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Sample records for canadian nru reactor

  1. Remote robotic inspection of irregular surfaces on the inner diameter of the AECL NRU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeller, B., E-mail: bzeller@eclipsescientific.com [Eclipse Scientific Ltd., Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Lombardi, L., E-mail: llombardi@utex.com [Utex Scientific Instruments, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Cyr, P., E-mail: pcyr@eclipsescientific.com [Eclipse Scientific Ltd., Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Mair, H.D., E-mail: dmair@utex.com [Utex Scientific Instruments, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Ginzel, R., E-mail: rginzel@eclipsescientific.com [Eclipse Scientific Ltd., Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    In May of 2009, the NRU (National Research Universal) reactor was forced to shut down after a small heavy water leak. In 2009-2010 repairs were performed in order to restart medical isotope production mid-August 2010. Since the NRU vessel's return to service, a series of periodic inspections is required to ensure the safe operation of the reactor. Eclipse Scientific in collaboration with Utex Scientific Instruments and Liburdi Automation developed the NDE inspection system for the In-Service Inspection program of the NRU vessel. In addition to the difficult environmental, delivery and inspection circumstances the inspection team was faced with the problem of doing an immersion inspection of the inside surface of the reactor vessel through a small 120 mm access port at a distance of more than 10 m to the inspection area at the bottom of the reactor. The vessel was built over 50 years ago and as the inner surface was modified by the repair program during the forced outage, there were no accurate drawings of the inner surface of the vessel that an automated system could rely upon. Eclipse Scientific in collaboration with Liburdi Automation developed a robotic arm designed to enter from the remote access port to deploy the Phased Array and Eddy Current Array inspection heads into the reactor vessel. The motion control and data acquisition system was developed in collaboration with Utex Scientific Instruments using their Inspection Ware software. This paper will highlight the challenges faced in the development of an inspection system capable of using ultrasonic signals to learn a surface and, using this acquired surface topography, effectively and safely deploy and articulate the different inspection heads required to perform the In-Service Inspection of the NRU vessel. (author)

  2. 235U Determination using In-Beam Delayed Neutron Counting Technique at the NRU Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, M. T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bentoumi, G. [Canadian Nuclear Labs., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Corcoran, E. C. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (United States); Dimayuga, I. [Canadian Nuclear Labs., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Kelly, D. G. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (United States); Li, L. [Canadian Nuclear Labs., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Sur, B. [Canadian Nuclear Labs., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Rogge, R. B. [Canadian Nuclear Labs., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2015-11-17

    This paper describes a collaborative effort that saw the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC)’s delayed neutron and gamma counting apparatus transported to Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) for use in the neutron beamline at the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor. Samples containing mg quantities of fissile material were re-interrogated, and their delayed neutron emissions measured. This collaboration offers significant advantages to previous delayed neutron research at both CNL and RMC. This paper details the determination of 235U content in enriched uranium via the assay of in-beam delayed neutron magnitudes and temporal behavior. 235U mass was determined with an average absolute error of ± 2.7 %. This error is lower than that obtained at RMCC for the assay of 235U content in aqueous solutions (3.6 %) using delayed neutron counting. Delayed neutron counting has been demonstrated to be a rapid, accurate, and precise method for special nuclear material detection and identification.

  3. Design basis neutronics calculations for NRU-LOCA experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaberlin, S.W.; Jenquin, U.P.; McNair, G.W.; Perry, R.T.; Trapp, T.J.; Zimmerman, M.G.

    1979-08-01

    The report describes the neutronics analysis for the LOCA simulation experiments in the NRU reactor. The experimental program will provide greater understanding of nuclear fuel assembly behavior during the heatup, reflood and quench sequence of a hypothetical LOCA. The decay heat and stored heat, which are the energy source in a LOCA will be simulated by fission heat provided by the NRU reactor. The reactor, the test and test operation are described.

  4. L-Area STS MTR/NRU/NRX Grapple Assembly Closure Mechanics Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizenga, D. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS)

    2016-06-08

    A review of the closure mechanics associated with the Shielded Transfer System (STS) MTR/NRU/NRX grapple assembly utilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) was performed. This review was prompted by an operational event which occurred at the Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) utilizing a DTS-XL grapple assembly which is essentially identical to the STS MTR/NRU/NRX grapple assembly used at the SRS. The CNL operational event occurred when a NRU/NRX fuel basket containing spent nuclear fuel assemblies was inadvertently released by the DTS-XL grapple assembly during a transfer. The SM review of the STS MTR/NRU/NRX grapple assembly will examine the operational aspects of the STS and the engineered features of the STS which prevent such an event at the SRS. The design requirements for the STS NRU/NRX modifications and the overall layout of the STS are provided in other documents.

  5. Fuel condition in Canadian CANDU 6 reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, R.H.; Macici, N [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gibb, R. [New Brunswick Power, Lepreau, NB (Canada); Purdy, P.L.; Manzer, A.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Kohn, E. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The cornerstone of the CANDU concept is its natural uranium fuel, and the success of its reactor operation hinges on the fuel condition in the reactor. Neutron economy, on power refuelling, and simple fuel design are among the unique characteristics of CANDU fuel. In Canadian CANDU 6 reactors (Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau), the 37-element fuel has provided an enviable record of safe, economic and reliable plant operation for 29 reactor years to date. The fuelling cost is among the lowest in the world - a corollary of high neutron economy, simple fuel design, and judicial fuelling scheme. The reliability of fuel is high: only 21 of the 60000 bundles discharged from Gentilly 2 were confirmed defective and the five-year period from March 1992 to February 1997 saw no defect at all at Gentilly-2. Also, thanks to the inherent on-power refuelling capability and an effective defect detection and removal system, the primary coolant loops are kept extremely clean (very low activity level) - benefiting both maintenance and safety. Moreover, the inventories of fission products in the core and in the channel are maintained within the safety analysis envelope, due to on-power fuelling and sophisticated fuel management. In this paper, CANDU 6 fuel performance is reviewed against the feedback from post-irradiation examinations, and the findings from our ongoing R and D program. The results suggest that the fuel behavior m reactor are basically as originally anticipated, despite an evolutionary 3% increase in bundle uranium mass in the 1980's. For operating conditions within the CANDU 6 37-element experience, the average strains are typically 0.09%; and fission gas release, 2.7%. The UO{sub 2} fuel remains stoichiometric after irradiation. In-core measurements of pressure tube fitting are generally low. All these observations are consistent with the excellent fuel performance statistics coming out of the two Canadian CANDU 6 reactors. Additionally, this paper will briefly

