WorldWideScience

Sample records for canadian organizations

  1. Organizing the Canadian nuclear industry to meet the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU reactor is struggling for a share of the dwindling reactor market against formidable and well-established competition. The Canadian nuclear industry has historically depended upon two crown corporations, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. and Ontario Hydro, which have taken the lead in designing and engineering the reactor. Crown corporations are not notably successful in marketing, however, and the time has come for the industry to organize itself in preparation for an aggressive export drive

  2. Organ donation and transplantation in Canada: insights from the Canadian Organ Replacement Register

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Joseph; Fenton, Stanley SA; Kappel, Joanne; Moist, Louise M.; Klarenbach, Scott W; Samuel, Susan M; Singer, Lianne G; Kim, Daniel H.; Young, Kimberly; Webster, Greg; Wu, Juliana; Ivis, Frank; de Sa, Eric; Gill, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview of the transplant component of the Canadian Organ Replacement Register (CORR). Findings CORR is the national registry of organ failure in Canada. It has existed in some form since 1972 and currently houses data on patients with end-stage renal disease and solid organ transplants (kidney and/or non-kidney). The transplant component of CORR receives data on a voluntary basis from individual transplant centres and organ procurement organizations across th...

  3. Canadian regulatory perspective on organization and management assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian nuclear industry is undergoing change in response to a variety of internal and external pressures on licensee organizations. Operational experience also indicates that management and human performance aspects are among the leading causes of unplanned events at licensed facilities. These observations have raised the CNSC's awareness of the importance of organization and management processes and human performance to the safety performance of a facility. The CNSC is utilizing quality management and organizational assessment approaches to address this issue. The Organization and Management Review Method has been developed to carry out organizational evaluations. The method has been applied to a number of nuclear facilities in Canada. Results have provided a more complete profile of the organizations and have thereby contributed to the oversight monitoring of licensees. Some of the data are being meta-analyzed to determine what influence culture has on the other organizational dimensions and whether there are performance indicators that can predict future safety performance. We hope that a clear profile of a 'good performer' will allow us to compare and rate facilities against a series of benchmarks or standards yet to be developed. Some of the challenges that the CNSC faces with respect to the implementation of the O and M Method are being addressed. All of the information relevant to safety performance should be taken into account when giving recommendations pertaining to licensing decisions. (author)

  4. The Sustainability of Organic Grain Production on the Canadian Prairies—A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal Snyder; Dean Spaner

    2010-01-01

    Demand for organically produced food products is increasing rapidly in North America, driven by a perception that organic agriculture results in fewer negative environmental impacts and yields greater benefits for human health than conventional systems. Despite the increasing interest in organic grain production on the Canadian Prairies, a number of challenges remain to be addressed to ensure its long-term sustainability. In this review, we summarize Western Canadian research into organic cro...

  5. Circulating metals and persistent organic pollutant concentrations in Canadian and non-Canadian born primiparous women from five Canadian centres: Results of a pilot biomonitoring study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Warren G., E-mail: fosterw@mcmaster.ca [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Cheung, Anthony P. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Davis, Karelyn [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Graves, Gillian [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Jarrell, John [University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Leblanc, Alain [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Leech, Tara [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Walker, Mark [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Weber, Jean Philippe [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Van Oostdam, Jay [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    The developing foetus is thought to be at increased risk from exposure to environmental contaminants; however, developmental exposure data is notably lacking for many contaminants. Moreover, potential regional differences or effect of place of birth on residue levels measured in pregnant women is also unknown. Therefore, as part of a multinational biomonitoring study, 125 primiparous pregnant Canadian women were recruited from five Canadian centres (Vancouver, Calgary, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Halifax). Metals in whole blood and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in plasma were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), respectively. Of the 125 women recruited to this study, complete data sets were available for 123 of which 103 were Canadian born. Data were analysed by analysis of covariance and linear mixed models using age and body mass index as covariates. The metals cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and total mercury (Hg) were detected in more than 93% of the samples tested. {beta}-Hexachlorohexane ({beta}-HCH), oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p Prime -DDE), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (PBDE-153, PBDE-47), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB-138, -153, and -180), and the dioxin-like PCB congener PCB-118 were quantified in greater than 70% of the samples tested. Significant differences in the concentrations of Cd, Ni, PCB-153, and p,p Prime -DDE were found between the centres studied. Furthermore, foreign-born pregnant women had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, {beta}-HCH, PBDE-47, PCB-138, -153, -180, and p,p Prime -DDE compared to Canadian born pregnant women. Taken together, the data suggest that there are potential regional differences in contaminant body burden and place of birth may also contribute to differences in maternal residue concentrations. -- Highlights: Black

  6. An exploratory spatial analysis of soil organic carbon distribution in Canadian eco-regions

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, S.-Y.; Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    As the largest carbon reservoir in ecosystems, soil accounts for more than twice as much carbon storage as that of vegetation biomass or the atmosphere. This paper examines spatial patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) in Canadian forest areas at an eco-region scale of analysis. The goal is to explore the relationship of SOC levels with various climatological variables, including temperature and precipitation. The first Canadian forest soil database published in 1997 by the Canada Fo...

  7. The Sustainability of Organic Grain Production on the Canadian Prairies—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Snyder

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Demand for organically produced food products is increasing rapidly in North America, driven by a perception that organic agriculture results in fewer negative environmental impacts and yields greater benefits for human health than conventional systems. Despite the increasing interest in organic grain production on the Canadian Prairies, a number of challenges remain to be addressed to ensure its long-term sustainability. In this review, we summarize Western Canadian research into organic crop production and evaluate its agronomic, environmental, and economic sustainability.

  8. Representing Canadian Muslims: Media, Muslim Advocacy Organizations, and Gender in the Ontario Shari’ah Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Sharify-Funk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a highly public conflict between two Muslim non-profit organizations, the Canadian Islamic Congress (CIC and the Muslim Canadian Congress (MCC, as it played out on the pages of Canadian newspapers and Internet websites. Sparked by profoundly divergent convictions about gender norms and fuelled by contradictory blueprints for “being Muslim in Canada”, this incendiary conflict was fanned by Canadian media coverage. Focusing especially, but not exclusively, on the 2003-2005 debate over Shari’ah-based alternative dispute resolution in Ontario, I will argue that the media have played a role in constructing internal Muslim debates and identity negotiations concerning what it means to be genuinely Canadian and authentically Muslim through controversy-driven journalism that has highlighted opposing ends of a liberal/progressive versus conservative/traditional axis in a search for “point/counter-point” views. Through short stories and commentaries on controversial topicsthat juxtapose two increasingly antagonistic organizational voices, the media have not merely reflected Muslim realities, but also helped to shape them and, more often than not, reinforce polarization between a “majority Muslim” culture seeking to secure space for itself within Canadian society and a “dissident Muslim” culture that seeks to consolidate external support for internal change.

  9. Present Status of Canadian Organic-Cooled Reactor Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has been operating the first organic-cooled D2O-moderated pressure-tube reactor (WR-1) since November 1965. The operation of WR-1 and the supporting development programmes at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment are of direct interest to those seeking to exploit the advantages of organic coolants. The following contributions have been made which bear on the technical feasibility of the concept. 1. HB-40, a partially hydrogenated terphenyl mixture, has been used routinely in WR-1 at temperatures up to 370°C. It is now developed to the point where it is the major contender for use in a power reactor. It has the advantages of being liquid at room temperature and offering cost savings over other organic coolants at comparable conditions. 2. Zirconium base alloys can be made compatible with organic coolants provided 50 to 300 ppm of water are added to condition the surface of the zirconium alloy against hydrogen penetration. Chlorine contamination must be controlled. 3. Fuel can be operated at practical ratings without limitations imposed by fouling provided reasonable attention is paid to coolant chemistry. 4. Non-bonded uranium carbide fuels have been taken to bumups as high 11 000 MWd/t and would probably be acceptable at burnups in excess of 16 000 MWd/tU. These and other subjects associated with the present status of the technology are the subject of this paper. The excellent performance of WR-1 indicates that, as yet, no insurmountable technical limitation faces the designers of organic cooled reactors. (author)

  10. Measures of organizational effectiveness of Canadian national sport organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelladurai, P; Haggerty, T R

    1991-06-01

    This study of national sport organizations (NSOs) investigated the interrelationships among (a) administrators' perceptions of the effectiveness of the processes of organization, decision making, and personnel relations; (b) administrators' job satisfaction; and (c) Sport Canada ratings of NSOs in high performance, domestic sport, and combined categories. The subjects, 153 volunteer and 84 professional administrators of the 51 NSOs in Ottawa, were grouped on the basis of work status (volunteer/professional) and Olympic status (Olympic/non-Olympic). The four subgroups did not differ in levels of job satisfaction. Volunteer administrators viewed their respective NSO's processes more favourably than did the professional administrators. Higher ratings of decision making and personnel relations related positively to higher levels of job satisfaction. There was minimal association between Sport Canada ratings and administrators' job satisfaction or their perceptions of process effectiveness.

  11. Analysis of the Science and Technology Narrative within Organ Donation and Transplantation Coverage in Canadian Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cheung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organ failure is one cause of death. Advancements in scientific research and technological development made organ transplantation possible and continue to find better ways to substitute failed organs with other organs of biological origin or artificial organs. Media, including newspapers, are one source of information for the public. The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent and how science and technology research and development are covered in the organ transplantation and organ donation (ODOT coverage of n = 300 Canadian newspapers, including the two Canadian newspapers with national reach (The Globe and Mail, National Post. The study generated qualitative and quantitative data addressing the following issues: (1 which scientific and technological developments are mentioned in the ODOT coverage; and (2 what issues are mentioned in the coverage of scientific and technological advancements linked to ODOT. We found little to no coverage of many technological and scientific advancements evident in academic and grey literature covering ODOT, and we found little engagement with social and ethical issues already raised about these advancements in the literature. The only area we found to be covered to a broader extent was xenotransplantation, although the coverage stopped after 2002. We argue that the newspaper coverage of ODOT under reports scientific and technological advancements related to ODOT and the issues these advancements might raise.

  12. Presence of anionic perfluorinated organic compounds in serum collected from Northern Canadian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tittlemier, S.; Ryan, J.J. [Food Research Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Oostdam, J. van [Management of Toxic Substances Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorinated organic compounds are used in a wide variety of consumer and industrial products and applications, ranging from personal care products and cleaning solutions, to grease resistant coatings for fabric and paper and emulsifiers in the production of polymers. Perfluorinated compounds such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are persistent and bioaccumulative. PFOS and PFOA have been detected in biota sampled from around the world2, including the Canadian Arctic. Evidence from various laboratory experiments suggest that these perfluorinated compounds can elicit negative effects, including peroxisome proliferation5 and possibly hepatocarcinogenesis. PFOA and PFOS also appear to biomagnify in marine food webs, in a similar fashion as traditional organohalogenated POPs like the recalcitrant PCB congeners. Indigenous northern Canadian populations such as the Inuit and Inuvialuit often hunt and consume marine mammals, including beluga, narwhal, and seal, as part of their traditional diet. Thus, segments of these populations are often exposed to higher levels of POPs than southern populations and other consumers of market foods. This higher exposure is reflected in plasma concentrations of traditional POPs such PCBs. There is a question of whether a similar situation occurs for PFOS, PFOA, and similar perfluorinated compounds. This preliminary survey analyzed a suite of perfluorinated sulfonates and carboxylates in 23 pooled archived samples of human plasma collected from various northern Canadian populations.

  13. An exploratory spatial analysis of soil organic carbon distribution in Canadian eco-regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S.-Y.; Li, J.

    2014-11-01

    As the largest carbon reservoir in ecosystems, soil accounts for more than twice as much carbon storage as that of vegetation biomass or the atmosphere. This paper examines spatial patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) in Canadian forest areas at an eco-region scale of analysis. The goal is to explore the relationship of SOC levels with various climatological variables, including temperature and precipitation. The first Canadian forest soil database published in 1997 by the Canada Forest Service was analyzed along with other long-term eco-climatic data (1961 to 1991) including precipitation, air temperature, slope, aspect, elevation, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from remote sensing imagery. In addition, the existing eco-region framework established by Environment Canada was evaluated for mapping SOC distribution. Exploratory spatial data analysis techniques, including spatial autocorrelation analysis, were employed to examine how forest SOC is spatially distributed in Canada. Correlation analysis and spatial regression modelling were applied to determine the dominant ecological factors influencing SOC patterns at the eco-region level. At the national scale, a spatial error regression model was developed to account for spatial dependency and to estimate SOC patterns based on ecological and ecosystem factors. Based on the significant variables derived from the spatial error model, a predictive SOC map in Canadian forest areas was generated. Although overall SOC distribution is influenced by climatic and topographic variables, distribution patterns are shown to differ significantly between eco-regions. These findings help to validate the eco-region classification framework for SOC zonation mapping in Canada.

  14. Joint submission of the Canadian Nuclear Association and the Organization of CANDU Industries to the Ontario Nuclear Safety Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacturing company members of the Canadian Nuclear Association and the Organization of CANDU Industries are proud to have played their part in the development of the peaceful application of nuclear technology in Ontario, and the achievement of the very real benefits discussed in this paper, which greatly outweigh the hypothetical risks

  15. Effect of Terrain Characteristics on Soil Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen Stocks in Soils of Herschel Island, Western Canadian Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Obu, Jaroslav; Lantuit, Hugues; Myers-Smith, Isla; Heim, Birgit; Wolter, Juliane; Fritz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Permafrost landscapes experience different disturbances and store large amounts of organic matter, which may become a source of greenhouse gases upon permafrost degradation. We analysed the influence of terrain and geomorphic disturbances (e.g. soil creep, active-layer detachment, gullying, thaw slumping, accumulation of fluvial deposits) on soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) storage using 11 permafrost cores from Herschel Island, western Canadian Arctic. Our results indicate a...

  16. Biomarker responses associated with halogenated organic contaminants in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) breeding in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braune, Birgit M., E-mail: birgit.braune@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Trudeau, Suzanne [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Jeffrey, Deborah A. [Bancroft, Ontario, K0L 1C0 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L. [Environment Canada, Box 1714, Iqaluit, Nunavut, X0A 0H0 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    We examined relationships between hepatic concentrations of halogenated organic contaminants and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and retinoid (vitamin A) concentrations in livers, as well as retinol and thyroid hormone (TT{sub 3}, TT{sub 4}) levels in blood plasma, of northern fulmars at two breeding colonies in the Canadian High Arctic. Biomarker levels or responses did not differ significantly between males and females at either colony, nor was there any significant difference between colonies. No significant relationships were found between thyroid hormone or hepatic retinoid concentrations and any of the dioxin-like compounds or their Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) although significant positive correlations were found with plasma retinol (p < 0.03). EROD activity was significantly correlated with hepatic dioxin-like compounds and their TEQs (p < 0.001) as well as total PCBs (p < 0.01), which suggests that EROD induction occurs in northern fulmars at environmentally-relevant concentrations. - Highlights: > EROD induction occurs in northern fulmars at environmentally-relevant concentrations. > No relationships between hepatic retinoid or plasma thyroid hormone levels and dioxin-like compounds or TEQs. > Biomarker responses did not differ between males and females or between colonies. - EROD induction occurs in northern fulmars in the Canadian Arctic at environmentally-relevant concentrations.

  17. Persistent halogenated organic contaminants and mercury in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braune, Birgit M., E-mail: birgit.braune@ec.gc.c [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L. [Environment Canada, Box 1714, Iqaluit, Nunavut, X0A 0H0 (Canada); Butt, Craig M.; Mabury, Scott A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H6 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Northern fulmars from two breeding colonies in the Canadian Arctic, Cape Vera and Prince Leopold Island, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and total mercury (Hg). Hepatic concentrations of organochlorines and Hg were highest in the male fulmars from Cape Vera. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations did not vary significantly between sexes or colonies. However, concentrations of the perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) were higher in fulmars from Cape Vera than Prince Leopold Island. The C{sub 11}-C{sub 15} PFCAs averaged 90% of the PFCA profile at both colonies. Polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho PCBs (NO-PCBs) were measured only in birds from Prince Leopold Island. Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, NO-PCBs and Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) did not differ significantly between sexes. {Sigma}TEQ was comprised mainly of {Sigma}TEQ{sub PCDF}. Concentrations of Hg and the persistent halogenated compounds reported in this study were below published toxicological threshold values for wild birds. - Northern fulmars in the Canadian Arctic demonstrate sex-specific, colony-specific, and regional differences in contaminant profiles.

  18. Composition of carbonaceous smoke particles from prescribed burning of a Canadian boreal forest: 1. Organic aerosol characterization by gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurek, M.A.; Laterza, C.; Newman, L.; Daum, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center; Winstead, E.L. [Science Applications International Corporation, Hampton, VA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In this study we examine the molecular organic constituents (C8 to C40 lipid compounds) collected as smoke particles from a Canadian boreal forest prescribed burn. Of special interest are (1) the molecular identity of polar organic aerosols, and (2) the amount of polar organic matter relative to the total mass of aerosol particulate carbon. Organic extracts of smoke aerosol particles show complex distributions of the lipid compounds when analyzed by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The molecular constituents present as smoke aerosol are grouped into non-polar (hydrocarbons) and polar {minus}2 oxygen atoms) subtractions. The dominant chemical species found in the boreal forest smoke aerosol are unaltered resin compounds (C20 terpenes) which are abundant in unburned conifer wood, plus thermally altered wood lignins and other polar aromatic hydrocarbons. Our results show that smoke aerosols contain molecular tracers which are related to the biofuel consumed. These smoke tracers can be related structurally back to the consumed softwood and hardwood vegetation. In addition, combustion of boreal forest materials produces smoke aerosol particles that are both oxygen-rich and chemically complex, yielding a carbonaceous aerosol matrix that is enriched in polar substances. As a consequence, emissions of carbonaceous smoke particles from large-scale combustion of boreal forest land may have a disproportionate effect on regional atmospheric chemistry and on cloud microphysical processes.

  19. Assessing determinants of maternal blood concentrations for persistent organic pollutants and metals in the eastern and western Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals mainly through their consumption of a traditional diet of wildlife items. Recent studies indicate that many human chemical levels have decreased in the north, likely due to a combination of reduced global chemical emissions, dietary shifts, and risk mitigation efforts by local health authorities. Body burdens for chemicals in mothers can be further offset by breastfeeding, parity, and other maternal characteristics. We have assessed the impact of several dietary and maternal covariates following a decade of awareness of the contaminant issue in northern Canada, by performing multiple stepwise linear regression analyses from blood concentrations and demographic variables for 176 mothers recruited from Nunavut and the Northwest Territories during the period 2005–2007. A significant aboriginal group effect was observed for the modeled chemicals, except for lead and cadmium, after adjusting for covariates. Further, blood concentrations for POPs and metals were significantly associated with at least one covariate of older age, fewer months spent breastfeeding, more frequent eating of traditional foods, or smoking during pregnancy. Cadmium had the highest explained variance (72.5%) from just two significant covariates (current smoking status and parity). Although Inuit participants from the Northwest Territories consumed more traditional foods in general, Inuit participants from coastal communities in Nunavut continued to demonstrate higher adjusted blood concentrations for POPs and metals examined here. While this is due in part to a higher prevalence of marine mammals in the eastern Arctic diet, it is possible that other aboriginal group effects unrelated to diet may also contribute to elevated chemical body burdens in Canadian Arctic populations. - Highlights: • In 2005–07, younger age was related to lower levels of chemicals in northern Canada. • Eastern

  20. Assessing determinants of maternal blood concentrations for persistent organic pollutants and metals in the eastern and western Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curren, Meredith S., E-mail: meredith.curren@hc-sc.gc.ca [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Avenue West, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei, E-mail: chun.lei.liang@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Davis, Karelyn, E-mail: karelyn.davis@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Kandola, Kami, E-mail: Kami_Kandola@gov.nt.ca [Government of the Northwest Territories, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada); Brewster, Janet, E-mail: jbrewster@gov.nu.ca [Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada); Potyrala, Mary, E-mail: mary_potyrala@yahoo.ca [Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada); Chan, Hing Man, E-mail: laurie.chan@uottawa.ca [Center for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie-Curie, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals mainly through their consumption of a traditional diet of wildlife items. Recent studies indicate that many human chemical levels have decreased in the north, likely due to a combination of reduced global chemical emissions, dietary shifts, and risk mitigation efforts by local health authorities. Body burdens for chemicals in mothers can be further offset by breastfeeding, parity, and other maternal characteristics. We have assessed the impact of several dietary and maternal covariates following a decade of awareness of the contaminant issue in northern Canada, by performing multiple stepwise linear regression analyses from blood concentrations and demographic variables for 176 mothers recruited from Nunavut and the Northwest Territories during the period 2005–2007. A significant aboriginal group effect was observed for the modeled chemicals, except for lead and cadmium, after adjusting for covariates. Further, blood concentrations for POPs and metals were significantly associated with at least one covariate of older age, fewer months spent breastfeeding, more frequent eating of traditional foods, or smoking during pregnancy. Cadmium had the highest explained variance (72.5%) from just two significant covariates (current smoking status and parity). Although Inuit participants from the Northwest Territories consumed more traditional foods in general, Inuit participants from coastal communities in Nunavut continued to demonstrate higher adjusted blood concentrations for POPs and metals examined here. While this is due in part to a higher prevalence of marine mammals in the eastern Arctic diet, it is possible that other aboriginal group effects unrelated to diet may also contribute to elevated chemical body burdens in Canadian Arctic populations. - Highlights: • In 2005–07, younger age was related to lower levels of chemicals in northern Canada. • Eastern

  1. Impact of the initiatives of the CCME [Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment] management plan with regard to reduction of NOx and VOC [volatile organic compounds] in the Canadian petroleum refining and distribution industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian petroleum refining and distribution industry produces 98,300 tonnes/y of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), or 5.5% of the national inventory. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) has formulated plans for controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOC, and the Canadian petroleum industry is in broad agreement with the CCME proposals that control measures must be taken to reduce ozone levels in regions with an ozone problem (notably the Windsor-Quebec City corridor and the Fraser Valley) by taking appropriate measures to reduce emissions of ozone precursors NOx and VOC. Three types of NOx reduction initiatives are outlined: increasing energy efficiency, reducing NOx from furnaces and boilers, and modernization of certain refinery processes. Initiatives for reducing VOC include limiting the volatility of petroleum fuels, control of fugitive vapor emissions from storage tanks, recovery of such vapors from service stations and fuel transfer depots, and control of fugitive hydrocarbon emissions from refineries. The economic impacts of these initiatives are evaluated, showing important variations in terms of benefits and efficiency for the options considered. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Relationship between child abuse exposure and reported contact with child protection organizations: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Turner, Sarah; Tonmyr, Lil; Hovdestad, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Much of what is known about child abuse in Canada has come from reported cases of child abuse and at-risk samples, which likely represent the most severe cases of child abuse in the country. The objective of the current study is to examine the prevalence of a broad range of child abuse experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to IPV) and investigate how such experiences and sociodemographic variables are related to contact with child protection organizations in Canada using a representative general population sample. Data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health collected from the 10 provinces using a multistage stratified cluster design (n=23,395; household response rate=79.8%; aged 18 years and older). Physical abuse only (16.8%) was the most prevalent child abuse experience reported with the exposure to specific combinations of two or more types of child abuse ranging from 0.4% to 3.7%. Only 7.6% of the adult population with a history of child abuse reported having had contact with child protection organizations. Experiencing all three types of child abuse was associated with the greatest odds of contact with child protection organizations (AOR=15.8; 95% CI=10.1 to 24.6). Physical abuse only was associated with one of the lowest odds of contact with child protection organizations. Preventing child abuse is widely acknowledged as an important, but challenging public health goal. Strategies to increase reporting of child abuse may help to protect children and to connect families with necessary services. One obvious priority would be physical abuse.

  3. Partnering with migrant friendly organizations: a case example from a Canadian school of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Jason; Gagnon, Anita J; Merry, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide immigration to many high-income countries suggests that these countries' health care systems must become responsive to a more diverse population. Experiences working with newly arrived populations can provide healthcare students, professionals, and teachers, with valuable insight into the health and social conditions these newcomers face in both source and receiving countries. One way to gain this experience may be by developing partnerships between schools of nursing in receiving countries and international health organizations working in areas that are major migrant source regions for these countries. In this paper, we use a case example to describe, the process of identifying international, migrant-focused organizations, and the steps involved in developing partnerships with these organizations, for the implementation of a migrant health component in health professional curricula. After creating a set of criteria to evaluate partnership potential, we identified a list of international health organizations with whom we thought a partnership might be possible. Following application of our criteria, future work is being pursued with two organizations. Potential implications of this partnership include benefits to all parties involved that may help us move towards increased population and public health capacity. PMID:19581028

  4. Impact of forest harvesting on water quality and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter in Eastern Canadian Boreal Shield lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Glaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forestry activities in the Canadian Boreal region have increased in the last decades, raising concerns about their potential impact on aquatic ecosystems. Water quality and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM were measured over a three-year period in eight Eastern Boreal Shield lakes: four lakes were studied before, one and two years after forest harvesting (perturbed lakes and compared with four undisturbed reference lakes (unperturbed lakes sampled at the same time. ANOVAs showed a significant increase in total phosphorus (TP in perturbed lakes when the three sampling dates were considered and in DOC concentrations when considering one year before and one year after the perturbation only. At one year post-clear cutting DOC concentrations were about 15 % greater in the perturbed lakes at ~15 mg C L−1 compared to 12.5 mg C L−1 in the unperturbed lakes. In contrast, absorbance and fluorescence measurements showed that all metrics remained within narrow ranges compared to the range observed in natural waters, indicating that forest harvesting did not affect the nature of DOM characterised with spectroscopic techniques. Multivariate statistical analysis showed lakes to be significantly different one year after the perturbation. These results confirm an impact of forestry activities one year after the perturbation. However, this effect seems to be mitigated two years after, indicating that the system shows high resilience and may be able to return to its original condition.

  5. Persistent organic pollutant and mercury concentrations in eggs of ground-nesting marine birds in the Canadian high Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Liam E; Gilchrist, H Grant; Mallory, Conor D; Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L

    2016-06-15

    We collected eggs of eight marine bird species from several colony sites in the Canadian high Arctic located at approximately 76°N and analyzed them for concentrations of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury. We provide the first report on concentrations of POPs in eggs of three Arctic species (Thayer's gull Larus thayeri, Sabine's gull Xema sabini, Ross's Gull Rhodostethia rosea), and we found significant differences in each of the POP profiles among the five species with sufficient data for statistical comparisons (Thayer's gull, black guillemot Cepphus grylle, Sabine's gull, Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea and common eider Somateria mollissima borealis). The Ross's Gull had unexpectedly high POP concentrations relative to the other species examined, although this was based on a single egg, while glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus eggs from our sampling location had very low POPs. Sabine's gulls had the lowest Hg of the eggs studied, consistent with their low trophic position, but concentrations of their legacy POPs were higher than expected. We also noted that total hexachlorocyclohexanes were higher than reported elsewhere in the circumpolar Arctic in three species. PMID:26971212

  6. Management Practices and Their Potential Influence on Johne’s Disease Transmission on Canadian Organic Dairy Farms—A Conceptual Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pieper

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Johne’s disease (JD is a chronic, production-limiting disease of ruminants. Control programs aiming to minimize the effects of the disease on the dairy industry have been launched in many countries, including Canada. Those programs commonly focus on strict hygiene and management improvement, often combined with various testing methods. Concurrently, organic dairy farming has been increasing in popularity. Because organic farming promotes traditional management practices, it has been proposed that organic dairy production regulations might interfere with implementation of JD control strategies. However, it is currently unclear how organic farming would change the risk for JD control. This review presents a brief introduction to organic dairy farming in Canada, JD, and the Canadian JD control programs. Subsequently, organic practices are described and hypotheses of their effects on JD transmission are developed. Empirical research is needed, not only to provide scientific evidence for organic producers, but also for smaller conventional farms employing organic-like management practices.

  7. Effect of Organic Layer Thickness on Black Spruce Aging Mistakes in Canadian Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Laamrani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Boreal black spruce (Picea mariana forests are prone to developing thick organic layers (paludification. Black spruce is adapted to this environment by the continuous development of adventitious roots, masking the root collar and making it difficult to age trees. Ring counts above the root collar underestimate age of trees, but the magnitude of age underestimation of trees in relation to organic layer thickness (OLT is unknown. This age underestimation is required to produce appropriate age-correction tools to be used in land resource management. The goal of this study was to assess aging errors that are done with standard ring counts of trees growing in sites with different degrees of paludification (OLT; 0–25 cm, 26–65 cm, >65 cm. Age of 81 trees sampled at three geographical locations was determined by ring counts at ground level and at 1 m height, and real age of trees was determined by cross-dating growth rings down to the root collar (root/shoot interface. Ring counts at 1 m height underestimated age of trees by a mean of 22 years (range 13–49 and 52 years (range 14–112 in null to low vs. moderately to highly paludified stands, respectively. The percentage of aging-error explained by our linear model was relatively high (R2adj = 0.71 and showed that OLT class and age at 0-m could be used to predict total aging-error while neither DBH nor geographic location could. The resulting model has important implications for forest management to accurately estimate productivity of these forests.

  8. The imperative of strategic alignment across organizations: the experience of the Canadian Cancer Society's Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Roy; Riley, Barbara L; Campbell, H Sharon; Manske, Stephen; Lamers-Bellio, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Cancer Society's Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation (CBRPE) is a national asset for building pan-Canadian capacity to support intervention studies that guide population-level policies and programs. This paper briefly describes CBRPE's experience in advancing this work in the field of prevention. The aim is to illuminate issues of central importance for advancing the goals of the Population Health Intervention Research Initiative for Canada. According to our experience, success in building the population intervention field will depend heavily on purposeful alignment across organizations to enable integration of research, evaluation, surveillance, policy and practice. CBRPE's capacity development roles include a) a catalytic role in shaping this aligned inter-organizational milieu and b) investing our resources in building tangible assets (teams, indicators, data systems) that contribute relevant capacities within this emerging milieu. Challenges in building capacity in this field are described.

  9. A Comparative Canadian-American Study on the Effect of Television Athletics and Organized Sport on Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Paul; Moriarty, Dick

    This study investigated the attitudes, beliefs, and behavior of Canadian and American children in terms of television viewing of sports, preference for professional or amateur sport models, and proportion of violent to nonviolent television viewing. The written opinionnaire items used in the research determined: 1) demographic information on…

  10. Scenario modeling potential eco-efficiency gains from a transition to organic agriculture: life cycle perspectives on Canadian canola, corn, soy, and wheat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N; Arsenault, N; Tyedmers, P

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola (Brassica rapa), corn (Zea mays), soy (Glycine max), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  11. Scenario modeling potential eco-efficiency gains from a transition to organic agriculture: life cycle perspectives on Canadian canola, corn, soy, and wheat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N; Arsenault, N; Tyedmers, P

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola (Brassica rapa), corn (Zea mays), soy (Glycine max), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions. PMID:18574623

  12. Scenario Modeling Potential Eco-Efficiency Gains from a Transition to Organic Agriculture: Life Cycle Perspectives on Canadian Canola, Corn, Soy, and Wheat Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N.; Arsenault, N.; Tyedmers, P.

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola ( Brassica rapa), corn ( Zea mays), soy ( Glycine max), and wheat ( Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  13. Policy Dialogue and Engagement between Non-Governmental Organizations and Government: A Survey of Processes and Instruments of Canadian Policy Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Mitchell Evans

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Various analysts have raised concerns respecting declining research, evaluation and analytical capacities within public services. Typically, the decline is attributed to reforms associated with neoliberal restructuring of the state and its concomitant managerial expression in New Public Management (NPM.  This has given rise to a conceptual shift now commonly captured as a movement from ‘government’ to ‘governance’. Policy advising from a new governance perspective entails an image of a more distributed policy advisory system where a plurality of actors, including non-state actors, engages with government in deliberating policy interventions to address collective problems.The original research presented here suggests that those responsible for policy work across four policy communities in the three Canadian provinces surveyed differ in terms of their capacities, depth of commitment to a specific policy file/field, roles and functions, as well as perceptions of the policy work that they undertake. Over the past several years, a number of primarily quantitative analyses examining the processes, tools and perspectives of Canadian federal and provincial government policy analysts have been published.  Consequently, a significant knowledge-base has been acquired respecting what government policy analysts do and their attitudes toward their work but very little is known about external interactions with non-governmental organizations (NGOs.

  14. Financing Canadian international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primer on financing international operations by Canadian corporations was provided. Factors affecting the availability to project finance (location, political risk), the various forms of financing (debt, equity, and combinations), the main sources of government backed financing to corporations (the International Finance Corporation) (IFC), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Overseas Property Insurance Corporation (OPIC), government or agency guarantees, political risk coverage, the use of offshore financial centres, and the where, when and how these various organizations operate, were reviewed. Examples of all of the above, taken from the experiences of Canadian Occidental Petroleum of Calgary in the U.S., in South America, in the Middle and Far East, and in Kazakhstan, were used as illustrations. figs

  15. Origin and fate of particulate organic matter in the southern Beaufort Sea - Amundsen Gulf region, Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magen, Cedric; Chaillou, Gwenaelle; Crowe, Sean;

    2010-01-01

    To establish the relative importance of terrigenous and marine organic matter in the southern Beaufort Sea, we measured the concentrations and the stable isotopic compositions of organic carbon and total nitrogen in sediments and in settling particles intercepted by sediment traps. The organic ca...

  16. The Canadian safeguards program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Canada provides technical support to the International Atomic Energy Agency for the development of safeguards relevant to Canadian designed and built nuclear facilities. Some details of this program are discussed, including the philosophy and development of CANDU safeguards systems; the unique equipment developed for these systems; the provision of technical experts; training programs; liaison with other technical organizations; research and development; implementation of safeguards systems at various nuclear facilities; and the anticipated future direction of the safeguards program

  17. Influence of Organic Management with Different Crop Rotations on Selected Productivity Parameters in a Long-Term Canadian Field Study

    OpenAIRE

    Entz, Martin; Hoeppner, J.W.; Tenuta, M.; Bamford, K.C.; Holliday, N.; Wilson, Leanne C.

    2005-01-01

    The Glenlea long-term rotation study, located near Winnipeg, is Canada’s oldest conventional vs organic crop comparison study. Since 1992, three farming systems (grain only; grain with green manure crops; combined grain-forage rotation) were evaluated under two management systems (organic and conventional). Organic system ranked higher than conventional systems in energy efficiency and biodiversity while conventional system ranked higher in yield, weed management and soil nutrient status. ...

  18. Impact of forest harvesting on water quality and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter in eastern Canadian Boreal Shield lakes in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaz, P.; Gagné, J.-P.; Archambault, P.; Sirois, P.; Nozais, C.

    2015-12-01

    Forestry activities in the Canadian Boreal region have increased in the last decades, raising concerns about their potential impact on aquatic ecosystems. Water quality and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were measured over a 3-year period in eight eastern Boreal Shield lakes: four lakes were studied before, 1 and 2 years after forest harvesting (perturbed lakes) and compared with four undisturbed reference lakes (unperturbed lakes) sampled at the same time. ANOVAs showed a significant increase in total phosphorus (TP) in perturbed lakes when the three sampling dates were considered and in DOC concentrations when considering 1 year before and 1 year after the perturbation only. At 1 year post-clear cutting DOC concentrations were about 15 % greater in the perturbed lakes at ~ 15 mgC L-1 compared to 12.5 mgC L-1 in the unperturbed lakes. In contrast, absorbance and fluorescence measurements showed that all metrics remained within narrow ranges compared to the range observed in natural waters, indicating that forest harvesting did not affect the nature of DOM characterized with spectroscopic techniques. These results confirm an impact of forestry activities 1 year after the perturbation. However, this effect seems to be mitigated 2 years after, indicating that the system shows high resilience and may be able to return to its original condition in terms of water quality parameters assessed in this study.

  19. Does accreditation stimulate change? A study of the impact of the accreditation process on Canadian healthcare organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabah Abdo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One way to improve quality and safety in healthcare organizations (HCOs is through accreditation. Accreditation is a rigorous external evaluation process that comprises self-assessment against a given set of standards, an on-site survey followed by a report with or without recommendations, and the award or refusal of accreditation status. This study evaluates how the accreditation process helps introduce organizational changes that enhance the quality and safety of care. Methods We used an embedded multiple case study design to explore organizational characteristics and identify changes linked to the accreditation process. We employed a theoretical framework to analyze various elements and for each case, we interviewed top managers, conducted focus groups with staff directly involved in the accreditation process, and analyzed self-assessment reports, accreditation reports and other case-related documents. Results The context in which accreditation took place, including the organizational context, influenced the type of change dynamics that occurred in HCOs. Furthermore, while accreditation itself was not necessarily the element that initiated change, the accreditation process was a highly effective tool for (i accelerating integration and stimulating a spirit of cooperation in newly merged HCOs; (ii helping to introduce continuous quality improvement programs to newly accredited or not-yet-accredited organizations; (iii creating new leadership for quality improvement initiatives; (iv increasing social capital by giving staff the opportunity to develop relationships; and (v fostering links between HCOs and other stakeholders. The study also found that HCOs' motivation to introduce accreditation-related changes dwindled over time. Conclusions We conclude that the accreditation process is an effective leitmotiv for the introduction of change but is nonetheless subject to a learning cycle and a learning curve. Institutions invest

  20. Impact of Next Generation Sequencing on the Organization and Funding of Returning Research Results: Survey of Canadian Research Ethics Boards Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Jaitovich Groisman

    Full Text Available Research Ethics Boards (REBs are expected to evaluate protocols planning the use of Next Generation Sequencing technologies (NGS, assuring that any genomic finding will be properly managed. As Canadian REBs play a central role in the disclosure of such results, we deemed it important to examine the views and experience of REB members on the return of aggregated research results, individual research results (IRRs and incidental findings (IFs in current genomic research. With this intent, we carried out a web-based survey, which showed that 59.7% of respondents viewed the change from traditional sequencing to NGS as more than a technical substitution, and that 77% of respondents agreed on the importance of returning aggregated research results, the most compelling reasons being the recognition of participants' contribution and increasing the awareness of scientific progress. As for IRRs specifically, 50% of respondents were in favour of conveying such information, even when they only indicated the probability that a condition may develop. Current regulations and risk to participants were considered equally important, and much more than financial costs, when considering the return of IRRs and IFs. Respondents indicated that the financial aspect of offering genetic counseling was the least important matter when assessing it as a requisite. Granting agencies were named as mainly responsible for funding, while the organizing and returning of IRRs and IFs belonged to researchers. However, views in these matters differ according to respondents' experience. Our results draw attention to the need for improved guidance when considering the organizational and financial aspects of returning genetic research results, so as to better fulfill the ethical and moral principles that are to guide such undertakings.

  1. Impact of Next Generation Sequencing on the Organization and Funding of Returning Research Results: Survey of Canadian Research Ethics Boards Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaitovich Groisman, Iris; Godard, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Research Ethics Boards (REBs) are expected to evaluate protocols planning the use of Next Generation Sequencing technologies (NGS), assuring that any genomic finding will be properly managed. As Canadian REBs play a central role in the disclosure of such results, we deemed it important to examine the views and experience of REB members on the return of aggregated research results, individual research results (IRRs) and incidental findings (IFs) in current genomic research. With this intent, we carried out a web-based survey, which showed that 59.7% of respondents viewed the change from traditional sequencing to NGS as more than a technical substitution, and that 77% of respondents agreed on the importance of returning aggregated research results, the most compelling reasons being the recognition of participants' contribution and increasing the awareness of scientific progress. As for IRRs specifically, 50% of respondents were in favour of conveying such information, even when they only indicated the probability that a condition may develop. Current regulations and risk to participants were considered equally important, and much more than financial costs, when considering the return of IRRs and IFs. Respondents indicated that the financial aspect of offering genetic counseling was the least important matter when assessing it as a requisite. Granting agencies were named as mainly responsible for funding, while the organizing and returning of IRRs and IFs belonged to researchers. However, views in these matters differ according to respondents' experience. Our results draw attention to the need for improved guidance when considering the organizational and financial aspects of returning genetic research results, so as to better fulfill the ethical and moral principles that are to guide such undertakings. PMID:27167380

  2. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Boreal regions comprise about 17 % of the global land area, and they both affect and are influenced by climate change. To better understand boreal forest fire emissions and plume evolution, 947 whole air samples were collected aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft in summer 2008 as part of the ARCTAS-B field mission, and analyzed for 79 non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs using gas chromatography. Together with simultaneous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, CH2O, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN, these measurements represent the most comprehensive assessment of trace gas emissions from boreal forest fires to date. Based on 105 air samples collected in fresh Canadian smoke plumes, 57 of the 80 measured NMVOCs (including CH2O were emitted from the fires, including 45 species that were quantified from boreal forest fires for the first time. After CO2, CO and CH4, the largest emission factors (EFs for individual species were formaldehyde (2.1 ± 0.2 g kg−1, followed by methanol, NO2, HCN, ethene, α-pinene, β-pinene, ethane, benzene, propene, acetone and CH3CN. Globally, we estimate that boreal forest fires release 2.4 ± 0.6 Tg C yr−1 in the form of NMVOCs, with approximately 41 % of the carbon released as C1-C2 NMVOCs and 21 % as pinenes. These are the first reported field measurements of monoterpene emissions from boreal forest fires, and we speculate that the pinenes, which are relatively heavy molecules, were detected in the fire plumes as the result of distillation of stored terpenes as the vegetation is heated. Their inclusion in smoke chemistry models is expected to improve model predictions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. The fire-averaged EF of dichloromethane or CH2Cl2, (6.9 ± 8.6 × 10−4 g kg−1, was not significantly different from zero and supports recent findings that its global biomass burning source appears to have been overestimated. Similarly, we found no evidence for emissions of chloroform (CHCl3 or methyl

  3. Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools and Canadian Community Colleges: A Comparison Using the School as an Organization and Social Institution as a Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, Wiilliam Allan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare Polish post-secondary vocational institutions with Canadian community colleges. The research concentrates upon programs in tourism and information technology delivered by the two following Polish schools: "Policealne Studium Zawodowe" (Cracow, Poland), Cracow School of Information Technology; and three Canadian…

  4. Markets for Canadian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation presented charts and graphs on the market for Canadian oil. Graphs included crude oil and natural gas prices and heavy oil discount differential. Graphs depicting heavy oil economics such as bitumen blending with condensate were also included along with global crude oil reserves by country. Information on oil sands projects in the Athabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lake deposits was presented along with graphs on oil sands supply costs by recovery type; Canadian production for conventional, oil sands and offshore oil; new emerging oil sands crude types; and 2003 market demand by crude type in the United States and Canada. Maps included Canada and United States crude oil pipelines; western Canadian crude oil markets; long term oil pipeline expansion projects; Canadian and United States crude oil pipeline alternatives; and potential tanker markets for Canadian oil sands production. Lastly, the presentation provided graphs on 2003 refinery crude demand and California market demand. tabs., figs

  5. Abstracts from the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society Quebec City, April 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, S.; Finch, L; Sara', A; Muir, Susan; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Kennedy, C C; Giangregorio, L.M.; Adachi, J.D.; Morin, S. N.; Crilly, R.G.; Marr, S.; Josse, R G; Matta, J.; Dionne, I.; Payette, H

    2012-01-01

    The opinions expressed in the abstracts are those of the authors and are not to be construed as the opinion of the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) or the organizers of the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society. Although the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) has made every effort to accurately reproduce the abstracts, the Canadian Geriatrics Society and the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society assumes no responsibility and/...

  6. Canadian fusion fuels technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project was launched in 1982 to coordinate Canada's provision of fusion fuels technology to international fusion power development programs. The project has a mandate to extend and adapt existing Canadian tritium technologies for use in international fusion power development programs. 1985-86 represents the fourth year of the first five-year term of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP). This reporting period coincides with an increasing trend in global fusion R and D to direct more effort towards the management of tritium. This has resulted in an increased linking of CFFTP activities and objectives with those of facilities abroad. In this way there has been a continuing achievement resulting from CFFTP efforts to have cooperative R and D and service activities with organizations abroad. All of this is aided by the cooperative international atmosphere within the fusion community. This report summarizes our past year and provides some highlights of the upcoming year 1986/87, which is the final year of the first five-year phase of the program. AECL (representing the Federal Government), the Ministry of Energy (representing Ontario) and Ontario Hydro, have given formal indication of their intent to continue with a second five-year program. Plans for the second phase will continue to emphasize tritium technology and remote handling

  7. Environmental catalysis: the Canadian situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, T.; Christensen, D.; Gostick, J.; Mogharei, A.; Oskin, G. O.; Won, W.; Aida, T. [Waterloo Univ. ON (Canada)

    2000-10-01

    The Canadian situation with respect to research in environmental catalysis was investigated by analyzing catalysis papers appearing in the 1999 and 2000 issues of major journals devoted to research in catalysis (Journal of Catalysis; Catalysis Today; Applied Catalysis A: General and B: Environmental). A total of 2150 papers were surveyed; of these 34 were by Canadian authors, with Canada ranking twentieth in the world in terms of research in this field. About 40 per cent of the catalysis papers were related to the environment, with nitrogen and sulphur emissions being the most important topics and energy conversion second. Hydrodesulphurization of petroleum oil, use of low sulphur coal and flue gas desulphurization are the principal processes for controlling sulfur emissions into the air, while nitrogen oxides emissions in automobiles are ccontrolled bt three-way catalysts. In power generation, selective catalytic reduction is the preferred method, although not in Canada, where installing low-NOx burners or using low nitrogen fuels such as natural gas are favored. The control of volatile organic compounds is also a serious problem. The two most promising processes for the Canadian situation are adsorption by activated carbon and catalysis using low-temperature catalysts. Water treatment of textile mill effluents, a favorite topics by Canadian authors, includes photocatalytic oxidation with titanium oxide photocatalyst, ozonation with activated carbons and a combination of photocatalysis and biological treatment. Carbon dioxide conversion was also a favoured topic by Canadian researchers; not surprising in view if the fact that Canada is the highest per capita producer of carbon dioxide emissions. Nearly two-thirds of the carbon dioxide emissions is due to the transportation and energy production sectors, therefore, any carbon dioxide mitigation strategies should be applied initially in these areas. Catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide into methanol, which then

  8. VAT Treatment of public sector bodies: the Canadian model

    OpenAIRE

    Gendron, Pierre-Pascal

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines alternatives to the exempt VAT treatment of public bodies, non-profit organizations and charitable organizations (public service bodies). It focuses in particular on the Canadian VAT (the federal Goods and Services Tax) and its treatment of transactions involving public service bodies, including government to government transactions. Under the Canadian Goods and Services Tax rebate system, most supplies made by public service bodies are exempt but such bodies may claim a r...

