determining the toxicity of six site soils from northern Ontario and Quebec, Canada, using a battery of terrestrial toxicity tests. Soils were collected from three sites on each of two transects established downwind of nickel (Sudbury, ON, Canada) and copper (Rouyn-Noranda, PQ, Canada) smelting operations. Site soils were diluted to determine if toxicity estimates for the most-contaminated site soils could be quantified as a percent of site soil. Rouyn-Noranda soils were toxic following acute exposure (14 d) to plants, but not to invertebrates (7 d for collembola and 14 d for earthworms). However, Rouyn-Noranda soils were toxic to all species following chronic exposure (21, 35, and 63 d for plants, collembola, and earthworms, respectively). The toxicity of the Rouyn-Noranda site soils did not correspond to the gradient of metal concentrations in soil. Metal-contaminated Sudbury soils were toxic to plants but not to invertebrates, following acute exposure. Chronic exposure to Sudbury soils caused adverse effects to plant growth and invertebrate survival and reproduction. The toxicity of Sudbury soils corresponded to the metal concentration gradient, with one exception: The reference soil collected in October was toxic to collembola following acute and chronic exposure. This study evaluated the applicability of the new Environment Canada terrestrial toxicity test methods, developed using agricultural soils, to forest soils and also provided useful data to assess the ecological risk associated with mixtures of metals in soil.

  15. Occurrence of 13 volatile organic compounds in foods from the Canadian total diet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Sparling, Melissa; Dabeka, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous in the environment due to evaporation and incomplete combustion of fuels, use of consumer and personal care products, etc. and they can accumulate in foods. Some VOCs in foods can also be formed during food processing and preparation and migrate from food packaging. In this pilot study, a GC-MS method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was validated and used to analyse selected individual foods which can be consumed directly and 153 different total diet composite food samples for 13 VOCs. Vinyl chloride was not detected in any of the 153 composite food samples, while the other 12 VOCs were detected at various frequencies, with m-xylene being the most frequently detected (in 151 of the 153 samples), followed by toluene (145), 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (140), ethylbenzene (139), styrene (133), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (122), benzene (96), p-dichlorobenzene (95), n-butylbenzene (55), chloroform (45), naphthalene (45) and trichloroethylene (31). Concentrations of the 12 VOCs in most of the food composite samples were low, with the 90th percentiles from 1.6 ng g(-1) for n-butylbenzene to 20 ng g(-1) for toluene. However, some VOCs were detected at higher levels with maxima, for example, of 948 ng g(-1) for m-xylene and 320 ng g(-1) for ethylbenzene in chewing gum, 207 ng g(-1) for styrene and 157 ng g(-1) for toluene in herbs and spices. VOCs were detected at higher levels in most of the individual food items than their corresponding composite samples, for example, the average chloroform concentration in the individual canned soft drinks was 20 ng g(-1) compared with 3.0 ng g(-1) in their composite, and the average toluene concentration in the individual canned citrus juice was 96 ng g(-1) compared with 0.68 ng g(-1) in their composite. Thus, for determination of VOCs in foods which can be consumed directly, their individual food items should be analysed whenever possible for accurate

  16. Professionalization as an Advocacy Strategy: A Content Analysis of Canadian Child Care Social Movement Organizations' 2008 Discursive Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Rachel; Prentice, Susan; Albanese, Patrizia; Summers, Bernadette; Messina-Goertzen, Brianne; Richardson, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    Do early childhood education and care (ECEC) professionals make good advocates? Canadian advocates have fought for better child care policies since the mid-1940s. What has happened to this advocacy with the recent increased professionalization of the ECEC sector? How does increased professionalization limit, innovate or expand advocacy strategies?…

  17. A Comparative Canadian-American Study on the Effect of Television Athletics and Organized Sport on Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Paul; Moriarty, Dick

    This study investigated the attitudes, beliefs, and behavior of Canadian and American children in terms of television viewing of sports, preference for professional or amateur sport models, and proportion of violent to nonviolent television viewing. The written opinionnaire items used in the research determined: 1) demographic information on…

  18. Scenario modeling potential eco-efficiency gains from a transition to organic agriculture: life cycle perspectives on Canadian canola, corn, soy, and wheat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N; Arsenault, N; Tyedmers, P

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola (Brassica rapa), corn (Zea mays), soy (Glycine max), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  19. Scenario Modeling Potential Eco-Efficiency Gains from a Transition to Organic Agriculture: Life Cycle Perspectives on Canadian Canola, Corn, Soy, and Wheat Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N.; Arsenault, N.; Tyedmers, P.

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola ( Brassica rapa), corn ( Zea mays), soy ( Glycine max), and wheat ( Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  20. Promoting Active Citizenship through the Arts and Youth: Canadian Youth-Led Organizations as Beacons of Hope and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfilio, Brad J.; Gorlewski, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    This essay details the pedagogical and cultural work of two youth-led organizations situated in Canada--Beat Nation and 411 Initiative for Change. Through the narratives generated by interviews with several of the organizations' artists and founders, the organizations' pedagogical work generated in cyberspace, and through artists' music,…

  1. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    2011-01-01

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  2. Assessment of Exposure to Chlorinated Organics through the Ingestion of Moose Meat for a Canadian First Nation Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire McAuley

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Moose is an important traditional food for members of the Swan River First Nation (SRFN, located in northern Alberta, Canada. As industrial development is encroaching on First Nations’ traditional territories in northern Alberta, community members are growing increasingly concerned for the sustainability and safety of their traditional foods. The Alberta Special Waste Treatment Centre (ASWTC is an industrial incineration facility located in the core of SRFN’s traditional territory. An accidental release at the ASWTC in 1996 resulted in a significant discharge of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs to the environment. In addition to this accident, the ongoing operation of the ASWTC is linked to routine low-level emissions of PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs. Since the 1996 release, levels of PCBs and PCDD/Fs have been measured in wild game tissues and the provincial government has issued consumption advisories. This study was undertaken to provide answers to the community regarding food safety and was designed to address concerns regarding PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in moose tissues. Samples of moose muscle (n=15, liver (n=13 and kidney (n=14 were collected as part of regular food harvesting activities of the SRFN in the summer and fall of 2015 and generously shared by the SRFN hunters and harvesters to allow for their inclusion into the study. A risk assessment approach was used to evaluate the potential risks to human health using hazard quotients (HQ. All HQs were below the benchmark level of 0.2 for a single pathway exposure. The results show that PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in moose tissues were low and comparable to those of meats available in Canadian supermarkets. Based on results from this study, community exposure to PCBs and PCDD/Fs from the consumption of moose tissue is low and consumption may continue at quantities documented in regional studies.

  3. Origin and fate of particulate organic matter in the southern Beaufort Sea - Amundsen Gulf region, Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magen, Cedric; Chaillou, Gwenaelle; Crowe, Sean

    2010-01-01

    To establish the relative importance of terrigenous and marine organic matter in the southern Beaufort Sea, we measured the concentrations and the stable isotopic compositions of organic carbon and total nitrogen in sediments and in settling particles intercepted by sediment traps. The organic...... carbon content of surface! sediment in the Chukchi and southern Beaufort Seas ranged from 0.6 to 1.6% dry wt., without a clear geographical pattern. The C-ORG:N-TOT ratio ranged from 7.0 to 10.4 and did not vary significantly downcore at any one station. Values delta C-13(ORG) and delta N-15(TOT...... contains organic matter varying from essentially labile and marine to mostly refractory and terrigenous. As it settles through the water column, the labile marine organic matter is degraded, and its original stable isotope signature changes towards the signature of the marine refractory component...

  4. Absorption and fluorescence of dissolved organic matter in the waters of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Baffin Bay, and the Labrador Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Céline; Cuss, Chad W.; Cassels, Chase J.; Carmack, Eddy C.

    2014-03-01

    The optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were investigated for the first time in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), Baffin Bay (BB), and Labrador Sea (LS) as part of the International Polar Year Canada's Three Oceans project (C3O). The dynamics and composition of absorbing DOM (i.e., colored DOM, or CDOM) and fluorescent DOM (FDOM) were evaluated in several distinct water masses occupying the three regions: surface waters, Arctic outflow waters, West Greenland Intermediate waters (WGIW), upper Labrador Sea waters (uLSW), and Bottom Baffin Deep Water (BBDW). Four fluorescent components were identified by applying parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to 522 excitation emission matrix (EEM) spectra: three humic-like and one protein-like. The FDOM in surface waters of the CAA and BB differed considerably in character from those of the LS, with higher fluorescence intensity in the former. The fluorescence intensities of the two terrestrial humic-like components (C1 and C3) were linearly correlated with apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) in the CAA Arctic outflow and the WGIW whereas only humic-like C3 was significantly correlated with AOU in uLSW. These findings suggest that the humic-like components were produced in situ as organic matter was bio-oxidized. The slopes of the linear relationship between humic-like intensity and AOU were significantly greater in the WGIW relative to the Arctic outflow waters, which implies that FDOM in the Arctic-derived deeper layer was less prone to mineralization.

  5. Organ donation after medical assistance in dying or cessation of life-sustaining treatment requested by conscious patients: the Canadian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Julie; Fortin, Marie-Chantal

    2017-09-01

    In June 2016, following the decision of the Supreme Court of Canada to decriminalise assistance in dying, the Canadian government enacted Bill C-14, legalising medical assistance in dying (MAID). In 2014, the province of Quebec had passed end-of-life care legislation making MAID available as of December 2015. The availability of MAID has many implications, including the possibility of combining this practice with organ donation through the controlled donation after cardiac death (cDCD) protocol. cDCD most often occurs in cases where the patient has a severe neurological injury but does not meet all the criteria for brain death. The donation is subsequent to the decision to withdraw life-sustaining treatment (LST). Cases where patients are conscious prior to the withdrawal of LST are unusual, and have raised doubts as to the acceptability of removing organs from individuals who are not neurologically impaired and who have voluntarily chosen to die. These cases can be compared with likely scenarios in which patients will request both MAID and organ donation. In both instances, patients will be conscious and competent. Organ donation in such contexts raises ethical issues regarding respect for autonomy, societal pressure, conscientious objections and the dead-donor rule. In this article, we look at relevant policies in other countries and examine the ethical issues associated with cDCD in conscious patients who choose to die. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Implementing a collaborative return-to-work program: Lessons from a qualitative study in a large Canadian healthcare organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skivington, Kathryn; Lifshen, Marni; Mustard, Cameron

    2016-11-22

    Comprehensive workplace return-to-work policies, applied with consistency, can reduce length of time out of work and the risk of long-term disability. This paper reports on the findings from a qualitative study exploring managers' and return-to-work-coordinators' views on the implementation of their organization's new return-to-work program. To provide practical guidance to organizations in designing and implementing return-to-work programs for their employees. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were undertaken with 20 managers and 10 return-to-work co-ordinators to describe participants' perspectives on the progress of program implementation in the first 18 months of adoption. The study was based in a large healthcare organization in Ontario, Canada. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted. We identified tensions evident in the early implementation phase of the organization's return-to-work program. These tensions were attributed to uncertainties concerning roles and responsibilities and to circumstances where objectives or principles appeared to be in conflict. The implementation of a comprehensive and collaborative return-to-work program is a complex challenge. The findings described in this paper may provide helpful guidance for organizations embarking on the development and implementation of a return-to-work program.

  7. Metagenomes from thawing low-soil-organic-carbon mineral cryosols and permafrost of the canadian high arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Archana; Layton, Alice C; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Williams, Daniel; Pfiffner, Susan M; Rekepalli, Bhanu; Stackhouse, Brandon; Lau, Maggie C Y; Phelps, Tommy J; Mykytczuk, Nadia; Ronholm, Jennifer; Whyte, Lyle; Onstott, Tullis C; Sayler, Gary S

    2014-11-20

    Microbial release of greenhouse gases from thawing permafrost is a global concern. Seventy-six metagenomes were generated from low-soil-organic-carbon mineral cryosols from Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada, during a controlled thawing experiment. Permafrost thawing resulted in an increase in anaerobic fermenters and sulfate-reducing bacteria but not methanogens. Copyright © 2014 Chauhan et al.

  8. ParticipACTION: Baseline assessment of the capacity available to the 'New ParticipACTION': A qualitative study of Canadian organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauvin Lise

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of the original ParticipACTION campaign effects focused on individual awareness, recall, and understanding. Less studied has been the impact such campaigns have had on the broader organizational capacity to mobilize and advocate for physical activity. With the relaunch of ParticipACTION, the purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore baseline organizational capacity to promote physical activity messages, programs, and services within the Canadian context. Methods Using a purposeful sampling strategy, we conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 49 key informants representing a range of national, provincial, and local organizations with a mandate to promote physical activity. Interview data were analysed using a thematic analytic approach. Results Key informants painted a generally positive picture of current organizational capacity to promote physical activity messages, programs, and services in Canada. Will and leadership were clear strengths while infrastructure limitations remained the greatest concern. Some specific challenges included: 1 funding issues: the absence of core funding in a climate of shifting funding priorities; 2 the difficulty of working without a national physical activity policy (lack of leadership; 3 inconsistent provincial and educational sector level policies; and 4 a persistent focus on obesity rather than physical inactivity. Conclusion The data generated here can be utilized to monitor the future impact of ParticipACTION on enhancing and utilizing this organizational capacity. A range of indicators are suggested that could be used to illustrate ParticipACTION's impact on the broad field of physical activity promotion in the future.

  9. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds (Including Dimethyl Sulfide), Aerosol Particles, and CCN in the Canadian Arctic: Preliminary Results from the Summer 2014 NETCARE Expedition Aboard the CCGS Amundsen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungall, E. L.; Abbatt, J.; Lee, A.; Ladino Moreno, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic in summer is a cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) limited environment, and the controls on aerosol number and composition, and thus cloud formation, are poorly understood. A better understanding of these controls and their consequences is required in order to understand the region's changing climate. In order to advance that understanding, during Summer 2014 we deployed instrumentation aboard the CCGS Amundsen, the Canadian research icebreaker. We participated in Legs 1a and 1b of the cruise, affording us observations in locations as varied as the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Lancaster Sound, and the Nares Strait. We collected on-line measurements with high time resolution of particle number, size and CCN activity as well as mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including dimethyl sulfide, which has been implicated as an important contributor to the CCN population in the Arctic. We also attempted to directly measure air-sea fluxes of dimethyl sulfide using a high resolution time of flight mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS, Aerodyne) sampling at 10 Hz. Here, we report preliminary results from those measurements.

  10. Does accreditation stimulate change? A study of the impact of the accreditation process on Canadian healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Lemieux-Charles, Louise; Champagne, François; Angus, Doug; Shabah, Abdo; Contandriopoulos, André-Pierre

    2010-04-26

    One way to improve quality and safety in healthcare organizations (HCOs) is through accreditation. Accreditation is a rigorous external evaluation process that comprises self-assessment against a given set of standards, an on-site survey followed by a report with or without recommendations, and the award or refusal of accreditation status. This study evaluates how the accreditation process helps introduce organizational changes that enhance the quality and safety of care. We used an embedded multiple case study design to explore organizational characteristics and identify changes linked to the accreditation process. We employed a theoretical framework to analyze various elements and for each case, we interviewed top managers, conducted focus groups with staff directly involved in the accreditation process, and analyzed self-assessment reports, accreditation reports and other case-related documents. The context in which accreditation took place, including the organizational context, influenced the type of change dynamics that occurred in HCOs. Furthermore, while accreditation itself was not necessarily the element that initiated change, the accreditation process was a highly effective tool for (i) accelerating integration and stimulating a spirit of cooperation in newly merged HCOs; (ii) helping to introduce continuous quality improvement programs to newly accredited or not-yet-accredited organizations; (iii) creating new leadership for quality improvement initiatives; (iv) increasing social capital by giving staff the opportunity to develop relationships; and (v) fostering links between HCOs and other stakeholders. The study also found that HCOs' motivation to introduce accreditation-related changes dwindled over time. We conclude that the accreditation process is an effective leitmotiv for the introduction of change but is nonetheless subject to a learning cycle and a learning curve. Institutions invest greatly to conform to the first accreditation visit and reap

  11. Does accreditation stimulate change? A study of the impact of the accreditation process on Canadian healthcare organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabah Abdo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One way to improve quality and safety in healthcare organizations (HCOs is through accreditation. Accreditation is a rigorous external evaluation process that comprises self-assessment against a given set of standards, an on-site survey followed by a report with or without recommendations, and the award or refusal of accreditation status. This study evaluates how the accreditation process helps introduce organizational changes that enhance the quality and safety of care. Methods We used an embedded multiple case study design to explore organizational characteristics and identify changes linked to the accreditation process. We employed a theoretical framework to analyze various elements and for each case, we interviewed top managers, conducted focus groups with staff directly involved in the accreditation process, and analyzed self-assessment reports, accreditation reports and other case-related documents. Results The context in which accreditation took place, including the organizational context, influenced the type of change dynamics that occurred in HCOs. Furthermore, while accreditation itself was not necessarily the element that initiated change, the accreditation process was a highly effective tool for (i accelerating integration and stimulating a spirit of cooperation in newly merged HCOs; (ii helping to introduce continuous quality improvement programs to newly accredited or not-yet-accredited organizations; (iii creating new leadership for quality improvement initiatives; (iv increasing social capital by giving staff the opportunity to develop relationships; and (v fostering links between HCOs and other stakeholders. The study also found that HCOs' motivation to introduce accreditation-related changes dwindled over time. Conclusions We conclude that the accreditation process is an effective leitmotiv for the introduction of change but is nonetheless subject to a learning cycle and a learning curve. Institutions invest

  12. Iron sufficiency of Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Marcia; Greene-Finestone, Linda; Lowell, Hélène; Levesque, Johanne; Robinson, Stacey

    2012-12-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world, but little is known about the iron status of people in Canada, where the last estimates are from 1970-1972. The data are from cycle 2 (2009 to 2011) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey, which collected blood samples from a nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 3 to 79. Descriptive statistics (percentages, arithmetic means, geometric means) were used to estimate hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations, and other markers of iron status. Analyses were performed by age/sex group, household income, self-perceived health, diet, and use of iron supplements. World Health Organization reference values (2001) were used to estimate the prevalence of iron sufficiency and anemia. The overall prevalence of anemia was low in the 2009-to-2011 period--97% of Canadians had sufficient hemoglobin levels. Generally, hemoglobin concentration increased compared with 1970-1972; however, at ages 65 to 79, rates of anemia were higher than in 1970-1972. Depleted iron stores were found in 13% of females aged 12 to 19 and 9% of females aged 20 to 49. Lower household income was associated with a lower prevalence of hemoglobin sufficiency, but was not related to lower serum ferritin sufficiency. Self-perceived health and diet were not significantly associated with hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels. The lack of a relationship between iron status and diet may be attributable to the use of questions about food consumption frequency that were not specifically designed to estimate dietary iron intake. Factors other than iron intake might have contributed to the increase in the prevalence of anemia among seniors.

  13. Impact of Next Generation Sequencing on the Organization and Funding of Returning Research Results: Survey of Canadian Research Ethics Boards Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaitovich Groisman, Iris; Godard, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Research Ethics Boards (REBs) are expected to evaluate protocols planning the use of Next Generation Sequencing technologies (NGS), assuring that any genomic finding will be properly managed. As Canadian REBs play a central role in the disclosure of such results, we deemed it important to examine the views and experience of REB members on the return of aggregated research results, individual research results (IRRs) and incidental findings (IFs) in current genomic research. With this intent, we carried out a web-based survey, which showed that 59.7% of respondents viewed the change from traditional sequencing to NGS as more than a technical substitution, and that 77% of respondents agreed on the importance of returning aggregated research results, the most compelling reasons being the recognition of participants' contribution and increasing the awareness of scientific progress. As for IRRs specifically, 50% of respondents were in favour of conveying such information, even when they only indicated the probability that a condition may develop. Current regulations and risk to participants were considered equally important, and much more than financial costs, when considering the return of IRRs and IFs. Respondents indicated that the financial aspect of offering genetic counseling was the least important matter when assessing it as a requisite. Granting agencies were named as mainly responsible for funding, while the organizing and returning of IRRs and IFs belonged to researchers. However, views in these matters differ according to respondents' experience. Our results draw attention to the need for improved guidance when considering the organizational and financial aspects of returning genetic research results, so as to better fulfill the ethical and moral principles that are to guide such undertakings.

  14. Impact of Next Generation Sequencing on the Organization and Funding of Returning Research Results: Survey of Canadian Research Ethics Boards Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Jaitovich Groisman

    Full Text Available Research Ethics Boards (REBs are expected to evaluate protocols planning the use of Next Generation Sequencing technologies (NGS, assuring that any genomic finding will be properly managed. As Canadian REBs play a central role in the disclosure of such results, we deemed it important to examine the views and experience of REB members on the return of aggregated research results, individual research results (IRRs and incidental findings (IFs in current genomic research. With this intent, we carried out a web-based survey, which showed that 59.7% of respondents viewed the change from traditional sequencing to NGS as more than a technical substitution, and that 77% of respondents agreed on the importance of returning aggregated research results, the most compelling reasons being the recognition of participants' contribution and increasing the awareness of scientific progress. As for IRRs specifically, 50% of respondents were in favour of conveying such information, even when they only indicated the probability that a condition may develop. Current regulations and risk to participants were considered equally important, and much more than financial costs, when considering the return of IRRs and IFs. Respondents indicated that the financial aspect of offering genetic counseling was the least important matter when assessing it as a requisite. Granting agencies were named as mainly responsible for funding, while the organizing and returning of IRRs and IFs belonged to researchers. However, views in these matters differ according to respondents' experience. Our results draw attention to the need for improved guidance when considering the organizational and financial aspects of returning genetic research results, so as to better fulfill the ethical and moral principles that are to guide such undertakings.

  15. Dictionaries of Canadian English

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    ... Globe and Mail said, an enterprising publication. Despite the existence of the Winston dictionary, some Canadians were still, at the end of the 1950s, prepared to dismiss Canadian lexicography as pointless. When the idea of a Canadian dictionary was introduced to the Dean of Arts and Science at Dalhousie University in ...

  16. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Boreal regions comprise about 17 % of the global land area, and they both affect and are influenced by climate change. To better understand boreal forest fire emissions and plume evolution, 947 whole air samples were collected aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft in summer 2008 as part of the ARCTAS-B field mission, and analyzed for 79 non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs using gas chromatography. Together with simultaneous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, CH2O, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN, these measurements represent the most comprehensive assessment of trace gas emissions from boreal forest fires to date. Based on 105 air samples collected in fresh Canadian smoke plumes, 57 of the 80 measured NMVOCs (including CH2O were emitted from the fires, including 45 species that were quantified from boreal forest fires for the first time. After CO2, CO and CH4, the largest emission factors (EFs for individual species were formaldehyde (2.1 ± 0.2 g kg−1, followed by methanol, NO2, HCN, ethene, α-pinene, β-pinene, ethane, benzene, propene, acetone and CH3CN. Globally, we estimate that boreal forest fires release 2.4 ± 0.6 Tg C yr−1 in the form of NMVOCs, with approximately 41 % of the carbon released as C1-C2 NMVOCs and 21 % as pinenes. These are the first reported field measurements of monoterpene emissions from boreal forest fires, and we speculate that the pinenes, which are relatively heavy molecules, were detected in the fire plumes as the result of distillation of stored terpenes as the vegetation is heated. Their inclusion in smoke chemistry models is expected to improve model predictions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. The fire-averaged EF of dichloromethane or CH2Cl2, (6.9 ± 8.6 × 10−4 g kg−1, was not significantly different from zero and supports recent findings that its global biomass burning source appears to have been overestimated. Similarly, we found no evidence for emissions of chloroform (CHCl3 or methyl

  17. Framing Canadian federalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saywell, John; Anastakis, Dimitry; Bryden, Penny E

    2009-01-01

    ... the pervasive effects that federalism has on Canadian politics, economics, culture, and history, and provide a detailed framework in which to understand contemporary federalism. Written in honour of John T. Saywell's half-century of accomplished and influential scholarly work and teaching, Framing Canadian Federalism is a timely and fitting t...

  18. Bridging Grant : Building Canadian Support for Global Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to supporting research for global health equity. The CCGHR provides a networking and action platform for the Canadian global health research community and partners in low- and middle-income countries. This grant will ...

  19. Abstracts from the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society Quebec City, April 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Auais, M.; Morin, S.; Finch, L.; Sara, A.; Mayo, N.; Charise, A.; Islam, A.; Muir, Susan; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Kennedy, C.C.; Papaioannou, A.; Ioannidis, G.; Giangregorio, L.M.; Adachi, J.D.; Thabane, L.

    2012-01-01

    The opinions expressed in the abstracts are those of the authors and are not to be construed as the opinion of the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) or the organizers of the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society. Although the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) has made every effort to accurately reproduce the abstracts, the Canadian Geriatrics Society and the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society assumes no responsibility and/...

  20. Canadians' eating habits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garriguet, Didier

    2007-01-01

    This report is an overview of Canadians' eating habits: total calories consumed and the number of servings from the various food groups, as well as the percentage of total calories from fat, protein and carbohydrates...

  1. Consensus statement: the development of a national Canadian Migraine Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, W J; Christie, S N; Mackie, G; Cooper, P

    2010-07-01

    Migraine is a significant cause of suffering and disability in the Canadian population, and imposes a major cost on Canadian Society. Based on current medical science, much more could be done to provide better comprehensive medical care to the millions of individuals with migraine in Canada. To propose and design a national Canadian Migraine Strategy which could be implemented to reduce migraine related disability in Canada. A multidisciplinary task force of the Canadian Headache Society met for a Canadian Migraine Summit Meeting in Halifax, Nova Scotia in June, 2009. Pertinent literature was reviewed and a consensus document was produced based upon the round table discussion at the meeting. The outline of a national Canadian Migraine Strategy was created. This strategy is based on the chronic disease management model, and would include: an outline of what constitutes appropriate migraine care for Canadians, educational programs (for health care professionals, individuals with migraine, and the general public), research programs, and the development of the necessary organizations and partnerships to develop further and implement the Canadian Migraine Strategy. Based upon the medical literature and expert discussion at the meeting, a national Canadian Migraine Strategy with a patient self-management focus has the potential to improve patient care and reduce headache related disability in Canada.

  2. Research Awards: Canadian Partnerships Program Deadline: 12 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... This award provides young and upcoming professionals with a unique opportunity to strengthen their research skills and gain a fresh perspective on the Canadian community – both in universities and civil society organizations (CSOs) – that is actively engaged in creating, sharing, and using knowledge to ...

  3. Guidelines for Evaluation of Canadian Forces Indoor Firing Ranges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Severs, Y

    1999-01-01

    Indoor Firing Ranges (IFR) within DND are typically used by Canadian Forces (CF) personnel, Cadets, RCMP, and civilian organizations for firing small bore weapons in support of both operational/ occupational and recreational requirements...

  4. Portrayal of youth suicide in canadian news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easson, Amanda; Agarwal, Arnav; Duda, Stephanie; Bennett, Kathryn

    2014-09-01

    Responsible media reporting of youth suicide may reduce the risk of contagion and increase help-seeking behaviour. Accordingly, we conducted a content analysis of Canadian youth suicide newspaper articles to assess quality and summarize content (themes, age groups, populations and use of scientific evidence). The Canadian Periodical Index Quarterly (CPI.Q) was searched (2008-2012) for full-text Canadian newspaper articles using the keywords "youth" and "suicide." The top five most relevant articles as judged by CPI.Q were selected sequentially for each year (n=25). Quality was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for responsible media reporting. Content analysis was completed in duplicate by two reviewers. All articles addressed youth suicide generally rather than reporting exclusively on a specific death by suicide. Alignment of articles with individual WHO guideline items ranged from 16 to 60%. The most common content theme was prevention (80%). No article was judged to glamorize suicide. Help seeking was addressed in 52% of articles, but only 20% provided information on where to obtain help. Statistics were referenced more frequently than scientific research (76% vs. 28%). Our review suggests that Canadian media presents youth suicide as an issue for which hope and help exist. While the majority of reports aim to educate the public about suicide, increased use of scientific evidence about risk factors and prevention is recommended to facilitate the translation of rigorous scientific knowledge into improved mental health and reduced suicide risk among Canadian youth.

  5. Introducing New Priority Setting and Resource Allocation Processes in a Canadian Healthcare Organization: A Case Study Analysis Informed by Multiple Streams Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neale; Mitton, Craig; Dowling, Laura; Hiltz, Mary-Ann; Campbell, Matthew; Gujar, Shashi Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this article, we analyze one case instance of how proposals for change to the priority setting and resource allocation (PSRA) processes at a Canadian healthcare institution reached the decision agenda of the organization’s senior leadership. We adopt key concepts from an established policy studies framework – Kingdon’s multiple streams theory – to inform our analysis. Methods: Twenty-six individual interviews were conducted at the IWK Health Centre in Halifax, NS, Canada. Participants were asked to reflect upon the reasons leading up to the implementation of a formal priority setting process – Program Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA) – in the 2012/2013 fiscal year. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using Kingdon’s model as a template. Results: The introduction of PBMA can be understood as the opening of a policy window. A problem stream – defined as lack of broad engagement and information sharing across service lines in past practice – converged with a known policy solution, PBMA, which addressed the identified problems and was perceived as easy to use and with an evidence-base from past applications across Canada and elsewhere. Conditions in the political realm allowed for this intervention to proceed, but also constrained its potential outcomes. Conclusion: Understanding in a theoretically-informed way how change occurs in healthcare management practices can provide useful lessons to researchers and decision-makers whose aim is to help health systems achieve the most effective use of available financial resources PMID:26673646

  6. Introducing New Priority Setting and Resource Allocation Processes in a Canadian Healthcare Organization: A Case Study Analysis Informed by Multiple Streams Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neale Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In this article, we analyze one case instance of how proposals for change to the priority setting and resource allocation (PSRA processes at a Canadian healthcare institution reached the decision agenda of the organization’s senior leadership. We adopt key concepts from an established policy studies framework – Kingdon’s multiple streams theory – to inform our analysis. Methods Twenty-six individual interviews were conducted at the IWK Health Centre in Halifax, NS, Canada. Participants were asked to reflect upon the reasons leading up to the implementation of a formal priority setting process – Program Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA – in the 2012/2013 fiscal year. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using Kingdon’s model as a template. Results The introduction of PBMA can be understood as the opening of a policy window. A problem stream – defined as lack of broad engagement and information sharing across service lines in past practice – converged with a known policy solution, PBMA, which addressed the identified problems and was perceived as easy to use and with an evidence-base from past applications across Canada and elsewhere. Conditions in the political realm allowed for this intervention to proceed, but also constrained its potential outcomes. Conclusion Understanding in a theoretically-informed way how change occurs in healthcare management practices can provide useful lessons to researchers and decision-makers whose aim is to help health systems achieve the most effective use of available financial resources.

  7. Erosion control blankets, organic amendments and site variability influenced the initial plant community at a limestone quarry in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Cohen-Fernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Season of seeding and soil amendment with manure mix, wood shavings and erosion control blankets were evaluated over two growing seasons to determine their effect on soil properties and native grass establishment at a Canadian limestone quarry and lime processing plant. A season (fall, spring of soil amending and seeding did not significantly affect revegetation or soil properties. Site characteristics such as slope, aspect, initial soil nutrients and surrounding plant communities influenced early plant community development and overall effects of soil treatments. Erosion control blankets resulted in the highest seeded plant cover and the lowest non-seeded plant cover despite not significantly changing soil chemical properties. Total nitrogen and carbon significantly increased establishment of seeded grasses and non-seeded species. Increased nitrogen and carbon in the constructed soils were best achieved through addition of manure. Wood shavings did not favour establishment of vegetation and resulted in similar, and in some cases less, vegetation than the controls. Assisted revegetation increased plant cover from < 6 to 50% and reduced cover of non-seeded species. Amendments that modified both chemical and physical soil conditions were best to increase vegetation establishment in the harsh conditions of the quarry.

  8. Erosion control blankets, organic amendments and site variability influenced the initial plant community at a limestone quarry in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Fernández, A. C.; Naeth, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    Season of seeding and soil amendment with manure mix, wood shavings and erosion control blankets were evaluated over two growing seasons to determine their effect on soil properties and native grass establishment at a Canadian limestone quarry and lime processing plant. A season (fall, spring) of soil amending and seeding did not significantly affect revegetation or soil properties. Site characteristics such as slope, aspect, initial soil nutrients and surrounding plant communities influenced early plant community development and overall effects of soil treatments. Erosion control blankets resulted in the highest seeded plant cover and the lowest non-seeded plant cover despite not significantly changing soil chemical properties. Total nitrogen and carbon significantly increased establishment of seeded grasses and non-seeded species. Increased nitrogen and carbon in the constructed soils were best achieved through addition of manure. Wood shavings did not favour establishment of vegetation and resulted in similar, and in some cases less, vegetation than the controls. Assisted revegetation increased plant cover from physical soil conditions were best to increase vegetation establishment in the harsh conditions of the quarry.

  9. Organization specific predictors of job satisfaction: findings from a Canadian multi-site quality of work life cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohfeld Lynne

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational features can affect how staff view their quality of work life. Determining staff perceptions about quality of work life is an important consideration for employers interested in improving employee job satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to identify organization specific predictors of job satisfaction within a health care system that consisted of six independent health care organizations. Methods 5,486 full, part and causal time (non-physician staff on active payroll within six organizations (2 community hospitals, 1 community hospital/long-term care facility, 1 long-term care facility, 1 tertiary care/community health centre, and 1 visiting nursing agency located in five communities in Central West Ontario, Canada were asked to complete a 65-item quality of work life survey. The self-administered questionnaires collected staff perceptions of: co-worker and supervisor support; teamwork and communication; job demands and decision authority; organization characteristics; patient/resident care; compensation and benefits; staff training and development; and impressions of the organization. Socio-demographic data were also collected. Results Depending on the organization, between 15 and 30 (of the 40 potential predictor variables were found to be statistically associated with job satisfaction (univariate analyses. Logistic regression analyses identified the best predictors of job satisfaction and these are presented for each of the six organizations and for all organizations combined. Conclusions The findings indicate that job satisfaction is a multidimensional construct and although there appear to be some commonalities across organizations, some predictors of job satisfaction appear to be organization and context specific.

  10. Transdisciplinary tour-de-force: The Canadian National Transplant Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Marie-Josée; Hartell, David; West, Lori

    2016-03-01

    The Canadian National Transplant Research Program, launched in 2013 with funding from the Canadian Institutes for Health Research and partners, bridges research in the fields of solid organ transplant, hematopoietic cell transplant, and organ donation. We describe the philosophy, structure, accomplishments, and challenges faced by the Canadian National Transplant Research Program to expand on facilitators and overcome roadblocks to successfully developing a transdisciplinary national research structure.

  11. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  12. Evaluation of MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry and Sepsityper Kit™ for the Direct Identification of Organisms from Sterile Body Fluids in a Canadian Pediatric Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Tadros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS can be used to identify bacteria directly from positive blood and sterile fluid cultures. The authors evaluated a commercially available kit – the Sepsityper Kit (Bruker Daltonik, Germany – and MALDI-TOF MS for the rapid identification of organisms from 80 flagged positive blood culture broths, of which 73 (91.2% were blood culture specimens and seven (8.7% were cerebrospinal fluid specimens, in comparison with conventional identification methods. Correct identification to the genus and species levels was obtained in 75 of 80 (93.8% and 39 of 50 (78% blood culture broths, respectively. Applying the blood culture analysis module, a newly developed software tool, improved the species identification of Gram-negative organisms from 94.7% to 100% and of Gram-positive organisms from 66.7% to 70%.

  13. Low-temperature formation and stabilization of rare allotropes of cyclooctasulfur (β-S8 and γ-S8) in the presence of organic carbon at a sulfur-rich glacial site in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Graham E.; Cosmidis, Julie; Grasby, Stephen E.; Trivedi, Christopher B.; Spear, John R.; Templeton, Alexis S.

    2017-03-01

    Large-scale deposits of elemental sulfur form annually on a glacier's surface at Borup Fiord Pass in the Canadian High Arctic. However, the mechanisms of mineralization and stabilization of elemental sulfur at this site are currently unknown. Here we show that X-ray diffraction (XRD) data for fresh sulfur precipitates collected from the surface of a melt pool over sulfide-rich ice reveal the presence of three sulfur allotropes, α-S8, β-S8, and γ-S8 (the three solid forms of cyclooctasulfur (S8)). The detection of the β-S8 allotrope of elemental sulfur is notable, since β-S8 typically only forms in high temperature environments (>96 °C). The γ-S8 allotrope is also rare in natural settings and has previously been implicated as a signature of microbial sulfur cycling. Using combustion and infrared spectroscopy approaches, organic carbon is also detected within the sample bearing the three allotropes of elemental sulfur. Electron microscopy and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the C K-edge show that the sulfur precipitates are intimately associated with the organic carbon at the submicron scale. The occurrence of β-S8 and γ-S8 in this low-temperature setting indicates that there are unknown pathways for the formation and stabilization of these rare allotropes of elemental sulfur. In particular, we infer that the occurrence of these allotropes is related to their association with organic carbon. The formation of carbon-associated sulfur globules may not be a direct by-product of microbial activity; however, a potential role of direct or indirect microbial mediation in the formation and stabilization of β-S8 and γ-S8 remains to be assessed.

  14. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. J. Simpson; S. K. Akagi; B. Barletta; N. J. Blake; Y. Choi; G. S. Diskin; A. Fried; H. E. Fuelberg; S. Meinardi; F. S. Rowland; S. A. Vay; A. J. Weinheimer; P. O. Wennberg; P. Wiebring; A. Wisthaler; M. Yang; R. J. Yokelson; D. R. Blake

    2011-01-01

    Boreal regions comprise about 17% of the global land area, and they both affect and are influenced by climate change. To better understand boreal forest fire emissions and plume evolution, 947 whole air samples were collected aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft in summer 2008 as part of the ARCTAS-B field mission, and analyzed for 79 non-methane volatile organic...

  15. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  16. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  17. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  18. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  19. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  20. Canadian identity: Implications for international social work by Canadians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2011-01-01

    This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all......, to critically examine and unpack our ‘Canadian’ identity in order to practice international work that is socially just and anti-imperialist. Drawing on the work of post-colonial authors, critical race theorists, and those who study national myth-making, this essay revisits Canadian identity because...... it is this identity that Canadian social workers often carry into their international work....

  1. Is sonication effective to improve biogas production and solids reduction in excess sludge direction?[Held jointly with the 4. Canadian organic residuals and biosolids managment conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braguglia, C.M.; Mininni, G.; Gianico, A. [CNR - Istituto di Ricerca Sulle Acque, Rome (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    Sewage treatment plants (STPs) generate large amounts of sludge that are rich in nutrients, but not generally accepted as agricultural fertilizer due to environmental and human health risks as a result of the possible presence of toxic compounds. Designers and operators of STPs are therefore looking for new processes aimed to minimize sludge production. Anaerobic digestion has been the principal process to stabilize sewage sludge. A significant gain in energy recovery and solids degradation can be made using anaerobic digestion by applying an appropriate sludge pre-treatment like sonication. To assess the performance of anaerobic digestion processes, volatile solids (VS) reduction is generally used. The amount of VS reduction achieved depends on the type of sludge digested, temperature and organic loading rate (OLR), one of the most important factors for the control of anaerobic digestion systems. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the effect of sonication on anaerobic digestion performance (total biogas production and volatile solids removal) by semi-continuous digestion experiments, by varying OLR and sonication intensity. The results of three semi-continuous anaerobic tests were reported and discussed. Each test was carried out by two parallel anaerobic reactors fed with waste activated sludge, either as it was sampled from the sewage treatment plant of Rome North or previously disintegrated by ultrasound treatment. The paper provided an introduction to the study and discussed materials and methods including: sludge, matter composition, sonication pre-treatment, and digester system. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Kinetic models for pyrolysis and combustion of sewage sludge[Held jointly with the 4. Canadian organic residuals and biosolids managment conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, R.; Udaquiola, S. [Univ. Nacional de San Juan, San Juan (Argentina). Lab. Tec. Amb., Inst. de Ing. Qca; Gauthier, D; Flamant, G. [PROMES-CNRS, Font-Romeu Odeillo (France); Mazza, G. [Univ. Nacional Del Comahue, Neuquen (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica; Martinez, O. [Univ. Nacional de la Plata, La Plata (Argentina). CINDECA-CONICET

    2007-07-01

    In thermochemical conversion processes that produce energy, the kinetics of waste decomposition must be considered. The rate of mass loss due to thermal decomposition determines the available fuel on the fire triangle of heat, fuel and oxygen. Heating rates in thermobalance experiments are low, and are often used to study the primary reactions in the decomposition of solids since their cracking is negligible. Thermogravimetry is an option for determining the decomposition profile of a solid in terms of its temperature versus the kinetics of its decomposition. This paper presented the thermal analysis and results of a study that used thermogravimetric analyses on dry samples of sewage sludge from San Juan, Argentina in an inert and oxidative atmosphere. Three peaks were observed in all differential thermogravimetric curves during the organic matter decomposition. In order to explain the experimental data, various reaction schemes were set up. The first two schemes considered 3 fractions decomposing in parallel during pyrolysis, with oxidative pyrolysis of all fractions during combustion or only two. The third scheme considered the decomposition of 2 fractions only but with dissymmetrical behavior during the whole pyrolysis and combustion phenomenon. It was concluded that the simulations were a good agreement with the experimental data for the first 2 schemes only, and overall, the fit was better with the second scheme. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Canadian space robotic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberger, Christian; Space Plan Task Force, Canadian Space Agency

    The Canadian Space Agency has chosen space robotics as one of its key niche areas, and is currently preparing to deliver the first flight elements for the main robotic system of the international space station. The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is the Canadian contribution to the international space station. It consists of three main elements. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a 7-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm. The Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a smaller 2-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm can be used independently, or attached to the end of the SSRMS. The Mobile Base System (MBS) will be used as a support platform and will also provide power and data links for both the SSRMS and the SPDM. A Space Vision System (SVS) has been tested on Shuttle flights, and is being further developed to enhance the autonomous capabilities of the MSS. The CSA also has a Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics Program which is developing new technologies to fulfill future robotic space mission needs. This program is currently developing in industry technological capabilities in the areas of automation of operations, autonomous robotics, vision systems, trajectory planning and object avoidance, tactile and proximity sensors, and ground control of space robots. Within the CSA, a robotic testbed and several research programs are also advancing technologies such as haptic devices, control via head-mounted displays, predictive and preview displays, and the dynamic characterization of robotic arms. Canada is also now developing its next Long Term Space Plan. In this context, a planetary exploration program is being considered, which would utilize Canadian space robotic technologies in this new arena.