  6. The isotope crisis - a Canadian viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    From the fall of 2007 the summer of 2010 there were repeated cries in the media of North America and Europe of an -isotope crisis-. This concerned the on-going shortage of the isotope Molybdenum 99 and more specifically of its daughter product Technetium Mo 99. The latter is used in about 80 percent of medical imagining procedures in North America, Europe, Japan and a number of other countries. Both isotopes are short-lived and can not be stock-piled. Mo 99 is produced in only a handful of reactors around the world. The fifty-year old Nru reactor in Canada and the equally old Hfr reactor in the Netherlands have each traditionally supplied about a third of the world's supply. In late 2007 the Canadian nuclear regulator ordered the owner and operator of Nru, to shut down the reactor over a matter that was not a clear licence condition. Sensing the impending shortage of Mo 99, the nuclear medicine community raised a major concern sufficient to convince the Canadian government to overrule the regulator. Then in early 2009 a major leak was observed in the Nru reactor vessel. Although it did not present a safety concern it was decided to shut down the reactor to conduct an inspection. This proved to be extremely difficult since the leaks were near the bottom of the 10 metre tall vessel and the only access was through a 20 cm diameter hole at the top of the vessel. The reactor was finally restarted in August 2010, just as the Hfr reactor was shut down for a lengthy overhaul. The paper provides a background on Canada's pioneering involvement in the production and use of radioactive isotopes for medical purposes, a brief account of the Nru repair and an overview of Mo 99 production. (Author)

  7. Development of NRU reflector wall inspection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsden, R.H.; Luloff, B.V.; Zahn, N.; Simpson, N., E-mail: lumsdenr@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    In 2009 May, the National Research Universal (NRU) calandria leaked. During the next year, the calandria was inspected with six new Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques to determine the extent of the corrosion, repaired, and finally the repair was inspected with four additional new NDE techniques before the reactor was returned to service. The calandria is surrounded by a light-water reflector vessel fabricated from the same material as the calandria vessel. Concerns that the same corrosion mechanism had damaged the reflector vessel led to the development of a system to inspect the full circumference of the reflector wall for corrosion damage. The inspection region could only be accessed through 64 mm diameter ports, was 10 m below the port, and had to be inspected from the corroded surface. The ultrasonic technique was designed to produce a closely spaced wall thickness (WT) grid over an area of approximately 5 m2 on the corroded surface using a very small probe holder. This paper describes the Reflector Wall Inspection (RWI) development project and the system that resulted. (author)

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Canadian Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassat, Mohammad; Bailey, Joanne; Yetisir, Metin

    2015-11-01

    A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed on the proposed design for the Canadian SuperCritical Water Reactor (SCWR). The proposed Canadian SCWR is a 1200 MW(e) supercritical light-water cooled nuclear reactor with pressurized fuel channels. The reactor concept uses an inlet plenum that all fuel channels are attached to and an outlet header nested inside the inlet plenum. The coolant enters the inlet plenum at 350 C and exits the outlet header at 625 C. The operating pressure is approximately 26 MPa. The high pressure and high temperature outlet conditions result in a higher electric conversion efficiency as compared to existing light water reactors. In this work, CFD simulations were performed to model fluid flow and heat transfer in the inlet plenum, outlet header, and various parts of the fuel assembly. The ANSYS Fluent solver was used for simulations. Results showed that mass flow rate distribution in fuel channels varies radially and the inner channels achieve higher outlet temperatures. At the outlet header, zones with rotational flow were formed as the fluid from 336 fuel channels merged. Results also suggested that insulation of the outlet header should be considered to reduce the thermal stresses caused by the large temperature gradients.

  9. Medical isotope shortage 2009-2010 and future options NRU, SLOWPOKE and MAPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilborn, J. [Deep River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The 15 month shutdown of NRU and the unexpected termination of the AECL/Nordion MAPLE project caused a world-wide shortage of medical isotopes. After the recent repair of NRU, AECL is confident that it could continue operating safely and reliably as a multi-purpose reactor until 2021 or longer. There is convincing evidence that the restoration of the MAPLE reactors is technically feasible, but it is highly improbable that a 10 MW MAPLE production reactor can ever be cost-effective. However, conversion of the present 10 MW reactors to 3 MW, without major changes to the structural hardware, warrants serious consideration. Finally, even the 20 kW SLOWPOKE reactor could produce useful quantities of Mo-99. If the present fuel rods were replaced with a small tank containing a solution of low-enriched uranyl sulphate in water, three of these liquid core reactors could supply all of Canada. (author)

  10. Small reactors in the Canadian context: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R.S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This presentation discusses the opportunities and challenges for small reactors in Canada. It concludes by suggesting that the success of small reactors in Canada will depend on a number of factors including private sector investment, access to international markets, stable, equitable and adaptable regulatory regime, public trust and technology.

  11. Lessons learned from the NRU vessel leak repair and return to service projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeney, P.; Turcotte, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In May 2009 the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor was shut down due to a small leak detected from the reactor vessel into the annulus surrounding the reactor. What ensued was a challenging, yet successful, 15 month long Repair and Return to Service Outage. This Repair and Return to Service Outage presented many first-of-a-kind challenges that provide learning opportunities which have been incorporated into subsequent planned outages. These lessons learned are invaluable tools to be used in the planning and execution of future outages. Following the repair of the NRU vessel, AECL was required to conduct annual inspections of the vessel wall. These inspections require an annual Extended Outage (up to 4 weeks in length). A planned Extended Outage was conducted in May/June 2011 and provided an opportunity to implement some of the lessons learned during the Repair and Return to Service Outage. Lessons learned from that Extended Outage have been incorporated in the subsequent monthly maintenance outages, with lessons learned sessions being held after each outage to ensure that the execution of outages is constantly improving. (author)

  12. Predictions regarding the supply of 99Mo and 99mTc when NRU ceases production in 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, C K

    2015-01-01

    The NRU reactor in Chalk River had been scheduled to stop producing medical isotopes by the end of 2016 but the Government of Canada recently announced that it will remain available to support isotope production until its operating license expires on 31 March, 2018. NRU has the capability of producing up to 80 % of the world's requirements for 99Mo but is presently producing less than 20 %. There are a number of initiatives underway, both within Canada and around the world, to find alternative ways of producing 99Mo or its daughter, 99mTc. We examine the status of the main proposals and conclude that it will be challenging for any of them to meet the required demand by the end of 2016. An additional year should be enough time for some of the proposals to complete the development of manufacturing facilities and achieve regulatory approval. It is likely that these operators will have enough production capability to make up for the shortfall when the NRU operating license expires.

  13. Prototypic Thermal-Hydraulic Experiment in NRU to Simulate Loss-of-Coolant Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, C. L.; Hesson, G. M.; Russcher, G. E.; Marsh, R. K.; King, L. L.; Wildung, N. J.; Rausch, W. N.; Bennett, W. D.

    1981-04-01

    Quick-look test results are reported for the initial test series of the Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Simulation in the National Research Universal {NRU) test program, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This test was devoted to evaluating the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of a full-length light water reactor (LWR) fuel bundle during the heatup, reflood, and quench phases of a LOCA. Experimental results from 28 tests cover reflood rates of 0.74 in./sec to 11 in./sec and delay times to initiate reflood of 3 sec to 66 sec. The results indicate that current analysis methods can predict peak temperatures within 10% and measured quench times for the bundle were significantly less than predicted. For reflood rates of 1 in./sec where long quench times were predicted (>2000 sec}, measured quench times of 200 sec were found.