  9. Canadian beef quality audit.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; M. Mann; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E.; C. Mills; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) wa...

  10. Canadian Irradiation Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Irradiation Centre is a non-profit cooperative project between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Radiochemical Company and Universite du Quebec, Institut Armand-Frappier, Centre for Applied Research in Food Science. The Centre's objectives are to develop, demonstrate and promote Canada's radiation processing technology and its applications by conducting applied research; training technical, professional and scientific personnel; educating industry and government; demonstrating operational and scientific procedures; developing processing procedures and standards, and performing product and market acceptance trials. This pamphlet outlines the history of radoation technology and the services offered by the Canadian Irradiation Centre

  11. Canadian heavy water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews Canadian experience in the production of heavy water, presents a long-term supply projection, relates this projection to the anticipated long-term electrical energy demand, and highlights principal areas for further improvement that form the bulk of our research and development program on heavy water processes

  12. Canadian hydrogen safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian hydrogen safety program (CHSP) is a project initiative of the Codes and Standards Working Group of the Canadian transportation fuel cell alliance (CTFCA) that represents industry, academia, government, and regulators. The Program rationale, structure and contents contribute to acceptance of the products, services and systems of the Canadian Hydrogen Industry into the Canadian hydrogen stakeholder community. It facilitates trade through fair insurance policies and rates, effective and efficient regulatory approval procedures and accommodation of the interests of the general public. The Program integrates a consistent quantitative risk assessment methodology with experimental (destructive and non-destructive) failure rates and consequence-of-release data for key hydrogen components and systems into risk assessment of commercial application scenarios. Its current and past six projects include Intelligent Virtual Hydrogen Filling Station (IVHFS), Hydrogen clearance distances, comparative quantitative risk comparison of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) refuelling options; computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling validation, calibration and enhancement; enhancement of frequency and probability analysis, and Consequence analysis of key component failures of hydrogen systems; and fuel cell oxidant outlet hydrogen sensor project. The Program projects are tightly linked with the content of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 19 Hydrogen Safety. (author)

  13. Canadian petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide ranging discussion about the factors that have influenced oil and natural gas prices, the differences of the Canadian market from international markets, the differences between eastern and western Canadian markets, and shareholders' perspectives on recent commodity price developments was presented. Developments in the OPEC countries were reviewed, noting that current OPEC production of 25 mmbbls is about 60 per cent higher than it was in 1985. It is expected that OPEC countries will continue to expand capacity to meet expected demand growth and the continuing need created by the UN embargo on Iraqi oil sales. Demand for natural gas is also likely to continue to rise especially in view of the deregulation of the electricity industry where natural gas may well become the favored fuel for incremental thermal generation capacity. Prices of both crude oil and natural gas are expected to hold owing to unusually low storage levels of both fuels. The inadequacy of infrastructure, particularly pipeline capacity as a key factor in the Canadian market was noted, along with the dynamic that will emerge in the next several years that may have potential consequences for Canadian production - namely the reversal of the Sarnia to Montreal pipeline. With regard to shareholders' expectations the main issues are (1) whether international markets reach back to the wellhead, hence the producer's positioning with respect to transportation capacity and contract portfolios, and (2) whether the proceeds from increased prices are invested in projects that are yielding more than the cost of capital. 28 figs

  14. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  15. Reform in Canadian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 67 Canadian university vice presidents and 66 deans concerning reform in recent years found that the many changes reported were modest and reactive rather than bold and proactive. Most common changes involved strategic planning, retrenchment, curriculum expansion, response to enrollment changes, administrative restructuring, and more…

  16. Proceedings of the symposium on air pollution and public health[Organized under the auspices of the Conference of New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen, D.; Drouin, L. [National Public Health Inst. of Quebec, PQ (Canada)]|[Direction de la sante publique de Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2003-09-01

    Air pollution levels throughout New England and southeastern Canada generally exceed U.S. and Canadian ambient air quality limits, most notably for ozone and particulate matter. The pollutants can reduce respiratory function and trigger asthma attacks. Acute effects are also associated with short-term peaks in air pollution levels. This two-day symposium featured presentations by scientists from Canada, the United States and Europe who described recent advances in their areas of expertise and presented recommendations to reduce air pollution and its impact on human health. The recommendations, which were compiled according to individual presentations as well as the plenary sessions of the symposium, have been classified as follows: improving the air quality database; epidemiological and toxicological research needs; and, concrete intervention to reduce air pollution-related health impacts. The six sessions were entitled as follows: (1) levels and sources of air pollution in northeastern America, (2) specific sources of air pollution, (3) human health effects, (4) air pollution and asthma, (5) epidemiology, and (6) scientific basis for regulatory approaches to air pollution standards. refs.

  17. Erosion control blankets, organic amendments and site variability influenced the initial plant community at a limestone quarry in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Cohen-Fernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Season of seeding and soil amendment with manure mix, wood shavings and erosion control blankets were evaluated over two growing seasons to determine their effect on soil properties and native grass establishment at a Canadian limestone quarry and lime processing plant. A season (fall, spring of soil amending and seeding did not significantly affect revegetation or soil properties. Site characteristics such as slope, aspect, initial soil nutrients and surrounding plant communities influenced early plant community development and overall effects of soil treatments. Erosion control blankets resulted in the highest seeded plant cover and the lowest non-seeded plant cover despite not significantly changing soil chemical properties. Total nitrogen and carbon significantly increased establishment of seeded grasses and non-seeded species. Increased nitrogen and carbon in the constructed soils were best achieved through addition of manure. Wood shavings did not favour establishment of vegetation and resulted in similar, and in some cases less, vegetation than the controls. Assisted revegetation increased plant cover from < 6 to 50% and reduced cover of non-seeded species. Amendments that modified both chemical and physical soil conditions were best to increase vegetation establishment in the harsh conditions of the quarry.

  18. Erosion control blankets, organic amendments and site variability influenced the initial plant community at a limestone quarry in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Cohen-Fernández

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Season of seeding and soil amendment with manure mix, wood shavings and erosion control blankets were evaluated over two growing seasons to determine their effect on soil properties and native grass establishment at a Canadian limestone quarry and lime processing plant. Season (fall, spring of soil amending and seeding did not significantly affect revegetation or soil properties. Site characteristics such as slope, aspect, initial soil nutrients and surrounding plant communities influenced early plant community development and overall effects of soil treatments. Erosion control blankets resulted in the highest seeded plant cover and the lowest non seeded plant cover despite not significantly changing soil chemical properties. Total nitrogen and carbon significantly increased establishment of seeded grasses and non seeded species. Increased nitrogen and carbon in the constructed soils were best achieved through addition of manure. Wood shavings did not favour establishment of vegetation and resulted in similar, and in some cases less, vegetation than controls. Assisted revegetation increased plant cover from < 6 to 50% and reduced cover of non seeded species. Amendments that modified both chemical and physical soil conditions were best to increase vegetation establishment in the harsh conditions of the quarry.

  19. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Association 35. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the thirty-fifth annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association contain 22 papers organized in the following sessions: update on the status of the Canadian nuclear industry, non-proliferation and related political issues, nuclear waste disposal perspectives, regulatory issues, trade development, new markets, economics of nuclear electricity, public acceptance or rejection. In addition one paper from a CNA/CNS special session on nuclear diffraction is included. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  20. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  1. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  2. International surgery: definition, principles and Canadian practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Ronald

    2003-10-01

    This article is dedicated to the Canadian international surgeon, Norman Bethune (1890-1939). International surgery is defined as a humanitarian branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of bodily injuries or disorders by incision or manipulations, emphasizing cooperation and understanding among nations and involving education, research, development and advocacy. In this article I review the colonial past, the dark ages following the Declaration of Alma-Ata, the progress made and the present challenges in international surgery. I present a definition of international surgery that recognizes the current era of surgical humanitarianism, validates a global understanding of surgical issues and promotes cooperation among nations. Included are the principles of international surgery: education, research, infrastructure development and advocacy. International surgical projects are classified according to type (clinical, relief, developmental) and integration strategy (vertical or horizontal). Also reviewed are the Canadian practice of international surgery by nongovernmental, professional and academic organizations and the requirements of international and Canadian funding agencies, the development concepts basic to all projects, including results-based management and the cross-cutting themes of gender equity, environmental protection and human safety. I recommend formalizing international surgery into a discipline as a means of promoting surgical care in low-income countries. If international surgery is to be sustained in Canada, infrastructure and support from Canadian surgeons is particularly important. An understanding of the history, definition and classification of international surgery should promote surgical care in low-income countries.

  3. Canadian survey on pandemic flu preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy CS; Guglietti C; Gibson JL; Wilson Kumanan; Ritvo Paul; Nie JX; Jadad AR; Upshur REG

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The management of pandemic influenza creates public health challenges. An ethical framework, 'Stand on Guard for Thee: ethical considerations in pandemic influenza preparedness' that served as a template for the World Health Organization's global consultation on pandemic planning, was transformed into a survey administered to a random sample of 500 Canadians to obtain opinions on key ethical issues in pandemic preparedness planning. Methods All framework authors and additi...

  4. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  5. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  6. Organization specific predictors of job satisfaction: findings from a Canadian multi-site quality of work life cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohfeld Lynne

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational features can affect how staff view their quality of work life. Determining staff perceptions about quality of work life is an important consideration for employers interested in improving employee job satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to identify organization specific predictors of job satisfaction within a health care system that consisted of six independent health care organizations. Methods 5,486 full, part and causal time (non-physician staff on active payroll within six organizations (2 community hospitals, 1 community hospital/long-term care facility, 1 long-term care facility, 1 tertiary care/community health centre, and 1 visiting nursing agency located in five communities in Central West Ontario, Canada were asked to complete a 65-item quality of work life survey. The self-administered questionnaires collected staff perceptions of: co-worker and supervisor support; teamwork and communication; job demands and decision authority; organization characteristics; patient/resident care; compensation and benefits; staff training and development; and impressions of the organization. Socio-demographic data were also collected. Results Depending on the organization, between 15 and 30 (of the 40 potential predictor variables were found to be statistically associated with job satisfaction (univariate analyses. Logistic regression analyses identified the best predictors of job satisfaction and these are presented for each of the six organizations and for all organizations combined. Conclusions The findings indicate that job satisfaction is a multidimensional construct and although there appear to be some commonalities across organizations, some predictors of job satisfaction appear to be organization and context specific.

  7. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  8. Canadian identity: Implications for international social work by Canadians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2011-01-01

    This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all...

  9. Canadian photovoltaic industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory has been prepared to help potential photovoltaic (PV) customers identify Canadian-based companies who can meet their needs, and to help product manufacturers and distributors identify potential new clients and/or partners within the PV industry for new and improved technologies. To assist the reader, an information matrix is provided that identifies the product and service types offered by each firm and its primary clients served. A list of companies by province or territory is also included. The main section lists companies in alphabetical order. Information presented for each includes address, contact person, prime activity, geographic area served, languages in which services are offered, and a brief company profile

  10. On Realities of Canadian Multiculturalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦辰

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a multicultural country which was mainly established by immigrants. Just because of that, Canadian govern⁃ment has carried out the policy of multiculturalism since1970s. However, it has encountered many problems such as policy con⁃flicts, national identity, democracy-inquiry and racial discrimination, etc. Hence the Canadian multiculturalism has been in a di⁃lemma.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Fluxes in the Hermine, a Forested Watershed of the Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, J.; Courchesne, F.; Turmel, M.

    2004-05-01

    Recent studies have established the essential role of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in the biogeochemical cycles of elements in forested ecosystems (McDowell and Likens, 1988). Carbon and N are essential nutrients for biological processes and growth (Kalbitz et al. 2000; Buffam et al. 2001), and they play a key role in soil acidification, pedogenesis, trace metal and nutrient transport and mineral weathering (Likens and Bormann, 1995; Williams et al. 2001). However, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the spatial and temporal variability of C and N fluxes in forested ecosystems. Moreover, the factors controlling the fluxes of dissolved C and N at the event scale is poorly understood (Prechtel et al. 2000; McHale et al. 2000; Buffam et al.2001). In this context, the first objective of this study is to quantify the fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and of dissolved N (NO3, NH4 and DON) between the biogeochemical compartments of a forested watershed (Hermine) at a range of temporal scales. The second objective is to identify the role of antecedent soil moisture conditions on the hydrochemistry of the stream, at the event scale. The results show that there is a significant difference (α = 0.05) in the concentrations of dissolved C and N between the five compartments (precipitation, throughfall, soil solution in the organic and mineral horizons and, stream). The fluxes of dissolved C and N increase as the water flows through the forest canopy to reach a maximum in the organic horizons. The decrease of dissolved C and N concentrations as the soil solution percolates through the mineral horizons is significant (α = 0.01) and is explained by the physico-chemical retention reactions (Guggenberger and Kaiser, 2003) and biological processes (Qualls and Haines, 1992). In all compartments, the speciation of total dissolved nitrogen is dominated by dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). As water flows through the soil profile, the absolute dissolved organic nitrogen (DON

  12. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  13. Canadian beef quality audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) was observed on 34% of the cattle. Bruises were found on 78% of the carcasses, 81% of which were minor in severity. Fifteen percent of the bruises were located on the round, 29% on the loin, 40% on the rib, 16% on the chuck, and 0.02% on the brisket. Grubs were observed in 0.02% of the steers, and injection sites were observed in 1.3% of whole hanging carcasses. Seventy percent of the livers were passed for human food and 14% for pet food; 16% were condemned. Approximately 71% of the liver condemnations were due to liver abscesses. Four percent of the heads, 6% of the tongues, and 0.2% of whole carcasses were condemned. The pregnancy rate in female cattle was approximately 6.7%. The average hot carcass weight was 357 kg (s = 40) in steers, 325 kg (s = 41) in heifers, 305 kg (s = 53) in cows, 388 kg (s = 62) in virgin bulls and 340 kg (s = 39) in mature bulls. The average ribeye area in all cattle was 84 cm2 (s = 12); range 29 cm2 to 128 cm2. Grade fat was highly variable and averaged 9 mm (s = 4) for steers and heifers, 6 mm (s = 6) for cows, 5 mm (s = 1) for virgin bulls, and 4 mm (s = 0.5) for mature bulls. The average lean meat yield was 59.7% in cattle (s = 3.4); range 39% to 67%. One percent of the carcasses were devoid of marbling, 1% were dark cutters, and 0.05% of the steer carcasses were staggy. Six percent of the carcasses had poor conformation, 3.7% were underfinished, and 0.7% were overfinished. Yellow fat was observed in 4% of the carcasses; 10% of carcasses were

  14. A 1000-year record of dry conditions in the eastern Canadian prairies reconstructed from oxygen and carbon isotope measurements on Lake Winnipeg sediment organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhay, W.M.; Simpson, S.; Thorleifson, H.; Lewis, M.; King, J.; Telka, A.; Wilkinson, Philip M.; Babb, J.; Timsic, S.; Bailey, D.

    2009-01-01

    A short sediment core (162 cm), covering the period AD 920-1999, was sampled from the south basin of Lake Winnipeg for a suite of multi-proxy analyses leading towards a detailed characterisation of the recent millennial lake environment and hydroclimate of southern Manitoba, Canada. Information on the frequency and duration of major dry periods in southern Manitoba, in light of the changes that are likely to occur as a result of an increasingly warming atmosphere, is of specific interest in this study. Intervals of relatively enriched lake sediment cellulose oxygen isotope values (??18Ocellulose) were found to occur from AD 1180 to 1230 (error range: AD 1104-1231 to 1160-1280), 1610-1640 (error range: AD 1571-1634 to 1603-1662), 1670-1720 (error range: AD 1643-1697 to 1692-1738) and 1750-1780 (error range: AD 1724-1766 to 1756-1794). Regional water balance, inferred from calculated Lake Winnipeg water oxygen isotope values (??18Oinf-lw), suggest that the ratio of lake evaporation to catchment input may have been 25-40% higher during these isotopically distinct periods. Associated with the enriched d??18Ocellulose intervals are some depleted carbon isotope values associated with more abundantly preserved sediment organic matter (d??13COM). These suggest reduced microbial oxidation of terrestrially derived organic matter and/or subdued lake productivity during periods of minimised input of nutrients from the catchment area. With reference to other corroborating evidence, it is suggested that the AD 1180-1230, 1610-1640, 1670-1720 and 1750-1780 intervals represent four distinctly drier periods (droughts) in southern Manitoba, Canada. Additionally, lower-magnitude and duration dry periods may have also occurred from 1320 to 1340 (error range: AD 1257-1363), 1530-1540 (error range: AD 1490-1565 to 1498-1572) and 1570-1580 (error range: AD 1531-1599 to 1539-1606). ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Kinetic models for pyrolysis and combustion of sewage sludge[Held jointly with the 4. Canadian organic residuals and biosolids managment conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, R.; Udaquiola, S. [Univ. Nacional de San Juan, San Juan (Argentina). Lab. Tec. Amb., Inst. de Ing. Qca; Gauthier, D; Flamant, G. [PROMES-CNRS, Font-Romeu Odeillo (France); Mazza, G. [Univ. Nacional Del Comahue, Neuquen (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica; Martinez, O. [Univ. Nacional de la Plata, La Plata (Argentina). CINDECA-CONICET

    2007-07-01

    In thermochemical conversion processes that produce energy, the kinetics of waste decomposition must be considered. The rate of mass loss due to thermal decomposition determines the available fuel on the fire triangle of heat, fuel and oxygen. Heating rates in thermobalance experiments are low, and are often used to study the primary reactions in the decomposition of solids since their cracking is negligible. Thermogravimetry is an option for determining the decomposition profile of a solid in terms of its temperature versus the kinetics of its decomposition. This paper presented the thermal analysis and results of a study that used thermogravimetric analyses on dry samples of sewage sludge from San Juan, Argentina in an inert and oxidative atmosphere. Three peaks were observed in all differential thermogravimetric curves during the organic matter decomposition. In order to explain the experimental data, various reaction schemes were set up. The first two schemes considered 3 fractions decomposing in parallel during pyrolysis, with oxidative pyrolysis of all fractions during combustion or only two. The third scheme considered the decomposition of 2 fractions only but with dissymmetrical behavior during the whole pyrolysis and combustion phenomenon. It was concluded that the simulations were a good agreement with the experimental data for the first 2 schemes only, and overall, the fit was better with the second scheme. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Modern and historical fluxes of halogenated organic contaminants to a lake in the Canadian arctic, as determined from annually laminated sediment cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, G A; Braekevelt, E; Helm, P A; Bidleman, T F; Outridge, P M; Lockhart, W L; McNeeley, R; Rosenberg, B; Ikonomou, M G; Hamilton, P; Tomy, G T; Wilkinson, P

    2005-04-15

    Two annually laminated cores collected from Lake DV09 on Devon Island in May 1999 were dated using 210Pb and 137Cs, and analyzed for a variety of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, short-chain polychlorinated n-alkanes (sPCAs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Dry weight HOC concentrations in Lake DV09 sediments were generally similar to other remote Arctic lakes. Maximum HOC fluxes often agreed well with production maxima, although many compound groups exhibited maxima at or near the sediment surface, much later than peak production. The lower than expected HOC concentrations in older sediment slices may be due to anaerobic degradation and possibly to dilution resulting from a temporary increase in sedimentation rate observed between the mid-1960s and 1970s. Indeed, temporal trends were more readily apparent for those compound classes when anaerobic metabolites were also analyzed, such as for DDT and toxaphene. However, it is postulated here for the first time that the maximum or increasing HOC surface fluxes observed for many of the major compound classes in DV09 sediments may be influenced by climate variation and the resulting increase in algal primary productivity which could drive an increasing rate of HOC scavenging from the water column. Both the fraction (F(TC)) and enantiomer fraction (EF) of trans-chlordane (TC) decreased significantly between 1957 and 1997, suggesting that recent inputs to the lake are from weathered chlordane sources. PCDD/Fs showed a change in sources from pentachlorophenol (PeCP) in the 1950s and 1960s to combustion sources into the 1990s. Improvements in combustion technology may be responsible for the reducing the proportion of TCDF relative to OCDD in the most recent slice. PMID:15866277

  17. Modern and historical fluxes of halogenated organic contaminants to a lake in the Canadian arctic, as determined from annually laminated sediment cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two annually laminated cores collected from Lake DV09 on Devon Island in May 1999 were dated using 210Pb and 137Cs, and analyzed for a variety of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, short-chain polychlorinated n-alkanes (sPCAs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Dry weight HOC concentrations in Lake DV09 sediments were generally similar to other remote Arctic lakes. Maximum HOC fluxes often agreed well with production maxima, although many compound groups exhibited maxima at or near the sediment surface, much later than peak production. The lower than expected HOC concentrations in older sediment slices may be due to anaerobic degradation and possibly to dilution resulting from a temporary increase in sedimentation rate observed between the mid-1960s and 1970s. Indeed, temporal trends were more readily apparent for those compound classes when anaerobic metabolites were also analyzed, such as for DDT and toxaphene. However, it is postulated here for the first time that the maximum or increasing HOC surface fluxes observed for many of the major compound classes in DV09 sediments may be influenced by climate variation and the resulting increase in algal primary productivity which could drive an increasing rate of HOC scavenging from the water column. Both the fraction (F TC) and enantiomer fraction (EF) of trans-chlordane (TC) decreased significantly between 1957 and 1997, suggesting that recent inputs to the lake are from weathered chlordane sources. PCDD/Fs showed a change in sources from pentachlorophenol (PeCP) in the 1950s and 1960s to combustion sources into the 1990s. Improvements in combustion technology may be responsible for the reducing the proportion of TCDF relative to OCDD in the most recent slice

  18. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  19. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1–C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Boreal regions comprise about 17% of the global land area, and they both affect and are influenced by climate change. To better understand boreal forest fire emissions and plume evolution, 947 whole air samples were collected aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft in summer 2008 as part of the ARCTAS-B field mission, and analyzed for 79 non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs using gas chromatography. Together with simultaneous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, CH2O, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN, these measurements represent the most comprehensive assessment of trace gas emissions from boreal forest fires to date. Based on 105 air samples collected in fresh Canadian smoke plumes, 57 of the 80 measured NMVOCs (including CH2O were emitted from the fires, including 45 species that were quantified from boreal forest fires for the first time. After CO2, CO and CH4, the largest emission factors (EFs for individual species were formaldehyde (2.1 ± 0.2 g kg−1, followed by methanol, NO2, HCN, ethene, α-pinene, β-pinene, ethane, benzene, propene, acetone and CH3CN. Globally, we estimate that boreal forest fires release 2.4 ± 0.6 Tg C yr−1 in the form of NMVOCs, with approximately 41% of the carbon released as C1–C2 NMVOCs and 21% as pinenes. These are the first reported field measurements of monoterpene emissions from boreal forest fires, and we speculate that the pinenes, which are relatively heavy molecules, were detected in the fire plumes as the result of distillation of stored terpenes as the vegetation is heated. Their inclusion in smoke chemistry models is expected to improve model predictions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. The fire-averaged EF of dichloromethane or CH2Cl2, (6.9 ± 8.6 ×10−4 g kg−1, was not significantly different from zero and supports recent findings that its global biomass burning source appears to have been overestimated. Similarly, we found no evidence for emissions of chloroform (CHCl3 or methyl

  20. Implementing Freer Trade: The Canadian Experience 1986 - 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Michael M. Hart

    2009-01-01

    Between 1986 and 1995, the government of Canada negotiated and implemented three major international trade agreements: the 1989 Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (CUFTA), the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the 1995 World Trade Organization Agreement (WTO). Individually, each marked a major venture; together, the three agreements constituted a revolution in Canadian trade policy making.

  1. Canadian leadership in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. In their own words: describing Canadian physician leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Anita J; Dickson, Graham; Wirtzfeld, Debrah; Van Aerde, John

    2016-07-01

    Purpose This is the first study to compile statistical data to describe the functions and responsibilities of physicians in formal and informal leadership roles in the Canadian health system. This mixed-methods research study offers baseline data relative to this purpose, and also describes physician leaders' views on fundamental aspects of their leadership responsibility. Design/methodology/approach A survey with both quantitative and qualitative fields yielded 689 valid responses from physician leaders. Data from the survey were utilized in the development of a semi-structured interview guide; 15 physician leaders were interviewed. Findings A profile of Canadian physician leadership has been compiled, including demographics; an outline of roles, responsibilities, time commitments and related compensation; and personal factors that support, engage and deter physicians when considering taking on leadership roles. The role of health-care organizations in encouraging and supporting physician leadership is explicated. Practical implications The baseline data on Canadian physician leaders create the opportunity to determine potential steps for improving the state of physician leadership in Canada; and health-care organizations are provided with a wealth of information on how to encourage and support physician leaders. Using the data as a benchmark, comparisons can also be made with physician leadership as practiced in other nations. Originality/value There are no other research studies available that provide the depth and breadth of detail on Canadian physician leadership, and the embedded recommendations to health-care organizations are informed by this in-depth knowledge. PMID:27397749

  3. In their own words: describing Canadian physician leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Anita J; Dickson, Graham; Wirtzfeld, Debrah; Van Aerde, John

    2016-07-01

    Purpose This is the first study to compile statistical data to describe the functions and responsibilities of physicians in formal and informal leadership roles in the Canadian health system. This mixed-methods research study offers baseline data relative to this purpose, and also describes physician leaders' views on fundamental aspects of their leadership responsibility. Design/methodology/approach A survey with both quantitative and qualitative fields yielded 689 valid responses from physician leaders. Data from the survey were utilized in the development of a semi-structured interview guide; 15 physician leaders were interviewed. Findings A profile of Canadian physician leadership has been compiled, including demographics; an outline of roles, responsibilities, time commitments and related compensation; and personal factors that support, engage and deter physicians when considering taking on leadership roles. The role of health-care organizations in encouraging and supporting physician leadership is explicated. Practical implications The baseline data on Canadian physician leaders create the opportunity to determine potential steps for improving the state of physician leadership in Canada; and health-care organizations are provided with a wealth of information on how to encourage and support physician leaders. Using the data as a benchmark, comparisons can also be made with physician leadership as practiced in other nations. Originality/value There are no other research studies available that provide the depth and breadth of detail on Canadian physician leadership, and the embedded recommendations to health-care organizations are informed by this in-depth knowledge.

  4. Harvey Cushing's Canadian connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feindel, William

    2003-01-01

    During his surgical career between 1896 and 1934, Harvey Cushing made eight visits to Canada. He had a broad impact on Canadian medicine and neurosurgery. Cushing's students Wilder Penfield and Kenneth McKenzie became outstanding leaders of the two major centers in Canada for neurosurgical treatment and training. On his first trip to Canada, shortly after completing his surgical internship in August 1896, Cushing traveled with members of his family through the Maritime Provinces and visited hospitals in Quebec and Montreal. Eight years later, in February 1904, as a successful young neurosurgeon at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, he reported to the Montreal Medico-Chirurgical Society on his surgical experience in 20 cases of removal of the trigeminal ganglion for neuralgia. In 1922, as the Charles Mickle Lecturer at the University of Toronto, Cushing assigned his honorarium of $1000 to support a neurosurgical fellowship at Harvard. This was awarded to McKenzie, then a general practitioner, for a year's training with Cushing in 1922-1923. McKenzie returned to initiate the neurosurgical services at the Toronto General Hospital, where he developed into a master surgeon and teacher. On Cushing's second visit to McGill University in October 1922, he and Sir Charles Sherrington inaugurated the new Biology Building of McGill's Medical School, marking the first stage of a Rockefeller-McGill program of modernization. In May 1929, Cushing attended the dedication of the Osler Library at McGill. In September 1934, responding to the invitation of Penfield, Cushing presented a Foundation Lecture-one of his finest addresses on the philosophy of neurosurgery-at the opening of the Montreal Neurological Institute. On that same trip, Cushing's revisit to McGill's Osler Library convinced him to turn over his own treasure of historical books to Yale University.

  5. Canadian physical activity guidelines for adults: are Canadians aware?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; LeBlanc, Allana G; Orr, Krystn; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norm; Rhodes, Ryan E; Tremblay, Mark S; Faulkner, Guy

    2016-09-01

    The present study evaluated awareness of the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology's 2011 Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults and assessed correlates. Reported awareness of the physical activity (PA) guidelines was 12.9% (204/1586) of the total sample surveyed. More than half (55%) self-reported meeting PA guidelines of ≥ 150 min of moderate to vigorous PA per week. Awareness of PA guidelines was significantly related to participants' level of PA (χ(2) (1) = 30.63, p < 0.001, φ = -0.14), but not to any demographic variables. PMID:27560541

  6. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  7. Political Affiliation of Canadian Professors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reza Nakhaie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The social role of universities has been the subject of a lengthy debate as to whether those who teach in the academy are system-legitimizing conservatives or radicals helping to generate critical thinking that challenges the status quo. The aim of this paper is to evaluate political affiliations of Canadian university professors based on a national survey conducted in 2000. The study shows that Canadian professors’ political affiliation can be identified as either left or right depending on how the political orientation of political parties is conceptualized. University professors tend to vote more for the Liberal Party than other parties, and view it as centrist party. Moreover, the study highlights a complex and non-monolithic picture of the Canadian academy. University professors are not politically homogenous and party vote depends on the prestige of their university, their discipline, gender, ethnicity, marital status, generation, and agreement with liberalism.

  8. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we present the design review done to date in Canada by AECL. From the Canadian point of view it covers: 1) relevant information on the Chernobyl design and the accident, both as presented by the Soviets at the Post-Accident Review Meeting (PARM) held in Vienna from August 25-29, 1986, and as deduced from publicly available Soviet documentation; and 2) details of AECL's technical review of the CANDU PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) against the background of the Chernobyl accident, and implications of the Chernobyl accident. Reviews of operational aspects are underway by the Canadian electrical utilities and a review by the Canadian regulatory agency (the Atomic Energy Control Board) is near completion

  9. A Topography for Canadian Curriculum Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Cynthia

    1999-01-01

    Presents challenges to Canadian curriculum theorists: (1) to create curriculum languages and genres that represent all of Canada; (2) to use Canadian scholars and indigenous languages to find these curriculum languages and genres; (3) to seek interpretive tools to understand what it means to be Canadian; and (4) to create curriculum theory that…

  10. Canadian contributions studies for the WFIRST instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, J.-F.; Rowlands, N.; Grandmont, F. J.; Lafrenière, D.; Marois, C.; Daigle, O.; Thibault, S.; Schade, D.; Artigau, É.; Brousseau, D.; Maire, J.; Cretot-Richert, G.; Ducharme, M.-È.; Levesque, L. E.; Laurin, D.; Dupuis, J.

    2016-07-01

    WFIRST-AFTA is the NASA's highest ranked astrophysics mission for the next decade that was identified in the New World, New Horizon survey. The mission scientific drivers correspond to some of the deep questions identified in the Canadian LRP2010, and are also of great interest for the Canadian scientists. Given that there is also a great interest in having an international collaboration in this mission, the Canadian Space Agency awarded two contracts to study a Canadian participation in the mission, one related to each instrument. This paper presents a summary of the technical contributions that were considered for a Canadian contribution to the coronagraph and wide field instruments.

  11. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  12. Canadian Postcolonialism: Recovering British Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2005-01-01

    The field of Postcolonial Studies is one of the academic fashions that has arisen in an attempt to amend or replace radical theories of social power since the alleged discrediting of Marxism. The Canadian case is more ambiguous. Postcolonialism, already an essentially contested concept, is especially conflicted where Canada is concerned. Canada…

  13. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  14. Nuclear regulation - the Canadian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the Atomic Energy Control Board was established 35 years ago the basic philosophy of nuclear regulation in Canada and the underlying principles of the regulatory process remain essentially unchanged. This paper outlines the Canadian approach to nuclear regulation and explains in practical terms how the principles of regulation are applied. (author)

  15. Refining estimates of public health spending as measured in national health expenditure accounts: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    The recent focus on public health stemming from, among other things, severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian flu has created an imperative to refine health-spending estimates in the Canadian Health Accounts. This article presents the Canadian experience in attempting to address the challenges associated with developing the needed taxonomies for systematically capturing, measuring, and analyzing the national investment in the Canadian public health system. The first phase of this process was completed in 2005, which was a 2-year project to estimate public health spending based on a more classic definition by removing the administration component of the previously combined public health and administration category. Comparing the refined public health estimate with recent data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development still positions Canada with the highest share of total health expenditure devoted to public health than any other country reporting. The article also provides an analysis of the comparability of public health estimates across jurisdictions within Canada as well as a discussion of the recommendations for ongoing improvement of public health spending estimates. The Canadian Institute for Health Information is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides Canadians with essential statistics and analysis on the performance of the Canadian health system, the delivery of healthcare, and the health status of Canadians. The Canadian Institute for Health Information administers more than 20 databases and registries, including Canada's Health Accounts, which tracks historically 40 categories of health spending by 5 sources of finance for 13 provincial and territorial jurisdictions. Until 2005, expenditure on public health services in the Canadian Health Accounts included measures to prevent the spread of communicable disease, food and drug safety, health inspections, health promotion, community mental health programs, public

  16. Refining estimates of public health spending as measured in national health expenditure accounts: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    The recent focus on public health stemming from, among other things, severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian flu has created an imperative to refine health-spending estimates in the Canadian Health Accounts. This article presents the Canadian experience in attempting to address the challenges associated with developing the needed taxonomies for systematically capturing, measuring, and analyzing the national investment in the Canadian public health system. The first phase of this process was completed in 2005, which was a 2-year project to estimate public health spending based on a more classic definition by removing the administration component of the previously combined public health and administration category. Comparing the refined public health estimate with recent data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development still positions Canada with the highest share of total health expenditure devoted to public health than any other country reporting. The article also provides an analysis of the comparability of public health estimates across jurisdictions within Canada as well as a discussion of the recommendations for ongoing improvement of public health spending estimates. The Canadian Institute for Health Information is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides Canadians with essential statistics and analysis on the performance of the Canadian health system, the delivery of healthcare, and the health status of Canadians. The Canadian Institute for Health Information administers more than 20 databases and registries, including Canada's Health Accounts, which tracks historically 40 categories of health spending by 5 sources of finance for 13 provincial and territorial jurisdictions. Until 2005, expenditure on public health services in the Canadian Health Accounts included measures to prevent the spread of communicable disease, food and drug safety, health inspections, health promotion, community mental health programs, public

  17. CANADIAN APPAREL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Jocelyn Bellemare; Serge Carrier

    2013-01-01

    The textile/apparel has changed dramatically in the last 20 years. The decisions by the World Trade Organization to eliminate quotas and reduce tariffs, the multiple free trade agreements signed between countries, the ease of doing international business, as well as many other factors have contributed to the migration of production activities from high labour cost countries to low labour cost countries. The first countries affected obviously were the most developed Western economies. Canada h...

  18. Diversity Management in the Canadian Workplace: Towards an Antiracism Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vanmala Hiranandani

    2012-01-01

    Most diversity management programs in Canada maintain that enhancing workforce diversity is of tremendous significance for business organizations in today’s competitive global urban markets. Since well-meaning diversity management initiatives have been largely ineffective thus far in dealing with workplace discrimination and racism in the Canadian workplace, this paper underscores the need to decenter the focus of diversity management from a business imperative to an antidiscrimination and so...

  19. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Association 34. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the thirty-fourth annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association contain 23 complete papers and three speeches organized in the following sessions: opening, plenary, new environmental regulations and their effect on the energy industry, CANDU update, life cycle management of nuclear power plants, evolution of nuclear technology, technologies for tomorrow, nuclear used fuel and disposal of low-level waste, world economics and energy consumption. The complete papers have been abstracted separately

  20. The prospects for Canadian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1980s have seen a decline in markets for uranium concentrate, largely as a result of falling estimates for reactor fuel requirements and rising inventories. Spot market prices fell to $44 in September 1982, but have since risen back to $60. World production also fell in 1982 and is not expected to increase significantly before 1990. Some opportunities exist for Canadian producers with new low-cost deposits to replace high-cost producers in Canada and other countries, particularly the United States. There will be strong competition between Canadian producers as well as from Australia. Australia's reserves are somewhat larger than Canada's, although the reported ore grades tend to be lower than those of Saskatchewan

  1. Exporting the Canadian licensing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the problems of an overseas regulatory agency in licensing a Canadian-supplied nuclear plant which is referenced to a plant in Canada. Firstly, the general problems associated with the use of a reference plant are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of specific problems which arise from the licensing practices in Canada. The paper concludes with recommendations to simplify the task of demonstrating the licensability of an overseas CANDU plant

  2. Congestion pricing of Canadian airports

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph I. Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Under congestion pricing, Canadian airports would annually save between $72 and $105 million. Social costs per landing and takeoff decrease about $300 at Toronto and Vancouver and $50 at Calgary and Montreal. Slot constraints fail to eliminate this airport congestion. Congestion prices are lower on average than existing weight-based prices. Current airport capacity accommodates at least five more years of traffic growth before congestion reaches current levels. Substantial welfare gains occur...

  3. Canadian Content in Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    THEME: Internationalism: Worlds at Play Topics: Internationalism, Identity in Gaming and Learning to Play Abstract: How does Canada fit into the global cultural context of video games? This paper investigates the culture being reflected in video games being produced in Canada as Canada is one of the world's leading producers of video games. It examines the how Canadian culture is represented in current new media artistic output against the culture, or lack of culture, being represented in vid...

  4. Providing cleaner air to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is designed to explain salient aspects of the Ozone Annex, negotiated and signed recently by Canada and the United States, in a joint effort to improve air quality in North America. By significantly reducing the transboundary flows of air pollutants that cause smog, the Ozone Annex will benefit some 16 million people in central and eastern Canada and provide an example for a future round of negotiations to address concerns of the millions of Canadians and Americans who live in the border area between British Columbia and Washington State. The brochure provide summaries of the Canadian and American commitments, focusing on transportation, monitoring and reporting. The Ozone Annex complements other air quality initiatives by the Government of Canada enacted under the Environmental Protection Act, 1999. These measures include regulations to reduce sulphur content to 30 parts per million by Jan 1, 2005; proposing to restrict toxic particulate matter (PM) to less than 10 microns; establishing daily smog forecasts in the Maritimes and committing to a national program built upon existing smog advisories and forecasts in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia; and investing in more clean air research through the newly created Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

  5. Conference summaries. Canadian Nuclear Association 29. annual conference; Canadian Nuclear Society 10. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 papers from the twenty-ninth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association. Abstracts were also prepared for the 102 papers from the tenth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society

  6. entering the postindustrial society: the canadian case

    OpenAIRE

    Matejko, Alexander J.

    1986-01-01

    abstract: the canadian federation is based on the substantial autonomy of the provinces constituting it, the welfare orientation of central bodies, the volunteer activities at the grass-root level, and the external policy open to the world. there are no any doubts about the genuinely democratic character of canadian internal politics or the commitment of canadians to the world peace. the economic prosperity of the country is secured by the mineral resources, good agriculture, and the intensiv...

  7. The Canadian Astronomy Education and Public Outreach Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    In Canada, astronomers do not have access to science and mathematics education funding such as NSF and NASA provide in the USA. Nevertheless, the Canadian astronomical community has always been very active in education and public outreach (EPO) at the local, provincial, and national level, thanks to the initiative of astronomers -- both professional and amateur -- and their institutions and associations. In 2001, the Canadian astronomical community embarked on a major EPO initiative, led by the Canadian Astronomical Society (CAS) in partnership with the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada (RASC) and other organizations. The initiative was motivated by a new long-range plan for astronomy in Canada, by the availability of modest funding for EPO, by the appearance of astronomy in the school science curriculum in several provinces, and by a heightened national interest in science education and literacy. As Chair of the CAS Education Committee, and coordinator of the EPO initiative, I shall describe its origin, funding, goals and strategies, organization, partnerships, programs, and projects. Supported by a PromoScience grant from NSERC Canada.

  8. The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Schade, D.; Astronomy Data Centre, Canadian

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) is the world's largest astronomical data center, holding over 0.5 Petabytes of information, and serving nearly 3000 astronomers worldwide. Its current data collections include BLAST, CFHT, CGPS, FUSE, Gemini, HST, JCMT, MACHO, MOST, and numerous other archives and services. It provides extensive data archiving, curation, and processing expertise, via projects such as MegaPipe, and enables substantial day-to-day collaboration between resident astronomers and computer specialists. It is a stable, powerful, persistent, and properly supported environment for the storage and processing of large volumes of data, a condition that is now absolutely vital for their science potential to be exploited by the community. Through initiatives such as the Common Archive Observation Model (CAOM), the Canadian Virtual Observatory (CVO), and the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), the CADC is at the global forefront of advancing astronomical research through improved data services. The CAOM aims to provide homogeneous data access, and hence viable interoperability between a potentially unlimited number of different data collections, at many wavelengths. It is active in the definition of numerous emerging standards within the International Virtual Observatory, and several datasets are already available. The CANFAR project is an initiative to make cloud computing for storage and data-intensive processing available to the community. It does this via a Virtual Machine environment that is equivalent to managing a local desktop. Several groups are already processing science data. CADC is also at the forefront of advanced astronomical data analysis, driven by the science requirements of astronomers both locally and further afield. The emergence of 'Astroinformatics' promises to provide not only utility items like object classifications, but to directly enable new science by accessing previously undiscovered or intractable

  9. REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADIAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Modern English is an international language inthe world.Besides Great Britain,English is spokenas first language in 39 countries.These countries arelocated in different regions with different naturalfeatures,history development and cultural character-istics.Thus,English used in these different regionscarries its own regional character—forming Englishregional varieties.The main English regional varieties are:BritishEnglish,American English,Canadian English andSouth African English.Canada is a rich country inNorth America with its own characteristics,which of

  10. Theoretical Analysis of Canadian Lifelong Education Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Natalia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the problem of Canadian lifelong education development has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; periods of lifelong education development; and determination of lifelong learning role and importance in modern Canadian society.

  11. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  12. The Canadian Hospital Executive Simulation System (CHESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, G H; Knotts, U A; Parrish, L G; Shields, C A

    1991-01-01

    The Canadian Hospital Executive Simulation System (CHESS) is a computer-based management decision-making game designed specifically for Canadian hospital managers. The paper begins with an introduction on the development of business and health services industry-specific simulation games. An overview of CHESS is provided, along with a description of its development and a discussion of its educational benefits. PMID:10109530

  13. DATA MINING IN CANADIAN LYNX TIME SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Karnaboopathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper sums up the applications of Statistical model such as ARIMA family timeseries models in Canadian lynx data time series analysis and introduces the method of datamining combined with Statistical knowledge to analysis Canadian lynx data series.

  14. Do the Rights Thing?: The Canadian Museum for Human Rights and the MA in Cultural Studies at the University of Winnipeg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Kathryn; Keshavjee, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Education is the self-declared "heart" of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR), already generating partnership projects and programs with such organizations as the Canadian Teachers' Federation, the Assembly of First Nations, the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, and the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights. The CMHR has…

  15. Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as bioindicators in Canadian Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes Basin. II. Changes in hatching success and hatchling deformities in relation to persistent organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solla, S.R. de [Population Assessment Unit, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)], E-mail: shane.desolla@ec.gc.ca; Fernie, K.J.; Ashpole, S. [Population Assessment Unit, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    Hatching success and deformities in snapping turtle hatchlings (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated using eggs collected from 14 sites in the Canadian lower Great Lakes, including Areas of Concern (AOC), between 2001 and 2004. Eggs were analyzed for PCBs, PBDEs, and pesticides. Between 2002 and 2004, hatchling deformity rates were highest in two AOCs (18.3-28.3%) compared to the reference sites (5.3-11.3%). Hatching success was poorest in three AOCs (71.3-73.1%) compared to the reference sites (86.0-92.7%). Hatching success and deformity rates were generally poorer in 2001 compared to 2002-2004, irrespective of the study location and could be due to egg handling stress in 2001. Hatching success and deformities were generally worst from the Wheatley Harbour, St. Lawrence River (Cornwall), Detroit River, and Hamilton Harbour AOCs. Associations between contaminant burdens with embryonic development were sufficiently poor that the biological relevance is questionable. Stressors not measured may have contributed to development abnormalities. - Hatching success and deformities of snapping turtle eggs varied among Great Lake Areas of Concern, but were not attributable to specific chemical exposure.