  4. Unique Factors Affecting Canadian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Robin H.

    In a background statement identifying what is unique about Canada and the issues it currently faces, this paper begins by discussing the concurrent movements toward Canadian nationalism and Quebec nationalism as an illustration of the problems caused by large size and great diversity. It then focuses on unique aspects of Canadian education,…

  5. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  6. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  7. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    .... What contributes to this deterioration, and how can its effects be mitigated? Engendering Migrant Health brings together researchers from across Canada to address the intersections of gender, immigration, and health in the lives of new Canadians...

  8. Natural history of Canadian mammals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naughton, Donna; Banfield, A. W. F

    2012-01-01

    .... A complete revision of A.W.F. Banfield's classic text Mammals of Canada, it features brand-new, full-colour images of each species, as well as stunning photographs from Canadian Geographic magazine's national photography...

  9. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    "Voluntary migrants to Canada are generally healthier than the average Canadian, but after ten years in the country they report poorer health and higher rates of chronic disease than those born here...

  10. The Dime Novel Western: Studying the American/Canadian West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1993-01-01

    Dime novels, a form of American/Canadian subliterature that gained popularity from 1840 to 1910, entertained with fast-paced action, high adventure, and ethically uplifting stories emphasizing the triumph of good over evil. Students can approach North American history creatively and practically by locating, collecting, and organizing information…

  11. Women and the Canadian welfare state: challenges and change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wekerle, Gerda R; Evans, Patricia M

    1997-01-01

    ... the paid labour force, provide for dependants, and leave abusive relationships. Access to political resources has helped women to form solidarities, alliances, and organizations. In Women and the Canadian Welfare State, scholars from environmental studies, law, social work, sociology, and economics explore the changing relationship between wom...

  12. Canadian leadership in energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Canadian synthetic resins industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margeson, J. [Industry Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    The growth of the synthetic resin industry in Canada is described. In 1999 the industry had shipments totalling $6.3 billion and employed about 9,000 people in 105 establishments. The industry is concentrated in Alberta, Ontario and Quebec. Plants in Alberta produce commodity-grade thermoplastic resins from raw materials derived mainly from natural gas, whereas plants in Ontario and Quebec produce both thermoplastic and thermoset resins using raw materials derived from both crude oil and natural gas. Sixty-four per cent of the synthetic reins produced in Canada, worth about $4.1 billion, are exported. This is offset by imports of 68 per cent of domestic consumption, (valued at $5.0 billion) reflecting rationalization and specialization of the resin industry on a continental basis. Process and product technologies used in Canada are up-to-date and licensed from parent or other foreign chemical companies. Capital investment in the Canadian resin industry is lagging behind investment in the United States, however, this is expected to change once the impact of recent investments in the industry in Alberta is reflected in the statistics. A five to seven per cent real average annual growth in world-wide consumption is predicted over the next five years. Growth in North America is projected to be in the three to four per cent range. The Alberta-based component of the industry, being relatively new, is expected to improve its ability to compete globally in commodity thermoplastics. In contrast, the plants in Ontario and Quebec suffer from the fact that they were built prior to the Free Trade Agreement and were designed to satisfy domestic requirements. They are attempting to compensate for their lack of economics of scale by developing strategies to supply niche products. 8 figs.

  14. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  15. Transnational archives: the Canadian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Creet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.

  16. Canadian Children's Literature: An Alberta Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Carbonaro, Mike; Green, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an online survey administered to Alberta elementary school teachers in 2000-2001. The survey explored the teachers' knowledge and use of Canadian children's literature and their thoughts about the role of Canadian literature in elementary school classrooms. Canadian children's trade books espouse particular…

  17. Phonological Variability in Canadian English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolf, Gaelan Dodds

    A study compared salient variables of Canadian English from two concurrent sociodialectal surveys, one for Ottawa, Ontario and one for Vancouver, British Columbia. Using the Labovian model of phonological variation in association with sociological parameters and other linguistic variables within each specific area, the analysis investigated four…

  18. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on the context of Canadian policy and society, the contributors illuminate migrants' testimonies of struggle, resistance, and solidarity as they negotiate a place for themselves in a new country. Topics range from the difficulties of Francophone refugees and the changing roles of fathers, to the experiences of queer newcomers and the importance of social unity to communal and individual health."--pub. desc.

  19. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  20. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  1. British view of Canadian general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, G N

    1971-02-06

    The Canadian general practitioner is remunerated by an item-of-service system of payment which encourages servicing demands rather than needs, discourages delegation of work to paramedical workers, and involves his staff in a massive amount of paper work. He has an excellent hospital attachment, which unfortunately is overdone. His community facilities are piecemeal and his office organization is rudimentary. There are few incentives for good general practice in the community. He spends an inordinate amount of time examining well people. The university departments of general practice are extremely good and much should be heard from them very quickly. The patient's attitude towards his doctor is quite different from the one prevailing currently in Britain.I returned happily to British general practice.

  2. Canadian Civil-Military Relations, 1939-1941: A Case Study in Strategic Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    peak strength in June 1944, the Canadian Army had enlisted 495,073 men and women, organized into two tank brigades, eight divisions, two corps and...but sceptical , foreign policy and defence analysts such as Escott Reid, National Secretary of the Canadian Institute for International Affairs (CIIA...at least 1942 but promised an armoured division and “possibly” an armoured tank brigade. He did this by cable in early January 1941.119 A

  3. Microplastics in aquatic environments: Implications for Canadian ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julie C; Park, Bradley J; Palace, Vince P

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics have been increasingly detected and quantified in marine and freshwater environments, and there are growing concerns about potential effects in biota. A literature review was conducted to summarize the current state of knowledge of microplastics in Canadian aquatic environments; specifically, the sources, environmental fate, behaviour, abundance, and toxicological effects in aquatic organisms. While we found that research and publications on these topics have increased dramatically since 2010, relatively few studies have assessed the presence, fate, and effects of microplastics in Canadian water bodies. We suggest that efforts to determine aquatic receptors at greatest risk of detrimental effects due to microplastic exposure, and their associated contaminants, are particularly warranted. There is also a need to address the gaps identified, with a particular focus on the species and conditions found in Canadian aquatic systems. These gaps include characterization of the presence of microplastics in Canadian freshwater ecosystems, identifying key sources of microplastics to these systems, and evaluating the presence of microplastics in Arctic waters and biota. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  5. Diversity Management in the Canadian Workplace: Towards an Antiracism Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vanmala Hiranandani

    2012-01-01

    Most diversity management programs in Canada maintain that enhancing workforce diversity is of tremendous significance for business organizations in today’s competitive global urban markets. Since well-meaning diversity management initiatives have been largely ineffective thus far in dealing with workplace discrimination and racism in the Canadian workplace, this paper underscores the need to decenter the focus of diversity management from a business imperative to an antidiscrimination and so...

  6. Masaru Shintani: The Making of a Modern Canadian Karate Master

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Toth

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at the life of Japanese/Canadian karate pioneer, Masaru Shintani, from his birth in Vancouver, British Columbia, until his death in Kapuskasing, Ontario. After more than thirty years of teaching, Shintani created one of the largest karate organizations in North America with over 27,000 members. Shintani also invented Shindo, a martial art facilitating the use of an ancient weapon, the short stick, with modern techniques. For this article, many of Shintani’s senior students ...

  7. The Canadian safeguards support program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeffe, R. [Atomic Energy Control Board, Canadian Safeguards Support Program, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Canada supports international safeguards as a means by which the proliferation of nuclear weapons can be discouraged. Canada recognizes that,to meet that the IAEA must have effective safeguards techniques and the active cooperation of Member States. Therefore the Canadian Government decided in 1976 to initiate a program in support of IAEA safeguards, known as the Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP). The CSSP is funded and administered by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The CSSP is a co-ordinated program for the development and the application of safeguards instruments and techniques for nuclear facilities and materials on behalf of the IAEA and also in support of Canada's own national nuclear material safeguards system, implemented by the AECB. (author)

  8. Canadian safeguards - an historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ironside, A.M. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Smith, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper summarizes safeguards activities and programs undertaken in Canada. In 1970, Canada, in collaboration with the IAEA, began a study of procedures and equipment required for the application of safeguards to on-line-fueled reactors. In 1977, this assistance was substantially increased and formalized into the Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP). To date, Canada has spent in excess of $35 million Canadian on this program. The CSSP provides support to the IAEA safeguards effort for areas in which Canada has expertise and has been primarily engaged in developing safeguards procedures and equipment for the CANDU power reactors in Canada and throughout the world. Work, projects, and equipment development undertaken by CANDU CSSP are highlighted.

  9. Canadian prostate brachytherapy in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Mira; Crook, Juanita; Morris, W. James; Morton, Gerard; Pickles, Tom; Usmani, Nawaid; Vigneault, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Prostate brachytherapy can be used as a monotherapy for low- and intermediate-risk patients or in combination with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as a form of dose escalation for selected intermediate- and high-risk patients. Prostate brachytherapy with either permanent implants (low dose rate [LDR]) or temporary implants (high dose rate [HDR]) is emerging as the most effective radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Several large Canadian brachytherapy programs were established in the mid- to late-1990s. Prostate brachytherapy is offered in British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick. We anticipate the need for brachytherapy services in Canada will significantly increase in the near future. In this review, we summarize brachytherapy programs across Canada, contemporary eligibility criteria for the procedure, toxicity and prostate-specific antigen recurrence free survival (PRFS), as published from Canadian institutions for both LDR and HDR brachytherapy. PMID:23671495

  10. Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands

    OpenAIRE

    Patchett, Merle M; Lozowy, A

    2012-01-01

    Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands” is a collaborative exchange between photographer Andriko Lozowy and cultural geographer Merle Patchett that engages photography and photographic theory to evoke a more critical and politically meaningful visual engagement with the world’s largest capital oil project. Since the appearance of Edward Burtynsky’s aerial and abstracted photographic-mappings of the region, capturing the scale of the Oil Sands from ‘on high’ has become the dominant visual imaginary....

  11. Nutritional risk among older Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage-Morin, Pamela L; Garriguet, Didier

    2013-03-01

    Nutritional risk screening is typically done in clinical settings to identify individuals at risk of malnourishment. This article presents the first population-level assessment of nutritional risk based on a large national sample representative of Canadian householders aged 65 or older. Data from the 2008/2009 Canadian Community Health Survey-Healthy Aging were used to estimate the prevalence of nutritional risk by selected characteristics. Factors associated with nutritional risk were examined with restricted and full logistic models. The distribution of responses on the SCREEN II-AB nutritional risk instrument is reported. Based on the results of the 2008/2009 survey, 34% of Canadians aged 65 or older were at nutritional risk. Women were more likely than men to be at risk. Among people with depression, 62% were at nutritional risk, compared with 33% of people without depression. Level of disability, poor oral health, and medication use were associated with nutritional risk, as were living alone, low social support, infrequent social participation, and not driving on a regular basis. Lower income and education were also associated with nutritional risk. Nutritional risk is common among seniors living in private households in Canada. The characteristics of people most likely to be at nutritional risk provide evidence for targeted screening and assessment.

  12. Professional Legitimation for Education in Canadian Universities: "The Canadian Journal of Education", 1976-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Donald

    2017-01-01

    In this commentary, Donald Fisher reports on the history of the "The Canadian Journal of Education" as part of this 40th anniversary issue. Fisher states that the history of the Canadian Society for the Study of Education (CSSE) has been profoundly influenced by changes in the role of the Canadian State. The 1960s and 1970s were a time…

  13. Canadian Council for Area Studies Learned Societies - 2007-2008 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCASLS) provides a shared secretariat for four area studies associations: the Canadian Association of African Studies (CAAS); the Canadian Asian Studies Association (CASA): the Canadian Association of Latin American and Caribbean Studies ...

  14. The Canadian mobile satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertenyi, Elemer

    1992-07-01

    Plans to upgrade Canadian mobile data services by introducing a full, two way mobile voice and data service, using a large geostationary satellite which is scheduled to be launched in 1994, are reported. This Mobile Satellite (MSAT) will offer customers the ability to communicate, using mobile or transportable terminals, from the most remote parts of the continent, to any other point within North America, and indeed the whole world. Currently planned MSAT services are reviewed, the main features of the overall system are outlined, and the configuration and key performance parameters of the MSAT satellite are presented. The communications subsystem is detailed, and a summary of the spacecraft service module is given.

  15. Canadian Cardiovascular Society and Canadian Thoracic Society Position Statement on Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Langleben

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Cardiovascular Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society requested a position statement on pulmonary arterial hypertension from leading Canadian experts. The present document is intended to act as an update for the clinician, to provide a template for the initial evaluation of patients, to enable the understanding of current therapeutic paradigms based on approved indications for Canada, to highlight new therapies on the horizon, and to state the positions of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society on resource management for pulmonary arterial hypertension in Canada.

  16. CASID and Canadian Journal of Development Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CASID and Canadian Journal of Development Studies : Organizational Strengthening 2007-2010. The Canadian Association for the Study of International Development (CASID) is a national, bilingual, multidisciplinary and pluralistic association devoted to the study of international development in all parts of the world.

  17. Guide to Canadian Aerospace Related Industries,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    fabrication, PWC assembly & test, automatic backplane wiring, computerized wire History : AEI, an established Canadian company for over 55...production of Automatic Number Identification (ANI) systems and 911 Emergency History : Aeo Machining Ltd is a small machining company Reporting Systems for...Aircraft, DeHavilland, Grumman Aircraft, and Canadian Digital Radar Data Processing - Contract with Fundacao Vickers Ltd. Educacional de Bauru, Brazil

  18. 47 CFR 90.121 - Canadian registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian registration. 90.121 Section 90.121 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.121 Canadian registration. Form 410 shall be...

  19. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  20. Anglo-Canadian Exchange in General Practice: British View of Canadian General Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, G. N.

    1971-01-01

    The Canadian general practitioner is remunerated by an item-of-service system of payment which encourages servicing demands rather than needs, discourages delegation of work to paramedical workers, and involves his staff in a massive amount of paper work. He has an excellent hospital attachment, which unfortunately is overdone. His community facilities are piecemeal and his office organization is rudimentary. There are few incentives for good general practice in the community. He spends an inordinate amount of time examining well people. The university departments of general practice are extremely good and much should be heard from them very quickly. The patient's attitude towards his doctor is quite different from the one prevailing currently in Britain. I returned happily to British general practice. PMID:5541730

  1. Do the Rights Thing?: The Canadian Museum for Human Rights and the MA in Cultural Studies at the University of Winnipeg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Kathryn; Keshavjee, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Education is the self-declared "heart" of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR), already generating partnership projects and programs with such organizations as the Canadian Teachers' Federation, the Assembly of First Nations, the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, and the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights. The CMHR has…

  2. Social Support and Exclusive Breast feeding among Canadian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugen, Chris M; Islam, Nazrul; Janssen, Patricia A

    2016-09-01

    The World Health Organization recommendation for exclusive breast feeding for 6 months has been endorsed by Health Canada, the Canadian Pediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada, and the Breastfeeding Committee for Canada as of 2012. This study examines whether social support is associated with exclusive breast feeding up to 6 months among Canadian mothers. We utilised data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and limited our sample to mothers who gave birth in the 5 years prior to the 2009-2010 survey (n = 2133). Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between exclusive breast feeding and four dimensions of social support: (i) tangible, (ii) affectionate, (iii) positive social interaction, and (iv) emotional and informational, based on the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale. Absolute and relative differences in the probability of breast feeding exclusively and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. In adjusted models, differences in the probability of exclusive breast feeding for 6 months were not different among women with high vs. low social support. The association between social support and breastfeeding exclusively was modified by education level, with significantly higher probability of breast feeding exclusively among women with lower education and high vs. low levels of tangible and affectionate support. Among women with education below a high school level, high tangible and affectionate support significantly increased probability of exclusive breast feeding for 6 months in this study. Efforts to encourage exclusive breast feeding need to address social support for mothers, especially those with lower education. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Factors affecting food selection in Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, M; Riediger, N; Moghadasian, M H

    2008-11-01

    To establish health-related reasons behind Canadian food choices, and how variables such as education, income, gender, ethnicity and age may affect food selection. Approximately 98 733 Canadians responded to the 12 questions regarding food choices in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.1, conducted by the Canadian Government in 2003. These included 13 727 adolescents (12-19 years), 19 089 young adults (20-34 years), 31 039 middle-aged adults (35-54 years), 25 338 older adults (55-74 years) and 9580 elderly (75+ years). Approximately 70% of Canadian adolescents in the sample indicated that their food choices were independent of health concerns. Body weight management was a major concern for food selection by adolescents and adults, while the elderly stated heart disease as their main concern. Among all participants, females, and individuals with high levels of education and income reported the highest response to choosing or avoiding foods due to health concerns and food content. Our data indicate that several factors significantly affect food choices for health-related reasons in the Canadian population. Among them, age- and gender-related gaps, particularly between adolescents and adults, are profound. This observation may urge authorities to implement effective strategies to educate Canadians, especially adolescents, that selection of appropriate foods may prevent chronic diseases.

  4. Nuclear communications : A Canadian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macpherson, John A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ottawa (Canada)

    1994-04-15

    Times have changed since the early days of nuclear energy when it was a symbol of a brave new world, Public information strategies have evolved to meet increasing public concerns, and have shifted from being a largely unfocused attempt at publicity to being more concerned with managing issues and solving problems. This paper describes some of the salient features of the Canadian experience in nuclear communications and examines four key aspects: opinion and attitude research; media relations; coeducation; and advertising. It also addresses the challenge of responding to the allegations and tactics of those who are actively hostile to nuclear energy, and recommends that the principles of Total Quality Management and of organizational effectiveness be applied more thorough and more consistently to the public affairs function.

  5. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmings, R.L. [Canatom NPM (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  6. Canadian orthodontist Internet user profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Neal G; Yacyshyn, James R; Northcott, Herbert C; Nebbe, Brian; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Major, Paul W

    2006-01-01

    An anonymous, self-administered, mail-out survey of Canadian Orthodontists was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of orthodontic Internet use. The response rate was 45.6% (304 of 667). A total of 76.6% of orthodontists reported having Internet access at work, and an additional 12.4% reported having Internet access from a different location. Statistically significant associations between Internet usage and office staff size (P < .001) and years of practice (P = .046) were observed. Offices with larger staffs had greater Internet access. Number of staffs and number of case starts were positively correlated (P < .001, r = 0.498). The odds ratio for having Internet access on the basis of increased case starts from the less than 100 to 300-399 categories was 5.67. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend for greater Internet access by younger practitioners.

  7. Canadian survey on pandemic flu preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy CS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of pandemic influenza creates public health challenges. An ethical framework, 'Stand on Guard for Thee: ethical considerations in pandemic influenza preparedness' that served as a template for the World Health Organization's global consultation on pandemic planning, was transformed into a survey administered to a random sample of 500 Canadians to obtain opinions on key ethical issues in pandemic preparedness planning. Methods All framework authors and additional investigators created items that were pilot-tested with volunteers of both sexes and all socioeconomic strata. Surveys were telephone administered with random sampling achieved via random digit dialing (RDD. Eligible participants were adults, 18 years or older, with per province stratification equaling provincial percent of national population. Descriptive results were tabulated and logistic regression analyses were used to assess whether demographic factors were significantly associated with outcomes. Results 5464 calls identified 559 eligible participants of whom 88.5% completed surveys. Over 90% of subjects agreed the most important goal of pandemic influenza preparations was saving lives, with 41% endorsing saving lives solely in Canada and 50% endorsing saving lives globally as the highest priority. Older age (OR = 8.51, p Conclusions Results suggest trust in public health officials to make difficult decisions, providing emphasis on reciprocity and respect for individual rights.

  8. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul

    2010-09-15

    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  9. Consumer Attitudes, Willingness to Pay and Revealed Preferences for Different Egg Production Attributes: Analysis of Canadian Egg Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, Ellen W.; Boxall, Peter C.; Emunu, John Paul; Boyd, Curtis; Asselin, Andre; Neall, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian egg industry has introduced a number of specialty eggs, including Omega-3, organic, free run/range, vitamin enhanced and vegetarian over the past few decades. These eggs are generally sold at prices higher than the ‘normal’ egg and there has been little analysis of the consumer awareness of and interest in purchasing these eggs. All previous econometric analysis of the Canadian egg market has assumed eggs and consumers are homogeneous. This study makes use of Stated preference an...

  10. Development of a Canadian deceased donation education program for health professionals: a needs assessment survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Jennifer; Shemie, Sam D; Lotherington, Ken; Appleby, Amber; Hall, Richard

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this survey was to determine how Canadian healthcare professionals perceive their deficiencies and educational requirements related to organ and tissue donation. We surveyed 641 intensive care unit (ICU) physicians, 1,349 ICU nurses, 1,561 emergency room (ER) physicians, and 1,873 ER nurses. The survey was distributed by the national organization for each profession (the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, the Canadian Association of Critical Care Nurses, and the National Emergency Nurses Association). Canadian Blood Services developed the critical care physician list in collaboration with the Canadian Critical Care Society. Survey development included questions related to comfort with, and knowledge of, key competencies in organ and tissue donation. Eight hundred thirty-one (15.3%) of a possible 5,424 respondents participated in the survey. Over 50% of respondents rated the following topics as highly important: knowledge of general organ and tissue donation, neurological determination of death, donation after cardiac death, and medical-legal donation issues. High competency comfort levels ranged from 14.7-50.9% for ICU nurses and 8.0-34.6% for ER nurses. Competency comfort levels were higher for ICU physicians (67.5-85.6%) than for ER physicians who rated all competencies lower. Respondents identified a need for a curriculum on national organ donation and preferred e-learning as the method of education. Both ICU nurses and ER practitioners expressed low comfort levels with their competencies regarding organ donation. Intensive care unit physicians had a much higher level of comfort; however, the majority of these respondents were specialty trained and working in academic centres with active donation and transplant programs. A national organ donation curriculum is needed.

  11. Skin-Color Preferences and Body Satisfaction among South Asian-Canadian and European-Canadian Female University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Sarita; Piran, Niva

    1997-01-01

    Examines skin-color preferences and body satisfaction among South Asian-Canadian and European-Canadian female university students. Hypothesizes that South Asian-Canadians would display a greater wish to be lighter in skin color than would European-Canadians and that the discrepancy would be greater the darker their skin color. Reports that the…

  12. Constructions and Negotiations of Sexuality in Canadian Federal Men's Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Rose; Grills, Sylvia; Craig, Ailsa

    2016-12-01

    Nuances lacing the organization of sexuality across cultures and contexts shape sexual behavior and identity. In this article, the culture and understandings of sexual identity and behavior in Canadian men's federal prisons are examined to reveal how prisoners construct and interpret their own sexuality, as well as that of others, within the heteronormative prison space. Drawing from interviews with formerly incarcerated men, we explore how sexuality constitutes a product of dominant cultural discourses that differentiates between sexual behavior and identity. We frame how sexuality is constructed and regulated in prison within the theoretical context of shame and stigmatization, finding definitions of heterosexuality that do not preclude same-sex sexual activity.

  13. Dysplastic Nevus: Management by Canadian Dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapra, Priya; Rosen, Cheryl; Siddha, Sanjay; Lynde, Charles W

    2015-01-01

    The management of dysplastic nevi is controversial. No studies have collected data regarding management of the lesion amongst Canadian dermatologists. To provide a comprehensive review of what the prevailing opinions are, regarding treatment and terminology of dysplastic nevi, amongst Canadian dermatologists. An online survey of 25 questions was e-mailed to 613 members of the Canadian Dermatology Association, in French and English. A total of 179 responses were received. Varying numbers of participants completed each question. The majority of participants think that the term dysplastic nevus should not be abandoned, and they indicated that they never reexcise lesions with mild to moderate atypia even when the margins are positive. The majority of Canadian dermatologists retain the use of the term dysplastic nevus and do not reexcise lesions with mild to moderate atypia even when the margins are positive. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Freezing at sea: a Canadian opportunity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bollivar, D.R; Cadegan, E; Demone, E.H; Matthew, P; Nicholson, P.J; Shannon, C.P; Stirling, R.C

    This report was prepared for the Nova Scotia Fish Packers Association in an effort to set out as clearly as possible the issues relating to introduction of freezing at sea technology to the Canadian...

  15. The Canadian Forces Recruitment/Attrition Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wait, Tracey

    1998-01-01

    ...), as part of its mandate to provide analysis of potential impacts of trends and change on defense and defense related issues, has designed a prototype model of recruitment and attrition of the Canadian Forces (C F...

  16. Canadian shellfish sanitation program: manual of operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    This manual outlines the authorities (acts and regulations), policies and procedures which apply to the Canadian program and which will be used to evaluate regional activities associated with the shellfish Sanitation Program...

  17. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  18. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ketovuori, Mikko Mr.

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003–2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure arts education for children in the schools. Despite the fact that Canadian learning methods appeared to be quite similar to the ones Finnish teacher...

  19. Canadian Multiculturalism, Same as it ever Was?

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Hoyos

    2014-01-01

    After the Second World War ended, Canada was no longer mainly composed of its two dominant ethnocultural groups, French and English, but rather constituted by polyethnicity; meaning, Canadian culture was made up of many different ethnic groups. Since then, Canada has actively embraced multiculturalism and on 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, ‘An Act for the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada’. The Canadian multicultural experience has been much portr...

  20. Government, Coercive Power and the Perceived Legitimacy of Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Fiona A. E.; Kondra, Alex Z.; Lamertz, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Governments regulate and control organizations, yet their role in determining organizational legitimacy is largely unexamined. In the changing Canadian post-secondary landscape, legitimacy is an increasingly important issue for post-secondary institutions as they compete amongst themselves for access to ever-shrinking resources. Using an…

  1. Speaking of Illness: Issues of First Generation Canadian Women--Implications for Patient Education and Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joan M.

    1998-01-01

    One pressing issue in health care delivery is that the system is not organized to serve people from different ethnocultural communities. Based upon investigations of the management of chronic illness by first-generation Canadian women, proposes a transformative model for counseling which acknowledges the wisdom of women is proposed. (Author/EMK)

  2. It Happens, Just Not to Me: Hazing on a Canadian University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Kyle D.; Massey, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Research on hazing in higher education has primarily focused on Greek-letter organizations and athletes, with little research beyond these two subsets of college students. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the attitudes of students from the general student population at a Canadian university with regard to hazing and identify…

  3. Proceedings of an IWA specialist conference : moving forward wastewater biosolids sustainability : technical, managerial and public synergy[Held jointly with the 4. Canadian organic residuals and biosolids managment conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, R.J. [Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission, Moncton, NB (Canada); Laughton, P.J. [R.V Anderson Associates Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Tyagi, R. [Quebec Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Eau, Terre et Environnement] (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    This conference provided a forum for exchanging the latest information on technical legislative and public awareness issues associated with the sustainable management of organic residuals and biosolids Canada. It was attended by producers, managers, practitioners and regulators from across Canada who discussed various initiatives regarding the production, management use and disposal of organic residuals including municipal wastewater treatment of biosolids, animal manures and pulp and paper sludges. The integration of pollution prevention policies to reduce the introduction of pollutants into wastewater at the source was also discussed. The sessions of the conference were entitled: the global perspective; sludge characteristics, rheology, dewatering and pumping; emerging pollutants and impacts on biosolids; advanced treatment, emerging processes and innovations; sludge as a resource and value added processes; fate of hazardous and recalcitrant compounds during sludge treatment; pre- and post-treatment and treatment of reject waters; sludge dewatering, treatment and products; sludge treatment/hydrolysis to augment nutrient availability; odour control and other; history, marketing and public synergy stream; public perception, communications, consultation and education; future challenges and overall sustainable development approaches; and, history, marketing and biosolids management. The conference featured 150 presentations, of which 12 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Violence on canadian television networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Guy

    2004-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, the question of the effects of violence on television has figured prominently in public opinion and hundreds of studies have been devoted to this subject. Many researchers have determined that violence has a negative impact on behavior. The public, broadcasters and political figures all support the idea of reducing the total amount of violence on television - in particular in shows for children. A thousand programs aired between 1993 and 2001 on major non-specialty television networks in Canada were analyzed: TVA, TQS, as well as CTV and Global, private French and English networks, as well as the English CBC Radio and French Radio-Canada for the public networks. The methodology consists of a classic analysis of content where an act of violence constitutes a unit of analysis. The data collected revealed that the amount of violence has increased regularly since 1993 despite the stated willingness on the part of broadcasters to produce programs with less violence. The total number of violent acts, as well as the number of violent acts per hour, is increasing. Private networks deliver three times more violence than public networks. Researchers have also noted that a high proportion of violence occurs in programs airing before 21:00 hours, thereby exposing a large number of children to this violence. Psychological violence is taking on a more significant role in Canadian Television.

  5. The Canadian mobile satellite program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, P. M.; Breithaupt, R. W.; McNally, J. L.

    The progressions and selection of design features for the Canadian segment of a mobile satellite (MSAT) communications system are traced. The feasibility study for a satellite-based public and government mobile communications service to underserved areas was carried out between 1980-82. The results covered the market demand, commercial viability, user cost-benefit, and spacecraft concepts. A subsequent 2 yr study was initiated to proceed with project definition. A market of 1.1 million users was identified in all of Canada, with MSAT replacing other systems for 50 percent of the market. Operations would be in the 806-890 MHz range. Traffic will be routed through gateway links functioning in the 8/7 GHz SHF band while the mobile units will be connected through an 821-825 MHz up link and an 866-870 MH downlink. New technologies will be needed for a central control station, the gateway stations, and the base stations for the mobile radio service, the mobile user terminals, and data collection platforms.

  6. Medical cannabis - the Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.

  7. Theorizing Gender in Contemporary Canadian Citizenship: Lessons Learned from the CBC's "Greatest Canadian" Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubas, Kaela

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I have used the 2004 Greatest Canadian contest as an example of media's educational function. Contrary to mainstream discourse of gender-neutral citizenship, this contest reiterates a notion of Canadian citizenship as masculinized, classed, and raced. Gramsci's concepts of "hegemony," "ideology", and…

  8. Priority Setting Meets Multiple Streams: A Match to Be Further Examined? Comment on "Introducing New Priority Setting and Resource Allocation Processes in a Canadian Healthcare Organization: A Case Study Analysis Informed by Multiple Streams Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Jacqueline Margaret

    2016-05-16

    With demand for health services continuing to grow as populations age and new technologies emerge to meet health needs, healthcare policy-makers are under constant pressure to set priorities, ie, to make choices about the health services that can and cannot be funded within available resources. In a recent paper, Smith et al apply an influential policy studies framework - Kingdon's multiple streams approach (MSA) - to explore the factors that explain why one health service delivery organization adopted a formal priority setting framework (in the form of programme budgeting and marginal analysis [PBMA]) to assist it in making priority setting decisions. MSA is a theory of agenda-setting, ie, how it is that different issues do or do not reach a decision-making point. In this paper, I reflect on the use of the MSA framework to explore priority setting processes and how the framework might be applied to similar cases in future. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  9. Priority Setting Meets Multiple Streams: A Match to Be Further Examined?; Comment on “Introducing New Priority Setting and Resource Allocation Processes in a Canadian Healthcare Organization: A Case Study Analysis Informed by Multiple Streams Theory”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Margaret Cumming

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With demand for health services continuing to grow as populations age and new technologies emerge to meet health needs, healthcare policy-makers are under constant pressure to set priorities, ie, to make choices about the health services that can and cannot be funded within available resources. In a recent paper, Smith et al apply an influential policy studies framework – Kingdon’s multiple streams approach (MSA – to explore the factors that explain why one health service delivery organization adopted a formal priority setting framework (in the form of programme budgeting and marginal analysis [PBMA] to assist it in making priority setting decisions. MSA is a theory of agenda-setting, ie, how it is that different issues do or do not reach a decision-making point. In this paper, I reflect on the use of the MSA framework to explore priority setting processes and how the framework might be applied to similar cases in future.

  10. Mandatory HIV Screening Policy & Everyday Life: A Look Inside the Canadian Immigration Medical Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA BISAILLON

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Findings that detail the social organization of day-to-day practices associated with the Canadian government policy of mandatory HIV testing of permanent residence applicants to Canada are reported. Institutional ethnography was used to investigate interactions between HIV-positive applicants and immigration physicians during the immigration medical examination. A composite narrative recounts details of a woman applicant's discovery through immigration testing that she was living with HIV. Mandatory HIV testing gives rise to serious difficulties for applicants to Canada living with HIV. Applicant, physician and federal state employee work practices associated with mandatory HIV testing are analysed. These practices contribute to the ideological work of the Canadian state, where interest bounds up in the examination serve the state and not the applicant. Findings should be useful for Canadian immigration policy makers who wish to develop constructive and functional strategies to address issues that matter in people's lives

  11. Community rights and corporate responsibility : Canadian mining and oil companies in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, L.; Clark, T.D.; Patroni, V. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    This book presented papers given at a conference on Canadian mining companies in Latin America which was held at York University in 2002. The conference raised awareness about the impact of mining on the ecosystems and communities of Latin America. The conference provided a forum for non governmental organizations (NGOs), social activists, and academics to debate the growth of the mining industry in various Latin American countries. Issues related to international mining and community relations were discussed, and strategies for resolving conflicts between mining companies and communities were examined. The current regulatory environment surrounding mining was reviewed. Issues related to oppression and social resistance were also discussed. The activities of various Canadian mining companies were also discussed, as well as Canadian oil investment in Colombia. Issues related to corporate responsibility were also examined. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Canadian guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide a clinical summary of the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) that includes relevant considerations for family physicians. Quality of evidence Guideline authors performed a systematic literature search and drafted recommendations. Recommendations received both strength of evidence and strength of recommendation ratings. Input from external content experts was sought, as was endorsement from Canadian medical societies (Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, and the Family Physicians Airways Group of Canada). Main message Diagnosis of ABRS is based on the presence of specific symptoms and their duration; imaging or culture are not needed in uncomplicated cases. Treatment is dependent on symptom severity, with intranasal corticosteroids (INCSs) recommended as monotherapy for mild and moderate cases, although the benefit might be modest. Use of INCSs plus antibiotics is reserved for patients who fail to respond to INCSs after 72 hours, and for initial treatment of patients with severe symptoms. Antibiotic selection must account for the suspected pathogen, the risk of resistance, comorbid conditions, and local antimicrobial resistance trends. Adjunct therapies such as nasal saline irrigation are recommended. Failure to respond to treatment, recurrent episodes, and signs of complications should prompt referral to an otolaryngologist. The guidelines address situations unique to the Canadian health care environment, including actions to take during prolonged wait periods for specialist referral or imaging. Conclusion The Canadian guidelines provide up-to-date recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of ABRS that reflect an evolving understanding of the disease. In addition, the guidelines offer useful tools to help

  13. Defensive medicine in neurosurgery: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy R; Hulou, M Maher; Yan, Sandra C; Cote, David J; Nahed, Brian V; Babu, Maya A; Das, Sunit; Gormley, William B; Rutka, James T; Laws, Edward R; Heary, Robert F

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Recent studies have examined the impact of perceived medicolegal risk and compared how this perception impacts defensive practices within the US. To date, there have been no published data on the practice of defensive medicine among neurosurgeons in Canada. METHODS An online survey containing 44 questions was sent to 170 Canadian neurosurgeons and used to measure Canadian neurosurgeons' perception of liability risk and their practice of defensive medicine. The survey included questions on the following domains: surgeon demographics, patient characteristics, type of physician practice, surgeon liability profile, policy coverage, defensive behaviors, and perception of the liability environment. Survey responses were analyzed and summarized using counts and percentages. RESULTS A total of 75 neurosurgeons completed the survey, achieving an overall response rate of 44.1%. Over one-third (36.5%) of Canadian neurosurgeons paid less than $5000 for insurance annually. The majority (87%) of Canadian neurosurgeons felt confident with their insurance coverage, and 60% reported that they rarely felt the need to practice defensive medicine. The majority of the respondents reported that the perceived medicolegal risk environment has no bearing on their preferred practice location. Only 1 in 5 respondent Canadian neurosurgeons (21.8%) reported viewing patients as a potential lawsuit. Only 4.9% of respondents would have selected a different career based on current medicolegal risk factors, and only 4.1% view the cost of annual malpractice insurance as a major burden. CONCLUSIONS Canadian neurosurgeons perceive their medicolegal risk environment as more favorable and their patients as less likely to sue than their counterparts in the US do. Overall, Canadian neurosurgeons engage in fewer defensive medical behaviors than previously reported in the US.

  14. Diversity Management in the Canadian Workplace: Towards an Antiracism Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanmala Hiranandani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most diversity management programs in Canada maintain that enhancing workforce diversity is of tremendous significance for business organizations in today’s competitive global urban markets. Since well-meaning diversity management initiatives have been largely ineffective thus far in dealing with workplace discrimination and racism in the Canadian workplace, this paper underscores the need to decenter the focus of diversity management from a business imperative to an antidiscrimination and social justice imperative. Within this latter perspective, the paper examines the strengths and limitations of the antiracism approach that has been implemented in various developed countries in recent years. The antiracism approach is an action-oriented strategy for institutional and systemic change that has at its core the interrogation of privilege, power disparities, and other forms of inequity within the organization. Drawing from the lessons of various initiatives that have utilized this approach, the present paper emphasizes the need for a nuanced antiracism approach in the multicultural Canadian society if diversity management is to attain its goal of greater inclusion of all individuals in informal networks and formal organizational programs.

  15. Animal spare parts? A Canadian public consultation on xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsiedel, Edna F; Ross, Heather

    2002-10-01

    Xenotransplantation, or the use of animal cells, tissues and organs for humans, has been promoted as an important solution to the worldwide shortage of organs. While scientific studies continue to be done to address problems of rejection and the possibility of animal-to-human virus transfer, socio-ethical and legal questions have also been raised around informed consent, life-long monitoring, animal welfare and animal rights, and appropriate regulatory practices. Many calls have also been made to consult publics before policy decisions are made. This paper describes the Canadian public consultation process on xenotransplantation carried out by the Canadian Public Health Association in an arm's length process from Health Canada, the ministry overseeing government health policy and regulation. Focusing on six citizen for a conducted around the country patterned after the citizen jury deliberative approach, the paper describes the citizen panelists' recommendations to hold off on proceeding with clinical trials and the rationales behind this recommendation. The consultation process is discussed in the context of constructive technology assessment, a framework which argues for broader input into earlier stages of technology innovation, particularly at the technology design stage.

  16. A 20-Year Comparison of Football-Related Injuries in American and Canadian Youth Aged 6 to 17 Years: A Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keays, Glenn; Friedman, Debbie; Gagnon, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Little is known about Canadian youth football injuries. The objectives of this study were (a) to contrast the injuries in Canadian and American football players aged 6 to 17 years and (b) compare the injuries sustained during organized football with those in nonorganized football. Methods Using a retrospective cohort design based on data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System a comparison of injuries was made. Results Trends in injuries were comparable. Proportions and odds of injuries were similar, except for a few exceptions. In Canada, more girls were injured and fractures were more prevalent. Compared with nonorganized football, organized football players were older, involved more males, and suffered more traumatic brain injuries and injuries to their lower extremities. Conclusion Canadian and American youth football injuries were similar. The type of football, be it organized or nonorganized, has an impact on injuries. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Cognitive aspects of sexual functioning: differences between East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual beliefs of female undergraduates, as well as the thoughts they experience during sexual experiences. The study aimed to determine potential differences in these variables between East Asian-Canadians and Euro-Canadians, as well as the influence of acculturation on these variables. In addition, the relationships between sexual beliefs, automatic thoughts, and specific aspects of sexual functioning were examined. Euro-Canadian (n = 77) and East Asian-Canadian (n = 123) undergraduate women completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, the Sexual Modes Questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Vancouver Index of Acculturation. East Asian women endorsed almost all sexual beliefs assessed in this study more than did Euro-Canadian women, and endorsement of these beliefs was associated with acculturation. In addition, East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women differed in the frequency of experiencing negative automatic thoughts. Results also revealed associations between difficulties in sexual functioning, and both sexual beliefs and automatic thoughts. Together, these results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that differences in cognitive aspects of sexuality may underlie the differences in sexual functioning previously observed between these two groups.

  18. The importance of nature to Canadians: survey highlights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DuWors, E

    1999-01-01

    .... The 1996 Survey on the Importance of Nature to Canadians (the Nature Survey) also tells us that Canadians commit large amounts of their leisure time to activities that depend on natural areas and wildlife...

  19. Canadian EdGEO National Workshop Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, L. A.; Haidl, F. M.; Hymers, L. A.; van der Flier-Keller, E.

    2009-05-01

    Established in the early 1970s, EdGEO supports locally driven geosciences workshops for Canadian teachers. Workshops are organized by geoscientists and teachers, and typically have field, laboratory and classroom components. Grants of up to $3000 per workshop are available from the National EdGEO Program. By providing educational opportunities for today's teachers and, through them, their students, EdGEO seeks to cultivate a heightened awareness of our planet. EdGEO workshops provide teachers with potential fieldtrip sites for their students and the knowledge, enthusiasm and materials to inspire their students to engage in geoscience. Networking opportunities with local experts promote the importance of the geoscience profession. The expected result is an improved capacity on the part of Canadians to understand the Earth and to make informed decisions, especially with regard to the use of mineral and energy resources, the maintenance and remediation of the environment, and response to geological hazards. There exists a critical need to provide teachers with training and resources to tackle their Earth science curricula. In 2008, EdGEO supported fourteen workshops, with an unprecedented 521 teachers attending. These teachers then used our resources to reach an estimated 14,000 students during that single academic year. EdGEO workshops are locally driven and are therefore very diverse. Workshops are strongly tied to the provincial curriculum, focus on a specific geoscience topic, or may be largely field-based to demonstrate and practice how field activities could be incorporated into Earth science teaching. Many strive to include all of these important components. Geoscientists and teachers work collaboratively to develop and deliver EdGEO workshops to ensure that the activities can be effectively used in the classroom. The length of these professional development opportunities range from two-hour sessions to several days, and can generally accommodate up to twenty

  20. Statistics in action a Canadian outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F

    2014-01-01

    Commissioned by the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC), Statistics in Action: A Canadian Outlook helps both general readers and users of statistics better appreciate the scope and importance of statistics. It presents the ways in which statistics is used while highlighting key contributions that Canadian statisticians are making to science, technology, business, government, and other areas. The book emphasizes the role and impact of computing in statistical modeling and analysis, including the issues involved with the huge amounts of data being generated by automated processes.The first two c

  1. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute: Annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Annual report of the Institute, which represents the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry on environmental, health, safety, and business issues affecting the industry and Canadian society. The report describes the Institute; gives highlights for the year; describes the recipient of the first CPPI Chairman's Award, Dr. Linton Kulak; provides a general policy and guiding principles for environment, health, and safety; describes the environmental achievements and challenges of the Canadian petroleum industry; and describes industry economics and operations. A list of 1991 publications is also included.