  14. The SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada: applications for the Canadian Armed Forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungler, P.C.; Andrews, M.T.; Kelly, D.G.; Nielson, K.S., E-mail: paul.hungler@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Kington, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Royal Military College of Canada (RMCC) has a 20 kW SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear research reactor which is used for teaching and research.Since its commissioning, the reactor facility and instruments have been continuously upgraded to develop and enhance nuclear capabilities for the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF). Specific applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA), delayed neutron counting (DNC) and neutron imaging relevant to the CAF are discussed. (author)

  15. The SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada: applications for the Canadian Armed Forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungler, P.C.; Andrews, M.T.; Kelly, D.G.; Nielsen, K.S. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    The Royal Military College of Canada (RMCC) has a 20 kW SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear research reactor which is used for teaching and research. Since its commissioning, the reactor facility and instruments have been continuously upgraded to develop and enhance nuclear capabilities for the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF). Specific applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA), delayed neutron counting (DNC) and neutron imaging relevant to the CAF are discussed. (author)

  16. Coupled 3D neutron kinetics and thermalhydraulic characteristics of the Canadian supercritical water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, David William, E-mail: hummeld@mcmaster.ca; Novog, David Raymond

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • A coupled spatial kinetics and thermalhydraulics model of the PT-SCWR was created. • Positive power excursions were demonstrated during accident-like transients. • The reactor will inherently self-shutdown in such transients with some delay. • A fast-acting shutdown system would limit the consequences of the power pulse. - Abstract: The Canadian Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor concept, as an evolution of the CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor, includes both pressure tubes and a low temperature heavy water moderator. The current Pressure Tube type SCWR (PT-SCWR) concept features 64-element fuel assemblies placed within High Efficiency Re-entrant Channels (HERCs) that connect to core inlet and outlet plena. Among current SCWR concepts the PT-SCWR is unique in that the HERC separates multiple coolant and moderator regions, giving rise to coupled neutronic-thermalhydraulic feedbacks beyond those present in CANDU or contemporary Light Water Reactors. The objective of this work was thus to model the coupled neutronic-thermal hydraulic properties of the PT-SCWR to establish the impact of these multiple regions on the core's transient behavior. To that end, the features of the PT-SCWR were first modeled with the neutron transport code DRAGON to create a database of homogenized and condensed cross-sections and thermalhydraulic feedback coefficients. These were used as input to a core-level neutron diffusion model created with the code DONJON. The behavior of the primary heat transport system was modeled with the thermalhydraulic system code CATHENA. A procedure was developed to couple the outputs of DONJON and CATHENA, facilitating three-dimensional spatial neutron kinetics and coupled thermalhydraulic analysis of the PT-SCWR core. Several postulated transients were initiated within the coupled model by changing the core inlet and outlet boundary conditions. Decreasing coolant density around the fuel was demonstrated to produce positive

  17. Fabrication of a CANFLEX-RU designed bundle for power ramp irradiation test in NRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Moon Sung

    2000-11-01

    The BDL-443 CANFLEX-RU bundle AKW was fabricated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for power ramp irradiation testing in NRU reactor. The bundle was fabricated with IDR and ADU fuel pellets in adjacent elements and contains fuel pellets enriched to 1.65 wt% {sup 235}U in the outer and intermediate rings and also contains pellets enriched to 2.00 wt% {sup 235}U in the inner ring. This bundle does not have a center element to allow for insertion on a hanger bar. KAERI produced the IDR pellets with the IDR-source UO{sub 2} powder supplied by BNFL. ADU pellets were fabricated and supplied by AECL. Bundle kits (Zircaloy-4 end plates, end plugs, and sheaths with brazed appendages) manufactured at KAERI earlier in 1996 were used for the fabrication of the bundle. The CANFLEX bundle was fabricated successfully at KAERI according to the QA provisions specified in references and as per relevant KAERI drawings and technical specification. This report covers the fabrication activities performed at KAERI. Fabrication processes performed at AECL will be documented in a separate report.

  18. Fabrication of CANFLEX bundle kit for irradiation test in NRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Moon Sung; Kwon, Hyuk Il; Ji, Chul Goo; Chang, Ho Il; Sim, Ki Seob; Suk, Ho Chun

    1997-10-01

    CANFLEX bundle kit was prepared at KAERI for the fabrication of complete bundle at AECL. Completed bundle will be used for irradiation test in NRU. Provisions in the `Quality Assurance Manual for HWR Fuel Projects,` `Manufacturing Plan` and `Quality Verification, Inspection and Test Plan` were implemented as appropriately for the preparation of CANFLEX kit. A set of CANFLEX kit consist of 43 fuel sheath of two different sizes with spacers, bearing pads and buttons attached, 2 pieces of end plates and 86 pieces of end caps with two different sizes. All the documents utilized as references for the fabrication such as drawings, specifications, operating instructions, QC instructions and supplier`s certificates are specified in this report. Especially, suppliers` certificates and inspection reports for the purchased material as well as KAERI`s inspection report are integrated as attachments to this report. Attached to this report are supplier`s certificates and KAERI inspection reports for the procured materials and KAERI QC inspection reports for tubes, pads, spacers, buttons, end caps, end plates and fuel sheath. (author). 37 refs.

  19. Post-irradiation examination of prototype Al-64 wt% U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel rods from NRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, D.F.; Primeau, M.F.; Buchanan, C.; Rose, D. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    Three prototype fuel rods containing Al-64 wt% U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} (3.15 gU/cm{sup 3}) have been irradiated to their design burnup in the NRU reactor without incident. The fuel was fabricated using production-scale equipment and processes previously developed for Al-U{sub 3}Si fuel fabrication at Chalk River Laboratories, and special equipment developed for U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} powder production and handling. The rods were irradiated in NRU up to 87 at% U-235 burnup under typical driver fuel conditions; i.e., nominal coolant inlet temperature 37{degrees}C, inlet pressure 654 kPa, mass flow 12.4 L/s, and element linear power ratings up to 73 kW/m. Post-irradiation examinations showed that the fuel elements survived the irradiation without defects. Fuel core diametral increases and volumetric swelling were significantly lower than that of Al-61 wt% U{sub 3}Si fuel irradiated under similar conditions. This irradiation demonstrated that the fabrication techniques are adequate for full-scale fuel manufacture, and qualified the fuel for use in AECL`s research reactors.

  20. Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    This standard applies to the following types of reactors: shunt reactors, current-limiting reactors including neutral-earthing reactors, damping reactors, tuning (filter) reactors, earthing transformers (neutral couplers), arc-suppression reactors, smoothing reactors, with the exception of the following reactors: small reactors with a rating generally less than 2 kvar single-phase and 10 kvar three-phase, reactors for special purposes such as high-frequency line traps or reactors mounted on rolling stock.