  16. Emerging Canadian QA standards for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Canada operates a publicly funded health care system in which 70% of health care costs are paid by some level of government. Radiotherapy, indeed most cancer management, falls within the publicly funded realm of Canada's health care system. National legislation (the Canada Health Act) guarantees access to cancer services for all Canadians. However, the financial responsibility for these services is borne by the provinces. Most Canadian provinces manage the cancer management problem through central cancer agencies. In the past few decades, these provincial cancer agencies have formed the Canadian Association of Provincial Cancer Agencies (CAPCA). This association has adopted a broad mandate for cancer management in Canada (see www.capca.ca). Included in this mandate is the adoption of standards and guidelines for all aspects of cancer control. The complexity of radiation therapy has long underscored the need for cooperation at the international and national levels in defining programmes and standards. In recent decades formal quality assurance programme recommendations have emerged in the United States, Europe and Great Britain. When defining quality assurance programs, Canadian radiation treatment centres have referenced U.S. and other program standards since they have been available. Recently, under the leadership of the Canadian Association of Provincial Cancer Agencies (CAPCA), Canadian national quality assurance program recommendations are emerging. A CAPCA sponsored project to harmonize Canadian quality assurance processes has resulted in a draft document entitled 'Standards for Quality Assurance at Canadian Radiation Treatment Centres'. This document provides recommendations for the broad framework of radiation therapy quality assurance programs. In addition, detailed work is currently underway regarding equipment quality control procedures. This paper explores the historical and political landscape in which the quality assurance problem has

  17. Dental fitness classification in the Canadian forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Richard R

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Forces Dental Services utilizes a dental classification system to identify those military members dentally fit for an overseas deployment where dental resources may be limited. Although the Canadian Forces Dental Services dental classification system is based on NATO standards, it differs slightly from the dental classification systems of other NATO country dental services. Data collected by dental teams on overseas deployments indicate a low rate of emergency dental visits by Canadian Forces members who were screened as dentally fit to deploy. PMID:18277717

  18. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul

    2010-09-15

    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  19. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  20. THE CANADIAN POLITICAL BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Libby

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the existence of a Canadian Political Business Cycle (PBC during the period 1946-1989. Logit analysis was used to determine if changes in the unemployment rate, growth of real GNE and the rate of inflation are significantly different in the period before an election than during the rest of the electoral term. It was found that the rate of growth in the unemployment rate declines and the rate of growth of real GNP increases in the four quarters before an election. The behavior of these variables reverses in the period after an election. These findings are consistent with a political business cycle. Policy variables, under a majority government, also behave in a manner associated with a PBC, with the government stimulating the economy approximately two years into its term so that good economic news will occur before it has to call an election. Minority governments tend to simulate the economy immediately after taking office.

  1. Chinese Feelings Cherished By Canadians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On March 30, "The Chinese Feelings Across the Pacific-The Century Exhibition of the Old Photos Treasured by the Canadians" was open in the Lu Xun Museum in Beijing. The exhibition lasted for one week. At the exhibition some old photos taken in the early 20th century were on display, showing James G. Endicott, envoy of world peace, together with Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai; the family of O. L. Kilborn, one of the founders of West China Union University, together with Chinese women with bound feet: O. L. Kilborn treating the wounded soldiers during the Revolution of 1911; Leslie Earl Willmott in Chinese tunic suit and his wife reluctant to bid farewell to China, as well as photos of Ashley Woodward Lindesay, founder of China’s modern

  2. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmings, R.L. [Canatom NPM (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  3. Canadian survey on pandemic flu preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy CS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of pandemic influenza creates public health challenges. An ethical framework, 'Stand on Guard for Thee: ethical considerations in pandemic influenza preparedness' that served as a template for the World Health Organization's global consultation on pandemic planning, was transformed into a survey administered to a random sample of 500 Canadians to obtain opinions on key ethical issues in pandemic preparedness planning. Methods All framework authors and additional investigators created items that were pilot-tested with volunteers of both sexes and all socioeconomic strata. Surveys were telephone administered with random sampling achieved via random digit dialing (RDD. Eligible participants were adults, 18 years or older, with per province stratification equaling provincial percent of national population. Descriptive results were tabulated and logistic regression analyses were used to assess whether demographic factors were significantly associated with outcomes. Results 5464 calls identified 559 eligible participants of whom 88.5% completed surveys. Over 90% of subjects agreed the most important goal of pandemic influenza preparations was saving lives, with 41% endorsing saving lives solely in Canada and 50% endorsing saving lives globally as the highest priority. Older age (OR = 8.51, p Conclusions Results suggest trust in public health officials to make difficult decisions, providing emphasis on reciprocity and respect for individual rights.

  4. Responsiveness of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.C.J.M. Eyssen; M.P.M. Steultjens; T.A.M. Oud; E.M. Bolt; A. Maasdam; J. Dekker

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the responsiveness of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), an individualized, client-centered outcome measure for the identification and evaluation of self-perceived occupational performance problems. We recruited 152 consecutive patients with various diagnoses,

  5. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  6. Canadian media representations of mad cow disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Amanda D; Jardine, Cynthia G; Driedger, S Michelle

    2009-01-01

    A Canadian case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or "mad cow disease" was confirmed in May, 2003. An in-depth content analysis of newspaper articles was conducted to understand the portrayal of BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the Canadian media. Articles in the "first 10 days" following the initial discovery of a cow with BSE in Canada on May 20, 2003, were examined based on the premise that these initial stories provide the major frames that dominate news media reporting of the same issue over time and multiple occurrences. Subsequent confirmed Canadian cases were similarly analyzed to determine if coverage changed in these later media articles. The results include a prominence of economic articles, de-emphasis of health aspects, and anchoring the Canadian outbreak to that of Britain's crisis. The variation in media representations between those in Canada and those documented in Britain are explored in this study. PMID:19697246

  7. Canadian used fuel disposal concept review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A federal government environmental assessment review of the disposal concept developed under the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is currently underway. The Canadian concept is, simply stated, the placement of used fuel (or fuel waste) in long-lived containers at a depth between 500 m and 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited submitted an Environmental Impact Statement in 1994 and the public hearing aspect of the concept review is in its final phase. A unique aspect of the Canadian situation is that government has stipulated that site selection can not commence until the concept has been approved. Hence, the safety and acceptability of the concept is being reviewed in the context of a generic site. Some comments and lessons learned to date related to the review process are discussed. (author)

  8. Canadian Law Schools: In Search of Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakman, Leon E.

    1980-01-01

    Academically, Canadian education is at the crossroads between formalism and functionalism, with the latter prevailing in recent years. There now arises a demand for a more integrated approach, linking legal theory with legal practice. (MSE)

  9. Isotopes and innovation: Canadian success in a global market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, S. [Nordion Inc., Kanata, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Canadian nuclear technology for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease has a global presence. Innovation has as much to do with the way you take a product to market as with the product itself. Nordion targeted therapies are used in the treatment in a variety of cancers. TheraSphere fills a specific medical need for a targeted liver cancer treatment. Nordion is the world's leading supplier of Cobalt-60, the isotope producing gamma radiation required to destroy micro-organisms. Nordion is a world leader in medical isotope processing, packaging and delivery.

  10. Isotopes and innovation: Canadian success in a global market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadian nuclear technology for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease has a global presence. Innovation has as much to do with the way you take a product to market as with the product itself. Nordion targeted therapies are used in the treatment in a variety of cancers. TheraSphere fills a specific medical need for a targeted liver cancer treatment. Nordion is the world's leading supplier of Cobalt-60, the isotope producing gamma radiation required to destroy micro-organisms. Nordion is a world leader in medical isotope processing, packaging and delivery.

  11. How Canadians feel about nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey conducted by Decima Research in April 1989 showed that 50% of Canadians were somewhat or strongly in favour of nuclear energy, the percentage varying from 37% in British Columbia to 65% in Ontario. A majority (56%) questioned the nuclear industry's ability to handle its waste safely, but 45% believed that it was working hard to solve the problem. It was evident that an advertising campaign by the Canadian Nuclear Association had an effect

  12. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭万宏

    2015-01-01

    Canadian national identity is closely related to antiAmericanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  13. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭万宏

    2015-01-01

    Canadian national identity is closely related to anti-Americanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  14. Canadian experience with structured clinical examinations.

    OpenAIRE

    Grand'Maison, P.; Lescop, J; Brailovsky, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    The use of structured clinical examinations to improve the evaluation of medical students and graduates has become significantly more common in the past 25 years. Many Canadian medical educators have contributed to the development of this technique. The Canadian experience is reviewed from the introduction of simulated-standardized patients and objective-structured clinical examinations to more recent developments and the use of such examinations for licensure and certification.

  15. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ketovuori, Mikko Mr.

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003–2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure arts education for children in the schools. Despite the fact that Canadian learning methods appeared to be quite similar to the ones Finnish teacher...

  16. French-Canadian Business Philosophies in Corporate America: A Cross-Cultural Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenden, Darlene

    A cultural profile of the French-Canadian business community of Quebec is presented, focusing on seven aspects of business communication: language; environment and technology; social organization; degree of contextual understanding; authority conception; nonverbal behavior; and temporal conception. The history of French and English language use in…

  17. Canadian and United States Students' Performances on the OECD's PISA 2012 Problem-Solving Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, John A.; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 Problem-Solving assessment. The assessment examined the capabilities of 15-year-olds in 40 nations and four large international cities, as well as the Canadian Provinces, to solve a set…

  18. Government, Coercive Power and the Perceived Legitimacy of Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Fiona A. E.; Kondra, Alex Z.; Lamertz, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Governments regulate and control organizations, yet their role in determining organizational legitimacy is largely unexamined. In the changing Canadian post-secondary landscape, legitimacy is an increasingly important issue for post-secondary institutions as they compete amongst themselves for access to ever-shrinking resources. Using an…

  19. Colluding with the Enemy?: Nationalism and Depictions of "Aboriginality" in Canadian Olympic Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adese, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The 1976 Montreal Summer Olympic closing ceremony, the 1988 Calgary Winter Olympic opening ceremony, and the 2010 Winter Olympic opening ceremony in Vancouver each placed Indigenous peoples at the heart of its expressions of regional, provincial, and Canadian national identity in one form or another. Why is it that organizing committees view…

  20. Guide to the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program. 2.ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the administrative structure and major research and development components of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. It outlines the participating organizations, summarizes the program statistics, and describes the international cooperation and external review aspects of the program

  1. Canadian Attitudes toward Labour Market Issues: A Survey of Canadian Opinion. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, Human Resources and Social Development Canada commissioned Environics Research Group Limited to conduct a public opinion survey on labour market issues among 3,000 adult Canadians. The objective of the public opinion survey was to better understand the perceptions of Canadians regarding labour market challenges and opportunities in order…

  2. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  3. Canadian photovoltaic industry directory --1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The directory is intended to help potential PV customers identify Canadian-based companies who can meet their needs, and to help product manufacturers and distributors identify potential new clients and/or partners within the PV industry for new and improved technologies leading to greater end-use customer satisfaction. The principal feature of the directory is an information matrix that identifies the product and service types offered by each firm and the primary clients served. There is also a list of companies by province and territory, followed by an alphabetical listing of all companies, with detailed information including, mailing address, contact person, prime activity, geographic area served, languages in which services are provided, and a brief company profile. Additional information provided by the companies themselves, dealing with items such as number of systems sold, the total installed capacity, etc., is included in an 'experience matrix' for each firm. Sources of additional information on photovoltaic systems are included in a list at the end of the directory

  4. Canadian landmine detection research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFee, John E.; Das, Yogadhish; Faust, Anthony A.

    2003-09-01

    Defence R&D Canada (DRDC), an agency within the Department of National Defence, has been conducting research and development (R&D) on the detection of landmines for countermine operations and of unexploded ordnance (UXO) for range clearance since 1975. The Canadian Centre for Mine Action Technologies (CCMAT), located at DRDC Suffield, was formed in 1998 to carry out R&D related to humanitarian demining. The lead group responsible for formulating and executing both countermine and humanitarian R&D programs in detection is the Threat Detection Group at DRDC Suffield. This paper describes R&D for both programs under the major headings of remote minefield detection, close-in scanning detection, confirmation detection and teleoperated systems. Among DRDC's achievements in landmine and UXO detection R&D are pioneering work in electromagnetic and magnetic identification and classification; the first military-fielded multisensor, teleoperated vehicle-mounted landmine detection system; pioneering use of confirmation detectors for multisensor landmine detection systems; the first fielded thermal neutron activation landmine confirmation sensor; the first detection of landmines using a real-time hyperspectral imager; electrical impedance imaging detection of landmines and UXO and a unique neutron backscatter landmine imager.

  5. Mandatory HIV Screening Policy & Everyday Life: A Look Inside the Canadian Immigration Medical Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA BISAILLON

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Findings that detail the social organization of day-to-day practices associated with the Canadian government policy of mandatory HIV testing of permanent residence applicants to Canada are reported. Institutional ethnography was used to investigate interactions between HIV-positive applicants and immigration physicians during the immigration medical examination. A composite narrative recounts details of a woman applicant's discovery through immigration testing that she was living with HIV. Mandatory HIV testing gives rise to serious difficulties for applicants to Canada living with HIV. Applicant, physician and federal state employee work practices associated with mandatory HIV testing are analysed. These practices contribute to the ideological work of the Canadian state, where interest bounds up in the examination serve the state and not the applicant. Findings should be useful for Canadian immigration policy makers who wish to develop constructive and functional strategies to address issues that matter in people's lives

  6. Colonial Fantasies, Narrative Borders, and the Canadian North in the Works of Germany's Colin Ross(1885-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Pissowotzki

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the Canadian North is a discursive construction, within which German colonial fantasies emerge. In particular, I argue that it is through bordering that colonial fantasies of German Lebensraum ("living space" in the Canadian North are brought into being. I further argue that the German biologist and geographer Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904, with his view of the "organic state," provides the ideological framework for colonial fantasies in the travel writings of Colin Ross.I focus on the writer's colonial imagination and his perception of borders, and on how both relate to the Canadian North. I show that seemingly bare geographical information and demographical data, provided in Ross' travelogues, carry colonial fantasies of German spaces in the Canadian North. Those spaces are bordered by "shared histories" and "narrative boundaries," thus constructing a collective German colonial identity (cf. Eder 2006, 255-257.

  7. Diversity Management in the Canadian Workplace: Towards an Antiracism Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanmala Hiranandani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most diversity management programs in Canada maintain that enhancing workforce diversity is of tremendous significance for business organizations in today’s competitive global urban markets. Since well-meaning diversity management initiatives have been largely ineffective thus far in dealing with workplace discrimination and racism in the Canadian workplace, this paper underscores the need to decenter the focus of diversity management from a business imperative to an antidiscrimination and social justice imperative. Within this latter perspective, the paper examines the strengths and limitations of the antiracism approach that has been implemented in various developed countries in recent years. The antiracism approach is an action-oriented strategy for institutional and systemic change that has at its core the interrogation of privilege, power disparities, and other forms of inequity within the organization. Drawing from the lessons of various initiatives that have utilized this approach, the present paper emphasizes the need for a nuanced antiracism approach in the multicultural Canadian society if diversity management is to attain its goal of greater inclusion of all individuals in informal networks and formal organizational programs.

  8. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators: highlights 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadians' health and their social and economic well-being are fundamentally linked to the quality of their environment. Recognizing this, in 2004 the Government of Canada committed to establishing national indicators of freshwater quality, air quality and greenhouse gas emissions. The goal of these new indicators is to provide Canadians with more regular and reliable information on the state of their environment and how it is linked with human activity. Canadians need clearly defined environmental indicators - measuring sticks that can track the results that have been achieved through the efforts of governments, industries and individuals to protect and improve the environment. Environment Canada, Statistics Canada and Health Canada are working together to further develop and communicate these indicators. Reflecting the joint responsibility for environmental management in Canada, this effort has benefited from the cooperation and input of the provinces and territories. The indicators are: air quality; greenhouse gas emissions; and, freshwater quality. Air quality tracks Canadians' exposure to ground-level ozone - a key component of smog. The indicator measures one of the most common, harmful air pollutants to which people are exposed. The use of the seasonal average of ozone concentrations reflects the potential for long-term health effects. Greenhouse gas emissions tracks the annual releases of the six greenhouse gases that are the major contributors to climate change. The indicator comes directly from the greenhouse gas inventory report prepared by Environment Canada for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. The data are widely used to report on progress toward Canada's Kyoto target for reduced emissions. Freshwater quality reports the status of surface water quality at selected monitoring sites across the country. For this first report, the focus of the indicator is on the protection of aquatic life, such as

  9. VLF propagation measurements in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Wilfred R.; Bertrand, Jean M.

    1993-05-01

    For the past three years, during a period of high sun spot numbers, propagation measurements were made on the reception of VLF signals in the Canadian Arctic. Between Aug. and Dec. 1989, the received signal strengths were measured on the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker, John A. MacDonald in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Between Jul. 1991 and Jun. 1992, the received signal strengths were measured at Nanisivik, Baffin Island. The purposes of this work were to check the accuracy and estimate variances of the Naval Ocean Systems Center's (NOSC) Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) predictions in the Canadian Arctic and to gather ionospheric storm data. In addition, the NOSC data taken at Fort Smith and our data at Nanisivik were used to test the newly developed Longwave Noise Prediction (LNP) program and the CCIR noise predictions, at 21.4 and 24.0 kHz. The results of the work presented and discussed in this paper show that in general the LWPC predicts accurate values of received signal strength in the Canadian Arctic with standard deviations of 1 to 2 dB over several months. Ionospheric storms can gauge the received signal strengths to decrease some 10 dB for a period of several hours or days. However, the effects of these storms are highly dependent on the propagation path. Finally the new LNP atmospheric noise model predicts lower values of noise in the Arctic than the CCIR model and our limited measurements tend to support these lower values.

  10. JUDGING SELECTION: APPOINTING CANADIAN JUDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McCormick

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, the appointment of trial judges in Canada has generally involved an arms-length committee of professionals, although the structure of these committees and their role in the process has varied from province to province, as well as evolving over time. Yet these “new” structures and “new” processes did not prevent a major judicial appointment scandal in the province of Quebec in 2010, culminating in the formation of the Bastarache Committee to recommend changes. This paper summarizes the forty-year history of Canadian judicial appointment committees, identifies the major challenges that face those committees, and suggests the basic values toward which reforms to the appointment process might be directed. Depuis les années 1970, la nomination des juges de première instance au Canada a généralement mis à contribution un comité de professionnels indépendants, bien que la structure de ce comité et son rôle dans le processus de nomination aient varié d’une province à l’autre et évolué avec le temps. Ces « nouvelles » structures et « nouveaux » processus n’ont certes pas empêché l’éclatement du scandale sur la nomination des juges au Québec en 2010. Ce scandale a donné lieu à la formation de la Commission Bastarache qui avait notamment le mandat de recommander des changements. La présent document résume les quarante ans d’histoire des comités canadiens de nomination des juges, recense les principaux défis que ces comités doivent relever, et propose les valeurs fondamentales qui devraient inspirer les réformes du processus de nomination.

  11. Environmental contaminants and human health in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, S G; Van Oostdam, J; Tikhonov, C; Feeley, M; Armstrong, B; Ayotte, P; Boucher, O; Bowers, W; Chan, L; Dallaire, F; Dallaire, R; Dewailly, E; Edwards, J; Egeland, G M; Fontaine, J; Furgal, C; Leech, T; Loring, E; Muckle, G; Nancarrow, T; Pereg, D; Plusquellec, P; Potyrala, M; Receveur, O; Shearer, R G

    2010-10-15

    The third Canadian Arctic Human Health Assessment conducted under the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), in association with the circumpolar Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), addresses concerns about possible adverse health effects in individuals exposed to environmental contaminants through a diet containing country foods. The objectives here are to: 1) provide data on changes in human contaminant concentrations and exposure among Canadian Arctic peoples; 2) identify new contaminants of concern; 3) discuss possible health effects; 4) outline risk communication about contaminants in country food; and 5) identify knowledge gaps for future contaminant research and monitoring. The nutritional and cultural benefits of country foods are substantial; however, some dietary studies suggest declines in the amount of country foods being consumed. Significant declines were found for most contaminants in maternal blood over the last 10 years within all three Arctic regions studied. Inuit continue to have the highest levels of almost all persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among the ethnic groups studied. A greater proportion of people in the East exceed Health Canada's guidelines for PCBs and mercury, although the proportion of mothers exceeding these guidelines has decreased since the previous assessment. Further monitoring and research are required to assess trends and health effects of emerging contaminants. Infant development studies have shown possible subtle effects of prenatal exposure to heavy metals and some POPs on immune system function and neurodevelopment. New data suggest important beneficial effects on brain development for Inuit infants from some country food nutrients. The most successful risk communication processes balance the risks and benefits of a diet of country food through input from a variety of regional experts and the community, to incorporate the many socio-cultural and economic factors to arrive at a risk

  12. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  13. A Roadmap for Canadian Submillimetre Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Tracy; Di Francesco, James; Matthews, Brenda; Murray, Norm; Scott, Douglas; Wilson, Christine

    2013-01-01

    We survey the present landscape in submillimetre astronomy for Canada and describe a plan for continued engagement in observational facilities to ~2020. Building on Canada's decadal Long Range Plan process, we emphasize that continued involvement in a large, single-dish facility is crucial given Canada's substantial investment in ALMA and numerous PI-led submillimetre experiments. In particular, we recommend: i) an extension of Canadian participation in the JCMT until at least the unique JCMT Legacy Survey program is able to realize the full scientific potential provided by the world-leading SCUBA-2 instrument; and ii) involvement of the entire Canadian community in CCAT, with a large enough share in the partnership for Canadian astronomers to participate at all levels of the facility. We further recommend continued participation in ALMA development, involvement in many focused PI-led submillimetre experiments, and partnership in SPICA.

  14. Open Access Funds: A Canadian Library Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fernandez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of Canadian research libraries was conducted to determine the extent of funding support for open access publications in these institutions. Results indicate that there is substantial support for open access publishing, and a diversity of approaches is being used to fund open access resources. The reasons for funding support along with policy and promotional issues are explored. The broader implications of funding open access are discussed in the context of a changing scholarly publishing landscape. This paper will be especially relevant to Canadian academic libraries that are exploring options for funding open access publications.

  15. Statistics in action a Canadian outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F

    2014-01-01

    Commissioned by the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC), Statistics in Action: A Canadian Outlook helps both general readers and users of statistics better appreciate the scope and importance of statistics. It presents the ways in which statistics is used while highlighting key contributions that Canadian statisticians are making to science, technology, business, government, and other areas. The book emphasizes the role and impact of computing in statistical modeling and analysis, including the issues involved with the huge amounts of data being generated by automated processes.The first two c

  16. Canadian EdGEO National Workshop Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, L. A.; Haidl, F. M.; Hymers, L. A.; van der Flier-Keller, E.

    2009-05-01

    Established in the early 1970s, EdGEO supports locally driven geosciences workshops for Canadian teachers. Workshops are organized by geoscientists and teachers, and typically have field, laboratory and classroom components. Grants of up to $3000 per workshop are available from the National EdGEO Program. By providing educational opportunities for today's teachers and, through them, their students, EdGEO seeks to cultivate a heightened awareness of our planet. EdGEO workshops provide teachers with potential fieldtrip sites for their students and the knowledge, enthusiasm and materials to inspire their students to engage in geoscience. Networking opportunities with local experts promote the importance of the geoscience profession. The expected result is an improved capacity on the part of Canadians to understand the Earth and to make informed decisions, especially with regard to the use of mineral and energy resources, the maintenance and remediation of the environment, and response to geological hazards. There exists a critical need to provide teachers with training and resources to tackle their Earth science curricula. In 2008, EdGEO supported fourteen workshops, with an unprecedented 521 teachers attending. These teachers then used our resources to reach an estimated 14,000 students during that single academic year. EdGEO workshops are locally driven and are therefore very diverse. Workshops are strongly tied to the provincial curriculum, focus on a specific geoscience topic, or may be largely field-based to demonstrate and practice how field activities could be incorporated into Earth science teaching. Many strive to include all of these important components. Geoscientists and teachers work collaboratively to develop and deliver EdGEO workshops to ensure that the activities can be effectively used in the classroom. The length of these professional development opportunities range from two-hour sessions to several days, and can generally accommodate up to twenty

  17. Women in the Canadian Economy: A Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Sylvia; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains activities on the economic status and roles of Canadian women. The first of 4 sections presents a profile of male and female occupations. Section 2 contains statistics on females in the Canadian labor force. Section 3,…

  18. A Course in Canadian Film for U.S. Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenko, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Canadian Film will be a new course in the Communications Studies department at the University of Missouri at Kansas City particularly designed for non-Canadian Midwestern US students. It will not only introduce students to the richness and significance of Canadian film as both art and entertainment (which is virtually unrecognized around here),…

  19. The flow of radionuclides through the Canadian archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of contaminants to the Canadian Arctic by air and in water and their concentration through the marine food web has lead to enhanced levels of contaminants in several foods of Canadian northern inhabitants. Artificial radionuclides in the marine water can be used to determine water circulation and to trace contaminant transport through the Canadian Archipelago

  20. A Demographic and Career Profile of Canadian Research University Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date career and demographic profile of Canadian research university librarians by comparing newly derived data from the 8Rs Study: The "Future of Human Resources in Canadian Libraries", with corresponding information from the author's 2006 survey: "The Scholarship of Canadian Research University Librarians", and other…

  1. Human security and Canadian foreign policy: the new face of Canadian internationalism

    OpenAIRE

    DeJong, Melissa Joy

    2011-01-01

    In the late 1990s, human security was promoted as a new idea to guide the formation of Canadian foreign policy in the post-Cold War era. However, a review of the ideas which have influenced foreign policymaking in Canada since the end of the Second World War demonstrates that human security is rooted in internationalism, the dominant Canadian foreign policy tendency. Internationalism prescribes that cooperation, multilateralism, responsibility, international law and a consideration of the v...

  2. Bidi and Hookah Use Among Canadian Youth: Findings From the 2010 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Czoli, Christine D; Leatherdale, Scott T; Rynard, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although cigarette use among Canadian youth has decreased significantly in recent years, alternative forms of tobacco use are becoming increasingly popular. Surveillance of youth tobacco use can help inform prevention programs by monitoring trends in risk behaviors. We examined the prevalence of bidi and hookah use and factors associated with their use among Canadian youth by using data from the 2010–2011 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). Methods We analyzed YSS data from 28,416 studen...

  3. Forecasting Canadian nuclear power station construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the huge volume of capital required to construct a modern electric power generating station, investment decisions have to be made with as complete an understanding of the consequences of the decision as possible. This understanding must be provided by the evaluation of future situations. A key consideration in an evaluation is the financial component. This paper attempts to use an econometric method to forecast the construction costs escalation of a standard Canadian nuclear generating station (NGS). A brief review of the history of Canadian nuclear electric power is provided. The major components of the construction costs of a Canadian NGS are studied and summarized. A database is built and indexes are prepared. Based on these indexes, an econometric forecasting model is constructed using an apparently new econometric methodology of forecasting modelling. Forecasts for a period of 40 years are generated and applications (such as alternative scenario forecasts and range forecasts) to uncertainty assessment and/or decision-making are demonstrated. The indexes, the model, and the forecasts and their applications, to the best of the author's knowledge, are the first for Canadian NGS constructions. (author)

  4. Asian and Pacific Migration: The Canadian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, T. John

    1994-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of landed immigrants (permanent settlers) from Asia, and explores their settlement, adaptation, and integration experience in Canada. It suggests that access to Canadian land does not always translate into equal opportunity in the economy and society, but notes that Canada may be more successful at assimilating Asian…

  5. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada

  6. A Canadian View of Monitoring Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhaber, Herbert

    1975-01-01

    A Canadian scientist discusses his country's environmental monitoring programs (by parameter and medium), points out their strengths and weaknesses, and indicates some possible directions for future efforts in the field of environmental monitoring at both the national and international level. (BT)

  7. Who Are the Players in Canadian Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Geoffrey

    1987-01-01

    Labels range of persons advocating different theoretical positions of Canadian curriculum as "players." Describes players as "managers,""predictors,""transformers,""sleuths,""analysts." Values varied viewpoints for attention to language regarding curriculum, critical review of ideas/concepts, examination of current policies, awareness of history…

  8. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketovuori, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003-2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure…

  9. In the Field: The Canadian Ecology Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Clare

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Ecology Centre (Ontario) offers year-round residential and day programs in outdoor and environmental education for secondary students, field placement and internship opportunities for college students, and ecotourism programs, while providing employment and tax revenues to the local community. Dubbed consensus environmentalism, the…

  10. Canadian Indigenous Arts Exhibited in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangCheng

    2004-01-01

    A beautiful collection of Canadian Inuit wall hangings, titled “Culture on Cloth,” was exhibited at the Capital Library in Beijing from October 12 to 22, 2004. The exhibition was composed of 19 works by women artists from Baker Lake, Nunavut, Canada.

  11. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five trends that…

  12. Revisiting the Canadian English vowel space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Robert

    2005-04-01

    In order to fill a need for experimental-acoustic baseline measurements of Canadian English vowels, a database is currently being constructed in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The database derives from multiple repetitions of fifteen English vowels (eleven standard monophthongs, syllabic /r/ and three standard diphthongs) in /hVd/ and /hVt/ contexts, as spoken by multiple speakers. Frequencies of the first four formants are taken from three timepoints in every vowel token (25, 50, and 75% of vowel duration). Preliminary results (from five men and five women) confirm some features characteristic of Canadian English, but call others into question. For instance the merger of low back vowels appears to be complete for these speakers, but the result is a lower-mid and probably rounded vowel rather than the low back unround vowel often described. With these data Canadian Raising can be quantified as an average 200 Hz or 1.5 Bark downward shift in the frequency of F1 before voiceless /t/. Analysis of the database will lead to a more accurate picture of the Canadian English vowel system, as well as provide a practical and up-to-date point of reference for further phonetic and sociophonetic comparisons.

  13. Computer Language Settings and Canadian Spellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The language settings used on personal computers interact with the spell-checker in Microsoft Word, which directly affects the flagging of spellings that are deemed incorrect. This study examined the language settings of personal computers owned by a group of Canadian university students. Of 21 computers examined, only eight had their Windows…

  14. Family Business Training: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A. B.; Soufani, K.; Lam, Jose

    2003-01-01

    Family firms play an important role in the working of the Canadian economy; despite their importance to the economic activities and job creation it is observed that family businesses have lower survival rates than non-family firms, some argue that this can possibly be attributed (amongst other factors) to the lack of training. Most of the training…

  15. An Overview of Canadian Education. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayfer, Margaret

    An overview of Canadian education is provided in this book. Chapter 1 presents basic facts and figures on the educational system's general structure and diversity and the role of the federal government. The second chapter describes provincial/territorial structure, specifically: the role of the departments of education and school board, financing,…

  16. Canadian Ethnohistory: A Source for Social Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, Wendy

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview of ethnohistory, a relatively new area of historical investigation that draws on anthropology, geography, and linguistics, as well as history, to document the pasts of predominantly indigenous peoples. Encourages social studies teachers to take notice of a major body of work being produced by Canadian ethnohistorians. (DSK)

  17. The Influence of Canadian Intellectuals’ Ideological Views on the Political Culture in Canada at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOKOV I.A.

    2014-06-01

    the experts in the government commissions and in the international organizations, and doing so, they influenced the process of making political decisions. The Canadian Victorian intellectuals considering themselves bystanders of contemporary social processes, created the background for smooth evolution transition to the policy of social transformation, the development of unique Canadian liberal tradition and the creation of the social welfare state in the middle of the 20th century.

  18. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M

    1990-01-01

    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia.

  19. Summary of Canadian Guidelines for the Initial Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia: An Evidence-Based Update by the Canadian Infectious Diseases Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel A Mandell

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is a serious illness with a significant impact on individual patients and society as a whole. Over the past several years, there have been significant advances in our knowledge and understanding of the etiology of the disease, and an appreciation of problems such as mixed infections and increasing antimicrobial resistance. The development of additional fluoroquinolone agents with enhanced activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae has been important as well. It was decided that the time had come to update and modify the previous CAP guidelines, which were published in 1993. The current guidelines represent a joint effort by the Canadian Infectious Disease Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society, and they address the etiology, diagnosis and initial management of CAP. The diagnostic section is based on the site of care, and the treatment section is organized according to whether one is dealing with outpatients, inpatients or nursing home patients.

  20. Summary of Canadian Guidelines for the Initial Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia: An Evidence-Based Update by the Canadian Infectious Disease Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel A Mandell

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is a serious illness with a significant impact on individual patients and society as a whole. Over the past several years, there have been significant advances in the knowledge and understanding of the etiology of the disease, and an appreciation of problems such as mixed infections and increasing antimicrobial resistance. The development of additional fluoroquinolone agents with enhanced activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae has been important as well. It was decided that the time had come to update and modify the previous CAP guidelines, which were published in 1993. The current guidelines represent a joint effort by the Canadian Infectious Diseases Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society, and they address the etiology, diagnosis and initial management of CAP. The diagnostic section is based on the site of care, and the treatment section is organized according to whether one is dealing with outpatients, inpatients or nursing home patients.

  1. Opportunities for Canadian stakeholders in the North American large wind turbine supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Wind energy is the fastest growing source of electricity in terms of annual installed capacity. This report presented a study of the North American large wind turbine generator supply chain and technological innovation challenges, and identified opportunities for Canadian industrial and research stakeholders to increase their participation in the wind industry. The study was conducted in three phases. The report described each of these phases, which included identification of the North American turbine supply chain needs and opportunities and its technological innovation challenges; identification of Canadian industrial and research stakeholders, either currently involved in the wind sector or external to it, which had strong transferable skills or capabilities to respond to the specific opportunities; and an assessment of the overall likelihood of Canadian stakeholders being able to respond to specific opportunities within the large wind turbine manufacturing segment of the supply chain. The report provided a market overview of the global, American and Canadian markets and discussed the key North American market drivers and potential economic benefits of wind power. The report also presented an overview of drivers for success in major markets jurisdictions and discussed the large wind turbine supply chain. Several strategic recommendations were offered, such as establishing and maintaining an open line of communication with key contacts within prime contractor and component manufacturer organizations; and maintaining and strengthening wind market policies and creating long-term market signals. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Masaru Shintani: The Making of a Modern Canadian Karate Master

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Toth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the life of Japanese/Canadian karate pioneer, Masaru Shintani, from his birth in Vancouver, British Columbia, until his death in Kapuskasing, Ontario. After more than thirty years of teaching, Shintani created one of the largest karate organizations in North America with over 27,000 members. Shintani also invented Shindo, a martial art facilitating the use of an ancient weapon, the short stick, with modern techniques. For this article, many of Shintani’s senior students helped to reconstruct his life and explain his complex personality with recollections of their teacher. From the beginning of his karate training in an internment camp, to the eventual achievement of 9th-degree black belt, Masaru Shintani epitomized the modern karate master.

  3. Canadian health expenditures: Where do we really stand internationally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deber, R; Swan, B

    1999-01-01

    There are different ways to measure how much Canada spends on health care and the quality of these measurements may vary. This paper examines Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development data for 3 common standards of measure: health expenditures as a proportion of gross domestic product (GDP), nominal spending per capita (US dollars) and spending per capita in purchasing power parities (PPP) equivalents. In 1994, the most recent year for which there were firm data. Canada spent 9.9% of its GDP on health care (rank 3 of 29), and $1999 PPPs per capita (rank 3). However, actual spending was only US$1824 per capita (rank 14). In the same year Japan spent 7% of GDP on health care (rank 22), $1478 in PPPs per capita (rank 16), but actually spent US$2614 per capita (rank 3). Although each measure is suitable for some policy purposes, Canadian spending remains modest by international standards. PMID:10410638

  4. Canadian Site Visit and Workshop - Summary and International Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third workshop of the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was hosted by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) for three days in Ottawa, following a one-day visit of the Port Hope area which included meetings with community representatives and project managers and a tour of low-level waste management facilities. The Ottawa workshop examined social concerns regarding radioactive waste management: what the concerns are, how they are identified, and how they can be addressed. Sixty-nine people attended the workshop from fourteen countries and forty-five organizations. They ranged from representatives of municipal governments, non-governmental organizations and private citizens to government policy makers, regulators, implementers, consultants and university, social and media researchers. The participants included stakeholders in large-scale industrial projects (both nuclear and nonnuclear) and stakeholders directly affected by nuclear projects. About one half came from FSC member organisations; the remainders were Canadian stakeholders. The workshop was structured with five half-day sessions. The opening half-day described Canadian policy and the regulatory environment for radioactive waste management and the two central case studies for the workshop: the Port Hope Area Initiative and the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act. Three sessions addressed the topics 'What are the social concerns?', 'How to address social concerns?' and 'Development opportunities for communities'. Each of the sessions began with plenary presentations by five stakeholders. These 'stakeholder voices' were followed by roundtable discussions. The participants were divided into eight tables, each including a mix of Canadian and other attendees. Each table discussed a set of pre-defined questions under the direction of a facilitator/Rapporteur. The discussions from each round table were reported in a follow-up plenary. The final half-day of the workshop was

  5. Suicide, Canadian law, and Exit International's "peaceful pill".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Russel D

    2010-11-01

    Australia's Exit International ("Exit") is probably the most visible and controversial right-to-die organization in the world. Founded by Dr. Philip Nitschke, Exit is known for do-it-yourself ("DIY") suicide workshops and a book banned in Australia: The Peaceful Pill Handbook. In 2009, Exit held its first workshop in Canada. Due to legal concerns, the Vancouver Public Library reneged on a commitment to give Exit a venue, so the workshop proceeded in the sanctuary of a church hall. This article summarizes the history of suicide law in Canada and gives an overview of the emerging DIY movement. A case report describes how a Canadian woman studied Exit's literature and learned how to import veterinary pentobarbital. In accordance with Exit's information, she ended her life. Ethical and legal implications for researching DIY suicide are discussed and it is argued that prohibition contributes to an undesirable situation of uncontrolled and unregulated suicide. Whether they are prohibited, permitted, or tolerated, suicide and assisted suicide are controversial. Their legal treatment in Canada is conflicting because suicide is not a crime but it is a serious offense to assist, encourage, or counsel someone to suicide. Individuals can lawfully take their lives, but they must act independently. This legal situation has given rise to a do-it-yourself ("DIY") right-to-die movement dedicated to technologies and information to enhance the possibilities for planned and humane suicide, while limiting the legal exposure of sympathetic third parties (Martin, 2010; Ogden 2001). My aim is to summarize the legal history of suicide in Canada and discuss the emerging social movement for DIY suicide and assistance in suicide. Exit International ("Exit"), based in Australia, is a leading organization in this movement. I present a case report that describes how a Canadian woman ended her life using DIY techniques learned from Exit. Some ethical and legal implications for researching DIY

  6. Seeing Oneself in a Book: The Changing Face of Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Fayjean, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Takes a look at children's literature over time, and its recent emergence as a respected body of literary work. Discusses what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Annotates six picture books. Notes that Canadian literature reflects the diversity of the Canadian population, the vast differences in the Canadian landscape, and the…

  7. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. CPPI conducts research to develop industry policy on a wide variety of environmental, health, safety and business issues. Key activities include: developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, establishing environmental policies, managing a national environmental protection network of over 100 centers across Canada; providing information on industry activities to the public; and developing working partnerships with government and public interest groups to address issues of common concern. An overview is provided of industry operations, economics and financial performance, and environmental protection and safety. Lists of CPPI publications, awards, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  8. Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines for Rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Yuka; Tan, Jerry; Baibergenova, Akerke; Barankin, Benjamin; Cochrane, Chris L; Humphrey, Shannon; Lynde, Charles W; Marcoux, Danielle; Poulin, Yves; Rivers, Jason K; Sapijaszko, Mariusz; Sibbald, R Gary; Toole, John; Ulmer, Marcie; Zip, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic facial inflammatory dermatosis characterized by background facial erythema and flushing and may be accompanied by inflammatory papules and pustules, cutaneous fibrosis and hyperplasia known as phyma, and ocular involvement. These features can have adverse impact on quality of life, and ocular involvement can lead to visual dysfunction. The past decade has witnessed increased research into pathogenic pathways involved in rosacea and the introduction of novel treatment innovations. The objective of these guidelines is to offer evidence-based recommendations to assist Canadian health care providers in the diagnosis and management of rosacea. These guidelines were developed by an expert panel of Canadian dermatologists taking into consideration the balance of desirable and undesirable outcomes, the quality of supporting evidence, the values and preferences of patients, and the costs of treatment. The 2015 Cochrane review "Interventions in Rosacea" was used as a source of clinical trial evidence on which to base the recommendations. PMID:27207355

  9. Survey of Canadian hospitals radiation emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the findings of a survey of Canadian hospitals conducted by Social Data Research Ltd. during the Spring and Summer, 1995. The main objective of the survey was to determine the state of readiness of Canadian hospitals in respect of radiation emergency planning. In addition, the AECB was interested in knowing the extent to which a report by the Group of Medical Advisors, 'GMA-3: Guidelines on Hospital Emergency Plans for the Management of Minor Radiation Accidents', which was sponsored and distributed in 1993, was received and was useful to hospital administrators and emergency personnel. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 598 acute care hospitals, and 274 responses were received. The main conclusion of this study is that, with the exception of a few large institutions, hospitals generally do not have specific action plans to handle minor radiation accidents. (author)

  10. Canadian petroleum history bibliography. Release update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2010-01-07

    The petroleum history bibliography was created over several years as a record dedicated to preserving the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. It comprises a list of more than 5000 publications, including books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles and stories of the many companies that have come and gone. It aims to include all publications and audio visual products from the Social Sciences and Humanities on company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry and humour. An author index is included. Most government documents are excluded as they are accessible through Library and Archives Canada. This bibliography is an ongoing piece of work, and welcomes any additions relating to the study and preservation of Canadian petroleum industry history.

  11. Proceedings of the 1982 Annual Meeting. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, June 3-7, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Dale R., Ed.

    Papers from the 1982 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group are organized similarly to the meeting, presenting materials from the lectures, working groups, topic groups and panel groups. One lecture, by Davis, discussed a philosophy of computation in relation to computing. Vergnaud lectured on cognitive and developmental…

  12. Post-Secondary (Grammar) Vocational Schools in Poland and Canadian Community Colleges: A Summary of the Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard

    2006-01-01

    This article compares Polish post-secondary vocational (grammar) schools with Canadian community colleges. Accessibility, governance and programs are discussed. The theoretical framework for this comparison was supplied by the notion of the school as an organization and social institution. We found that it is necessary for educators in both Canada…

  13. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada)

  14. Canadian Multiculturalism, Same as it ever Was?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hoyos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War ended, Canada was no longer mainly composed of its two dominant ethnocultural groups, French and English, but rather constituted by polyethnicity; meaning, Canadian culture was made up of many different ethnic groups. Since then, Canada has actively embraced multiculturalism and on 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, ‘An Act for the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada’. The Canadian multicultural experience has been much portrayed as a celebration of ethnicity where different cultural groups share their customs and learn from each other. However, it is recently being rumoured that the multiculturalism hype is not all it is cut out to be and segregates communities rather than integrate. According to Canadian authors Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, “in much of the world and particularly in Europe, there is a widespread perception that multiculturalism has failed” (44. In this paper, I examine some recent common issues of concern, especially, racism and discrimination, through the literary expression of Canadian playwrights and writers such as George F. Walker, Cecil Foster, and Mordecai Richler. These writers are not meant to represent any ethnic group as a whole, but rather try to project a general feeling about the nation in individual ways. I will finally explore the idea of how perhaps multiculturalism in Canada is evolving into another state since migratory patterns and the social circumstances that Canada is facing in the 21st century have changed. Today, the idea of celebrating different ethnicities and customs is no longer as important as celebrating the transcultural or “transnational” aspects of relations between individuals and groups of immigrants.

  15. Feminist Approaches to Journalism Studies: Canadian Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Gertrude J. Robinson

    2008-01-01

    One of the orthodoxies of communication scholarship is that much of the gender-based differences between males and females with regard to experiences in newsrooms can be attributed to demographics. The discussion presented in this paper challenges this claim by comparing the findings of two national surveys that measured the professional progress of Canadian press and television journalists. The first survey was undertaken in 1975, and the second in 1995. While the historical evidence points ...

  16. The Canadian Lung Cancer Conference 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Melosky, B.; Ho, C

    2016-01-01

    Each February, the Canadian Lung Cancer Conference brings together lung cancer researchers, clinicians, and care professionals who are united in their commitment to improve the care of patients with lung cancer. This year’s meeting, held 11–12 February, featured a resident education session, a welcome dinner, networking sessions, lectures, breakout sessions, debates, and a satellite symposium. Key themes from this year’s meeting included innovations across the care spectrum and results of rec...

  17. Basic Living Expenses for the Canadian Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnie-Jeanne MacDonald; Doug Andrews; Brown, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Our research undertakes to determine the basic living expenses required by Canadian seniors living in different circumstances in terms of age, gender, city of residence, household size, homeowner or renter, means of transportation and health status. The paper develops required expenses for food, shelter, health care, transportation and miscellaneous. The research identifies the typical expenses of seniors in each of these categories. Using 2001 as our base year, we follow the US Elder Standar...