  2. [Canadian Petroleum Products Institute]: Annual review, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-01-01

    The CPPI was created as a non-profit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The Institute represents a membership of Canadian companies involved in refining, transporting and marketing of petroleum products. These companies supply domestic and industrial consumers with products ranging from gasoline and diesel fuel to asphalt. The Institute conducts research to develop industry policy on environmental, health, safety and business issues. This report covers industry operations, industry economics and financial performance, environmental protection and safety, awards, and publications.

  3. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute: Annual report 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The CPPI was created as a non-profit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The Institute represents a membership of Canadian companies involved in refining, transporting and marketing of petroleum products. These companies supply domestic and industrial consumers with products ranging from gasoline and diesel fuel to asphalt. The Institute conducts research to develop industry policy on environmental, health, safety and business issues. This report covers industry operations, industry economics and financial performance, environmental protection and safety, awards, and publications.

  4. Trends in Canadian Respiratory Clinical Trials from 2001 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Elizabeth Tacon; Hina Abbas; Shiyuan Zhang; Barbara Nicholls; Glenn Crater; Zhen Su

    2014-01-01

    Clinical research bridges patients’ unmet medical need with innovative medicines, increases knowledge acquisition by clinicians, and creates solutions to improve the sustainability and quality of the Canadian health care system and economy. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Canadian Lung Association have recently raised concerns over declining research activities within the Canadian respiratory community. While there are currently >3000 ongoing clinical trials in Canada, the ...

  5. The Lived Experiences of Canadian-Born and Foreign-Born Chinese Canadian Post-Secondary Students in Northern Ontario

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fei Wang

    2016-01-01

    ... and (d) the effect of Canadian education on career options. The study revealed that Canadian-born Chinese students differed from their foreign-born counterparts in their viewpoints on ethnic identity...

  6. Transnational Education -- An Opportunity and a Canadian Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Transnational education is a huge growth industry and a potential source of considerable income for Canadian educational institutions. Canadian educational establishments seem to be missing out on this, and this seems short sighted. Canada has a very good reputation globally; this could be utilized when selling Canadian educational institutions in…

  7. Next-generation models for Canadian collaboration in international ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Through this project, the Canadian Council for International Cooperation (CCIC), in partnership with the Canadian Association for the Study of International Development, will identify and promote new ways for Canadian practitioners, academics, and public policymakers to work together in international development.

  8. The Canadian Association for the Study of International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Canadian Association for the Study of International Development (CASID) was founded in 1989 to provide a forum for Canadian scholars, policymakers, and civil society to meet and exchange views. It is the only Canadian learned society devoted to the study of international development. The Association's journal, the ...

  9. Recent trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Celia; Sharma, Atul K

    2016-09-20

    Previous studies have shown an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Canadian children from 23.3% to 34.7% during 1978-2004. We examined the most recent trends by applying current definitions of overweight and obesity based on World Health Organization (WHO) body mass index (BMI) thresholds and recently validated norms for waist circumference and waist:height ratio. We examined directly measured height and weight data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2004-2005) and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2009-2013). We calculated z scores for BMI, height and weight based on the 2014 WHO growth charts for Canada, including the new extension of weight-for-age beyond 10 years. To calculate z scores for waist circumference and waist:height ratios, we used new charts from the reference population in the US NHANES III (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994). Data were available for 14 014 children aged 3-19 years for the period 2004-2013. We observed a decline in the prevalence of overweight or obesity, from 30.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29.7% to 31.6%) to 27.0% (95% CI 25.3% to 28.7%) (p obesity at about 13%. These trends persisted after we adjusted for age, sex and race/ethnicity. Although they declined, the median z scores for BMI, weight and height were positive and higher than those in the WHO reference population. The z scores for waist circumference and waist:height ratio were negative, which indicated that the Canadian children had less central adiposity than American children in historic or contemporary NHANES cohorts. After a period of dramatic growth, BMI z scores and the prevalence of overweight or obesity among Canadian children decreased from 2004 to 2013, which attests to progress against this important public health challenge. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  10. Canadian National Consultation on Access to Scientific Research Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Sabourin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In June 2004, an expert Task Force, appointed by the National Research Council Canada and chaired by Dr. David Strong, came together in Ottawa to plan a National Forum as the focus of the National Consultation on Access to Scientific Research Data. The Forum, which was held in November 2004, brought together more than seventy Canadian leaders in scientific research, data management, research administration, intellectual property and other pertinent areas. This article presents a comprehensive review of the issues, and the opportunities and the challenges identified during the Forum. Complex and rich arrays of scientific databases are changing how research is conducted, speeding the discovery and creation of new concepts. Increased access will accelerate such changes even more, creating other new opportunities. With the combination of databases within and among disciplines and countries, fundamental leaps in knowledge will occur that will transform our understanding of life, the world and the universe. The Canadian research community is concerned by the need to take swift action to adapt to the substantial changes required by the scientific enterprise. Because no national data preservation organization exists, may experts believe that a national strategy on data access or policies needs to be developed, and that a "Data Task Force" be created to prepare a full national implementation strategy. Once such a national strategy is broadly supported, it is proposed that a dedicated national infrastructure, tentatively called "Data Canada", be established, to assume overall leadership in the development and execution of a strategic plan.

  11. Ukrainian-Canadian relations: present situation and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya E. Konon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations between Ukraine and Canada have a long history and cover a large range of areas. The peculiarity of Ukrainian-Canadian cooperation due to the presence of 1.2 million Ukrainian diaspora, representing a non-economic pressure groups actively involved in the formation of the Ukrainian-Canadian relations. Canada today is our main partner and state support in the international arena. This is evidenced by the active position of Canada on the international stage in the Ukrainian crisis. After the illegal annexation of Crimea by Russia and the conflict in Donbas Canada has consistently supported Ukraine within the framework of international organizations (UN, OSCE, NATO, G7 and at the bilateral level. In addition, Canada has implemented economic and political sanctions against a number of Russian individuals and companies as well as representatives of the so-called «DNR» and «LNR» and separatist leaders. Relations with Canada is a promising destination for foreign policy strategy of Ukraine. Canada supports our country and contribute to its development, and helps to overcome the Ukrainian crisis. The question of Ukraine in Canada is always on the agenda, and, given the recent elections, we can say that Canada’s position on the international scene will always be on the user ID Ukraine and Canada support will only increase.

  12. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation: Guidelines on Colon Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Leddin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer affecting both men and women in Canada. Many of these cancers are preventable, and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation (CDHF strongly support the establishment of screening programs for colorectal cancer. These guidelines discuss a number of screening options, listing the advantages and disadvantages of each. Ultimately, the test that is used for screening should be determined by patient preference, current evidence and local resources.

  13. Canadian contributions to high temperature superconductivity research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlinsky, A.J.

    This paper presents a review of contributions from Canadian researchers to the field of investigating superconductivity in the range of 35/sup 0/K and up. Research projects since January 1987 are described or mentioned, including investigation of superconducting materials, theories of superconducting behavior, measurements of local magnetic fields in superconductors, and the production and modification of new oxide superconductors.

  14. Highlight: Canadian and Caribbean parliamentarians discuss open ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Toward open parliaments. Open parliaments were also on the agenda in a session moderated by Senator David Smith, in the Centre Block of the Canadian Parliament Buildings. Increased information about legislative activities and greater opportunities for dialogue between citizens and their parliaments ...

  15. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five…

  16. Computer Language Settings and Canadian Spellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The language settings used on personal computers interact with the spell-checker in Microsoft Word, which directly affects the flagging of spellings that are deemed incorrect. This study examined the language settings of personal computers owned by a group of Canadian university students. Of 21 computers examined, only eight had their Windows…

  17. Family Business Training: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A. B.; Soufani, K.; Lam, Jose

    2003-01-01

    Family firms play an important role in the working of the Canadian economy; despite their importance to the economic activities and job creation it is observed that family businesses have lower survival rates than non-family firms, some argue that this can possibly be attributed (amongst other factors) to the lack of training. Most of the training…

  18. Opportunity potential matrix for Atlantic Canadians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Danchuk; Ed Thomson

    1992-01-01

    Opportunity for provision of Parks Service benefit to Atlantic Canadians was investigated by mapping travel behaviour into a matrix in terms of origin, season, purpose, distance, time, and destination. Findings identified potential for benefit in several activity areas, particularly within residents' own province.

  19. Theoretical Analysis of Canadian Lifelong Education Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Natalia; Barabash, Olena; Busko, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the article, the problem of Canadian lifelong education development has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; periods of lifelong education development; and determination of lifelong learning role…

  20. Update on Canadian Government Documents in Microform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Reviews recent developments in Canadian government documents available in microform, including: (1) Statistics Canada titles, including the 1986 census; (2) publications of the federal Atomic Energy Control Board and other federal technical reports; (3) provincial government publications; and (4) commercial publications of Micromedia. (seven…

  1. Recent Canadian Government Publications in Microform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Mary

    1983-01-01

    This biennial survey of microformatted Canadian government publications highlights the diverse publications of Micromedia Ltd., the National Library of Canada, Public Archives of Canada, and Statistics Canada. Technical reports of a federal government department--Fisheries and Oceans--patent literature, and archival materials are noted. Eight…

  2. The Handbook of Canadian Film. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Eleanor

    The core of this book consists of 131 short entries on individual Canadian filmmakers, arranged in alphabetical order, with filmographies and suggestions for further reading. The majority of the filmmakers who are described are directors; other members of the film community--producers, sound engineers, camera operators, and so on--are discussed in…

  3. Experiencing Online Pedagogy: A Canadian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Heather E.; Barnett, John

    2010-01-01

    This case study explored the educational experiences of Canadian preservice teachers in a course designed to teach about online teaching. Students gained experience in course design and delivery, and safe and ethical behavior related to technology. Findings indicated that projects in which students actively applied their knowledge were more…

  4. Adult Literacy Education on the Canadian Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Canada's Frontier College began in 1899 to bring literacy and citizenship education to immigrant men; in the 1920s it offered university education. However, its early history embodied a legacy of nativism, anticommunism, racism, and sexism as it attempted to assimilate adult literacy learners into Anglo-Canadian sociocultural norms. (Contains 19…

  5. Reducing dietary sodium intake: the Canadian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan I

    2010-02-01

    Sodium is a required nutrient; Adequate Intakes for adults range from 1200 to 1500 mg*day(-1), depending on age. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium is 2300 mg*day(-1) for adults, based on the relationship between sodium intake and increased blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure, which is prevalent among Canadians, is, in turn, a major risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Sodium intake is not the only determinant of blood pressure; other modifiable risk factors include relative mass, physical activity, overall dietary quality, and alcohol consumption. However, because >90% of adult Canadian men and two thirds of Canadian women have sodium intakes above the UL, Health Canada's Working Group on Dietary Sodium Reduction has been charged with developing, implementing, and overseeing a strategy to reduce Canadians' sodium intakes. It is estimated that approximately 75% of dietary sodium is added during food processing; in addition to taste and palatability, sodium also has functional roles in food manufacturing and preservation, although the amounts used often exceed those required. Because of the central role of processed foods in sodium intake, the strategy proposed by Health Canada's Working Group includes voluntary reduction of sodium in processed foods and foods sold in food service establishments. It will also include an education and awareness campaign, and research and surveillance. Initiatives to reduce sodium in other parts of the world have demonstrated that it will be challenging to reduce sodium intake to the recommended range and will likely require many years to accomplish.

  6. Labour Law in Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnetson, Bob

    2006-01-01

    The legislative framework for academic and nonacademic unionization and collective bargaining in Canadian public colleges, universities and technical institutes is set out and compared with mainstream labour law. Significant deviations affecting academic staff in the province of Alberta are explored to understand their effect and the factors which…

  7. Summary of Canadian Guidelines for the Initial Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia: An Evidence-Based Update by the Canadian Infectious Diseases Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel A Mandell

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is a serious illness with a significant impact on individual patients and society as a whole. Over the past several years, there have been significant advances in our knowledge and understanding of the etiology of the disease, and an appreciation of problems such as mixed infections and increasing antimicrobial resistance. The development of additional fluoroquinolone agents with enhanced activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae has been important as well. It was decided that the time had come to update and modify the previous CAP guidelines, which were published in 1993. The current guidelines represent a joint effort by the Canadian Infectious Disease Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society, and they address the etiology, diagnosis and initial management of CAP. The diagnostic section is based on the site of care, and the treatment section is organized according to whether one is dealing with outpatients, inpatients or nursing home patients.

  8. Summary of Canadian Guidelines for the Initial Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia: An Evidence-Based Update by the Canadian Infectious Disease Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel A Mandell

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is a serious illness with a significant impact on individual patients and society as a whole. Over the past several years, there have been significant advances in the knowledge and understanding of the etiology of the disease, and an appreciation of problems such as mixed infections and increasing antimicrobial resistance. The development of additional fluoroquinolone agents with enhanced activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae has been important as well. It was decided that the time had come to update and modify the previous CAP guidelines, which were published in 1993. The current guidelines represent a joint effort by the Canadian Infectious Diseases Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society, and they address the etiology, diagnosis and initial management of CAP. The diagnostic section is based on the site of care, and the treatment section is organized according to whether one is dealing with outpatients, inpatients or nursing home patients.

  9. The Influence of Canadian Intellectuals’ Ideological Views on the Political Culture in Canada at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOKOV I.A.

    2014-06-01

    the experts in the government commissions and in the international organizations, and doing so, they influenced the process of making political decisions. The Canadian Victorian intellectuals considering themselves bystanders of contemporary social processes, created the background for smooth evolution transition to the policy of social transformation, the development of unique Canadian liberal tradition and the creation of the social welfare state in the middle of the 20th century.

  10. Masaru Shintani: The Making of a Modern Canadian Karate Master

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Toth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the life of Japanese/Canadian karate pioneer, Masaru Shintani, from his birth in Vancouver, British Columbia, until his death in Kapuskasing, Ontario. After more than thirty years of teaching, Shintani created one of the largest karate organizations in North America with over 27,000 members. Shintani also invented Shindo, a martial art facilitating the use of an ancient weapon, the short stick, with modern techniques. For this article, many of Shintani’s senior students helped to reconstruct his life and explain his complex personality with recollections of their teacher. From the beginning of his karate training in an internment camp, to the eventual achievement of 9th-degree black belt, Masaru Shintani epitomized the modern karate master.

  11. Pursuing enterprise risk management: a local road map for Canadian healthcare leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, James R; Church, John; Cockerill, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth analysis of organizational risk management in healthcare, and in particular the concepts of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM), has identified a 5-part model that can be used by Canadian healthcare leaders as an evidence-supported approach to successful organizational risk management. The Model for Organizational Risk Management, termed "the Model," has been developed as a basis for linking the components of an ERM Framework into a Canadian health organization to overcome the barriers that commonly disrupt strategic risk management. The Model addresses how an ERM Framework can fit within an existing health organization by building off and enhancing existing processes and resources to ensure familiarity, acceptance, and sustainability of the risk management program. By approaching the Model in a stepwise fashion (based on individual organizational context), healthcare leaders are provided with a road map from which to advance their own organizational risk management program.

  12. Opportunities for Canadian stakeholders in the North American large wind turbine supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Wind energy is the fastest growing source of electricity in terms of annual installed capacity. This report presented a study of the North American large wind turbine generator supply chain and technological innovation challenges, and identified opportunities for Canadian industrial and research stakeholders to increase their participation in the wind industry. The study was conducted in three phases. The report described each of these phases, which included identification of the North American turbine supply chain needs and opportunities and its technological innovation challenges; identification of Canadian industrial and research stakeholders, either currently involved in the wind sector or external to it, which had strong transferable skills or capabilities to respond to the specific opportunities; and an assessment of the overall likelihood of Canadian stakeholders being able to respond to specific opportunities within the large wind turbine manufacturing segment of the supply chain. The report provided a market overview of the global, American and Canadian markets and discussed the key North American market drivers and potential economic benefits of wind power. The report also presented an overview of drivers for success in major markets jurisdictions and discussed the large wind turbine supply chain. Several strategic recommendations were offered, such as establishing and maintaining an open line of communication with key contacts within prime contractor and component manufacturer organizations; and maintaining and strengthening wind market policies and creating long-term market signals. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Mandatory HIV Screening Policy & Everyday Life: A Look Inside the Canadian Immigration Medical Examination

    OpenAIRE

    LAURA BISAILLON

    2011-01-01

    Findings that detail the social organization of day-to-day practices associated with the Canadian government policy of mandatory HIV testing of permanent residence applicants to Canada are reported. Institutional ethnography was used to investigate interactions between HIV-positive applicants and immigration physicians during the immigration medical examination. A composite narrative recounts details of a woman applicant's discovery through immigration testing that she was living with HIV. Ma...

  14. Webpages on copyright in Canadian academic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony G Horava

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic libraries value the web as being a vital channel for communicating information and policies to their user community. Designing a webpage on copyright is a challenging task that requires a consideration of the medium and the message. This article proposes a conceptual model and proactive approach for integrating policy objective and goals into the development of a copyright webpage, based on key elements of the library’s involvement in academia. To complement this theoretical approach, an analysis of Canadian academic library websites was conducted in order to gage the effectiveness of copyright webpages, in the Canadian legal context, according to the model as well as related design issues of visibility and access.

  15. Asbestos in drinking water: a Canadian view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, P.; Meek, M.E.

    1983-11-01

    Because of the widespread occurrence of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water supplies in Canada, public health professionals have been faced with evaluating the potential hazards associated with the ingestion of asbestos in food and drinking water. The results of available Canadian monitoring and epidemiologic studies of asbestos in drinking water are reviewed and discussed in light of other published work. The Canadian studies provide no consistent, convincing evidence of increased cancer risks attributable to the ingestion of drinking water contaminated by asbestos, even though the observed asbestos concentrations were relatively high in several communities. Only one study, conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area, has shown evidence of increased cancer incidence associated with the ingestion of asbestos in drinking water. 6 references.

  16. Canadian petroleum history bibliography. Release update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2010-01-07

    The petroleum history bibliography was created over several years as a record dedicated to preserving the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. It comprises a list of more than 5000 publications, including books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles and stories of the many companies that have come and gone. It aims to include all publications and audio visual products from the Social Sciences and Humanities on company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry and humour. An author index is included. Most government documents are excluded as they are accessible through Library and Archives Canada. This bibliography is an ongoing piece of work, and welcomes any additions relating to the study and preservation of Canadian petroleum industry history.

  17. Youth De-Radicalization: A Canadian Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafal (Haval Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Youth radicalization leading to violence has become a growing fear among Canadians, as terrorist attacks are carried out in Western states. Although Canada has suffered relatively fewer acts of violence, this fear has intensified and a de-radicalization strategy is needed in the Canadian context. In a qualitative case study methodology, interviews were conducted with school counsellors, religious leaders, and academics to explore solutions to youth radicalization. Youth de-radicalization approaches from the United Kingdom were analyzed and found that community-based initiatives were missing from programming. Social identity theory is used to explain that youth join radicalized groups to feel a sense of belonging and have to be provided an alternative and moderate group identity to de-radicalize. This study found youth de-radicalization in Canada is best served through a community collaboration approach.

  18. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer...

  19. 2003 Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines Executive Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Allan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma have been published over the last 15 years; however, there has been little focus on issues relating to asthma in childhood. Since the last revision of the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report, important new studies, particularly in children, have highlighted the need to incorporate new information into the asthma guidelines. The objectives of this article are to review the literature on asthma published between January 2000 and June 2003 and to evaluate the influence of new evidence on the recommendations made in the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report and its 2001 update, with a major focus on pediatric issues. Methods The diagnosis of asthma in young children and prevention strategies, pharmacotherapy, inhalation devices, immunotherapy, and asthma education were selected for review by small expert resource groups. The reviews were discussed in June 2003 at a meeting under the auspices of the Canadian Network For Asthma Care and the Canadian Thoracic Society. Data published through December 2004 were subsequently reviewed by the individual expert resource groups. Results This report evaluates early-life prevention strategies and focuses on treatment of asthma in children, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and preventive therapy, the benefits of additional therapy, and the essential role of asthma education. Conclusion We generally support previous recommendations and focus on new issues, particularly those relevant to children and their families. This document is a guide for asthma management based on the best available published data and the opinion of health care professionals, including asthma experts and educators.

  20. Asbestos in drinking water: a Canadian view.

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, P; Meek, M E

    1983-01-01

    For several years now, public health professionals have been faced with evaluating the potential hazards associated with the ingestion of asbestos in food and drinking water. In Canada, this is a subject of particular concern, because of the widespread occurrence of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water supplies. The results of available Canadian monitoring and epidemiologic studies of asbestos in drinking water are reviewed and discussed in light of other published work. It is concluded that...

  1. Guide to Canadian Aerospace-Related Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    ATR42 , Saab 340, Fokker HISTORY. Calian Communications Systems (CCS) is a wholly Canadian- F-28, Fokker F-50, Fokker F- 100, CL-600, and Citation 500...rough field usage, advanced material applications, and crash - systems and black boxes. This is typified by the microprocessor- worthiness features for...Avionics; Beacons; Build- To-Print Cockpit Displays; Communications; Crash Position Indicator; CONTACT- John Wandell, Senior Vice President of Sales- Digital

  2. Canadian Multiculturalism, Same as it ever Was?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hoyos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War ended, Canada was no longer mainly composed of its two dominant ethnocultural groups, French and English, but rather constituted by polyethnicity; meaning, Canadian culture was made up of many different ethnic groups. Since then, Canada has actively embraced multiculturalism and on 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, ‘An Act for the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada’. The Canadian multicultural experience has been much portrayed as a celebration of ethnicity where different cultural groups share their customs and learn from each other. However, it is recently being rumoured that the multiculturalism hype is not all it is cut out to be and segregates communities rather than integrate. According to Canadian authors Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, “in much of the world and particularly in Europe, there is a widespread perception that multiculturalism has failed” (44. In this paper, I examine some recent common issues of concern, especially, racism and discrimination, through the literary expression of Canadian playwrights and writers such as George F. Walker, Cecil Foster, and Mordecai Richler. These writers are not meant to represent any ethnic group as a whole, but rather try to project a general feeling about the nation in individual ways. I will finally explore the idea of how perhaps multiculturalism in Canada is evolving into another state since migratory patterns and the social circumstances that Canada is facing in the 21st century have changed. Today, the idea of celebrating different ethnicities and customs is no longer as important as celebrating the transcultural or “transnational” aspects of relations between individuals and groups of immigrants.

  3. Guide to Canadian Aerospace Related Industries,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    color-coded to alert the pilot to dangerous ions and to provide easy readability, thus improving safety and reducing pilot workload. Digital readouts...Biogradiometer - a biomagnetic sensor/dewar combination designed to detect the third spatial gradient with a high sensitivity only to very near...34 Research on preconcentration for ion mobility spectrometer relating to detection of explosive vapors in air at trace levels (Canadian Department of

  4. The Canadian Assessment of Physical literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Claire E; Longmuir, Patricia E; Boyer, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) was conceptualized as a tool to monitor children's physical literacy. The original model (fitness, activity behavior, knowledge, motor skill) required revision and relative weights for calculating/interpreting scores were required...... opinions remained regarding the inclusion of sleep time, assessment/scoring of the obstacle course assessment of motor skill, and the need for an overall physical literacy classification. Conclusions: The revised CAPL model (overlapping domains of physical competence, motivation, and knowledge, encompassed...

  5. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. A report is presented of the year's activities arranged by regional division. Major developments include a used oil management plan, creation of two new oil spill response centers in Nova Scotia and Quebec, CPPI's intervention in the Public Review Panel on Tanker Safety and Marine Spill Response, participation in the federal government's Green Plan, and member reviews of a number of operational issues such as lowering benzene emission levels, reducing sulfur content of diesel fuel, and minimizing pollutant levels at fuel transfer sites. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included.

  6. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. , rapport annuel 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs.

  7. The Canadian elder standard - pricing the cost of basic needs for the Canadian elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Bonnie-Jeanne; Andrews, Doug; Brown, Robert L

    2010-03-01

    We determined the after-tax income required to finance basic needs for Canadian elders living with different circumstances in terms of age, gender, city of residence, household size, homeowner or renter status, means of transportation, and health status. Using 2001 as our base year, we priced the typical expenses for food, shelter, medical, transportation, miscellaneous basic living items and home-based long-term care for elders living in five Canadian cities. This is the first Canadian study of basic living expenses tailored to elders instead of adults in general, prepared on an absolute rather than a relative basis. We also accounted for an individual's unique life circumstances and established the varying effect that they have on the cost of basic expenses, particularly for home care. We found that the maximum Guaranteed Income Supplement and Old Age Security benefit did not meet the cost of basic needs for an elder living in poor circumstances.

  8. Optimizing diabetes literacy: lessons from African Canadians in Calgary about type 2 diabetes diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekong, Jane I; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Arthur, Nancy

    2013-08-01

    With the aim of optimizing diabetes education, type 2 diabetes awareness, primary prevention and secondary prevention, we studied how African Canadians experience type 2 diabetes. Specifically, we studied stories told by African Canadians living in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, about significant events and experiences at the time of their diagnosis with type 2 diabetes. From recorded interviews, we extracted themes from stories about diagnosis, using hermeneutic phenomenology. Participants included 11 African Canadians older than age 18 and at least 1-year post-diagnosis. Transcribed stories were analyzed for units of meaning describing significant themes/experiences about the diagnosis. Extracted units of meaning were organized into themes that were presented to a focus group of African Canadians in Calgary to garner their perspective on the findings, discuss the implications and make recommendations for improvements. All participants reported experiencing shock, disbelief, fear and a sense of helplessness immediately after their diagnosis. These rendered them unable to think clearly or start their treatment regimen until propelled by additional forces. Also, 73% of participants reported experiencing anger/denial about the diagnosis for some time, whereas 18% reported a short-lived relief that they could finally put a name to their symptoms. However, the overarching issue associated with all of the themes appeared to emanate from a lack of type 2 diabetes awareness. Emotions experienced by participants seemed precipitated by a lack of type 2 diabetes awareness. Some community-specific factors contributed to the lack of type 2 diabetes awareness, which appeared to impede primary and secondary prevention among participants. Recommendations for ameliorating these factors are presented. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Flexing the PECs: Predicting environmental concentrations of veterinary drugs in Canadian agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullik, Sigrun A; Belknap, Andrew M

    2017-03-01

    Veterinary drugs administered to food animals primarily enter ecosystems through the application of livestock waste to agricultural land. Although veterinary drugs are essential for protecting animal health, their entry into the environment may pose a risk for nontarget organisms. A means to predict environmental concentrations of new veterinary drug ingredients in soil is required to assess their environmental fate, distribution, and potential effects. The Canadian predicted environmental concentrations in soil (PECsoil) for new veterinary drug ingredients for use in intensively reared animals is based on the approach currently used by the European Medicines Agency for VICH Phase I environmental assessments. The calculation for the European Medicines Agency PECsoil can be adapted to account for regional animal husbandry and land use practices. Canadian agricultural practices for intensively reared cattle, pigs, and poultry differ substantially from those in the European Union. The development of PECsoil default values and livestock categories representative of typical Canadian animal production methods and nutrient management practices culminates several years of research and an extensive survey and analysis of the scientific literature, Canadian agricultural statistics, national and provincial management recommendations, veterinary product databases, and producers. A PECsoil can be used to rapidly identify new veterinary drugs intended for intensive livestock production that should undergo targeted ecotoxicity and fate testing. The Canadian PECsoil model is readily available, transparent, and requires minimal inputs to generate a screening level environmental assessment for veterinary drugs that can be refined if additional data are available. PECsoil values for a hypothetical veterinary drug dosage regimen are presented and discussed in an international context. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:331-341. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

  10. Joshua N Haldeman, DC: the Canadian Years, 1926-1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Joseph C; Haldeman, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Born in 1902 to the earliest chiropractor known to practice in Canada, Joshua Norman Haldeman would develop national and international stature as a political economist, provincial and national professional leader, and sportsman/adventurer. A 1926 graduate of the Palmer School of Chiropractic, he would maintain a lifelong friendship with B.J. Palmer, and served in the late 1940s as Canada’s representative to the Board of Control of the International Chiropractors’ Association. Yet, he would also maintain strong alliances with broad-scope leaders in Canada and the United States, including the administrators of the National and Lincoln chiropractic schools. Haldeman, who would practice chiropractic in Regina for at least 15 years, was instrumental in obtaining, and is credited with composing the wording of, Saskatchewan’s 1943 Chiropractic Act. He served on the province’s first board of examiners and the provincial society’s first executive board. The following year Dr. Haldeman represented Saskatchewan in the deliberations organized by Walter Sturdy, D.C. that gave rise to the Dominion Council of Canadian Chiropractors, forerunner of today’s Canadian Chiropractic Association. As a member of the Dominion Council he fought for inclusion of chiropractors as commissioned officers during World War II, and participated in the formation of the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College, which he subsequently served as a member of the first board of directors. Dr. Haldeman also earned a place in the political history of Canada, owing to his service as research director for Technocracy, Inc. of Canada, his national chairmanship of the Social Credit Party during the second world war, and his unsuccessful bid for the national parliament. His vocal opposition to Communism during the war briefly landed him in jail. His 1950 relocation of his family and practice to Pretoria, South Africa would open a new page in his career: once again as professional pioneer, but also as

  11. Nation, Genre and Female Performance in Canadian Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Akser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a theory of sytle and performance in Canadian film based on geography, gender and genre. It is possible to form a theory of Canadian cinema based on theme-genre (strong women, nature as oppressor in dysfunctional family melodramas in which female characters, as well as their personas, interact with both a physical geography and a social space to define a Canadian identity.

  12. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Driving: A Canadian Thoracic Society and Canadian Sleep Society Position Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Ayas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA experience sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality that results in daytime sleepiness, which impairs performance during driving and leads to an increased risk for collisions. Not surprisingly, observational studies have shown that patients with OSA experience a two- to 10-fold higher risk for collision compared with healthy controls. Although treatment would clearly mitigate these risks, there is no current Canadian position on driving and OSA. This article, the first Canadian position statement addressing the issue, provides an overview of provincial regulations and proposes recommendations with regard to driving in patients with OSA.

  13. Simulation in Canadian postgraduate emergency medicine training - a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Evan; Hall, Andrew Koch; Hagel, Carly; Petrosoniak, Andrew; Dagnone, Jeffrey Damon; Howes, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Simulation-based education (SBE) is an important training strategy in emergency medicine (EM) postgraduate programs. This study sought to characterize the use of simulation in FRCPC-EM residency programs across Canada. A national survey was administered to residents and knowledgeable program representatives (PRs) at all Canadian FRCPC-EM programs. Survey question themes included simulation program characteristics, the frequency of resident participation, the location and administration of SBE, institutional barriers, interprofessional involvement, content, assessment strategies, and attitudes about SBE. Resident and PR response rates were 63% (203/321) and 100% (16/16), respectively. Residents reported a median of 20 (range 0-150) hours of annual simulation training, with 52% of residents indicating that the time dedicated to simulation training met their needs. PRs reported the frequency of SBE sessions ranging from weekly to every 6 months, with 15 (94%) programs having an established simulation curriculum. Two (13%) of the programs used simulation for resident assessment, although 15 (94%) of PRs indicated that they would be comfortable with simulation-based assessment. The most common PR-identified barriers to administering simulation were a lack of protected faculty time (75%) and a lack of faculty experience with simulation (56%). Interprofessional involvement in simulation was strongly valued by both residents and PRs. SBE is frequently used by Canadian FRCPC-EM residency programs. However, there exists considerable variability in the structure, frequency, and timing of simulation-based activities. As programs transition to competency-based medical education, national organizations and collaborations should consider the variability in how SBE is administered.

  14. Factors affecting recruitment into psychiatry: a canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Timothy; Zamani, Delara; Lee, Elliott Kyung; Asli, Khashayar D; Gill, Jasbir; Brager, Nancy; Hawa, Raed; Song, Wei-Yi; Gill, Eunice; Fitzpatrick, Renee; Menezes, Natasja M; Pham, Vu H; Douglass, Alan Bruce; Allain, Suzanne; Meterissian, Greg B; Gagnon, Nadine; Toeg, Hadi; Murphy, Cheryl

    2015-06-01

    There is a projected shortage of psychiatrists in Canada in forthcoming years. This study assessed factors in medical school education that are associated with students selecting psychiatry first and matching as a discipline. The Canadian Organization of Undergraduate Psychiatry Educators (COUPE) conducted telephone interviews and sent e-mail questionnaires to the 17 medical schools across Canada; all schools provided data for 2012. Relevant data were obtained from the Canadian Resident Matching Service. Statistics were performed using v12 STATA program, and significance was set at a p value of psychiatry as their first choice for residency. Final match results yielded similar numbers at 5.0 ± 0.6 %. Ten out of 17 programs filled all psychiatry residency positions, whereas the remaining 7 programs had vacancy rates from 5 to 100 % (mean = 43.4 ± 15.1 %). Medical students were exposed to an average of 2.8 ± 0.5 pre-clerkship psychiatry weeks and 6.2 ± 0.3 clerkship weeks. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that the percentage of graduating medical students entering a psychiatry residency program could be predicted from the number of weeks of pre-clerkship exposure (p = 0.01; R(2) = 0.36) but not from the number of clerkship weeks (p = 0.74). This study indicates that the duration of pre-clerkship exposure to psychiatry predicts the number of students selecting psychiatry as their first choice as a discipline. Thus, increasing the duration of pre-clerkship exposure may increase the enrollment of medical students into psychiatry.

  15. Public Opinion on Canadian Arctic Sovereignty and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathieu Landriault

    2016-01-01

    .... An examination of 18 opinion polls conducted between 2006 and 2015 that questioned respondents directly or indirectly on circumpolar affairs concluded that Canadians do not prioritize the Arctic...

  16. Contesting Family in Finnish and Canadian Immigration and Refugee Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lippert, Randy K; Pyykkönen, Miikka

    2012-01-01

    Adopting a governmentality perspective, this article explores the multi-conceptuality of family in Finnish and Canadian immigration and refugee policy domains by analyzing official and political discourse...

  17. Women's health promotion in the rural church: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Robyn; Leipert, Beverly D

    2013-09-01

    The rural church may be an effective health resource for rural Canadian women who have compromised access to health resources. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relevance of the Christian church and faith community nurses in promoting the health of rural Canadian women in the evolving rural context. The findings from an extensive literature search reveal that religion and spirituality often influence the health beliefs, behaviors, and decisions of rural Canadian women. The church and faith community nurses may therefore be a significant health resource for rural Canadian women, although this phenomenon has been significantly understudied.

  18. Attitudes towards the Canadian quality milk program and use of good production practices among Canadian dairy producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I; Rajić, A; Hendrick, S; Parker, S; Sanchez, J; McClure, J T; McEwen, S A

    2010-04-01

    To harmonize good production practices (GPP) for dairy producers in Canada, the Canadian dairy industry has developed and is implementing a program called Canadian Quality Milk (CQM). A postal questionnaire was administered to all Canadian dairy producers enrolled in dairy herd-improvement organizations in 2008 (n=10,474) to investigate their attitudes towards the program and to establish baseline information on their use of GPP. The response percentage was 20.9% (2185/10,474). Two-thirds of producers (67.6%) reported participation in CQM and 61.4% of these indicated that the requirements were easy to implement. Most producers (85.0%) reported the use of cats as a pest-control method in their barns. For dead-livestock disposal, 65.0% and 38.0% indicated use of a collection service and burial, respectively. Nearly 40.0% of respondents indicated that they purchase replacement cattle, and somatic cell-count score was the main health indicator considered before purchase. Over 70% of producers reported that they clean and disinfect maternity, calf and weaned-calf pens, while only 34.1% and 53.1% reported that they provide visitors and employees, respectively, with clean clothes and boots. Through latent-class analysis, five groups (classes) of producers with distinctive patterns of reported use of GPP were identified. These were labelled as "minimal", "sanitation-only", "employee-visitor hygiene", "typical" and "ideal" user groups, with 11.1%, 23.8%, 20.2%, 37.1% and 7.7% of respondents, respectively. Respondents in the "ideal users" group had a higher probability of reporting the use of each GPP and were more likely to have completed an educational course in food safety compared to respondents in each other group. They were also more likely to have a herd size in the uppermost quartile (>65 cows) and report participation in CQM compared to each other group except the "employee-visitor hygiene users". The greatest differences were observed when compared to the "minimal

  19. Is a pan-Canadian early child development system possible? Yes, when we redress what ails Canadian culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kershaw, Paul; Anderson, Lynell

    2009-01-01

    Canada lags behind other countries when it comes to investing in families with children. Canada, therefore, fails to promote health by not optimizing early development. The authors diagnose the Canadian failure. The problem is not research or fiscal capacity, but rather a sickness in Canadian culture. Four ailments are identified: Canadians are convinced they cannot afford new social investments, tend to treat illness rather than promote health, ignore that good family policy requires gender ...

  20. Dioxins/furans and PCBs in Canadian human milk: 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Sadler, Amy R; Casey, Valerie A; Breton, François; Sun, Wing-Fung; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fraser, William D

    2017-10-01

    Human milk was collected between 2008 and 2011 as part of the Maternal - Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study that was initiated to establish Canadian national estimates of maternal and infant exposure to a broad suite of environmental contaminants (e.g., persistent organic pollutants [POPs], trace elements, phthalates, etc.). Among the 1017 human milk samples collected, 298 were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). World Health Organization (WHO) toxic equivalency concentrations (WHO TEQ2005) for PCDD/F+dioxin-like (DL) PCB ranged from 2.2pg TEQ2005 g-1 lipid to 27pg TEQ2005 g-1 lipid. The relative contribution of PCDDs to the overall WHO TEQ2005 (PCDD/F+DL PCB) has decreased from earlier investigations into POP levels in Canadian human milk. Significantly higher PCB concentrations were observed in milk from women born in Europe relative to those born in Canada (pmilk ∑PCB concentrations (p=0.018), with elevated concentrations observed in milk from women >30years relative to those milk from primiparous women (p=0.019) and those >30years relative to those body mass index. PCB and PCDD/F concentrations have continued to decline in Canadian human milk since the last sampling of human milk was performed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Canadian Pediatric Weight Management Registry (CANPWR): baseline descriptive statistics and comparison to Canadian norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Feng, Min; Garriguet, Didier; Ball, Geoff D C; Buchholz, Annick; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Lambert, Marie; Morrison, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of establishing a multi-site CANadian Pediatric Weight management Registry (CANPWR) containing individual, family and weight management program information. Standardized baseline data were collected to characterize CANPWR participants (n = 310) in comparison to a sample of age-matched Canadian children measured in the nationally representative Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS; n = 3,788). This study compared demographic, anthropometric, cardiometabolic and lifestyle characteristics of participants (aged 6-17 years) in the CANPWR pilot study with those from the CHMS. Compared to CHMS respondents, CANPWR participants had higher BMI z-score, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting glucose, and lower HDL cholesterol. They reported lower sugared drink consumption, were more likely to be non-white and had parents with lower education. The CANPWR cohort represents a group that has biological and behavioral profiles that place them at increased health risk and who differ significantly from typical Canadians of the same age.

  2. The Canadian Niagara Power Company story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, N.R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2005-07-01

    This book chronicles the history and contributions of the Canadian Niagara Power Company and its employees toward the establishment of electricity generation and distribution in Niagara Falls and Fort Erie, Ontario, dating back to its founding in 1892. Through historical photographs, maps and drawings, the book demonstrates the impact of electricity on the Niagara region. It emphasizes the many skills and jobs required to run the company that generated electricity and maintained a complete system to deliver power, metering, and billing services through the depression, wars, and postwar booms, even during lightning, snow and ice storms. The company began producing power in 1905 with what had been the world's largest-capacity turbines and generators that supplied power to both sides of the Niagara River. Initially, most of the electricity was exported to New York State. The company eventually expanded its Canadian customer service area from Niagara Falls, Ontario, to Fort Erie, Bridgeburg, Amigari, Ridgeway, Stevensville, Crystal Beach and Point Abino. Throughout its history, the Canadian Niagara Power Company provided power at a lower cost than its neighbouring competitors. The William Birch Rankine Generating Station became an important tourist attraction, showcasing the latest electrical appliances of the time in an effort to promote the use of electricity in homes and offices. Today, the station remains a tribute to the fact that natural beauty can coincide with industry. The book also chronicles the difficult business challenges caused by restructuring in the electric power industry in the 1990s, repairing aging equipment and applying the latest in automation and remote sensing technology. Today, the company as FortisOntario is expanding to other communities around Ontario. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  4. The Changing Health of Canadian Grandparents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Margolis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fertility postponement and mortality decline are shifting the demography of the grandparent population in Canada. The ways in which the aging of the grandparent population affects families depends in large part on the health of grandparents. In this article, we document the aging of Canadian grandparents between 1985 and 2011. However, despite being older, grandparents are healthier, signaling that the compression of morbidity is outpacing the postponement of grandparenthood. This shift is partly due to the higher educational attainment of this population and partly due to secular improvements in health over time. The improved health of grandparents in Canada has important implications for intergenerational transfers and relationships.