  1. Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry study at two research nuclear reactors using Bonner sphere spectrometer (BSS), rotational spectrometer (ROSPEC) and cylindrical nested neutron spectrometer (NNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanackovic, J; Matysiak, W; Hakmana Witharana, S S; Aslam, I; Dubeau, J; Waker, A J

    2013-01-01

    Neutron spectrometry and subsequent dosimetry measurements were undertaken at the McMaster Nuclear Reactor (MNR) and AECL Chalk River National Research Universal (NRU) Reactor. The instruments used were a Bonner sphere spectrometer (BSS), a cylindrical nested neutron spectrometer (NNS) and a commercially available rotational proton recoil spectrometer. The purposes of these measurements were to: (1) compare the results obtained by three different neutron measuring instruments and (2) quantify neutron fields of interest. The results showed vastly different neutron spectral shapes for the two different reactors. This is not surprising, considering the type of the reactors and the locations where the measurements were performed. MNR is a heavily shielded light water moderated reactor, while NRU is a heavy water moderated reactor. The measurements at MNR were taken at the base of the reactor pool, where a large amount of water and concrete shielding is present, while measurements at NRU were taken at the top of the reactor (TOR) plate, where there is only heavy water and steel between the reactor core and the measuring instrument. As a result, a large component of the thermal neutron fluence was measured at MNR, while a negligible amount of thermal neutrons was measured at NRU. The neutron ambient dose rates at NRU TOR were measured to be between 0.03 and 0.06 mSv h⁻¹, while at MNR, these values were between 0.07 and 2.8 mSv h⁻¹ inside the beam port and <0.2 mSv h⁻¹ between two operating beam ports. The conservative uncertainty of these values is 15 %. The conservative uncertainty of the measured integral neutron fluence is 5 %. It was also found that BSS over-responded slightly due to a non-calibrated response matrix.

  2. In vitro induction of apoptosis, necrosis and genotoxicity by cosmetic preservatives: application of flow cytometry as a complementary analysis by NRU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C M de; Menezes, P F C; Letenski, G C; Praes, C E O; Feferman, I H S; Lorencini, M

    2012-04-01

    Preservatives are used in cosmetics to prevent microbial contamination; however, some preservatives are not free of allergenic and cytotoxic potential. Allergenicity and cytotoxicity potential values are major aspects of preservative safety, which determine limitations and maximum concentration dose in a cosmetic product. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the in vitro apoptosis, necrosis and genotoxicity-inducing potential of five different types of preservatives: Phenoxyethanol (PE), Propylparaben (PP), Methylparaben (MP), Benzyl Alcohol (BA) and Ethylhexyl Glycerine (EG). In vitro experiments were carried out on human dermal fibroblasts by a quantitative flow cytometry method, using specific cell markers (Annexin V, Propidium Iodide and H2AX). We compared the resulting cell viability by means of neutral red uptake (NRU) and established the IC(50) . Our results showed that PE, PP, MP and BA have similar cytotoxic mechanisms (high apoptosis and necrosis levels only at the test concentration of 1%), whereas EG showed only an apoptosis pathway. For genotoxicity, both parabens yielded the highest values. Results obtained by flow cytometry for necrosis were comparable to those produced by NRU; however, NRU does not distinguish apoptosis from necrosis. We propose that flow cytometry is a more sophisticated methodology for understanding the cytotoxic mechanisms of cosmetic preservatives and can be used to complement the NRU.

  3. Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  4. Exploring Canadian Identity through Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2001-01-01

    Considers what commonplaces of culture and identity are being, could be, transmitted through the use of children's literature in classrooms. Explores what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Describes a study which involved Canadian elementary school children who read Canadian children's books. Concludes that literature plays a…

  5. An Overview of Reactor Concepts, a Survey of Reactor Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    Public Affairs Office and is releasaole to the National Technical Information Services (NTIS). At NTIS, it will be available to the general public...Reactors that use deu- terium (heavy water) as a coolant can use natural uranium as a fuel. The * Canadian reactor, CANDU , utilizes this concept...reactor core at the top and discharged at the Dotton while the reactor is in operation. The discharged fuel can then b inspected to see if it can De used

  6. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    2011-01-01

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  7. Reactor shutdown delays medical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A longer-than-expected maintenance shutdown of the Canadian nuclear reactor that produces North America's entire supply of molybdenum-99 - from which the radioactive isotopes technetium-99 and iodine-131 are made - caused delays to the diagnosis and treatment of thousands of seriously ill patients last month. Technetium-99 is a key component of nuclear-medicine scans, while iodine-131 is used to treat cancer and other diseases of the thyroid. Production eventually resumed, but only after the Canadian government had overruled the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which was still concerned about the reactor's safety.

  8. Description and results of a two-dimensional lattice physics code benchmark for the Canadian Pressure Tube Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor (PT-SCWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, D.W.; Langton, S.E.; Ball, M.R.; Novog, D.R.; Buijs, A., E-mail: hummeld@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Discrepancies have been observed among a number of recent reactor physics studies in support of the PT-SCWR pre-conceptual design, including differences in lattice-level predictions of infinite neutron multiplication factor, coolant void reactivity, and radial power profile. As a first step to resolving these discrepancies, a lattice-level benchmark problem was designed based on the 78-element plutonium-thorium PT-SCWR fuel design under a set of prescribed local conditions. This benchmark problem was modeled with a suite of both deterministic and Monte Carlo neutron transport codes. The results of these models are presented here as the basis of a code-to-code comparison. (author)

  9. Assessment of the thorium fuel cycle in power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.; Homan, F.J.; Allen, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to evaluate the role of thorium fuel cycles in power reactors. Three thermal reactor systems were considered: Light Water Reactors (LWRs); High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs); and Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs) of the Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor (CANDU) type; most of the effort was on these systems. A summary comparing thorium and uranium fuel cycles in Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) was also compiled.

  10. The "Canadian" in Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Wolodko, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    Notes that a rich body of Canadian children's literature exists that reflects the country's literary and socio-cultural values, beliefs, themes and images, including those of geography, history, language and identity. Discusses how Canadians tend to identify themselves first by region or province and then by nation. (SG)

  11. Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Libraries in Canada, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Includes 15 articles that relate to Canadian children's literature, including the power of literature; using Canadian literature in Canada; the principal's role in promoting literacy; Canadian Children's Book Centre; the National Library of Canada's children's literature collection; book promotion; selection guide; publisher's perspective; and…

  12. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  13. Thermal-hydraulic interfacing code modules for CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.S.; Gold, M.; Sills, H. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The approach for CANDU reactor safety analysis in Ontario Hydro Nuclear (OHN) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is presented. Reflecting the unique characteristics of CANDU reactors, the procedure of coupling the thermal-hydraulics, reactor physics and fuel channel/element codes in the safety analysis is described. The experience generated in the Canadian nuclear industry may be useful to other types of reactors in the areas of reactor safety analysis.