  18. Fatal falciparum malaria in Canadian travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Humar, A.; Sharma, S.; Zoutman, D; Kain, K. C.

    1997-01-01

    The authors report 2 cases of severe falciparum malaria in Canadians that had fatal outcomes. In the first case a man presented to a local hospital shortly after returning from Africa, but a diagnosis of malaria was not considered. He was transferred to a secondary and then to a tertiary care facility, where he subsequently died. Intravenous quinidine therapy, the treatment of choice, was unavailable at all 3 hospitals. In the second case, a woman taking chloroquine prophylaxis while visiting...

  19. Competition in the Canadian Mortgage Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Allen

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a brief examination of the Canadian mortgage market, focusing on the market’s evolution following changes to the Bank Act in 1992, which allowed chartered banks to enter the trust business, and the subsequent entrance of virtual banks and mortgage brokers. It then summarizes key research currently being undertaken by the Bank of Canada. This research suggests that the mortgage rates paid by borrowers depend on their observable characteristics, their local market, and ...

  20. Tornado Mitigation in the Canadian Prairie Region

    OpenAIRE

    Durage, Samanthi, Prof.

    2014-01-01

    Tornadoes are a destructive form of the extreme weather associated with thunderstorms. Canada gets more tornadoes than any other country with the exception of the US. This paper presents some results of a study on tornado mitigation in the Canadian Prairie region. Initially, a regression-based analysis of the Prairie tornado database was conducted, and the trend for the number of tornadoes reported in each year is discussed in this paper. The detection, warning, communication, and evacuation ...

  1. Morbidity Experiences and Disability Among Canadian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMeules, Marie; Turner, Linda; Cho, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Women are more frequently affected by chronic conditions and disability than men. Although some of these sex differences have been in part attributed to biological susceptibility, social determinants of health and other factors, these gaps have not been fully explained in the current literature. This chapter presents comparisons of hospitalization rates, and the prevalence of chronic conditions and physical disability between Canadian women and men and between various subgroups of women, adjusting for selected risk factors. The Canadian Hospital Morbidity Database (2000–2001) and Canadian Community Health Survey (2000–2001) were used to examine inpatient hospital morbidity, prevalence of chronic conditions and disability. Key Findings Hospitalization rates were 20% higher among women than men. This was due to the large number of hospitalizations for pregnancies and childbirth. When "normal" deliveries were excluded, hospitalization rates remained higher among women. Women had slightly lower rates of hospitalizations for ambulatory-care sensitive conditions than men. Prevalence of activity limitation (mild and severe) was higher among women than men, and differences remained after adjusting for age, chronic conditions, socio-economic status, and smoking. Women who reported a disability were less likely than men to be in a partnered relationship, have less tangible social support, and have lower income and employment rates. Data Gaps and Recommendations The impact of morbidity and disability on Canadian women is substantial. These results identify areas for interventions among more vulnerable subgroups, and point to the need for further research in the area of risk factors for the prevention of morbidity and disability in the population. PMID:15345073

  2. Roundtable Discussion on the Canadian Economy


    OpenAIRE

    McArthur, Doug; Ivanova, Iglika; Dobrzanski, Chris; Garrosino, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Since the 2008 global financial earthquake, the world economy has continued to be turbulent.

The roundtable discussion focussed on the Canadian economy within the 2012 global environment, but with a specific Vancouver and BC based perspective. Each of the panellists, from their own vantage point, talked about concerns with the economy, opportunities in the mid and long term for BC, and public policy ideas that they would put forward to improve the BC economy. The discussion was  followe...

  3. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagreen, L.A.; Lourie, B.A. [Summerhill Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada).

  4. Globalization, health, and the future Canadian metropolis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrecker, Ted

    2010-01-01

    This chapter represents a preliminary effort to understand the health implications of transnsational economic integration (globalization) for population health in Canadian metropolitan areas, and to inform the development of policy responses and strategies of resistance. Special emphasis is placed on health equity as it is affected by social determinants of health. I first provide a stylized description of the rationale for concentrating on major metropolitan areas, rather than on...

  5. Industry analysis - Canadian medical doctoral universities

    OpenAIRE

    Crighton, Lyla Eileen

    2005-01-01

    Most public sector and non-profit entities do not undergo standard business analysis that is typically found in their private sector counterparts, however such approaches may provide administrators with information to better understand their industry. A high-level industry analysis of Canadian medical-doctoral universities, based on Porter's five forces and value chain analysis, combined with an analysis of pertinent issues indicated that universities are greatly affected by strategic decisio...

  6. A Canadian Medical Team in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, J. Paul; Kain, Brian F.; Robert C. McDonald

    1985-01-01

    In February 1985, a Canadian medical relief team was established in a northern Ethiopia refugee camp. Volunteer physicians, nurses, and support staff have worked in the camp since February 1985. Their activities range from supervising intensive feeding programs, to controlling infections, to educating patients. About 300-400 patients visit the outpatient clinics daily. Malnutrition, vitamin A and B deficiencies, scurvy, rickets, gastroenteritis, malaria, leprosy, tuberculosis, pneumonia, trac...

  7. Viewpoint: Canadian competition policy: progress and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Ross

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the state of competition policy - in particular the economics of competition policy - in Canada today and considers its prospects going forward. It argues that: (i) the importance of competition policy has become accepted widely in Canada and indeed throughout much of the world; (ii) competition policy design and enforcement is in general well done in Canada; (iii) economists, including many Canadians, have played a central role in the development of an efficient and effe...

  8. The development of the Canadian peat industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibault, J.J. (New Brunswick Dept. of Natural Resources and Energy, Bathurst, NB (Canada). Mineral Resources Division)

    1994-02-01

    Peatlands occupy 111 million hectares or about 12% of Canada's land surface and are principally located in the boreal region of the country. Most of the bog surveys which were initiated in Canada since 1908 have been prompted by a national interest in gaining fuel self-sufficiency, but the production of peat has almost always been exclusively for horticultural purposes. The birth of the Canadian peat industry dates back to the early 1940s, when the United States' traditional supplies from Europe were cut off during the Second World War. Between 1938 and 1992, the production of horticultural peat has grown from 4,000 and 745,000 tonnes, making Canada the world's third largest producer of horticultural peat. Canadian peat is exported to 25 countries. In 1992, the United States accounted for 89% of all exports, and Japan ranked second with 10%. In 1992, the total value of the production was estimated at 108 million dollars and provided employment for thousands of people in rural areas. The present industry owes its existence to an abundant supply of sphagnum moss located near population centres and in proximity to important transportation corridors. The continued development of the Canadian peat industry depends on establishing sound environmental practices, examining alternate uses for peat and exploring new market opportunities. 27 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Canadian oil and gas survey 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberge, R.B. [ed.

    1998-11-01

    The year 1997 brought record levels of financing for the Canadian oil and gas industry which led to record levels of capital spending and unprecedented merger and acquisition activity. Production records were achieved, but soft commodity prices in the fourth quarter resulted in a significant downturn in the equity markets. El Nino reduced demand for natural gas and heating oil, resulting in increased storage levels for both commodities. Record drilling and capital spending fueled the Canadian oilfield service industry as total market capitalization rose to $10 billion. As for the 1998 outlook, the industry has turned to natural gas as the favoured commodity, as indicated by the conclusion of the Alliance pipeline hearings and the Nova/TCPL merger. This survey presents a review of crude oil and natural gas production, prices, and capital spending for development and exploratory wells, and the financial and operating results for fiscal year 1997 of selected oil and gas companies and income trusts. All listed companies are Canadian public companies, or publicly traded income trusts, traded on one of the country`s four major stock exchanges. They are ranked according to gross oil and gas production revenue only (before royalties). Syncrude and oil sands production is also included. The remaining data in the financial statistics tables includes all business segments of each company included. The survey excluded companies that were wholly-owned subsidiaries, divisions or U.S. subsidiaries and private companies. tabs., figs.

  10. Recent trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Canadian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Celia; Sharma, Atul K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Canadian children from 23.3% to 34.7% during 1978–2004. We examined the most recent trends by applying current definitions of overweight and obesity based on World Health Organization (WHO) body mass index (BMI) thresholds and recently validated norms for waist circumference and waist:height ratio. Methods: We examined directly measured height and weight data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2004–2005) and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2009–2013). We calculated z scores for BMI, height and weight based on the 2014 WHO growth charts for Canada, including the new extension of weight-for-age beyond 10 years. To calculate z scores for waist circumference and waist:height ratios, we used new charts from the reference population in the US NHANES III (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994). Results: Data were available for 14 014 children aged 3–19 years for the period 2004–2013. We observed a decline in the prevalence of overweight or obesity, from 30.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29.7% to 31.6%) to 27.0% (95% CI 25.3% to 28.7%) (p obesity at about 13%. These trends persisted after we adjusted for age, sex and race/ethnicity. Although they declined, the median z scores for BMI, weight and height were positive and higher than those in the WHO reference population. The z scores for waist circumference and waist:height ratio were negative, which indicated that the Canadian children had less central adiposity than American children in historic or contemporary NHANES cohorts. Interpretation: After a period of dramatic growth, BMI z scores and the prevalence of overweight or obesity among Canadian children decreased from 2004 to 2013, which attests to progress against this important public health challenge. PMID:27160875

  11. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    OpenAIRE

    Turner Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to publi...

  12. Should investors prefer Canadian hedge funds or stocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiao Yan; Zhou, Weihui

    2007-01-01

    This paper updates Brulhart and Klein (2006) by comparing the magnitude of extreme returns from Tremont, HFRI hedge fund indices with stock indices. It also compares the magnitude of extreme returns from Canadian hedge fund indices with stock indices. We found that the results from Brulhart and Klein hold for the updated US data. However, the results do not hold for the Canadian hedge fund indices. The magnitude of extreme returns from Canadian hedge fund indices is lower than the magnitude o...

  13. Radioactive waste disposal - ethical and environmental considerations - A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with ethical and environmental considerations of radioactive waste disposal in Canada. It begins with the canadian attitudes toward nature and environment. Then are given the canadian institutions which reflect an environmental ethic, the development of a canadian radioactive waste management policy, the establishment of formal assessment and review process for a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, some studies of the ethical and risk dimensions of nuclear waste decisions, the canadian societal response to issues of radioactive wastes, the analysis of risks associated with fuel waste disposal, the influence of other energy related environmental assessments and some common ground and possible accommodation between the different views. (O.L.). 50 refs

  14. Growing beyond oil delivering our energy future - a report card on the Canadian renewable fuels industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    The Canadian Renewable Fuels Association (CRFA) has overseen dynamic growth in the domestic biofuels sector. It is guided by the following principles: support for advanced biofuels; building a sustainable industry; building a competitive industry; fiscal responsibility; feedstock neutrality; investment in technology; quality and safety. The development of renewable fuels is also supported by the federal and provincial governments. Some solid results have been achieved in the industry sector: job creation and economic growth; reductions in GHG emissions; agricultural benefits; rural development and forestry benefits; energy security/diversity; and social benefits to Canadians. The federal government has been clear in its commitment to implement the 2% renewable diesel requirement in 2011. The CRFA and member organizations look forward to a continuing dialogue with federal and provincial policy makers to realize our full potential in the clean energy economy of tomorrow.

  15. The use of Ethics Decision-Making Frameworks by Canadian Ethics Consultants: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposy, Chris; Brunger, Fern; Maddalena, Victor; Singleton, Richard

    2016-10-01

    In this study, Canadian healthcare ethics consultants describe their use of ethics decision-making frameworks. Our research finds that ethics consultants in Canada use multi-purpose ethics decision-making frameworks, as well as targeted frameworks that focus on reaching an ethical resolution to a particular healthcare issue, such as adverse event reporting, or difficult triage scenarios. Several interviewees mention the influence that the accreditation process in Canadian healthcare organizations has on the adoption and use of such frameworks. Some of the ethics consultants we interviewed also report on their reluctance to use these tools. Limited empirical work has been done previously on the use of ethics decision-making frameworks. This study begins to fill this gap in our understanding of the work of healthcare ethics consultants.

  16. The Canadian Teaching Commons: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuetherick, Brad; Yu, Stan

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reports on a national study exploring the current state of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) and assessing the perceptions of Canadian SoTL scholars at the micro (individual), meso (departmental), macro (institutional), and mega (disciplinary) contexts.

  17. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  18. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  19. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  20. Airborne organochlorines in the Canadian High Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    PATTON, G. W.; HINCKLEY, D. A.; Walla, M D; T. F. Bidleman; HARGRAVE, B. T.

    2011-01-01

    In 1984, the Canadian Polar Continental Shelf Project established a research camp on a floating ice island in the Beaufort Sea. The 7 × 4 km island is presently located about 50 km off Ellesmere Island at about 81°N, 100°W. Air samples of 1400–3000 m3 were collected on the island in August-September 1986 and June 1987, using a filter-solid adsorbent train. Organochlorines in melted snow and Arctic Ocean surface water were preconcentrated using solid adsorbent cartridges. Samples were analyzed...

  1. Refugees and education in Canadian schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprielian-Churchill, Isabel

    1996-07-01

    This article summarizes some of the findings and recommendations of a research project focusing on the nature and needs of refugee students in Canadian schools. The school performance of refugee students is examined under the following headings: immigration regulations; initial identification, assessment, placement and monitoring; unaccompanied youngsters; "at risk" students; academic needs; the conflict of cultures. In particular, the article discusses the changing role of the school in the light of recent immigration trends. Many of the findings are applicable to other national settings.

  2. The Dividend and Share Repurchase Policies of Canadian Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Jong (Abe); R. van Dijk (Ronald); C.H. Veld

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe empirically investigate dividend and share repurchase policies of Canadian firms. We have sent a questionnaire to the 500 largest non-financial Canadian companies listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange, of which 191 usable responses were returned. These data are used to measure firm cha

  3. 47 CFR 101.1423 - Canadian and Mexican coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian and Mexican coordination. 101.1423... GHz Band § 101.1423 Canadian and Mexican coordination. Pursuant to § 2.301 of this chapter, MVDDS... sector of 200 degrees toward the border without coordination with Canada. MVDDS licensees shall...

  4. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society 15. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the 15. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society cover a wide range of nuclear topics, but the emphasis is on CANDU reactors and Canadian experience. The 89 papers are arranged in 17 sessions dealing with the following subjects: thermalhydraulics, fuel channels, operations, reactor physics, fuel, new technology, safety, training, waste management. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  5. Indigenous knowledge in Canadian science curricula: cases from Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung

    2016-09-01

    To enhance Aboriginal students' educational opportunities in sciences, culturally relevant science curriculum has been examined and practiced in Western Canadian science classrooms. This article shares some examples of inclusion of indigenous knowledge in science curricula and discusses the improvement and challenges of culturally relevant science curricula in Canadian contexts.

  6. The Canadian Context: Monolingual Education in an "Officially" Multilingual Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Julia E.

    2011-01-01

    This article will examine the sociopolitical language contexts that exist in institutions of Canadian post-secondary education, through investigating how government policies affect the consumption and teaching of language in writing classrooms. A survey of Canadian multiculturalist policy, multilingualism, and post-secondary education in terms of…

  7. Canadian Educational Development Centre Websites: More Ebb than Flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines information portrayed on Canadian educational development (ED) centre websites and, in particular, whether information that corresponds to questions compiled from a literature search of ED centre practices is readily available from centre websites. This study phase is part of a larger national study of Canadian educational…

  8. Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Child Health:A Canadian Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stuart Macleod

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction Canadian academic centres and children's hospitals have had a longstanding interest in the improvement of drug therapy for children through research conducted across the four pillars of activity identified as being of critical importance by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research(viz,basic research,clinical research,population health research,applied health and policy research)[1].

  9. How Canadian Universities Use Social Media to Brand Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Charles H.; Bali, Suchita; Longden, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores social media marketing strategies applied by Canadian universities as a tool for institutional branding, recruitment and engagement of home and international students. The target sample involves the total population of Canadian university-status institutions ("N" = 106). Qualitative data were collected from two major…

  10. Seeking Internationalization: The State of Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the internationalization of Canadian universities, with a focus on the rise of foreign postsecondary students in Canada, the economic impacts, and the various benefits, challenges, and adjustments that have been influenced by the continuing demographic shifts on Canadian campuses since 2000. Rooted in recent global and…

  11. Canadian resources of uranium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has been one of the world's leading producers of uranium since the metal became important as a raw material in the development and production of atomic energy. One of the largest known deposits in the world is in Canada where present reserves represent about 37 per cent of the total among those countries that have published reserve statistics. The production of uranium has been characterized by features which are unique in Canadian mining, because the industry was created by the government at a time of emergency and, unlike other minerals, the sale of its product is controlled by the state. The rapid growth of the uranium-mining industry since World War II has been a remarkable achievement. In 1958, Canada was the world's leading producer of uranium and the value of U3O8 produced in both 1958 and 1959 exceeded the value of any other Canadian-produced metal. As an export commodity, uranium ranked fourth in value in 1959 following newsprint, wheat, and lumber. Production from 25 mines in that year was 14 462 tonnes of U3O8 valued at $345 million (all monetary values are in U.S. dollars). Since 1959, however, the decline in production, resulting from declining export markets, has been almost as rapid as the spectacular rise from 1953 to 1959. At the end of 1963 only seven mines were in production and by the end of 1965 only two mines are expected to remain in operation. (author)

  12. The abortion battle: the Canadian scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, P

    1994-01-01

    In January 1988 the Supreme Court of Canada struck down the country's archaic abortion law on the ground that it imposed arbitrary delays and unfair disparities in access to abortion across the country. Since then, the conservative government of Canada has made a few attempts to introduce a new abortion policy, but it did not get passed in the parliament because the revised bills failed to protect women's right to 'life, liberty, and security of the person' within the meaning of the Canadian Charter. Canada has been without an abortion law for over four years and there has been a wide range of provincial policies and confusion in the country. Despite the legal vacuum, Canadian women are not frenziedly having abortions. However, the militancy of the anti-abortion groups has steadily intensified with continued assault on a woman's right to make reproductive choices. Since no law, short of banning abortions altogether, is going to satisfy abortion opponents, the abortion battle will rage on in Canada. PMID:8065237

  13. Arctic response strategy: Canadian Coast Guard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revision of the Canadian Coast Guard's Arctic response strategy was described with particular focus on the consultative method used to ensure that all perspectives were taken into consideration. Some tankers used to re-supply fuel to remote Arctic communities carry more than 30,000 tonnes of product, putting them at risk for major spills. The Arctic response strategy was revised to emphasize recommendations for prevention, preparedness and response. Prevention was recognized as the most effective solution to oil spills in the Arctic. The leadership and coordination roles of the Canadian Coast Guard were demonstrated in relation to ship-source oil pollution. The new strategy also outlined the equipment requirements needed to respond to a large spill in the Arctic. Categorization of spill sizes as tier 1 to 4 was determined by examining southern regimes as was the characterization of corresponding equipment. Implementation of the new recommendations of the revised Arctic response strategy will take place over the next 2 years. The prevention aspect will include some legislative changes or stricter guidelines

  14. HIV outcomes at a Canadian remand centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Yazhini; Khan, Muhammad Naeem; Berger, Sara; Foisy, Michelle; Singh, Ameeta; Woods, Dan; Pyne, Diane; Ahmed, Rabia

    2016-09-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of short-term incarceration on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, virologic suppression, and engagement and retention in community care post-release. Design/methodology/approach A retrospective chart review of patients who attended the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Outreach Clinic at a Canadian remand center between September 2007 and December 2011 was carried out. Data extraction included CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, ART prescription refills, and community engagement and retention during and one-year pre- and post-incarceration. Findings Outpatient engagement increased by 23 percent ( p=0.01), as did ART adherence (55.2-70.7 percent, p=0.01), following incarceration. Retention into community care did not significantly improve following incarceration (22.4 percent pre-incarceration to 25.9 percent post-release, p=0.8). There was a trend toward improved virologic suppression (less than 40 copies/ml; 50-77.8 percent ( p=0.08)) during incarceration and 70. 4 percent sustained this one-year post-incarceration ( p=0.70). Originality/value The impact of short-term incarceration in a Canadian context of universal health coverage has not been previously reported and could have significant implications in optimizing HIV patient outcomes given the large number of HIV-positive patients cycling through short-term remand centers. PMID:27548017

  15. Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project activities report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project was formally established in 1982. The project is directed toward the further development of Canadian capabilities in five major areas: tritium technology, breeder technology, materials technology, equipment development and safety and the environment. The project is funded by three partners - Government of Canada (50%), Ontario Provincial Government (25%) and Ontario Hydro (25%). The fiscal year 1984/85 represents the third year of operation of the project. In 1984/85, 108 contracts were awarded totalling $4 million. Supplementary funding by subcontractors added approximately $1.9 million to the total project value. More than 200 people participated in the technical work involved in the project. Sixteen people were on attachment to foreign facilities for terms ranging from 1 month to 2.5 years. Five patents were applied for including a tritium discrimination monitor, a new radio-chemical tritium separation method, a new variation of fuel cleanup by gas chromatography, a passive tritium permeation system using bimetallic membranes, and a new breeder process using lithium salts dissolved in heavy water

  16. Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. and a review of their 1998 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. The company's core oil and gas business activities include exploration, development, production and marketing of crude oil and natural gas. The company produces oil and gas in Canada, Yemen, the Gulf of Mexico and Nigeria. Canadian Occidental also owns a 7.23 per cent share in the Syncrude joint venture. The company is developing new production in Hay, British Columbia, offshore west Africa and offshore northwest Australia. They are also one of North America's top three manufacturers of sodium chlorate. The report presents a summary of operations, a thorough management discussion and analysis of results and provides the customary consolidated financial statements and notes. Overall, 1998 was described as a difficult year financially, due to falling commodity prices. On the operations side, the company experienced its best results to date, producing more oil and gas than ever before. The company also invested over $ 950 million in new projects and opportunities. Some of the Company's most promising projects are located offshore Nigeria, offshore northwest Australia, in the Gulf of Mexico and in western Canada. These projects are expected to add 40,000 BOE of production by early 2000, with promise of attractive returns even at current low oil prices. tabs., figs

  17. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups. PMID:23618638

  18. Canadian experience with uranium tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first years of uranium production in Canada uranium tailings were discharged directly into valleys or lakes near the mill. Treatment with barium chloride to precipitate radium began in 1965 at the Nordic Mine at Elliot Lake, Ontario. In the mid-60s and early 70s water quality studies indicated that discharges from uranium tailings areas were causing degradation to the upper part of the Serpent River water system. Studies into acid generation, revegetation, and leaching of radium were initiated by the mining companies and resulted in the construction of treatment plants at a number of sites. Abandoned tailings sites were revegetated. At hearings into the expansion of the Elliot Lake operations the issue of tailings management was a major item for discussion. As a result federal and provincial agencies developed guidelines for the siting and development of urnaium tailings areas prior to issuing operating licences. Western Canadian uranium producers do not have the acid generation problem of the Elliot Lake operations. The Rabbit Lake mill uses settling ponds followed by filtration. High-grade tailings from Cluff Lake are sealed in concrete and buried. Uranium producers feel that the interim criteria developed by the Atomic Energy Control Board, if adopted, would have a harmful effect on the viability of the Canadian uranium industry

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian prairie agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellert, B.H.; Janzen, H.H. [Agriculture and Agri-food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB, (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    There is a close relationship between soil and air quality, on the one hand, and the exchange of greenhouse gases between the earth and atmosphere, on the other. International efforts by people such as soil conservationists and climatologists to control emissions of these gases and negotiations surrounding the Kyoto Protocol have increased the debate regarding the role of agricultural activities. From evaluation of both data available before global change became important and recent research efforts, much information on greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian agriculture has been gained. A summary is included of the contribution of Canadian prairie agriculture to emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane gas. A stress is placed on the subject of the carbon cycle and on how land management practices could influence soil carbon storage capacity. The potential for increasing this carbon storage capacity is described in relation to land use, historical changes in agricultural land, and recent observations on the influence of agricultural parctices, and obstacles to estimating changes in soil carbon dioxide emissions and carbon storage, and extending the estimates to large land areas are examined. Emissions of nitrous oxide and methane gas are considered in relation to the influence of agricultural management practices. (Abstract only)

  20. Competitiveness and viability impact on the Canadian refining industry of reducing sulphur in Canadian gasoline and diesel. Phase II: Pricing dynamics of the Canadian and international product markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of Canadian and international petroleum product pricing are discussed. Petroleum product prices are developed for use in assessing the competitiveness of the Canadian refining industry, both before and after the impact of the various sulphur reduction scenarios. In assessing the competitiveness of the Canadian refining industry, five critical factors have been taken into account. These are product prices, feedstock costs, capacity utilization, operating costs, and future capital requirements. Refining margin is considered to be the best indicator of refining performance. In Canada, refining margins are directly influenced by refining margins at the U.S. Gulf Coast (USGC). U.S. impact, European impact and the resulting Canadian grade gasoline and low sulphur diesel prices were examined in great detail. It was found that current returns are below acceptable rates in both the Canadian and U. S. industries. Separate price determinations were made for Ontario, Montreal, the Atlantic provinces, the Prairie provinces and British Columbia for gasoline and diesel fuel taking into account future sulphur scenario prices, the impact of legislation on fuel pricing, and crude oil pricing practices. Criteria for addressing future refinery viability, the advent of unique Canadian quality specifications starting in 1999, and the effects of these changes on independent marketers were also discussed

  1. Canadian Industry for Energy Conservation (CIPEC) annual report 2007 : seven ideas that can change your world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    The Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC) was founded in 1975 as an umbrella organization to oversee partnerships between government and private industry. Its primary objective was to promote energy efficiency within the Canadian industrial sector. This report described the energy efficiency initiatives taken by CIPEC member companies for the year 2005 and highlighted CIPEC's accomplishments in 2006-2007. Several successes achieved by individual companies in various industrial sectors were also documented. Many energy-savings ideas have been implemented as a result of programs and services offered by Natural Resources Canada through CIPEC. This report reviewed the following 7 ideas that can be adapted to fit a variety of operating environments: (1) improve processes, (2) transform employee mindsets, (3) upgrade equipment, (4) adopt new technologies, (5) measure energy performance, (6) rethink facility design, and (7) introduce alternative sources of energy. This report revealed that 2005 was a successful year in terms of the energy efficiency accomplishments of Canadian industry. Energy intensity improved by 1.4 per cent in 2005 compared with 2004, contributing to an average annual improvement in energy intensity of 0.7 per cent since 1990 for all of CIPEC industries. Through CIPEC, the mining, manufacturing and construction sectors have voluntarily met and exceeded annual targets to reduce their energy intensity. Upstream oil and gas companies have implemented projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by millions of tonnes and electrical utilities have significantly increased their production of alternative energy. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Work and High-Risk Alcohol Consumption in the Canadian Workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ève Blanc

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the associations between occupational groups; work-organization conditions based on task design; demands, social relations, and gratifications; and weekly high-risk alcohol consumption among Canadian workers. A secondary data analysis was performed on Cycle 2.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 2003. The sample consisted of 76,136 employees 15 years of age and older nested in 2,451 neighbourhoods. High-risk alcohol consumption is defined in accordance with Canadian guidelines for weekly low-risk alcohol consumption. The prevalence of weekly high-risk alcohol consumption is estimated to be 8.1% among workers. The results obtained using multilevel logistic regression analysis suggest that increased work hours and job insecurity are associated with elevated odds of high-risk alcohol consumption. Gender female, older age, being in couple and living with children associated with lower odds of high-risk drinking, while increased education, smoking, physical activities, and, and economic status were associated with higher odds. High-risk drinking varied between neighbourhoods, and gender moderates the contribution of physical demands. The results suggest that work made a limited contribution and non-work factors a greater contribution to weekly high-risk alcohol consumption. Limits and implications of these results are discussed.

  3. Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken in an effort to determine the market potential for crude bitumen and derivative products from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in 2007. As part of the study, CERI assessed the economic viability of a wide range of bitumen-based feedstock based on their refining values, investigated the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, and examined the competitiveness of bitumen-based feedstocks and conventional crudes. A US$18.00 per barrel price for West Texas Intermediate at Cushing, Oklahoma, was assumed in all calculations, including other crude prices, as well as for Western Canadian and US crude oil production forecasts. Four different scenarios have been considered, but only the 'most plausible' scenario is discussed in the report. Consequently, Hydrocracked/Aromatics Saturated Synthetic Crude Oil, which is currently only a hypothetical product, is excluded from consideration. The availability of historical price differentials for the various competing crudes was another assumption used in developing the scenario. Proxy prices for the bitumen-based feedstock were based on their respective supply costs. The study concludes that the principal dilemma facing bitumen producers in Western Canada is to determine the amount of upgrading necessary to ensure an economic market for their product in the future. In general, the greater the degree of upgrading, the higher is the demand for bitumen-based feedstock. However, it must be kept in mind that the upgrading decisions of other bitumen producers, along with many other factors, will have a decisive impact on the economics of any individual project. The combination of coking capacity and asphalt demand limits the market for heavy and extra-heavy crudes. As a result, the researchers concluded that major expansion of heavy crude conversion capacity may have to wait until the end of the current decade. The economic market for bitumen-based blends in 2007 is estimated at

  4. An inventory of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies: research in progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joly Marie-Pier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A web-based inventory was developed as a voluntary registry of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies, with the objective to foster collaboration and sharing of research tools among cohort study groups as a means to enrich research in maternal and child health across Canada. Description Information on existing birth cohort studies conducted in Canada exclusively or as part of broader international initiatives was accessed by searching the literature in PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Additional studies were identified by enquiring about the research activities of researchers at Canadian universities or working in affiliated hospitals or research centres or institutes. Of the fifty-eight birth cohort studies initially identified, forty-six were incorporated into the inventory if they were of a retrospective and/or prospective longitudinal design and with a minimum of two phases of data collection, with the first period having occurred before, during, or shortly after pregnancy and had an initial study sample size of a minimum of 200 participants. Information collected from each study was organized into four main categories: basic information, data source and period of collection, exposures, and outcome measures and was coded and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The information incorporated into the Excel spreadsheet was double checked, completed when necessary, and verified for completeness and accuracy by contacting the principal investigator or research coordinator. All data collected were then uploaded onto the website of the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Subsequently, the database was updated and developed as an online searchable inventory on the website of the Maternal, Infant, Child and Youth Research Network. Conclusions This inventory is unique, as it represents detailed information assembled for the first time on a large number of Canadian

  5. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society 12. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the seventeen Technical Sessions from the Twelfth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society held in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, June 9 to 12, 1991. As in previous years, the Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society was held in conjunction with the Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association. The major topics of discussion included: reactor physics; thermal hydraulics; industrial irradiation; computer applications; fuel channel analysis; small reactors; severe accidents; fuel behaviour under accident conditions; reactor components; safety related computer software; nuclear fuel management; nuclear waste management; and, uranium mining processing

  6. CanWEA Pan-Canadian wind integration study paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Martin [GL Garrad Hassan Canada Inc, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gardner, Paul [GL Garrad Hassan and Partners, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Price, Doug; Le, Don [GL Garrad Hassan America, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    GL Garrad Hassan has been contracted by CanWEA to undertake a scoping study for a future Pan-Canadian Wide-Scale Wind Integration Study. The scoping study provides the methodology and the rationale on which the actual wind integration study and request for proposals will be based on. Major system operators and owners of each Canadian Province along with experts involved in major US wind integration studies have been consulted and contributed to the decisional process. This paper provides a summary of the factors considered in the study and outline the actual methodology that was adopted for the future Pan-Canadian wind integration study. (orig.)

  7. Pharmacist-led minor ailment programs: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeff Gordon; Joubert, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacists have a long history of helping Canadians with minor ailments. This often has involved management with over-the-counter medications. If pharmacists felt that the best care required something more robust, they would refer the patient to a physician. In hopes of improving the care of such ailments, Canadian provinces have granted pharmacists the option of selecting medications traditionally under physician control. This review examines the Canadian perspective on pharmacists prescribing for minor ailments and the evidence of value for these programs. It might provide guidance for other jurisdictions contemplating such a move. PMID:27570460

  8. Feminist Approaches to Journalism Studies: Canadian Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrude J. Robinson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the orthodoxies of communication scholarship is that much of the gender-based differences between males and females with regard to experiences in newsrooms can be attributed to demographics. The discussion presented in this paper challenges this claim by comparing the findings of two national surveys that measured the professional progress of Canadian press and television journalists. The first survey was undertaken in 1975, and the second in 1995. While the historical evidence points to reductions in gender-based structural inequalities over time, it also identifies the continued presence of gender-based assumptions about how work and family obligations should be combined. Such assumptions, it is argued, help to foster and reproduce systemic biases in the newsroom culture that still resonate today in the journalism profession and which can be best understood as a manifestation of the meaning of gender at three levels: as a classifying system, as a structuring structure, and as an ideology.

  9. Canadian petroleum industry: 1991 [annual] monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are provided on the financial performance of the oil and gas industry in Canada during 1991. The report is based on data from 154 companies accounting for ca 90% of total revenues of the petroleum industry. The report lists noteworthy happenings in the industry, gives highlights of the year, then details financial performance, sources and uses of funds, comparative performance with other industries, ownership and control trends, research and development expenditures, and income tax-related data for the current and previous years. In 1991, the overall industry experienced a fall in cash flow of 22% to $7.6 billion, and net income dropped from a profit of $2.3 billion in 1990 to a loss of $2.4 billion in 1991. Upstream revenues fell $2.8 billion as a result of lower crude oil and marketable natural gas prices. The drop in natural gas prices to their lowest level in over a decade resulted in many companies taking asset write-offs totalling almost $2 billion. Rate of return on average shareholder's equity was -6% in 1991 against +5.6% in 1990. The industry increased overall capital expenditures by 10% to $9.7 billion, largely on the strength of participation in major projects such as Caroline gas field development, Hibernia, Cohasset/Panuke and the Bi-Provincial Upgrader. Canadian ownership of upstream revenues increased to 45.2% from 44% in 1990, while Canadian control rose from 40.9% to 42.8%. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  10. Canadian heavy water production - 1970 to 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade, heavy water production in Canada has progressed from the commissioning of a single unit plant in Nova Scotia to a major production industry employing 2200 persons and operating three plants with an aggregate annual production capability in excess of 1800 Mg. The decade opened with an impending crisis in the supply of heavy water due to failure of the first Glace Bay Heavy Water Plant and difficulty in commissioning the second Canadian plant at Port Hawkesbury. Lessons learned at this latter plant were applied to the Bruce plant where the first two units were under construction. When the Bruce units were commissioned in 1973 the rate of approach to design production rates was much improved, renewing confidence in Canada's ability to succeed in large scale heavy water production. In the early 1970's a decision was made to rehabilitate the Glace Bay plant using a novel flowsheet and this rebuilt plant commenced production in 1976. The middle of the decade was marked by two main events: changes in ownership of the operating plants and initiation of a massive construction program to support the forecast of a rapidly expanding CANDU power station construction program. New production units embodying the best features of their predecessors were committed at Bruce by Ontario Hydro and at La Prade, Quebec, by AECL. The high growth rate in electrical demand did not continue and some new plant construction was curtailed. The present installed production capacity will now probably be adequate to meet anticipated demand for the next decade. Canadian plants have now produced more than 7800 Mg of heavy water at a commercially acceptable cost and with a high degree of safety and compliance with appropriate environmental regulations

  11. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  12. Canadian consumer battery baseline study : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provided information about the estimated number of consumer and household batteries sold, re-used, stored, recycled, and disposed each year in Canada. The report discussed the ways in which different batteries posed risks to human health and the environment, and legislative trends were also reviewed. Data used in the report were obtained from a literature review as well as through a series of interviews. The study showed that alkaline batteries are the most common primary batteries used by Canadians, followed by zinc carbon batteries. However, lithium primary batteries are gaining in popularity, and silver oxide and zinc air button cell batteries are also used in applications requiring a flat voltage and high energy. Secondary batteries used in laptop computers, and cell phones are often made of nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal-hydroxide, and lithium ion. Small sealed lead batteries are also commonly used in emergency lighting and alarm systems. Annual consumption statistics for all types of batteries were provided. Results of the study showed that the primary battery market is expected to decline. Total units of secondary batteries are expected to increase to 38.6 million units by 2010. The report also used a spreadsheet model to estimate the flow of consumer batteries through the Canadian waste management system. An estimated 347 million consumer batteries were discarded in 2004. By 2010, it is expected that an estimated 494 million units will be discarded by consumers. The study also considered issues related to lead, cadmium, mercury, and nickel disposal and the potential for groundwater contamination. It was concluded that neither Canada nor its provinces or territories have initiated legislative or producer responsibility programs targeting primary or secondary consumer batteries. 79 refs., 37 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Drought, Climate Change and the Canadian Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. E.

    2010-03-01

    The occurrence of drought is a ubiquitous feature of the global water cycle. Such an extreme does not necessarily lead to an overall change in the magnitude of the global water cycle but it of course affects the regional cycling of water. Droughts are recurring aspects of weather and climate extremes as are floods and tornadoes, but they differ substantially since they have long durations and lack easily identified onsets and terminations. Drought is a relatively common feature of the North American and Canadian climate system and all regions of the continent are affected from time-to-time. However, it tends to be most common and severe over the central regions of the continent. The Canadian Prairies are therefore prone to drought. Droughts in the Canadian Prairies are distinctive in North America. The large scale atmospheric circulations are influenced by blocking from intense orography to the west and long distances from all warm ocean-derived atmospheric water sources; growing season precipitation is generated by a highly complex combination of frontal and convective systems; seasonality is severe and characterized by a relatively long snow-covered and short growing seasons; local surface runoff is primarily produced by snowmelt water; there is substantial water storage potential in the poorly drained, post-glacial topography; and aquifers are overlain by impermeable glacial till, but there are also important permeable aquifers. One example of Prairie drought is the recent one that began in 1999 with cessation of its atmospheric component in 2004/2005 and many of its hydrological components in 2005. This event produced the worst drought for at least a hundred years in parts of the Canadian Prairies. Even in the dust bowl of the 1930s, no single year over the central Prairies were drier than in 2001. The drought affected agriculture, recreation, tourism, health, hydro-electricity, and forestry in the Prairies. Gross Domestic Product fell some 5.8 billion and

  14. Survive Bravely——Main Features of Contemporary Canadian Literature Themes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳

    2015-01-01

    The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada's particular history,geograph y,climate,religion,demographic factors,generation,development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures.The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Literature:keep working hard for survival and love bravely.Meanwhile,modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic literary works.

  15. Survive Bravely——Main Features of Contemporary Canadian Literature Themes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Fang

    2015-01-01

    The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada’s particular history,geograph y,climate,religion,demographic factors,generation,development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures.The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Literature:keep working hard for survival and love bravely.Meanwhile,modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic literary works.

  16. Measuring information technology investment among Canadian academic health sciences centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Lorraine; Leonard, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Many recent studies have attempted to accurately measure the expenditure by hospitals in the area of new information technology (IT), for example see Leonard 1998 and Pink et al. 2001. This is usually done as an exercise to compare the healthcare sector with other industries that have had much more success in implementing and leveraging their IT investment (Willcocks 1992; Chan 2000). It is normally hoped that such investigation would help explain some of the differences among the various industries and provide insight into where (and how much) future IT spending should occur in healthcare (Leonard 2004). Herein, we present the results from a study of eight Canadian academic health sciences centres that contributed data in order to analyze the amount of information technology spending in their organizations. Specifically, we focus on one specific indicator: the IT spend ratio. This ratio is defined as the percentage of total IT net costs to total hospital net operating costs, and aims to provide a "relative (or percentage) measure of spending" so as to make the comparisons meaningful. One such comparison shows that hospitals spend only 55% of the amount the financial services sector spends.

  17. In situ petroleum hydrocarbon bioremediation in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greer, C.; Bell, T.; Lee, K.; Delisle, S.; Kovanen, D.; Craig, D.; Juck, D. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.

    2010-07-01

    This presentation reported on the in-situ bioremediation of diesel contaminated soils at the Canadian Forces Station CFS-Alert, in the Arctic. The soil was amended with monoammonium phosphate (MAP). The operation was designed to take place in a 2 month period during the brief thaw season. This presentation described the installation of the bioventing stacks, the turning of soil, and the application of an oxygen release compound (ORC) at the surface of the permafrost. A significant decrease in petroleum hydrocarbons (PC) was noted over 2 months. The effect of MAP amendment was a slight decrease in biomass in the pristine environment and a significant increase in biomass in the contaminated environment. The alkB gene was found to be important in the biodegradation of alkanes. Stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify active organisms. This bioremediation study showed that even in harsh Arctic climates, soils that are moderately contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons can be remediated effectively and economically via biodegradation. tabs., figs.

  18. Carbon and Carbon Isotope Cycling in the Western Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Jacoba; Thomas, Helmuth

    2016-04-01

    Increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are having drastic effects on the global oceans. The Arctic Ocean is particularly susceptible to change as warming, sea-ice loss and a weak buffering capacity all influence this complicated semi-enclosed sea. In order to investigate the inorganic carbon system in the Canadian Arctic, water samples were collected in the Beaufort Sea, on the Alaskan shelf, at the Mackenzie river delta, and in Amundsen Gulf during the summer of 2014 and were analyzed for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), DI13C and 18O isotopes. Carbon isotopes are used to investigate the role of biological production on the uptake and transfer of inorganic carbon to depth. A preferential uptake of the lighter 12C relative to the heavier 13C isotope during biological production leads to a fractionation of the 13C/12C isotopes in both the organic matter and the water column. This results in an enrichment of DI13C in the high productivity surface waters and a depletion of DI13C at depth. Physical processes including freshwater input, brine rejection, and water mass mixing are investigated through the measurement of oxygen isotopes. Differences in the carbon system across the study area due to both biological and physical processes are assessed using depth profiles of DI13C and related carbon system parameters.

  19. A Network Enabled Platform for Canadian Space Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, R.; Boteler, D. R.; Jayachandran, T. P.; Mann, I. R.; Sofko, G.; Yau, A. W.

    2008-12-01

    The internet is an example of a pervasive disruptive technology that has transformed society on a global scale. The term "cyberinfrastructure" refers to technology underpinning the collaborative aspect of large science projects and is synonymous with terms such as e-Science, intelligent infrastructure, and/or e- infrastructure. In the context of space science, a significant challenge is to exploit the internet and cyberinfrastructure to form effective virtual organizations (VOs) of scientists that have common or agreed- upon objectives. A typical VO is likely to include universities and government agencies specializing in types of instrumentation (ground and/or space based), which in deployment produce large quantities of space data. Such data is most effectively described by metadata, which if defined in a standard way, facilitates discovery and retrieval of data over the internet by intelligent interfaces and cyberinfrastructure. One recent and significant approach is SPASE, which is being developed by NASA as a data-standard for its Virtual Observatories (VxOs) programs. The space science community in Canada has recently formed a VO designed to complement the e-POP microsatellite mission, and new ground-based observatories (GBOs) that collect data over a large fraction of the Canadian land-mass. The VO includes members of the CGSM community (www.cgsm.ca), which is funded operationally by the Canadian Space Agency. It also includes the UCLA VMO team, and scientists in the NASA THEMIS mission. CANARIE (www.canarie.ca), the federal agency responsible for management, design and operation of Canada's research internet, has recently recognized the value of cyberinfrastucture through the creation of a Network-Enabled-Platforms (NEPs) program. An NEP for space science was funded by CANARIE in its first competition. When fully implemented, the Space Science NEP will consist of a front-end portal providing access to CGSM data. It will utilize an adaptation of the SPASE

  20. Conference summaries of the Canadian Nuclear Association 30. annual conference, and the Canadian Nuclear Society 11. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains conference summaries for the 30. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association, and the 11. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society. Topics of discussion include: energy needs and challenges facing the Canadian nuclear industry; the environment and nuclear power; the problems of maintaining and developing industrial capacity; the challenges of the 1990's; programmes and issues for the 1990's; thermalhydraulics; reactor physics and fuel management; nuclear safety; small reactors; fuel behaviour; energy production and the environment; computer applications; nuclear systems; fusion; materials handling; and, reactor components

  1. A report on the climate change and investment risk workshop : best practices for Canadian pension funds and institutional investors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investors realize that the value of investment portfolios can be influenced by environmental risks such as climate change. This report is intended to raise awareness within the financial community of climate change risk, and to encourage greater corporate disclosure on climate change. It presents recommended best practices from the Social Investment Organization (SIO) regarding pension funds and other institutional investors for assessing and managing climate change risk. In 2003, 87 institutional investors handling $9 trillion, asked the 500 largest publicly traded companies in the world to disclose investment-relevant information concerning their greenhouse gas emissions. Nearly 800 organizations in all sectors of the Canadian economy have launched voluntary action plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The SIO recommends that Canadian institutional investors should sign the Carbon Disclosure Project, a mechanism designed to obtain carbon risk data from the largest companies in the world. Mandatory disclosure programs have been a successful tool in promoting sustainable development. 37 refs

  2. Neighborhood crime and adolescent cannabis use in Canadian adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Looze, Margreet; Janssen, I; Elgar, Frank J.; Craig, Wendy; Pickett, W.