  5. Refugees and education in Canadian schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprielian-Churchill, Isabel

    1996-07-01

    This article summarizes some of the findings and recommendations of a research project focusing on the nature and needs of refugee students in Canadian schools. The school performance of refugee students is examined under the following headings: immigration regulations; initial identification, assessment, placement and monitoring; unaccompanied youngsters; "at risk" students; academic needs; the conflict of cultures. In particular, the article discusses the changing role of the school in the light of recent immigration trends. Many of the findings are applicable to other national settings.

  6. The national question: political economy and the Canadian working class: Marxism or nationalist reformism?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Murray E

    2000-01-01

    Despite its occasionally Marxist verbiage, the New Canadian Political Economy has always been more indebted to the Canadian political economy tradition associated with Harold Innis and to "dependency...

  7. Attitudes Toward Oral Contraception Among Canadian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardis, Panos D.

    The author conducted a cross-cultural survey of attitudes toward the pill among university students, part of this international sample being a group of young Canadians. The subjects were students from a southwestern Canadian university and were stratified as to sex and amount of education. The author employed his Pill Scale, a 25-item Likert type…

  8. From Republicans to Hacktivists: Recent Inclusion Initiatives in Canadian Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kirsty

    2017-01-01

    Could targeted inclusion initiatives press Canada's professional theatre community to tap the vast reserve of disabled people disenfranchised by its current practices? In 2015/2016, several long-standing professional institutions dedicated to fostering Canadian theatre joined with Canadian disability theatre artists in order to mark and understand…

  9. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault in Canadian Sports and Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Margery; Moriarty, Richard

    Sexual harassment is deemed a violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms which provides protection from discrimination based on sex. Provincial jurisdictions may offer legislation more stringent than that reflected in the Canadian code. Recourse for acts of sexual harassment through the courts is sought by alleging discrimination.…

  10. African-Canadian Educators' Perspectives: Critical Factors for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the perspectives of African-Canadian educators on critical factors for success in their educational careers. Interviews were conducted and life histories were constructed to analyze the complex and multifaceted nature of the experiences of ten African-Canadian educators. These data indicate that family and community…

  11. On the Autonomy and Homogeneity of Canadian English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollinger, Stefan; Clarke, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to the symposium approaches the themes of autonomy and homogeneity in Canadian English from a historical perspective. We trace the debates on these topics back to the late 19th century and relate them to changing public attitudes toward Canadian linguistic autonomy over time. We review the scholarly evidence on autonomy and…

  12. Indigenous knowledge in Canadian science curricula: cases from Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung

    2017-09-01

    To enhance Aboriginal students' educational opportunities in sciences, culturally relevant science curriculum has been examined and practiced in Western Canadian science classrooms. This article shares some examples of inclusion of indigenous knowledge in science curricula and discusses the improvement and challenges of culturally relevant science curricula in Canadian contexts.

  13. School Autonomy and 21st Century Learning: The Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul; da Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the policy and practice contexts for school autonomy and twenty-first century learning in Canadian provinces. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on an analysis of policies in Canadian provinces (particularly the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan). The authors review policies…

  14. Aspects sociolinguistiques du bilinguisme canadien (Aspects of Canadian Bilingualism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Jacques, Bernard

    The Canadian government opted for a politics of bilingualism according to the "personal solution" whereby the Canadian citizen, whether English or French, can demand the protection of his language regardless of the section of the country in which he lives. In a "territorial solution," an individual can claim official status for…

  15. How Canadian Universities Use Social Media to Brand Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Charles H.; Bali, Suchita; Longden, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores social media marketing strategies applied by Canadian universities as a tool for institutional branding, recruitment and engagement of home and international students. The target sample involves the total population of Canadian university-status institutions ("N" = 106). Qualitative data were collected from two major…

  16. "In Canada Even History Divides": Unique Features of Canadian Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Explores the unique features of Canadian history and society that influence the conception of Canadian citizenship. These include the historical development of Canada as a frontier crown territory, the search for an elusive national identity, the decentralized political structure, and the proximity to the United States. (MJP)

  17. Denials of Racism in Canadian English Language Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Trevor; Thurrell, Kristy

    2016-01-01

    This critical discourse analysis examines denials of racism in descriptions of Canada and Canadians from English language textbooks. Denials of racism often accompany racist and nationalist discourse, preempting observations of racism. The study finds that in representations of Canada or Canadians, English language texts minimize and downplay…

  18. Canadian Autonomous Landing and Lunar Exploration Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, R.; Tripp, J.; Mukherji, R.; Ghafoor, N.; Sallaberger, C.

    In coming decades planetary exploration will change its focus from remote observation to robotic in situ exploration sample-return missions and eventually human missions Two Canadian companies have combined 30 years of heritage in terrestrial and space technologies to provide new capabilities in space including autonomous landing and exploration technologies for lunar exploration MDA is the world leader in space robotics a key element of the Canadian Space Program for the last two decades with over 2-billion CDN of total investment Robotic arms designed and built by MDA are used on virtually all flights of the Space Shuttle and the three robotic systems comprising the Mobile Servicing System - SSRMS MBS and SPDM - have been designed and built for the International Space Station Optech is the world leader in terrestrial lidar systems with 30 years of technology heritage A strategic partnership of MDA and Optech was formed in 2002 to provide unique space lidar solutions for space operations and planetary exploration Now as robotic exploration moves in earnest beyond Earth orbit strategic technologies are being developed by Optech and MDA that will allow Canada to expand its world leading position in space sensors and robotics to become a dominant provider of robotic exploration systems and missions targeted at the Moon Mars asteroids and beyond The key requirements for successful planetary exploration in topographically diverse areas include a spacecraft capable of precision landing and hazard avoidance Since 2001 Optech and MDA

  19. Canadian tourist and Dominican Republic sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S

    1992-01-01

    The Dominican Republic is a popular tourist destination for Canadians. The country's sex industry for tourists developed markedly in the 1980s. The Puerto Plata/Sosua area is currently one of the most popular tourist sites and claimed the highest incidence of AIDS in 1989 at 23.2 cases/100,000 people. Two pilot phases of the Dominican Sex Workers and Canadian Tourists Study have been conducted to obtain methodological and empirical data to use in developing a major study of sex and tourism. First phase interviews were held only with beachboys who make money by having relations with female tourists, while phase two interviews were held with beachboys, female sex workers, and female and male tourists. Results indicate that female tourists consider their relations with male sex workers to be primarily social, while male tourists see their relations with female sex workers as more casual, sexual, and monetarily based. Further, women are more likely than men to continue their relationships with sex workers after returning to Canada; many help their men to immigrate and some get married. To learn more about the dynamics of tourism, sex, and AIDS prevention, the author proposes individual studies exploring the characteristics of each of the following four populations: male and female sex workers and male and female tourists.

  20. Diet composition and obesity among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Kellie; Garriguet, Didier; Findlay, Leanne

    2009-12-01

    The contribution of specific nutrients to obesity has not been definitively established. The objective of this study was to determine if an association exists between obesity and the relative percentages of fats, carbohydrates, protein and fibre in the diets of Canadians. The data are from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey--Nutrition. The analysis pertains to 6454 respondents aged 18 or older who provided valid 24-hour dietary recall information and measured height and weight, and whose reported energy intake was considered plausible based on their predicted energy expenditure. Logistic regression models with obesity status as the main outcome were conducted, controlling for potential confounders. All analyses were based on weighted estimates. When the effect of the control variables was taken into account, total kilocalories consumed increased the odds of obesity in men, and fibre intake decreased the odds. Among women, only total kilocalories consumed was significantly associated with increased odds of obesity. Higher consumption of kilocalories increased the odds of obesity, but the relative amounts of fats, carbohydrates and protein were generally not significant. The sole exception was an association between higher fibre intake and lower rates of obesity among men.

  1. Exploring Canadian Echinoderm Diversity through DNA Barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding has proven an effective tool for species identification in varied groups of marine invertebrates including crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes and echinoderms. In this study, we further validate its utility by analyzing almost half of the 300 species of Echinodermata known from Canadian waters. COI sequences from 999 specimens were assigned to 145 BINs. In most cases, species discrimination was straightforward due to the large difference (25-fold) between mean intra- (0.48%) and inter- (12.0%) specific divergence. Six species were flagged for further taxonomic investigation because specimens assigned to them fell into two or three discrete sequence clusters. The potential influence of larval dispersal capacity and glacial events on patterns of genetic diversity is discussed for 19 trans-oceanic species. Although additional research is needed to clarify biogeographic patterns and resolve taxonomic questions, this study represents an important step in the assembly of a DNA barcode library for all Canadian echinoderms, a valuable resource for future biosurveillance programs. PMID:27870868

  2. Exploring Canadian Echinoderm Diversity through DNA Barcodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara K S Layton

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding has proven an effective tool for species identification in varied groups of marine invertebrates including crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes and echinoderms. In this study, we further validate its utility by analyzing almost half of the 300 species of Echinodermata known from Canadian waters. COI sequences from 999 specimens were assigned to 145 BINs. In most cases, species discrimination was straightforward due to the large difference (25-fold between mean intra- (0.48% and inter- (12.0% specific divergence. Six species were flagged for further taxonomic investigation because specimens assigned to them fell into two or three discrete sequence clusters. The potential influence of larval dispersal capacity and glacial events on patterns of genetic diversity is discussed for 19 trans-oceanic species. Although additional research is needed to clarify biogeographic patterns and resolve taxonomic questions, this study represents an important step in the assembly of a DNA barcode library for all Canadian echinoderms, a valuable resource for future biosurveillance programs.

  3. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute 1996 annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) is an association of Canadian companies involved in the downstream sector of the petroleum industry which includes refining, distributing and marketing of petroleum products. CPPI`s mandate includes: (1) establishing environmental policies, (2) establishing working relationships with governments to develop public policy, (3) developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, and (4) providing information about the petroleum industry to the public. Canada`s 19 refineries processed an average of 1.5 million barrels of crude oil per day in 1996. Domestic sources of crude made up 61 per cent of crude oil processed in 1996. Total exports during the year amounted to 105 million barrels. Some of the issues that the CPPI focused on during 1996 included the controversy over the future of the octane enhancing fuel additive MMT, fuel quality standards for transportation fuels and reformulated fuels, gasoline pricing, air quality and workplace safety. CPPI members` participation in the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions was also discussed. The industry was also actively involved in seeking to improve its refinery wastewater discharges.

  4. Cognitive enhancement in Canadian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlow, Paul A; Naylor, Karline Treurnicht; Xie, Bin; McIntyre, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive enhancing agents are substances that may augment functions such as memory, attention, concentration, wakefulness, and intelligence. An anonymous, online survey containing a series of questions on the actual and hypothetical use of cognitive enhancers was sent via email to 647 medical students across all four years in one Canadian MD program. The response rate was 50% (326/647). Overall, 49 (15%, 95% CI: 11% to 19%) students admitted to non-medical and/or off-label use of one or more pharmaceutical stimulants, of whom 14 (4%, 95% CI: 2% to 6%) had used stimulants within the last year. Senior medical students reported recent use more often than junior students (8% vs. 2%, P = 0.04). Class seniority and male gender were both associated with positive attitudes towards use of these agents; favorable attitudes were associated with recent use of pharmaceutical stimulant and high-caffeine products. A substantial proportion of Canadian medical students have engaged at some point in non-medical and/or off-label use of stimulants for purposes of cognitive enhancement. Male students and those in upper years of the MD program were more likely to have used pharmaceutical stimulants in the last year, and have favorable attitudes concerning use of cognitive-enhancing agents.

  5. Impacting Canadian public health nurses' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Karen R; Davies, Barbara L; Woodend, A Kirsten; Simpson, Jane; Mantha, Shannon L

    2011-01-01

    Workforce recruitment and retention challenges are being experienced in public health as in other Canadian health sectors. While there are many nurses working in public health, little research has been done about their job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is linked to recruitment, retention and positive client outcomes. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between three modifiable work environment factors (autonomy, control-over-practice, and workload) and Canadian public health nurses' (PHNs) job satisfaction. Data were from the 2005 National Survey of the Work and Health of Nurses (response rate, 79.7%; 18,676 nurses). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used for this secondary analysis. Findings were discussed with practicing PHNs, policy-makers and researchers from across Canada at a knowledge translation (KT) 'Think-Tank'. Among the 271 PHNs, 53.5% reported being 'very satisfied' with their jobs. The interaction between autonomy and workload was a significant predictor of PHNs' job satisfaction, (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.99, p multi-generational workforce.

  6. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  7. An inventory of undiscovered Canadian mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labovitz, M. L.; Griffiths, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Unit regional value (URV) and unit regional weight are area standardized measures of the expected value and quantity, respectively, of the mineral resources of a region. Estimation and manipulation of the URV statistic is the basis of an approach to mineral resource evaluation. Estimates of the kind and value of exploitable mineral resources yet to be discovered in the provinces of Canada are used as an illustration of the procedure. The URV statistic is set within a previously developed model wherein geology, as measured by point counting geologic maps, is related to the historical record of mineral resource production of well-developed regions of the world, such as the 50 states of the U.S.A.; these may be considered the training set. The Canadian provinces are related to this training set using geological information obtained in the same way from geologic maps of the provinces. The desired predictions of yet to be discovered mineral resources in the Canadian provinces arise as a consequence. The implicit assumption is that regions of similar geology, if equally well developed, will produce similar weights and values of mineral resources.

  8. Diet and Blood Pressure Control in Chinese Canadians: Cultural Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in Chinese Canadians and diet has been identified as an important modifiable risk factor for hypertension. The current anti-hypertensive dietary recommendations in hypertension care guidelines lack examination of cultural factors, are not culturally sensitive to ethnic populations, and cannot be translated to Chinese Canadian populations without cultural considerations. Guided by Leininger's Sunrise Model of culture care theory, this paper investigates how cultural factors impact Chinese Canadians' dietary practice. It is proposed that English language proficiency, health literacy, traditional Chinese diet, migration and acculturation, and Traditional Chinese Medicine influence Chinese Canadians' dietary practices. A culturally congruent nursing intervention should be established and tailored according to related cultural factors to facilitate Chinese Canadians' blood pressure control. In addition, further study is needed to test the model adapted from Sunrise Model and understand its mechanism.

  9. Daily smoking and lower back pain in adult Canadians: the Canadian Community Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Alkherayf

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Fahad Alkherayf1,2,3, Eugene K Wai4,5,6, Eve C Tsai1,3,4,6, Charles Agbi1,3,41University of Ottawa, Division of Neurosurgery, Ottawa, Ontario; 2University of Ottawa, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Ottawa, Ontario; 3The Ottawa Hospital, Civic campus, Division of Neurosurgery, Ottawa, Ontario; 4The Ottawa Hospital, Civic Campus, Spine Unit Ottawa, Ontario; 5The Ottawa Hospital, Civic Campus, Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Ottawa, Ontario; 6The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Lower back pain (LBP is one of the primary causes of disability in the Canadian community. However, only a limited number of studies have addressed the association between daily smoking and LBP in Canada. Of the studies that have explored this association, many had small sample sizes and failed to control for confounders.Objective: The primary objective of the study was to determine if daily smoking is associated with an increased risk of having LBP. The secondary objectives were to assess the risk for LBP among occasional smokers and to determine the prevalence of LBP in relation to different covariates.Data and study design: Using the Canadian Community Health Survey (cycle 3.1 data, 73,507 Canadians between the ages of 20 and 59 years were identified. LBP status, smoking level, sex, age, body mass index (BMI, level of activity and level of education were assessed in these subjects.Methods: Stratified analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to detect effect modifications and to adjust for covariates. Population weight and design were taken into consideration.Results: The prevalence of LBP was 23.3% among daily smokers and 15.7% among non-smokers. Age and sex were found to be effect modifiers. The association between LBP and daily smoking was statistically significant in all ages and genders; this association was stronger for younger age groups. The adjusted odds ratio for male daily smokers aged 20 to 29 was 1.87 (95

  10. Canadian ENGOs in governance of water resources: information needs and monitoring practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebo, Sasha; Bunch, Martin J

    2013-11-01

    Water quality monitoring involves a complex set of steps and a variety of approaches. Its goals include understanding of aquatic habitats, informing management and facilitating decision making, and educating citizens. Environmental nongovernmental organizations (ENGOs) are increasingly engaged in water quality monitoring and act as environmental watchdogs and stewards of water resources. These organizations exhibit different monitoring mandates. As government involvement in water quality monitoring continues to decline, it becomes essential that we understand their modi operandi. By doing so, we can enhance efficacy and encourage data sharing and communication. This research examined Canadian ENGOs that collect their own data on water quality with respect to water quality monitoring activities and information needs. This work had a twofold purpose: (1) to enhance knowledge about the Canadian ENGOs operating in the realm of water quality monitoring and (2) to guide and inform development of web-based geographic information systems (GIS) to support water quality monitoring, particularly using benthic macroinvertebrate protocols. A structured telephone survey was administered across 10 Canadian provinces to 21 ENGOs that undertake water quality monitoring. This generated information about barriers and challenges of data sharing, commonly collected metrics, human resources, and perceptions of volunteer-collected data. Results are presented on an aggregate level and among different groups of respondents. Use of geomatics technology was not consistent among respondents, and we found no noteworthy differences between organizations that did and did not use GIS tools. About one third of respondents did not employ computerized systems (including databases and spreadsheets) to support data management, analysis, and sharing. Despite their advantage as a holistic water quality indicator, benthic macroinvertebrates (BMIs) were not widely employed in stream monitoring. Although

  11. Quality of Care for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Development of Canadian Cardiovascular Society Quality Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Ata Ur Rehman; Lambert, Laurie J; Madan, Mina; Gong, Yanyan; Forsey, Anne; Galbraith, Diane; Gill, Neala; Oakes, Garth H; Lavoie, Andrea; Carere, Ronald G; Welsh, Robert C

    2016-12-01

    Currently there are more than 40 centres in Canada that perform more than 65,000 percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) in a year. Considering the high volume of procedures and number of operators, the potential for variation in processes of care is high, and might lead to variation in the quality of care. As part of its quality initiative, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society convened a working group to develop a set of PCI Quality Indicators (QIs) that would be relevant, scientifically acceptable, and feasible to measure and report. The working group was comprised of clinical experts from across Canada and members of provincial and federal organizations involved in promoting the quality of health care. Using the Canadian Cardiovascular Society "Best Practices for Developing Cardiovascular Quality Indicators" methodology, a total of 23 QIs were proposed. Subsequent ranking and discussion led to the selection of 8 QIs. The selection and ranking of QIs were on the basis of clinical importance and relevance, scientific acceptability, and feasibility of their operationalization at a national level. The data definitions and technical notes of the QIs were refined after feasibility testing and Web consultation. Feasibility testing indicated that standardization and enhancements of knowledge infrastructure are essential to provide the comprehensive patient data necessary to evaluate the quality of PCI across Canada. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. "It Goes on Everywhere": Injection Drug Use in Canadian Federal Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Emily

    2017-06-07

    International and Canadian research on in-prison injection drug use has documented the frequency of its occurrence as well as some of the resulting consequences such as increased prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus. Access to prison-based harm reduction programing is thus important. The aim of this study was to learn from former prisoner experiences and insights on in-prison injection drug use in order to advance and improve access to harm reduction options, in particular prison-based needle and syringe programs (PNSPs). The qualitative and community-based study was conducted in 2014/2015 and included former prisoners from Ontario, Canada (N = 30) who had recent experience of incarceration in a federal prison and knowledge of injection drug use. Data analysis followed the deductive approach, drawing on the expertise of the academic and community-based research team members. Interview and focus group participants disclosed that drugs are readily available in Canadian federal prisons and that equipment used to inject is accessed in a variety of ways, sometimes gained through illicit means and sometimes made by prisoners themselves. Equipment sharing is a frequent occurrence, and disposal of such supplies is rare. Conclusions/Importance: While not yet available in Canada, PNSPs have led to positive outcomes in international contexts, including reductions in needle sharing and transmission of HIV and hepatitis C. Support for PNSPs among numerous Canadian organizations and associations, along with a recent change in government, could suggest a renewed opportunity for PNSP implementation.

  13. Public Interest Activism in Canadian ICT Policy: Blowin’ in the Policy Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Regan Shade

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the catalyzing influence of Bill C-61—a proposed amendment to the Canadian Copyright Act—and other recent ICT-related policy developments on activism in Canada is examined. The discussion expounds upon the role of academics and activists in fostering a broader public discourse about ICT policy, with attention being given to three key moments in Canadian communication policy: the development of the “information highway” in the mid-1990s and, in particular, the activities of the Information Highway Advisory Council (IHAC; the creation of the Telecommunications Policy Review Panel (TPRP in 2005; and the current debates regarding the issue of net neutrality. The analysis demonstrates how “esoteric” digital policy issues are now seen by many Canadians as worthy of their energies. This suggests that politicians cannot afford to ignore their constituents’ concerns about such policy issues as traffic shaping, throttling, fair dealings, and anti-circumvention measures. And, likewise, that academics working in the realm of communication policy domain would do well not to overlook the role of citizens, grassroots groups and non-profit organizations in actively seeking a voice in the various structures of policymaking.

  14. Identification of functionally necessary knowledge and skills in the practice of Canadian health care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, L

    1989-01-01

    The Canadian College of Health Service Executives (CCHSE) conducted a project in 1985-87 to identify basic competencies required in the field practice of health care management in Canada. The project derived from the College's mission to establish and promote professional standards for all health care executives in Canada. The project also addressed more specific short-term problems: to validate an existing examination purporting to measure the basic competence required for field practice of health care management in Canada; to create a data base upon which a CCHSE criterion reference test of field-based professional competence in health care administration could be created; and to provide to the training programs in Canadian health care management a detailed compilation and testing of the knowledge and skill attributes considered necessary for adequate field practice in Canadian health care administration. The project demonstrated an improved model for professional competence identification. The first step was to identify the level of professional targeted for competence assessment. Then a representative expert committee was to return to the field to examine the range of jobs done by those target individuals. This expert committee collected lists of elements from the tasks done in these target positions and then organized the elements into mutually exclusive groupings. Finally a stratified random sample of field practitioners was asked to rate the importance of these elements for competent job performance.

  15. Antimicrobial use on Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, V; McClure, J T; Léger, D; Dufour, S; Sheldon, A G; Scholl, D T; Barkema, H W

    2012-03-01

    Antimicrobial use (AMU) data are critical for formulating policies for containing antimicrobial resistance. The present study determined AMU on Canadian dairy farms and characterized variation in AMU based on herd-level factors such as milk production, somatic cell count, herd size, geographic region and housing type. Drug use data were collected on 89 dairy herds in 4 regions of Canada, Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and the Maritime provinces (Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia) for an average of 540 d per herd. Dairy producers and farm personnel were asked to deposit empty drug containers into specially provided receptacles. Antimicrobial use was measured as antimicrobial drug use rate (ADUR), with the unit being number of animal defined-daily doses (ADD)/1,000 cow-days. Antimicrobial drug use rates were determined at farm, region, and national level. Combined ADUR of all antimicrobial classes was 14.35 ADD/1,000 cow-days nationally. National level ADUR of the 6 most commonly used antimicrobial drug classes, cephalosporins, penicillins, penicillin combinations, tetracyclines, trimethoprim-sulfonamide combinations, and lincosamides were 3.05, 2.56, 2.20, 1.83, 0.87, and 0.84 ADD/1,000 cow-days, respectively. Dairy herds in Ontario were higher users of third-generation cephalosporins (ceftiofur) than in Québec. Alberta dairy herds were higher users of tetracyclines in comparison to Maritimes. Antimicrobial drug use rate was higher via systemic route as compared with intramammary and other routes of administration (topical, oral, and intrauterine). The ADUR of antimicrobials used intramammarily was higher for clinical mastitis treatment than dry cow therapy. For dry cow therapy, penicillin ADUR was greater than ADUR of first-generation cephalosporins. For clinical mastitis treatment, ADUR of intramammary penicillin combinations was greater than ADUR of cephapirin. Herd-level milk production was positively associated with overall ADUR, ADUR of

  16. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1992. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. , rapport annuel 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. CPPI conducts research to develop industry policy on a wide variety of environmental, health, safety and business issues. Key activities include: developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, establishing environmental policies, managing a national environmental protection network of over 100 centers across Canada; providing information on industry activities to the public; and developing working partnerships with government and public interest groups to address issues of common concern. An overview is provided of industry operations, economics and financial performance, and environmental protection and safety. Lists of CPPI publications, awards, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs.

  17. A survey of Canadian Alpine ski racing coaches regarding spinal protective devices for their athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainsby, Brynne; Law, Jeremy; Mackinnon, Amy

    2014-12-01

    Spinal protective devices are a recent addition to the protective equipment worn by competitive and recreational alpine skiers and snowboarders. Their rate of use is not documented at the time of publication. The objective of this study was to examine the current attitudes and recommendations of Canadian alpine ski racing coaches towards spinal protective devices. A convenience sample of alpine ski racing coaches across Canada were contacted in each provincial sport governing body in the ski racing community. A ten question online survey was attached to the initial email. Descriptive statistical analysis was utilized. A total of 29 Canadian alpine ski racing coaches completed the study survey. All participants were familiar with spinal protective devices and 51.7% of respondents reported that they do not actively enforce spinal protective device use with their ski racing athletes. 80% of respondents reported that their Canadian ski racing club did not have guidelines or policies regarding spinal protective device use. 86.2% of respondents were unaware if their provincial sport organization had a policy regarding their use. The majority of coaches reporting training athletes aged 10-15, which may help to explain why only half of those surveyed enforce the use of spinal protective devices. This group of athletes may not participate in speed events as frequently as older athletes, where the use of spinal protective devices is more common. The majority of Canadian Alpine ski coaches report a belief that spinal protective device use is important, however, far fewer enforce their use, or work in an environment with a policy requiring it. Further research is required to determine the differences in beliefs and practice.

  18. Sex and gender considerations in Canadian clinical practice guidelines: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Clow, Barbara; Haworth-Brockman, Margaret; Voss, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Background: The importance of sex and gender in the diagnosis and management of health conditions is well established, but the extent to which this evidence is integrated into clinical practice guidelines remains unknown. We aimed to determine the proportion of Canadian clinical practice guidelines that integrate evidence on sex and gender considerations. Methods: We searched the Canadian Medical Association's CPG Infobase, PubMed, all provincial/territorial websites and websites of professional organizations for English- and French-language Canadian clinical practice guidelines published between January 2013 and June 2015 on selected conditions identified as priorities by policy-makers and practitioners. Citations and text were searched electronically using keyword terms related to sex and gender. Three investigators independently analyzed and categorized the content of text-positive clinical practice guidelines based on clinical relevance for practitioners. Results: Of the 118 clinical practice guidelines that met the inclusion criteria, 79 (66.9%) were text-positive for sex and/or gender keywords; 8 (10%) of the 79 used the keywords only in relation to pregnancy. Of the remaining 71 guidelines, 25 (35%) contained sex-related diagnostic or management recommendations. An additional 5 (7%) contained recommendations for sex-specific laboratory reference values, 29 (41%) referred to differences in epidemiologic features or risk factors only, and 12 (17%) contained nonrelevant mentions of search keywords. Twenty-five (35%) of the text-positive guidelines used the terms "sex" and/or "gender" correctly. Interpretation: Recommendations related to sex and gender are inconsistently reported in Canadian clinical practice guidelines. Guidelines such as the Sex and Gender Equity in Research guidelines may help inform the meaningful inclusion of sex and gender evidence in the development of clinical practice guidelines. PMID:28401121

  19. The Canadian experience: why Canada decided against an upper limit for cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Bruce E

    2004-12-01

    Canada, like the United States, held a "consensus conference on cholesterol" in 1988. Although the final report of the consensus panel recommended that total dietary fat not exceed 30 percent and saturated fat not exceed 10 percent of total energy intake, it did not specify an upper limit for dietary cholesterol. Similarly, the 1990, Health Canada publication "Nutrition Recommendations: The Report of the Scientific Review Committee" specified upper limits for total and saturated fat in the diet but did not specify an upper limit for cholesterol. Canada's Guidelines for Healthy Eating, a companion publication from Health Canada, suggested that Canadians "choose low-fat dairy products, lean meats, and foods prepared with little or no fat" while enjoying "a variety of foods." Many factors contributed to this position but a primary element was the belief that total dietary fat and saturated fat were primary dietary determinants of serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, not dietary cholesterol. Hence, Canadian health authorities focused on reducing saturated fat and trans fats in the Canadian diet to help lower blood cholesterol levels rather than focusing on limiting dietary cholesterol. In an effort to allay consumer concern with the premise that blood cholesterol level is linked to dietary cholesterol, organizations such as the Canadian Egg Marketing Agency (CEMA) reminded health professionals, including registered dietitians, family physicians and nutrition educators, of the extensive data showing that there is little relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and cardiovascular mortality. In addition, it was pointed out that for most healthy individuals, endogenous synthesis of cholesterol by the liver adjusts to the level of dietary cholesterol intake. Educating health professionals about the relatively weak association between dietary cholesterol and the relatively strong association between serum cholesterol and saturated fat and

  20. An inventory of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies: research in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Marie-Pier; Boivin, Michel; Junker, Anne; Bocking, Alan; Kramer, Michael S; Atkinson, Stephanie A

    2012-10-29

    A web-based inventory was developed as a voluntary registry of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies, with the objective to foster collaboration and sharing of research tools among cohort study groups as a means to enrich research in maternal and child health across Canada. Information on existing birth cohort studies conducted in Canada exclusively or as part of broader international initiatives was accessed by searching the literature in PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Additional studies were identified by enquiring about the research activities of researchers at Canadian universities or working in affiliated hospitals or research centres or institutes. Of the fifty-eight birth cohort studies initially identified, forty-six were incorporated into the inventory if they were of a retrospective and/or prospective longitudinal design and with a minimum of two phases of data collection, with the first period having occurred before, during, or shortly after pregnancy and had an initial study sample size of a minimum of 200 participants.Information collected from each study was organized into four main categories: basic information, data source and period of collection, exposures, and outcome measures and was coded and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The information incorporated into the Excel spreadsheet was double checked, completed when necessary, and verified for completeness and accuracy by contacting the principal investigator or research coordinator. All data collected were then uploaded onto the website of the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Subsequently, the database was updated and developed as an online searchable inventory on the website of the Maternal, Infant, Child and Youth Research Network. This inventory is unique, as it represents detailed information assembled for the first time on a large number of Canadian birth cohort studies. Such information provides a valuable

  1. An inventory of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies: research in progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joly Marie-Pier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A web-based inventory was developed as a voluntary registry of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies, with the objective to foster collaboration and sharing of research tools among cohort study groups as a means to enrich research in maternal and child health across Canada. Description Information on existing birth cohort studies conducted in Canada exclusively or as part of broader international initiatives was accessed by searching the literature in PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Additional studies were identified by enquiring about the research activities of researchers at Canadian universities or working in affiliated hospitals or research centres or institutes. Of the fifty-eight birth cohort studies initially identified, forty-six were incorporated into the inventory if they were of a retrospective and/or prospective longitudinal design and with a minimum of two phases of data collection, with the first period having occurred before, during, or shortly after pregnancy and had an initial study sample size of a minimum of 200 participants. Information collected from each study was organized into four main categories: basic information, data source and period of collection, exposures, and outcome measures and was coded and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The information incorporated into the Excel spreadsheet was double checked, completed when necessary, and verified for completeness and accuracy by contacting the principal investigator or research coordinator. All data collected were then uploaded onto the website of the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Subsequently, the database was updated and developed as an online searchable inventory on the website of the Maternal, Infant, Child and Youth Research Network. Conclusions This inventory is unique, as it represents detailed information assembled for the first time on a large number of Canadian

  2. 78 FR 28267 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Change To Add Provisions to the By-Laws To Facilitate the Use of the Stock Loan/Hedge Program by Canadian... Commission to approve a proposed rule change of a self-regulatory organization if it finds that such proposed... facilitating the inclusion of Canadian Clearing Members in OCC's Stock Loan/Hedge Program, the rule change...

  3. Canadian Quality Circle pilot project in osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, George; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Thabane, Lehana; Gafni, Amiram; Hodsman, Anthony; Kvern, Brent; Johnstone, Dan; Plumley, Nathalie; Baldwin, Alanna; Doupe, M.; Katz, Alan; Salach, Lena; Adachi, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM ADDRESSED Family physicians are not adequately following the 2002 Osteoporosis Canada guidelines for providing optimal care to patients with osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM The Canadian Quality Circle (CQC) pilot project was developed to assess the feasibility of the CQC project design and to gather informationfor implementing a national study of quality circles (QCs). The national study would assess whether use ofQCs could improve family physicians’ adherence to the osteoporosis guidelines. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The pilot project enrolled 52 family physicians and involved 7 QCs. The project had 3 phases: training and baseline data collection, educational intervention and follow-up data collection, and sessions on implementing strategies for care. CONCLUSION Findings from the pilot study showed that the CQC project was well designed and well received. Use of QCs appeared to be feasible for transferring knowledge and giving physicians an opportunity to analyze work-related problems and develop solutions to them. PMID:17934033

  4. Norman Bethune, Canadian surgeon: his Chinese connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, G V

    1983-07-01

    Norman Bethune, a Canadian thoracic surgeon who dabbled in painting, poetry, criticism, teaching and invention, was a member of the Communist Party of Canada. He became involved in two civil wars on opposite sides of the world and amassed both criticism and respect from colleagues and national leaders. The author describes Bethune's time in China, during which he developed front line field hospitals for Mao Tse-tung and his guerrillas in their struggle against the Japanese during 1938 and 1939. His efforts in China on behalf of the wounded brought him into contact with the primitive military medicine of the country and the poverty of its people; it earned for him a local reputation as saviour and benefactor and gave him an honoured place in Chinese military history.

  5. The Canadian Penning Trap spectrometer at Argonne

    CERN Document Server

    Savard, G; Boudreau, C; Buchinger, F; Caggiano, J; Clark, J; Crawford, J E; Fukutani, H; Gulick, S; Hardy, J C; Heinz, A; Lee, J K P; Moore, R B; Sharma, K S; Schwartz, J; Seweryniak, D; Sprouse, G D; Vaz, J

    2001-01-01

    The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer is a device used for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived isotopes. It is located at the ATLAS superconducting heavy-ion linac facility where a novel injection system, the RF gas cooler, allows fast reaction products to be decelerated, thermalized and bunched for rapid and efficient injection into the CPT. The CPT spectrometer and its injection system will be described in detail and its unique capabilities with respect to its initial physics program, concentrating on isotopes around the N=Z line with particular emphasis on isotopes of interest to low-energy tests of the electroweak interaction and the rp-process, will be highlighted. (6 refs).

  6. Brewer spectrophotometer measurements in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, J. B.; Evans, W. F. J.

    1988-01-01

    In the winters of 1987 and 1988 measurements were conducted with the Brewer Spectrophotometer at Alert (82.5 N) and Resolute (74.5 N). The measurements were conducted as part of our Canadian Program to search for an Arctic Ozone Hole (CANOZE). Ozone measurements were conducted in the months of December, January and February using the moon as a light source. The total ozone measurements will be compared with ozonesonde profiles, from ECC sondes, flown once per week from Alert and Resolute. A modified Brewer Spectrophotometer was used in a special study to search for chlorine dioxide at Alert in March 1987. Ground based observations at Saskatoon in February and at Alert in March 1987 failed to detect any measureable chlorine dioxide. Interference from another absorbing gas, which we speculate may be nitrous acid, prevented the measurements at the low levels of chlorine dioxide detected in the Southern Hemisphere by Solomon et al.

  7. Battered woman syndrome defense in Canadian courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, C; Glancy, G

    1995-04-01

    As a result of a 1990 Supreme Court of Canada decision, battered woman syndrome defense is now accepted as a legitimate extension of self-defense in Canadian courts. This defense hinges on the expert testimony that a battered woman who is accused of murder or aggravated assault suffers from the psychological sequelae of abuse and that this psychological distress contributes to her apprehension of danger and ultimately her apprehension of death during a particular battering episode. The authors present a brief overview of the history of battered woman syndrome defense, the role of the expert in assessing the applicability of this defense in any particular situation, and the pitfalls of using battered woman syndrome defense.

  8. Canadian Activities in Space Debris Mitigation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikanpour, Darius; Jiang, Xin Xiang; Goroshin, Samuel; Haddad, Emile; Kruzelecky, Roman; Hoa, Suong; Merle, Philippe; Kleiman, Jacob; Gendron, Stephane; Higgins, Andrew; Jamroz, Wes

    The space environment, and in particular the Low Earth Orbit (LEO), is becoming increasingly populated with space debris which include fragments of dysfunctional spacecraft parts and materials traveling at speeds up to 15 km per second. These pose an escalating potential threat to LEO spacecraft, the international space station, and manned missions. This paper presents the Canadian activities to address the concerns over space debris in terms of debris mitigation measures and technologies; these include novel spacecraft demise technologies to safely decommission the spacecraft at the end of the mission, integrated self-healing material technologies for spacecraft structures to facilitate self-repair and help maintain the spacecraft structural and thermal performance, hypervelocity ground test capability to predict the impact of space debris on spacecraft performance, and ways of raising awareness within the space community through participation in targeted Science and Technology conferences and international forums.

  9. Contraceptive sterilization among Canadians, 1984-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Krishnan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to early 1970s, traditional methods were the principal means of controlling the number and spacing of births. Today, an estimated 57 per cent of the world’s married women use contraceptives and half use modern methods such as medical sterilizations. Recent statistics suggest that Canada has the highest sterilization rate in the Western world. This paper presents findings of research examining sterilization trends in Canada with respect to changing patterns in the use of modern contraceptives, using data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey (CFS and the 1995 General Social Survey (GSS. The main finding is that there is a decrease in the use of tubal ligation and an increase in the use of hysterectomy over the period 1984-1995. Less educated women are more likely to be in the forefront of modern methods of contraception.

  10. A Canadian Indian Health Status Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connop, P J

    1983-01-01

    Health care services for registered "band" Indians in Ontario are provided primarily by the Canadian Federal Government. Complex management methods preclude the direct involvement of Indian people in the decisions for their health resource allocation. Health indicators, need, and health status indexes are reviewed. The biostatistics of mortality and demography of the Indian and reference populations are aggregated with hospitalization/morbidity experience as the Chen G'1 Index, as an indicator of normative and comparative need. This is weighted by linear measurements of perceived need for preventive medicine programs, as ranked and scaled values of priorities, Zj. These were determined by community survey on 11 Indian reserves using a non-probabilistic psychometric method of "pair comparisons," based upon "Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement.," The calculation of the aggregate single unit Indian Health Status Index [Log.G'1].Zj and its potential application in a "zero-base" budget is described.

  11. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  12. Canadian consumer battery baseline study : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    This report provided information about the estimated number of consumer and household batteries sold, re-used, stored, recycled, and disposed each year in Canada. The report discussed the ways in which different batteries posed risks to human health and the environment, and legislative trends were also reviewed. Data used in the report were obtained from a literature review as well as through a series of interviews. The study showed that alkaline batteries are the most common primary batteries used by Canadians, followed by zinc carbon batteries. However, lithium primary batteries are gaining in popularity, and silver oxide and zinc air button cell batteries are also used in applications requiring a flat voltage and high energy. Secondary batteries used in laptop computers, and cell phones are often made of nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal-hydroxide, and lithium ion. Small sealed lead batteries are also commonly used in emergency lighting and alarm systems. Annual consumption statistics for all types of batteries were provided. Results of the study showed that the primary battery market is expected to decline. Total units of secondary batteries are expected to increase to 38.6 million units by 2010. The report also used a spreadsheet model to estimate the flow of consumer batteries through the Canadian waste management system. An estimated 347 million consumer batteries were discarded in 2004. By 2010, it is expected that an estimated 494 million units will be discarded by consumers. The study also considered issues related to lead, cadmium, mercury, and nickel disposal and the potential for groundwater contamination. It was concluded that neither Canada nor its provinces or territories have initiated legislative or producer responsibility programs targeting primary or secondary consumer batteries. 79 refs., 37 tabs., 1 fig.

  13. Persistent maritime traffic monitoring for the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmke, M.; Battistello, G.; Biermann, J.; Mohrdieck, C.; Pelot, R.; Koch, W.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents results of the Canadian-German research project PASSAGES (Protection and Advanced Surveillance System for the Arctic: Green, Efficient, Secure)1 on an advanced surveillance system for safety and security of maritime operations in Arctic areas. The motivation for a surveillance system of the Northwest Passage is the projected growth of maritime traffic along Arctic sea routes and the need for securing Canada's sovereignty by controlling its arctic waters as well as for protecting the safety of international shipping and the intactness of the arctic marine environment. To ensure border security and to detect and prevent illegal activities it is necessary to develop a system for surveillance and reconnaissance that brings together all related means, assets, organizations, processes and structures to build one homogeneous and integrated system. The harsh arctic conditions require a new surveillance concept that fuses heterogeneous sensor data, contextual information, and available pre-processed surveillance data and combines all components to efficiently extract and provide the maximum available amount of information. The fusion of all these heterogeneous data and information will provide improved and comprehensive situation awareness for risk assessment and decision support of different stakeholder groups as governmental authorities, commercial users and Northern communities.

  14. Asia's new power : opportunities for Canadian petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, A.B. [Nexant Inc., San Fransisco, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The structure and outlook of the Asian economy was discussed. In 2004, Japan had the largest share of the Asian gross domestic product (GDP) at 50.5 per cent followed by China at 15.7 per cent. Nexant forecasts that Asian growth will average 5 to 6 per cent inclusive of Japan's mature economy. The presentation included a graph comparing GDP on a purchasing power parity basis and exchange rate basis. It was noted that although China's strong growth is due in part to a stable currency fixed to the US$, there are some underlying concerns regarding efficiency improvements in state owned enterprises, non performing loans, and a lack of transparency in growth statistics and inflation. With consumers driving demand, China is the world's largest importer of petrochemicals and polymers, but the purchasing pattern is erratic. This presentation listed some of the major changes under the World Trade Organization (WTO) and illustrated the important role that trades play in importing polymers. It is expected that imported polymers and petrochemicals may be sold directly to end-users. A graph depicting delivered costs of monoethylene glycol (MEG), excluding tariffs, port charges and internal logistics, indicates that the Middle East is favoured. The implications for Canadian petrochemicals was discussed, given that China is Canada's prime MEG export market. tabs., figs.