  14. The Study of Canadian Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Eli

    1971-01-01

    Discussed are Canadian novels, short stories, poems and a film which revolve around man's confrontation with nature, the depression, the problem of isolation, realism in Canadian literature. (Author/AF)

  15. Teaching Canadian Literature: An Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, W. John

    1984-01-01

    Suggests granting greater recognition to the artistic integrity of Canadian literature by removing it from the broader context of Canadian studies. Indicates that understanding and appreciation of Canadian literature as a representation of reality filtered through the perception of an author should be focus of literature in schools. (NEC)

  16. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  17. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  18. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional…

  19. Abstracts of the 48. Canadian chemical engineering conference : technical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The conference was organized into six concurrent sessions devoted to fluidized bed technology, multi-phase reactors, catalysis, environmental technology, new developments, and biotechnology. A total of 491 papers were presented. Papers of particular interest to energy technology emphasized new technologies and chemical engineering techniques involved in processing petroleum products. Fluidized beds for hydro-treatment and biochemical processing, conversion of biomass to bio-oils and strategies for reducing emissions from Canadian energy facilities were some of the topics addressed.

  20. CANLIT (Canadian Literature) Teachers' Crash Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CANLIT, Toronto (Ontario).

    As a result of a study of the situation of Canadian literature in Canadian high schools and universities, this course was developed to provide teachers with useful information about Canadian literature. Included in this kit are sections on Canadian literature (the great debate about the importance of Canadian content), history and sources…

  1. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  2. Canadian identity: Implications for international social work by Canadians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2011-01-01

    This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all......, to critically examine and unpack our ‘Canadian’ identity in order to practice international work that is socially just and anti-imperialist. Drawing on the work of post-colonial authors, critical race theorists, and those who study national myth-making, this essay revisits Canadian identity because...... it is this identity that Canadian social workers often carry into their international work....

  3. Recent Canadian advances in nuclear-based hydrogen production and the thermochemical Cu-Cl cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naterer, G. [Canada Research Chair Professor, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Suppiah, S. [Manager, Hydrogen Isotopes Technology Branch, AECL, Chalk River, Ontario K0J 1J0 (Canada); Lewis, M. [Chemist, Chemical Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Gabriel, K. [Associate Provost, Research, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A. [Professor of Mechanical Engineering, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Fowler, M. [Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Rizvi, G. [Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Easton, E.B. [Assistant Professor of Chemistry, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Ikeda, B.M.; Pioro, I. [Associate Professor, Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe St., Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4 (Canada); Kaye, M.H.; Lu, L. [Assistant Professor, Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Spekkens, P. [Vice President of Science and Technology Development, Ontario Power Generation, 889 Brock Road, Pickering, Ontario (Canada); Tremaine, P. [Professor of Chemistry, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Mostaghimi, J. [Canada Research Chair Professor, Mechanical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E5 (Canada); Avsec, J. [Assistant Professor, Faculty of Energy Technology, Univ. of Maribor, Hocevarjev trg 1, 8270 Krsko (Slovenia); Jiang, J. [Professor and NSERC/UNENE Senior Industrial Research Chair, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents recent Canadian advances in nuclear-based production of hydrogen by electrolysis and the thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle. This includes individual process and reactor developments within the Cu-Cl cycle, thermochemical properties, advanced materials, controls, safety, reliability, economic analysis of electrolysis at off-peak hours, and integrating hydrogen plants with Canada's nuclear power plants. These enabling technologies are being developed by a Canadian consortium, as part of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for hydrogen production from the next generation of nuclear reactors. (author)

  4. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  5. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  6. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  7. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  8. Isotope shortage triggers delays for patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Paula

    2009-07-01

    An unplanned shutdown of a nuclear reactor in Canada is disrupting the supply of medical isotopes across North America and forcing some hospitals to cancel or postpone patients' tests. The closure of the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Chalk River, Ontario, has also embarrassed Canadian officials, including a senior government minister who was forced to apologize after calling the isotope shortage a "sexy" career challenge.

  9. On Realities of Canadian Multiculturalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦辰

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a multicultural country which was mainly established by immigrants. Just because of that, Canadian govern⁃ment has carried out the policy of multiculturalism since1970s. However, it has encountered many problems such as policy con⁃flicts, national identity, democracy-inquiry and racial discrimination, etc. Hence the Canadian multiculturalism has been in a di⁃lemma.

  10. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Bong Kim; Thierry Lasserre; Yifang Wang

    2013-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very ...

  11. Canadian construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, M.

    2001-07-01

    The principal sectors of the Canadian construction industry - commercial, industrial, institutional and residential - are examined with regard to their technical considerations concerning the subject of sustainability. Apart from the different needs of each of the sectors of the industry there are also regional differences caused by population distribution, and differences in climate, that have to be identified and accommodated in considering attitudes to recycling and sustainable development. Some indications that there is growing awareness of recycling and reuse are: the increasing frequency of life cycle costing in the commercial and institutional sectors, the use of recycled or otherwise waste materials in concrete, examples of using steel supporting structures and roof joists salvaged from previous uncompleted projects in the industrial sector, improved building envelope and indoor air quality concerns, collective ground source heating, and new basement and framing technologies and construction materials in the residential sector. These improvements notwithstanding, there remains much to be done. The new objective-based National Building Code, for which comments are now being solicited across the country, is expected to identify new and innovative solutions and to kick-start serious efforts to come up with solutions towards increasing overall sustainability in all sectors of the Canadian construction industry.

  12. Grade 3 Students Explore the Question, "What's Canadian about Canadian Children's Literature?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2000-01-01

    Explores third graders' responses to the question "What's Canadian about Canadian Children's Literature?" Describes 6 picture books and summarizes students' responses to each. Finds students mentioned geographical aspects as characteristic of Canadian literature, and they felt Canadian children's literature should reflect Canadian "experiences."…

  13. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Norman Paterson School of International Affairs]|[Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Law

    2006-03-15

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs.

  14. Problems in the Study of Canadian Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Barry

    1980-01-01

    Considers reasons for studying Canadian literature. Notes the relative infancy of Canadian literature and the need for maintaining objectivity in the study of Canadian literature. Proposes that teachers of Canadian literature focus on individual, contemporary works, examining language, form, and craftsmanship. (RL)

  15. [Canadian Literature. "Featuring: CanLit."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycock, Ken, Ed.; Haycock, Carol-Ann, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The feature articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of Canadian literature. The articles include: (1) a discussion of who's who and what's what in Canadian literature; (2) reviews of worthwhile but overlooked Canadian children's literature; (3) a list of resource guides to Canadian literature and a short quiz over famous first…

  16. Assessment of the National Research Universal Reactor Proposed New Stack Sampling Probe Location for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Antonio, Ernest J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    This document reports on a series of tests conducted to assess the proposed air sampling location for the National Research Universal reactor (NRU) complex exhaust stack, located in Chalk River, Ontario, Canada, with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. Due to the age of the equipment in the existing monitoring system, and the increasing difficulty in acquiring replacement parts to maintain this equipment, a more up-to-date system is planned to replace the current effluent monitoring system, and a new monitoring location has been proposed. The new sampling probe should be located within the exhaust stack according to the criteria established by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream. The internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) project for this task was 65167, Atomic Energy Canada Ltd. Chalk River Effluent Duct Flow Qualification. The testing described in this document was guided by the Test Plan: Testing of the NRU Stack Air Sampling Position (TP-STMON-032).