    2015-01-01

    Although neighbourhood factors have been proposed as determinants of adolescent behaviour, few studies document their relative etiological importance. We investigated the relationship between neighbourhood crime and cannabis use in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adolescents. Data fro

  3. Has Multiculturalism Really Failed? A Canadian Muslim Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Baljit Nagra; Ito Peng

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, claims that multiculturalism has created segregated communities, encouraged terrorism, and failed to foster shared national identities in western nations have gained popularity. In this paper, we use young Canadian Muslims’ lived experience of multiculturalism to reflect on this debate. Contrary to popular rhetoric, our interviews of 50 young Muslim adults show that many maintain a dual Canadian-Muslim identity by utilizing the ideology of multiculturalism, even though they a...

  4. 47 CFR 101.1527 - Canadian and Mexican coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian and Mexican coordination. 101.1527... Canadian and Mexican coordination. (a) A licensee of bands 71.0-76.0, 81.0-86.0, 92-94 GHz and 94.1-95 GHz must comply with § 1.928(f) of this chapter, which pertains to coordination with Canada. (b) A...

  5. Does the Canadian economy suffer from Dutch Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Beine, M; Bos, C.S.; Coulombe, S.

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the failure to disentangle the evolution of the Canadian currency from the U.S. currency leads to potentially incorrect conclusions regarding the case of Dutch disease in Canada. We propose a new approach that is aimed at extracting both currency components and energy- and commodity-price components from observed exchange rates and prices. We first analyze the separate influence of commodity prices on the Canadian and the U.S. currency components. We then estimate the separate i...

  6. The politics of gun control: comparing Canadian and American patterns

    OpenAIRE

    G A Mauser; Margolis, M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper two questions are asked: to what extent do the Canadian and US publics differ in their beliefs about firearms-control legislation, and to what extent do these differences help to account for the stricter firearms legislation found in Canada? Surveys indicate that Canadians and Americans have remarkably similar attitudes towards firearms and gun control. Linear regression is used to analyze the factors that underlie the popular support for (or opposition to) stricter gun-control ...

  7. Plagiarism detection software and academic integrity : the canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kloda, Lorie A; Nicholson, Karen

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, McGill University, a member of the Canadian “G10” research universities, undertook a limited trial of plagiarism detection software in specific undergraduate courses. While it is estimated that 28 Canadian universities and colleges currently use text-matching software , the McGill trial received considerable attention from student, national and international media after a student refused to submit his work to the service and successfully challenged the university’s policy requiring t...

  8. Laboratory animal medicine — Needs and opportunities for Canadian veterinarians

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Patricia V; Baar, Michael; Olfert, Ernest D.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory animal medicine is a growing field of veterinary practice that emphasizes animal welfare and refinement of research animal care. The Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Medicine/L’association canadienne de la medecine des animaux de laboratoire (CALAM/ACMAL) and the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) provide a framework within which laboratory animal veterinarians practise. Numerous continuing education and post-graduate training opportunities exist in Canada for veterin...

  9. Measuring intelligence of minority children in Canadian multicultural contexts

    OpenAIRE

    TAMAOKA, Katsuo

    1991-01-01

    Canadianization for the items of WISC and WISC-R would not guarantee the proper difficulty level for the substituted items. Failure of adjusting the questioning items of Information subtest indicate an American cultural bias with respect to a main-stream Canadian population. For Native children, cultural content bias against Native children is indicated in the question items of the WISC-R Information subtest. The degree of acculturation seems to influence, to a certain degree, IQ tests' resul...

  10. An Analysis of the Earnings of Canadian Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, David E.; Morley Gunderson

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports estimates of simple wage equations fit to cross-sectional and pseudo-longitudinal data for Canadian immigrants in the 1971 and 1981 Canadian censuses. The estimates are used to assess (1) the usefulness of cross-sectional analyses for measuring the pace of immigrant earnings growth, (2) the labor market implications of admissions policies that place different weights on the work skills possessed by prospective entrants, and (3) the relative impact of selective outmigration ...

  11. Do We Need an Annual Canadian Respiratory Conference?

    OpenAIRE

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    2000-01-01

    Beginning in the fall of 2001, as decided at the 1999 Annual General Meeting of the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS), the Society's annual and scientific meeting will take place jointly with the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP). In the past, this annual event was held in conjunction with the Royal College of Physicians' meeting. Unfortunately, attendance at the Royal College meetings was quite low, and the event did not seem to fulfil the needs and interests of the Canadian respirat...

  12. Whither Chinese involvement in the Canadian oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese oil companies have become increasingly focused on securing Canadian oil. However, most of the oil sands leases with good geological and economic prospects are owned by Canadian or Canadian subsidiary companies that have proven unwilling to sell future revenue and reserves bases to the Chinese. The opportunity for a trade of Canadian oil assets for improved Chinese market entry has been limited to Husky, which has existing Chinese connections, as well as to global companies such as Exxon, Shell and BP. In May 2005, the Chinese company Sinopec completed a $105 million deal with Calgary-based Synenco and formed a joint venture for oil sands production and an upgrader. Chinese interests are also involved in the Calgary-based Value Creation Group of Companies as well as in BA Energy. Enbridge has recently invested $25 million in the Heartland upgrader project, presumably with the aim of building pipelines to move new products to Asia. The most significant problem for Canadian oil sands companies and the greatest opportunity for Chinese companies involves the utilization of trained Chinese workers for the $100 billion in oil sands construction planned for the next decade. Significant immigration barriers exist for Chinese workers in Canada, and there is a legitimate concern that Chinese workers may want to stay in Canada. It was concluded that while there may be mutual opportunities for collaboration between Chinese and Canadian energy companies, the Alberta government currently faces challenges in work shortages, immigration, and pressures from unions and environmental lobbyists. 1 fig

  13. Implications of globalization on pricing for Canadian crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of globalization on Canadian crude oil prices was discussed. Since deregulation in October 1985, Canadian crude oil has competed directly against international crude oil through the use of the NYMEX contract price for light sweet crude oil as the base for establishing the price for Canadian crudes. Prior to that date, Alberta crude was marketed by the Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission using the old block matrix which was loosely tied to the world market price. In addition to world crude oil prices other factors that affect the price of Canadian crude oil include technology impacts and global integration. Also, when the Sarnia to Montreal pipeline (Line 9) is reversed to bring offshore crude oil into the Ontario refining community, Canadian producers can expect some adverse effects on the price they are paid for their products leading up to the reversal as refiners start to swing over to their alternate suppliers. The offshore supply is expected to be about 140,000 barrels/day of light sweet crude oil, but all grades of Canadian crude oil will be affected

  14. Word Segmentation in Monolingual Infants Acquiring Canadian English and Canadian French: Native Language, Cross-Dialect, and Cross-Language Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polka, Linda; Sundara, Megha

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we tested segmentation of word forms from natural speech materials by 8-month-old monolingual infants who are acquiring Canadian French or Canadian English. These two languages belong to different rhythm classes; Canadian French is syllable-timed and Canada English is stress-timed. Findings of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 show that…

  15. Canadian plans for participation in GSETT 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. North

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC is making preparations for Canadian participation in GSETT 3 but will be unable to make a formal commitment until the necessary resources have been secured. As Canada is expected to provide at least four alpha stations, and a significant number of beta stations, the financial resources that will be needed are substantial, even though in many respccts the GSC is, with the recent modernization of the Yellowknife array and the ongoing installation of the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN, well positioned to make a significant contribution to GSETT 3. The CNSN currently (October 1993 consists of 17 broad band stations and will grow to 23 and 33 such stations by December 1993 and December 1994 respectively. Some 40 50 short period stations will complete the network. Data from all sites are continuously telemetered in real time to network acquisition centres in Ottawa and Sidney, British Columbia, archived to optical disk, and kept on line in a 72 h ring buffer. Most of the broadband sites could serve as either alpha or beta stations once the necessary software for continuous data transfer, or on request provision, of data from the selected sites has been completed. This software wili be configured so that changes in station selection are easy to implement, and this will provide considerable flexibility to the GSETT 3 planning and operations working groups in selecting the optimum network. Backup stations can be designated in the case of station failures, and the network centre in British Columbia will serve, at least for beta stations, as a backup NDC to that in Ottawa. Data from. the Yellowknife array are collected in Yellowknife and forwarded in ten minute files to Ottawa, where processing is completed and the results archived. This arrangement would not meet the deadlines for receipt of alpha station data at the IDC and new hardware and software will be needed to forward the data more immediately from

  16. Fuel condition in Canadian CANDU 6 reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, R.H.; Macici, N [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gibb, R. [New Brunswick Power, Lepreau, NB (Canada); Purdy, P.L.; Manzer, A.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Kohn, E. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The cornerstone of the CANDU concept is its natural uranium fuel, and the success of its reactor operation hinges on the fuel condition in the reactor. Neutron economy, on power refuelling, and simple fuel design are among the unique characteristics of CANDU fuel. In Canadian CANDU 6 reactors (Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau), the 37-element fuel has provided an enviable record of safe, economic and reliable plant operation for 29 reactor years to date. The fuelling cost is among the lowest in the world - a corollary of high neutron economy, simple fuel design, and judicial fuelling scheme. The reliability of fuel is high: only 21 of the 60000 bundles discharged from Gentilly 2 were confirmed defective and the five-year period from March 1992 to February 1997 saw no defect at all at Gentilly-2. Also, thanks to the inherent on-power refuelling capability and an effective defect detection and removal system, the primary coolant loops are kept extremely clean (very low activity level) - benefiting both maintenance and safety. Moreover, the inventories of fission products in the core and in the channel are maintained within the safety analysis envelope, due to on-power fuelling and sophisticated fuel management. In this paper, CANDU 6 fuel performance is reviewed against the feedback from post-irradiation examinations, and the findings from our ongoing R and D program. The results suggest that the fuel behavior m reactor are basically as originally anticipated, despite an evolutionary 3% increase in bundle uranium mass in the 1980's. For operating conditions within the CANDU 6 37-element experience, the average strains are typically 0.09%; and fission gas release, 2.7%. The UO{sub 2} fuel remains stoichiometric after irradiation. In-core measurements of pressure tube fitting are generally low. All these observations are consistent with the excellent fuel performance statistics coming out of the two Canadian CANDU 6 reactors. Additionally, this paper will briefly

  17. Fuel condition in Canadian CANDU 6 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cornerstone of the CANDU concept is its natural uranium fuel, and the success of its reactor operation hinges on the fuel condition in the reactor. Neutron economy, on power refuelling, and simple fuel design are among the unique characteristics of CANDU fuel. In Canadian CANDU 6 reactors (Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau), the 37-element fuel has provided an enviable record of safe, economic and reliable plant operation for 29 reactor years to date. The fuelling cost is among the lowest in the world - a corollary of high neutron economy, simple fuel design, and judicial fuelling scheme. The reliability of fuel is high: only 21 of the 60000 bundles discharged from Gentilly 2 were confirmed defective and the five-year period from March 1992 to February 1997 saw no defect at all at Gentilly-2. Also, thanks to the inherent on-power refuelling capability and an effective defect detection and removal system, the primary coolant loops are kept extremely clean (very low activity level) - benefiting both maintenance and safety. Moreover, the inventories of fission products in the core and in the channel are maintained within the safety analysis envelope, due to on-power fuelling and sophisticated fuel management. In this paper, CANDU 6 fuel performance is reviewed against the feedback from post-irradiation examinations, and the findings from our ongoing R and D program. The results suggest that the fuel behavior m reactor are basically as originally anticipated, despite an evolutionary 3% increase in bundle uranium mass in the 1980's. For operating conditions within the CANDU 6 37-element experience, the average strains are typically 0.09%; and fission gas release, 2.7%. The UO2 fuel remains stoichiometric after irradiation. In-core measurements of pressure tube fitting are generally low. All these observations are consistent with the excellent fuel performance statistics coming out of the two Canadian CANDU 6 reactors. Additionally, this paper will briefly discuss our

  18. Identifying Canadian freshwater fishes through DNA barcodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Hubert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding aims to provide an efficient method for species-level identifications using an array of species specific molecular tags derived from the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene. The efficiency of the method hinges on the degree of sequence divergence among species and species-level identifications are relatively straightforward when the average genetic distance among individuals within a species does not exceed the average genetic distance between sister species. Fishes constitute a highly diverse group of vertebrates that exhibit deep phenotypic changes during development. In this context, the identification of fish species is challenging and DNA barcoding provide new perspectives in ecology and systematics of fishes. Here we examined the degree to which DNA barcoding discriminate freshwater fish species from the well-known Canadian fauna, which currently encompasses nearly 200 species, some which are of high economic value like salmons and sturgeons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We bi-directionally sequenced the standard 652 bp "barcode" region of COI for 1360 individuals belonging to 190 of the 203 Canadian freshwater fish species (95%. Most species were represented by multiple individuals (7.6 on average, the majority of which were retained as voucher specimens. The average genetic distance was 27 fold higher between species than within species, as K2P distance estimates averaged 8.3% among congeners and only 0.3% among concpecifics. However, shared polymorphism between sister-species was detected in 15 species (8% of the cases. The distribution of K2P distance between individuals and species overlapped and identifications were only possible to species group using DNA barcodes in these cases. Conversely, deep hidden genetic divergence was revealed within two species, suggesting the presence of cryptic species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study evidenced that freshwater fish

  19. Proceedings of the Canadian Solar Buildings Conference : the 31. annual conference of the Solar Energy Society of Canada Inc. and the 1. Canadian Solar Buildings Research Network conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first conference organized by the newly established Canadian Solar Buildings Research Network (SBRN) was held in conjunction with the thirty-first annual conference of the Solar Energy Society of Canada Inc (SESCI). The conference was attended by top researchers from 10 Canadian Universities to promote innovative research and development in solar energy applications and to advance the awareness of solar energy in Canada. It featured special events such as trade shows, photovoltaic workshops, a course in ESP-r simulation, tours of solar houses and other events focused on the economic, environmental and socio-economic benefits of solar technology, including the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. SBRN was founded on the premise that university researchers should focus on solar energy applications for buildings. Several presentations proposed action plans to accelerate the implementation of solar energy through the use of innovative building technologies and sustainable energy policies. Other major issues of interest were also discussed, including the development of the net-zero energy solar home and grid-connection issues. The sessions of the conference were entitled: solar thermal systems; solar electricity; building integrated photovoltaic systems; design issues and tools; integrating PV and solar thermal in buildings; daylighting and solar radiation modeling; fenestration and shading; PV manufacturing and solar electricity resources. The proceedings featured 41 refereed papers and 13 poster presentations, all of which have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services. PMID:12894328

  1. Equity in dental care among Canadian households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grootendorst Paul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in third party financing, whether public or private, are linked to a household's ability to access dental care. By removing costs at point of purchase, changes in financing influence the need to reach into one's pocket, thus facilitating or limiting access. This study asks: How have historical changes in dental care financing influenced household out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care in Canada? Methods This is a mixed methods study, comprised of an historical review of Canada's dental care market and an econometric analysis of household out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care. Results We demonstrate that changes in financing have important implications for out-of-pocket expenditures: with more financing come drops in the amount a household has to spend, and with less financing come increases. Low- and middle-income households appear to be most sensitive to changes in financing. Conclusions Alleviating the price barrier to care is a fundamental part of improving equity in dental care in Canada. How people have historically spent money on dental care highlights important gaps in Canadian dental care policy.

  2. Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Bandura, Kevin; Amiri, Mandana; Bond, J Richard; Campbell-Wilson, Duncan; Connor, Liam; Cliche, Jean-Francois; Davis, Greg; Deng, Meiling; Denman, Nolan; Dobbs, Matt; Fandino, Mateus; Gibbs, Kenneth; Gilbert, Adam; Halpern, Mark; Hanna, David; Hincks, Adam D; Hinshaw, Gary; Hofer, Carolin; Klages, Peter; Landecker, Tom L; Masui, Kiyoshi; Mena, Juan; Newburgh, Laura B; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Recnik, Andre; Shaw, J Richard; Sigurdson, Kris; Sitwell, Michael; Smecher, Graeme; Smegal, Rick; Vanderlinde, Keith; Wiebe, Don

    2014-01-01

    A pathfinder version of CHIME (the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment) is currently being commissioned at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) in Penticton, BC. The instrument is a hybrid cylindrical interferometer designed to measure the large scale neutral hydrogen power spectrum across the redshift range 0.8 to 2.5. The power spectrum will be used to measure the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale across this poorly probed redshift range where dark energy becomes a significant contributor to the evolution of the Universe. The instrument revives the cylinder design in radio astronomy with a wide field survey as a primary goal. Modern low-noise amplifiers and digital processing remove the necessity for the analog beamforming that characterized previous designs. The Pathfinder consists of two cylinders 37\\,m long by 20\\,m wide oriented north-south for a total collecting area of 1,500 square meters. The cylinders are stationary with no moving parts, and form a transit instrument ...

  3. Canadian oncology nurse work environments: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Debra; Conlon, Michael; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Olson, Karin; Cummings, Greta

    2012-03-01

    In the aftermath of healthcare restructuring, it is important to pay attention to nurses' perceptions of workplace and professional practice factors that attract nurses and influence their retention. Continuing constraints on cancer care systems make the issue of health human resources an ongoing priority. This paper presents the findings of a follow-up study of a cohort of Canadian oncology nurses that aimed to compare nurses' perceptions of their work environment, job satisfaction and retention over a two-year period. Participants of the follow-up survey represented 65% (397/615) of the initial cohort. Many similar perceptions about the work environment were found over two years; however, at follow-up a larger proportion of nurses reported an absence of enough RNs to provide quality care and a lack of support for innovative ideas. With respect to career status, only 6% (25/397) of the follow-up sample had left oncology nursing. However, the proportion of nurses declaring an intention to leave their current job increased from 6.4% (39/615) on the initial survey to 26% (102/397) on the follow-up survey. Findings suggest that decision-makers need to use both the growing body of workplace knowledge and the input from staff nurses to implement changes that positively influence nurse recruitment and retention. Future research should focus on the implementation and evaluation of strategies that address workplace issues such as nurse staffing adequacy, leadership and organizational commitment. PMID:22469763

  4. The bituminous sands : a Canadian mirage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousse, D.R. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Nasr, G.J. [Lebanese Univ., Roumieh (Lebanon). Faculty of Engineering; Turcotte, S.F. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre d' Etudes Internationales et Mondialisation; Salah, N.B. [Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques De Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia). LMMP

    2009-07-01

    This paper examined the controversy about the potential role of a significant increase in Canadian oil sands production in order to bridge the upcoming gap between the world's increasing energy demand and the total recoverable oil supply. The paper presented the actual potential of different scenarios and considered the prediction cost forecasts. A brief overview of environmental impacts and the real return on investments were also provided. Environmental impacts that were considered included land degradation; water contamination; ecosystem damage; and air pollution. Nuclear energy was also presented as a possible solution. The paper demonstrated that even in a very optimistic scenario, Canada's oil sands accelerated production has a negligible effect on the aforementioned gap, has a considerable impact on environment that has yet to be accounted for. Energy ratios that were presented included energy return on energy investment; energy available on energy used; and energy payback. It was concluded that enhanced recovery techniques are clearly needed for future sustainable exploitation of these bituminous sands. 32 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Medical cannabis – the Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol – the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts. PMID:27757048

  6. Confidence-building and Canadian leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Confidence-building has come into its own as a 'tool of choice' in facilitating the non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament (NACD) agenda, whether regional or global. From the Middle East Peace Process (MEPP) to the ASEAN Intersessional Group on Confidence-Building (ARF ISG on CBMS), confidence-building has assumed a central profile in regional terms. In the Four Power Talks begun in Geneva on December 9, 1997, the United States identified confidence-building as one of two subject areas for initial discussion as part of a structured peace process between North and South Korea. Thus, with CBMs assuming such a high profile internationally, it seems prudent for Canadians to pause and take stock of the significant role which Canada has already played in the conceptual development of the process over the last two decades. Since the Helsinki accords of 1975, Canada has developed a significant expertise in this area through an unbroken series of original, basic research projects. These have contributed to defining the process internationally from concept to implementation. Today, these studies represent a solid and unique Departmental investment in basic research from which to draw in meeting Canada's current commitments to multilateral initiatives in the area of confidence-building and to provide a 'step up' in terms of future-oriented leadership. (author)

  7. Canadians, nuclear weapons, and the Cold War security dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation provides a history of Canadian ideas about nuclear weapons from the late 1950s until the end of the Trudeau era in 1984. Throughout this period, Canadians reacted to the insecurity they felt in the world around them by expressing many conflicting, often irreconcilable views about a range of nuclear weapon issues, including Canada's acquisition of nuclear warheads in 1963, the U.S. ABM program in the 1960s and early 1970s, the role of Canadian nuclear technology in the development of India's first nuclear explosion, and the Trudeau government's decision to allow the U.S. military to test cruise missiles in northern Canada The dissertation concludes with an examination of the emergence of a broadly-based, increasingly mainstream and influential anti-nuclear movement in the early 1980s, the clearest manifestation of the insecurity Canadians experienced at the time. .The nuclear debates examined in this dissertation reveal that Canadians were divided over nuclear weapons, nuclear strategy, the arms race, proliferation, and arms control and disarmament. In particular, they came to fundamentally different conclusions about how Canada's nuclear weapon policies, and its support for the nuclear policies of its alliances, would contribute to international stability and order. Some believed that their security rested on the maintenance of a strong Western nuclear deterrent and supported Canada contributing to its credibility; others believed that the constant modernisation of nuclear arsenals fuelled by the superpower arms race posed a serious threat to their security. This conceptual dilemma-the security through nuclear strength argument versus the fear that the quest for security through quantitative and qualitative improvements of nuclear stockpiles increased the likelihood of nuclear war-left Canadians divided over the value and utility of nuclear weapons and the strategies developed around them. At the same time, Canadians' ideas about nuclear weapons

  8. Implementing e-Health through CHI: A Very Canadian Solution to a Very Canadian Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Daniels

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Canada Health Infoway (CHI was established as an arms-length body by the federal government in 2001 to provide funding to provinces for the development of interoperable e-health systems. CHI was established in response to a number of reports calling on the government to act to make use of technological advances to improve health care quality and provide more rigorous data. In addition to these explicit goals, through establishing CHI the federal government also sought to avoid potential criticism if the implementation of e-health failed, increase its own popularity ahead of the 2000 election and subtly redistribute wealth between the provinces. The paper suggests that the major influence behind the policy to establish CHI came from Canadian institutions and the fact that the federal government was hamstrung by the Canadian Constitution and Canada Health Act. Evaluation of the reform shows that progress has been made by CHI in implementing e-health solutions, but that Canada still lags behind other comparable health systems in the use of technologies. SWOT analysis of the CHI implementation highlights the criticism that CHI could stifle provincial innovation but recognizes that it also offers the opportunity for best practice dissemination across Canada and ensures that ring-fenced funding is available for e-health implementation across the provinces. In conclusion, the paper suggests that, because of constitutional constraints, the federal government was limited in options to implement e-health and that CHI represents a fair compromise.

  9. Predictors of Canadian legislators' support for tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanna E; de Guia, Nicole A; Ashley, Mary Jane; Ferrence, Roberta; Northrup, David A; Studlar, Donley T

    2002-09-01

    It is clear that regulatory strategies can be effective in reducing tobacco use. Because legislators ultimately determine whether many of these policies are enacted, they are a key focus for tobacco policy research. This study identifies political and personal predictors of Canadian legislators' support for tobacco control policies. Data are from a 1996-97 survey of federal, provincial and territorial legislators. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess relationships between five groups of variables (political factors including political ideology, personal characteristics, tobacco experiences, tobacco knowledge, interest group saliency) and support for tobacco control based on an 11-item scale. Support for tobacco control varied by political party. Support was higher among legislators who thought government had a duty to promote healthy lifestyles, knew second-hand smoke could cause lung cancer, knew tobacco caused more deaths than alcohol, and said they wanted more contact with medical associations about tobacco issues. Support was lower among current smokers and those with tobacco industry jobs in their ridings. The findings indicate that political party membership cannot be ignored in enlisting legislator support for tobacco control. It also appears that legislators who oppose tobacco control measures may not be opposed to tobacco control per se, but are more generally opposed to a government role in health promotion. Thus, public health professionals and tobacco control advocates need to be more attentive to the way tobacco control issues are framed for particular legislators. Further, meetings with health groups about tobacco issues would be welcomed by many legislators; non-governmental organizations and other health advocates could work to increase tobacco knowledge among legislators.

  10. Barium and carbon fluxes in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth; Dehairs, Frank; Lansard, Bruno; Mucci, Alfonso; Navez, Jacques; Gratton, Yves; Prowe, Friederike; Chierici, Melissa; Fransson, Agneta; Papakyriakou, Tim N.; Sternberg, Erika; Miller, Lisa A.; Tremblay, Jean-ÉRic; Monnin, Christophe

    2011-09-01

    The seasonal and spatial variability of dissolved Barium (Ba) in the Amundsen Gulf, southeastern Beaufort Sea, was monitored over a full year from September 2007 to September 2008. Dissolved Ba displays a nutrient-type behavior: the maximum water column concentration is located below the surface layer. The highest Ba concentrations are typically observed at river mouths, the lowest concentrations are found in water masses of Atlantic origin. Barium concentrations decrease eastward through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Barite (BaSO4) saturation is reached at the maximum dissolved Ba concentrations in the subsurface layer, whereas the rest of the water column is undersaturated. A three end-member mixing model comprising freshwater from sea-ice melt and rivers, as well as upper halocline water, is used to establish their relative contributions to the Ba concentrations in the upper water column of the Amundsen Gulf. Based on water column and riverine Ba contributions, we assess the depletion of dissolved Ba by formation and sinking of biologically bound Ba (bio-Ba), from which we derive an estimate of the carbon export production. In the upper 50 m of the water column of the Amundsen Gulf, riverine Ba accounts for up to 15% of the available dissolved Ba inventory, of which up to 20% is depleted by bio-Ba formation and export. Since riverine inputs and Ba export occur concurrently, the seasonal variability of dissolved Ba in the upper water column is moderate. Assuming a fixed organic carbon to bio-Ba flux ratio, carbon export out of the surface layer is estimated at 1.8 ± 0.45 mol C m-2 yr-1. Finally, we propose a climatological carbon budget for the Amundsen Gulf based on recent literature data and our findings, the latter bridging the surface and subsurface water carbon cycles.

  11. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Strang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity. The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO, and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the

  12. Mining Legal and Business Resources on Canadian Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Johal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the distinct nature of the Canadian banking system, it is important for novice researchers to know which business and legal resources to consult in order to quickly find information that is particular to Canadian banking. However, there are very few articles or monographs in the library literature that describe how to find information sources exclusively on this subject from a Canadian perspective. Most available publications tend to specialize in sources for the US banking and Federal Reserve System with little attention to Canada. The paper begins with a brief introduction to Canadian banking. From there, the authors demonstrate where researchers can find primary sources such as legislation, regulations and case law. In addition, this article identifies and discusses the different types of information found on the websites of associations and government agencies such as the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, which supervises and regulates various areas of Canada’s financial system. Also discussed are secondary sources such as industry research and reports that are available from reliable websites and subscription-based resources. This paper also explores the best business and legal databases for researchers. Based on results from searching in periodical directories and indexes, the paper additionally provides a description of the most pertinent academic, trade and general publications relevant to the Canadian banking system and where their contents are indexed.

  13. Women and nuclear issues: Comments in a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the Canadian Nuclear industry launched its information program, it was found that women were less supportive of nuclear power. Reasons were difficult to pin-point and hovered around individual perceptions and misunderstandings. The basis of the Canadian Nuclear Association Public Information program lies with its target: men and women equally. The Program Takes Into Consideration The major characteristics and nuances of these two groups. Female Characteristics from Canadian Perspective are: Strong sense of generation continuity; Detail and task oriented; Nontechnical training; Strong sense of individuality (local). Patterns of behavoiur in relation to nuclear industry for women in Canada are: not prone to take risks; micro-economic approach to decisions (local); little confidence in technology; pragmatic and balanced in their choices (local). Major concerns of Canadian women are: Safety of power plants; disposal of waste; peace and environment versus growth and energy need; trustworthiness of the industry. Canadian nuclear association public information program communirations -approach covers: the right message, down to earth language, factual and real information for real choices, effective reach: spokespeople and media buy. Results of polls: show thtt women are less in favour of Nuclear energy in Canada today than men, consider NPPs less important in Meeting Canada's energy need in the years ahead; and think that Nuclear Energy is not a choice for Canada of all sources of energy available for large scale use

  14. A scoping review of interprofessional education within Canadian nursing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Rachel Elizabeth; Goldman, Joanne; LeGrow, Karen; MacMillan, Kathleen M; van Soeren, Mary; Kitto, Simon

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this scoping review is to examine the nature of the interprofessional education (IPE) discussion that the Canadian nursing profession is having within the Canadian peer-reviewed nursing literature. An electronic database search of CINAHL was conducted using a modified Arksey & O'Malley scoping review framework. Peer-reviewed, English-language articles published in Canadian nursing journals from January 1981 to February 2016 were retrieved. Articles were included if they discussed IPE, or described an educational activity that met our conceptual definition of IPE. A total of 88 articles were screened, and 11 articles were eligible for analysis. Analysis revealed that this body of literature does not seem to be purposefully engaging Canadian nurses in a critical discourse about the role of IPE. The majority of articles located were reflective or commentaries. At the time of this review, there was a paucity of theoretically informed empirical research articles on IPE in the nursing literature. While IPE may be viewed by some critical scholars as a means of shifting the control of healthcare delivery traditionally held by medicine to other professions, our results suggest that this may not be the case in the Canadian nursing profession.

  15. A scoping review of interprofessional education within Canadian nursing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Rachel Elizabeth; Goldman, Joanne; LeGrow, Karen; MacMillan, Kathleen M; van Soeren, Mary; Kitto, Simon

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this scoping review is to examine the nature of the interprofessional education (IPE) discussion that the Canadian nursing profession is having within the Canadian peer-reviewed nursing literature. An electronic database search of CINAHL was conducted using a modified Arksey & O'Malley scoping review framework. Peer-reviewed, English-language articles published in Canadian nursing journals from January 1981 to February 2016 were retrieved. Articles were included if they discussed IPE, or described an educational activity that met our conceptual definition of IPE. A total of 88 articles were screened, and 11 articles were eligible for analysis. Analysis revealed that this body of literature does not seem to be purposefully engaging Canadian nurses in a critical discourse about the role of IPE. The majority of articles located were reflective or commentaries. At the time of this review, there was a paucity of theoretically informed empirical research articles on IPE in the nursing literature. While IPE may be viewed by some critical scholars as a means of shifting the control of healthcare delivery traditionally held by medicine to other professions, our results suggest that this may not be the case in the Canadian nursing profession. PMID:27352001

  16. Canadian study of cancer following multiple fluoroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Records of patients treated in Canadian Sanatoria during the period 1930-1952 have been linked with the National Death Index maintained by Statistics Canada to provide fact and cause of death information for the years 1950-1980. Of 31,710 women known to be under observation on January 1, 1950, 13,795 were exposed to fluoroscopy for control of collapse therapy, while the remaining 17,915 were unexposed. The unexposed had the similar mortality from breast cancer to that expected from general population rates. Those exposed to fluoroscopy had increasing mortality with increasing radiation dose to the breast, the best fit to the dose-response curve being a quadratic function. Estimates of risk at doses above 300 rads were largely derived from patients treated in Nova Scotia, where fluoroscopy was administered antero-posterior, as distinct from the more usual postero-antero practiced elsewhere. There is evidence of age-related susceptibility to radiation-induced breast cancer. The risk was maximal for those who first received fluoroscopy in their teens or twenties, but it was similar to expectation for those first exposed at age 30 or more. The latent period from onset of exposure to first increase in the death rate from breast cancer was 15 years for those first exposed at ages 10-24 and 10 years for those first exposed at ages 25 or more. However, these periods coincide with years when mortality from breast cancer normally rises and may therefore not be a true latent period effect. Estimates of predicted excess deaths from breast cancer per million women first exposed at ages 10-29 vary depending on the model used to represent the effect and whether or not data from the Nova Scotia Series are included in the computations

  17. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented of the status of the research and development program, under rsponsibility of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), for assessing the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. A passive multi-barrier concept has been adopted for disposal that combines the containment provided by the structural, hydraulic and geochemical characteristics of the rock mass with a series of engineered barriers. The conceptual disposal vault consists of an array of disposal rooms excavated in plutonic rock at a depth between 500 and 1000 m. Prior to disposal, the waste would be placed in cylindrical containers surrounded by a buffer, which is a mixture of bentonite cla and sand. The rooms would be backfilled with mixture of clay, and crushed granite or san. Bulkheads would seal the entrances. Closure would be achieved by backfilling the access tunnels in the same manner as the rooms and than backfilling the shafts with compacted clay and crushed granite separated by a series of supporting bulkheads. Very preliminary results from the case study indicate that the good rock provides the most effective barrier to movement of radionuclides to the surface. The most significant pathways through the geosphere involve diffusion through the good rock to the major fracture intersecting the vault, convection upward along the fracture, and discharge either at topographic lows or through a domestic water supply well used by the critical group. Long-lived non-sorbing radionuclides, available in the gaps between the fuel pellets and the fuel cladding or at the grain boundaries, contribute most to the radiological dose. With appropriate constraints on the location of the waste packages relative to the major fracture zones, radiological risk is expected to satisfy the regulatory criteria. (H.W.) 5 figs

  18. Canadian Experience in Nuclear Power Technology Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology transfer has and will continue to play a major role in the development of nuclear power programs. From the early beginnings of the development of the peaceful uses of nuclear power by just a few nations in the mid-1940s there has been a considerable transfer of technology and today 34 countries have nuclear programs in various stages of development. Indeed, some of the major nuclear vendors achieves their present position through a process of technology transfer and subsequent development. Canada, one of the early leaders in the development of nuclear power, has experience with a wide range of programs bout within its own borders and with other countries. This paper briefly describes this experience and the lessons learned from Canada's involvement in the transfer of nuclear power technology. Nuclear technology is complex and diverse and yet it can be assimilated by a nation given a fire commitment of both suppliers and recipients of technology to achieve success. Canada has reaped large benefits from its nuclear program and we believe this has been instrumentally linked to the sharing of goals and opportunity for participation over extended periods of time by many interests within the Canadian infrastructure. While Canada has accumulated considerable expertise in nuclear technology transfer, we believe there is still much for US to learn. Achieving proficiency in any of the many kinds of nuclear related technologies will place a heavy burden on the financial and human resources of a nation. Care must be taken to plan carefully the total criteria which will assure national benefits in industrial and economic development. Above all, effective transfer of nuclear technology requires a long term commitment by both parties

  19. The Perils of Institutionalization in Neoliberal Times: Results of a National Survey of Canadian Sexual Assault and Rape Crisis Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A. Beres

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a national survey of Canadian rape crisis and sexual assault centres conducted in 2005. We situate our results in relation to feminist literature on the perils of institutionalization. We argue that institutionalization takes on new forms in the context of neoliberalism and we emphasize the resistance of centres to underfunding and to individualized victims’ services policy frameworks. Despite significant pressures to redefine as social service delivery agencies, Canadian centres continue to engage in social change activism and define themselves as specifically feminist/pro-woman/equality-seeking organizations. Our respondents vary significantly in size and resources, yet nearly all emphasize the significant obstacle of inadequate funding and all continue to rely heavily on the unpaid work of (usually women volunteers to do more with less.

  20. Increasing blood pressure and its associated factors in Canadian children and adolescents from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yipu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canada is facing a childhood obesity epidemic. Elevated blood pressure (BP is a major complication of obesity. Reports on the impact of excess adiposity on BP in children and adolescents have varied significantly across studies. We evaluated the independent effects of obesity, physical activity, family history of hypertension, and socioeconomic status on BP in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data for 1850 children aged 6 to 17 years who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey, Cycle 1, 2007–2009. Systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP were age-, sex-, and height-adjusted to z-scores (SBPZ and DBPZ. Body mass index (BMI z-scores were calculated based on World Health Organization growth standards. Multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the independent effects of relevant variables on SBPZ and DBPZ. Results For most age/sex groups, obesity was positively associated with SBP. Being obese was associated with higher DBP in adolescent boys only. The BP effect of obesity showed earlier in young girls than boys. Obese adolescents were estimated to have an average 7.6 mmHg higher SBP than normal weight adolescents. BMI had the strongest effect on BP among obese children and adolescents. Moderately active adolescent boys had higher SBP (3.9 mmHg and DBP (4.9 mmHg than physically active boys. Family history of hypertension showed effects on SBP and DBP in younger girls and adolescent boys. Both family income and parent education demonstrated independent associations with BP in young children. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate the early impact of excess adiposity, insufficient physical activity, family history of hypertension, and socioeconomic inequalities on BP. Early interventions to reduce childhood obesity can, among other things, reduce exposure to prolonged BP elevation and the future risk of cardiovascular disease.

  1. Worksite health and wellness programs: Canadian achievements & prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Alméras, Natalie; Gauvin, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Canada has experienced a substantial reduction in mortality related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is a general consensus that more effective and widespread health promotion interventions may lead to further reductions in CVD risk factors and actual disease states. In this paper, we briefly outline the prevalence of selected risk factors for CVD in Canada, describe characteristics of the Canadian labor market and workforce, and depict what is known about health and wellness program delivery systems in Canadian workplaces. Our review indicates that there have been numerous and diverse relevant legislative and policy initiatives to create a context conducive to improve the healthfulness of Canadian workplaces. However, there is still a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of the delivery system and the actual impact of workplace health and wellness programs in reducing CVD risk in Canada. Thus, while a promising model, more research is needed in this area. PMID:24607012

  2. Internationalization at Canadian Universities: Where are we Now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Weber

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization is powerfully impacting the missions, planning documents, and learning environments of Canadian universities. Internationalization within Canadian universities is viewed from a local as well as global context. Accounts of the composition of domestic students studying abroad and international students studying in Canada, and the implications of these statistics, are related. Emphasis is given to a discussion of the contribution that economic factors play in internationalization decisions. Economic factors have undeniably shaped the face of internationalization at Canadian universities. Complexities of the relationship between global context and educational goals are outlined and educators are challenged to responsibly interpret and implement university changes resulting from internationalization while prioritizing the learning needs of students.

  3. Worksite health and wellness programs: Canadian achievements & prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Alméras, Natalie; Gauvin, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Canada has experienced a substantial reduction in mortality related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is a general consensus that more effective and widespread health promotion interventions may lead to further reductions in CVD risk factors and actual disease states. In this paper, we briefly outline the prevalence of selected risk factors for CVD in Canada, describe characteristics of the Canadian labor market and workforce, and depict what is known about health and wellness program delivery systems in Canadian workplaces. Our review indicates that there have been numerous and diverse relevant legislative and policy initiatives to create a context conducive to improve the healthfulness of Canadian workplaces. However, there is still a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of the delivery system and the actual impact of workplace health and wellness programs in reducing CVD risk in Canada. Thus, while a promising model, more research is needed in this area.

  4. Transportation of Western Canadian oil production to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil sands production is expected to increase from 43 per cent of Western Canadian production in 2003 to 61 per cent in 2010. Twenty-eight billion dollars have been invested to date, with a forecast of $36 billion over the next 10 years. There are 174 billion barrels of established oil. This paper provided details of Enbridge core infrastructure businesses in relation to Western Canadian production of oil sands. A chart of production forecast by crude type was presented, as well as a light to heavy crude differential. Details of North American refining oil pipelines and existing markets were provided, along with maps of market access solutions. Mid-continent, eastern and phased southern access details were presented. A regional oil sands pipeline infrastructure was also presented. West coast access was reviewed, with details of gateway pipelines and export pipeline alternatives. Target markets were also examined in relation to Canadian access to new markets. tabs., figs

  5. First Canadian workshop on engineering structural integrity : CWESI. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The First Canadian Workshop on Engineering Structural Integrity (CWESI) was held on October 16 and 17, 2002, in Toronto, Canada. The purpose of the Workshop was to review strategies for ESI in a number of key industries, and to attempt to plot a course for co-operation in ESI activities and implementation of ESI initiatives in Canadian industry, together with support for appropriate educational, research and development activities. The Workshop consisted of presentations by speakers from a number of industries. Presentations focused on in-service experience under service conditions related to the Canadian environment. This Workshop was attended by practising structural integrity engineers, managers with the responsibility for delivery of safe and reliable operation, and researchers in the structural integrity area

  6. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Education Committee Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J Bridges

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available I am pleased to provide an update regarding the activities and future directions of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG Education Committee. The mandate of the CAG Education Committee is to facilitate, develop and promote excellence as it pertains to educational initiatives for the Canadian gastroenterology community. Professional education has long remained a priority of the CAG - a fact well recognized by the membership. The 2002 CAG Strategic Planning Survey showed that members rate Canadian Digestive Diseases Week (CDDW as the most important CAG service, on par with Digestive Diseases Week regarding its usefulness (1. CDDW 2004 offered delegates a variety of basic science and clinical symposia, the popular and well received 'Breakfast with the Expert' sessions and a comprehensive Postgraduate Course reviewing key developments in gastroenterology, nutrition and hepatology.

  7. Reference Values of Pulmonary Function Tests for Canadian Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gutierrez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A multicentre, cross-sectional study was carried out in six centres across Canada to establish a national standard for pulmonary function tests using healthy, lifetime nonsmokers, with each centre aiming to test 10 men and 10 women from each decade from 20 to 80 years of age. Data from each centre were used to derive prediction equations for each centre, and pooled data from all centres (total: 327 women and 300 men were used to derive Canadian predicted equations. The predictive models were compared with three widely used published models for selected tests. It was found that, in general, the equations modelled for each centre could be replaced by the models obtained when pooling all data (Canadian model. Comparisons with the published references showed good agreement and similar slopes for most tests. The results suggest that pulmonary function test results obtained from different centres in Canada were comparable and that standards currently used remain valid for Canadian Caucasians.

  8. Residential water demand with endogenous pricing: The Canadian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Arnaud; Renzetti, Steven; Villeneuve, Michel

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we show that the rate structure endogeneity may result in a misspecification of the residential water demand function. We propose to solve this endogeneity problem by estimating a probabilistic model describing how water rates are chosen by local communities. This model is estimated on a sample of Canadian local communities. We first show that the pricing structure choice reflects efficiency considerations, equity concerns, and, in some cases, a strategy of price discrimination across consumers by Canadian communities. Hence estimating the residential water demand without taking into account the pricing structures' endogeneity leads to a biased estimation of price and income elasticities. We also demonstrate that the pricing structure per se plays a significant role in influencing price responsiveness of Canadian residential consumers.

  9. Defining Canadian Perspectives on Climate Change Science and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, C.; Byrne, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the overwhelming scientific evidence of potentially disastrous change in global climate, little is being accomplished in climate mitigation or adaptation in Canada. The energy sector in Canada is still primarily oil and gas, with huge tax breaks to the industry in spite of well known harmful regional and global impacts of fossil fuel pollution. One of the largest concerns for the climate science community is the variable and often complacent attitude many Canadians share on the issue of climate change. The objective herein is twofold: (1) a survey tool will be used to assess the views and opinions of Canadians on climate change science and solutions; (2) develop better communication methods for industry, government and NGOs to share the science and solutions with the public. The study results will inform the Canadian public, policy makers and industry of practical, effective changes needed to address climate change challenges. A survey of Canadians' perspectives is an important step in policy changing research. The climate research and application community must know the most effective ways to communicate the science and solutions with a public that is often resistant to change. The AGU presentation will feature the results of the survey, while continued work into 2015 will be towards advancing communication. This study is both timely and crucial for science communicators in understanding how Canadians view climate change, considering, for example, devastatingly extreme weather being experienced of late and its effect on the economy. The results will assist in recognizing how to encourage Canadians to work towards a more sustainable and resilient energy sector in Canada and abroad.