  15. Vulnerability of Canadian aquatic ecosystems to nuclear accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Lars; Rowan, David J

    2017-11-29

    Several cesium and strontium bioaccumulation models are used widely in national and international guidance for ecological and human health risk assessments for radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) and radiostrontium ( 90 Sr), but have not been used to make predictions of radiological risk from nuclear accidents under variable environmental conditions on broad geographical scales. In this paper, we first present models for predicting the bioaccumulation of cesium and strontium by aquatic biota based on ambient concentrations of dissolved potassium and calcium, respectively, and then test these models using independent data from aquatic ecosystems at Canadian nuclear sites. Secondly, models yielding the best predictions across a wide range of input parameters were selected to estimate bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for cesium and strontium in aquatic ecosystems across Canada, using trophic level of organisms and dissolved potassium for cesium and calcium concentrations for strontium as predictor variables, and presented as contour maps of radiological risk. The models show that risk from bioaccumulation of cesium and strontium can vary by several orders of magnitude depending on site-specific environmental conditions and trophic ecology. Overall, our results suggest that single-parameter approaches taken by regulatory standards may either over- or under-predict radiological risk at many locations, and are thus not readily suitable to inform siting decisions for new nuclear developments.

  16. CanWEA Pan-Canadian wind integration study paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Martin [GL Garrad Hassan Canada Inc, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gardner, Paul [GL Garrad Hassan and Partners, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Price, Doug; Le, Don [GL Garrad Hassan America, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    GL Garrad Hassan has been contracted by CanWEA to undertake a scoping study for a future Pan-Canadian Wide-Scale Wind Integration Study. The scoping study provides the methodology and the rationale on which the actual wind integration study and request for proposals will be based on. Major system operators and owners of each Canadian Province along with experts involved in major US wind integration studies have been consulted and contributed to the decisional process. This paper provides a summary of the factors considered in the study and outline the actual methodology that was adopted for the future Pan-Canadian wind integration study. (orig.)

  17. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ian D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  18. Diversity management in the Canadian workplace: Towards an anti-racism approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2012-01-01

    Most diversity management programs in Canada maintain that enhancing workforce diversity is of tremendous significance for business organizations in today’s competitive global urban markets. Since well-meaning diversity management initiatives have been largely ineffective thus far in dealing...... with workplace discrimination and racism in the Canadian workplace, this paper underscores the need to decenter the focus of diversity management from a business imperative to an antidiscrimination and social justice imperative. Within this latter perspective, the paper examines the strengths and limitations...

  19. Origins of the Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver: A Personal Memoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome B Simon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver (CASL (Association Canadienne Pour L’Étude Du Foie is a thriving organization. Although it was established more than a quarter of a century ago and has been successful since the beginning, most members are unaware of how CASL came into being or of its humble origins as a precursor club in the 1970s. The present article reviews those early days. It is written as a memoir because of the author’s personal involvement and is based on detailed records, correspondence and handwritten notes from that era.

  20. Origins of the Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver: A personal memoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jerome B

    2012-09-01

    The Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver (CASL) (Association Canadienne Pour L'Étude Du Foie) is a thriving organization. Although it was established more than a quarter of a century ago and has been successful since the beginning, most members are unaware of how CASL came into being or of its humble origins as a precursor club in the 1970s. The present article reviews those early days. It is written as a memoir because of the author's personal involvement and is based on detailed records, correspondence and handwritten notes from that era.

  1. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 2 of 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-11-01

    To provide guidelines for health care providers on the use of contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy and on the promotion of healthy sexuality. Guidance for Canadian practitioners on overall effectiveness, mechanism of action, indications, contraindications, non-contraceptive benefits, side effects and risks, and initiation of cited contraceptive methods; family planning in the context of sexual health and general well-being; contraceptive counselling methods; and access to, and availability of, cited contraceptive methods in Canada. Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline and The Cochrane Database from January 1994 to January 2015 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., contraception, sexuality, sexual health) and key words (e.g., contraception, family planning, hormonal contraception, emergency contraception). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English from January 1994 to January 2015. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to June 2015. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of the evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Chapter 1: Contraception in Canada Summary Statements  1. Canadian women spend a significant portion of their lives at risk of an unintended pregnancy. (II-2)  2. Effective contraceptive methods are underutilized in Canada, particularly among vulnerable populations. (II-2)  3. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods, including contraceptive implants and intrauterine contraception (copper-releasing and levonorgestrel

  2. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 1 of 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-10-01

    To provide guidelines for health care providers on the use of contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy and on the promotion of healthy sexuality. Guidance for Canadian practitioners on overall effectiveness, mechanism of action, indications, contraindications, non-contraceptive benefits, side effects and risks, and initiation of cited contraceptive methods; family planning in the context of sexual health and general well-being; contraceptive counselling methods; and access to, and availability of, cited contraceptive methods in Canada. Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline and The Cochrane Database from January 1994 to January 2015 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., contraception, sexuality, sexual health) and key words (e.g., contraception, family planning, hormonal contraception, emergency contraception). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English from January 1994 to January 2015. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to June 2015. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of the evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Chapter 1: Contraception in Canada Summary Statements 1. Canadian women spend a significant portion of their lives at risk of an unintended pregnancy. (II-2) 2. Effective contraceptive methods are underutilized in Canada, particularly among vulnerable populations. (II-2) 3. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods, including contraceptive implants and intrauterine contraception (copper-releasing and levonorgestrel

  3. Safety Perceptions of Health Care Leaders in 2 Canadian Academic Acute Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David H; Nyce, James M; Van Den Kerkhof, Elizabeth G

    2017-06-01

    An estimated 7.4% of patients admitted to acute care facilities in Canada experience injury or death due to health care mishaps, and 38% of these events are deemed preventable. Commitment of executive leaders to a culture of safety is important for the reduction of risk to Canadian patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the safety climate from a leader's perspective in 2 Canadian acute care settings, with attention paid to high reliability organization (HRO) principles. The Patient Safety Culture in Healthcare Organizations questionnaire was administered to leaders in 2 acute care hospitals in Ontario between June and January 2009. The primary outcome measures were senior leadership support for safety and supervisory leadership support for safety. Misalignment between the safety climate and HRO principles was defined as greater than 10% of respondents reporting problematic or neutral leadership support for safety. Of the 142 respondents (67% response rate), both medical/nursing leaders and tertiary care clinical leaders were significantly more likely than board/administrative leaders to report problematic/neutral responses. Overall, executive leadership perceptions of the safety climate were not aligned with HRO principles. The significant differences in response between board/administrative leaders and those involved in frontline patient care suggest that a weak safety culture exists in these 2 health care organizations. The cultivation of a stronger organizational safety culture, in alignment with HRO principles, could lead to lower rates of preventable mishaps and support risk identification and mitigation in perioperative settings.

  4. Building Canadian Support for Global Health Research - Phase III ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008. Key activities will include mobilizing Canadian investment in global health research, building global health research capacity in Canada and LMICs, translating research into action, nurturing partnerships between researchers in Canada ...

  5. Canadian women opting for less effective birth control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lauren Vogel

    2017-01-01

    More Canadian women are relying on less effective methods of birth control and are using them less consistently than they did a decade ago, according to the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC...

  6. Endoscopy training in Canadian general surgery residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Nori L; Bazzerelli, Amy; Lim, Jenny; Wu Chao Ying, Valerie; Steigerwald, Sarah; Strickland, Matt

    2015-06-01

    Currently, general surgeons provide about 50% of endoscopy services across Canada and an even greater proportion outside large urban centres. It is essential that endoscopy remain a core component of general surgery practice and a core competency of general surgery residency training. The Canadian Association of General Surgeons Residents Committee supports the position that quality endoscopy training for all Canadian general surgery residents is in the best interest of the Canadian public. However, the means by which quality endoscopy training is achieved has not been defined at a national level. Endoscopy training in Canadian general surgery residency programs requires standardization across the country and improved measurement to ensure that competency and basic credentialing requirements are met.

  7. Interculturalism and Theatrefront: Shifting Meanings in Canadian Collective Creation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ratsoy, Ginny

    2013-01-01

    .... The intercultural work Ubuntu (The Cape Town Project) expressionistically performs the stories of two generations of a South African family and a Canadian family as their complex associations are revealed against the backdrop of a Toronto university...

  8. Technical Communication Programs at Canadian Post-secondary Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Roger; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a survey identifying the location, extent, and focus of technical writing programs at Canadian colleges and universities. Describes representative programs in some detail. Discusses the focus of these programs and the need for more programs. (SR)

  9. Latin American geo-political struggles in Canadian documentaries production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Reich Corseuil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2009n56p137 This paper analyzes two contemporary Canadian documentaries about Latin American history, specifically the ways in which the films provide an aesthetics of resistance to stereotypical and homogeneous representations of Latin American countries. Canadian documentaries on the history and the people of third world countries not only document Latin American countries but also criticize the conflicting relationships and forms of representation involved in the making of the documentary, revealing the documentary as a narrative form in its making of Latin American subjects and histories. Within this theoretical context, the study here proposed analyses two documentaries about Latin-American geopolitical conflicts. The World is Watching: Inside the News (1988, a British-Canadian production directed by Jim Munro and Peter Raymond, and a Place Called Chiapas, a Canadian production, directed by Nettie Wild (1998.

  10. Toxic effects of skin-lightening products in Canadian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Nisha; Shapero, Jonathan; Kundu, Roopal V; Shapero, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    The cultural practice of skin bleaching is highly prevalent in Africa. Most reported cases of toxic effects of skin-lightening products occur in this region. To describe cases of misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) cosmetic skin-lightening products occurring in Canadian immigrants. Two cases of Canadian immigrants with severe complications from OTC skin-bleaching agents were identified in a community-based dermatology practice in Toronto. The case histories were reviewed and analyzed. A 28-year-old African-Canadian woman developed extensive striae from long-term use of a topical cream containing clobetasol that she had purchased in a Caribbean health food store. A 55-year-old African-Canadian woman developed exogenous ochronosis from the use of a topical bleaching agent she had purchased in Ghana. Cosmetic skin lightening with unregulated topical products occurs in Canada. Dermatologists working in Canada need to be aware of this practice to provide appropriate directive care.

  11. 22 CFR 123.19 - Canadian and Mexican border shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.19 Canadian and Mexican border shipments. A shipment originating in Canada or Mexico which incidentally transits the United States en route to a delivery point in...

  12. Canadian Forces Experience with Turbofan HCF - Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kinart, Corey; Theriault, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) cracking of a Canadian Forces (CF) turbofan engine fuel tube resulted in a six year, multinational effort to identify the root cause and to ultimately develop and implement a solution...

  13. Household Income, Food Insecurity and Nutrition in Canadian Youth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sean Mark; Marie Lambert; Jennifer O'Loughlin; Katherine Gray-Donald

    2012-01-01

    .... The objective of this study was to examine the influence of income and the conjoint influence of low income and food insecurity on several dietary indicators in a representative sample of Canadian youth. Methods...

  14. Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Preparing the Canadian Foreign ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , strengthen the foreign policy community in the national capital region, and include younger professionals in ongoing work. This grant from IDRC will help the National Capital Branch of the Canadian International Council (CIC-NCB) create a ...

  15. AUCC-IDRC Partnership Grant 2013-2016: Canadian University ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will identify promising practices in Canadian universities' student mobility programs, which are designed to advance the institutions' internationalization strategies. Researchers will examine program partnerships between developing- and developed-countries, along with the success factors behind them.

  16. Relation between planimetric and volumetric measurements of permafrost coast erosion: a case study from Herschel Island, western Canadian Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Obu, Jaroslav; Lantuit, Hugues; Fritz, Michael; Pollard, Wayne H.; Sachs, Torsten; Günther, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Ice-rich permafrost coasts often undergo rapid erosion, which results in land loss and release of considerable amounts of sediment, organic carbon and nutrients, impacting the near-shore ecosystems. Because of the lack of volumetric erosion data, Arctic coastal erosion studies typically report on planimetric erosion. Our aim is to explore the relationship between planimetric and volumetric coastal erosion measurements and to update the coastal erosion rates on Herschel Island in the Canadian ...

  17. Mini Citizens' Assemblies on the Future of Canadian Federalism

    OpenAIRE

    Reuchamps, Min

    2008-01-01

    Canadian federalism and its future are undeniably a frequent and important topic of debate. Many people have their own opinions on the topic but they rarely have the opportunity to discuss it with fellow Canadians, experts and politicians in a setting conducive to learning and debate. With this in mind, three small citizens' assemblies on the future of federalism in Canada were held in the spring of 2008, two in Montreal and one in Kingston. For over four hours, participants had the opportuni...

  18. Association between Body Composition and Sport Injury in Canadian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ezzat, Allison M.; Schneeberg, Amy; Koehoorn, Mieke; Emery, Carolyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the association between overweight or obesity and sport injury in a population-based sample of Canadian adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were performed using the Canadian Community Health Survey (2009?2010), a nationally representative sample (n=12,407) of adolescents aged 12?19 years. Body composition was quantified using BMI, grouping participants into healthy weight, overweight, or obese. The outcome of interest was acute or repetitive strain injury sustai...

  19. Open Access and Canadian Libraries: Taking a Position

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Heather; Waller, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The co-convenors of the Canadian Library Association (CLA) Task Force on Open Access report on the work of the Task Force. CLA has adopted strong policies on open access to CLA's own publications, most of which have been implemented. CLA has contributed to consultations on open access. On May 21, 2008, CLA approved a Position Statement on Open Access for Canadian Libraries. The Position Statement reinforces access to information as one of librarianship's key values. Libraries are encoura...

  20. Sleeping with the Elephant: A Canadian Strategic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    the Canadian Forces Do Not Campaign,” in The Operational Art: Canadian Perspectives, Context and Concepts, ed. Allan English , Daniel Gosselin...armies. As he wrote in 1838: Nations with powerful imaginations are particularly liable to panics; and nothing short of strong institutions and skillful ...assumptions derived from common experiences and accepted narratives (both oral and written), that shape collective identity and relationships to

  1. Financial Situation and Performance of Canadian Farms 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Niekamp, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This publication is a resource book of statistics on farm income in Canada. Farm income is a complex issue because of the diversity of Canadian farms and agricultural production in Canada. This resource book focuses on both income and the opportunities and challenges facing Canadian producers to provide a better understanding of the financial conditions of farms and farm families in Canada. Charts, figures and tables with brief accompanying text are used to summarize information and to provid...

  2. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1995 Annual Meeting (Ontario, Canada, May 26-30, 1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothier, Yvonne M., Ed.

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at the 1995 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are organized into four sections: (1) plenary lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic sessions; and (4) ad hoc sessions. Papers include: (1) "The Role of Epistemology in the Analysis of Teaching/Learning…

  3. Doctors of osteopathic medicine (DO): a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Sevan; Bi, Andrew Yuzhong; Talwar, Shuchi; Yeh, Andrew; Teitelbaum, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Doctors of osteopathic medicine (DO) are one of the fastest growing segments of health care professionals in the United States. Although Canada has taken significant leaps in the acknowledgment of US trained DOs, there continues to be a lack of understanding of the profession by Canadian trained physicians. In this article, we provide a brief overview of osteopathic medical education and training in the United States. Current information of osteopathic training by American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM) and American Osteopathic Association (AOA) was presented. Data pertaining to Canadians enrolled in osteopathic colleges was compared with allopathic (MD) and international medical graduates (IMGs). Doctors of osteopathic medicine programs provide an additional pathway for students interested in pursuing a medical education. Canadian applications to osteopathic colleges are expected to grow due to successful post-graduate US residency matching, increased difficulty of matriculating at Canadian medical schools, and a greater awareness of the profession in Canada. Given the increasing enrollment of Canadian students in US osteopathic medical schools, we expect that Canadian DOs will play a significant role in shaping health care in both the US and Canada.

  4. Self-Perceived Eating Habits and Food Skills of Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Joyce J; Mudryj, Adriana N

    2016-01-01

    This study identified and described Canadians' self-perceived eating habits and food skills through the use of population-based data. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2013 Rapid Response on Food Skills was used to examine the eating quality and patterns of Canadians. Data were collected from all provinces in January and February 2013. Respondent variables (sex, age, Aboriginal/immigrant status) were examined to assess differentiations between socio-demographic groupings (family structure, marital status, education, and income). Logistic regression was used to determine whether demographic variables increased the likelihood of certain responses. Forty-six percent of Canadians believe they have excellent/very good eating habits, with 51% categorizing their habits as good or fair. Similarly, the majority report having good food skills. Sex and age were significantly associated with food skills, with women rating their cooking skill proficiency higher than men (72% vs 55%), and older Canadians reporting higher food skill knowledge than their younger counterparts. Results indicate that while portions of the Canadian population have adequate food skills, others are lacking, which may negatively impact their diet. Findings from this study have implications for education and health promotion programs focusing on foods skills, particularly among vulnerable target groups. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The representations of work-life balance in Canadian newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Katherine T; Davis, Jane A; Polatajko, Helene J

    2009-01-01

    Work-life balance has become a topic of increasing interest in the media as well as a concern among working Canadians. Since print media discourse can both reflect and shape societal values, cultural norms and ideals of workers in this country, it is important to understand this representation and its potential influence on the occupational engagement and life transitions of Canadian workers. Articles from four major Canadian newspapers published between 2003 and 2005 were used as data sources to examine the media construction of "work-life balance". Thematic analysis of 100 articles was performed using a modified affinity diagramming process. Representations within the Canadian print media conveyed both themes pertaining to the perceived experiences of imbalance and balance, as well as, a process of life balance. Obtaining balance was portrayed as an ongoing process during which an individual negotiates and sacrifices in an attempt to achieve his or her ideal level of balance. Environmental expectations and individual practices and perceptions were conveyed as reasons for the success or derailment of balance. The representations of work-life balance found in the Canadian print media were predominantly of professionals, focused on the demands of work and family, and did not appear to be a broad representation of the multiple realities that all Canadians face.

  6. Canadian plans for participation in GSETT 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. North

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC is making preparations for Canadian participation in GSETT 3 but will be unable to make a formal commitment until the necessary resources have been secured. As Canada is expected to provide at least four alpha stations, and a significant number of beta stations, the financial resources that will be needed are substantial, even though in many respccts the GSC is, with the recent modernization of the Yellowknife array and the ongoing installation of the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN, well positioned to make a significant contribution to GSETT 3. The CNSN currently (October 1993 consists of 17 broad band stations and will grow to 23 and 33 such stations by December 1993 and December 1994 respectively. Some 40 50 short period stations will complete the network. Data from all sites are continuously telemetered in real time to network acquisition centres in Ottawa and Sidney, British Columbia, archived to optical disk, and kept on line in a 72 h ring buffer. Most of the broadband sites could serve as either alpha or beta stations once the necessary software for continuous data transfer, or on request provision, of data from the selected sites has been completed. This software wili be configured so that changes in station selection are easy to implement, and this will provide considerable flexibility to the GSETT 3 planning and operations working groups in selecting the optimum network. Backup stations can be designated in the case of station failures, and the network centre in British Columbia will serve, at least for beta stations, as a backup NDC to that in Ottawa. Data from. the Yellowknife array are collected in Yellowknife and forwarded in ten minute files to Ottawa, where processing is completed and the results archived. This arrangement would not meet the deadlines for receipt of alpha station data at the IDC and new hardware and software will be needed to forward the data more immediately from

  7. Promoting equitable global health research: a policy analysis of the Canadian funding landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Katrina; Walters, Dylan; Campbell, Sandy; Hatfield, Jennifer

    2017-08-29

    Recognising radical shifts in the global health research (GHR) environment, participants in a 2013 deliberative dialogue called for careful consideration of equity-centred principles that should inform Canadian funding polices. This study examined the existing funding structures and policies of Canadian and international funders to inform the future design of a responsive GHR funding landscape. We used a three-pronged analytical framework to review the ideas, interests and institutions implicated in publically accessible documents relevant to GHR funding. These data included published literature and organisational documents (e.g. strategic plans, progress reports, granting policies) from Canadian and other comparator funders. We then used a deliberative approach to develop recommendations with the research team, advisors, industry informants and low- and middle-income country (LMIC) partners. In Canada, major GHR funders invest an estimated CA$90 M per annum; however, the post-2008 re-organization of funding structures and policies resulted in an uncoordinated and inefficient Canadian strategy. Australia, Denmark, the European Union, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America invest proportionately more in GHR than Canada. Each of these countries has a national strategic plan for global health, some of which have dedicated benchmarks for GHR funding and policy to allow funds to be held by partners outside of Canada. Key constraints to equitable GHR funding included (1) funding policies that restrict financial and cost burden aspects of partnering for GHR in LMICs; and (2) challenges associated with the development of effective governance mechanisms. There were, however, some Canadian innovations in funding research that demonstrated both unconventional and equitable approaches to supporting GHR in Canada and abroad. Among the most promising were found in the International Development Research Centre and the (no longer active) Global Health

  8. Word Segmentation in Monolingual Infants Acquiring Canadian English and Canadian French: Native Language, Cross-Dialect, and Cross-Language Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polka, Linda; Sundara, Megha

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we tested segmentation of word forms from natural speech materials by 8-month-old monolingual infants who are acquiring Canadian French or Canadian English. These two languages belong to different rhythm classes; Canadian French is syllable-timed and Canada English is stress-timed. Findings of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 show that…

  9. Proportion of preschool-aged children meeting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines and associations with adiposity: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Chaput

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years have been released in 2017. According to the guidelines, within a 24-h period, preschoolers should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity (of which at least 60 min is moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, engage in no more than 1 h of screen time, and obtain between 10 and 13 h of sleep. This study examined the proportions of preschool-aged (3 to 4 years Canadian children who met these new guidelines and different recommendations within the guidelines, and the associations with adiposity indicators. Methods Participants were 803 children (mean age: 3.5 years from cycles 2–4 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of Canadians. Physical activity was accelerometer-derived, and screen time and sleep duration were parent-reported. Participants were classified as meeting the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines if they met all three specific time recommendations for physical activity, screen time, and sleep. The adiposity indicators in this study were body mass index (BMI z-scores and BMI status (World Health Organization Growth Standards. Results A total of 12.7% of preschool-aged children met the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines, and 3.3% met none of the three recommendations. A high proportion of children met the sleep duration (83.9% and physical activity (61.8% recommendations, while 24.4% met the screen time recommendation. No associations were found between meeting individual or combined recommendations and adiposity. Conclusions Very few preschool-aged children in Canada (~13% met all three recommendations contained within the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines. None of the combinations of recommendations were associated with adiposity in this sample. Future work should focus on identifying innovative ways to reduce screen time in this population, and should examine the associations of

  10. Adaptation of the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) into French-Canadian and English-Canadian

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Coffin; Karine Duval; Simon Martel; John Granton; Marie-Claude Lefebvre; Meads, David M.; James Twiss; McKenna, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) is the first disease-specific instrument for assessing patient-reported symptoms, functioning and quality of life (QoL) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).OBJECTIVES: To create and validate French-Canadian (FC) and English-Canadian (EC) language versions of the CAMPHOR.METHODS: A translation panel (for the FC version) and lay panels (for both versions) were convened to adapt the questionnaires (dual-panel methodol...

  11. Prevalence and predictors of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding among Canadian women: a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldman Mark

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of the evidence supporting the importance of breastfeeding during the first year of life, data on breastfeeding practices remain limited in Canada. The study aimed to examine the prevalence and predictors of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding among Canadian women. Methods The analysis was based on the Maternity Experience Survey targeting women aged ≥ 15 years who had singleton live births between February 2006 - May 2006 in the Canadian provinces and November 2005 - February 2006 in the territories. The main outcome was exclusive breastfeeding based on the World Health Organization definition. Socioeconomic, demographic, maternal, pregnancy and delivery related variables were considered for a multivariate logistic regression using stepwise modeling. Bootstrapping was performed to account for the complex sampling design. Results The sample size in this study was 5,615 weighted to represent 66,810 Canadian women. While ever breastfeeding was 90.3%, the 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rate was 13.8%. Based on the regression model, having higher years of education, residing in the Northern territories and Western provinces, living with a partner, having had previous pregnancies, having lower pre-pregnancy body mass index and giving birth at older age were associated with increased likelihood of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding. Moreover, smoking during pregnancy, Caesarean birth, infant's admission to the intensive care unit and maternal employment status before 6 months of infant's age were negatively associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Mothers choosing to deliver at home were more likely to remain exclusively breastfeeding for 6 months (Odds Ratio: 5.29, 95% Confidence Interval: 2.95-9.46. Conclusions The 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rate is low in Canada. The study results constitute the basis for designing interventions that aim to bridge the gap between the current practices of breastfeeding and the World

  12. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.

  13. Food and eating environments: in Canadian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, H Frances; Laxer, Rachel E; Janssen, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This national study was conducted to examine healthy eating programs, healthy eating education, and the food retail environments of schools. A total of 436 Canadian schools were studied. Administrators completed a questionnaire designed to assess school healthy eating programs, healthy eating education, and food retail environment. The number of chain fast food restaurants, chain cafés/coffee shops, and convenience stores within 1 km of schools was measured using geographic information systems food retailer measures from DMTI Spatial Inc. and the Yellow Pages. During the preceding year, 67% of schools had initiated healthy eating lunch programs while 18% had junk food-free days. The majority of schools offered cooking classes (59%) and healthy eating media literacy education (67%), while a minority offered gardening activities (15%) and field trips to farmers' markets (27%) and grocery stores (36%). Fifty-three percent had a school cafeteria, and most had a school tuck shop (75%) and pop/juice vending machines (76%). Fifty percent had a chain fast food restaurant, 33% had a chain café/coffee shop, and 41% had a convenience store within 1 km. An important aspect of addressing childhood obesity will be improving the food environments of schools and their surrounding neighbourhoods, and providing healthy eating education for all students.

  14. The Olympus program: A Canadian opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, G. H.; Hayes, E. J.; Mamen, R.; Olsen, R. L.; Tsang, E. K.

    Canada was involved in the European Space Agency's Olympus satellite program since the beginning. Canadian industry was responsible for the design and manufacture of the large solar array system, intermediate frequency amplifiers, and microwave components as well as playing an important role in the assembly, integration, and test of the satellite and test models which were largely conducted at the Department of Communications' David Florida Laboratory (DFL). This paper describes the salient features of the satellite, special aspects of the testing at the DFL that were driven by the Olympus program, and Canada's part in the post-launch trials and demonstration program which provides Canada with an early opportunity to experiment in the next frequency band to be exploited commercially. The Olympus satellite is a multipurpose three axis stabilized bus capable of carrying a variety of payloads. It has a flexible solar array capable of generating 3.5 kW of power. The multielement payload of the first Olympus satellite includes the following: a two channel, high power television broadcast payload, a four channel 12/14 GHz payload for business services, a 20/30 GHz communications payload primarily aimed at video conferencing and communications systems, and 12/30/30 GHz beacon which will be used to gather propagation information. Testing at the DFL included thermal, vibration, and mass properties measurements and radio frequency testing.

  15. Canadian regulatory perspectives on genome engineered crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2017-01-02

    New breeding techniques in plant agriculture exploded upon the scene about two years ago, in 2014. While these innovative plant breeding techniques, soon to be led by CRISPR/Cas9, initially appear to hold tremendous promise for plant breeding, if not a revolution for the industry, the question of how the products of these technologies will be regulated is rapidly becoming a key aspect of the technology's future potential. Regulation of innovative technologies and products has always lagged that of the science, but in the past decade, regulatory systems in many jurisdictions have become gridlocked as they try to regulate genetically modified (GM) crops. This regulatory incapability to efficiently assess and approve innovative new agricultural products is particularly important for new plant breeding techniques as if these techniques are classified as genetically modified breeding techniques, then their acceptance and future will diminish considerably as they will be rejected by the European Union. Conversely, if the techniques are accepted as conventional plant breeding, then the future is blindingly bright. This article examines the international debate about the regulation of new plant breeding techniques and then assesses how the Canadian regulatory system has approached the regulation of these technologies through two more public product approvals, GM apples and GM potatoes, then discusses other crop variety approval and those in the regulatory pipeline.

  16. Canadian cardiac surgeons' perspectives on biomedical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Gretchen; Tucker, Joseph E L; Cimini, Massimo; Narine, Kishan; Fedak, Paul W M

    2012-01-01

    Barriers to successful innovation can be identified and potentially addressed by exploring the perspectives of key stakeholders in the innovation process. Cardiac surgeons in Canada were surveyed for personal perspectives on biomedical innovation. Quantitative data was obtained by questionnaire and qualitative data via interviews with selected survey participants. Surgeons were asked to self-identify into 1 of 3 categories: "innovator," "early adopter," or "late adopter," and data were compared between groups. Most surgeons viewed innovation favourably and this effect was consistent irrespective of perceived level of innovativeness. Key barriers to the innovation pathway were identified: (1) support from colleagues and institutions; (2) Canada's health system; (3) sufficient investment capital; and (4) the culture of innovation within the local environment. Knowledge of the innovation process was perceived differently based on self-reported innovativeness. The majority of surgeons did not perceive themselves as having the necessary knowledge and skills to effectively translate innovative ideas to clinical practice. In general, responses indicate support for implementation of leadership and training programs focusing on the innovation process in an effort to prepare surgeons and enhance their ability to successfully innovate and translate new therapies. The perspectives of cardiac surgeons provide an intriguing portal into the challenges and opportunities for healthcare innovation in Canada. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Specialization in services: a Canadian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Simmons

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern urban systems the economic growth of cities is largely driven by services. In many regions employment growth in primary and secondary activities is close to zero, or even negative. Growth depends on the ability to attract jobs in the services. This study explores the pattern of specialization in various service activities for 159 Canadian urban areas in 1996, as the basis for a series of maps for the Atlas of Canada. The hierarchical specialization is evaluated for each service sector by computing a regression model of ser-vice employment as a function of urban population and income per capita. The rapidly growing business and financial services are the most strongly oriented to larger cities. The horizontal specialization is measured as residuals from the regressions. Strong regional differences contrast the central place roles of agricultural communities with the more loca-lized markets of resource and manufacturing centres. Public sector decisions about the loca-tion of major health and education facilities complement the choices of the private sector.

  18. Medical cannabis – the Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol – the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts. PMID:27757048

  19. The interactions of Canadian ethics consultants with health care managers and governing boards during times of crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposy, Chris; Maddalena, Victor; Brunger, Fern; Pullman, Daryl; Singleton, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Health care organizations can be very complex, and are often the setting for crisis situations. In recent years, Canadian health care organizations have faced large-scale systemic medical errors, a nation-wide generic injectable drug shortage, iatrogenic infectious disease outbreaks, and myriad other crises. These situations often have an ethical component that ethics consultants may be able to address. Organizational leaders such as health care managers and governing boards have responsibilities to oversee and direct the response to crisis situations. This study investigates the nature and degree of involvement of Canadian ethics consultants in such situations. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews with Canadian ethics consultants to investigate the nature of their interactions with upper-level managers and governing board members in health care organizations, particularly in times of organizational crisis. We used a purposive sampling technique to identify and recruit ethics consultants throughout Canada. We found variability in the interactions between ethics consultants and upper-level managers and governing boards. Some ethics consultants we interviewed did not participate in managing organizational crisis situations. Most ethics consultants reported that they had assisted in the management of some crises and that their participation was usually initiated by managers. Some ethics consultants reported the ability to bring issues to the attention of upper-level managers and indirectly to their governing boards. The interactions between managers and ethics consultants were characterized by varying degrees of collegiality. Ethics consultants reported participating in or chairing working groups, participating in incident management teams, and developing decision-making frameworks. Canadian ethics consultants tend to believe that they have valuable skills to offer in the management of organizational crisis situations. Most of the ethics consultants

  20. Canadian pediatric gastroenterology workforce: Current status, concerns and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinville, Véronique; Drouin, Éric; Lévesque, Dominique; Espinosa, Victor M; Jacobson, Kevan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is concern that the Canadian pediatric gastroenterology workforce is inadequate to meet health care demands of the pediatric population. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Pediatric Committee performed a survey to determine characteristics and future plans of the Canadian pediatric gastroenterology workforce and trainees. METHODS: Estimates of total and pediatric populations were obtained from the 2001 Census of Population, Statistics Canada (with estimates to July 1, 2005). Data on Canadian pediatric gastroenterologists, including clinical full-time equivalents, sex, work interests, opinions on workforce adequacy, retirement plans, fellowship training programs and future employment plans of fellows, were gathered through e-mail surveys and telephone correspondence in 2005 and 2006. RESULTS: Canada had an estimated population of 32,270,507 in 2005 (6,967,853 people aged zero to 17 years). The pediatric gastroenterology workforce was estimated at 9.2 specialists per million children. Women accounted for 50% of the workforce. Physician to pediatric population ratios varied, with Alberta demonstrating the highest and Saskatchewan the lowest ratios (1:69,404 versus 1:240,950, respectively). Between 1998 and 2005, Canadian pediatric gastroenterology fellowship programs trained 65 fellows (65% international trainees). Twenty-two fellows (34%) entered the Canadian workforce. CONCLUSIONS: The survey highlights the variable and overall low numbers of pediatric gastroenterologists across Canada, an increasingly female workforce, a greater percentage of part-time physicians and a small cohort of Canadian trainees. In conjunction with high projected retirement rates, greater demands on the work-force and desires to partake in nonclinical activities, there is concern for an increasing shortage of pediatric gastroenterologists in Canada in future years. PMID:17948136

  1. Support Needs for Canadian Health Providers Responding to Disaster: New Insights from a Grounded Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Christine; O'Sullivan, Tracey L; Lane, Dan

    2015-07-01

    An earlier descriptive study exploring the various supports available to Canadian health and social service providers who deployed to the 2010 earthquake disaster in Haiti, indicated that when systems are compromised, professionals are at physical, emotional and mental risk during overseas deployment. While these risks are generally well-identified, there is little literature that explores the effectiveness of the supports in place to mitigate this risk. This study provides evidence to inform policy development regarding future disaster relief, and the effectiveness of supports available to responders assisting with international disaster response. This study follows Strauss and Corbin's 1990 structured approach to grounded theory to develop a framework for effective disaster support systems. N=21 interviews with Canadian health and social service providers, who deployed to Haiti in response to the 2010 earthquake, were conducted and analyzed. Resulting data were transcribed, coded and analysed for emergent themes. Three themes were identified in the data and were used to develop the evolving theory. The interview data indicate that the experiences of responders are determined based on an interaction between the individual's 'lens' or personal expectations, as well as the supports that an organization is able to provide. Therefore, organizations should consider the following factors: experience, expectations, and supports, to tailor a successful support initiative that caters to the needs of the volunteer workforce.

  2. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Strang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity. The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO, and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the

  3. Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Kevin; Addison, Graeme E.; Amiri, Mandana; Bond, J. Richard; Campbell-Wilson, Duncan; Connor, Liam; Cliche, Jean-François; Davis, Greg; Deng, Meiling; Denman, Nolan; Dobbs, Matt; Fandino, Mateus; Gibbs, Kenneth; Gilbert, Adam; Halpern, Mark; Hanna, David; Hincks, Adam D.; Hinshaw, Gary; Höfer, Carolin; Klages, Peter; Landecker, Tom L.; Masui, Kiyoshi; Mena Parra, Juan; Newburgh, Laura B.; Pen, Ue-li; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Recnik, Andre; Shaw, J. Richard; Sigurdson, Kris; Sitwell, Mike; Smecher, Graeme; Smegal, Rick; Vanderlinde, Keith; Wiebe, Don

    2014-07-01

    A pathfinder version of CHIME (the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment) is currently being commissioned at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) in Penticton, BC. The instrument is a hybrid cylindrical interferometer designed to measure the large scale neutral hydrogen power spectrum across the redshift range 0.8 to 2.5. The power spectrum will be used to measure the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale across this poorly probed redshift range where dark energy becomes a significant contributor to the evolution of the Universe. The instrument revives the cylinder design in radio astronomy with a wide field survey as a primary goal. Modern low-noise amplifiers and digital processing remove the necessity for the analog beam forming that characterized previous designs. The Pathfinder consists of two cylinders 37m long by 20m wide oriented north-south for a total collecting area of 1,500 square meters. The cylinders are stationary with no moving parts, and form a transit instrument with an instantaneous field of view of ~100 degrees by 1-2 degrees. Each CHIME Pathfinder cylinder has a feedline with 64 dual polarization feeds placed every ~30 cm which Nyquist sample the north-south sky over much of the frequency band. The signals from each dual-polarization feed are independently amplified, filtered to 400-800 MHz, and directly sampled at 800 MSps using 8 bits. The correlator is an FX design, where the Fourier transform channelization is performed in FPGAs, which are interfaced to a set of GPUs that compute the correlation matrix. The CHIME Pathfinder is a 1/10th scale prototype version of CHIME and is designed to detect the BAO feature and constrain the distance-redshift relation. The lessons learned from its implementation will be used to inform and improve the final CHIME design.

  4. Combining communication technology utilization and organizational innovation: evidence from Canadian healthcare decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jbilou, Jalila; Landry, Réjean; Amara, Nabil; El Adlouni, Salaheddine

    2009-08-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Organizational Innovation (OI) are seen as the miracle of post-modernity in organizations. In this way, they are supposed to resolve most organizational problems, efficiently and rapidly. OI is highly dependent on the capacity and the investment in knowledge management (internal and external) to support decision making process and to implement significant changes. We know what explains ICT utilization (ICTU) and what determines OI development (OID) in healthcare services. Moreover, the literature tends to link ICTU to OID and vice versa. However, this dependency has never been explored empirically through the lens of roles combination. To identify the existing combined roles profiles of ICTU and OID among healthcare decision makers and determine factors of the shift from a profile to another. We did the following: (1) a structured review of the literature on healthcare management by focusing on ICTU and OID which allowed us to build two indexes and a comprehensive framework; (2) a copula methodology to identify with high precision the thresholds for ICTU and OID; and (3) a cross-sectional study based on a survey done with a sample of 942 decision makers from Canadian healthcare organizations through a multinomial logit model to identify determinants of the shift. ICTU and OID are correlated at 22% (Kendal's Tau). The joint distribution (combination) of ICTU and OID shows that four major profiles exist among decision makers in Canadian healthcare organizations: the traditional decision maker, the innovative decision maker, the technologic decision maker and the contemporary decision maker. We found out that classic factors act as barriers to the shift from one profile to the desired profile (from 1 to 4, from 2 to 4 and from 3 to 4). We have identified that the attitude toward research and relational capital are transversal barriers of shift. We have also found that some factors have a specific impact such as

  5. Mining Legal and Business Resources on Canadian Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Johal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the distinct nature of the Canadian banking system, it is important for novice researchers to know which business and legal resources to consult in order to quickly find information that is particular to Canadian banking. However, there are very few articles or monographs in the library literature that describe how to find information sources exclusively on this subject from a Canadian perspective. Most available publications tend to specialize in sources for the US banking and Federal Reserve System with little attention to Canada. The paper begins with a brief introduction to Canadian banking. From there, the authors demonstrate where researchers can find primary sources such as legislation, regulations and case law. In addition, this article identifies and discusses the different types of information found on the websites of associations and government agencies such as the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, which supervises and regulates various areas of Canada’s financial system. Also discussed are secondary sources such as industry research and reports that are available from reliable websites and subscription-based resources. This paper also explores the best business and legal databases for researchers. Based on results from searching in periodical directories and indexes, the paper additionally provides a description of the most pertinent academic, trade and general publications relevant to the Canadian banking system and where their contents are indexed.

  6. The Canadian space program and planning for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Graham

    Canada is in the process of developing a Long Term Space Plan that will guide its space endeavors through the first decade of the twenty first century. Later in 1992 the Canadian Space Agency will present its recommendations to the Prime Minister and his Cabinet. The Long Term Space Plan is being developed through a combination of Working Groups with experts from the Canadian government, the largest of Canada's aerospace companies and principal scientists, and cross-Canada consultations with aerospace professionals. The process has reached a broad spectrum of the Canadian professional space community, and many practical proposals have been presented. The Long Term Space Plan development process has been the most extensive in Canadian history, and very successful. It is anticipated that the resulting plan will have wide support. Predictably, Canada's future endeavors in space will build upon our strengths and proven national needs. These include space robotics, communications, remote sensing, earth observation, space science and our astronaut program. International cooperation will continue to be a hallmark of the Canadian Civil Space Program. We may develop facilities and vehicles to allow our space scientists to put small payloads in a microgravity environment. We will continue to enthusiastically participate in the International Space Station Freedom program. However, in the future we will strive to achieve a more equitable fiscal balance between small, medium and large science, technology and application programs.

  7. The educational needs and professional roles of Canadian physicians and nurses regarding genetic testing and adult onset hereditary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Blaine, Sean; Carroll, June C; Esplen, Mary Jane; Evans, Jane; Nicolson Klimek, Mary Lou; Meschino, Wendy; Ritvo, Paul

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the knowledge, professional involvement and confidence of Canadian nurses and physicians in providing genetic services for adult onset hereditary disease. 1,425 physicians and 1,425 nurses received a mailed questionnaire with reminders. The response rates were 50% (n = 543) and 79% (n = 975), respectively. Forty-eight percent of physicians and 31% of nurses lacked formal education in genetics. Respondents reported being involved in caring for people at risk for adult onset hereditary disease. Their levels of confidence that they could perform tasks, such as counselling about predictive genetic tests, however, were lower than their levels of expectation that it would be important for them to provide these services. The expected roles and educational needs of Canadian nurses and physicians have broad areas of overlap suggesting the possibility of combined professional education programs and multiple ways of organizing teams to provide genetic services to people at risk for adult onset hereditary disease. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Canadian support for population stabilization. The Rome draft Plan of Action. Dr. Jean Augustine, MP (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Canada strongly believes in the central role to be played by the civil sector in the process leading to the World Food Summit. Dr. Augustine, Member of Parliament of Canada, described how the Canadian Government involved 350 national organizations over an eight-month period in the creation of the country's official position on food security. Canada has also negotiated with several other countries and international organizations on issues such as trade, human rights, the right to food, and follow-up to the Plan of Action. Dr. Augustine summarized Canada's 18 priorities for the World Food Summit. The priorities include human rights and good governance; poverty reduction; peace, security and conflict resolution; national responsibility for food security; national and global partnerships; nutrition and health; human resource development; gender equity; population stabilization; trade liberalization; agricultural adjustment to international markets; post-harvest marketing and food marketing; the role of the private sector; capacity building; environment and sustainable production; and research and technology transfer.