  17. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  18. Canadian Literature Is Comparative Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, E. D.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the way out of worn out analogies of Canadian literature is found not only by acquiring knowledge of other cultures, but also by abandoning the deceptive parallelisms that overcome differences only by hiding them. (RAE)

  19. A review of conservatism for the Canadian exclusion area boundary calculation methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Sung Ki; Baek, Ju Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    At present, two types of reactors, Pressurized Light Water Reactor(PLWR) and Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor(PHWR), are operating and under construction in Korea. They are much different in design concepts and inherent features from each other so that the calculation methods for Exclusion Area Boundary(EAB) are also different from each other. Thus, the domestic calculation methodology has been applied to PHWR, Wolsung 2, 3 and 4. In this report, the regulatory requirements and methodologies for EAB of Canadian methodology for EAB has been also investigated. It has been examined that the Canadian methodology which has been applied to the calculation of EAB of Wolsung 2, 3 and 4 can be said to be conservative enough compared to physical phenomena. 4 tabs., 3 figs., 22 refs. (Author).

  20. Multifunctional reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much

  1. The risk of shortage of radioelements at medical use must not lead to overlook the reactors safety that produce them; Le risque de penurie de radioelements a usage medical ne doit pas conduire a faire l'impasse sur la surete des reacteurs qui les produisent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    As the reactors supplying the world production of radioelements for medical use have over 40 years of operation, the nuclear safety authority alerts the stake holders on the necessity to prevent the conflicts between public health and nuclear safety in the production of these elements; Asn estimates that the solution is not to extend the lifetime of the reactors but goes for a new international concerted approach. The most of the present production comes from five old reactors: N.R.U. at Chalk river (Canada, 40%), H.F.R. at Petten (Netherlands, 30%), Safari at Pelindaba (South Africa, 10%) B.R.2 at Mol (Belgium, 9%) and Osiris at Saclay (France, 5%). In this context, Asn organised in january 2009 a seminar on the safety-availability of facilities of radio-isotopes production with safety authorities of the concerned countries. Nea organised a seminar on the radiopharmaceuticals supply at the end of january 2009. (N.C.)

  2. Harvey Cushing's Canadian connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feindel, William

    2003-01-01

    During his surgical career between 1896 and 1934, Harvey Cushing made eight visits to Canada. He had a broad impact on Canadian medicine and neurosurgery. Cushing's students Wilder Penfield and Kenneth McKenzie became outstanding leaders of the two major centers in Canada for neurosurgical treatment and training. On his first trip to Canada, shortly after completing his surgical internship in August 1896, Cushing traveled with members of his family through the Maritime Provinces and visited hospitals in Quebec and Montreal. Eight years later, in February 1904, as a successful young neurosurgeon at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, he reported to the Montreal Medico-Chirurgical Society on his surgical experience in 20 cases of removal of the trigeminal ganglion for neuralgia. In 1922, as the Charles Mickle Lecturer at the University of Toronto, Cushing assigned his honorarium of $1000 to support a neurosurgical fellowship at Harvard. This was awarded to McKenzie, then a general practitioner, for a year's training with Cushing in 1922-1923. McKenzie returned to initiate the neurosurgical services at the Toronto General Hospital, where he developed into a master surgeon and teacher. On Cushing's second visit to McGill University in October 1922, he and Sir Charles Sherrington inaugurated the new Biology Building of McGill's Medical School, marking the first stage of a Rockefeller-McGill program of modernization. In May 1929, Cushing attended the dedication of the Osler Library at McGill. In September 1934, responding to the invitation of Penfield, Cushing presented a Foundation Lecture-one of his finest addresses on the philosophy of neurosurgery-at the opening of the Montreal Neurological Institute. On that same trip, Cushing's revisit to McGill's Osler Library convinced him to turn over his own treasure of historical books to Yale University.

  3. Reactor vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A

    1999-01-01

    A reactor vessel (1) comprises a reactor body (2) through which channels (3) are provided whose surface comprises longitudinal inwardly directed parts (4) and is provided with a catalyst (6), as well as buffer bodies (8, 12) connected to the channels (3) on both sides of the reactor body (2) and comprising connections for supplying (9, 10, 11) and discharging (13, 14, 15) via the channels (3) gases and/or liquids entering into a reaction with each other and substances formed upon this reactio...

  4. How Should Canadian Literature Be Taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colborne, Garnet

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for and several approaches to teaching Canadian literature, including a cultural and regional approach to Canadian literature, a comparative approach, and a language study approach. (HTH)

  5. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  6. Birth of the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Ivan T.

    2004-01-01

    The Canadian Digestive Disease Foundation, renamed the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation -- Fondation canadienne pour la promotion de la santé digestive -- in December 2001, is the culmination of ongoing efforts by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology to establish an independent charitable organization. In February 2001, it was officially endorsed as the Foundation for the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology. The initial efforts to establish this Foundation, led by Dr Richa...

  7. Canadian inter-laboratory organically bound tritium (OBT) analysis exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Olfert, J; Baglan, N; St-Amant, N; Carter, B; Clark, I; Bucur, C

    2015-12-01

    Tritium emissions are one of the main concerns with regard to CANDU reactors and Canadian nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima accident, the Canadian Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggested that models used in risk assessment of Canadian nuclear facilities be firmly based on measured data. Procedures for measurement of tritium as HTO (tritiated water) are well established, but there are no standard methods and certified reference materials for measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples. This paper describes and discusses an inter-laboratory comparison study in which OBT in three different dried environmental samples (fish, Swiss chard and potato) was measured to evaluate OBT analysis methods currently used by CANDU Owners Group (COG) members. The variations in the measured OBT activity concentrations between all laboratories were less than approximately 20%, with a total uncertainty between 11 and 17%. Based on the results using the dried samples, the current OBT analysis methods for combustion, distillation and counting are generally acceptable. However, a complete consensus OBT analysis methodology with respect to freeze-drying, rinsing, combustion, distillation and counting is required. Also, an exercise using low-level tritium samples (less than 100 Bq/L or 20 Bq/kg-fresh) would be useful in the near future to more fully evaluate the current OBT analysis methods.

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  9. Reactor Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Bong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very recently the most precise determination of the neutrino mixing angle θ13. This paper provides an overview of the upcoming experiments and of the projects under development, including the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible use of neutrinos for society, for nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and geophysics.