  10. Coal deposits in the front ranges and foothills of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, southern Canadian Cordillera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustin, R.M.; Smith, G.G. (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Department of Geological Sciences)

    1993-09-01

    Over one-third of Canada's coal resources occurs in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains, with major deposits in the Front Ranges, Inner Foothills and Outer Foothills. In the Front Ranges, deposits of metallurgical and thermal, high-volatile bituminous to semi-anthracite coal occur in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Mist Mountain Formation. In the Inner Foothills of northeastern British Columbia and west-central Alberta, resources of metallurgical and thermal medium- and low-volatile bituminous coal occur in Early Cretaceous strata of the Gething and Gates Formations. In the Outer Foothills resources of thermal, high-volatile bituminous coal occur in Late Cretaceous and Paleocene strata of the Belly River Coalspur and Paskapoo Formations. The major deposits of the Front Ranges and Inner Foothills accumulated within the coastal plains of the Fernie and Moosebar-Clearwater seas. Shorelines prograded to the north and northeast into a foreland basin that evolved in advance of the evolving Colombian Orogen. In the Outer Foothills, coal deposits of the Belly River Formation originated within coastal plains during the withdrawal of the Pakowki Sea. The major coal deposits of the Coalspur and Paskapoo Formations accumulated in the alluvial plain of the foreland basin during the Laramide orogeny. Coal measures of the region were folded and faulted during the Laramide orogeny. Structural deformation has affected the mineability and quality of the coals. Shearing of the seams in adjacent strata has led to oxidation, resulting in weak coal pillars and roofs in underground mines. Faulting and folding has partitioned many coal deposits into discrete structural domains of varying style and complexity. The variation in coal rank in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains reflects the preorogenic depth of burial. There is some evidence for syn-and post-orogenic coalification. 46 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The economic impact of Canadian biodiesel production on Canadian grains, oilseeds and livestock producers : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to provide the Canadian Canola Growers Association with an understanding of the economic effects of a mandated use of biodiesel blends produced in Canada, focusing on canola and canola oil. A literature review was performed to determine what has been found elsewhere in terms of biodiesel. An overview of the feedstock markets was also conducted along with an empirical analysis to determine likely feedstock purchasing behaviour under biodiesel blend requirements. The analysis also considered the rendered animal fats industry. The objectives were to identify the economic impacts of biodiesel development; determine the nature of markets for candidate feedstocks that could be used in manufacturing biodiesel; estimate the economic effects of a 2 per cent biodiesel blend requirement in petroleum diesel; estimate the economic effects of a 5 per cent biodiesel blend requirement in petroleum diesel; and, determine the ultimate impact on the Canadian canola industry of the mandated biodiesel blend. It was shown that biodiesel can be made from a range of feedstocks and that the 2 key factors influencing the success of biodiesel manufacturing facilities were feedstock prices and feedstock availability. The key competitors facing canola oil in the biodiesel market are rendered oils, rendered animal fats, palm oil, and soybean oil. Canola and soybean oil are likely to be relatively high cost feedstocks for biodiesel production, while yellow grease, tallow, and palm oil would be better priced as feed for industrial uses. Two conceptions of market dynamic were considered. In the first, the feedstock prices remained constant, while in the other the feedstock prices fluctuated with volume consumed. It was concluded that if total fat and oil supplies are fixed at historic levels, biodiesel blend requirements of just over 2 per cent are feasible. It was concluded that a cluster of widely available, low-priced feedstocks for biodiesel production exists. These

  12. Has Multiculturalism Really Failed? A Canadian Muslim Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljit Nagra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, claims that multiculturalism has created segregated communities, encouraged terrorism, and failed to foster shared national identities in western nations have gained popularity. In this paper, we use young Canadian Muslims’ lived experience of multiculturalism to reflect on this debate. Contrary to popular rhetoric, our interviews of 50 young Muslim adults show that many maintain a dual Canadian-Muslim identity by utilizing the ideology of multiculturalism, even though they are increasingly stigmatized for their religion. These findings lead us to problematize the discourse surrounding the ‘failure’ of multiculturalism and to highlight the contradictions within it.

  13. Assessing Canadian Bank Branch Operating Efficiency Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zijiang

    2009-10-01

    In today's economy and society, performance analyses in the services industries attract more and more attention. This paper presents an evaluation of 240 branches of one big Canadian bank in Greater Toronto Area using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Special emphasis was placed on how to present the DEA results to management so as to provide more guidance to them on what to manage and how to accomplish the changes. Finally the potential management uses of the DEA results were presented. All the findings are discussed in the context of the Canadian banking market.

  14. Global reach: international doors wide open to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opportunities available to Canadian companies abroad, particularly in the oil and gas field service sector, are reviewed. The overall conclusion is that while in some parts of the world, such as the Middle East negotiating contracts may be a challenge, the problem can be overcome by hiring a reliable local agent who speaks the language and is familiar with local business practices. The process is often time-consuming and requires a great deal of patience, but the opportunities are there to exploit. The excellent reputation of Canadian businessmen for for honesty and high quality of service makes it all possible

  15. Writing on Boundaries: The Split Subject in Chinese Canadian Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shaobo

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual grasp of the corpus of work produced by Chinese Canadian writers and a framework for analysing its tropes and interpreting their political resonance. It defines the Chinese Canadian work as a three-phase counterhegemonic discourse: Writing back into a forbidden past; negotiating into the present; writing on boundaries. For the ambivalent, split diasporic subject to negotiate into the present from the forbidden past is to reinscribe itself as a locus of crisis, a non-identity, a doubling, a third term. Writing on boundaries can be read as a strategy of decolonization deployed by the subaltern in striving for self-vindication and self-fulfilment.

  16. Advancing intercultural competency: Canadian engineering employers' experiences with immigrant engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Marcia; Ingram, Sandra

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores Canadian engineering employers' perceptions of and experiences with internationally educated engineers (recent immigrants to Canada) employed in their organisations for varying lengths of time. Qualitative data were collected from employers using focus group methodology. Findings reflected employers' observations of culturally different behaviours and characteristics in their internationally educated employees, employers' reactions to cultural differences ranging from negative attributions to tolerance, and the implementation of largely ad hoc intra-organisational strategies for managing cultural differences in employer-employee relationships. Findings exposed the lack of corporate intercultural competency in the Canadian engineering profession. Equity and gatekeeping implications are discussed.

  17. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Launches Human Resource Planning Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) conducted a survey of the membership, the results of which were reviewed and developed by the Past Presidents' Council into a long term strategic plan. Survey findings and the resulting strategic plan were published earlier this year in The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and can be reviewed on the CAG Web site at http://www.pulsus.com/Gastro/18_01/Pdf/newe_ed.pdf and http://www.pulsus.com/Gastro/18_02/Pdf/newe_ed.pdf. Members r...

  18. Implications and Challenges to Using Data Mining in Educational Research in the Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElAtia, Samira; Ipperciel, Donald; Hammad, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Canadian institutions of higher education are major players on the international arena for educating future generations and producing leaders around the world in various fields. In the last decade, Canadian universities have seen an influx in their incoming international students, who contribute over $3.5 billion to the Canadian economy (Madgett &…

  19. Not "There" Yet: A Canadian Perspective on the Knowledge Base in Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Beth

    A feminist perspective on educational administration in Canada is provided in this paper, which reviews feminist critiques of educational administration research and offers a synthesis of contemporary Canadian feminist research. The main thesis is that the Canadian knowledge base has begun to incorporate the concepts of "Canadian" and "education";…

  20. Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Szeman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil and Canada in their respective attempts to create genuine national cultures. As in many postcolonial situations, the problem of creating an authentic culture is directly related to the sense that postcolonial culture is necessarily imitative and belated. In Misplaced Ideas, Roberto Schwarz exposes the hidden class character of the problem of cultural authenticity in Brazil, and in so doing, shows that the trauma of national-cultural identity merely reflects the contradictory structural position of Brazil’s postcolonial elite. Using Schwarz’s insights to explore the Canadian situation, the author shows that the same forces are at work in Canada. Though the crisis of a lack of an authentic Canadian culture has recently been surmounted as a result of the apparent international success of Canadian culture (especially literary fiction, that author cautions that this “success” story hides the class basis of Canadian culture in both its belated and isochronic phases (the latter being the moment when cultural belatedness is overcome. Making use of Brazilian theory to examine problems in Canadian culture allows us to see that Canadian modernity, long thought to be simply a derivative of the UK and USA, has similarities with Brazilian modernity that are essential to understanding the space and place Canada occupies in globalization. In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil

  1. Speciation of iodine (I-127) in the natural environment around Canadian CANDU sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, S.J.; Kotzer, T.G.; Chant, L.A

    2001-06-01

    In Canada, very little data is available regarding the concentrations and chemical speciation of iodine in the environment proximal and distal to CANDU Nuclear Power Generating Stations (NPGS). In the immediate vicinity of CANDU reactors, the short-lived iodine isotope {sup 131}I (t{sub 1/2} = 8.04 d), which is produced from fission reactions, is generally below detection and yields little information about the environmental cycling of iodine. Conversely, the fission product {sup 129}I has a long half-life (t{sub 1/2} = 1.57x10{sup 7} y) and has had other anthropogenic inputs (weapons testing, nuclear fuel reprocessing) other than CANDU over the past 50 years. As a result, the concentrations of stable iodine ({sup 127}I) have been used as a proxy. In this study, a sampling system was developed and tested at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) to collect and measure the particulate and gaseous inorganic and organic fractions of stable iodine ({sup 127}I) in air and associated organic and inorganic reservoirs. Air, vegetation and soil samples were collected at CRL, and at Canadian CANDU Nuclear Power Generating Stations (NPGS) at OPG's (Ontario Power Generation) Pickering (PNGS) and Darlington NPGS (DNGS) in Ontario, as well as at NB Power's Pt. Lepreau NPGS in New Brunswick. The concentrations of particulate and inorganic iodine in air at CRL were extremely low, and were often found to be below detection. The concentrations are believed to be at this level because the sediments in the CRL area are glacial fluvial and devoid of marine ionic species, and the local atmospheric conditions at the sampling site are very humid. Concentrations of a gaseous organic species were comparable to worldwide levels. The concentrations of particulate and inorganic iodine in air were also found to be low at PNGS and DNGS, which may be attributed to reservoir effects of the large freshwater lakes in southern Ontario, which might serve to dilute the atmospheric iodine

  2. Targeting improved patient outcomes using innovative product listing agreements: a survey of Canadian and international key opinion leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Melissa; Henshall, Chris; Garrison, Louis P; Griffin, Adrian D; Coyle, Doug; Long, Stephen; Khayat, Zayna A; Anger, Dana L; Yu, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To address the uncertainty associated with procuring pharmaceutical products, product listing agreements (PLAs) are increasingly being used to support responsible funding decisions in Canada and elsewhere. These agreements typically involve financial-based rebating initiatives or, less frequently, outcome-based contracts. A qualitative survey was conducted to improve the understanding of outcome-based and more innovative PLAs (IPLAs) based on input from Canadian and international key opinion leaders in the areas of drug manufacturing and reimbursement. Methods Results from a structured literature review were used to inform survey development. Potential participants were invited via email to partake in the survey, which was conducted over phone or in person. Responses were compiled anonymously for review and reporting. Results Twenty-one individuals participated in the survey, including health technology assessment (HTA) key opinion leaders (38%), pharmaceutical industry chief executive officers/vice presidents (29%), ex-payers (19%), and current payers/drug plan managers/HTA (14%). The participants suggested that ~80%–95% of Canadian PLAs are financial-based rather than outcomes-based. They indicated that IPLAs offer important benefits to patients, payers, and manufacturers; however, several challenges limit their use (eg, administrative burden, lack of agreed-upon endpoint). They noted that IPLAs are useful in rapidly evolving therapeutic areas and those associated with high unmet need, a quantifiable endpoint, and/or robust data systems. The Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, the pan-Canadian Pharmaceutical Alliance, and other arms-length organizations could play important roles in identifying uncertainty and endpoints and brokering pan-Canadian PLAs. Industry should work collaboratively with payers to identify uncertainty and develop innovative mechanisms to address it. Conclusion The survey results indicated that while

  3. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in terrestrial biota from the Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic have been studied over the last twelve years under the guidance of the Northern Contaminants Program. This paper summarizes results from that program from 1998 to 2003 with respect to terrestrial animals in the Canadian Arctic. The arctic terrestrial environment has few significant contaminant issues, particularly when compared with freshwater and marine environments. Both current and historical industrial activities in the north may have a continuing effect on biota in the immediate area, but effects tend to be localized. An investigation of arctic ground squirrels at a site in the Northwest Territories that had historically received applications of DDT concluded that DDT in arctic ground squirrels livers was the result of contamination and that this is an indication of the continuing effect of a local point source of DDT. Arsenic concentrations were higher in berries collected from areas around gold mines in the Northwest Territories than from control sites, suggesting that gold mining may significantly affect arsenic levels in berries in the Yellowknives Dene traditional territory. Although moose and caribou from the Canadian Arctic generally carry relatively low contaminant burdens, Yukon moose had high renal selenium concentrations, and moose and some woodland caribou from the same area had high renal cadmium levels, which may put some animals at risk of toxicological effects. Low hepatic copper levels in some caribou herds may indicate a shortage of copper for metabolic demands, particularly for females. Similarities in patterns of temporal fluctuations in renal element concentrations for moose and caribou suggest that environmental factors may be a major cause of fluctuations in renal concentrations of some elements. Concentrations of persistent organochlorines and metals in beaver and muskrat from the Northwest Territories, and carnivores from across the Canadian Arctic were very low and considered normal for terrestrial

  4. 研究、教学和试验中的动物保护和使用--加拿大监督系统%Animal Care and Use in Research, Teaching and Testing -- the Canadian System of Surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴纳·本

    2003-01-01

    In the 1960s, while there was a dramatic increase in animals used in research and teaching in most of the Canadian research institutions, Canada did not have a federal system pertaining specifically to the humane use of animals in science. There was a national organization, the Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Science (CALAS/ACSAL),established by veterinarians, technicians and animal care givers who recognized the need to ensure that all people caring for, or performing procedures on the animals were properly educated. However, recognition and support of this organization by institutions who employed these people, was needed to effect the changes identified.

  5. Resource utilisation by deep-sea megabenthos in the Canadian High Arctic (Baffin Bay and Parry Channel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Solveig; Witte, Ursula; Harrison, Ailish M.; Makela, Anni; Kazanidis, Georgios; Archambault, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing climate change in the Arctic is causing drastic alteration of the Arctic marine ecosystem functioning, such as shifts in patterns of primary production, and modifying the present tight pelagic-benthic coupling. Subsequently benthic communities, which rely upon organic matter produced in the top layers of the Ocean, will also be affected by these changes. The benthic megafaunal communities play a significant role in ecological processes and ecosystem functioning (i.e. organic matter recycling, bioturbation, food source for the higher trophic levels…). Yet, information is scarce regarding the main food sources for dominant benthic organisms, and therefore the impact of the ongoing changes is difficult to assess. The goal of this study is to investigate the preferential feeding of different carbon sources by megabenthic organisms in the Canadian High Arctic and to identify environmental drivers which explain the observed trends. In summer 2013, benthic megafauna was collected at 9 stations spread along latitudinal (58 to 81°N) and longitudinal (62 to 114°W) transects in the Baffin Bay and Parry Channel, respectively. Carbon and nitrogen bulk stable isotope analyses (δ13C and δ15N) were performed on several species divided into groups according to their feeding type. This study highlights distinct trends in δ13C values of benthic organisms suggesting the importance of both phytoplankton and ice algae as carbon sources for megafauna in the Canadian High Arctic. The importance of physical and biological parameters as drivers of food web structure will be furthermore discussed.

  6. Labour Market Policies in Denmark and Canada: Could Flexicurity be an Answer for Canadian Workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie J Nichols

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The labour market in Canada is changing. Over the past decades there has been an increase in the number of precarious workers on short-term, part-time, contracts; jobs are created and lost, as employers deem necessary. As a result of these shifts in the organization of work, many workers are now forced to hold multiple jobs in order to make ends meet. This move away from long-term employment has created a situation where the majority of Canadian workers can no longer expect their employer to provide predictable support and security for them. At the same time, under the current Employment Insurance (EI laws, they cannot expect support from the federal government either. How can workers gain some immediate protection through expanded social welfare programmes? With more and more workers, especially women, racialized workers and lower income people relegated to precarious employment, we must question current social policy. If, as it appears, EI does not work, we must strive to implement a viable alternative. Could an alternative system be modeled on the flexicurity system now in effect in Denmark? This paper draws on Nancy Fraser’s criteria for social justice for the globalized worker, to assess the ways that flexicurity could improve the security of the Canadian worker by offering alternatives to participation in the market nexus.

  7. Charter rights & health care funding: a typology of Canadian health rights litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Colleen M; Chen, Y Y Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Canadian health consumers have increasingly relied on the Charter of Rights and Freedoms to demand certain therapies and reasonably timely access to care. Organizing these cases into a 5-part typology, we examine how a rights-based discourse affects allocation of health care resources. First, successful Charter challenges can, in theory, lead to courts granting and enforcing positive rights to therapies or to timely care. Second, courts may grant a right to certain health services; however, subsequently government fails to deliver on this right. Third, successful litigation may create negative rights, i.e. rights to access care or private health insurance without government interference. Fourth, consumers can fail in their legal pursuit of a right but galvanize public support in the process, ultimately effecting the desired policy changes. Lastly, a failed lawsuit can stifle an entire advocacy campaign for the sought-after therapies. The typology illustrates the need to examine both legal and policy outcomes of health right litigation. This broader analysis reveals that the pursuit of health rights seems to have caused largely a regressive rather than progressive impact on Canadian Medicare. PMID:21456397

  8. The oil and gas industry and the Canadian economy: a backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of the oil and natural gas industry on the Canadian economy is explained in terms of employment, balance of trade, products, government revenues, international technology trade and industry support to the community. It is reported that the industry employs almost one half million people in Canada; is the second largest contributor to Canada's balance of trade; generate billions of dollars for the economy and pays hundreds of millions of dollars in taxes and its employees contribute millions of dollars and thousands of hours of time to charitable and community organizations. The industry is also one of the major contributors to Canada's technology export through its leadership in high technology exploration methods, cold climate and offshore operations, enhanced recovery technologies, producing and processing heavy oil; mining and upgrading oil sands bitumen, oil-well firefighting techniques and environmental protection technologies, among others. Citing Canada's cold climate and energy-intensive industries, hence the need for large quantities of energy, the booklet offers a rationale for the industry's need to continue to be profitable in order to develop new sources of oil and gas production and invest in energy-efficient technologies. Assuming continued profitability, combined with more efficient use of oil and gas, the Foundation remains confident that the industry will provide energy security and export revenues for the benefit of all Canadians. 12 refs., photos

  9. Limnological characteristics of 56 lakes in the Central Canadian Arctic Treeline Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. SMOL

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Measured environmental variables from 56 lakes across the Central Canadian Treeline Region exhibited clear limnological differences among subpolar ecozones, reflecting strong latitudinal changes in biome characteristics (e.g. vegetation, permafrost, climate. Principal Components Analysis (PCA clearly separated forested sites from tundra sites based on distinct differences in limnological characteristics. Increases in major ions and related variables (e.g. dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC were higher in boreal forest sites in comparison to arctic tundra sites. The higher values recorded in the boreal forest lakes may be indirectly related to differences in climatic factors in these zones, such as the degree of permafrost development, higher precipitation and runoff, duration of ice-cover on the lakes, and thicker and better soil development. Similar to trends observed in DIC, substantially higher values for dissolved organic carbon (DOC were measured in boreal forest lakes than in arctic tundra lakes. This was likely due to higher amounts of catchment-derived DOC entering the lakes from coniferous leaf litter sources. Relative to arctic tundra lakes, boreal forest lakes had higher nutrient concentrations, particularly total nitrogen (TN, likely due to warmer conditions, a longer growing season, and higher precipitation, which would enhance nutrient cycling and primary productivity. Results suggest that modern aquatic environments at opposite sides of the central Canadian arctic treeline (i.e. boreal forest and arctic tundra exhibit distinct differences in water chemistry and physical conditions. These limnological trends may provide important information on possible future changes with additional warming.

  10. Examining Why the Canadian Federal Government Placed an Orphan Drug Strategy on Their Decision Agenda Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Gary Embrett

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Health’s announcement of a National Orphan Drug Framework on 3 October 2012 was the first federal public acknowledgement of orphan drugs since the 1997 Drugs Directorate (DD policy statement. The reform primarily announced an Orphan Drug Policy for Canada. This paper explains why the government decided to make this announcement now. Media and Parliamentary documents were analyzed for their use of symbols, numbers, and language in causal stories told by political actors. The initial story was that Canada’s population was too small and the cost too high for an orphan drug policy. Over the next fifteen years, a powerful interest group, the Canadian Organization for Rare Disorders (CORD, mobilized the rare disease community into a cooperative effort that generated collective action. They redefined the DD story from one of natural causes, to inadvertence, and finally to intentional causation. Their story invoked a federal response because it blamed the government directly for not acting on behalf of the 3 million Canadians with rare diseases, when patients in other countries were receiving better care.

  11. Talent Management Programmes at British, American and Canadian Universities: Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boichenko Maryna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the peculiarities of talent management programmes implementation at the top British, American and Canadian universities. The essence of the main concepts of research - talent and talent management - has been revealed. Talent management is referred to as the systematic attraction, identification, development, engagement, retention and deployment of those individuals who are of particular value to an organization, either in view of their “high potential” for the future or because they are fulfilling business/ operation-critical roles. The factors that drive the development of talent management at the universities have been defined. The benefits that can be obtained as a result of talent management programmes implementation in higher education institutions have been pointed out. The differences in talent management programmes implementation at the universities of Great Britain, the USA and Canada have been found out. These differences depend mainly on the human resources policy of the institution represented in its strategic plan. It has been concluded that most top British and American higher education institutions run talent development programmes, but the target categories and forms of their implementation greatly differ. Canadian universities in the human resources policy focus on professional development of staff and faculty, but do not have special talent management programmes. Progressive conceptual ideas of foreign experience that can be used in practice of Ukrainian universities have been considered.

  12. Limitations Influencing Interventional Radiology in Canada: Results of a National Survey by the Canadian Interventional Radiology Association (CIRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To describe the current state and limitations to interventional radiology (IR) in Canada through a large, national survey of Canadian interventional radiologists. Methods. An anonymous online survey was offered to members of the Canadian Interventional Radiology Association (CIRA). Only staff radiologists were invited to participate. Results. Seventy-five (75) responses were received from a total of 247, giving a response rate of 30%. Respondents were split approximately equally between academic centers (47%) and community practice (53%), and the majority of interventional radiologists worked in hospitals with either 200-500 (49%) or 500-1,000 (39%) beds. Procedures listed by respondents as most commonly performed in their practice included PICC line insertion (83%), angiography and stenting (65%), and percutaneous biopsy (37%). Procedures listed as not currently performed but which interventional radiologists believed would benefit their patient population included radiofrequency ablation (36%), carotid stenting (34%), and aortic stenting (21%); the majority of respondents noted that a lack of support from referring services was the main reason for not performing these procedures (56%). Impediments to increasing scope and volume of practice in Canadian IR were most commonly related to room or equipment shortage (35%), radiologist shortage (33%), and a lack of funding or administrative support (28%). Conclusion. Interventional radiology in Canada is limited by a number of factors including funding, manpower, and referral support. A concerted effort should be undertaken by individual interventional radiologists and IR organizations to increase training capacity, funding, remuneration, and public exposure to IR in order to help advance the subspecialty

  13. Movement for Canadian Literacy: Statistics Show Millions Struggle with Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey (IALSS), released on November 9, takes a closer look at Canadians' ability to deal with everyday literacy demands. In today's information-based society and economy, literacy is more important than ever. IALSS defines literacy as one's capacity to "use printed and written information to function in…

  14. A Primer on Accent Discrimination in the Canadian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Murray J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews aspects of the Canadian human rights process as they pertain to language and accent, and identifies three types of accent discrimination arising in human rights cases: discrimination in employment due to inappropriate concern with accent; discrimination due to accent stereotyping, and harassment based on accent. (Author/VWL)

  15. Educational Goal-Setting in a Native-Canadian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, H. Joseph

    A revitalization of Canadian Indian culture occurred as a result of the 1967 Hawthorn Report, which advocated the integration of Canada natives into white society. On the Eskasoni Indian Reserve, home of 1700 Micma Indians in Nova Scotia, the revitalization was shown in the results of two questionnaires about local education. On the first…

  16. TV Across the Canadian Border: Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Verone

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a survey of Canadians and Americans who regularly view television from both countries concerning media habits, attitudes toward the United States and Canada, and perceptions of current issues. Results indicate that there is very little if any attitudinal difference or effect associated with watching the foreign television signals. (JMF)

  17. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society sixth annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the Sixth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society comprise 103 papers on the following subjects: fuel technology, nuclear plant safety, instrumentation, public and regulatory matters, fusion, fuel behaviour under normal and accident conditions, nuclear plant design and operations, thermal hydraulics, reactor physics, accelerators, waste management, new reactor concepts

  18. [The Canadian Institute of Aging: knowledge, innovation and action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Sophie

    2006-03-01

    Led by innovation, leadership, transparency and excellence, the Institute of Aging provides a focal point for Canadian research on aging and pursues the fundamental goal of advancing knowledge in the field of aging to improve the quality of life and health of older Canadians. The Institute has carried out a range of important national and international strategic initiatives in aging, and has become influential in leveraging funding, enhancing research capacity and creating a new impetus in research on aging in Canada. The Institute engages and supports the scientific community, encourages interdisciplinary and integrative health research and fosters not only on the creation of new knowledge, but also on the translation of that knowledge into improved health, a strengthened health care system, and new health products and services for Canadians. The IA focuses on five priority areas of research: healthy and successful aging, biological mechanisms of aging, cognitive impairment in aging, aging and maintenance of autonomy, and finally, health services and policies relating to older people. The efforts of the IA are guided by five strategic orientations: to lead in the development and definition of strategic directions for Canadian research on aging ; to build research capacity in the field of aging ; to foster the dissemination, transfer and translation of research findings in policies, interventions, services and products ; to promote the importance of, and the need for, a research community in aging ; and to develop and support capacity-building and strategic research initiatives in the field of aging. PMID:16527218

  19. Negotiated Independence: How a Canadian Writing Program Became a Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Judith; Turner, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Describes the transformation of a writing program at a small Canadian university from a subdivision of the English department into a separate, interdisciplinary Centre for Academic Writing. Describes the origins of the program and recounts the processes of review and transition the program underwent. Notes how curricular and…

  20. Canadian natural gas industry : the regulation to competition spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential impact of the 1998 Trans Canada PipeLine/NOVA Accord on the Canadian natural gas industry was discussed with particular emphasis on tolling structures, tolls, pipeline access, competition and competitiveness. The current status of the Accord was discussed and current incentive agreements for 8 pipeline companies were listed. 1 tab

  1. Return on Investment for Workplace Training: The Canadian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Jennifer C.; Cozzarin, Brian P.; Formaneck, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    One of the central problems in managing technological change and maintaining a competitive advantage in business is improving the skills of the workforce through investment in human capital and a variety of training practices. This paper explores the evidence on the impact of training investment on productivity in 14 Canadian industries from 1999…

  2. The Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors: Instructor Certification Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Glenda

    Since its formation in 1976, the Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors (CANSI) has certified over 2600 instructors across Canada. CANSI aims to provide a standard of excellence in certified nordic ski instruction by maintaining uniform and current nordic techniques, to encourage the skiing public to take advantage of the benefits of…

  3. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Canadian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réjeanne Gougeon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a clinical tool designed to facilitate implementation of therapeutic lifestyle recommendations for people with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG recommendations is essential to address varied patient populations within and among diverse regions worldwide. The Canadian version of tDNA supports and targets behavioural changes to improve nutritional quality and to promote regular daily physical activity consistent with Canadian Diabetes Association CPG, as well as channelling the concomitant management of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycaemia in primary care. Assessing glycaemic index (GI (the ranking of foods by effects on postprandial blood glucose levels and glycaemic load (GL (the product of mean GI and the total carbohydrate content of a meal will be a central part of the Canadian tDNA and complement nutrition therapy by facilitating glycaemic control using specific food selections. This component can also enhance other metabolic interventions, such as reducing the need for antihyperglycaemic medication and improving the effectiveness of weight loss programs. This tDNA strategy will be adapted to the cultural specificities of the Canadian population and incorporated into the tDNA validation methodology.

  4. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievenpiper, John L.; Jenkins, David; Yale, Jean-François; Bell, Rhonda; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ransom, Thomas P. P.; Dupre, John; Kendall, Cyril; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Marchetti, Albert; Hamdy, Osama; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a clinical tool designed to facilitate implementation of therapeutic lifestyle recommendations for people with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG) recommendations is essential to address varied patient populations within and among diverse regions worldwide. The Canadian version of tDNA supports and targets behavioural changes to improve nutritional quality and to promote regular daily physical activity consistent with Canadian Diabetes Association CPG, as well as channelling the concomitant management of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycaemia in primary care. Assessing glycaemic index (GI) (the ranking of foods by effects on postprandial blood glucose levels) and glycaemic load (GL) (the product of mean GI and the total carbohydrate content of a meal) will be a central part of the Canadian tDNA and complement nutrition therapy by facilitating glycaemic control using specific food selections. This component can also enhance other metabolic interventions, such as reducing the need for antihyperglycaemic medication and improving the effectiveness of weight loss programs. This tDNA strategy will be adapted to the cultural specificities of the Canadian population and incorporated into the tDNA validation methodology. PMID:24550982

  5. The Management of Retrenchment in Canadian Academic Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Laurent-G.; Auster, Ethel

    This exploratory study focuses on the management of decline as characterized by shrinking resources and substantial reductions in operating budgets (retrenchment) in academic research libraries in Canada. The first of four major sections of the report addresses the management of retrenchment in Canadian research libraries, including the design of…

  6. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  7. The Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure and health mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Yi, Xiaolun;

    2008-01-01

    Due to the recent outbreak of SARS and the danger of pandemic Bird Flu, the ability to strengthen health surveillance and disease control is a growing need among governments. The development of the Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (CGDI) has shown great potential in many industries such as...

  8. Survey of Canadian homesharing agencies serving the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Gutman, Gloria M.; Doyle, Veronica; Melliship, Kaye; Baldwin, Patricia

    1989-01-01

    Homesharing is a living arrangement in which two or more unrelated persons occupy a single dwelling, each having some private space but sharing common areas such as kitchen, bathroom and living room. This report describes findings from a study which examined the objectives, services, operational characteristics and clientele of 18 Canadian agencies which help older persons to make suitable homesharing arrangements.

  9. Measuring Holocaust Knowledge and Its Impact: A Canadian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedwab, Jack

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the responses of some 1,500 Canadians to a public opinion survey on knowledge of the Holocaust, awareness of genocide, and attitudes towards discrimination and diversity. Based on one of the most detailed surveys conducted to date on Holocaust knowledge, the study found strong correlations between greater reported Holocaust…

  10. Epidemiological and Economic Burden of Pneumococcal Disease in Canadian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Petit

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the arrival of a new conjugate pneumococcal vaccine, it is important to estimate the burden of pneumococcal diseases in Canadian children. The epidemiological data and the economic cost of these diseases are crucial elements in evaluating the relevance of a vaccination program.

  11. Financial Management of Canadian Universities: Adaptive Strategies to Fiscal Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Darren; Sá, Creso M.

    2014-01-01

    Decreasing government funding and regulated tuition policies have created a financially constrained environment for Canada's universities. The conventional response to such conditions is to cut programme offerings and services in an attempt to lower costs throughout the institution. However, we argue that three Canadian universities have…

  12. Correlates and Consequences of Degree Purchasing among Canadian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotheridge, Celeste M.; Lee, Raymond T.

    2005-01-01

    This article develops the construct of degree purchasing as an instrumental orientation towards education in which students value education primarily as a vehicle for labour market participation rather than as an avenue for learning. This study of 188 Canadian university students found that a substantial proportion of students tended to be more…

  13. A bushel Half Full: Reforming the Canadian Wheat Board

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvain Charlebois; Richard Pedde

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) has been earning poor financial returns for farmers over the last three years, based on our benchmarking analysis. Reforms are required, including more transparency in reporting financial returns to farmers, and greater accountability on the part of CWB management to the farmer-elected board of directors.

  14. Global Education in Canadian Elementary Schools: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Karen; Manion, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the implementation of global education in Canadian elementary schools. Curriculum analysis and 76 interviews at school, ministry, and district levels revealed limited coordination among ministry, district and NGO efforts and little support for curriculum development and teacher training. In schools, fund-raising for…

  15. Baselines for the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2013-01-01

    Using a Canadian student achievement assessment database, the Science Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP), and employing the Rasch partial credit measurement model, this study estimated the difficulties of items corresponding to the learning outcomes in the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework and the latent abilities of students of grades 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 and OAC (Ontario Academic Course). The above estimates serve as baselines for validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework in terms of the learning progression of learning outcomes and expected mastery of learning outcomes by grades. It was found that there was no statistically significant progression in learning outcomes from grades 4-6 to grades 7-9, and from grades 7-9 to grades 10-12; the curriculum framework sets mastery expectation about 2 grades higher than students' potential abilities. In light of the above findings, this paper discusses theoretical issues related to deciding progression of learning outcomes and setting expectation of student mastery of learning outcomes, and highlights the importance of using national assessment data to establish baselines for the above purposes. This paper concludes with recommendations for further validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum frameworks.

  16. Enhancing Canadian Teacher Education Using a Story Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The "Accord on Initial Teacher Education" was created by the Canadian Deans of Education in 2006 to guide teacher educators across Canada. The "Story Model" (Drake et al., 1992) is aligned with the principles in the Accord and has proven useful in teacher education. Here it is explored as a framework for curriculum development…

  17. Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-09-01

    For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

  18. Individual Stress Management Coursework in Canadian Teacher Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gregory E.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher stress is a significant issue facing the teaching profession. The current paper explores individual stress management as a viable option to address stress in this profession. Specifically, Canadian teacher education programs are examined to identify the prevalence of pre-service teacher education courses focused on individual stress…

  19. Work-Life Balance and the Canadian Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese-Germain, Bernie

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades Canada has experienced sweeping demographic, social, economic and technological changes. These changes have had, and continue to have, a major impact on the work-life balance of Canadians--that is, on their ability to balance work and personal demands. Some of these factors also impact the work-life balance of the…

  20. An Evaluation of the 1977 Canadian Firearms Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauser, Gary A.; Holmes, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    A pooled cross-section time series model is used to evaluate the effect of the 1977 Canadian firearms legislation on the provincial homicide rate between 1969 and 1989. Results agree with most studies that indicate no significant effect of this legislation on homicide rates. (SLD)

  1. Giving Canadian Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education an Independent Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Derek

    2015-01-01

    It is noted that the "Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education" (CJSMTE) was founded with the support of a donation of $1.0 million from the Imperial Oil Charitable Foundation. Four goals were uppermost in the thinking behind the journal: first, it should be bilingual; second, it should be cross-disciplinary;…

  2. Religiosity and Music Copyright Theft among Canadian Baptist Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Bruce G.; Francis, Leslie J.; Henderson, Amanda J.; Robbins, Mandy; Linkletter, Jody

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the views of 706 Canadian Baptist youth (between the ages of 14 and 18 years) on the moral issue of music copyright theft, and explores the influence on these views of age, sex, Sunday church attendance, personal prayer, personal Bible reading, and conservative Bible believing. The participants were attending Springforth 2005…

  3. Stages Of Gender Education In Canadian Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukovskyi Vasyl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of educational preconditions of gender education formation and development in Canadian secondary schools. On the basis of conducted scientific and pedagogical literature analysis it has been determined that gender education has undergone three main stages and is currently developing during its fourth, modern period.

  4. A U.S. perspective on Canadian supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of Canadian crude supply on U.S. refiners was discussed. Amoco's refineries run over 1 million barrels per day of crude oil, of which 160,000 b/d is Canadian supply. Exports of Canadian crude oil has increased from 645 kbpd in 1990 to 1090 kbpd in 1996. About half of that increase was in heavy crudes. Synthetic crudes are predicted to offset the decline in light crude production. Recent forecasts indicate that heavy oil supply will exceed the demand of the highest netback markets. Optimistic heavy oil development plans may be hindered by crude pricing, pipeline capacity, limited markets, diluent supply, and competition from Mexico and Venezuela. Exports of Canadian crude to U.S. PADDs 1, 2, 3 and 4 are expected to increase from 1,090,000 b/d in 1996 to 1,415,000 b/d in 2002. About three quarters of the increase will be in heavy crudes. These opportunities have been created by declining U.S. domestic production, a growth in demand, new market opportunities and upgrader facilities. 12 figs

  5. Promoting Racial and Ethnic Diversity among Canadian Academic Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiuk, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This study examines racial and ethnic diversity among Canadian academic librarians and discusses the findings of a nationwide survey. The survey posed questions related to equity plans and programs as well as recruitment practices for academic librarians from equity-seeking groups with a focus on Aboriginal and visible/racial minority librarians.…

  6. Entrepreneurship and Educational Leadership Development: Canadian and Australian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Charles F.; Scott, Shelleyann

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the entrepreneurial activities of two university faculties, one Canadian and the other Australian, that were designed to meet the educational needs of students and to garner the resources necessary for program delivery. A conceptual framework for educational entrepreneurship, containing six dimensions, is proposed. The…

  7. Graduate Writing Assignments across Faculties in a Canadian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ling; Dong, Yanning

    2015-01-01

    This study examines 143 graduate assignments across 12 faculties or schools in a Canadian university in order to identify types of writing tasks. Based on the descriptions provided by the instructors, we identified nine types of assignments, with scholarly essay being the most common, followed by summary and response, literature review, project,…

  8. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Association 31. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the technical sessions from the 31. Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association. Topics of discussion include: the role of nuclear energy in the global energy future, public participation in energy policy making, CANDU 3 in Saskatchewan, new technologies, perspectives on global warming, components of successful nuclear programs, and Canada's nuclear challenges

  9. The Canadian clinician-scientist training program must be reinstated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twa, David D W; Squair, Jordan W; Skinnider, Michael A; Ji, Jennifer X

    2015-12-01

    Clinical investigators within the Canadian and international communities were shocked when the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) announced that their funding for the MD/PhD program would be terminated after the 2015-2016 academic year. The program has trained Canadian clinician-scientists for more than two decades. The cancellation of the program is at odds with the CIHR's mandate, which stresses the translation of new knowledge into improved health for Canadians, as well as with a series of internal reports that have recommended expanding the program. Although substantial evidence supports the analogous Medical Scientist Training Program in the United States, no parallel analysis of the MD/PhD program has been performed in Canada. Here, we highlight the long-term consequences of the program's cancellation in the context of increased emphasis on translational research. We argue that alternative funding sources cannot ensure continuous support for students in clinician-scientist training programs and that platform funding of the MD/PhD program is necessary to ensure leadership in translational research. PMID:26529253

  10. Electronic Commerce: Canadian Community Colleges and Institutes of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges.

    This paper reports on the Canadian college system's collaboration with industry and community services in the development and delivery of non-credit e-commerce courses offered through continuing education departments at community colleges and institutes of technology. The paper argues that, in today's changing economy, the accelerated need for…

  11. Culture and Parenting: Psychological Adjustment among Chinese Canadian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Cynthia S. M.; Miller, Lynn D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adolescents' cultural identification, perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting, and psychological adjustment with a sample of 192 Chinese Canadian adolescents. Participants were recruited from public urban high schools and completed 4 self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed using…

  12. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Association 25th annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twenty addresses presented in this volume celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Canadian Nuclear Association. They reflect upon evolving world electricity patterns, the nuclear power option, Canada's position as a supplier of uranium and nuclear technology, the future of the nuclear industry in Canada, and the position of the industry in the United States and Britain

  13. Strategic Planning for Academic Research: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Creso M.; Tamtik, Merli

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical study of research planning in Canadian universities. Drawing on data compiled during interviews with senior administrators from 27 academic units in 10 universities, the paper analyses how strategic planning has been applied to the research mission over the past decade. Findings reveal variability in processes…

  14. Homelessness Coverage in Major Canadian Newspapers, 1987 – 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Richter (Solina); K. Kovacs Burns (Katharina); Y. Mao (Yuping); J. Chaw-Kant (Jean); M. Calder (Moira); S. Mogale (Shirley); L. Goin (Lyla); K. Schnell (Kerry)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis article describes how the Canadian printed news media depicted the homeless and their situations between 1987 and 2007. Our study used a descriptive, cross-sectional design and a content analysis was conducted on selected newspaper articles on homelessness issues. The main themes we

  15. Social and Psychological Adjustment of Chinese Canadian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Tse, Hennis Chi-Hang

    2010-01-01

    This study examined social and psychological adjustment of immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese children in Canada. Participants included a sample of elementary school children (N = 356, M age = 11 years). Data on social functioning, peer relationships, school-related social competence, perceived self-worth, and loneliness were collected from peer…

  16. Can Money Undo the Past? A Canadian Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. Murray

    2003-01-01

    In Canada, more than 9,000 lawsuits have been filed by American Indians and Inuits seeking reparations for the mistreatment Indigenous children suffered in residential schools operated by four religious groups and financed by the Canadian government. Although most suits allege "cultural damage" caused by schooling practices, little of the money…

  17. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual Canadian Nuclear Society conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seventeenth annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society, presented in Fredericton, New Brunswick. The conference includes papers on general topics of interest on the nuclear community, waste management and the environment, instrumentation and design of Candu reactors, safety analysis, thermal hydraulics, fuel channels, plant operations and in-core instrumentation

  18. Nomads, Pilgrims, Tourists: Women Teachers in the Canadian North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on notions of the modern pilgrim and postmodern tourist, this paper explores the discursive resources concerning women, travel, and transience as they apply to female teachers working in the Canadian north. In particular, it traces the discourses evident in the talk of twenty-five women teachers currently working in northern First Nations…

  19. Canadian Indian Children Who Had Never Attended School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lolita

    1973-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the performance on selected intelligence tests of a group of Canadian Indian children who had never been to school with the performance of a similar group of children who were attending school regularly. (Author/RK)

  20. Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Society of Cardiac Surgeons/Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery Joint Position Statement on Open and Endovascular Surgery for Thoracic Aortic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appoo, Jehangir J; Bozinovski, John; Chu, Michael W A; El-Hamamsy, Ismail; Forbes, Thomas L; Moon, Michael; Ouzounian, Maral; Peterson, Mark D; Tittley, Jacques; Boodhwani, Munir

    2016-06-01

    In 2014, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) published a position statement on the management of thoracic aortic disease addressing size thresholds for surgery, imaging modalities, medical therapy, and genetics. It did not address issues related to surgical intervention. This joint Position Statement on behalf of the CCS, Canadian Society of Cardiac Surgeons, and the Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery provides recommendations about thoracic aortic disease interventions, including: aortic valve repair, perfusion strategies for arch repair, extended arch hybrid reconstruction for acute type A dissection, endovascular management of arch and descending aortic aneurysms, and type B dissection. The position statement is constructed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology, and has been approved by the primary panel, an international secondary panel, and the CCS Guidelines Committee. Advent of endovascular technology has improved aortic surgery safety and extended the indications of minimally invasive thoracic aortic surgery. The combination of safer open surgery with endovascular treatment has improved patient outcomes in this rapidly evolving subspecialty field of cardiovascular surgery.

  1. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Leigh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Methods Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1 where in Canada these businesses are located; 2 the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3 the medical procedures they promote; 4 core marketing messages; and 5 whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Results Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism

  2. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Methods Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1) where in Canada these businesses are located; 2) the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3) the medical procedures they promote; 4) core marketing messages; and 5) whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Results Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism companies. Seven other

  3. Proceedings of the 29th annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association and 10th annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society. V. 1-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The symposium was designed to highlight how the technical information for nuclear energy came to Canada, the effect this information had in Canada in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Medicine and Nuclear Power. Volume 1 is the combined proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Association twenty-ninth annual conference and the Canadian Nuclear Society tenth annual conference. Volume 2 is the proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Association twenty-ninth annual conference, and volume 3 is the proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society tenth annual conference

  4. Changing dynamics in the Canadian voluntary sector: challenges in sustaining organizational capacity to support healthy communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steedman, Eric; Rabinowicz, Jane

    2006-11-01

    The voluntary sector is recognized, by citizens, industry and government, as an increasingly vital contributor to healthy communities within Canadian society, called upon to provide front-line service delivery in areas of community support that were in the past often served by government and or religious charity. (The voluntary sector is large, consisting of an estimated 180,000 non-profit organizations [of which 80,000 are registered as charities] and hundreds of thousands more volunteer groups that are not incorporated [Statistics Canada, 2002].) The dynamics of the sector have changed considerably over the past decade, as government has pulled back the level of core organizational funding support and the role of the church has diminished. As community health is directly related to the organizational health of service-providing non-profits and charities, these organizations are looking increasingly towards corporate and individual donors, along with new self-financing approaches that generate revenues. They are also facing challenges in attracting and retaining skilled and motivated volunteers. As the scope of the voluntary sector and its overall influence grows, so do the organizational and financial challenges it faces. This article will address in particular the issue of funding support for healthy communities and examine a number of potential and existing best practices for sustaining community health in Canada. We will also look at the issue of volunteerism and human resource capacity challenges for organizations. This is an area in which the Canadian government has decided to focus as a result of explicit policy decisions taken in the late 1990s. PMID:17152321

  5. Cohort Working Life Tables for Older Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer, Byron G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe construct cohort working life tables for Canadian men and women aged 50and older and, for comparison, corresponding period tables. The tables arederived using annual single-age time series of participation rates for 1976-2006from the master files of the Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey. The cohortcalculations are based on stochastic projections of mortality coupled withalternative assumptions about future participation rates. Separate tables areprovided for the years 1976, 1991, and 2006, thus spanning a period ofsubstantial gains in life expectancy and strong upward trends in femaleparticipation. Life expectancies based on the cohort tables are greater thanthose based on the period tables, for both men and women, and that is reflectedin increased retirement expectancies. For example, a male aged 50 in 1976could have expected to live three years longer and to have almost four moreyears in retirement, based on the male cohort table under medium assumptions,as compared with the corresponding period table.RésuméNous avons établis des tables de vie active par génération pour les Canadiens etCanadiennes âgés de 50 ans ou plus ainsi que des tables du momentcorrespondantes pour servir de comparaison. Les tables sont dérivées à l'aidede séries chronologiques annuelles d'un seul âge pour le taux d'activité pour lesannées 1976 à 2006 provenant des fichiers maîtres de l'Enquête sur lapopulation active de Statistique Canada. Les calculs par génération sont baséessur des projections stochastiques de mortalité et sur des suppositions quant àde futurs taux d'activité possibles. Des tables séparées ont été établies pour lesannées 1976, 1991 et 2006 ; ce qui représente une période qui a vu des gainssubstantiels en ce qui concerne l'espérance de vie et une forte hausse d'activitéchez les femmes. Les espérance de vie basées sur les tables par génération sontplus élevées que celles basées sur les tables du

  6. Live And Love-Brave Theme Features In Canadian Classical Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fang

    2015-01-01

    Canadian classical works are becoming more and more popular all over the world. People began to understand and mar⁃vel at the Canadian literatures that are quite life-meaningful and full of lessons and tips for lives. The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada's particular history, geography, climate, religion, demographic factors, generation, development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures. The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Litera⁃ture:keep working hard for survival and love bravely. Meanwhile, modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic lit⁃erary works.