  9. Exploration of Withdrawal of Life-Sustaining Therapy in Canadian Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beinum, Amanda; Hornby, Laura; Ramsay, Tim; Ward, Roxanne; Shemie, Sam D; Dhanani, Sonny

    2016-05-01

    The process of controlled donation after circulatory death (cDCD) is strongly connected with the process of withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy. In addition to impacting cDCD success, actions comprising withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy have implications for quality of palliative care. We examined pilot study data from Canadian intensive care units to explore current practices of life-sustaining therapy withdrawal in nondonor patients and described variability in standard practice. Secondary analysis of observational data collected for Determination of Death Practices in Intensive Care pilot study. Four Canadian adult intensive care units. Patients ≥18 years in whom a decision to withdraw life-sustaining therapy was made and substitute decision makers consented to study participation. Organ donors were excluded. None. Prospective observational data on interventions withdrawn, drugs administered, and timing of life-sustaining therapy withdrawal was available for 36 patients who participated in the pilot study. Of the patients, 42% died in ≤1 hour; median length of time to death varied between intensive care units (39-390 minutes). Withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy processes appeared to follow a general pattern of vasoactive drug withdrawal followed by withdrawal of mechanical ventilation and extubation in most sites but specific steps varied. Approaches to extubation and weaning of vasoactive drugs were not consistent. Protocols detailing the process of life-sustaining therapy withdrawal were available for 3 of 4 sites and also exhibited differences across sites. Standard practice of life-sustaining therapy withdrawal appears to differ between selected Canadian sites. Variability in withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy may have a potential impact both on rates of cDCD success and quality of palliative care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Regional-Scale Variability of Macrofauna Species Assemblages and Environmental Drivers in the Canadian Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, A.; MacPhee, S.; de Montety, L.; Reist, J.; Archambault, P.

    2016-02-01

    Appropriate marine spatial planning is needed to address pressures associated with climate change, resource exploration and increased shipping in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Information regarding the spatial variability of species assemblages and the factors that structure them are required, for example, in designing networks of marine protected areas and establishing reference conditions for assessing anthropogenic activities anticipated to have regional-scale effects. Benthic macrofauna have been widely applied as ecological indicators in many marine regions because they are relatively sessile, long-lived, and respond to environmental gradients in a predictable manner. Recently, significant progress has been made toward reporting Arctic macrofaunal biodiversity baselines across large spatial scales (i.e. pan-Arctic, Canadian Arctic) and at local-scales within the Beaufort Sea around specific geographic features (e.g., Beaufort Shelf, polynyas and areas of upwelling, lease blocks). Systematic, regional-scale surveys, however, remain a gap. Benthic ecosystem components were sampled across a broad depth range (20 - 1500m) from the transboundary region of the Yukon-Alaska border into Amundsen Gulf, and multivariate analyses of these novel survey data characterize spatial variability in macrobenthic community structure. Relationships between species assemblages and environmental drivers including depth, bottom type (e.g., granulometry), water mass characteristics (e.g., temperature, salinity) and benthic food proxies (e.g., %organic matter, benthic chlorophyll concentration) were examined. This regional-scale approach based on a systematic, transect-based survey design covers a significant portion of the Canadian Beaufort Sea and expands existing biodiversity baselines to deeper sites beyond the continental shelf break. This work has direct application to developing predictive models, habitat maps and biotic indicators for monitoring.

  11. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Education Committee Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J Bridges

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available I am pleased to provide an update regarding the activities and future directions of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG Education Committee. The mandate of the CAG Education Committee is to facilitate, develop and promote excellence as it pertains to educational initiatives for the Canadian gastroenterology community. Professional education has long remained a priority of the CAG - a fact well recognized by the membership. The 2002 CAG Strategic Planning Survey showed that members rate Canadian Digestive Diseases Week (CDDW as the most important CAG service, on par with Digestive Diseases Week regarding its usefulness (1. CDDW 2004 offered delegates a variety of basic science and clinical symposia, the popular and well received 'Breakfast with the Expert' sessions and a comprehensive Postgraduate Course reviewing key developments in gastroenterology, nutrition and hepatology.

  12. Reference Values of Pulmonary Function Tests for Canadian Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gutierrez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A multicentre, cross-sectional study was carried out in six centres across Canada to establish a national standard for pulmonary function tests using healthy, lifetime nonsmokers, with each centre aiming to test 10 men and 10 women from each decade from 20 to 80 years of age. Data from each centre were used to derive prediction equations for each centre, and pooled data from all centres (total: 327 women and 300 men were used to derive Canadian predicted equations. The predictive models were compared with three widely used published models for selected tests. It was found that, in general, the equations modelled for each centre could be replaced by the models obtained when pooling all data (Canadian model. Comparisons with the published references showed good agreement and similar slopes for most tests. The results suggest that pulmonary function test results obtained from different centres in Canada were comparable and that standards currently used remain valid for Canadian Caucasians.

  13. Organic farming in the Peruvian Andes | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project, supported by IDRC and GAC through the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), aims to increase the effectiveness of organic ... Establishment of a community- and local governmentoperated monitoring system on conservation practices; Implementation of sustainable organic farming ...

  14. Performance and capabilities of the Canadian Dragon: The SGM beamline at the Canadian Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regier, T. [Canadian Light Source, Inc. (CLSI), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)], E-mail: tom.regier@lightsource.ca; Krochak, J. [Canadian Light Source, Inc. (CLSI), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Sham, T.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Hu, Y.F. [Canadian Light Source, Inc. (CLSI), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Thompson, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Blyth, R.I.R. [Canadian Light Source, Inc.(CLSI), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2007-11-11

    The Canadian Dragon is a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) beamline for the photon energy range between 250 and 2000 eV. The high flux from the source, a 45 mm planar undulator, allows for excellent performance in the difficult 1-2 keV range. Resolving powers comparable to those of the leading spectroscopy beamlines are routinely available. The beamline design employs toroidal refocusing optics to allow for two in-line endstation areas. The upstream experimental area hosts a dedicated UHV endstation with a Scienta SES-100 photoelectron energy analyzer. The downstream experimental area is primarily used for solid sample X-ray absorption studies, but can be fitted with a number of different endstations. A 1 metre long differential pumping section between the beamline optics and the second endstation area permits the analysis of non-UHV compatible samples, making the beamline suitable for many environmental or biological experiments.

  15. Defining Canadian Perspectives on Climate Change Science and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, C.; Byrne, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the overwhelming scientific evidence of potentially disastrous change in global climate, little is being accomplished in climate mitigation or adaptation in Canada. The energy sector in Canada is still primarily oil and gas, with huge tax breaks to the industry in spite of well known harmful regional and global impacts of fossil fuel pollution. One of the largest concerns for the climate science community is the variable and often complacent attitude many Canadians share on the issue of climate change. The objective herein is twofold: (1) a survey tool will be used to assess the views and opinions of Canadians on climate change science and solutions; (2) develop better communication methods for industry, government and NGOs to share the science and solutions with the public. The study results will inform the Canadian public, policy makers and industry of practical, effective changes needed to address climate change challenges. A survey of Canadians' perspectives is an important step in policy changing research. The climate research and application community must know the most effective ways to communicate the science and solutions with a public that is often resistant to change. The AGU presentation will feature the results of the survey, while continued work into 2015 will be towards advancing communication. This study is both timely and crucial for science communicators in understanding how Canadians view climate change, considering, for example, devastatingly extreme weather being experienced of late and its effect on the economy. The results will assist in recognizing how to encourage Canadians to work towards a more sustainable and resilient energy sector in Canada and abroad.

  16. Contraceptive sterilization among Canadians, 1984-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan, Vijaya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishPrior to early 1970s, traditional methods were the principal means ofcontrolling the number and spacing of births. Today, an estimated 57 per cent of the world's marriedwomen use contraceptives and half use modern methods such as medical sterilizations. Recent statisticssuggest that Canada has the highest sterilization rate in the Western world. This paper presentsfindings of research examining sterilization trends in Canada with respect to changing patterns in theuse of modern contraceptives, using data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey (CFS and the 1995General Social Survey (GSS. The main finding is that there is a decrease in the use of tubal ligationand an increase in the use of hysterectomy over the period 1984-1995. Less educated women are morelikely to be in the forefront of modern methdos of contraception.FrenchAvant les années 1970, les méthodes traditionnelles représentaient le principalmoyen de contrôler et d’espacer le nombre de naissances. De nos jours, onestime que 57 pour cent des femmes mariées dans le monde entier utilisent unmoyen contraceptif et la moitié utilise des méthodes modernes telles que lastérilisation. Les dernières statistiques indiquent que le Canada compte le tauxde stérilisations le plus élevé dans le monde occidental. Cet article présente lesconclusions de recherches portant sur les tendances en matière de stérilisation auCanada en ce qui concerne les modèles changeants d’utilisation de moyens decontraception modernes et ce, à partir de données de l’Enquête canadienne sur lafécondité de 1984 et de l’Enquête sociale générale (ESG de 1995. La principaleconclusion qui en est ressortie est une réduction de la ligature des trompes etune augmentation du nombre d’hystérectomies de 1984 à 1995. Les femmesmoins éduquées sont plus portées à se trouver au premier plan des méthodes decontraception modernes.

  17. A Canadian answer to LNG safety fears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    2004-04-05

    Safety-inspired opposition to the construction of liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants, or the mooring of ships used to transport liquefied natural gas in close proximity to land, has focused attention on the ideas of a Cambridge-educated Canadian mathematician and economist, James Cran and his associates, who came up with the idea of transporting natural gas compressed (CNG) in coiled pipes fitted into canisters or 'coselles'. A CNG-ship carries about 600 million cubic feet of gas which has been compressed 325-fold, while an LNG ship carries about three billion cubic feet condensed 600-fold. LNG is shipped at a temperature of -165 degree C in very large tanks, while CNG is shipped at a temperature of about five degree C in coils fitted inside a carousel. If an LNG ship were rammed and its containers punctured, its liquid contents would coat the vessel and constitute a dangerous fire hazard. In a similar incident, CNG, being still in a gaseous state, would dissipate into the atmosphere. An added advantage is that unlike LNG ships which cannot unload into a transmission pipeline and require a land-based storage tank, CNG shipping can provide continuous service: once empty, the ship can trade places with the next one for uninterrupted delivery to the shore-linked pipeline. CNG loading facilities also costs about one-twentieth of the cost of building an LNG terminal, and they are less complex to build since they do not require sophisticated infrastructure. It is an irony of fate that future CNG ships may be built in Russian shipyards formerly engaged in building nuclear submarines for the Soviet Union. To enable the Russians to recommission their ship-building industry which fell into disuse and disrepair after the break-up of the Soviet Union, Russia is getting help from the United States Industry Coalition, a non-profit association of American companies and universities, as well as from the US government which is quietly helping the Russians revive their

  18. Speciation of iodine (I-127) in the natural environment around Canadian CANDU sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, S.J.; Kotzer, T.G.; Chant, L.A

    2001-06-01

    In Canada, very little data is available regarding the concentrations and chemical speciation of iodine in the environment proximal and distal to CANDU Nuclear Power Generating Stations (NPGS). In the immediate vicinity of CANDU reactors, the short-lived iodine isotope {sup 131}I (t{sub 1/2} = 8.04 d), which is produced from fission reactions, is generally below detection and yields little information about the environmental cycling of iodine. Conversely, the fission product {sup 129}I has a long half-life (t{sub 1/2} = 1.57x10{sup 7} y) and has had other anthropogenic inputs (weapons testing, nuclear fuel reprocessing) other than CANDU over the past 50 years. As a result, the concentrations of stable iodine ({sup 127}I) have been used as a proxy. In this study, a sampling system was developed and tested at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) to collect and measure the particulate and gaseous inorganic and organic fractions of stable iodine ({sup 127}I) in air and associated organic and inorganic reservoirs. Air, vegetation and soil samples were collected at CRL, and at Canadian CANDU Nuclear Power Generating Stations (NPGS) at OPG's (Ontario Power Generation) Pickering (PNGS) and Darlington NPGS (DNGS) in Ontario, as well as at NB Power's Pt. Lepreau NPGS in New Brunswick. The concentrations of particulate and inorganic iodine in air at CRL were extremely low, and were often found to be below detection. The concentrations are believed to be at this level because the sediments in the CRL area are glacial fluvial and devoid of marine ionic species, and the local atmospheric conditions at the sampling site are very humid. Concentrations of a gaseous organic species were comparable to worldwide levels. The concentrations of particulate and inorganic iodine in air were also found to be low at PNGS and DNGS, which may be attributed to reservoir effects of the large freshwater lakes in southern Ontario, which might serve to dilute the atmospheric iodine

  19. Has Multiculturalism Really Failed? A Canadian Muslim Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljit Nagra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, claims that multiculturalism has created segregated communities, encouraged terrorism, and failed to foster shared national identities in western nations have gained popularity. In this paper, we use young Canadian Muslims’ lived experience of multiculturalism to reflect on this debate. Contrary to popular rhetoric, our interviews of 50 young Muslim adults show that many maintain a dual Canadian-Muslim identity by utilizing the ideology of multiculturalism, even though they are increasingly stigmatized for their religion. These findings lead us to problematize the discourse surrounding the ‘failure’ of multiculturalism and to highlight the contradictions within it.

  20. Social Problems in Canadian Ice Hockey: An Exploration Through Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogel Curtis A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While celebrated as a highly popular sport in Canada, there are many social problems existing within and around Canadian ice hockey. These problems are often overlooked and rarely depicted in academic and journalistic research on sport. These social problems include, but are not limited to: extreme violence resulting in injuries and death, hazing rituals, multiple types of sexual violence, drug abuse, financial corruption, as well as various forms of prejudice and discrimination. Prompted by pop-cultural depictions in films, this paper further identifies and explores social problems in Canadian ice hockey revealing the realism embedded within various seemingly fictional films.

  1. A redefinition and model of Canadian Islamic spiritual care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgandarova, Nazila; O'Connor, Thomas St James

    2012-06-01

    The criteria for a new definition and model of what constitutes one approach to Canadian Islamic spiritual care is provided. The authors believe that to be an effective profession, Islamic spiritual care givers need to use both the Qur'an and Sunnah and adequate holistic concept from the social sciences. This involves coherent scientific knowledge based on evidence and serving diverse Muslim populations that also could include a multi-faith approach. The model based on a Canadian context is person centered, sensitive to theological and cultural environment, open to female Muslim spiritual caregivers with a concern for Muslim youth at risk.

  2. Annual review 1994 (Canadian Petroleum Products Institute, Ottawa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The CPPI was created as a non-profit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The Institute represents a membership of Canadian companies involved in refining, transporting and marketing of petroleum products. These companies supply domestic and industrial consumers with products ranging from gasoline and diesel fuel to asphalt. The Institute conducts research to develop industry policy on environmental, health, safety and business issues. This report covers industry operations, industry economics and financial performance, environmental protection and safety, awards, and publications.

  3. Multibillion dollar upgrading costs lie ahead for Canadian refiners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-13

    This paper reports that Canadian refiners face multibillion dollar upgrading costs in this decade to meet new air quality standards. Industry-wide cost estimates have been developed by the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) and Imperial Oil Ltd., a unit of Exxon Corp., which has about 28% of Canada's 1.825 million b/d refining capacity. They are tentative because refiners still don't know what specific standards federal and provincial governments will impose in 1994.

  4. Advancing intercultural competency: Canadian engineering employers' experiences with immigrant engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Marcia; Ingram, Sandra

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores Canadian engineering employers' perceptions of and experiences with internationally educated engineers (recent immigrants to Canada) employed in their organisations for varying lengths of time. Qualitative data were collected from employers using focus group methodology. Findings reflected employers' observations of culturally different behaviours and characteristics in their internationally educated employees, employers' reactions to cultural differences ranging from negative attributions to tolerance, and the implementation of largely ad hoc intra-organisational strategies for managing cultural differences in employer-employee relationships. Findings exposed the lack of corporate intercultural competency in the Canadian engineering profession. Equity and gatekeeping implications are discussed.

  5. Assessing Canadian Bank Branch Operating Efficiency Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zijiang

    2009-10-01

    In today's economy and society, performance analyses in the services industries attract more and more attention. This paper presents an evaluation of 240 branches of one big Canadian bank in Greater Toronto Area using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Special emphasis was placed on how to present the DEA results to management so as to provide more guidance to them on what to manage and how to accomplish the changes. Finally the potential management uses of the DEA results were presented. All the findings are discussed in the context of the Canadian banking market.

  6. Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Szeman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil and Canada in their respective attempts to create genuine national cultures. As in many postcolonial situations, the problem of creating an authentic culture is directly related to the sense that postcolonial culture is necessarily imitative and belated. In Misplaced Ideas, Roberto Schwarz exposes the hidden class character of the problem of cultural authenticity in Brazil, and in so doing, shows that the trauma of national-cultural identity merely reflects the contradictory structural position of Brazil’s postcolonial elite. Using Schwarz’s insights to explore the Canadian situation, the author shows that the same forces are at work in Canada. Though the crisis of a lack of an authentic Canadian culture has recently been surmounted as a result of the apparent international success of Canadian culture (especially literary fiction, that author cautions that this “success” story hides the class basis of Canadian culture in both its belated and isochronic phases (the latter being the moment when cultural belatedness is overcome. Making use of Brazilian theory to examine problems in Canadian culture allows us to see that Canadian modernity, long thought to be simply a derivative of the UK and USA, has similarities with Brazilian modernity that are essential to understanding the space and place Canada occupies in globalization. In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil

  7. Implications and Challenges to Using Data Mining in Educational Research in the Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElAtia, Samira; Ipperciel, Donald; Hammad, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Canadian institutions of higher education are major players on the international arena for educating future generations and producing leaders around the world in various fields. In the last decade, Canadian universities have seen an influx in their incoming international students, who contribute over $3.5 billion to the Canadian economy (Madgett…

  8. 78 FR 73875 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat... requirement concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I-68). This request for comment is being... information collection: Title: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit. OMB Number: 1651-0108. Form Number: CBP...

  9. 76 FR 2917 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit..., mechanical, or other technological techniques or other forms of information. Title: Canadian Border Boat...

  10. 75 FR 61508 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat... concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I- ] 68). This request for comment is being made... information collection: Title: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit. OMB Number: 1651-0108. Form Number: CBP...

  11. Survey of Sterile Admixture Practices in Canadian Hospital Pharmacies: Part 2. More Results and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Travis; Nishi, Cesilia; Checkowski, Ryan; Hall, Kevin W

    2009-01-01

    Background: The 1996 Guidelines for Preparation of Sterile Products in Pharmacies of the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists (CSHP) represent the current standard of practice for sterile compounding in Canada. However, these guidelines are practice recommendations, not enforceable standards. Previous surveys of sterile compounding practices have shown that actual practice deviates markedly from voluntary practice recommendations. In 2004, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) published its “General Chapter Pharmaceutical Compounding—Sterile Preparations”, which set a more rigorous and enforceable standard for sterile compounding in the United States. Objectives: To assess sterile compounding practices in Canadian hospital pharmacies and to compare them with current CSHP recommendations and USP chapter standards. Methods: An online survey, based on previous studies of sterile compounding practices, the CSHP guidelines, and the chapter standards, was created and distributed to 193 Canadian hospital pharmacies. Results: A total of 133 pharmacies completed at least part of the survey, for a response rate of 68.9%. All respondents reported the preparation of sterile products. Various degrees of deviation from the practice recommendations were noted for virtually all areas of the CSHP guidelines and the USP standards. Low levels of compliance were most notable in the areas of facilities and equipment, process validation, and product testing. Availability in the central pharmacy of a clean room facility meeting or exceeding the criteria of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 8 is a requirement of the chapter standards, but more than 40% of responding pharmacies reported that they did not have such a facility. Higher levels of compliance were noted for policies and procedures, garbing requirements, aseptic technique, and handling of hazardous products. The survey methods for this study and results relating to policies, personnel, raw

  12. Survey of Sterile Admixture Practices in Canadian Hospital Pharmacies: Part 1. Methods and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Travis; Nishi, Cesilia; Checkowski, Ryan; Hall, Kevin W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The 1996 Guidelines for Preparation of Sterile Products in Pharmacies of the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists (CSHP) represent the current standard of practice for sterile compounding in Canada. However, these guidelines are practice recommendations, not enforceable standards. Previous surveys of sterile compounding practices have shown that actual practice deviates markedly from voluntary practice recommendations. In 2004, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) published its “General Chapter Pharmaceutical Compounding—Sterile Preparations”, which set a more rigorous and enforceable standard for sterile compounding in the United States. Objectives: To assess sterile compounding practices in Canadian hospital pharmacies and to compare them with current CSHP recommendations and USP chapter standards. Methods: An online survey, based on previous studies of sterile compounding practices, the CSHP guidelines, and the chapter standards, was created and distributed to 193 Canadian hospital pharmacies. Results: A total of 133 pharmacies completed at least part of the survey, for a response rate of 68.9%. All respondents reported the preparation of sterile products. Various degrees of deviation from the practice recommendations were noted for virtually all areas of the CSHP guidelines and the USP standards. Low levels of compliance were most notable in the areas of facilities and equipment, process validation, and product testing. Availability in the central pharmacy of a clean room facility meeting or exceeding the criteria of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 8 is a requirement of the chapter standards, but more than 40% of responding pharmacies reported that they did not have such a facility. Higher levels of compliance were noted for policies and procedures, garbing requirements, aseptic technique, and handling of hazardous products. Part 1 of this series reports the survey methods and results relating to policies

  13. International electives in neurology training: a survey of US and Canadian program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jennifer L; Coleman, Mary E; Engstrom, John W; Mateen, Farrah J

    2014-01-14

    To ascertain the current status of global health training and humanitarian relief opportunities in US and Canadian postgraduate neurology programs. There is a growing interest among North American trainees to pursue medical electives in low- and middle-income countries. Such training opportunities provide many educational and humanitarian benefits but also pose several challenges related to organization, human resources, funding, and trainee and patient safety. The current support and engagement of neurology postgraduate training programs for trainees to pursue international rotations is unknown. A survey was distributed to all program directors in the United States and Canada (December 2012-February 2013) through the American Academy of Neurology to assess the training opportunities, institutional partnerships, and support available for international neurology electives. Approximately half of responding programs (53%) allow residents to pursue global health-related electives, and 11% reported that at least 1 trainee participated in humanitarian relief during training (survey response rate 61%, 143/234 program directors). Canadian programs were more likely to allow residents to pursue international electives than US programs (10/11, 91% vs 65/129, 50%, p = 0.023). The number of trainees participating in international electives was low: 0%-9% of residents (55% of programs) and 10%-19% of residents (21% of programs). Lack of funding was the most commonly cited reason for residents not participating in global health electives. If funding was available, 93% of program directors stated there would be time for residents to participate. Most program directors (75%) were interested in further information on global health electives. In spite of high perceived interest, only half of US neurology training programs include international electives, mostly due to a reported lack of funding. By contrast, the majority of Canadian programs that responded allow international

  14. Talent Management Programmes at British, American and Canadian Universities: Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boichenko Maryna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the peculiarities of talent management programmes implementation at the top British, American and Canadian universities. The essence of the main concepts of research - talent and talent management - has been revealed. Talent management is referred to as the systematic attraction, identification, development, engagement, retention and deployment of those individuals who are of particular value to an organization, either in view of their “high potential” for the future or because they are fulfilling business/ operation-critical roles. The factors that drive the development of talent management at the universities have been defined. The benefits that can be obtained as a result of talent management programmes implementation in higher education institutions have been pointed out. The differences in talent management programmes implementation at the universities of Great Britain, the USA and Canada have been found out. These differences depend mainly on the human resources policy of the institution represented in its strategic plan. It has been concluded that most top British and American higher education institutions run talent development programmes, but the target categories and forms of their implementation greatly differ. Canadian universities in the human resources policy focus on professional development of staff and faculty, but do not have special talent management programmes. Progressive conceptual ideas of foreign experience that can be used in practice of Ukrainian universities have been considered.

  15. Limnological characteristics of 56 lakes in the Central Canadian Arctic Treeline Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. SMOL

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Measured environmental variables from 56 lakes across the Central Canadian Treeline Region exhibited clear limnological differences among subpolar ecozones, reflecting strong latitudinal changes in biome characteristics (e.g. vegetation, permafrost, climate. Principal Components Analysis (PCA clearly separated forested sites from tundra sites based on distinct differences in limnological characteristics. Increases in major ions and related variables (e.g. dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC were higher in boreal forest sites in comparison to arctic tundra sites. The higher values recorded in the boreal forest lakes may be indirectly related to differences in climatic factors in these zones, such as the degree of permafrost development, higher precipitation and runoff, duration of ice-cover on the lakes, and thicker and better soil development. Similar to trends observed in DIC, substantially higher values for dissolved organic carbon (DOC were measured in boreal forest lakes than in arctic tundra lakes. This was likely due to higher amounts of catchment-derived DOC entering the lakes from coniferous leaf litter sources. Relative to arctic tundra lakes, boreal forest lakes had higher nutrient concentrations, particularly total nitrogen (TN, likely due to warmer conditions, a longer growing season, and higher precipitation, which would enhance nutrient cycling and primary productivity. Results suggest that modern aquatic environments at opposite sides of the central Canadian arctic treeline (i.e. boreal forest and arctic tundra exhibit distinct differences in water chemistry and physical conditions. These limnological trends may provide important information on possible future changes with additional warming.

  16. Developing a Canadian Curriculum for Simulation-Based Education in Obstetrics and Gynaecology: A Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Catherine; Posner, Glenn D

    2017-09-01

    As obstetrics and gynaecology (Ob/Gyn) residency training programs move towards a competence-based approach to training and assessment, the development of a national standardized simulation curriculum is essential. The primary goal of this study was to define the fundamental content for the Canadian Obstetrics and Gynecology Simulation curriculum. A modified Delphi technique was used to achieve consensus in three rounds by surveying residency program directors or their local simulation educator delegates in 16 accredited Canadian Ob/Gyn residency programs. A consensus rate of 80% was agreed upon. Survey results were collected over 11 months in 2016. Response rates for the Delphi were 50% for the first round, 81% for the second round, and 94% for the third round. The first survey resulted in 84 suggested topics. These were organized into four categories: obstetrics high acuity low frequency events, obstetrics common events, gynaecology high acuity low frequency events, and gynaecology common events. Using the modified Delphi method, consensus was reached on 6 scenarios. This study identified the content for a national simulation-based curriculum for Ob/Gyn residency training programs and is the first step in the development of this curriculum. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exit competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine for graduating medical students: the Canadian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason; Pambrun, Chantale

    2015-05-01

    Physicians in every medical and surgical field must be able to use pathology concepts and skills in their practice: for example, they must order and interpret the correct laboratory tests, they must use their understanding of pathogenesis to diagnose and treat, and they must work with the laboratory to care for their patients. These important concepts and skills may be ignored by medical schools and even national/international organizations setting graduation expectations for medical students. There is an evolving international consensus about the importance of exit competencies for medical school graduates, which define the measurable or observable behaviors each graduate must be able to demonstrate. The Canadian Association of Pathologists (CAP) Education Group set out to establish the basic competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine which should be expected of every medical graduate: not competencies for pathologists, but for medical graduates who intend to enter any residency program. We defined 4 targets for pathology and laboratory medicine exit competencies: that they represent only measurable behaviors, that they be clinically focused, that they be generalizable to every medical graduate, and that the final competency document be user-friendly. A set of competencies was developed iteratively and underwent final revision at the 2012 CAP annual meeting. These competencies were subsequently endorsed by the CAP executive and the Canadian Leadership Council on Laboratory Medicine. This clinically focused consensus document provides the first comprehensive list of exit competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine for undergraduate medical education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnosis and Management of Asthma in Preschoolers: A Canadian Thoracic Society and Canadian Paediatric Society Position Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine M Ducharme

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma often starts before six years of age. However, there remains uncertainty as to when and how a preschool-age child with symptoms suggestive of asthma can be diagnosed with this condition. This delays treatment and contributes to both short- and long-term morbidity. Members of the Canadian Thoracic Society Asthma Clinical Assembly partnered with the Canadian Paediatric Society to develop a joint working group with the mandate to develop a position paper on the diagnosis and management of asthma in preschoolers.

  19. The Canadian University Copyright Specialist: A Cross-Canada Selfie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Patterson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of a 2015 study of Canadian university copyright officers, which were presented at the ABC Copyright Conference in Halifax in May 2016. The study’s primary aim was to generate a snapshot of this emerging profession. Who are the people occupying copyright positions at Canadian universities? What do they call themselves? What is their academic background? What kind of copyright education and training do they have? Where do they fit into the structure of the organization? The study’s secondary aim was to probe the intersection of copyright and academic freedom: not the academic freedom of faculty members in creating and using copyright-protected works, but the academic freedom of the copyright officer in interpreting copyright, providing copyright information, teaching and writing about copyright, and engaging in advocacy efforts. The results indicate that the typical Canadian university copyright officer holds an MLS degree or equivalent but has no formal copyright or legal education; works exclusively as a copyright officer within the library system; and is very new to copyright work. Just under half of the copyright officers surveyed have academic freedom, and of those, almost none have considered the implications of this for their copyright work. The author argues that the position of university copyright officer should have faculty status so that the copyright officer can exercise academic freedom as they negotiate the changing and contentious copyright landscape. Cet article décrit les résultats d’une enquête menée en 2015 auprès des agents du droit d’auteur dans les universités canadiennes. Ces résultats ont d’abord été présentés lors du congrès ABC Copyright qui a eu lieu en mai 2016 à Halifax. Cette enquête avait comme objectif principal de fournir un portrait de la situation actuelle de cette profession émergente. Qui sont les personnes qui occupent des postes en droit d

  20. Return on Investment for Workplace Training: The Canadian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Jennifer C.; Cozzarin, Brian P.; Formaneck, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    One of the central problems in managing technological change and maintaining a competitive advantage in business is improving the skills of the workforce through investment in human capital and a variety of training practices. This paper explores the evidence on the impact of training investment on productivity in 14 Canadian industries from 1999…

  1. The Social Lives of Canadian Youths with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Deborah; Shaw, Alexander; Wolffe, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This survey of the social and leisure experiences of Canadian youths with visual impairments found that, in general, youths with low vision experienced more social challenges than did their peers who were blind. Levels of social support were not found to differ on the basis of level of vision, sex, or age. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  2. Attrition of Canadian Internet pharmacy websites: what are the implications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronin MA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Veronin,1 Kristen M Clancy2 1Rangel College of Pharmacy, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Texas, USA; 2Christus Dubuis Health System, Texas, USA Background: The unavailability of Internet pharmacy websites may impact a consumer's drug purchases and health care. Objective: To address the issue of attrition, a defined set of Canadian Internet pharmacy websites was examined at three separate time intervals. Methods: In February to March 2006, 117 distinct, fully functional "Canadian Internet pharmacy" websites were located using the advanced search options of Google and the uniform resource locator (URL for each website was recorded. To determine website attrition, each of the 117 websites obtained and recorded from the previous study was revisited at two later periods of time within a 4-year period. Results: After approximately 4 years and 5 months, only 59 (50.4% sites were found in the original state. Thirty-four sites (29.1% had moved to a new URL address and were not functioning as the original Internet pharmacy. For 24 sites (20.5% the viewer was redirected to another Canadian Internet pharmacy site. Conclusion: Of concern for patients if Internet pharmacy sites were suddenly inaccessible would be the disruption of continuity of care. Keywords: Canadian Internet pharmacy, online pharmacy, website attrition, continuity of care

  3. Indigenous housing and health in the Canadian North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julia

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I explore the relationship between housing, home and health amongst Indigenous homeless people living in the Canadian North. In particular, I examine the ways in which Indigenous homemaking practices conflict with housing policy, and exacerbate individual pathways to homelessness...

  4. The Canadian Political System. Reference Series No. 59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsey, Eugene A.

    Canada is a democracy, a constitutional monarchy. Every act of government is done in the name of the Queen, but the authority for every act flows from the Canadian people. This booklet examines this system of government and how it operates. The first section deals with the origins and operation of the parliamentary government. The second section…

  5. A Description of Sexual Offending Committed by Canadian Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulden, Heather M.; Firestone, Philip; Kingston, Drew A.; Wexler, Audrey F.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to describe teachers who sexually offend against youth and the circumstances related to these offenses. Archival Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System reports were obtained from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and demographic and criminal characteristics for the offender, as well as information about the victim…

  6. Electronic Commerce: Canadian Community Colleges and Institutes of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges.

    This paper reports on the Canadian college system's collaboration with industry and community services in the development and delivery of non-credit e-commerce courses offered through continuing education departments at community colleges and institutes of technology. The paper argues that, in today's changing economy, the accelerated need for…

  7. Co-op Education in the Canadian Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munby, Hugh; Hutchinson, Nancy; Chin, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Research on co-op education in Canadian secondary schools indicates that it was under-appreciated in ministry policy. However, participants felt that cooperative education was a career exploration opportunity, contextualized the academic curriculum, taught work ethics, and prepared students for postsecondary programs. A clearer commitment to…

  8. Marginalizing Significant Others: The Canadian Contribution to Educational Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlynka, Denis

    1994-01-01

    Considers Canadian contributions to the philosophical basis of educational technology which have helped shape the model shifts now occurring in the field. Four individuals are highlighted: Harold Innis and his work on media; Marshall McLuhan, who built on Innis' work; Ursula Franklin and her philosophical analysis of technology; and Arthur Kroker.…

  9. Smoke & Mirrors: The Canadian Tobacco War | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... before parliamentary committees, given hundreds of media interviews in Canada and the United States, published numerous tobacco-related articles, and initiated private prosecutions for violations of tobacco control laws. Cunningham now works in Ottawa as a senior policy analyst for the Canadian Cancer Society.

  10. Innovative grants program teams up Canadian and Latin American ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... Eric Smith. Canadian and Latin American researchers are jointly pursuing knowledge in a variety of disciplines, generating ideas and building international networks. For example, in Colombia, researchers from Simon Fraser University and the Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigaciones ...

  11. Canadian Offshore Schools in China: A Comparative Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Internationalisation is no longer a well-recognised feature unique to higher education. It has permeated K-12 education. However, little research has been done on internationalisation at the K-12 level, particularly on offshore schools. This study examines how Canadian and Chinese policies regarding offshore schools have developed over the years,…

  12. Work-Life Balance and the Canadian Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese-Germain, Bernie

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades Canada has experienced sweeping demographic, social, economic and technological changes. These changes have had, and continue to have, a major impact on the work-life balance of Canadians--that is, on their ability to balance work and personal demands. Some of these factors also impact the work-life balance of the…

  13. Canadian Association for the Study of International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Between 1994 and 2007, IDRC provided CASID with six grants totaling approximately 2 million CAD. The most recent and largest grant (104587), awarded after an external evaluation carried out in 2006, covered the period 2007-2010. This grant will allow CASID to continue to inform Canadian public opinion and policy ...

  14. Assessing Patterns of Admixture and Ancestry in Canadian Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada has a large beekeeping industry comprised of 8483 beekeepers managing 672094 23 colonies. Canadian honey bees, like all honey bees in the New World, originate from centuries of importation of predominately European honey bees, but their precise ancestry remains unknown. There have been no i...

  15. The Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors: Instructor Certification Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Glenda

    Since its formation in 1976, the Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors (CANSI) has certified over 2600 instructors across Canada. CANSI aims to provide a standard of excellence in certified nordic ski instruction by maintaining uniform and current nordic techniques, to encourage the skiing public to take advantage of the benefits of…

  16. Cultural translation of K-Pop among Asian Canadian fans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoon, Kyong

    2017-01-01

    ... of social media, and thus internalize a particular mode of subjectivity through which individuals willingly seek the model of a self-developing, entrepreneurial self. Keywords: K-pop, idols, Asian Canadian youth, cultural affinity, race, neoliberal affect, social media, transcultural fandom The transnational fandom of K-pop indicates the...

  17. Racial-Ethnic Identity and Adjustment in Canadian Indigenous Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfellner, Barbara M.; Armstrong, Helen D.

    2013-01-01

    This study supported associations between three theoretically driven conceptualizations of racial and ethnic identity (REI; Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure; Multidimensional Racial Identity Measure; Bicultural Identity Measure) and with adaptive functioning among Canadian indigenous adolescents in middle school to high school. Age differences…

  18. Most (Microvariability & oscillations of stars) Canadian astronomical micro-satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, Slavek; Carroll, Kieran; Kuschnig, Rainer; Matthews, Jaymie; Stibrany, Peter

    MOST is a Canadian micro-satellite project to perform seismology of solar-type and magnetic stars from space, as well as to study micro-variability in Wolf-Rayet winds and other targets. We give a brief technical description of the satellite as well as estimates on the expected photometric performance.

  19. Stages of Gender Education in Canadian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovskyi, Vasyl; Kostiuk, Olha

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the issue of educational preconditions of gender education formation and development in Canadian secondary schools. On the basis of conducted scientific and pedagogical literature analysis it has been determined that gender education has undergone three main stages and is currently developing during its fourth, modern…

  20. Giving Canadian Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education an Independent Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Derek

    2015-01-01

    It is noted that the "Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education" (CJSMTE) was founded with the support of a donation of $1.0 million from the Imperial Oil Charitable Foundation. Four goals were uppermost in the thinking behind the journal: first, it should be bilingual; second, it should be cross-disciplinary;…

  1. International Disputes and Cultural Ideas in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    This book explores the dramatic split between the appearance of absent-minded governance, bordering on indifference toward the region, and the raging nationalism during moments of actual and perceived challenge toward the imagined “Canadian Arctic region” by analyzing the complexities and evolution...

  2. Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Preparing the Canadian Foreign ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Preparing the Canadian Foreign Policy Community to Meet the Challenges of the World in 2020. Development of an Ottawa-based Foreign Policy Network will help to bridge gaps, strengthen the foreign policy community in the national capital region, and include younger professionals in ...

  3. Using research to change policy and practice: A Canadian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... Canadian CSOs also maximize their use of research to influence change in part through strategic alliances and partnerships. Women in Cities International, for example, partners with the Women and Habitat Network in Argentina to collect data and engage directly with local officials. The study concludes ...

  4. A Comparative Review of Canadian Health Professional Education Accreditation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Vernon R.; Fleet, Lisa; Deacon, Diana

    2006-01-01

    Canadian governments and various stakeholder groups are advocating greater interprofessional collaboration amongst health care providers as a fundamental strategy for enhancing coordination and quality of care in the health care system. Interprofessional education for collaborative patient-centred practice (IECPCP) is an educational process by…

  5. Religiosity and Music Copyright Theft among Canadian Baptist Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Bruce G.; Francis, Leslie J.; Henderson, Amanda J.; Robbins, Mandy; Linkletter, Jody

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the views of 706 Canadian Baptist youth (between the ages of 14 and 18 years) on the moral issue of music copyright theft, and explores the influence on these views of age, sex, Sunday church attendance, personal prayer, personal Bible reading, and conservative Bible believing. The participants were attending Springforth 2005…

  6. Attitudes towards Computerization in Canadian Universities. Technical Paper #4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misfeldt, Renee; Stahl, William A.

    This report summarizes the attitudinal portion of a nation-wide survey on the computerization of Canadian universities. Six different questionnaires, each of which contained the same questions on attitudes, were mailed to faculty, deans, admissions, officers, registrars, computer center directors, and other administrators at 63 Canadian…

  7. Myths and Delusions: English Language Instruction in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Mary

    2006-01-01

    The state of ESL in Canada has been a looming, mishandled entity. Canadians espouse the benefits of diversity and have politically correct policies concerning racism and equity for the linguistically disadvantaged, but in reality something has gone terribly wrong. This article outlines specific myths and delusions that plague educational…

  8. Financial Management of Canadian Universities: Adaptive Strategies to Fiscal Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Darren; Sá, Creso M.

    2014-01-01

    Decreasing government funding and regulated tuition policies have created a financially constrained environment for Canada's universities. The conventional response to such conditions is to cut programme offerings and services in an attempt to lower costs throughout the institution. However, we argue that three Canadian universities have reacted…

  9. Children's Experiences of Cyberbullying: A Canadian National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Tanya; Mishna, Faye; McInroy, Lauren B.; Shariff, Shaheen

    2015-01-01

    This national study reports the prevalence of cyberbullying among youths in Canada according to demographic characteristics, its impact, and its relationship to six forms of victimization and perpetration. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a national household panel of families living in all Canadian provinces. The sample included 1,001…

  10. Canadian Publications in the English Language: CBI vs Canadiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Joel

    1971-01-01

    Cumulative Book Index (CBI) purports to list "all books in the English language regardless of the place of origin." This study showed that CBI included only about 74 percent of Canadian English-language publications in a given period and that the appearance of a title was behind its appearance in Canadiana. (3 references) (Author/NH)

  11. A New World of Knowledge: Canadian Universities and Globalization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Or is it simply a marketing message intended to position the university to cope with budget reductions through the sale of educational services? A New World of Knowledge looks at the important role thatCanadian universities have p layed in shaping Canada's response to the problems of international development.