  10. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  11. A Topography for Canadian Curriculum Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Cynthia

    1999-01-01

    Presents challenges to Canadian curriculum theorists: (1) to create curriculum languages and genres that represent all of Canada; (2) to use Canadian scholars and indigenous languages to find these curriculum languages and genres; (3) to seek interpretive tools to understand what it means to be Canadian; and (4) to create curriculum theory that…

  12. Canadian Children's Literature: An Alberta Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Carbonaro, Mike; Green, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an online survey administered to Alberta elementary school teachers in 2000-2001. The survey explored the teachers' knowledge and use of Canadian children's literature and their thoughts about the role of Canadian literature in elementary school classrooms. Canadian children's trade books espouse particular…

  13. The Ideological Orientations of Canadian University Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaie, M. Reza; Brym, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the ideological orientations of Canadian university professors based on a unique 2000 study of a representative sample of Canadian academics (n=3,318). After summarizing methodological problems with extant research on this subject, and tentatively comparing the political views of Canadian and American academics, the paper…

  14. Transnational archives: the Canadian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Creet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.

  15. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Lasserre, T.; Sobel, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments, that toe the cutting edge of neutrino research. Short baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and are still searching for important phenomena such as the neutrino magnetic moment. They could open the door to the measurement of coherent neutrino scattering in a near future. Middle and long baseline oscillation experiments at Chooz and KamLAND have played a relevant role in neutrin...

  16. Canadian contributions studies for the WFIRST instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, J.-F.; Rowlands, N.; Grandmont, F. J.; Lafrenière, D.; Marois, C.; Daigle, O.; Thibault, S.; Schade, D.; Artigau, É.; Brousseau, D.; Maire, J.; Cretot-Richert, G.; Ducharme, M.-È.; Levesque, L. E.; Laurin, D.; Dupuis, J.

    2016-07-01

    WFIRST-AFTA is the NASA's highest ranked astrophysics mission for the next decade that was identified in the New World, New Horizon survey. The mission scientific drivers correspond to some of the deep questions identified in the Canadian LRP2010, and are also of great interest for the Canadian scientists. Given that there is also a great interest in having an international collaboration in this mission, the Canadian Space Agency awarded two contracts to study a Canadian participation in the mission, one related to each instrument. This paper presents a summary of the technical contributions that were considered for a Canadian contribution to the coronagraph and wide field instruments.

  17. The 1998 Canadian Contraception Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A.; Boroditsky, Richard; Bridges, Martha L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study, a mailed survey which asked women about contraceptive practices past, present, and future (including use of oral contraceptives, condoms, and sterilization); familiarity with and opinion about different contraception methods; and general sexual and reproductive health. The paper also examines…

  18. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  19. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  20. Canadian Literature in American Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. Robert

    1973-01-01

    Acquisition of Canadian literature by American libraries was investigated in three ways: questionnaires were sent to selected large libraries, titles were checked against the National Union Catalog'' and published literature describing major collections was examined. With the exception of the Library of Congress, American libraries purchase…

  1. Sonochemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  2. Canadian Content in Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    THEME: Internationalism: Worlds at Play Topics: Internationalism, Identity in Gaming and Learning to Play Abstract: How does Canada fit into the global cultural context of video games? This paper investigates the culture being reflected in video games being produced in Canada as Canada is one of the world's leading producers of video games. It examines the how Canadian culture is represented in current new media artistic output against the culture, or lack of culture, being represented in vid...

  3. Homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactors for Mo-99/Tc-99m production in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilborn, J.W., E-mail: hilbovanw@sympatico.ca [Deep River, Ontario (Canada); Bonin, H.W. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The 15 month shutdown of NRU in 2009 - 2010 caused an overall isotope shortage of approximately 30%; and in North America, the annual Tc-99m demand decreased from an estimated 20 million unit doses to about 15 million unit doses. Mo-99/Tc-99m is produced from HEU targets, irradiated in NRU for 11 days, and after chemical removal of uranium it is shipped to Nordion in Kanata, Ontario. Nordion further purifies the material and sends it to Lantheus Medical Imaging in the USA for manufacture of Mo-99 generators, which are then distributed to hundreds of hospital radiopharmacies throughout North America. One other American company, Covidien, manufactures and distributes Mo-99 generators like Lantheus, but they import bulk Mo-99 from Europe or South Africa. At the hospitals, Tc-99m is chemically extracted daily from the Mo-99 generators and loaded into syringes for immediate clinical use. Fortuitously, the 66 hour half-life of Mo-99 allows the replenishment of Tc-99m in the generator over a growth period of about 20 hours; and a generator can be 'milked' daily for up to two weeks. A more efficient model is the direct production and distribution of Tc-99m unit doses to regional hospitals from 10 'industrial' radiopharmacies located at existing licensed reactor sites in North America. A 20 kW homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor at each site would deliver 15 litres of irradiated uranyl sulphate fuel solution daily to industrial-scale hot cells for extraction of Mo-99, which would be incorporated in large Mo-99/Tc-99m generators for extraction of Tc-99m five days a week; and the Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) would be recycled. Each automated hot-cell facility would be designed to load up to 7,000 Tc-99m syringes daily, for courier delivery to all of the Nuclear Medicine hospitals within a 3 hour average range by road transport. Typically, the delivered doses would be in the range 10 to 30 mCi. Assuming an average unit dose of 25 mCi at the hospital and 5 x 52

  4. Contexts for Ethnic Identity of Japanese Canadians

    OpenAIRE

    浦田, 葉子; Yoko, URATA

    1997-01-01

    In this paper I reviewed the literature in order to gain a broad understanding of the contexts for ethnic identity of Japanese Canadians guided by the premise that ethnic identity is a situational as well as a primordial phenomenon. Two main areas were reviewed - the pattern of distribution of resources in Canadian society and the particular situation in which Japanese Canadians are placed. In the distribution of material resources, individual meritocracy for mass and social closure for elite...

  5. A Cross-Sectional Study to Compare Caregiver Distress Among Korean Canadian, Chinese Canadian, and Other Canadian Home Care Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Wook Chang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the health of elderly Korean Canadians in home care and investigates the risk factors for caregiver distress of families caring for their elderly relatives. Korean Canadians, Chinese Canadians, and other Canadian home care clients were compared using the Resident Assessment Instrument–Home Care (RAI-HC. The assessments were done as a part of normal clinical practice between January 2002 and December 2010 within Ontario. A sample of 58,557 home care clients was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis at the bivariate level and multiple logistic regression models. The major finding of the present study is that Korean clients had higher physical impairments and higher prevalence of major chronic diseases, but they were less likely to receive personal support or nursing services. Moreover, the results provide clear evidence of the importance of language barriers for all linguistic minorities, including Korean Canadians.