  7. The Canadian Safeguards Support Program - A future outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP) is one of the first safeguards support programs with an overall objective to assist the IAEA by providing technical assistance and other resources and by developing equipment to improve the effectiveness of international safeguards. This paper provides a brief discussion of the evolution of the CSSP, from the beginning when the program was under joint management between the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), a Canadian crown corporation, until recent years when the AECB became responsible for all projects and financial management. Recently, new legislation came into force and the AECB became the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC). However, the mandate and management of the CSSP under the CNSC remain fundamentally unchanged. Major CSSP activities are devoted to the following areas: (a) Human resource assistance through the provision of cost-free experts (CFEs) to the IAEA; (b) Training of IAEA inspectors and facility operators, development of training resources and integrated approaches for training; (c) System studies, e.g. the development of integrated safeguards approach for CANDU reactors, geological repository, and physical model; (d) Equipment development, e.g. the VXI Integrated Fuel Monitor, Digital Cerenkov Viewing Device, seals, remote monitoring, encryption and authentication; (e) Information technology which includes satellite imagery, Geographical Information System (GIS), and position tracking of spent fuel containers. The CSSP has continued to evolve during the past 25 years. Although formerly larger the CSSP budget has settled to a stable level of just slightly above (Canadian) $2M. Leveraging of the CSSP budget through collaborations with several Member State Support Programs and Canadian government departments has provided mutual benefits for all parties involved and useful results that have been put into practical use by the IAEA. (author)

  8. Finally, nuclear engineering textbooks with a Canadian flavour!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for nuclear engineering textbooks more appropriate to the Canadian nuclear industry context and the CANDU nuclear reactor program has long been felt not only among the universities offering nuclear engineering programs at the graduate level, but also within the Canadian nuclear industry itself. Coverage of the CANDU reactor system in the textbooks presently supporting teaching is limited to a brief description of the concept. Course instructors usually complement these textbooks with course notes written from their personal experience from past employment within the nuclear industry and from their research interests In the last ten years, the Canadian nuclear industry has been involved on an increasing basis with the issue of the technology transfer to foreign countries which have purchased CANDU reactors or have been in the process of purchasing one or several CANDUs. For some of these countries, the 'turn key' approach is required, in which the Canadian nuclear industry looks after everything up to the commissioning of the nuclear power plant, including the education and training of local nuclear engineers and plant personnel. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in particular has dispatched some personnel tasked to prepare and give short courses on some specific aspects of CANDU design and operation, but a lack of consistency was observed as different persons prepared and gave the courses rather independently. To address the many problems tied with nuclear engineering education, the CANTEACH program was set up involving major partners of the Canadian nuclear industry. Parts of the activities foreseen by CANTEACH consist in the writing of nuclear engineering textbooks and associated computer-based pedagogical material. The present paper discusses the main parts of two textbooks being produced, one in reactor physics at steady state and the other on nuclear fuel management. (author)

  9. Perspective on the current realities confronting Canadian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the Canadian energy sector is indicated by the large proportion of energy investments in the economy, the significant contribution of energy exports to total exports, the major role of the energy sector in Canada's regional economies, the high per-capita energy consumption, and the high contribution of fossil fuels to Canadian greenhouse gas emissions. The history of Canadian energy policy is characterized by three relatively distinct periods: a period of strong growth and development in the energy sector starting in the late 1940s, a crisis management period starting with the oil crises in the 1970s, and a market orientation in the early 1980s which reduced the role of government in the energy sector. Energy policy has generally focused on two main themes: assuring access to competitively priced energy supplies, and ensuring maximum economic benefit from energy developments. A third theme, environmental responsibility, has emerged since the late 1980s. Current pressures on Canadian energy policies include the increasing integration of energy markets in North America, the influence of international conditions on energy prices, and environmental quality concerns relating to the costs and uncertainties of environmental assessment, climate change, and sustainable development. Further constraints and influences on energy policy come from multilateral agreements with other countries and international agencies, and the need for cooperation among the different levels of Canadian governments. Economic regulation has fallen out of favor with most governments, industry, and the public, and the increased use of regulation to pursue environmental goals in the energy sector seems likely to continue

  10. Restructuring of the Canadian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issues of structural change pertaining to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) are discussed. AECL is responsible for the CANDU design, construction and engineering program as well as Canada's nuclear research and development programs, along with Ontario Hydro, a provincially owned electric power utility. Restructuring of these two organizations will have significant impacts on the entire nuclear industry because of the major role they play in the industry. The roles and structures of AECL and Ontario Hydro are described, the trends forcing restructuring of these two organizations and efforts underway to adapt them to the 'new realities'. (R.P.)

  11. Radioactivity in the Canadian aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of radionuclides arising from natural anthropogenic processes as well as technologically enhanced natural radiation are discussed. Transport, distribution and behaviour of these radionuclides in aquatic systems are influenced by physical, chemical, biological and geological processes and conditions in freshwater and marine environments. Dosimetry of aquatic organisms, as well as various methods of measuring dose rate are presented. Effects of ionizing radiation (acute and chronic exposure) on aquatic organisms, populations and ecosystems are reviewed. This review covers the entire spectrum of the aquatic environment. Results of many studies are summarized. 300+ refs

  12. A comparison of vowel formant frequencies in the babbling of infants exposed to Canadian English and Canadian French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattock, Karen; Rvachew, Susan; Polka, Linda; Turner, Sara

    2005-04-01

    It is well established that normally developing infants typically enter the canonical babbling stage of production between 6 and 8 months of age. However, whether the linguistic environment affects babbling, either in terms of the phonetic inventory of vowels produced by infants [Oller & Eiler (1982)] or the acoustics of vowel formants [Boysson-Bardies et al. (1989)] is controversial. The spontaneous speech of 42 Canadian English- and Canadian French-learning infants aged 8 to 11, 12 to 15 and 16 to 18 months of age was recorded and digitized to yield a total of 1253 vowels that were spectrally analyzed and statistically compared for differences in first and second formant frequencies. Language-specific influences on vowel acoustics were hypothesized. Preliminary results reveal changes in formant frequencies as a function of age and language background. There is evidence of decreases over age in the F1 values of French but not English infants vowels, and decreases over age in the F2 values of English but not French infants vowels. The notion of an age-related shift in infants attention to language-specific acoustic features and the implications of this for early vocal development as well as for the production of Canadian English and Canadian French vowels will be discussed.

  13. The Lived Experiences of Canadian-Born and Foreign-Born Chinese Canadian Post-Secondary Students in Northern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    This phenomenological study provided an in-depth description of the internal meaning of the lived experiences of Canadian-born and foreign-born Chinese students in Canada and uncovered the differences in their social experiences. The study used semi-structured interviews to allow the participants to express their views on their lives in Northern…

  14. Canadian prediction equations of spirometric lung function for Caucasian adults 20 to 90 years of age: Results from the Canadian Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) study and the Lung Health Canadian Environment (LHCE) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Wan C; Bourbeau, J; Hernandez, P;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, no reference or normative values for spirometry based on a randomly selected Canadian population exist. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present analysis was to construct spirometric reference values for Canadian adults 20 to 90 years of age by combining data collected from health...

  15. Canadian tax policy and renewable energy : are the benefits illusory : a comparison of Canadian and US approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tax policies for targeted activities such as wind energy need to be efficient and effective in promoting activities that may not otherwise take place. An efficient tax policy will not have unintended consequences that may lead to tax leakage or benefits outside the targeted activity, and will be consistent with other incentives promoting the target activity. This presentation discussed Canadian tax policies related to wind power and then compared them to tax policies in the United States directed at promoting wind energy development. Benefits and subsidies available to Canadian wind energy producers include the ecoEnergy program, the Canadian Renewable and Conservation Expense (CRCE) program; and Class 43.2 directed at high efficiency and renewable energy generation equipment. The Canadian valuation methodology considers capacity factors; capital costs; leverage; interest rates; corporate tax rates; and required equity. While the ecoEnergy program is valuable as it removes the tax risk for the recipient, the CRCE may be more valuable as it does not expire and is not subject to limitations on amounts deductible. Class 43.2 is valuable but constrained by the limitations of a project's income. The United States has a production tax credit (PTC) for wind developers based on a tax credit of $15 per MWh subject to adjustment, and is available for a 10-year period, is transferable to taxable investors, and has a current value of $20. It was concluded that while Canadian subsidies are the equivalent of $7.15, US subsidies are the equivalent of $17. tabs., figs

  16. Canadian tax policy and renewable energy : are the benefits illusory : a comparison of Canadian and US approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chant, A. [Ortech International, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Tax policies for targeted activities such as wind energy need to be efficient and effective in promoting activities that may not otherwise take place. An efficient tax policy will not have unintended consequences that may lead to tax leakage or benefits outside the targeted activity, and will be consistent with other incentives promoting the target activity. This presentation discussed Canadian tax policies related to wind power and then compared them to tax policies in the United States directed at promoting wind energy development. Benefits and subsidies available to Canadian wind energy producers include the ecoEnergy program, the Canadian Renewable and Conservation Expense (CRCE) program; and Class 43.2 directed at high efficiency and renewable energy generation equipment. The Canadian valuation methodology considers capacity factors; capital costs; leverage; interest rates; corporate tax rates; and required equity. While the ecoEnergy program is valuable as it removes the tax risk for the recipient, the CRCE may be more valuable as it does not expire and is not subject to limitations on amounts deductible. Class 43.2 is valuable but constrained by the limitations of a project's income. The United States has a production tax credit (PTC) for wind developers based on a tax credit of $15 per MWh subject to adjustment, and is available for a 10-year period, is transferable to taxable investors, and has a current value of $20. It was concluded that while Canadian subsidies are the equivalent of $7.15, US subsidies are the equivalent of $17. tabs., figs.

  17. Similarities and Differences Between Yoruba Traditional Healers (YTH) and Native American and Canadian Healers (NACH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekson, Mary Olufunmilayo

    2016-10-01

    Indigenous people of the world have used the services of medicine men and traditional healers from time immemorial. According to the World Health Organization, 80 % of the world's populations consult traditional healers. With an emerging globalization of health services in the world, there is a need for western mental health practitioners to learn and understand the practices of indigenous healers across the globe. This paper will not only highlight the similarities and differences between Yoruba traditional healers of Western Nigeria and Native American and First Nation Canadian traditional healers, but it will also allow practitioners to gain clearer perspectives of indigenous clients from Yoruba land and those from the United States of America and Canada. This ultimately will inform culturally sensitive clinical practice with these populations. PMID:27272331

  18. Similarities and Differences Between Yoruba Traditional Healers (YTH) and Native American and Canadian Healers (NACH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekson, Mary Olufunmilayo

    2016-10-01

    Indigenous people of the world have used the services of medicine men and traditional healers from time immemorial. According to the World Health Organization, 80 % of the world's populations consult traditional healers. With an emerging globalization of health services in the world, there is a need for western mental health practitioners to learn and understand the practices of indigenous healers across the globe. This paper will not only highlight the similarities and differences between Yoruba traditional healers of Western Nigeria and Native American and First Nation Canadian traditional healers, but it will also allow practitioners to gain clearer perspectives of indigenous clients from Yoruba land and those from the United States of America and Canada. This ultimately will inform culturally sensitive clinical practice with these populations.

  19. Non-PBDE halogenated flame retardants in Canadian indoor house dust: sampling, analysis, and occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinghua; Kubwabo, Cariton; Rasmussen, Pat E; Wu, Fang

    2016-04-01

    An analytical method was developed for the measurement of 18 novel halogenated flame retardants in house dust. Sample preparation was based on ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and clean up with solid phase extraction (SPE). Sample extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operated in electron capture negative ion (ECNI) chemical ionization mode. Baseline data from 351 fresh (active) dust samples collected under the Canadian House Dust Study (CHDS) revealed that five out of 18 target chemicals were present with detection frequencies higher than 90 %. Median (range) concentrations for these five compounds were as follows: 104 (detection limits (MDLs). In addition, the method was also applied to the analysis of the targeted compounds in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material (SRM 2585, organic contaminants in house dust). Results from the current study could contribute to the potential certification of target chemicals in SRM 2585. PMID:26780041

  20. Mechanization, the labor process, and injury risks in the Canadian meat packing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novek, J; Yassi, A; Spiegel, J

    1990-01-01

    During the 1980s, Canada's major manufacturing industries experienced considerable financial restructuring and technological transformation, largely in response to recessionary pressures. At the same time, the rate of lost-time injuries in Canadian manufacturing rose steadily. This article explores the relationship between these sets of factors. The meat packing industry has been selected as a case study of the interaction between industrial organization, the labor process, and the risk of workplace injuries. The authors suggest that the following factors have contributed to high and rising injury rates in the meat industry during the 1980s: consolidation into a smaller number of large, highly specialized, and mechanized plants; deteriorating labor relations in the face of falling profits; and an intensified labor process stressing line speedups and a growing risk of repetitive strain injuries. These observations are supported by a detailed analysis of the relationship between the labor process and workplace injuries at one packing plant considered typical for the industry.

  1. An assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, Aaron T. [Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2152 (United States)]. E-mail: afisk@forestry.uga.edu; Wit, Cynthia A. de [Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Wayland, Mark [Prairie and Northern Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada); Kuzyk, Zou Zou [Environmental Sciences Group, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Burgess, Neil [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, 6 Bruce St. Mt. Pearl, NL, A1N4T3 (Canada); Letcher, Robert [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Braune, Birgit [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Norstrom, Ross [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Blum, Susan Polischuk [Office of Research Services, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 4J8 (Canada); Sandau, Courtney [Jacques Whitford Limited, Calgary, AB, T2R 0E4 (Canada); Lie, Elisabeth [National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 8156, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Larsen, Hans Jorgen S. [Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Skaare, Janneche Utne [National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 8156, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Muir, Derek C.G. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Anthropogenic contaminants have been a concern in the Canadian arctic for over 30 years due to relatively high concentrations of bioaccumulating and biomagnifying organochlorine contaminants (OCs) and toxic metals found in some arctic biota and humans. However, few studies have addressed the potential effects of these contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife. Prior to 1997, biological effects data were minimal and insufficient at any level of biological organization. The present review summarizes recent studies on biological effects related to contaminant exposure, and compares new tissue concentration data to threshold effects levels. Weak relationships between cadmium, mercury and selenium burdens and health biomarkers in common eider ducks (Somateria mollissima borealis) in Nunavut were found but it was concluded that metals were not influencing the health of these birds. Black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) examined near PCB-contaminated Saglek Bay, Labrador, had enlarged livers, elevated EROD and liver lipid levels and reduced retinol (vitamin A) and retinyl palmitate levels, which correlated to PCB levels in the birds. Circulating levels of thyroid hormones in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were correlated to PCB and HO-PCB plasma concentrations, but the impact at the population level is unknown. High PCB and organochlorine pesticide concentrations were found to be strongly associated with impaired humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in polar bears, implying an increased infection risk that could impact the population. In beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), cytochromes P450 (phase I) and conjugating (phase II) enzymes have been extensively profiled (immunochemically and catalytically) in liver, demonstrating the importance of contaminants in relation to enzyme induction, metabolism and potential contaminant bioactivation and fate. Concentrations of OCs and metals in arctic terrestrial wildlife, fish and seabirds are generally below effects thresholds

  2. Evolution of health technology assessment: best practices of the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocchi A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela Rocchi,1 Isabelle Chabot,2 Judith Glennie3 1Athena Research Inc., Burlington, ON, 2EvAccess Inc., Vaudreuil-Dorion, QC, 3JL Glennie Consulting Inc., Aurora, ON, Canada Background: In 2007, Canada chose to develop a separate and distinct path for oncology drug health technology assessment (HTA. In 2013, the decision was made to transfer the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR to the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH, to align the pCODR and CADTH Common Drug Review processes while building on the best practices of both. The objective of this research was to conduct an examination of the best practices established by the pCODR. Methods: A qualitative research approach was taken to assess the policies, processes, and practices of the pCODR, based on internationally accepted best practice “principles” in HTA, with a particular focus on stakeholder engagement. Publicly available information regarding the approach of the pCODR was used to gauge the agency's performance against these principles. In addition, stakeholder observations and real-world experiences were gathered through key informant interviews to be inclusive of perspectives from patient advocacy groups, provincial and/or cancer agency decision-makers, community and academic oncologists, industry, expert committee members, and health economists. Results: This analysis indicated that, through the pCODR, oncology stakeholders have had a voice in and have come to trust the quality and relevance of oncology HTA as a vital tool to ensure the best decisions for Canadians with cancer and their health care system. It could be expected that adoption of the principles and processes of the pCODR would bring a similar level of engagement and trust to other HTA organizations in Canada and elsewhere. Conclusion: The results of this research led to recommendations for improvement and potential extrapolation of these best practices to other HTA organizations

  3. An assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic contaminants have been a concern in the Canadian arctic for over 30 years due to relatively high concentrations of bioaccumulating and biomagnifying organochlorine contaminants (OCs) and toxic metals found in some arctic biota and humans. However, few studies have addressed the potential effects of these contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife. Prior to 1997, biological effects data were minimal and insufficient at any level of biological organization. The present review summarizes recent studies on biological effects related to contaminant exposure, and compares new tissue concentration data to threshold effects levels. Weak relationships between cadmium, mercury and selenium burdens and health biomarkers in common eider ducks (Somateria mollissima borealis) in Nunavut were found but it was concluded that metals were not influencing the health of these birds. Black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) examined near PCB-contaminated Saglek Bay, Labrador, had enlarged livers, elevated EROD and liver lipid levels and reduced retinol (vitamin A) and retinyl palmitate levels, which correlated to PCB levels in the birds. Circulating levels of thyroid hormones in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were correlated to PCB and HO-PCB plasma concentrations, but the impact at the population level is unknown. High PCB and organochlorine pesticide concentrations were found to be strongly associated with impaired humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in polar bears, implying an increased infection risk that could impact the population. In beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), cytochromes P450 (phase I) and conjugating (phase II) enzymes have been extensively profiled (immunochemically and catalytically) in liver, demonstrating the importance of contaminants in relation to enzyme induction, metabolism and potential contaminant bioactivation and fate. Concentrations of OCs and metals in arctic terrestrial wildlife, fish and seabirds are generally below effects thresholds

  4. Canadian digitization: radical beginning and pragmatic follow-on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Terrill K.

    2000-08-01

    The Canadian Army, like most Western armies, spent a lot of time soul-searching about the application of technology to its Command and Control processes during the height of the Cold War in the 70's and 80's. In the late 1980's, these efforts were formalized in a program called the Tactical Command, Control and Communications System (TCCCS). As envisioned, the project would replace in one revolutionary Big Bang all of the tactical communications employed in the Canadian field forces. It would also add significant capabilities such as a long range satellite communications system, a universal tactical e-mail system, and a command and control system for the commander and his staff from division to unit HQ. In 1989, the project was scaled back due to budgetary constraints by removing the divisional trunk communications system and the command and control system. At this point a contract was let to Computing Devices Canada for the core communications functionality. During the next 6 years, the Canadian Army expanded on this digitization effort by amending the contract to add in a trunk system and a situational awareness system. As well, in 1996, Computing Devices received a contract to develop and integrate a C2 system with the communications system thereby restoring the final two Cs of TCCCS. This paper discusses the architecture and implementation of the TCCCS as the revolutionary enabler of the Canadian Army's digitization effort for the early 2000 era. The choice of a hybrid approach of using commercial standards supplemented by appropriate NATO communications standards allowed for an easy addition of the trunk system. As well, conformance to the emerging NATO Communications architecture for Land Tactical Communications in the Post 2000 era will enhance interoperability with Canada's allies. The paper also discusses the pragmatic approach taken by the Canadian Army in inserting C2 functionally into TCCCS, and presents the ultimate architecture and functionality. This

  5. Canadian experiences with avian influenza: a look at regional disease control--past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, J-P

    2009-04-01

    Over the past 5 yr, the poultry industry in Canada has had a few H5 or H7 avian influenza (AI) epidemics. An analysis of these outbreaks by government officials highlighted the need to establish a better partnership between those responsible for controlling the disease and public health officials responsible for protecting the public and those participating in eradication efforts. These officials also agreed that compensations had to be reviewed, that national biosecurity standards needed to be established to better prevent AI, that a national mortality disposal plan was needed, and finally that the current emergency disease management protocols had to be reviewed. Industry representatives stressed the need for early detection and reporting; for more effective tools for decision making, including using local expertise for trace-back activities and quick interventions; for better communications within industry, but mainly between industry and governmental authorities at the federal, provincial, and municipal levels; and finally, for better planning to minimize the impact of eradication efforts on poultry production and for the recovery following the epidemic. These observations triggered a series of initiatives. A National Office of Animal Biosecurity was created by federal authorities, with the mandate to establish national biosecurity standards. A Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network was also put in place to improve the capacity of early detection of the disease and to increase the surge capacity of the Canadian laboratory system. Wildlife and commercial poultry AI surveillance programs have also been put in place. Provincial poultry grower organizations have established AI control and eradication plans that are increasing their ability to intervene early and to assist government authorities once AI is confirmed in the field. This includes the creation of industry incident command centers with emphasis on confidentiality agreements between government and

  6. The Analysis And Assessment Of An Ethics Management Tool - Canadian Marketing Association’s Code Of Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    IBRIAN CĂRĂMIDARU; SABINA IRIMIE

    2007-01-01

    The object of this study is the Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice of the Canadian Marketing Association (CMA). The focus is on the structure, contents and the role of this tool. The developing, upgrading and implementing assigned to this code are compared to the standards proposed by Institute of Business Ethics (London).The fact that the CMA is an organization built upon a professional criteria places all its ethical rules in the area of professional business ethics, but being an asso...

  7. Dietary Sodium Intakes and Food Sources of Sodium in Canadian-Born and Asian-Born Individuals of Chinese Ethnicity at a Canadian University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan Han; Farmer, Anna; Mager, Diana; Willows, Noreen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To document the sodium intake and food sources of sodium of Canadian-born Chinese (CBC) and Asian-born Chinese (ABC) individuals at a Canadian university campus. Participants: Healthy adults aged 18-58 years originating from Canada, China, Hong Kong, or Taiwan were recruited from the University of Alberta (n = 40 CBC, n = 41 ABC)…

  8. Marine oil spill response organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obligations under the law relative to the prevention of marine oil spills and the type of emergency plans needed to mitigate any adverse effects caused by a marine oil spill were discussed. The organizational structure, spill response resources and operational management capabilities of Canada's newly created Response Organizations (ROs) were described. The overall range of oil spill response services that the RO provides to the domestic oil handling, oil transportation and the international shipping industries were reviewed. Amendments to the Canada Shipping Act which require that certain ships and oil handling facilities take oil spill preparedness and response measures, including having an arrangement with an RO certified by the Canadian Coast Guard, were outlined. Canadians now benefit from five ROs established to provide coast-to-coast oil spill response coverage. These include the Western Canada Marine Response Corporation, the Canadian Marine Response Management Corporation, the Great Lakes Response Corporation, the Eastern Canada Response Corporation and the Atlantic Emergency Response Team Ltd. ROs have the expertise necessary to organize and manage marine oil spill response services. They can provide equipment, personnel and operational management for the containment, recovery and cleanup of oil spilled on water

  9. Trends and variability in summer sea ice cover in the Canadian Arctic based on the Canadian Ice Service Digital Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, S.; Tivy, A. C.; Alt, B.; McCourt, S.; Chagnon, R.; Crocker, G.; Carrieres, T. G.; Yackel, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Canadian Ice Service Digital Archive (CISDA) is a compilation of weekly ice charts that cover Canadian Waters; the data set is continually updated and it extends back to the early 1960s. The ice charts are represent and integration of remotely sensed sea ice data, surface observations, airborne and ship reports, operational model results and the expertise of experience ice forecasters. Although the accuracy, type and detail of information far exceeds what is attainable from a single satellite source, errors and uncertainties in the data are non-uniform in both space and time. In part one of this study the main sources of uncertainty in the database are reviewed and the data are validated for use in climate studies. In part two, trends and variability in summer sea ice in the Canadian Arctic are investigated using CISDA. These data revealed that between 1968 and 2008, summer sea ice cover has decreased by 8.9% ± 3.1% per decade in Hudson Bay, 2.9% ± 1.2% per decade in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, 8.9% ± 3.1% per decade in Baffin Bay, and 5.2% ± 2.4% per decade in the Beaufort Sea. In general, these reductions in sea ice cover are linked to increases in early summer surface air temperature (SAT); significant increases in SAT were observed in every season and with the exception of the Hudson Bay region they are consistently greater than the pan-Arctic change by up to ~0.2oC per decade. Within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index correlates well with multi-year ice coverage (positive correlation) and first-year ice coverage (negative correlation) suggesting that El Nino episodes precede summers with more multi-year ice and less first-year ice. Extending the trend calculations back to 1960 along the major shipping routes through the Canadian Arctic revealed significant decreases in summer sea ice coverage ranging between 11% and 15% per decade along the shipping route through Hudson Bay, the western

  10. Gray whale sightings in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, September 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahara, Yuka; Fujiwara, Amane; Ito, Keizo; Miyashita, Kazushi; Mitani, Yoko

    2016-06-01

    Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) are distributed within the productive neritic and estuarine waters of the North Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea, and adjacent waters of the Arctic Ocean. They migrate to high-latitude feeding grounds each spring. Their main feeding grounds in the Arctic include the Chirikov Basin, the northeastern Chukchi Sea from Pt. Hope to Cape Lisburne and Pt. Lay to Pt. Barrow, and the northwestern Chukchi Sea along the Chukotka coast. Although sightings are rare in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, we observed three gray whales in two groups in this area in September 2014. A mud plume was observed near one of the whales, suggesting the animal had been feeding. In the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, large-scale monitoring of the distributions of marine mammals has been continuously conducted since 1979; however, there has been less monitoring in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Therefore, it is necessary to record opportunistic sightings, such as those described here.

  11. Ebooks Licensing and Canadian Copyright Legislation: A Few Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony G Horava

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebooks have become increasingly common in collection development strategies. The availability and delivery of monographs in digital formats has gained significantly in popularity in many libraries, particularly in the academic sector. Licensing is the common method of acquiring ebooks, whether as a subscription or a purchase. Libraries have had to transform selection and workflow processes in order to acquire ebooks in an efficient manner. Little attention, however, has been paid to the interplay between licensing as a contractual arrangement and the statutory rights available under Canadian copyright law. Fair dealing is a concept of critical importance in Canadian copyright, as it provides the foundation for user rights in support of culture, learning, and innovation. There are other provisions of specific value for libraries, such as interlibrary loans and access by persons with perceptual disabilities. This article will examine these issues and proposes a few strategies that libraries can adopt to ensure that statutory rights are not eroded in licensing agreements

  12. Why some adult Canadians do not have blood pressure measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwah, Ernest; Campbell, Norman R C; Maxwell, Colleen; Onysko, Jay; Quan, Hude

    2007-12-01

    Regular blood pressure (BP) measurements are required to identify people with hypertension and to optimally manage their cardiovascular risk. Analyses of data from the 2000-2001 Canadian Community Health Survey showed that most adult Canadians have had a BP assessment in the previous 2 years and few have never had one. Large numbers of persons without BP recordings were observed, however, among persons who were younger, were male, who did not have either a regular doctor or physician contact in the previous year, who were recent immigrants or visible minorities (nonwhite and non-Aboriginal), and who spoke neither French nor English. Common reasons reported for not having a BP assessment included believing it was not necessary and simply not getting around to it. Education programs targeting those at risk as well as more convenient BP screening may improve awareness and testing. PMID:18046100

  13. Canadian critical environmental zones: Concepts, goals and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critical environmental zones are those ecosystems that are so degraded that the health or well-being of human inhabitants is threatened. A conceptual framework is presented for considering criticality and a rationale for a Canadian research project on critical zones. A model of pathways to criticality is outlined and some examples of environmental degradation in Canada are presented, including acid rain and greenhouse gas emissions. Societal response to, and public perception of, critical environmental zones is described. Media, format, and target audiences for output from a Canadian project are considered and some central scientific and policy questions are identified under such categories as environmental stresses, buffering capacity, indicators, human driving forces, and societal responses. An inventory of pertinent international and national activities is included. 53 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Exporting a Canadian parenting education program to the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, John D; Leon, Tina; Haffey, Sue; Barker, Leslie A S

    2009-01-01

    The framework of a Canadian-developed parent education program, Nobody's Perfect, was used in the development of a new parent education program offered to parents attending a child nutrition rehabilitation program in the Dominican Republic. While key teaching elements of the original program were retained (e.g., encouraging active participation, emphasizing facilitation over didactic teaching, using experiential learning), locally relevant content was inserted (e.g., diarrhea prevention and treatment strategies). A Canadian team trained a group of Dominicans to deliver the new program to parents of children recovering from malnutrition. This paper describes the development, implementation, and resulting parenting program from this effort. This 8-week program may find use in other settings. In addition, the experience gained from this exportation endeavor may be useful for others undertaking similar initiatives. PMID:19261157

  15. The influence of power in the Canadian healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenandan-Sookdeo, Kendra-Ann I

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of the literature as it relates to the influence of the word power in the context of the Canadian healthcare system. The concept of power is used to explore issues of gender and the evolution of advanced nurse practice in the development of the Canadian healthcare system. Furthermore, issues related to the call for interprofessional collaboration are addressed. Healthcare workers, in particular nurses, are trusted in a society that seeks, promotes, and aspires for power and control. In addition, societal norms continue to shape our healthcare reform. As a consequence, the discussion centers on a call for true collaboration among our healthcare providers and concludes with implications for nursing.

  16. Current issues in occupational health nursing. A Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C

    1991-07-01

    The National Association of Occupational Health Nurses is still in its infancy and is striving to become an interest group under the umbrella of the Canadian Nurses Association. This will bring together the provincial associations in a common goal of promoting worker health and safety. The diversity of the country and the sheer magnitude of the various occupations of Canadians reflect the need for the occupational health nurse to be well educated and kept abreast of new developments. Changes in the worksite echo changes in health and safety legislation that will help to improve conditions in the workplace. Future challenges arise from changes in the work force and the nature of work and include: ergonomic issues, job stress, older workers, EAPs, and increased competition.

  17. Current issues in occupational health nursing. A Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C

    1991-07-01

    The National Association of Occupational Health Nurses is still in its infancy and is striving to become an interest group under the umbrella of the Canadian Nurses Association. This will bring together the provincial associations in a common goal of promoting worker health and safety. The diversity of the country and the sheer magnitude of the various occupations of Canadians reflect the need for the occupational health nurse to be well educated and kept abreast of new developments. Changes in the worksite echo changes in health and safety legislation that will help to improve conditions in the workplace. Future challenges arise from changes in the work force and the nature of work and include: ergonomic issues, job stress, older workers, EAPs, and increased competition. PMID:2069607

  18. The political and policy context shaping Canadian energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key political and policy issues related to the mining sector were discussed. Issues concerning the Clean Air Act and the Kyoto Protocol were reviewed. New clean energy technologies and international carbon markets were discussed. Policy issues related to oil sands mining were reviewed. Five-fold increases in greenhouse gases (GHG) are expected to accompany the projected growth of the oil sands industry. Issues related to the growing energy market in China were discussed. Declining international reserves and their relevance to the Canadian oil sands mining industry were discussed. Canadian reserves of metals were outlined. Energy use in the metal mining and metal smelting sectors was discussed. Total GHG emissions were presented. 1 tab

  19. The role of inventory management in Canadian economic fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Hung-Hay Lau

    1996-01-01

    Swings in inventory investment have traditionally played a major role in Canadian business cycles. However, advances in inventory-control techniques and the reduced uncertainty associated with lower inflation have enabled firms to manage their inventories much more tightly and effectively. This article examines recent developments in the management of non-farm business inventories in Canada at both the aggregate and the sectoral level and looks at implications for the role of inventories as a...

  20. Creating a culture of innovation in Canadian schools

    OpenAIRE

    Dibbon, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in 1996, the GrassRoots Program has been instrumental in facilitating the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) into the classrooms of Canadian schools. By linking the GrassRoots Program to the school curriculum and providing incentives for teachers to engage students in the process of co-creating electronic curriculum resources for the Internet, it has been influential in transforming classrooms into authentic centres of learning. There is overwh...

  1. The private sector's role in Canadian nuclear marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large engineering consultant firms, such as Canatom Inc., are called architect engineers in the U.S.A., but in Canada are known as EPCM companies (engineering, procurement and construction management). The role of such companies in nuclear trade is explained, and particularly the role of Canatom in Canadian nuclear sales to India, Argentina, Korea and Romania, and in the Mexican proposal. Using an EPCM company can reduce the commercial risk involved in nuclear exports

  2. Home Mechanical Ventilation: A Canadian Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline

    OpenAIRE

    McKim, Douglas A.; Jeremy Road; Monica Avendano; Steve Abdool; Fabien Côté; Nigel Duguid; Janet Fraser; François Maltais; Morrison, Debra L.; Colleen O’Connell; Petrof, Basil J.; Karen Rimmer; Robert Skomro; Canadian Thoracic Society Home Mechanical Ventilation Committee

    2011-01-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are surviving episodes of prolonged mechanical ventilation or benefitting from the recent availability of user-friendly noninvasive ventilators. Although many publications pertaining to specific aspects of home mechanical ventilation (HMV) exist, very few comprehensive guidelines that bring together all of the current literature on patients at risk for or using mechanical ventilatory support are available. The Canadian Thoracic Society HMV Guideline Committee ha...

  3. Victimization in the Canadian Off-Street Sex Industry

    OpenAIRE

    O'Doherty, Tamara Carrine

    2015-01-01

    This nation-wide study examined victimization in Canadian off-street commercial sex. Working in collaboration with sex workers, I recruited 109 adult women, men and transgender sex workers to take part in a self-administered survey, and I interviewed 42 sex workers. The survey focused on rates of several forms of violence, including threats, threats with weapons, assault, sexual assault, and confinement. Other forms of victimization included: theft, harassment, the refusal to use condoms, ref...

  4. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Canadian fluoroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the formation of the National Cancer Incidence Reporting System in a data base format suitable for computerized record linkage, and the linkage of the data from the Canadian study of cancer following multiple fluoroscopies to that database and to the Canadian National Mortality Data Base between 1940 and 1987. A comprehensive statistical analysis of the breast cancer mortality data occurring among female members of the cohort between 1950 and 1987 with respect to exposure to low-LET radiation is reported, together with a parallel analysis of the breast cancer incidence data between 1975 and 1983. The Canadian fluoroscopy study is a cohort study of tuberculosis patients first treated in Canadian institutions between 1930 and 1952. The present mortality analysis relates to the breast cancer mortality experience between 1950 and 1987. A total of 677 deaths from breast cancer was observed in this period. The most appropriate dose-response relationship appears to be a simple linear one. There is a strong modifying influence of age at first exposure; women first exposed past the age of 30 have little excess risk due to radiation exposure. The breast cancer incidence analysis is based upon 628 cases observed between 1975 and 1983. Again a simple linear model appears to provide an adequate fit to the data. There is a suggestion of time dependency under the additive model, but this is not statistically significant. The results from this latest analysis continue to be reassuring in terms of radiation risk from mammography. (L.L.) 15 refs., figs., tabs

  5. Canadian electricity exports and imports : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This energy market assessment (EMA) report focuses on recent trends in exports and imports of Canadian electricity and the associated revenue and pricing. It also outlines major developments in electricity markets in Canada and the United States in the past decade with reference to the implications of electricity trade for both consumers and the power industry. This guide comes at a time of market openings in Alberta and Ontario, and with recent increases in applications to the National Energy Board for electricity exports and international power lines. The first chapter presents an overview of current Canadian federal regulatory regime for electricity exports and restructuring of the electric power industry in Canada and the United States. The second chapter reviews electricity exports and imports from a national perspective. Provincial analyses were presented in the third chapter which also covered international interconnections, export and import trends, export and import pricing, implications for consumer prices, and factors affecting future trade. The final chapter presents some observations on each of these issues. It is noted that exports have fluctuated significantly from year to year due to specific events including the shutdown of nuclear power plants, high gas prices, and the California electricity crisis in 2000-2001. Canadian international electricity trade has continued to yield net revenues of $1 to $2 billion per year due to strong electricity export prices. The relationship between export and import prices varies from province to province. Canadian utilities have emphasized the need for more transmission to the U.S. to foster future trade and improve transmission reliability. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Canadian Educational Approaches for the Advancement of Pharmacy Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Frankel, Grace; Louizos, Christopher; Austin, Zubin

    2014-01-01

    Canadian faculties (schools) of pharmacy are actively engaged in the advancement and restructuring of their programs in response to the shift in pharmacy to pharmacists having/assuming an advanced practitioner role. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of evidence outlining optimal strategies for accomplishing this task. This review explores several educational changes proposed in the literature to aid in the advancement of pharmacy education such as program admission requirements, critical-thin...

  7. Price movements in the Canadian residential mortgage market

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Jason Van; McVanel, Darcey

    2009-01-01

    The authors empirically analyze the price-setting behaviour of the major Canadian banks in the residential mortgage market over the period 19912007. They use weekly posted prices of the major mortgage providers to study the degree of competition in mortgage price setting. Their results suggest that the residential mortgage market is imperfectly competitive. They find distinct price leaders and that, as market concentration increases, so does price dispersion helped by the increased use of dis...

  8. Pharmacist-led minor ailment programs: a Canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jeff; Joubert,Ray

    2016-01-01

    Jeff Gordon Taylor,1 Ray Joubert,2 1College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, 2Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy Professionals, Regina, SK, Canada Abstract: Pharmacists have a long history of helping Canadians with minor ailments. This often has involved management with over-the-counter medications. If pharmacists felt that the best care required something more robust, they would refer the patient to a physician. In hopes of improving the care of such ailments, ...

  9. Survey of clinical nutrition practices of Canadian gastroenterologists

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Harminder; Duerksen, Donald R

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nutrition education is a required part of gastrointestinal training programs. The involvement of gastroenterologists in clinical nutrition once their training has been completed is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the practice pattern of gastroenterologists in clinical nutrition and their perceived adequacy of nutrition training during their gastroenterology (GI) fellowship.METHODS: The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology mailed a survey to all of its 463...

  10. Status of nutrition education in Canadian dental and medical schools.

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, M. L.; Hargreaves, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate the present status of nutrition education for dentists and physicians in Canada, we conducted a survey of the nutrition education programs in 10 Canadian dental and 16 medical schools in the academic year 1982-83. Seven of the dental schools and seven of the medical schools had a separate course in nutrition. The average duration of these courses was 22 hours for the dental schools and 26 hours for the medical schools. Nutrition education was integrated with another discipline ...

  11. The Canadian Labor Market; Developments, Prospects, and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Eswar Prasad

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines recent developments in the Canadian labor market. Using disaggregated labor market data, various hypotheses concerning the slow employment growth and rise in unemployment since 1990 are evaluated. The analysis indicates that a large part of the recent rise in the unemployment rate may reflect an increase in the structural rather than the cyclical component of unemployment. Various sources of labor market rigidities that may have contributed to the increase in structural un...

  12. Canadian Helicobacter pylori Consensus Conference Update: Infections in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, RH; Fallone, CA; Thomson, ABR

    1999-01-01

    The first Canadian Helicobacter pylori Consensus Conference took place in April 1997. The initial recommendations of the conference were published in early 1998. An update meeting was held in June 1998, and the present paper updates and complements the earlier recommendations. Key changes included the following: the recommendation for testing and treating H pylori infection in patients with known peptic ulcer disease was extended to testing and treating patients with ulcer-like dyspepsia; it ...

  13. Past, current, and future directions in Canadian drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, P G

    Canada's earliest drug laws were directed at the opiates and cocaine. More recent concerns have been with cannabis, other hallucinogens, and the reemergence of cocaine, especially in the form of crack. Renewed enforcement efforts, combined with the redirection of priorities toward demand reduction via educational intervention, have been the hallmarks of recent Canadian drug policy initiatives. Some implications of these strategies for the future definition of the boundaries of Canada's drug problems, and likely policy directions, are discussed. PMID:2289838

  14. Board effectiveness and firm performance of Canadian listed firms

    OpenAIRE

    Conheady, Brian; McIlkenny, Philip; Opong, Kwaku K.; Pignatel, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    An effective board of directors is central to agency theory's prescription to solving the problems of separation of ownership from control in the modern corporation. The shareholders' confidence in the board's ability to fulfil its duties is an important measure of the success or otherwise of this cornerstone of agency theory. The Board Shareholder Confidence Index focuses on the board of directors and is the standard by which Canadian governance best practices are measured. This paper invest...

  15. Reactogenicity to a Live Attenuated Varicella Vaccine in Canadian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco; Halperin, Scott A.; Scheifele, David

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reactogenicity and safety of a thermostable, high titre, varicella vaccine in healthy infants and children.DESIGN: Open study of 505 children monitored for 42 days after vaccination.SETTING: Three urban Canadian centres (Halifax, Ottawa and Vancouver).PARTICIPANTS: 505 healthy children one to 12 years of age were enrolled and 504 completed the study. All were susceptible to varicella by history.INTERVENTIONS: All participants received one dose of live attenuated varic...

  16. A REVIEW OF SEMINAL CANADIAN RESEARCH IN COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkwold, Lorne O.

    2003-01-01

    The article critically reviews "Can we teach our students how to learn?" a survey of the Interview Study, the Picture Reconstruction Study, and the Concept-identification Study. The collection is important work conducted by late twentieth-century Canadian researchers in the area of communication strategies. The studies' implications for the foreign-language teacher are discussed particularly in terms of their relevance to the classroom.

  17. Negotiating value: a Canadian perspective on the international film festival

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Diane Louise

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation argues that the Toronto and Vancouver International Film Festivals have been undervalued as showcases and in fact these hybrid public-private institutions are catalysts in the global, local and regional articulation of English-Canadian cinema culture. As a threshold to mainstream release and a non-theatrical venue, the festival operates in the gap between the production and consumption of film commodities. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s model of the field of cultural productio...

  18. Patterns of DNA Barcode Variation in Canadian Marine Molluscs

    OpenAIRE

    Layton, Kara K. S.; Martel, André L.; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Molluscs are the most diverse marine phylum and this high diversity has resulted in considerable taxonomic problems. Because the number of species in Canadian oceans remains uncertain, there is a need to incorporate molecular methods into species identifications. A 648 base pair segment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene has proven useful for the identification and discovery of species in many animal lineages. While the utility of DNA barcoding in molluscs has been demonst...

  19. Immigration and the economic health of Canadian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Laura A Reese

    2012-01-01

    This research explores relationships between diversity of local populations and economic well-being: specifically, the connections between foreign-born populations, other measures of community diversity, and local economic health. Using data from the population of mid-sized Canadian cities, I conclude that there is a significant relationship between immigration and health. Several other aspects of diversity—language, visible minority status, and religion—are also related to economic health, b...

  20. Canadian Pregnancy Outcomes in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl Barnabe; Faris, Peter D; Hude Quan

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe obstetrical and neonatal outcomes in Canadian women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods. An administrative database of hospitalizations for neonatal delivery (1998–2009) from Calgary, Alberta was searched to identify women with RA (38 pregnancies) or SLE (95 pregnancies), and women from the general population matched on maternal age and year of delivery (150 and 375 pregnancies, resp.). Conditional logistic regression was used t...

  1. A welfare analysis of Canadian chartered bank mergers

    OpenAIRE

    James McIntosh

    2002-01-01

    An econometric model of Canada's five largest banks is estimated using time series data from 1976 to 1996. The principal findings are that chartered bank technology is characterized by increasing returns to scale. Scale efficiency is sufficiently large to offset the consequences of reduced competition that might have arisen from a merger between Bank of Montreal and Royal Bank of Canada, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce and Toronto Dominion Bank, or both. The estimated model predicts that a...

  2. Comparison between Canadian Canola Harvest and Export Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthet, Véronique J

    2016-07-20

    Parameters, such as oil, protein, glucosinolates, chlorophyll content and fatty acid composition, were determined using reference methods for both harvest survey samples and Canadian Canola exports. Canola harvest survey and export data were assessed to evaluate if canola harvest survey data can be extrapolated to predict the quality of the Canadian canola exports. There were some differences in some measured parameters between harvest and export data, while other parameters showed little difference. Protein content and fatty acid composition showed very similar data for harvest and export averages. Canadian export data showed lower oil content when compared to the oil content of harvest survey was mainly due to a diluting effect of dockage in the export cargoes which remained constant over the years (1.7% to 1.9%). Chlorophyll was the least predictable parameter; dockage quality as well as commingling of the other grades in Canola No. 1 Canada affected the chlorophyll content of the exports. Free fatty acids (FFA) were also different for the export and harvest survey. FFA levels are affected by storage conditions; they increase during the shipping season and, therefore, are difficult to predict from their harvest survey averages.