  12. The Trust Imperative in the School Principalship: The Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin; Walker, Keith; Noonan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental concept in human interactions, trust is important for understanding and mediating the social structures in schools. The instrumental work of cultivating, brokering, and maintaining trust in schools lies within the role of the school administrator. Our exploratory study examined the Canadian school principals' perceptions of their…

  13. Homelessness Coverage in Major Canadian Newspapers, 1987 – 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Richter (Solina); K. Kovacs Burns (Kathy); Y. Mao (Yuping); J. Chaw-Kant (Jean); M. Calder (Moira); S. Mogale (Shirley); L. Goin (Lyla); K. Schnell (Kerry)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis article describes how the Canadian printed news media depicted the homeless and their situations between 1987 and 2007. Our study used a descriptive, cross-sectional design and a content analysis was conducted on selected newspaper articles on homelessness issues. The main themes

  14. Teaching Writing in Canadian Middle Grades Classrooms: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shelly Stagg; McClay, Jill Kedersha; Main, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the results of interview research examining writing instruction and assessment practices in 216 Grades 4-8 classrooms across the 10 Canadian provinces and 2 (of 3) territories. Researchers found that participating teachers scheduled daily time for writing, either in language arts classes or through integrating writing…

  15. An integrative review of Canadian childhood obesity prevention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, S; Ellis, R; Murray, C; Chaw-Kant, J

    2007-01-01

    To examine successful Canadian nursing and health promotion intervention programmes for childhood obesity prevention during gestation and infancy, an integrative review was performed of the literature from 1980 to September 2005. The following databases were used: PubMed; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Cochrane Controlled Trials Register; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; ACP Journal Club; MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; Scopus; Sociological Abstracts; Sport Discus; PsycInfo; ERIC and HealthStar. MeSH headings included: infancy (0-24 months), gestation, gestational diabetes, nutrition, prenatal care, pregnancy, health education, pregnancy outcome, dietary services with limits of Canadian, term birth. Of 2028 articles found, six Canadian childhood obesity prevention programmes implemented during gestation and/or infancy were found; three addressed gestational diabetes with five targeting low-income Canadian urban and/or Aboriginal populations. No intervention programmes specifically aimed to prevent childhood obesity during gestation or infancy. This paucity suggests that such a programme would be innovative and much needed in an effort to stem the alarming increase in obesity in children and adults. Any attempts either to develop new approaches or to replicate interventions used with obese adults or even older children need careful evaluation and pilot testing prior to sustained use within the perinatal period.

  16. Canadian Woman Studies = Les Cahiers de la Femme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This journal volume by and about Indian, Inuit, and Metis native Canadian women, contains articles, interviews, book reviews, fiction, poetry, journal entries and art. It is dedicated to the grandmothers who managed to hold on to old ways, teachings, and feelings, and to pass them on. Poems and stories create personal portraits and reminiscences…

  17. Can Money Undo the Past? A Canadian Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. Murray

    2003-01-01

    In Canada, more than 9,000 lawsuits have been filed by American Indians and Inuits seeking reparations for the mistreatment Indigenous children suffered in residential schools operated by four religious groups and financed by the Canadian government. Although most suits allege "cultural damage" caused by schooling practices, little of…

  18. Navigating Orientalism: Asian Women Faculty in the Canadian Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayuzumi, Kimine

    2015-01-01

    While individuals of note have been documented, there has been a paucity of research into the collective voices of Asian women faculty in higher education. To fill this gap, the study brings forward the narratives of nine Asian women faculty members in the Canadian academy who have roots in East Asia. Employing the concept of Orientalism within a…

  19. Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-09-01

    For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

  20. The Family Career Development Project in Chinese Canadian Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard A.; Ball, Jessica; Valach, Ladislav; Turkel, Hayley; Wong, Yuk Shuen

    2003-01-01

    Six Chinese-Canadian parent-adolescent pairs were monitored over 6 months, revealing characteristics of family involvement in adolescent career development: importance of parental agenda, adolescents' involvement, parent communication of reasoning, and adolescent withholding/withdrawing response. Family career development was central to other…

  1. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Canadian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réjeanne Gougeon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a clinical tool designed to facilitate implementation of therapeutic lifestyle recommendations for people with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG recommendations is essential to address varied patient populations within and among diverse regions worldwide. The Canadian version of tDNA supports and targets behavioural changes to improve nutritional quality and to promote regular daily physical activity consistent with Canadian Diabetes Association CPG, as well as channelling the concomitant management of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycaemia in primary care. Assessing glycaemic index (GI (the ranking of foods by effects on postprandial blood glucose levels and glycaemic load (GL (the product of mean GI and the total carbohydrate content of a meal will be a central part of the Canadian tDNA and complement nutrition therapy by facilitating glycaemic control using specific food selections. This component can also enhance other metabolic interventions, such as reducing the need for antihyperglycaemic medication and improving the effectiveness of weight loss programs. This tDNA strategy will be adapted to the cultural specificities of the Canadian population and incorporated into the tDNA validation methodology.

  2. Change readiness for SAP in the Canadian healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mary Lou; Downer, Pauline

    2004-01-01

    The study described in this article was designed to assess the change readiness for e-business cost management systems (particularly SAP) within the Canadian healthcare system. Previous studies and experts suggest that change readiness is an important variable in the application of e-business cost management system implementation. One hundred and fifty-four chief executive officers within the Canadian healthcare system were surveyed. The response rate was 25.9 percent. The survey included a demographic sheet, which supported a better understanding of the profile of Canadian healthcare CEOs, their operational budget responsibilities, and their feelings toward e-business cost management systems. A change readiness instrument reviewed CEOs' change readiness scores in relation to four independent variables (implementation of an e-business cost management system, healthcare restructuring, budget size and tenure of the CEO). There was a significant difference between change readiness scores and the implementation of an e-business cost management system. Given the small sample size (n = 40), findings are limited. However the study offers more information on this issue than is found in the Canadian healthcare literature to date.

  3. Canadian Families' Strategies for Employment and Care for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Michael; Stalker, Glenn J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the 2006 Canadian Census "long form" sample of one in every five households, the authors develop a detailed typology of family strategies for employment and the care of preschool children. The analysis is restricted to opposite-sex couples with at least one child under age 6 and no older child or other adult in the household.…

  4. How Companies Respond to New Safety Regulations: A Canadian Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study of safety training programs in 66 Canadian companies found that those who provided tailor-made training already offered better working conditions, greater management involvement in safety work, and more safety activities than those who used outside training sources. This suggests that safety regulations benefit good companies more than…

  5. Un vocabulaire juridique bilingue canadien (A Canadian Bilingual Legal Vocabulary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauziere, Lucie

    1979-01-01

    Describes a project called JURIVOC which sought to deal with the problem of a duality of language and a duality in legal systems in Canada. The development of a bilingual lexicon is discussed, and an example is given of the classic language/legal system duality in Canadian law. (AM)

  6. Performing Internationalization of Higher Education in Canadian National Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viczko, Melody; Tascón, Clara I.

    2016-01-01

    Internationalization processes are at the fore of university strategic plans on a global scale. However, the work of internationalization is being performed through the connections between many actors at different policy levels. Our purpose here is to ask, what is happening with internationalization of higher education at the Canadian national…

  7. How They Handle It: Young Canadians, Sex, and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobart, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Describes how young unmarried Canadians cope with sexuality in the era of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Responses of 1,775 Anglophone and 493 Francophone college students in Canada indicate that those who are most aware of the risks of AIDS are also the most careless in putting themselves at risk. (SLD)

  8. Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in Canadian Jurisdictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Stephanie E.; Ford, James D.; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Araos, Malcolm; Parker, Stephen; Fleury, Manon D.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change poses numerous risks to the health of Canadians. Extreme weather events, poor air quality, and food insecurity in northern regions are likely to increase along with the increasing incidence and range of infectious diseases. In this study we identify and characterize Canadian federal, provincial, territorial and municipal adaptation to these health risks based on publically available information. Federal health adaptation initiatives emphasize capacity building and gathering information to address general health, infectious disease and heat-related risks. Provincial and territorial adaptation is varied. Quebec is a leader in climate change adaptation, having a notably higher number of adaptation initiatives reported, addressing almost all risks posed by climate change in the province, and having implemented various adaptation types. Meanwhile, all other Canadian provinces and territories are in the early stages of health adaptation. Based on publically available information, reported adaptation also varies greatly by municipality. The six sampled Canadian regional health authorities (or equivalent) are not reporting any adaptation initiatives. We also find little relationship between the number of initiatives reported in the six sampled municipalities and their provinces, suggesting that municipalities are adapting (or not adapting) autonomously. PMID:25588156

  9. Japanese and Canadian Science Teachers' Views on Science and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikenhead, Glen S.; Otsuji, Hisashi

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a cross-cultural study into science teachers' awareness of potential culture clashes in their classrooms where their students' home culture differed from the culture of Western science being taught. In one setting, Canadian teachers taught mainly Aboriginal students. In the second setting, Japanese teachers taught Western science to…

  10. Calibrating Canadian Universities: Rankings for Sale Once Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Kenneth M.; Page, Stewart

    2007-01-01

    A summary and update on recent research by the authors and others concerning rankings of Canadian universities is presented. Some specific data are reported in regard to the 2005 and 2006 ranking data published by "Maclean's" magazine. Some criticisms and difficulties with the use of rank-based data are outlined with regard to the issues…

  11. Transferrin variation and evolution of Canadian barren-ground caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut H. Røed

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were obtained from 95 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus of the Beverly herd in Northwest Territories, Canada. Polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis was used to score for genetic variation in the locus coding for transferrin. The pattern of allele frequency distribution are compared with previously reported values of Eurasian tundra reindeer (R.t. tarandus, Alaska caribou (R.t. granti, Peary caribou (R.t. pearyi, and Svalbard reindeer (R.t. platyrhynchus. In the Beverly herd a total of 21 different transferrin alleles were detected. The amount of genetic variation was higher in the Canadian barren-ground caribou than what has been detected in other subspecies of reindeer/caribou. Highly gene-tical differences in the allele frequencies were detected between the Canadian barren-ground caribou and the other subspecies. The genetic identity analyses indicates approximately the same amount of genetic differentiation when the Canadian barren-ground caribou are compared with Alaska caribou as with the Peary caribou. The allele frequency pattern could be explained by a possible origin of the Canadian barren-ground caribou from an ancestral population which was genetical influenced by animals surviving the We-ichselian glaciation in refugia both in high Arctic, in Beringia, and south of the ice sheet.

  12. Strategic Planning for Academic Research: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Creso M.; Tamtik, Merli

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical study of research planning in Canadian universities. Drawing on data compiled during interviews with senior administrators from 27 academic units in 10 universities, the paper analyses how strategic planning has been applied to the research mission over the past decade. Findings reveal variability in processes…

  13. Evaluation of nutritional intake in Canadian high-performance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Victor; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Reimer, Raylene A

    2009-09-01

    To determine the nutritional intake of Canadian high-performance athletes. Prospective survey study. Canadian sport center athletes. Three hundred twenty-four high-performance athletes (114 males and 201 females; mean age 21.3 +/- 13 years) from 8 Canadian sport centers participated in the study. Subjects prospectively completed 3-day dietary records, reporting all food, fluid, and supplement consumption. Dietary records were analyzed for total calories, macronutrients, and micronutrients for food alone and food plus supplements for all subjects collectively and according to gender and competitive event. Average daily energy intake was 2533 +/- 843 Kcal/day with males consuming more calories than females (2918 +/- 927 and 2304 +/- 713 Kcal/day, respectively; P Supplementation significantly increased athletes' energy, total carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake. Of 17 micronutrients assessed, intake ranged between 120% and 366% of recommended daily intake with food alone and between 134% to 680% of recommended daily intake with supplements. Canadian high-performance athletes do not consume adequate energy or carbohydrates. However, their intake of micronutrients exceed current recommended daily intakes, even when supplements are not considered, indicating that athletes make high-quality food choices. Supplementation significantly increased energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake.

  14. 115 YEARS OF ARVILIGJUARMIUT DEMOGRAPHY, CENTRAL CANADIAN ARCTIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDEVELDE, F; CONSTANDSEWESTERMANN, TS; REMIE, CHW; NEWELL, RR

    1993-01-01

    Demographic data from 1863 to 1978 on the Arviligjuarmiut Inuit (Central Canadian Arctic) are analyzed to establish the statistical parameters of the full range of biologically and socially relevant variability. Detailed family histories, recorded during the first author's tenure at the Mission in

  15. The "Canadian Library Journal," 1981-91: An Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Mary Sue

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes articles in the "Canadian Library Journal" from 1981-91 using a set of selected descriptive bibliometric techniques. Variables examined include types of items, authorship characteristics, subject coverage, research-based approaches, scholarliness, and collaboration. Results are compared with an earlier 1968-80 study. (Contains…

  16. Individual Stress Management Coursework in Canadian Teacher Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gregory E.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher stress is a significant issue facing the teaching profession. The current paper explores individual stress management as a viable option to address stress in this profession. Specifically, Canadian teacher education programs are examined to identify the prevalence of pre-service teacher education courses focused on individual stress…

  17. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievenpiper, John L.; Jenkins, David; Yale, Jean-François; Bell, Rhonda; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ransom, Thomas P. P.; Dupre, John; Kendall, Cyril; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Marchetti, Albert; Hamdy, Osama; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a clinical tool designed to facilitate implementation of therapeutic lifestyle recommendations for people with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG) recommendations is essential to address varied patient populations within and among diverse regions worldwide. The Canadian version of tDNA supports and targets behavioural changes to improve nutritional quality and to promote regular daily physical activity consistent with Canadian Diabetes Association CPG, as well as channelling the concomitant management of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycaemia in primary care. Assessing glycaemic index (GI) (the ranking of foods by effects on postprandial blood glucose levels) and glycaemic load (GL) (the product of mean GI and the total carbohydrate content of a meal) will be a central part of the Canadian tDNA and complement nutrition therapy by facilitating glycaemic control using specific food selections. This component can also enhance other metabolic interventions, such as reducing the need for antihyperglycaemic medication and improving the effectiveness of weight loss programs. This tDNA strategy will be adapted to the cultural specificities of the Canadian population and incorporated into the tDNA validation methodology. PMID:24550982

  18. Canadian University Ethics Review: Cultural Complications Translating Principles into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Susan; Gormley, Louise

    2007-01-01

    Drawing from educational research conducted in Canada and Mexico, university researchers explore how culture complicates both the ethics review process and the translation of ethical research principles into practice. University researchers in Canadian contexts seek approval from university Research Ethics Boards to conduct research, following…

  19. Ethics in Canadian health technology assessment: a descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJean, Deirdre; Giacomini, Mita; Schwartz, Lisa; Miller, Fiona A

    2009-10-01

    Despite the mandate to examine the medical, ethical, and economic implications of the development and use of health technology, health technology assessment (HTA) reports often emphasize the epidemiologic and economic aspects, and omit ethical considerations. This study examines both whether and how ethical issues are incorporated into HTA. We aim to (i) review a set of Canadian HTA reports for ethics content, (ii) describe the strategies used to incorporate ethically relevant information into HTA, and (iii) determine the presence of implicit ethical issues in a sample of HTA reports. Descriptive and qualitative content analysis of 608 HTA reports produced by six Canadian HTA agencies from January 1997 to December 2006. We found that (i) a minority (17 percent) of Canadian HTA reports addressed ethical issues, (ii) secondary research predominates while primary analysis is rare, (iii) implicit ethical issues are present in HTA reports that do not purport to address ethics. Canadian HTA reports rarely explicitly, and then only superficially, address ethics, though implicit ethical issues abound.

  20. Dietary sodium intake among Canadian adults with and without hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; de Groh, M; Morrison, H; Robinson, C; Vardy, L

    2011-03-01

    Almost 30% of hypertension among Canadians may be attributed to excess dietary sodium. We examined the average sodium intake of Canadians aged 30 years and over, with and without hypertension, by age, sex and diabetes status using 24-hour recall data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, Nutrition. We compared absolute (crude) average sodium intake levels of those with and without hypertension to the 2009 Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) guidelines and adjusted average sodium intake between those with and without hypertension. Both those with and without diagnosed hypertension display average sodium intakes well above the 1500 mg/day recommended by the 2009 CHEP guidelines (2950 mg/day and 3175 mg/day, respectively). After confounding adjustment, those with hypertension have significantly higher average sodium intake (p = .0124). Stratified subgroup analyses found the average sodium intake among those with hypertension was higher for men between 30 and 49 years old (p = .0265), women between 50 and 69 years old (p = .0083) and those without diabetes (p = .0071) when compared to their counterparts without hypertension. Better approaches are needed to reduce sodium intake in hypertension patients, as well as the general population.

  1. Canadian initiative leading the way for equitable health systems and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Reflecting Canada's sustained commitment to improving maternal and child health, IDRC in partnership with Global Affairs Canada and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research launched a new $36 ... Read more on the results of the Africa Health Systems Initiative in the following journal supplements:.

  2. Entrepreneurship and Educational Leadership Development: Canadian and Australian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Charles F.; Scott, Shelleyann

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the entrepreneurial activities of two university faculties, one Canadian and the other Australian, that were designed to meet the educational needs of students and to garner the resources necessary for program delivery. A conceptual framework for educational entrepreneurship, containing six dimensions, is proposed. The…

  3. Measuring Holocaust Knowledge and Its Impact: A Canadian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedwab, Jack

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the responses of some 1,500 Canadians to a public opinion survey on knowledge of the Holocaust, awareness of genocide, and attitudes towards discrimination and diversity. Based on one of the most detailed surveys conducted to date on Holocaust knowledge, the study found strong correlations between greater reported Holocaust…

  4. Attitudes toward Homosexuals among Students at a Canadian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Hirt, Jessie; Sears, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward homosexuals among 199 male and female students at a Canadian university. Attitudes toward gay men were more negative than attitudes toward lesbians. For male students, attitudes toward gay men improved with time spent at college, suggesting the influence of college in reducing antihomosexual prejudice. (SLD)

  5. Nomads, Pilgrims, Tourists: Women Teachers in the Canadian North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on notions of the modern pilgrim and postmodern tourist, this paper explores the discursive resources concerning women, travel, and transience as they apply to female teachers working in the Canadian north. In particular, it traces the discourses evident in the talk of twenty-five women teachers currently working in northern First Nations…

  6. The Management of Retrenchment in Canadian Academic Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Laurent-G.; Auster, Ethel

    This exploratory study focuses on the management of decline as characterized by shrinking resources and substantial reductions in operating budgets (retrenchment) in academic research libraries in Canada. The first of four major sections of the report addresses the management of retrenchment in Canadian research libraries, including the design of…

  7. The Right to Live and Die. Canadian Critical Issues Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, John; Bourne, Paula

    One of a series adapted from the Canadian Public Issues Project, this book is designed to stimulate discussion and reflection about controversial issues through case studies. The book is based on high school units originally drawn from cases in newspapers, journals, books, legal documents, and government reports. Conflicts from issues arising over…

  8. Enhancing Canadian Civil Society Research and Knowledge-Based ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Enhancing Canadian Civil Society Research and Knowledge-Based Practice in a Rapidly Changing Landscape for International Development ... Women in the developing world continue to face obstacles that limit their ability to establish careers and become leaders in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and ...

  9. Culture and Parenting: Psychological Adjustment among Chinese Canadian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Cynthia S. M.; Miller, Lynn D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adolescents' cultural identification, perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting, and psychological adjustment with a sample of 192 Chinese Canadian adolescents. Participants were recruited from public urban high schools and completed 4 self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed using…

  10. Social and Psychological Adjustment of Chinese Canadian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Tse, Hennis Chi-Hang

    2010-01-01

    This study examined social and psychological adjustment of immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese children in Canada. Participants included a sample of elementary school children (N = 356, M age = 11 years). Data on social functioning, peer relationships, school-related social competence, perceived self-worth, and loneliness were collected from peer…

  11. Doctrinal Disciplining of Queer Educators in Canadian Catholic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Tonya D.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the experiences of non-heterosexual educators in Canadian Catholic schools. This article reveals previously unreported data from a qualitative study that compares the treatment of and attitudes towards lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (lgbtq) teachers in publicly-funded Catholic school systems in the Canadian…

  12. What Canadians say about management of used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facella, J.-A. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses the canadian public attitudes towards management of used nuclear fuels. The approach adopted is ground in values and ethics such as safety, responsibility, adaptability, stewardship, accountability and transparency, knowledge and inclusion, respect for life and future generations, as well as justice and sensitivity to difference.

  13. School Ethnic Composition and Bullying in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoroulis, Irene; Brittain, Heather; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Bullying in ethnically diverse schools varies as a function of the ethnic composition and degree of diversity in schools. Although Canada is highly multicultural, few researchers have focused on the role of context on ethnic majority and minority youths' bullying involvement. In the present study, 11,649 European-Canadian/ethnic majority (77%) and…

  14. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leigh

    2012-06-15

    Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, "Liberation therapy" for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1) where in Canada these businesses are located; 2) the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3) the medical procedures they promote; 4) core marketing messages; and 5) whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism companies. Seven other businesses market regional, cross

  15. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Leigh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Methods Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1 where in Canada these businesses are located; 2 the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3 the medical procedures they promote; 4 core marketing messages; and 5 whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Results Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism

  16. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Methods Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1) where in Canada these businesses are located; 2) the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3) the medical procedures they promote; 4) core marketing messages; and 5) whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Results Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism companies. Seven other

  17. Cultural traits and immigration: hostility and suicidality in Chinese Canadian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Pascale; Daigle, Marc S; Daigle, Jean-Guy

    2004-12-01

    Suicidality has been related to inwardly directed aggression. We compared convenience samples of 89 Canadian students of Chinese origin (CC) and 81 Canadian students from other backgrounds on measures of suicidality, hostility and aggression. The Chinese Canadian group reported higher levels of suicidality and hostility than the group of other Canadians. However, aggressive behaviors directed toward self or others were less frequent among Chinese Canadians. No differences were found between men and women. The results are interpreted by invoking the influence of Chinese culture on emotional restraint, particularly as regards aggressiveness.

  18. A proposed icebreaker for shipping LNG from the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, R.A. [Arcturus International Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada); Bell, M.H. [Miropial Investments Ltd. Ottawa, ON (Canada); Prior, A. [Fleetway Inc. Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-11-15

    With the vast quantities of hydrocarbons and mineral resources to be found in the Canadian Arctic, it is essential that the marine technology associated with year-round operation in ice be further explored. The proven reserves in the Drake field alone make liquefied natural gas (LNG) an obvious choice for a shipping trial. This paper suggested a route by which to transport liquefied natural gas from the Sverdrup Basin to an eastern Canadian port for regasification. Marine technology was reviewed with reference to vessel routing, the physical environment, ship technology and the transportation of LNG, together with the current maritime regulatory regime governing shipping activities. The paper also presented an outline design for appropriate Polar Class LNG vessels. The Sverdrup Basin holds substantial reserves of hydrocarbons and minerals. As such, a safe, economic and environmentally acceptable means of transport will soon be needed for the commercial development of the Arctic. The Arctic Pilot Project (APP) was launched in 1977 by Petro-Canada to demonstrate Canadian sovereignty and to research the commercial development of natural gas resources in the Canadian High Arctic. The administrative centre of the Canadian High Arctic is at Resolute Bay, Cornwallis Island. The polar class LNG vessel was described with reference to the hull shape, bow shape, midbody forms; stern forms; performance prediction; hull structure, materials, hull girder structure and propulsion. It was concluded that LNG shipping issues are now better understood than at the onset of the APP, as evidenced by nearly 180 LNG vessels in operation and another 100 on order. The safety record of these polar class LNG vessels is second to none in the shipping industry, with a forty-year track record of never having had an accident resulting in penetration of the cargo tanks. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs., 1 appendix.

  19. Pharmacists' Scope of Practice: Supports for Canadians with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Kerry; Edmunds, Kirsten; Guirguis, Lisa

    2017-12-01

    The pharmacists' role in Canada has significantly advanced over the past decade, resulting in increasing access to primary care services. This study aimed to characterize pharmacists' expanded scope of practice as it relates to providing services to Canadians with diabetes. This environmental scan characterized services that could be useful to Canadians with diabetes in each of the provinces (excluding the territories): immunizations, medication prescribing, ordering and interpreting laboratory tests, and medication reviews. Researchers also collected information on pharmacists' access to health information. Data were collected from regulatory authorities in each province, from pharmacy stakeholders and through a web search. Pharmacists' scope of practice varies widely across the Canadian provinces. Three provinces have medication-review programs focused specifically on diabetes, and many people with diabetes can access publicly funded medication reviews. Other than in Quebec, pharmacists can provide influenza (publicly funded) and pneumococcal vaccinations (publicly funded in British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba). All pharmacists in Canadian provinces can renew prescriptions to ensure continuity of therapy. Pharmacists have varying levels of other prescriptive authority. Pharmacists in all provinces (except Ontario) can access provincial prescription information; in 4 provinces, they can access laboratory results, and in 3 provinces, they can order and interpret laboratory results, such as glycated hemoglobin levels. Canadians with diabetes can expect to receive influenza vaccines and have medications renewed at their pharmacies. Many patients with diabetes qualify for a publicly funded medication review, and some provinces allow pharmacists to order and interpret laboratory results. This expanded scope provides greater opportunities for pharmacists to help support patients with diabetes in conjunction with other health-care team members. Copyright © 2017

  20. Abortion training in Canadian obstetrics and gynecology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liauw, J; Dineley, B; Gerster, K; Hill, N; Costescu, D

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the current state of abortion training in Canadian Obstetrics and Gynecology residency programs. Surveys were distributed to all Canadian Obstetrics and Gynecology residents and program directors. Data were collected on inclusion of abortion training in the curriculum, structure of the training and expected competency of residents in various abortion procedures. We distributed and collected surveys between November 2014 and May 2015. In total, 301 residents and 15 program directors responded, giving response rates of 55% and 94%, respectively. Based on responses by program directors, half of the programs had "opt-in" abortion training, and half of the programs had "opt-out" abortion training. Upon completion of residency, 66% of residents expected to be competent in providing first-trimester surgical abortion in an ambulatory setting, and 35% expected to be competent in second-trimester surgical abortion. Overall, 15% of residents reported that they were not aware of or did not have access to abortion training within their program, and 69% desired more abortion training during residency. Abortion training in Canadian Obstetrics and Gynecology residency programs is inconsistent, and residents desire more training in abortion. This suggests an ongoing unmet need for training in this area. Policies mandating standardized abortion training in obstetrics and gynecology residency programs are necessary to improve delivery of family planning services to Canadian women. Abortion training in Canadian Obstetrics and Gynecology residency programs is inconsistent, does not meet resident demand and is unlikely to fulfill the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada objectives of training in the specialty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbiome Associated with Severe Caries in Canadian First Nations Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, M; Marques, J; Cen, L; Mittermuller, B; Huang, A; Chaichanasakul Tran, N; Shi, W; He, X; Schroth, R J

    2017-11-01

    Young Indigenous children in North America suffer from a higher degree of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) than the general population, leading to speculation that the etiology and characteristics of the disease may be distinct in this population. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted the first microbiome analysis of an Indigenous population using modern molecular techniques. We investigated the caries-associated microbiome among Canadian First Nations children with S-ECC. Thirty First Nations children <72 mo of age with S-ECC and 20 caries-free children were recruited in Winnipeg, Canada. Parents or caregivers completed a questionnaire on general and dental health, diet, and demographics. The plaque microbiome was investigated by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Sequences were clustered into operational taxonomic units and taxonomy assigned via the Human Oral Microbiome Database, then analyzed at the community level with alpha and beta diversity measures. Compared with those who were caries free, children with S-ECC came from households with lower income; they were more likely to live in First Nations communities and were more likely to be bottle-fed; and they were weaned from the bottle at a later age. The microbial communities of the S-ECC and caries-free groups did not differ in terms of species richness or phylogenetic diversity. Beta diversity analysis showed that the samples significantly clustered into groups based on caries status. Twenty-eight species-level operational taxonomic units were significantly different between the groups, including Veillonella HOT 780 and Porphyromonas HOT 284, which were 4.6- and 9-fold higher, respectively, in the S-ECC group, and Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis, which were 5- and 2-fold higher, respectively, in the caries-free group. Extremely high levels of Streptococcus mutans were detected in the S-ECC group. Overall, First Nations children with S-ECC have a significantly different plaque

  2. Western University (No. 10 Canadian Stationary Hospital and No. 14 Canadian General Hospital): a study of medical volunteerism in the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istl, Alexandra C; McAlister, Vivian C

    2016-12-01

    The Canadian government depended on chaotic civilian volunteerism to staff a huge medical commitment during the First World War. Offers from Canadian universities to raise, staff and equip hospitals for deployment, initially rejected, were incrementally accepted as casualties mounted. When its offer was accepted in 1916, Western University Hospital quickly adopted military decorum and equipped itself using Canadian Red Cross Commission guidelines. Staff of the No. 10 Canadian Stationary Hospital and the No. 14 Canadian General Hospital retained excellent morale throughout the war despite heavy medical demand, poor conditions, aerial bombardment and external medical politics. The overwhelming majority of volunteers were Canadian-born and educated. The story of the hospital's commanding officer, Edwin Seaborn, is examined to understand the background upon which the urge to volunteer in the First World War was based. Although many Western volunteers came from British stock, they promoted Canadian independence. A classical education and a broad range of interests outside of medicine, including biology, history and native Canadian culture, were features that Seaborn shared with other leaders in Canadian medicine, such as William Osler, who also volunteered quickly in the First World War.

  3. Examining Child Welfare Decisions and Services for Asian-Canadian Versus White-Canadian Children and Families in the Child Welfare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Barbara; Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Fallon, Barbara; Black, Tara; Trocmé, Nico

    2017-05-01

    Using administrative child welfare data from the Ontario Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (OCANDS), this study compared the profiles of Asian-Canadian and White-Canadian children and families that experienced a case closure after an investigation instead of being transferred to ongoing child protection services (CPS). Child protection investigations involving Asian-Canadian and White-Canadian children and families that were transferred to ongoing CPS presented a different profile of case characteristics and caregiver and child clinical needs. Asian-Canadian children and families received ongoing CPS for over a month longer than White-Canadian children and families and were less likely (odds ratio [ OR] = 0.39) to be reinvestigated for any form of maltreatment-related concerns within 1 year after case closure. It appears that child protection investigations involving Asian-Canadian children and families are less likely to be closed prematurely than White-Canadian children and families, and the child protection system may be meeting the needs of Asian-Canadian communities. Alternatively, it is possible there is unaccounted biases that may be reflective of systemic problem of discriminative practices in the child protection system. Further research is needed to explore this phenomenon.

  4. How Medical Tourism Enables Preferential Access to Care: Four Patterns from the Canadian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Morgan, Jeff; Adams, Krystyna

    2017-06-01

    Medical tourism is the practice of traveling across international borders with the intention of accessing medical care, paid for out-of-pocket. This practice has implications for preferential access to medical care for Canadians both through inbound and outbound medical tourism. In this paper, we identify four patterns of medical tourism with implications for preferential access to care by Canadians: (1) Inbound medical tourism to Canada's public hospitals; (2) Inbound medical tourism to a First Nations reserve; (3) Canadian patients opting to go abroad for medical tourism; and (4) Canadian patients traveling abroad with a Canadian surgeon. These patterns of medical tourism affect preferential access to health care by Canadians by circumventing domestic regulation of care, creating jurisdictional tensions over the provision of health care, and undermining solidarity with the Canadian health system.

  5. Oil and Gas in the Canadian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Plourde, André

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of key governance issues of relevance to the upstream oil and gas industry in Canada. The focus is on implications of Canada’s constitutional organization as a federation of ten provinces and three territories. Regulatory structures and provisions are described, as are revenue-sharing arrangements. Challenges for the environmental regulation of activities relating to oil and gas exploration, development, and production are highlighted. Implications of the evolv...

  6. The Canadian Dollar versus the Collection: How Canadian University Libraries are Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Scott

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Through 2015 and into 2016, Canadian academic libraries’ collections budgets were severely strained due to the steady decline of the CAD/USD exchange rate. As most subscription fees for electronic resources (e-resources are billed in US dollars, the falling value of the Canadian dollar significantly reduced libraries’ purchasing power. This study is based on a survey of the English-speaking member institutions of the Canadian Research Knowledge Network (CRKN, a Canadian collections consortium, carried out to determine the impact of the poor exchange rate on collections development and how libraries are coping with new budgetary pressures. Librarians from 33 universities provided survey responses. Of these, 22 participated in telephone interviews to further discuss concerns and ideas regarding the current crisis. The study finds that all participant libraries have taken actions to address the budgetary shortfall, including cancelling serial and database subscriptions, negotiating lower costs with vendors, purchasing fewer monographs, and soliciting additional funding from their institutions. While the financial strain resulting from exchange rate fluctuations is indeed a significant problem for which solutions should be sought, several respondents stressed that it only exacerbates the ongoing inflation of e-resource subscriptions. This deeper and enduring issue, which is expected to outlast the present exchange rate crisis, is enabled by an inherently flawed scholarly publishing system. Thus, librarians engaged in discussions with their wider academic communities concerning collections budgets should not focus exclusively on the exchange rate but should leverage the opportunity to explore alternatives to the current scholarly communication model. If solutions exist, they will likely only be achieved through the support of faculty and university administrators, as well as cooperation among post-secondary institutions and library consortia. Au

  7. Aging and the Necessity of a Radical Reform of the Canadian Pension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Henripin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the 29 other members of OECD, Canadian workers must satisfy themselves with a rather timorous public pension system, particularly those who earn a middle or higher income. This weakness is somewhat corrected by private pension organizations, but only a third of employees are covered by them. The author proposes that all workers have access to such programs and even that they are mandatory. There would be many of them; they would function on the basis of capitalization; they would be public or private. The choice of the capitalization financial principle is almost essential, due to future population aging. The author displays his convictions about these proposals, as well as practical ways to implement such a program.

  8. Similarities and Differences Between Yoruba Traditional Healers (YTH) and Native American and Canadian Healers (NACH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekson, Mary Olufunmilayo

    2016-10-01

    Indigenous people of the world have used the services of medicine men and traditional healers from time immemorial. According to the World Health Organization, 80 % of the world's populations consult traditional healers. With an emerging globalization of health services in the world, there is a need for western mental health practitioners to learn and understand the practices of indigenous healers across the globe. This paper will not only highlight the similarities and differences between Yoruba traditional healers of Western Nigeria and Native American and First Nation Canadian traditional healers, but it will also allow practitioners to gain clearer perspectives of indigenous clients from Yoruba land and those from the United States of America and Canada. This ultimately will inform culturally sensitive clinical practice with these populations.

  9. Why are some Children Left Out? Factors Barring Canadian Children from Participating in Extracurricular Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Using three waves of data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, this study examines the impact of child, family and community level characteristics on children’s participation in extracurricular activities between the ages of 4 and 9 (n=2,289. Results show a large positive effect of family income on children’s participation in structured activities. Living in a poor neighbourhood constitutes an extra disadvantage for children's participation in organized sport activities. Our study also identifies a positive association between parent’s education and children’s participation in most activities, and a negative association between family size and some structured activities. Furthermore, children of immigrants, as well as children of visible minority and aboriginal children were found to be disadvantaged in their participation in some activities.

  10. A European union and Canadian review of public health nursing preparation and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Ann; Aarts, Clara; Koskinen, Liisa; Campbell, Barbara; Chassé, France

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the preparation and role of the public health nurse (PHN) across European Union (EU) countries (Finland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) and Canadian provinces (Alberta, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island). A literature review including relevant peer reviewed articles from 2000 on, in conjunction, with critical debate was undertaken. The results were considered in relation to the three essential areas of PHN practice, outlined in the World Health Organization (Moving on from Munich: A reference guide to the implementation of the declaration on nurses and midwives: A force for health, 2001b) recommendations, family oriented care, public health action, and policy making. The major challenge the review revealed across a variety of international education and practice environments was the lack of consistent preparation for and engagement with leadership and policy making in practice. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. International research collaboration as social relation: an Ethiopian-Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Amy; Guruge, Sepali; Aga, Fekadu; Hailemariam, Damen; Hyman, Ilene; Tamiru, Melesse

    2011-06-01

    International collaboration in nursing and other health disciplines is vital for addressing global health issues. While the results and processes of such collaborations have been reported, few publications have addressed their philosophical or theoretical underpinnings, particularly with respect to collaboration between those in low- and high-income countries. Piaget's notion of social relations of cooperation and constraint and Habermas's notion of "lifeworld" provide a theoretical lens through which to examine international collaboration as a construction of knowledge. This article is an exploration of these ideas as seen in the collective experience of Canadians and Ethiopians organizing an interdisciplinary forum on intimate partner violence in Ethiopia. The project is presented as a case study for reflecting on international collaboration as a manifestation of social relations. Such re-visioning of international collaboration may be useful for improving collaborative processes and their outcomes.

  12. An assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Aaron T; de Wit, Cynthia A; Wayland, Mark; Kuzyk, Zou Zou; Burgess, Neil; Letcher, Robert; Braune, Birgit; Norstrom, Ross; Blum, Susan Polischuk; Sandau, Courtney; Lie, Elisabeth; Larsen, Hans Jørgen S; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Muir, Derek C G

    2005-12-01

    Anthropogenic contaminants have been a concern in the Canadian arctic for over 30 years due to relatively high concentrations of bioaccumulating and biomagnifying organochlorine contaminants (OCs) and toxic metals found in some arctic biota and humans. However, few studies have addressed the potential effects of these contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife. Prior to 1997, biological effects data were minimal and insufficient at any level of biological organization. The present review summarizes recent studies on biological effects related to contaminant exposure, and compares new tissue concentration data to threshold effects levels. Weak relationships between cadmium, mercury and selenium burdens and health biomarkers in common eider ducks (Somateria mollissima borealis) in Nunavut were found but it was concluded that metals were not influencing the health of these birds. Black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) examined near PCB-contaminated Saglek Bay, Labrador, had enlarged livers, elevated EROD and liver lipid levels and reduced retinol (vitamin A) and retinyl palmitate levels, which correlated to PCB levels in the birds. Circulating levels of thyroid hormones in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were correlated to PCB and HO-PCB plasma concentrations, but the impact at the population level is unknown. High PCB and organochlorine pesticide concentrations were found to be strongly associated with impaired humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in polar bears, implying an increased infection risk that could impact the population. In beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), cytochromes P450 (phase I) and conjugating (phase II) enzymes have been extensively profiled (immunochemically and catalytically) in liver, demonstrating the importance of contaminants in relation to enzyme induction, metabolism and potential contaminant bioactivation and fate. Concentrations of OCs and metals in arctic terrestrial wildlife, fish and seabirds are generally below effects thresholds

  13. An assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, Aaron T. [Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2152 (United States)]. E-mail: afisk@forestry.uga.edu; Wit, Cynthia A. de [Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Wayland, Mark [Prairie and Northern Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada); Kuzyk, Zou Zou [Environmental Sciences Group, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Burgess, Neil [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, 6 Bruce St. Mt. Pearl, NL, A1N4T3 (Canada); Letcher, Robert [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Braune, Birgit [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Norstrom, Ross [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Blum, Susan Polischuk [Office of Research Services, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 4J8 (Canada); Sandau, Courtney [Jacques Whitford Limited, Calgary, AB, T2R 0E4 (Canada); Lie, Elisabeth [National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 8156, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Larsen, Hans Jorgen S. [Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Skaare, Janneche Utne [National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 8156, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Muir, Derek C.G. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Anthropogenic contaminants have been a concern in the Canadian arctic for over 30 years due to relatively high concentrations of bioaccumulating and biomagnifying organochlorine contaminants (OCs) and toxic metals found in some arctic biota and humans. However, few studies have addressed the potential effects of these contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife. Prior to 1997, biological effects data were minimal and insufficient at any level of biological organization. The present review summarizes recent studies on biological effects related to contaminant exposure, and compares new tissue concentration data to threshold effects levels. Weak relationships between cadmium, mercury and selenium burdens and health biomarkers in common eider ducks (Somateria mollissima borealis) in Nunavut were found but it was concluded that metals were not influencing the health of these birds. Black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) examined near PCB-contaminated Saglek Bay, Labrador, had enlarged livers, elevated EROD and liver lipid levels and reduced retinol (vitamin A) and retinyl palmitate levels, which correlated to PCB levels in the birds. Circulating levels of thyroid hormones in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were correlated to PCB and HO-PCB plasma concentrations, but the impact at the population level is unknown. High PCB and organochlorine pesticide concentrations were found to be strongly associated with impaired humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in polar bears, implying an increased infection risk that could impact the population. In beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), cytochromes P450 (phase I) and conjugating (phase II) enzymes have been extensively profiled (immunochemically and catalytically) in liver, demonstrating the importance of contaminants in relation to enzyme induction, metabolism and potential contaminant bioactivation and fate. Concentrations of OCs and metals in arctic terrestrial wildlife, fish and seabirds are generally below effects thresholds

  14. Evolution of health technology assessment: best practices of the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocchi A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela Rocchi,1 Isabelle Chabot,2 Judith Glennie3 1Athena Research Inc., Burlington, ON, 2EvAccess Inc., Vaudreuil-Dorion, QC, 3JL Glennie Consulting Inc., Aurora, ON, Canada Background: In 2007, Canada chose to develop a separate and distinct path for oncology drug health technology assessment (HTA. In 2013, the decision was made to transfer the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR to the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH, to align the pCODR and CADTH Common Drug Review processes while building on the best practices of both. The objective of this research was to conduct an examination of the best practices established by the pCODR. Methods: A qualitative research approach was taken to assess the policies, processes, and practices of the pCODR, based on internationally accepted best practice “principles” in HTA, with a particular focus on stakeholder engagement. Publicly available information regarding the approach of the pCODR was used to gauge the agency's performance against these principles. In addition, stakeholder observations and real-world experiences were gathered through key informant interviews to be inclusive of perspectives from patient advocacy groups, provincial and/or cancer agency decision-makers, community and academic oncologists, industry, expert committee members, and health economists. Results: This analysis indicated that, through the pCODR, oncology stakeholders have had a voice in and have come to trust the quality and relevance of oncology HTA as a vital tool to ensure the best decisions for Canadians with cancer and their health care system. It could be expected that adoption of the principles and processes of the pCODR would bring a similar level of engagement and trust to other HTA organizations in Canada and elsewhere. Conclusion: The results of this research led to recommendations for improvement and potential extrapolation of these best practices to other HTA organizations

  15. Evolution of health technology assessment: best practices of the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Angela; Chabot, Isabelle; Glennie, Judith

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, Canada chose to develop a separate and distinct path for oncology drug health technology assessment (HTA). In 2013, the decision was made to transfer the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) to the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH), to align the pCODR and CADTH Common Drug Review processes while building on the best practices of both. The objective of this research was to conduct an examination of the best practices established by the pCODR. A qualitative research approach was taken to assess the policies, processes, and practices of the pCODR, based on internationally accepted best practice "principles" in HTA, with a particular focus on stakeholder engagement. Publicly available information regarding the approach of the pCODR was used to gauge the agency's performance against these principles. In addition, stakeholder observations and real-world experiences were gathered through key informant interviews to be inclusive of perspectives from patient advocacy groups, provincial and/or cancer agency decision-makers, community and academic oncologists, industry, expert committee members, and health economists. This analysis indicated that, through the pCODR, oncology stakeholders have had a voice in and have come to trust the quality and relevance of oncology HTA as a vital tool to ensure the best decisions for Canadians with cancer and their health care system. It could be expected that adoption of the principles and processes of the pCODR would bring a similar level of engagement and trust to other HTA organizations in Canada and elsewhere. The results of this research led to recommendations for improvement and potential extrapolation of these best practices to other HTA organizations worldwide, along with suggestions for continued evolution of the pCODR in conjunction with its integration into the CADTH. It is clear that the transition of the pCODR to CADTH provides an opportunity for practices initiated by the pCODR to

  16. DNA-based identification of invasive alien species in relation to Canadian federal policy and law, and the basis of rapid-response management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon G; Hanner, Robert H; Borisenko, Alex V

    2016-11-01

    Managing invasive alien species in Canada requires reliable taxonomic identification as the basis of rapid-response management. This can be challenging, especially when organisms are small and lack morphological diagnostic features. DNA-based techniques, such as DNA barcoding, offer a reliable, rapid, and inexpensive toolkit for taxonomic identification of individual or bulk samples, forensic remains, and even environmental DNA. Well suited for this requirement, they could be more broadly deployed and incorporated into the operating policy and practices of Canadian federal departments and should be authorized under these agencies' articles of law. These include Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Transport Canada, Environment Canada, Parks Canada, and Health Canada. These efforts should be harmonized with the appropriate provisions of provincial jurisdictions, for example, the Ontario Invasive Species Act. This approach necessitates that a network of accredited, certified laboratories exists, and that updated DNA reference libraries are readily accessible. Harmonizing this approach is vital among Canadian federal agencies, and between the federal and provincial levels of government. Canadian policy and law must also be harmonized with that of the USA when detecting, and responding to, invasive species in contiguous lands and waters. Creating capacity in legislation for use of DNA-based identifications brings the authority to fund, train, deploy, and certify staff, and to refine further developments in this molecular technology.

  17. The Analysis And Assessment Of An Ethics Management Tool - Canadian Marketing Association’s Code Of Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrian Cărămidaru; Sabina Irimie

    2007-01-01

    The object of this study is the Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice of the Canadian Marketing Association (CMA). The focus is on the structure, contents and the role of this tool. The developing, upgrading and implementing assigned to this code are compared to the standards proposed by Institute of Business Ethics (London).The fact that the CMA is an organization built upon a professional criteria places all its ethical rules in the area of professional business ethics, but being an asso...

  18. Organizational models of educational technology in U.S. and Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Kevin H; Kamin, Carol; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Moses, Anna; Heestand, Diane

    2008-07-01

    To examine the organizational structure of educational technology units within U.S. and Canadian medical schools in order to (1) identify organization models that support educational technology, (2) describe key attributes of these models, and (3) discuss the strengths and challenges associated with these models. The authors distributed a survey to 88 schools that had previously provided information on their educational technology services and infrastructure. The authors developed the survey through a series of pilots and, then, from the data for each respondent school, created concept maps, which were used to identify organizational models. The authors conducted analyses to determine differences among models. The authors coded the comments about organizational models and identified themes. The authors received adequate data for analysis from 61 schools (69%). Four models for educational technology organizations emerged: (1) centralized units located in the school of medicine, (2) centralized units located at the health science center, (3) centralized units at the comprehensive university, and (4) no centralized unit (Dispersed Model). The majority (75%) of schools relied on some type of centralized organization. Whereas few organization attributes proved to be statistically significant, the centralized models have more resources devoted to educational technology and a closer alignment with the academic mission than the Dispersed Model. Medical schools primarily use central models. The authors recommend that schools structuring their educational technology resources consider exploration of a central model because of its focused use of resources to improve teaching and learning.

  19. Introduction: Re-Igniting Critical Race In Canadian Legal Spaces: Introduction To The Special Symposium Issue Of Contemporary Accounts Of Racialization In Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Senthe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Osgoode Hall Law School, York University’s Challenging Conventions! Speaker Series organized Re-Igniting Critical Race: A Symposium on Contemporary Accounts of Racialization in Canada on November 2, 2012.  The symposium sought to explore critical race theory and its praxis within the Canadian legal academy by inviting emerging scholars and practitioners to engage with the scholarship of Professor Patricia Williams.

  20. Dietary Sodium Intakes and Food Sources of Sodium in Canadian-Born and Asian-Born Individuals of Chinese Ethnicity at a Canadian University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan Han; Farmer, Anna; Mager, Diana; Willows, Noreen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To document the sodium intake and food sources of sodium of Canadian-born Chinese (CBC) and Asian-born Chinese (ABC) individuals at a Canadian university campus. Participants: Healthy adults aged 18-58 years originating from Canada, China, Hong Kong, or Taiwan were recruited from the University of Alberta (n = 40 CBC, n = 41 ABC)…

  1. Economic Benefits of Self-Employment for Canadian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaie, Reza

    2015-11-01

    This paper evaluates the economic benefits of self-employment in Canada for 12 groups of ethno-racial immigrants. It tests whether or not their self-employment earnings are higher or lower than similar groups in wage and salary employment, whether ethnic minorities earn more or less from self-employment compared to White immigrants, and whether self-employment earnings of immigrant groups vary by their industrial sectors of employment. Using the Canadian Census 2006, I show that self-employed ethno-racial immigrants earn less than White immigrants. I also show that the economic benefits of self-employment depend on the ethno-racial groups and the industrial mix of their self-employment. © 2015 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  2. The Use of Phallometric Evidence in Canadian Criminal Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Michael S; Chandler, Jennifer A; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2015-06-01

    The use of phallometric evidence by Canadian criminal courts has steadily increased since the early 1980s. Phallometry was initially considered by courts to be a potentially useful tool in the determination of accused persons' culpability; however, its contemporary use is limited to the postconviction contexts of sentencing and dangerous and long-term offender applications, as one of several means of diagnosing offenders, determining recidivism risk, and assessing treatment prospects. We provide an overview and assessment of the use of phallometric evidence by Canadian criminal courts and conclude that its contemporary application appears to be consistent with the expert psychiatric consensus on its proper role and function in the forensic context. We further identify potential difficulties associated with the adequacy of offenders' consent and the occasional divergence of expert opinion about the reliability and validity of phallometry for diagnosis and risk assessment. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  3. The influence of power in the Canadian healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenandan-Sookdeo, Kendra-Ann I

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of the literature as it relates to the influence of the word power in the context of the Canadian healthcare system. The concept of power is used to explore issues of gender and the evolution of advanced nurse practice in the development of the Canadian healthcare system. Furthermore, issues related to the call for interprofessional collaboration are addressed. Healthcare workers, in particular nurses, are trusted in a society that seeks, promotes, and aspires for power and control. In addition, societal norms continue to shape our healthcare reform. As a consequence, the discussion centers on a call for true collaboration among our healthcare providers and concludes with implications for nursing.

  4. Practices of epilepsy during pregnancy: a survey of Canadian neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, C; Rieder, M J

    1993-01-01

    The optimal management of epilepsy in epileptic pregnancies remains controversial. We surveyed all neurologists in Canada to determine their usual practice in managing epilepsy during pregnancy. We identified 436 neurologists in the 1990 edition of the Canadian Handbook of Medical and Surgical Specialists. We mailed a questionnaire enquiring with respect to details of management of epilepsy during pregnancy to all neurologists; in the case of nonrespondents, a follow-up questionnaire was mailed eight weeks later. We achieved a 65% response rate. We found that carbamazepine was the antiepileptic drug of first choice for the management of epilepsy during pregnancy among the majority of neurologists (75%), while phenobarbital (10%) and phenytoin (11%) were recommended much less frequently. Eight percent of respondents never used polytherapy during pregnancy. Despite recent controversy over the reproductive safety of carbamazepine, monotherapy with carbamazepine is regarded by the vast majority of Canadian neurologists as the therapy of first choice for epilepsy during pregnancy.

  5. Clinical diabetes research using data mining: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Baiju R; Lipscombe, Lorraine L

    2015-06-01

    With the advent of the digitization of large amounts of information and the computer power capable of analyzing this volume of information, data mining is increasingly being applied to medical research. Datasets created for administration of the healthcare system provide a wealth of information from different healthcare sectors, and Canadian provinces' single-payer universal healthcare systems mean that data are more comprehensive and complete in this country than in many other jurisdictions. The increasing ability to also link clinical information, such as electronic medical records, laboratory test results and disease registries, has broadened the types of data available for analysis. Data-mining methods have been used in many different areas of diabetes clinical research, including classic epidemiology, effectiveness research, population health and health services research. Although methodologic challenges and privacy concerns remain important barriers to using these techniques, data mining remains a powerful tool for clinical research. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Canadian turbine story coming true; Une histoire de reussite canadienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-04-01

    A Canadian-based wind turbine manufacturer has shipped its first 1.5 MW turbine to a military base in California. AAER was formed in 2000 with the aim of producing Canadian-made wind turbines. The company signed a technology transfer with a German company in 2004 as well as a licensing agreement with an American company in 2007. Signing the contracts allowed the company to save time and avoid technical errors during its infancy. The company spent a long time developing relationships with potential component suppliers during a period of high demand. Agreements have been signed with major suppliers around the world. AAER currently has orders for turbines from California, Alberta, France and Korea. Production capacity at the company's plant is expected to increase. 1 fig.

  7. Canadian Military Nurse Deaths in the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the lives of sixty-one Canadian Nursing Sisters who served during the First World War, and whose deaths were attributed, more or less equally, to three categories: general illness, Spanish Influenza, and killed in action. The response by Canadian Army Medical Corps (CAMC) physicians to the loss of these early female officers who were, in fact, Canada's first female war casualties, suggests a gendered construction of illness at work in the CAMC. While nurses tried to prove themselves good soldiers, military physicians were quick to attribute their illnesses and deaths to horrific war conditions deemed unsuitable for women. This gendered response is particularly evident in how CAMC physicians invoked a causal role for neurasthenia or shell shock for the nurses' poor health. The health profile of these women also suggests that some of these deaths might have occurred had these women stayed in Canada, and it encourages future comparative research into death rates among physicians and orderlies.

  8. Ebooks Licensing and Canadian Copyright Legislation: A Few Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony G Horava

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebooks have become increasingly common in collection development strategies. The availability and delivery of monographs in digital formats has gained significantly in popularity in many libraries, particularly in the academic sector. Licensing is the common method of acquiring ebooks, whether as a subscription or a purchase. Libraries have had to transform selection and workflow processes in order to acquire ebooks in an efficient manner. Little attention, however, has been paid to the interplay between licensing as a contractual arrangement and the statutory rights available under Canadian copyright law. Fair dealing is a concept of critical importance in Canadian copyright, as it provides the foundation for user rights in support of culture, learning, and innovation. There are other provisions of specific value for libraries, such as interlibrary loans and access by persons with perceptual disabilities. This article will examine these issues and proposes a few strategies that libraries can adopt to ensure that statutory rights are not eroded in licensing agreements

  9. Ichneumonidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera in Canadian Late Cretaceous amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. McKellar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new species and two new genera are described within the wasp family Ichneumonidae from Late Cretaceous (Campanian amber collected at the Grassy Lake locality in Alberta, Canada. New taxa include Pareubaeus rasnitsyni n. gen. et sp. and P. incertus n. sp. within the subfamily Labenopimplinae, and Albertocryptus dossenus n. gen. et sp. within the subfamily Labeninae. The presence of a labenopimpline genus closely related to Eubaeus Townes within Canadian amber further supports faunal similarity between the Canadian assemblage and that recovered from Siberian amber. The records of Labeninae are the first from Mesozoic amber, and demonstrate that the subfamily was present in the Northern Hemisphere in the Late Cretaceous, as opposed to their modern, predominantly austral distribution. doi:10.1002/mmng.201300011

  10. Canadian Health Measures Survey pre-test: design, methods, results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark; Langlois, Renée; Bryan, Shirley; Esliger, Dale; Patterson, Julienne

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) pre-test was conducted to provide information about the challenges and costs associated with administering a physical health measures survey in Canada. To achieve the specific objectives of the pre-test, protocols were developed and tested, and methods for household interviewing and clinic testing were designed and revised. The cost, logistics and suitability of using fixed sites for the CHMS were assessed. Although data collection, transfer and storage procedures are complex, the pre-test experience confirmed Statistics Canada's ability to conduct a direct health measures survey and the willingness of Canadians to participate in such a health survey. Many operational and logistical procedures worked well and, with minor modifications, are being employed in the main survey. Fixed sites were problematic, and survey costs were higher than expected.

  11. [Canadian mental health rights in an international perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisstub, David Norman; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio

    2006-01-01

    This article surveys the status of people with mental disorders in the light of international human rights law and assesses if their rights are respected in the Canadian context. The authors recognize that although the national systems of countries such as Canada provide significant civil and constitutional protections on the positive rights of its citizens, including those who suffer from intellectual disability, the same cannot be said with respect to entitlements to the provision of social services. The authors argue that this shortcoming must be remedied. Finally, the authors conclude that it is paramount to closely monitor the apparent dissonance between internationally recognized rights to adequate healthcare and freedom from discrimination and their strict application in the Canadian context.

  12. Science for Every Student: Educating Canadians for Tomorrow's World. Summary of Report 36 = A l'ecole des Sciences. La Jeunesse Canadienne Face a Son Avenir. Abrege du Rapport 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Council of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Science Council of Canada conducted a 4-year study on science education in Canadian elementary and secondary schools. The study reached the conclusion that renewal science education is essential. This report analyzes the study's findings and presents recommendations for bringing about this renewal. The report is organized in four sections. The…

  13. Outlet types and the Canadian Consumer Price Index

    OpenAIRE

    Alan G. WHITE

    2000-01-01

    Recent phenomenal growth in popularity of large warehouse/discount stores has important implications for price measurement. Consumer substitution to such outlets could produce a bias in consumer price indexes (CPIs), which may be exacerbated by unrepresentative sampling and discount outlets" apparent slower rates of price increases. It is shown that in 1990-96 unit value indexes rose at a lower rate than the corresponding Canadian CPI subaggregate indexes for other household equipment, non-pr...

  14. Canadian health system. Rationing, social policy and hysteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepperman, B S

    1991-04-01

    The Canadian health care system is a recipe for lowest common denominator medical care. It imposes many of the same restrictions experienced in the United States in the gatekeeper HMO model. Centralized government control allows a more thorough ratcheting down of costs and growth limitation by bureaucracy at all levels responding to political expediency without needing to address actual medical need. Yes, in theory Canadians enjoy the full range of therapies and services available in any medical market in the United States and, yes, undoubtedly it is cheaper. Access in theory to first-dollar coverage for services does not translate well to practice if patients do not survive long enough to keep their appointment for that therapy or service. Clearly, the advocates of an American adaptation of the Canadian health care system are serious and should not be treated lightly. They understand dollars but not patients and their needs. They measure quality and efficiency of care in terms of hospital bed utilization and generic screens, not in terms of being able to deliver the best achievable appropriate care to the greatest number of eligible patients. The multiple levels of government control and the absence of effective competition in the Canadian model allow significant cost reductions in health care, but at the expense of the available range of treatment options and access to treatment. Imposition of this model in the United States would require closure of some existing facilities and reduced access to those remaining, leading inevitably to a substantial reduction of the standard of medical care practically achievable by each of us for our patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Sleep duration estimates of Canadian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Janssen, Ian

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to provide contemporary sleep duration estimates of Canadian school-aged children and adolescents and to determine the proportion adhering to the sleep duration recommendations. This study included 24 896 participants aged 10-17 years from the 2013/2014 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC), a nationally representative cross-sectional study. Bedtime and wake-up times were reported by participants and their sleep duration was calculated. Participants were then classified as having a sleep duration that met the recommended range (9-11 h per night for 10-13-year-olds or 8-10 h per night for 14-17-year-olds), a sleep duration that was shorter than the recommended range or a sleep duration that was longer than the recommended range. An estimated 68% of children aged 10-13 years and 72% of adolescents aged 14-17 years sleep for the recommended amount per night when averaged across all days of the week. Short sleepers represent 31% of school-aged children and 26% of adolescents. Long sleepers are rare (adolescents sleep ~1 h more at weekends compared to weekdays. Approximately 5% of the participants typically went to bed after midnight on weekdays and 31% did so at weekends; these proportions reached 11 and 45%, respectively, within 16-17-year-olds. In general, differences in sleep times between boys and girls are small and not clinically significant. In conclusion, almost one-third of Canadian children and adolescents sleep less than the recommended amount. Public health efforts should continue to monitor the sleep of Canadian children and adolescents and identify subgroups of the population more likely to be affected by insufficient sleep. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. Sulfite-containing Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, M.; Schuster, B.; Schellenberg, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compile an inclusive list of Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991 that contained sulfites. DATA SOURCES: Written and oral responses from 94 pharmaceutical companies selected from the 1989 Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties. RESULTS: A list of sulfite-containing pharmaceutical products was compiled from data supplied by the 90 responding companies. Companies whose products contained no sulfites were separately identified. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfites are present...

  17. Staff utilisation in branches of a large Canadian bank

    OpenAIRE

    Asmild, Mette; Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider staffing decisions in branches of a large Canadian bank. The bank has well-developed staffing models and the branches work in a highly competitive environment. One would therefore expect limited ’inefficiency’ in the sense of wasted resources and over-staffing. Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) we nevertheless find considerable ’inefficiency’ which raises the question whether this is best interpreted as waste or if the apparent inefficiency may ...

  18. Trends in Canadian Respiratory Clinical Trials from 2001 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Elizabeth Tacon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical research bridges patients’ unmet medical need with innovative medicines, increases knowledge acquisition by clinicians, and creates solutions to improve the sustainability and quality of the Canadian health care system and economy. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Canadian Lung Association have recently raised concerns over declining research activities within the Canadian respiratory community. While there are currently >3000 ongoing clinical trials in Canada, the number of trials investigating common respiratory diseases is unknown. The objective of the present study was to monitor the trends in industry- and non-industry-sponsored respiratory clinical trials in Canada from 2001 to 2011. Trialtrove 2012 (Citeline, an Informa UK business, a database containing summarized clinical trial information regarding pharmaceutical products, was searched using common chronic respiratory disease terms: “allergic rhinitis”, “asthma”, “chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD”, “cystic fibrosis”, “respiratory infections”, “pulmonary fibrosis” and “smoking cessation”. Over the past 10 years, the number of respiratory clinical trials conducted in Canada has increased (4.49 per year; P=0.004. From 2001 to 2011, the majority of trials were performed in asthma, followed closely by respiratory infections and COPD. Over the past decade, the number of trials investigating COPD and respiratory infections increased (P<0.05, while asthma trials showed a declining trend since 2007. Of the clinical trials performed during this 10-year period, the majority were in phase III, with a significant increase in the number of phase II trials (2.49 per year; P=0.008. However, certain trends observed are concerning and warrant further monitoring in the coming years.

  19. The source of the new Canadian job stability patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Brochu

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the causes of recent changes in Canadian job stability. Using the Labour Force Survey master files (19772010), I find that the increases in job stability first observed in the 1990s were, in fact, long lasting. Results indicate that compositional changes and the increased job stability of women within age and education groups play important roles in explaining the aggregate job stability patterns that emerge.

  20. Determination of the protein quality of cooked Canadian pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Nosworthy, Matthew G.; Neufeld, Jason; Frohlich, Peter; Young, Gina; Malcolmson, Linda; House, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A study to determine the protein digestibility?corrected amino acid score and protein efficiency ratio of nine different cooked Canadian pulse classes was conducted in support of the establishment of protein quality claims in Canada and the United States. Split green and yellow pea, whole green lentil, split red lentil, Kabuli chickpea, navy bean, pinto bean, light red kidney bean, and black bean were investigated. Protein digestibility?corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) and the pro...

  1. Mental health literacy in secondary schools: a Canadian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Stan; Bagnell, Alexa; Wei, Yifeng

    2015-04-01

    "Mental health literacy is an integral component of health literacy and has been gaining increasing attention as an important focus globally for mental health interventions. In Canada, youth mental health is increasingly recognized as a key national health concern and has received more focused attention than ever before within our health system. This article outlines 2 unique homegrown initiatives to address youth mental health literacy within Canadian secondary schools." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Survey of clinical nutrition practices of Canadian gastroenterologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harminder; Duerksen, Donald R

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nutrition education is a required part of gastrointestinal training programs. The involvement of gastroenterologists in clinical nutrition once their training has been completed is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the practice pattern of gastroenterologists in clinical nutrition and their perceived adequacy of nutrition training during their gastroenterology (GI) fellowship. METHODS: The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology mailed a survey to all of its 463 Canadian clinician members and 88 trainee members. Components of the survey included knowledge of nutritional assessment and total parenteral nutrition, involvement in a nutrition support service, physician involvement in nutritional assessment and nutrition support teams, obesity management, insertion of gastrostomy (G) tubes and management of tube-related complications, and adequacy of training in clinical nutrition. RESULTS: Sixty per cent (n=279) of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology clinicians and 38% (n=33) of the fellows responded. Of the clinicians, 80% were practicing adult gastroenterologists with the following demographics: those practicing full time in academic centres (42%), community practice (45%), completed training in the last 10 years (32%) and those that completed training in the United States (14%). Although only 6% had a primary focus of nutrition in their GI practices, 65% were involved in nutrition support (including total parenteral nutrition), 74% placed G tubes and 68% managed at least one of the major complications of G tube insertion. Respondents felt a gastroenterologist should be the physician’s consultant on nutrition support services (89%). Areas of potential inadequate training included nutritional assessment, indications for nutrition support, management of obesity and management of G tube-related complications. The majority of clinicians (67%) and trainees (73%) felt that nutrition training in their GI fellowship was

  3. Development of the Canadian Emergency Department Diagnosis Shortlist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Bernard; Afilalo, Marc; Boivin, Jean François; Bullard, Michael; Grafstein, Eric; Schull, Michael; Lang, Eddy; Colacone, Antoinette; Soucy, Nathalie; Xue, Xiaoqing; Segal, Eli

    2010-07-01

    Managers of emergency departments (EDs), governments and researchers would benefit from reliable data sets that characterize use of EDs. Although Canadian ED lists for chief complaints and triage acuity exist, no such list exists for diagnosis classification. This study was aimed at developing a standardized Canadian Emergency Department Diagnosis Shortlist (CED-DxS), as a subset of the full International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, with Canadian Enhancement (ICD-10-CA). Emergency physicians from across Canada participated in the revision of the ICD-10-CA through 2 rounds of the modified Delphi method. We randomly assigned chapters from the ICD-10-CA (approximately 3000 diagnoses) to reviewers, who rated the importance of including each diagnosis in the ED-specific diagnosis list. If 80% or more of the reviewers agreed on the importance of a diagnosis, it was retained for the final revision. The retained diagnoses were further aggregated and adjusted, thus creating the CED-DxS. Of the 83 reviewers, 76% were emergency medicine (EM)-trained physicians with an average of 12 years of experience in EM, and 92% were affiliated with a university teaching hospital. The modified Delphi process and further adjustments resulted in the creation of the CED-DxS, containing 837 items. The chapter with the largest number of retained diagnoses was injury and poisoning (n = 292), followed by gastrointestinal (n = 59), musculoskeletal (n = 55) and infectious disease (n = 42). Chapters with the lowest number retained were neoplasm (n = 18) and pregnancy (n = 12). We report the creation of the uniform CED-DxS, tailored for Canadian EDs. The addition of ED diagnoses to existing standardized parameters for the ED will contribute to homogeneity of data across the country.

  4. The Canadian Natural Health Products (NHP) Regulations: Industry Compliance Motivations

    OpenAIRE

    Hina Laeeque; Heather Boon; Natasha Kachan; Jillian Clare Cohen; Joseph D'Cruz

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study explores corporations' motivations to comply with new natural health products (NHP) Regulations in Canada. Interviews were conducted with representatives from 20 Canadian NHP companies. Findings show that the rationale for compliance differs for large compared to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Large firms are motivated to comply with the regulations because of the deterrent fear of negative media coverage, social motivations, ability to comply and maintainin...

  5. The CSI effect and the Canadian and the Australian Jury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Janne A; Fordham, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Television shows, such as CBS's CSI and its spin-offs CSI: Miami; CSI: Las Vegas; and CSI: New York, have sparked the imagination of thousands of viewers who want to become forensic scientists. The shows' fictional portrayals of crime scene investigations have prompted fears that jurors will demand DNA and other forensic evidence before they will convict, and have unrealistic expectations of that evidence. This has been dubbed the "CSI effect." This phenomenon was explored using results from a Canadian study based on 605 surveys of Canadian college students who would be considered jury-eligible and Australian quantitative and qualitative findings from a study that surveyed and interviewed real posttrial jurors. Information about the way jurors deal with forensic evidence in the context of other evidence and feedback about the way in which understanding such evidence could be increased were gained from both these studies. The comparison provides insights into the knowledge base of jurors, permitting adaptation of methods of presenting forensic information by lawyers and experts in court, based on evidence rather than folklore. While the Canadian juror data showed statistically significant findings that jurors are clearly influenced in their treatment of some forensic evidence by their television-viewing habits, reassuringly, no support was found in either study for the operation of a detrimental CSI effect as defined above. In the Australian study, in fact, support was found for the proposition that jurors assess forensic evidence in a balanced and thoughtful manner. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Competing Discourses about Youth Sexual Exploitation in Canadian News Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Miller, Bonnie B; Rivers, Robert; Matthews, Jennifer; Hilario, Carla; Hirakata, Pam

    2013-10-01

    Media holds the power to create, maintain, or break down stigmatizing attitudes, which affect policies, funding, and services. To understand how Canadian news media depicts the commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth, we examined 835 Canadian newspaper articles from 1989-2008 using a mixed methods critical discourse analysis approach, comparing representations to existing research about sexually exploited youth. Despite research evidence that equal rates of boys and girls experience exploitation, Canadian news media depicted exploited youth predominantly as heterosexual girls, and described them alternately as victims or workers in a trade, often both in the same story. News media mentioned exploiters far less often than victims, and portrayed them almost exclusively as male, most often called 'customers' or 'consumers,' and occasionally 'predators'; in contrast, research has documented the majority of sexually exploited boys report female exploiters. Few news stories over the past two decades portrayed the diversity of victims, perpetrators, and venues of exploitation reported in research. The focus on victims but not exploiters helps perpetuate stereotypes of sexual exploitation as business or a 'victimless crime,' maintains the status quo, and blurs responsibility for protecting youth under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Health care providers and researchers can be advocates for accuracy in media coverage about sexual exploitation; news reporters and editors should focus on exploiters more than victims, draw on existing research evidence to avoid perpetuating stereotypes, and use accurate terms, such as commercial sexual exploitation, rather than terms related to business or trade.

  7. Supplementary Educational Models in Canadian Neurosurgery Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Won Hyung A; Chan, Sonny; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2017-03-01

    The proposed implementation of work hour restrictions has presented a significant challenge of maintaining the quality of resident education and ensuring adequate hands-on experience that is essential for novice surgeons. To maintain the level of resident surgical competency, revision of the apprentice model of surgical education to include supplementary educational methods, such as laboratory and virtual reality (VR) simulations, have become frequent topics of discussion. We aimed to better understand the role of supplementary educational methods in Canadian neurosurgery residency training. An online survey was sent to program directors of all 14 Canadian neurosurgical residency programs and active resident members of the Canadian Neurosurgical Society (N=85). We asked 16 questions focusing on topics of surgeon perception, current implementation and barriers to supplementary educational models. Of the 99 surveys sent, 8 out of 14 (57%) program directors and 37 out of 85 (44%) residents completed the survey. Of the 14 neurosurgery residency programs across Canada, 7 reported utilizing laboratory-based teaching within their educational plan, while only 3 programs reported using VR simulation as a supplementary teaching method. The biggest barriers to implementing supplementary educational methods were resident availability, lack of resources, and cost. Work-hour restrictions threaten to compromise the traditional apprentice model of surgical training. The potential value of supplementary educational methods for surgical education is evident, as reported by both program directors and residents across Canada. However, availability and utilization of laboratory and VR simulations are limited by numerous factors such as time constrains and lack of resources.

  8. An Epidemiological Study of Neuropathic Pain Symptoms in Canadian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G. VanDenKerkhof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reported prevalence of neuropathic pain ranges from 6.9% to 10%; however the only Canadian study reported 17.9%. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of neuropathic pain in Canada. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a random sample of Canadian adults. The response rate was 21.1% (1504/7134. Likely or possible neuropathic pain was defined using a neuropathic pain-related diagnosis and a positive outcome on the Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs pain scale (S-LANSS or the Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4 Questions. The prevalence of likely neuropathic pain was 1.9% (S-LANSS and 3.4% (DN4 and that of possible neuropathic pain was 5.8% (S-LANSS and 8.1% (DN4. Neuropathic pain was highest in economically disadvantaged males. There is a significant burden of neuropathic pain in Canada. The low response rate and a slightly older and less educated sample than the Canadian population may have led to an overestimate of neuropathic pain. Population prevalence varies by screening tool used, indicating more work is needed to develop reliable measures. Population level screening targeted towards high risk groups should improve the sensitivity and specificity of screening, while clinical examination of those with positive screening results will further refine the estimate of prevalence.

  9. Abnormal fatty acids in Canadian children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jory, Joan

    2016-04-01

    Fatty acids are critical for pediatric neurodevelopment and are abnormal in autism, although prior studies have demonstrated conflicting results and methodological differences. To our knowledge, there are no published data on fatty acid in Canadian children with autism. The aim of this study was to investigate red blood cell and serum fatty acid status to identify whether abnormalities exist in Canadian children with autism, and to enhance future cross-study comparison. Eleven Canadian children with autism (3 girls, 8 boys; age 3.05 ± 0.79 y) and 15 controls (9 girls, 6 boys; age 3.87 ± 1.06 y) met inclusion criteria, which included prior Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, no recent medication or supplements, no specialty diets, and no recent illness. The children with autism demonstrated lower red blood cell docosahexaenoic acid (P autism than in controls, underlining a need for larger age- and sex-matched investigations in this community. A potential role for fatty acid abnormalities within the complex epigenetic etiology of autism is proposed in relation to emerging understanding of relationships between cobalamin metabolism, gut microbiota, and propionic acid production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pilot Validation Study: Canadian Global Rating Scale for Colonoscopy Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Carpentier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The United Kingdom Global Rating Scale (GRS-UK measures unit-level quality metrics processes in digestive endoscopy. We evaluated the psychometric properties of its Canadian version (GRS-C, endorsed by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG. Methods. Prospective data collection at three Canadian endoscopy units assessed GRS-C validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change according to responses provided by physicians, endoscopy nurses, and administrative personnel. These responses were compared to national CAG endoscopic quality guidelines and GRS-UK statements. Results. Most respondents identified the overarching theme each GRS-C item targeted, confirming face validity. Content validity was suggested as 18 out of 23 key CAG endoscopic quality indicators (78%, 95% CI: 56–93% were addressed in the GRS-C; statements not included pertained to educational programs and competency monitoring. Concordance ranged 75–100% comparing GRS-C and GRS-UK ratings. Test-retest reliability Kappa scores ranged 0.60–0.83, while responsiveness to change scores at 6 months after intervention implementations were greater (P<0.001 in two out of three units. Conclusion. The GRS-C exhibits satisfactory metrics, supporting its use in a national quality initiative aimed at improving processes in endoscopy units. Data collection from more units and linking to actual patient outcomes are required to ensure that GRS-C implementation facilitates improved patient care.

  11. Canadian assistance to southern African utilities to improve operational hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, L. [SNC Group, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Various hydroelectric power projects in southern African countries that have benefited from Canadian expertise and assistance under the Southern African Development Community (SADC) AAA.3.4 Hydroelectric Hydrological Assistance Project, were described. The project aims to upgrade the operational hydrology units of the SADC hydroelectric utilities in the Zambezi River Basin, focusing particularly on improving the quality, availability, accessibility and utility of the hydrometric data used for inflow forecasting and inventory purposes. The data is also used for planning and operations. A current usage is to assess the sustainability of the systems implemented under the program. BC Hydro, and the Water Survey of Canada are the principal Canadian agencies involved in providing the technical expertise. Increased confidence in inflow forecasts, increased energy production, reduced loss of water due to unnecessary spilling, improved ability to safely route floods, and to cope with droughts, and improved data for design and dam safety studies are just some of the benefits derived from this example of Canadian technical assistance in the developing countries. 12 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Canadian Consumer Food Safety Practices and Knowledge: Foodbook Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Regan; Glass-Kaastra, Shiona; Gardhouse, Christine; Marshall, Barbara; Ciampa, Nadia; Franklin, Kristyn; Hurst, Matt; Thomas, M Kate; Nesbitt, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Understanding consumers' food safety practices and knowledge supports food safety education for the prevention of foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to describe Canadian consumer food safety practices and knowledge. This study identifies demographic groups for targeted food safety education messaging and establishes a baseline measurement to assess the effectiveness of food safety interventions over time. Questions regarding consumer food safety practices and knowledge were included in a population-based telephone survey, Foodbook, conducted from November 2014 to March 2015. The results were analyzed nationally by age group and by gender. The results showed that approximately 90% of Canadians reported taking the recommended cleaning and separating precautions when handling raw meat to prevent foodborne illness. Only 29% of respondents reported using a food thermometer when cooking any meat, and even fewer (12%) reported using a food thermometer for small cuts of meat such as chicken pieces. The majority (>80%) of Canadians were aware of the foodborne illness risks related to chicken and hamburger, but fewer (food safety education in Canada should focus on increasing people's awareness of high-risk foods, specifically foods for which the awareness of risk found in this study was low; targeting messaging to demographic groups as appropriate; and promoting the use of food thermometers when cooking meat and poultry.

  13. Disparities in Canadian indigenous health research on neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Nina C; Illes, Judy

    2014-01-01

    To map the landscape of research on autism (ASD), cerebral palsy (CP), and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in Canadian Aboriginal children. The authors used a detailed search strategy to identify and access publications on ASD, CP, and FASD involving Canadian Aboriginal children, families, and communities from online databases. They analyzed these materials for the type of research, stated objectives, methodologies, and the level of engagement of Aboriginal Peoples. The authors found a total of 52 reports published since 1981 relevant to Aboriginal children. Of these, 51 focused exclusively on FASD. They also found a near-complete failure to acknowledge community involvement in research decisions or dissemination of results in any of the publications. The focus on FASD in Aboriginal children and the absence of research on the other 2 major childhood disorders are at odds with rates of these disorders across Canadian children. The authors argue that this trend violates fundamental principles ensuring equitable representation of all children regardless of background in research and access to benefits of research in health care and perpetuates stigma in an already marginalized population.

  14. Baselining Fugitive and Vented Emissions Across Canadian Energy Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, L.; Risk, D. A.; Fougère, C. R.; Lavoie, M.; Atherton, E. E.; Baillie, J.; MacKay, K.; Marshall, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    A recent trilateral accord between North American governments pledges to cut energy sector methane emissions 40-45 per cent below 2012 levels by 2025. Effective methane-reduction policy relies on accurate and spatially extensive emissions data. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of bottom-up data collection for Canadian energy developments, using vehicle-based emission screening and volumetric measurement, combined with forward looking infrared (FLIR) detection for pinpointing source. We analyzed trends across many Canadian developments using an 80,000 km survey campaign conducted in 2015-16 in which CO2, CH4, H2S, and δ13CH4 were measured in proximity to over ten thousand well pads. We found that emissions varied according to infrastructure age, operator size, product, and extraction style. Using these data, we conducted an analysis across several variables to evaluate the potential success of non-exhaustive campaigns for capturing trends, and super-emitters, across the Canadian industry. We found that campaigns would be fiscally feasible, and could be statistically significant depending on scale. However, success was very sensitive to the degree of variation amongst operators and developments, for which we suggest a Monte-Carlo type optimization approach that balances survey coverage with attention to specific localized threats. Similar analyses should be conducted in other accord countries because effective and harmonized oversight could help accelerate emissions reductions.

  15. The Hydrogeochemistry Of Fractured Plutonic Rocks In The Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoyne, M.; Kamineni, D. C.

    1994-02-01

    The composition of groundwater has been determined in selected granitic, gabbroic and gneissic plutons in the Canadian Shield as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. A similar geochemical evolution of the groundwater is seen with increasing depth or with flow along the hydraulic gradient, irrespective of rock type. This pattern is comparable to that seen in mine groundwaters from throughout the Canadian Shield. Near-surface groundwaters are typically dilute, slightly alkaline and Ca-(Na)-HCO3 in composition. They evolve to higher pH, Na-(Ca)-HCO3 compositions along the flow path because of interaction with plagioclase, calcite precipitation and ion exchange on clay minerals. At greater depths (>≈200 m), groundwater salinity increases as a result of the dissolution of Cl-rich salts in the rock matrix and, in certain areas, mixing with Na-Cl brines from seawater or basinal formation water. Stable and radioactive isotopic data for the groundwaters help to interpret these characteristics and indicate high residence times for the deeper, saline groundwater.

  16. Evolving attitudes toward robotic surgery among Canadian urology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jennifer; Robinson, Michael; MacNeily, Andrew; Goldenberg, S Larry; Black, Peter C

    2017-07-01

    Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RAS) has not been adopted as rapidly or widely in Canada as in the U.S. In 2011, Canadian urology residents felt that RAS represented an expanding field that could potentially negatively impact their training. We re-evaluate trainee exposure and attitudes to RAS in Canadian residency training five years later. All Canadian urology residents were asked to participate in an online survey designed to assess current resident exposure to and perception of RAS. The response rate was 39% (61/157). Seventy-seven percent of residents reported being involved in at least one RAS procedure (52% in 2011), and the majority had exposure to <10 cases. For those in hospitals with access to RAS, 96% desired more console time, while only 50% of those without access wanted more console experience. Of all residents, 50% felt that RAS will become the gold standard in certain urological surgeries (34% in 2011), but only 28% felt that RAS would play an increasingly important role in urology (59% in 2011). Despite an increase in exposure to RAS in residency programs over the past five years, console experience remains limited. Although these residents desire more access to RAS, many voice uncertainty of the role of RAS in Canada. We cannot conclude whether RAS is perceived by residents to be beneficial or detrimental to their training nationwide. Moving forward in the robotic era, it will be important to either modify residency curricula to address RAS experience or to limit RAS to fellowship training.

  17. Antioxidant activity of selected wild Canadian prairie fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Przybylski, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Canadian prairies are a habitat for unique wild plants. The main object of the present study was to investigate phytochemicals content and antioxidant activity in seven wild Canadian prairie fruits. The presence of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity were identified in the extracts according to standard procedure. Wild rose had the highest amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids, whereas elderberry exhibited the highest amount of anthocyanins. All extracts showed good scavenging activities towards DPPH radicals. The results showed a good linear relationship between oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total phenolics indicating that radicals are scavenged at a greater rate as the total phenolics content increases. Additionally, all extracts when applied at concentration of 800 ppm, showed ability to inhibit oxidation of canola oil. In SOT test the best results were obtained when extract of American mountain ash was used. In general, wild rose followed by American mountain ash demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity among assessed Canadian prairie fruits. From the results it can be concluded that prairie fruit extracts are a rich source of phenolic compounds and poses a high antioxidant activity, confirmed by assessment with different type of radicals employed.

  18. COACHING IN NORTHERN CANADIAN COMMUNITIES: REFLECTIONS OF ELITE COACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain P. Gauthier

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed geographical uniqueness in relation to elite coaching. The study explores the complexities associated to coaching in northern Canadian communities, and how unique geographical surroundings can affect coaching success. The views of fourteen National and International elite coaches from different northern Canadian communities are included within the study. The respondents were from 9 different sport backgrounds and averaged 17.1 years of coaching experience (range: 8-30 years. Data were gathered using a structured open-ended questionnaire, a focus group, and a follow-up in-depth semi-structured interview. Content was analyzed to uncover emergent themes. Based on the respondents' views, there is indication that despite numerous adversities, rural coaches experience advantages that are unavailable in larger urban centers. Precisely, there is evidence that northern Canadian coaches acquire unique skills while responding to the demands placed on them within their unique communities. Generalizations in regards to coaching development strategies across physical locations are questioned following the findings of the current study

  19. Emergency room visits for dental problems among working poor Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramraj, Chantel C; Quiñonez, Carlos R

    2013-01-01

    To explore the risk of visiting hospital emergency rooms (ERs) for dental problems not associated with trauma among a sample of working poor Canadians. Data stem from a telephone survey administered between March and August 2007 of working poor Canadians aged 18-64 years. Logistic regressions were employed to determine the predictors of reporting a visit to an ER for dental problems not associated with trauma. Approximately 6.1 percent of the sample reported visiting an ER in the past for a dental problem not associated with trauma. Those who were publicly insured, reported poor oral health, experienced a bed day due to dental pain, had dependent children, were lone parents, had competing needs, a history of receiving welfare, a history of an inability to afford dental care, and a perceived need for dental treatment were all more likely to have reported an ER visit. When adjusting for all variables, having experienced a bed day due to dental pain and a history of an inability to afford dental care were the dominant predictors of this outcome. A higher but not significantly different prevalence of ER visits for dental problems was found among the working poor sample when compared with the general Canadian population (6.1 percent versus 5.4 percent, P > 0.05). Further research is needed in order to provide insight into the reasons why the working poor population is seeking dental care in hospital settings. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  20. Beyond SARS: ethnic community organization's role in public health -- a Toronto experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizhen Dong

    2008-12-01

    The SARS outbreak in Toronto was a public health crisis. It was particularly frightening to the Chinese-Canadians, because of the origin of the deadly disease. The Chinese-Canadian community organizations launched various activities to help the Chinese-Canadians as well as other Asian-Canadian communities to fight against SARS and its social side-effects. From launching the SARS Supporting Line, distributing health promotional material, disseminating SARS related information, paying tribute to frontline health workers, and promoting local business, to fundraising for SARS related research; they played an active role in easing the public's anxiety, especially for the Chinese-Canadians in the great Toronto area. The culturally diverse population brought problems as well as solutions. Ethnic groups have expertise in almost all areas, including people with leadership skills. The Toronto Chinese community's experience in combating SARS is a good example. The Chinese-Canadian community organizations' activities during the SARS outbreak demonstrate that ethnic minority organizations can play an important role in public health, especially in a public health crisis, and beyond.