  3. Comparison between Canadian Canola Harvest and Export Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique J. Barthet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Parameters, such as oil, protein, glucosinolates, chlorophyll content and fatty acid composition, were determined using reference methods for both harvest survey samples and Canadian Canola exports. Canola harvest survey and export data were assessed to evaluate if canola harvest survey data can be extrapolated to predict the quality of the Canadian canola exports. There were some differences in some measured parameters between harvest and export data, while other parameters showed little difference. Protein content and fatty acid composition showed very similar data for harvest and export averages. Canadian export data showed lower oil content when compared to the oil content of harvest survey was mainly due to a diluting effect of dockage in the export cargoes which remained constant over the years (1.7% to 1.9%. Chlorophyll was the least predictable parameter; dockage quality as well as commingling of the other grades in Canola No. 1 Canada affected the chlorophyll content of the exports. Free fatty acids (FFA were also different for the export and harvest survey. FFA levels are affected by storage conditions; they increase during the shipping season and, therefore, are difficult to predict from their harvest survey averages.

  4. Canadian electricity trends and issues : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the supply and demand of electricity in Canada and provides a province by province analysis of trade, regulatory developments and electricity prices. The Canadian electricity market is regionally diverse, as evidenced by the variety of fuels used for power generation and the differences in market structure, regulation and pricing. Hydro accounts for 61 per cent of Canadian electricity generation. Other sources include coal (18 per cent), nuclear (13 per cent), natural gas (4 per cent) and oil and renewables (4 per cent). Most new power generation projects in Canada are expected to be gas-fired leading to a convergence between natural gas and electricity markets. Most provincial electricity markets are being adequately supplied, even with rising power demands. Alberta restructured its electricity market over a five year period culminating in full retail access on 1 January 2001. While power supply has been relatively tight in Alberta, new generation capacity is expected to become available over the next few years. Ontario plans to implement full retail access in May 2002. Most other provinces are implementing wholesale access. Canadian residential electricity prices are among the lowest of the industrialized countries, and tend to be lowest in hydro-rich provinces. Most hydro-rich provinces have surplus energy available for domestic and international trade. Some provinces are undergoing basic changes with respect to the restructuring of their markets through the unbundling of power generation, transmission and distribution services. 53 figs

  5. The Canadian petroleum industry 1993 monitoring report: Annual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The financial performance of the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry during 1993 is reviewed. Data are given in graphic and tabular form on revenues, sources and destinations of funds (including financing, incentives, dividend payments, capital and operational expenditures); on comparisons with other industries; on how revenues are shared between the industry and various levels of government; on research and development activities; and on ownership and control trends. A section on preliminary results of financial performance during the first quarter of 1994 is also included. Highlights of 1993 included an increase in petroleum industry net income to $1.6 billion and an increase of $850 million in net income for Canadian-controlled companies. Revenues from upstream operations rose $1.7 billion to $20.3 billion as a result of higher prices and production volumes. Total downstream sales revenues increased $370 million to $28.2 billion, representing a slight increase in demand for petroleum products. Cash flow from total operations rose over $2 billion to $10.7 billion, the highest level since 1985. Total capital expenditures rose $2.5 billion to $10.4 billion, and exploration expenditure increased 48%. Canadian ownership and control of upstream plus downstream revenues also increased slightly, and in-house research and development expenditures grew by 7% to $170 million. 28 figs., 22 tabs. 27 figs., 22 tabs

  6. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhle, Stefan; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. PMID:27547554

  7. Sea ice in the Canadian Arctic in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate warming will occur first and most intensely in Arctic regions, according to the numerical simulations of future climate performed with different Global Climate Models (GCMs). It includes the simulations performed by the Meteorological Service of Canada. The observations gathered in the Arctic indicate that the present warming has no precedent over the past four hundred years. Since the 1970s, data acquired mainly by satellite indicates that the extent of Arctic sea ice decreased at a rate of approximately three per cent per decade. Over the period 1969-2000, a similar rate of decrease has been observed within Canadian Arctic waters. Over the past forty years, estimates of the thickness of ice in the Arctic, based on submarine measurements, show a 40 per cent decrease. By 2050, if all the conditions remain as they are, the Arctic Ocean could be ice free. The most widely held scientific opinion seems to be that in the future there will be less ice in the Arctic than what was observed in the past, an opinion that is still being debated by scientists. The development of local natural resources and trans-shipment between Europe and Asia could increase dramatically in a future with less ice. Marine transportation in the Canadian Arctic would be expanded. Climatological analysis results of Canadian ice information is presented by the authors, and they have chosen to discuss various probable scenarios related to ice conditions during this century. 13 refs., 8 figs

  8. Canadian R&D on oil-fired integrated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, A.C.S.; Entchev, E. [CCRL/ERL/CANMET, Ottawa (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    This presentation will describe research and development presently being conducted on oil-fired space and water heating systems at the Combustion & Carbonization Research Laboratory (CCRL) in Ottawa, Canada. It will focus on R& D activities at CCRL in support of the Canadian Oil Heat Association (COHA); in particular, progress will be reported on activities to develop suitable oil-fired integrated systems to satisfy the low energy demands of new homes and to define outstanding issues and recommend solutions relating to sidewall venting, particularly in cold climates. Additional activities to be discussed relate to the development of appropriate seasonal efficiency standards for oil-fired combustion systems, in support of Canadian federal and provincial policy initiatives. The first activity in this standards area is a determination of the most appropriate measure of seasonal efficiency of complex integrated space/water heating systems. Performance of a range of existing and prototype integrated systems will be examined and their overall performances defined, using heat loss, heat balance and combined methods, for a wide range of cyclic operations and demands. The draft standard may be either a (slight or detailed) modification of the existing ASHRAE standard, or may be a new more appropriate test and analysis procedure, for the range of present and future systems suitable for Canadian applications in both new, low energy housing and in existing housing. The second standards activity is the development of an appropriate measure for the seasonal efficiency of sidewall vented oil-fired appliances.

  9. Canadian database for radionuclide transfer in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of radionuclides throughout the biosphere is described in models that rely on a series of transfer parameters. These parameters are typically based on experimental or monitoring observations, and describe processes such as soil-to-plant transfer, soil-to-atmosphere transfer, and water-to-fish transfer. The parameters values used in many applications to date have come from around the world. However, data from Canadian settings are generally preferable for Canadian safety assessment applications. This is particularly true for geographically unique parameters relating to specific soils and environments. This database was constructed to record future radionuclide transfer parameter data systematically and completely, and to record particularly valuable existing data. The database supports element-specific parameters. Because the emphasis is on Canadian data, the data are indexed by geographic and physiographic region. In addition to the specific transfer parameter values, there is provision for a substantial amount of ancillary data. The database now operates with dBase software. (author). 1 tab

  10. Comparison between Canadian Canola Harvest and Export Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthet, Véronique J

    2016-01-01

    Parameters, such as oil, protein, glucosinolates, chlorophyll content and fatty acid composition, were determined using reference methods for both harvest survey samples and Canadian Canola exports. Canola harvest survey and export data were assessed to evaluate if canola harvest survey data can be extrapolated to predict the quality of the Canadian canola exports. There were some differences in some measured parameters between harvest and export data, while other parameters showed little difference. Protein content and fatty acid composition showed very similar data for harvest and export averages. Canadian export data showed lower oil content when compared to the oil content of harvest survey was mainly due to a diluting effect of dockage in the export cargoes which remained constant over the years (1.7% to 1.9%). Chlorophyll was the least predictable parameter; dockage quality as well as commingling of the other grades in Canola No. 1 Canada affected the chlorophyll content of the exports. Free fatty acids (FFA) were also different for the export and harvest survey. FFA levels are affected by storage conditions; they increase during the shipping season and, therefore, are difficult to predict from their harvest survey averages. PMID:27447675

  11. Job displacement effects of Canadian immigrants by country of origin and occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A S

    1997-01-01

    "Some previous Canadian studies have shown that considering the labor market as a whole and also pooling all immigrants as a group, immigrants do not have any job displacement effects on the Canadian born. This study presents some new evidence. It disaggregates immigrants by country of origin and by occupation groups and provides an analysis of job displacement effects of immigrants on the native-born Canadians by these dimensions. The study finds that (1) U.S. immigrants and the Canadians are substitutes [for] competing groups in the labor market and the effect is quite significant; (2) Canadians and Europeans are competing groups in certain occupations, while they have complementary skills in others; and (3) immigrants from the Third World and the Canadians are slightly competing groups in certain occupations."

  12. Brokering Identity and Learning Citizenship: Immigration Settlement Organizations and New Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidan Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines citizenship learning and identity construction of new Chinese immigrants in a Canadian immigration settlement organization (ISO. I address the gap between the concept of “settlement” and “citizenship” generated by government-funded ISOs and new immigrants’ actual practices in these programs. I adopt Dorothy Smith’s approach of examining the social organization of people’s everyday lives (Smith 2005 in order to unpack the ruling relations behind the immigrant settlement services and to take the standpoint of Chinese new immigrants. Under this framework, I analyze a Canadian federal government’s funding criteria for ISOs and a settlement program’s annual report to unpack the ruling relations behind the texts. I further conduct in-depth interviews with two Chinese new immigrants in a Canadian ISO to understand the ruling relations behind citizenship learning and brokering activities in Canadian ISOs from the immigrants’ standpoint.

  13. Drug Expenditure Trends in the Canadian Provinces: Magnitude and Causes from 1998 to 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This analysis uses a consistent pan-Canadian dataset – Canadian CompuScript from IMS Health, Canada – to quantify trends in per capita drug expenditures within each Canadian province over the period of 1998 to 2004. The impacts of changes in six potential determinants of drug expenditure are calculated for every province. Each of the six detailed cost drivers falls into one of three broad categories: volume effects, price effects and therapeutic choices. Despite wide variation in expenditure ...

  14. Corporate social responsibility in the canadian mining sector: ethics, rhetoric, and the economy

    OpenAIRE

    Wudrick, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been promoted by the Government of Canada and Canadian mining companies as an appropriate model of self-regulation, accountability, and communication with the public since the launch of Canada’s 2009 CSR strategy for Canadian companies engaged in the international extractive sector. This thesis contextualizes CSR in the recent history of Canadian mining activity nationally and internationally, considering broad shifts in government communication and a...

  15. Volunteering with Newcomers: The Perspectives of Canadian- and Foreign-born Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Behnam Behnia

    2012-01-01

    Canadian- and foreign-born volunteers have contributed to the settlement of newcomers into Canadian society. Despite their important contribution, little has been reported about the experiences and perspectives of these volunteers. Using the information collected from face-to-face interviews with 60 Canadian- and foreign-born volunteers who support newcomers, this article discusses factors that motivate people to volunteer with newcomers. The study results revealed among other findings that (...

  16. An exploration of the role of Canadian academic libraries in promoting academic integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Kloda, Lorie; Nicholson, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of student plagiarism at Canadian universities and colleges is cause for concern. As a result, Canadian universities are increasingly using text-matching software such as Turnitin to address the problem of cut-and-paste plagiarism. An exploratory survey was conducted at Canadian research-intensive universities subscribing to Turnitin to examine the role of librarians in educating students and faculty about academic integrity. Results indicate that librarians at these institution...

  17. Moving Toward Shibboleth Authentication: A Canadian Academic Library’s Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Moving towards Shibboleth authentication has been a slow process for Canadian academic libraries. This article is intended to provide an overview of the current status of Shibboleth implementation from a Canadian academic library’s perspective. The author will begin with needs analysis for Shibboleth authentication for a Canadian academic library, then proceed to explore the issues and challenges surrounding Shibboleth implementation, and finally discuss the key roles of the stakeholders as w...

  18. Standards for polysomnography in Canada. The Standards Committees of the Canadian Sleep Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society.

    OpenAIRE

    George, C F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop standards for polysomnography in Canada in order to assist in the uniform provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services related to sleep disorders. OPTIONS: Uniform testing versus no current Canadian standards. OUTCOMES: Uniform delivery of health care; reduction in number of repeat studies and their attendant costs. EVIDENCE: Availability of diagnostic laboratories and services, and survey responses (written and oral) from directors of sleep laboratories; the America...

  19. Energy demand and supply prompts record results for Canadian companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian energy industry has shown consistent growth in recent years. This trend is expected to continue due high energy prices resulting from concerns regarding energy supply and increased demand for energy. The 2005 annual survey by Pricewaterhouse Coopers states that Canadian energy sectors have seen average revenues grow by 12.4 per cent from $934 million to $1.05 billion for conventional companies and by 30.5 per cent from $285 million to $372 million for income trusts. The survey provides a summary of Canada's energy industry, including crude oil, natural gas, oil and gas services, oil sands and electricity. The financial and operating information of the top 100 Canadian public oil and gas companies is also summarized, along with 31 oil and gas income trusts. The survey found that crude oil prices were influenced by price volatility and record highs in 2004. Price volatility was due to global political tensions, increased demand from China, India and the United States and lower crude supplies in the United States. Production of Canadian crude, including conventional, synthetic crude, heavy crude, natural gas and natural gas from liquids continued to increase in 2004. A strong pricing environment will likely continue, according to industry expectations, due to political instability in the Middle East and OPEC's tight crude supply strategy. Strong pricing is expected to enhance natural gas economics and promote increased capital investment and production. In 2004, the oil and gas service industry drilled a record 21,593 wells in Western Canada and a record 28,630 drilling permits will be issued. In 2004, there was also a strong demand for field services and improvements in many manufacturing firms. Production from Canadian oil sands in 2004 was over 1 million barrels per day. An estimated 174 billion barrels of oil lie within the oil sands, making Canada the second largest country in terms of global proven crude oil reserves. Several oil sands projects have

  20. Canadian Space Agency Space Station Freedom utilization plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, James; Wilkinson, Ron

    Under the terms of the NASA/CSA Memorandum of Understanding, Canada will contribute the Mobile Servicing System and be entitled to use 3 percent of all Space Station utilization resources and user accommodations over the 30 year life of the Station. Equally importantly Canada, like NASA, can begin to exploit these benefits as soon as the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) phase begins, in early 1997. Canada has been preparing its scientific community to fully utilize the Space Station for the past five years; most specifically by encouraging, and providing funding, in the area of Materials Science and Applications, and in the area of Space Life Sciences. The goal has been to develop potential applications and an experienced and proficient Canadian community able to effectively utilize microgravity environment facilities such as Space Station Freedom. In addition, CSA is currently supporting four facilities; a Laser Test System, a Large Motion Isolation Mount, a Canadian Float Zone Furnace, and a Canadian Protein Crystallization Apparatus. In late April of this year CSA sent out a Solicitation of Interest (SOI) to potential Canadian user from universities, industry, and government. The intent of the SOI was to determine who was interested, and the type of payloads which the community at large intended to propose. The SOI will be followed by the release of an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) following governmental approval of the Long Term Space plan later this year, or early next year. Responses to the AO will be evaluated and prioritized in a fair and impartial payload selection process, within the guidelines set by our international partners and the Canadian Government. Payload selection is relatively simple compared to the development and qualification process. An end-to-end user support program is therefore also being defined. Much of this support will be provided at the new headquarters currently being built in St. Hubert, Quebec. It is recognized that utilizing the

  1. Divergent modes of integration: the Canadian way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izzat Jiwani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper highlights key trajectories and outcomes of the recent policy developments toward integrated health care delivery systems in Quebec and Ontario in the primary care sector and in the development of regional networks of health and social services. It particularly explores how policy legacies, interests and cultures may be mitigated to develop and sustain different models of integrated health care that are pertinent to the local contexts.Policy developments: In Quebec, three decades of iterative developments in health and social services evolved in 2005 into integrated centres for health and social services at the local levels (CSSSs. Four integrated university-based health care networks provide ultra-specialised services. Family Medicine Groups and network clinics are designed to enhance access and continuity of care. Ontario's Family Health Teams (2004 constitute an innovative public funding for private delivery model that is set up to enhance the capacity of primary care and to facilitate patient-based care. Ontario's Local Health Integration Networks (LHINs with autonomous boards of provider organizations are intended to coordinate and integrate care.Conclusion: Integration strategies in Quebec and Ontario yield clinical autonomy and power to physicians while simultaneously making them key partners in change. Contextual factors combined with increased and varied forms of physician remunerations and incentives mitigated some of the challenges from policy legacies, interests and cultures. Virtual partnerships and accountability agreements between providers promise positive but gradual movement toward integrated health service systems.

  2. Radioactivity in coal, ashes and selected wastewaters from Canadian coal-fired steam electric generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is known to contain naturally occurring radioactive elements and there has been speculation that as a results, coal-fuelled power generation stations may be significant emitters of these substances. In this report, the subject of radioactivity is introduced. The kinds of radioactive substances which occur naturally in coal formations, the nature of their emissions and the existing information on their behaviour and their effects on environmental organisms are also reviewed. The results of an examination of levels of alpha, beta and gamma radiaton levels, and the substances which produce them in coals, fly ashes, bottom ashes and related wastewaters at six Canadian coal-fuelled power stations are presented. Difficulties in studies of this nature and the potential effects of these releases on organisms in the adjacent aquatic environment are discussed. Existing and potential technologies for the removal of these substances from wastewaters are examined. In general the releases in wastewaters from the six stations were found to be lower than those known to cause short-term or acute biological effects. The potential for long-term effects from such low-level releases could not be accurately assessed because of the paucity of information. A number of recommendations for: improvements in further studies of this nature; the further examination of the fate of naturally occurring radionuclides in the environment; and the determination of the long-term effects of low levels of naturally occurring radioactive substances on aquatic organisms, are made

  3. The Canadian Geoscience Education Network: a collaborative grassroots effort to support geoscience education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, C.; Halfkenny, B.; Hymers, L.; Clinton, L.; Heenan, S.; Jackson, D.; Nowlan, G.; Haidl, F.; Vodden, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Canadian Geoscience Education Network (CGEN) numbers over 300 members who are active in promoting geoscience to the general public and especially in schools. Our membership spreads from coast to coast to coast in Canada and represents the wide range of geosciences. Most members work in education, government, industry, academia, or not-for-profit organizations. Our common goals are to (1) provide resources to teachers for the K-12 curriculum, (2) encourage students to pursue higher education and a rewarding career in geoscience, and (3) lobby to effect change to the school curriculum. Our strength is grounded in a grassroots approach (eg, regional chapters), flexible organization, and emphasis on a cost-effective style. Together we have created and maintain resources for teachers; for example, EdGEO (local workshops for teachers), Geoscape (community-based posters and lesson plans), and EarthNet (virtual resource centre). A new website showcases careers in the Earth sciences. CGEN members ensure that these resources remain current, promote them at individual outreach activities, and see to it that they are maintained. Although we have limited funding we draw strength from the networks of our members and capitalize on partnerships between seemingly disparate organizations and groups to get experts involved in the education of future geoscientists. (Details about CGEN may be found at http://www.geoscience.ca/cgen/principal.html.)

  4. A profile of the structure and impact of nursing management in Canadian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschinger, Heather K Spence; Wong, Carol A; Ritchie, Judith; D'Amour, Danielle; Vincent, Leslie; Wilk, Piotr; Stassen, Marjorie Armstrong; Matthews, Sue; Saxe-Braithwaite, Marcy; Grinspun, Doris; Shamian, Judith; McCutcheon, Amy; Kerr, Michael; Macdonald-Rencz, Sandra; Oke, Barbara; Denney, Donna; White, Jerry; Almost, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the profile of nursing leadership structures in Canada and to assess relationships among structures, processes and outcomes pertaining to nurse leaders' work. Data were collected from nurse leaders in 28 academic health centres and 38 community hospitals in 10 Canadian provinces (n = 1,164). The results of this study revealed that the current contingent of nursing leaders in Canada see themselves as an empowered and influential group within their organizations. Despite very large spans of control, nurse leaders at all levels were positive about their work life and confident in their ability to provide effective leadership on nursing affairs within their organizations. Structural and process factors significantly affected nurse manager outcomes at all levels. Senior nurse leaders' work-life factors had a significant effect on middle and first-line managers' perceptions of patient care quality in the organization. Nurse leaders averaged 49 years of age highlighting the need for succession planning. PMID:18362526

  5. High Methylmercury in Arctic and Subarctic Ponds is Related to Nutrient Levels in the Warming Eastern Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Gwyneth A; Girard, Catherine; Chételat, John; Laurion, Isabelle; Amyot, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Permafrost thaw ponds are ubiquitous in the eastern Canadian Arctic, yet little information exists on their potential as sources of methylmercury (MeHg) to freshwaters. They are microbially active and conducive to methylation of inorganic mercury, and are also affected by Arctic warming. This multiyear study investigated thaw ponds in a discontinuous permafrost region in the Subarctic taiga (Kuujjuarapik-Whapmagoostui, QC) and a continuous permafrost region in the Arctic tundra (Bylot Island, NU). MeHg concentrations in thaw ponds were well above levels measured in most freshwater ecosystems in the Canadian Arctic (>0.1 ng L(-1)). On Bylot, ice-wedge trough ponds showed significantly higher MeHg (0.3-2.2 ng L(-1)) than polygonal ponds (0.1-0.3 ng L(-1)) or lakes (waters of Subarctic thaw ponds near Kuujjuarapik (0.1-3.1 ng L(-1)). High water MeHg concentrations in thaw ponds were strongly correlated with variables associated with high inputs of organic matter (DOC, a320, Fe), nutrients (TP, TN), and microbial activity (dissolved CO2 and CH4). Thawing permafrost due to Arctic warming will continue to release nutrients and organic carbon into these systems and increase ponding in some regions, likely stimulating higher water concentrations of MeHg. Greater hydrological connectivity from permafrost thawing may potentially increase transport of MeHg from thaw ponds to neighboring aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Perceived lactose intolerance in adult Canadians: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan I

    2013-08-01

    Although double-blind studies show that lactose-intolerant individuals can consume moderate quantities of milk products without perceptible symptoms, many who perceive that they are lactose intolerant limit or avoid milk products, potentially compromising calcium and vitamin D intakes. Adult Canadians are at risk of inadequate intakes of these nutrients, but no data exist on the prevalence, correlates, and potential impact of perceived lactose intolerance among Canadians. To address this, a Web-based survey of a population-representative sample of 2251 Canadians aged ≥19 years was conducted. Overall, 16% self-reported lactose intolerance. This was more common in women (odds ratio (OR), 1.84; 95% CI, 1.46-2.33) and in nonwhites (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.24-2.58) and less common in those >50 years of age (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.90) and in those completing the survey in French (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99). Those with self-reported lactose intolerance had lower covariate-adjusted milk product and alternative intakes (mean ± SE; 1.40 ± 0.08 servings·day(-1) vs. 2.33 ± 0.03 servings·day(-1), p lactose intolerance by sex, age, and language preference was unexpected and suggests that some groups may be more vulnerable to the perception that they are lactose intolerant. Regardless of whether lactose intolerance is physiologically based or perceptual, education is required to ensure that calcium intakes are not compromised. PMID:23855270

  7. The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute : position on ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview of the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI), an industry association which represents Canadian Petroleum Refiners and Marketers is provided. It is not against nor for the use of ethanol as a fuel. Ethanol blends are marketed by some CPPI members. It is mentioned that consumers accept ethanol fuels when the price is competitive with the price of non-ethanol fuel. Mandating the use of ethanol in fuels is not an issue supported by the CPPI. A subsidy is required in order for ethanol to be an economically attractive option, and the consumers would be forced to bear subsidy costs if the use of ethanol in fuels were to be mandated. The technology is still some years away for ethanol from cellulose to be an attractive option. It is difficult to finance new plants, and 50 million of the 240 million litres of ethanol blended has to be imported. The advantages of ethanol as a fuel are marginal and not cost effective. Some changes to the gasoline distribution system would be required, as ethanol must be added near the consumer, and it may not be appropriate for some older vehicles and some off-road equipment. The gasoline industry's flexibility would be reduced by provincial mandates. Several questions have not yet been answered, such as what is the real purpose of mandating ethanol in motor fuels? when will new technology be available? The CPPI makes four recommendations: (1) the development of a clear understanding of and the articulation of the objectives of a new ethanol policy, (2) support the development of new cellulose based technology, (3) take a prudent and gradual approach to development of a new policy, and (4) CPPI does not believe that an ethanol mandate is in the best interests of all Canadians

  8. Perceived lactose intolerance in adult Canadians: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan I

    2013-08-01

    Although double-blind studies show that lactose-intolerant individuals can consume moderate quantities of milk products without perceptible symptoms, many who perceive that they are lactose intolerant limit or avoid milk products, potentially compromising calcium and vitamin D intakes. Adult Canadians are at risk of inadequate intakes of these nutrients, but no data exist on the prevalence, correlates, and potential impact of perceived lactose intolerance among Canadians. To address this, a Web-based survey of a population-representative sample of 2251 Canadians aged ≥19 years was conducted. Overall, 16% self-reported lactose intolerance. This was more common in women (odds ratio (OR), 1.84; 95% CI, 1.46-2.33) and in nonwhites (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.24-2.58) and less common in those >50 years of age (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.90) and in those completing the survey in French (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99). Those with self-reported lactose intolerance had lower covariate-adjusted milk product and alternative intakes (mean ± SE; 1.40 ± 0.08 servings·day(-1) vs. 2.33 ± 0.03 servings·day(-1), p lactose intolerance by sex, age, and language preference was unexpected and suggests that some groups may be more vulnerable to the perception that they are lactose intolerant. Regardless of whether lactose intolerance is physiologically based or perceptual, education is required to ensure that calcium intakes are not compromised.

  9. Experience with Emergency Ultrasound Training by Canadian Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Starting in 2008, emergency ultrasound (EUS was introduced as a core competency to the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (Royal College emergency medicine (EM training standards. The Royal College accredits postgraduate EM specialty training in Canada through 5-year residency programs. The objective of this study is to describe both the current experience with and the perceptions of EUS by Canadian Royal College EM senior residents. Methods: This was a web-based survey conducted from January to March 2011 of all 39 Canadian Royal College postgraduate fifth-year (PGY-5 EM residents. Main outcome measures were characteristics of EUS training and perceptions of EUS. Results: Survey response rate was 95% (37/39. EUS was part of the formal residency curriculum for 86% of respondents (32/37. Residents most commonly received training in focused assessment with sonography for trauma, intrauterine pregnancy, abdominal aortic aneurysm, cardiac, and procedural guidance. Although the most commonly provided instructional material (86% [32/37] was an ultrasound course, 73% (27/37 of residents used educational resources outside of residency training to supplement their ultrasound knowledge. Most residents (95% [35/37] made clinical decisions and patient dispositions based on their EUS interpretation without a consultative study by radiology. Residents had very favorable perceptions and opinions of EUS. Conclusion: EUS training in Royal College EM programs was prevalent and perceived favorably by residents, but there was heterogeneity in resident training and practice of EUS. This suggests variability in both the level and quality of EUS training in Canadian Royal College EM residency programs.

  10. Patterns of DNA Barcode Variation in Canadian Marine Molluscs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Kara K.S.; Martel, André L.; Hebert, Paul DN.

    2014-01-01

    Background Molluscs are the most diverse marine phylum and this high diversity has resulted in considerable taxonomic problems. Because the number of species in Canadian oceans remains uncertain, there is a need to incorporate molecular methods into species identifications. A 648 base pair segment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene has proven useful for the identification and discovery of species in many animal lineages. While the utility of DNA barcoding in molluscs has been demonstrated in other studies, this is the first effort to construct a DNA barcode registry for marine molluscs across such a large geographic area. Methodology/Principal Findings This study examines patterns of DNA barcode variation in 227 species of Canadian marine molluscs. Intraspecific sequence divergences ranged from 0–26.4% and a barcode gap existed for most taxa. Eleven cases of relatively deep (>2%) intraspecific divergence were detected, suggesting the possible presence of overlooked species. Structural variation was detected in COI with indels found in 37 species, mostly bivalves. Some indels were present in divergent lineages, primarily in the region of the first external loop, suggesting certain areas are hotspots for change. Lastly, mean GC content varied substantially among orders (24.5%–46.5%), and showed a significant positive correlation with nearest neighbour distances. Conclusions/Significance DNA barcoding is an effective tool for the identification of Canadian marine molluscs and for revealing possible cases of overlooked species. Some species with deep intraspecific divergence showed a biogeographic partition between lineages on the Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific coasts, suggesting the role of Pleistocene glaciations in the subdivision of their populations. Indels were prevalent in the barcode region of the COI gene in bivalves and gastropods. This study highlights the efficacy of DNA barcoding for providing insights into sequence variation across a broad

  11. Situational analysis of the Canadian renewable energy sector with a focus on human resource issues : 2007 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several factors are steering world energy supplies away from traditional fossil fuel sources and toward renewable energy technologies. As a result, renewable energy markets are experiencing significant growth, and experts predict this trend will continue. As of 2004, 2 per cent of Canada's total electricity generation capacity was provided from emerging renewable technologies, excluding large scale hydro which represents 56 per cent of Canada's electricity generation capacity. The development of renewable energy sources in Canada is expected to contribute to Canada's economic prosperity by providing diversified energy supply to industrial buyers, generating direct economic advantages and employment to local communities, as well as direct benefits such as improved air quality and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Human Resources and Social Development Canada contracted the Delphi Group to provide information on the labour market for the renewable energy sector in Canada in order to identify the steps needed to help the sector in developing a human resource strategy. This report provided an overview of key characteristics defining the renewable energy subsectors in Canada along with anticipated changes in the near term. The study focused on the following technologies: wind turbines; photovoltaics; active solar thermal; geoexchange/earth energy; small scale hydropower; bioenergy; and, ocean energy. A reliable estimate of the labour demands in the subsectors over the next 5 to 10 year was presented along with a review of the human resource issues affecting the sector. This project was guided by an advisory committee of members from 4 sector councils; 3 government agencies including Environment Canada, Industry Canada and Natural Resources Canada; 4 industry associations representing bioenergy, geothermal energy, solar energy and wind energy; and other organizations including the Association of Canadian Community Colleges, the Canadian Council of Technicians and

  12. Survey for cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, calcium, and magnesium in Canadian drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méranger, J C; Subramanian, K S; Chalifoux, C

    1981-01-01

    A second national survey was done to ascertain the levels of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ca, and Mg in Canadian drinking water supplies. Raw, treated, and distributed water samples collected from 71 municipalities across Canada were analyzed both by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using the direct method and by an APDC-MIBK extraction procedure. As in the first national survey, the amounts of trace metals found in the 3 types of water samples were essentially the same. Contamination of the water supplies with these metals except Cu and Zn was minimal during treatment and distribution. For Canadian drinking water, the median and extreme values expressed as ng metal/mL water were: Cd less than or equal to 0.02 (less than or equal to 0.02-0.07), Co less than or equal to 2.0 (less than or equal to 2.0-6.0), Cr less than or equal to 2.0 (less than or equal to 2.0-4.1), Cu less than 10 (less than or equal to 10-900), Ni less than or equal to 2.0 (less than or equal to 2.0-69.0), Pb less than or equal to 1.0 (less than or equal to 1.0-79.7), and Zn less than or equal to 10 (less than or equal to 10-750). Hardness values as mg CaCO3/L ranged from 6.7 in St. John's, Newfoundland, to 328.3 in Portage La Prairie, Manitoba. The median values for the Canadian drinking water supplies were well below the maximum permissible limits set by Health and Welfare Canada and the World Health Organization. PMID:7204309

  13. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Carson, Valerie; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dinh, Thy; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Gray, Casey E; Gruber, Reut; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; LeBlanc, Claire; Okely, Anthony D; Olds, Timothy; Pate, Russell R; Phillips, Andrea; Poitras, Veronica J; Rodenburg, Sophie; Sampson, Margaret; Saunders, Travis J; Stone, James A; Stratton, Gareth; Weiss, Shelly K; Zehr, Lori

    2016-06-01

    Leaders from the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, content experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children and youth aged 5-17 years respect the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period). The development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and systematic reviews of evidence informing the guidelines were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Four systematic reviews (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, integrated behaviours) examining the relationships between and among movement behaviours and several health indicators were completed and interpreted by expert consensus. Complementary compositional analyses were performed using Canadian Health Measures Survey data to examine the relationships between movement behaviours and health indicators. A stakeholder survey was employed (n = 590) and 28 focus groups/stakeholder interviews (n = 104) were completed to gather feedback on draft guidelines. Following an introductory preamble, the guidelines provide evidence-informed recommendations for a healthy day (24 h), comprising a combination of sleep, sedentary behaviours, light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Proactive dissemination, promotion, implementation, and evaluation plans have been prepared in an effort to optimize uptake and activation of the new guidelines. Future research should consider the integrated relationships among movement behaviours, and similar integrated guidelines for other age groups should be developed. PMID:27306437

  14. The importance of being first: evidence from Canadian generic pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Aidan

    2002-12-01

    This paper uses pooled cross-section data on Canadian ethical drug sales to examine the effect of entry timing on sales of generic drugs. The data is for all drugs for which the first generic competitor entered during the years 1994-1997. It is found that the first generic entrant has a lasting competitive advantage: being first into the market appears to lead to an increase of around 30% in market share (among generics) over a period of at least 4 years. This finding has considerable implications for the current policy of allowing brandname drug companies to issue pseudo-generic equivalents as a preemptive strike against true generic competitors.

  15. Canadian political science and medicare: six decades of inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Michael A; McGuinty, Dylan; Teskey, Bryan

    2011-05-01

    Based on an extensive sample of the literature, this critical review dissects the principal themes that have animated the Canadian political science profession on the topic of medicare. The review considers the coincidence of economic eras and how these are reflected in the methodological approaches to the study of medicare. As is to be expected, most of the scholarly activity coincides with the economic era marked by fiscal restraint and decreases in social investments (1993-2003). At the same time, the review notes the prevalence of institutionalism as an approach to the topic and the scholarly community's near-consensus on medicare as a defining characteristic of the country and its people.

  16. The regional control of the canadian energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information and presents data on the energy situation in many regions of Canada. The first part deals with the petroleum and the bitumen shales of Alberta (reserves, exploitation and production, environmental impacts), the second part discusses with the hydroelectricity choice of Quebec and the 2004 crisis. The nuclear situation of Ontario is presented in the third part (nuclear park, programs, uranium reserves, research and development on Candu reactors), while the fourth part deals with the renewable energies (wind power and biomass). The canadian situation facing the Kyoto protocol is discussed in the last part. (A.L.B.)

  17. Research Use by Leaders in Canadian School Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Cooper

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, part of a larger study, investigates the ways research is used by leaders in Canadian schools and districts, an area in which there is relatively little empirical evidence. The paper analyzes survey results from 188 education leaders in 11 school districts across Canada about school and district practices related to the use of research. Results indicate a growing awareness in districts of the importance of research use, reported district capacity, and many kinds of support available for research-related activities; however, actual research use remains modest. Districts appear to have relatively weak processes and systems for finding, sharing, and using relevant research.

  18. Policy and evidence in Canadian health human resources planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The health human resources supply in Canada swings reactively between over- and under-supply. There are numerous policy actors in this arena, each of whom could contribute to good data collection and an agreed-on process for decision-making. This could form the basis for evidence-informed policy. Absent these tools for pan-Canadian health human resources policy development, smaller health jurisdictions are experimenting with quality improvement initiatives which, when properly evaluated, can discover useful methods of aligning patient and community needs with healthcare resources.

  19. How Well do Canadian Distance Education Students Understand Plagiarism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Ann Kier

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This project ascertains how well students taking online, distance education courses at a Canadian university recognize plagiarised material and how well they paraphrase. It also assesses the types of errors made. Slightly more than half of 420 psychology students correctly selected plagiarised phrases from four multiple choice questions. Only a minority was able to rewrite a phrase properly in their own words. A more diverse sample of university students also had difficulty recognizing plagiarised passages from multiple choice options. The poor ability of students to identify plagiarised passages may suggest poor understanding of the concept. Students may benefit from training to improve their understanding of plagiarism.

  20. Trade Credit and Credit Rationing in Canadian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Burkart and Ellingsen (2004) develop a model of trade credit and bank credit rationing which predicts that trade credit will be used by medium-wealth and low-wealth firms to help ease bank credit rationing. This paper tests this and other predictions of the Burkart and Ellingsen model using a large sample of more than 28,000 Canadian firms. The author uses an endogenous method to divide the firms into the appropriate wealth categories rather than arbitrarily selecting firms likely to be credi...

  1. Evolution of the Canadian regional ensemble prediction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenette, R.; Charron, M.; Li, X.; Gagnon, N.; Lavaysse, C.; Belair, S.; Carrera, M.; Yau, P.; Candille, G.

    2010-09-01

    A regional ensemble prediction system (REPS) over North America is expected to become operational at the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) in late 2010 or early 2011. Different configurations of the REPS have already been tested and verified at different locations and time periods. The system was used during the Beijing 2008 summer Olympics and for the North American domain with a focus over southern British Columbia, Canada, during the 2010 Vancouver Olympics. It will also provide forecasts for tropical storms and hurricanes for the Haïti area during the summer and autumn of 2010. The Canadian Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model has been designed with the possibility to be run as a limited area model (GEM-LAM). The Canadian REPS is composed of 20 members running the GEM-LAM at a near 33 km grid spacing and with the same physical parameterizations as those present in the operational global deterministic prediction system at CMC. Two initial perturbation strategies (moist targeted singular vectors [SV] and the ensemble Kalman filter [EnKF]), as well as two stochastic methods for perturbations of parameterizations were verified against surface and upper air (rawinsondes) observations during summer and winter periods to determine which system has the best forecast abilities. For the SV-based REPS, 20 initial conditions (IC) are generated using a targeted SV perturbation method. These ICs are then used to run 20 global GEMs that will provide the lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for each GEM-LAM. For the EnKF-based REPS, the 20 LBCs are built by downscaling the 20 members of the Canadian global ensemble prediction system (GEPS) to the resolution of the REPS. Verifications indicate that the EnKF approach gives better skill for summer and winter periods. The skill difference between the two systems comes mainly from the reliability attribute (smaller bias and reduced under-dispersion). Stochastic perturbations on model physical tendencies and on physical

  2. Evolution of an Orphaned Source Management Strategy: Canadian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the course of providing regulatory control over nuclear substances, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) from time to time has identified sources without an owner or a responsible party. In 2011, after completing a review of its regulatory oversight with respect to orphan sources, the CNSC put in place a strategy that is based on promotion and communication, prevention, and response and recovery of orphan sources. The paper describes the challenges that have occurred during the development of the strategy and the lessons learned during the implementation phase. (author)

  3. Ryan Edwardson, Canuck Rock: A History of Canadian Popular Music

    OpenAIRE

    Jennex, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Ryan Edwardson’s Canuck Rock: A History of Canadian Popular Music is a well-researched and well-written text with a misleading title. Primarily, this book is about the music industry in English-speaking Canada, and readers looking for analysis of musical sound, the social and cultural significance of music performance, or any sustained attention to Québécois musicians and the thriving industry in Quebec will be disappointed. That said, what falls within Edwardson’s scope is meticulously detai...

  4. Investing for the Future: Post-Secondary Education Issues and the Canadian Federal Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Policy Institute (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    On October 14, 2008, Canadians will travel to the polls for the 40th Canadian General Election--only two years since the 2006 election which brought the Conservative Government to power. In preparation for the election, the Educational Policy Institute (EPI) is publishing a series of election-related papers, including an overview of the top…

  5. Inclusive Education Policy: What the Leadership of Canadian Teacher Associations Has to Say about It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. Anthony; Lyons, Wanda; Timmons, Vianne

    2015-01-01

    In inclusive education research, rarely are teacher associations a topic of investigation despite their critical role in its implementation and efficacy. A study was conducted as part of the Canadian Disability Policy Alliance using a "learning collaborative" methodology that explored the extent to which Canadian provincial/territorial…

  6. Exploring the Context of Canadian Graduate Student Teaching Certificates in University Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Natasha; Watson, Gavan P. L.; Watton, Claire

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of Canadian universities offer graduate student certificate programs in university teaching. This paper examines such programs at 13 Canadian universities and presents a discussion of program structures and practices. The findings suggest that most programs were offered over one to two years, and upon successful completion,…

  7. Integration of Students with Physical Impairment in Canadian University Rehabilitation Sciences Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Paulette; Duguay, Elise; Theriault, France-Andree; Sirois, Nathalie Julie; Lajoie, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was two-fold. First, it sought to determine if Canadian rehabilitation science programs are equipped to admit students with physical impairments and, second, to document the experience of these students. A survey (questionnaire) conducted among all Canadian university rehabilitation science programs (n = 34) and…

  8. The Roles of Canadian Universities in Heterogeneous Third-Age Learning: A Call for Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratsoy, Ginny

    2016-01-01

    This article makes the case that Canadian universities--both within and beyond their campuses--must broaden their visions of third-age learners. Canadian third-age learners--defined for the purposes of this article as persons seeking formalized education who are in the stage of life beginning at retirement--are more numerous, active, financially…

  9. Rethinking International Migration of Human Capital and Brain Circulation: The Case of Chinese-Canadian Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachford, Dongyan Ru; Zhang, Bailing

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the dynamics of brain circulation through a historical review of the debates over international migration of human capital and a case study on Chinese-Canadian academics. Interviews with 22 Chinese-Canadian professors who originally came from China provide rich data regarding the possibilities and problems of the contemporary…

  10. Proceedings of the 32. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference proceedings comprise 34 papers, arranged under the following sessions: Plenary; The international CANDU program; Canadian used fuel management program; Public information advocates; Fuel and electricity supply; In which direction should reactors advance?; Canadian advanced nuclear research programs; International cooperation in operations; Safety in design, operation, regulation; Renovation of operating stations; CNS/CNA luncheon addresses. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  11. Canadian Consensus Recommendations for the Optimal Use of Enfuvirtide in HIV/AIDS Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Rachlis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: An eight-member group consisting of Canadian infectious disease and immunology specialists and a family physician with significant experience in HIV management was convened to update existing recommendations, specifically intended for use by Canadian HIV-treating physicians, on the appropriate use of enfuvirtide in HIV/AIDS patients with resistance to other antiretroviral drugs.

  12. Looking for Work: The Coverage of Work in Canadian Introductory Sociology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Shane Michael; Quirke, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the textual coverage of the topic of work in Canadian English--language introductory sociology textbooks. Our findings are based on a content analysis of 21 Canadian texts published between 2008 and 2012. We found that only 12 of 21 textbooks included a chapter on work, suggesting that work occupies a peripheral position in…

  13. On the Integration of Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) by Canadian Mathematicians: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteau, Chantal; Jarvis, Daniel H.; Lavicza, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we outline the findings of a Canadian survey study (N = 302) that focused on the extent of computer algebra systems (CAS)-based technology use in postsecondary mathematics instruction. Results suggest that a considerable number of Canadian mathematicians use CAS in research and teaching. CAS use in research was found to be the…

  14. Imagining the Antiracist State: Representations of Racism in Canadian History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how knowledge about racism has been represented in high school Canadian history textbooks authorized by the Province of Ontario during the 1960s and after the year 2000. I argue that even though historical racisms have increasingly made their way into Canadian history textbooks as valid and important topics of study, the idea…

  15. Past, Present and Future of Respiratory Research: A Survey of Canadian Health Care Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Laura Nonoyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Canadian Respiratory Health Professionals (CRHP is the multidisciplinary health care professional group of the Canadian Lung Association. Although the CRHP has a growing number of highly qualified researchers, the landscape of their research in Canada has not been described.

  16. Professional Fulfillment and Satisfaction of US and Canadian Adult Education and Human Resource Development Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shari L.; Wiesenberg, Faye

    2004-01-01

    This comparative study explored the professional fulfillment and job satisfaction of US and Canadian college and university faculty in the fields of Adult Education and Human Resource Development. In Autumn 2001, we disseminated electronically "The Adult Education and Human Resource Development Faculty Survey" to a selected sample of Canadian and…

  17. The Integration Challenge: Connecting International Students with Their Canadian Peers. CBIE Research in Brief #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE) - Bureau canadien de l’éducation internationale (BCEI), 2015

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of international students themselves, this paper identifies both internal and external barriers that impede the formation of friendships between international students and their Canadian counterparts across Canada's post-secondary campuses. Shedding light on why international students do not make friends with Canadian students…

  18. Argumentation in the Canadian House of Commons on the Issue of Nuclear Weapons for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John Alfred

    The Cuban missile crisis of October 1962 forced the Canadian House of Commons to consider whether Canadian forces in NORAD and NATO were effective without nuclear warheads on special weapons systems. This paper provides an overview of the debates and their milieu, identifies the issues involved, and analyzes the effects of the argumentation. The…

  19. Frequency of Scholarship on Counselling Males in the "Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Stuart M.; Bedi, Robinder P.; Beall, Lauren K.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the frequency with which studies on boys/men are represented in Canadian counselling scholarship, as embodied in the "Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy" (CJCP). To address this question, a quantitative content analysis was conducted of articles published in CJCP from 2000 (Volume 34, Number 1) to 2011 (Volume…

  20. Toward Descriptive Standards. Report and Recommendations of the Canadian Working Group on Archival Descriptive Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Canadian Archivists, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Building upon recent efforts of Canadian archivists to improve the development and application of technology in order to achieve more effective control of and access to their holdings, this report contains the deliberations and recommendations of the Canadian Working Group on Archival Descriptive Standards, which held seven meetings between April…