  6. 48th Canadian Chemical Engineering conference: technical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    This is the official CD-ROM for the Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering annual conference. The documents on the disk can be navigated in the same way as a Web site on the Internet. Web pages are located on the disk. A Web browser is required to view most of the files. The conference program contains abstracts of the more than 300 papers presented at 78 sessions covering all aspects of chemical engineering: fluidized bed, reaction catalysis, environment, new developments, biotechnology, process control, polymers, fluid mechanics, pulp and paper, thermodynamics, multiphase reactors, reaction catalysis, rheology, chemical engineering fundamentals, chemical technology, oil and gas, education, and industrial issues. Five of the abstracts have been abstracted separately.

  7. Medication use among Canadian seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Mark; Ji, Hong; Hunt, Jordan; Ranger, Rob; Gula, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    As they age, many seniors develop a progressively more complex mix of health conditions. Multiple prescription medications are often required to help manage these conditions and control symptoms, with the goal of maintaining seniors' health for as long as possible. This article explores trends in the number and types of medications used by seniors on public drug programs in Canada. Our findings suggest that a high proportion of Canadian seniors are taking several medications, highlighting the need for medication management systems focusing on this population.

  8. REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADIAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Modern English is an international language inthe world.Besides Great Britain,English is spokenas first language in 39 countries.These countries arelocated in different regions with different naturalfeatures,history development and cultural character-istics.Thus,English used in these different regionscarries its own regional character—forming Englishregional varieties.The main English regional varieties are:BritishEnglish,American English,Canadian English andSouth African English.Canada is a rich country inNorth America with its own characteristics,which of

  9. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  10. DATA MINING IN CANADIAN LYNX TIME SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Karnaboopathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper sums up the applications of Statistical model such as ARIMA family timeseries models in Canadian lynx data time series analysis and introduces the method of datamining combined with Statistical knowledge to analysis Canadian lynx data series.

  11. A Boost for Sino-Canadian Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XUECHENG

    2010-01-01

    @@ If Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper's visit to China last December led to a thaw in the frozen Sino-Canadian relations in recent years, Chinese President Hu Jintao's latest trip to Ottawa appeared to usher in yet another warm period for these deep-rooted relations.

  12. Canadian Library Integrated Systems: Second Annual Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilees, Bobbie

    1988-01-01

    Reports the results of a survey of the Canadian integrated library systems market. The analysis includes comparisons of large versus microcomputer-based installations by type of library and across all libraries, foreign sales by Canadian vendors, and trends in the library systems market. (CLB)

  13. ZEEP: Canada's first nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.E.; Okazaki, A. [retired, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    In 1905 Albert Einstein published his historic paper on special relativity, which contained the equation E=mc 2. The significance of this mass-energy relationship became evident with the discovery of nuclear fission in 1939, when it was realized that large amounts of energy would be released in a fission chain reaction. Canadian scientists were involved in this field from the beginning and their efforts resulted in the startup in September 1945 of the ZEEP reactor at Chalk River, the first reactor to go critical outside the USA. In this paper we recall some of the events that led to the construction of ZEEP, and describe the role it played in the development of the Canadian nuclear energy program. (author)

  14. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  15. D and DR Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The world's second full-scale nuclear reactor was the D Reactor at Hanford which was built in the early 1940's and went operational in December of 1944.D Reactor ran...

  16. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  17. A review of qualitative inspection aspects of end fittings in an Indian pressurized heavy water reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Urva Pancholi; Dhaval Dave; Ajay Patel

    2016-01-01

    The paper provides a summarized description of the current state of knowledge and practices used in India, in the qualitative inspection of end fittings – a key component of the fuel channel assembly of a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), generally of a Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) type. Further it discusses various quality inspection techniques; and the high standards and mechanical precision of the job required, to be accepted as viable nuclear reactor component. The techniqu...

  18. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  19. Reactor and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, John A.

    1976-08-10

    A nuclear reactor having a flattened reactor activity curve across the reactor includes fuel extending over a lesser portion of the fuel channels in the central portion of the reactor than in the remainder of the reactor.

  20. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul

    2010-09-15

    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  1. Chinese Feelings Cherished By Canadians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On March 30, "The Chinese Feelings Across the Pacific-The Century Exhibition of the Old Photos Treasured by the Canadians" was open in the Lu Xun Museum in Beijing. The exhibition lasted for one week. At the exhibition some old photos taken in the early 20th century were on display, showing James G. Endicott, envoy of world peace, together with Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai; the family of O. L. Kilborn, one of the founders of West China Union University, together with Chinese women with bound feet: O. L. Kilborn treating the wounded soldiers during the Revolution of 1911; Leslie Earl Willmott in Chinese tunic suit and his wife reluctant to bid farewell to China, as well as photos of Ashley Woodward Lindesay, founder of China’s modern

  2. THE CANADIAN POLITICAL BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Libby

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the existence of a Canadian Political Business Cycle (PBC during the period 1946-1989. Logit analysis was used to determine if changes in the unemployment rate, growth of real GNE and the rate of inflation are significantly different in the period before an election than during the rest of the electoral term. It was found that the rate of growth in the unemployment rate declines and the rate of growth of real GNP increases in the four quarters before an election. The behavior of these variables reverses in the period after an election. These findings are consistent with a political business cycle. Policy variables, under a majority government, also behave in a manner associated with a PBC, with the government stimulating the economy approximately two years into its term so that good economic news will occur before it has to call an election. Minority governments tend to simulate the economy immediately after taking office.

  3. Development of High-Performance Pressure Tube Material for the Canadian SCWR Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, L.; Donohue, S.

    2016-02-01

    The Canadian super-critical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) concept is moderated by using heavy water, while the coolant is light water at 25 MPa with an inlet temperature of 625 K and an outlet temperature of 900 K. The fuel assemblies reside in vertical pressure tubes that are the pressure boundary. The pressure tubes are insulated from the fuel assemblies and operate at temperatures near the moderator temperature, at 390 K. The zirconium alloy Excel has been selected as a candidate material for the pressure tube based on favorable properties such as high strength, resistance to radiation-induced diametral strain, and high terminal solid solubility. However, significant future effort will be required to obtain material properties and crack initiation mechanisms at super-critical water (SCW) conditions to verify that annealed Excel is a viable option as a pressure tube material in the Canadian SCWR.

  4. Catalog of Canadian Industrial Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    pressure pipe. They accept custom orders for military projects such as launch tubes (pod and hand-held) and rocket motor casings, etc., for the US Army...developed the CANDU - pressurized heavy water reactor system. It has helped to commercialize the radioisotope industry in the medical, pharmaceutical and...traceability of inspection data. Their quality control policy is said to be approved to meet the requirements of various US DOD QC specifications as

  5. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I., E-mail: joanne.ball@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Summerell, I. [Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Totland, M. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Jonkmans, G. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Whitlock, J. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); El-jaby, A. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Inrig, E. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  6. Canadian Law Schools: In Search of Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakman, Leon E.

    1980-01-01

    Academically, Canadian education is at the crossroads between formalism and functionalism, with the latter prevailing in recent years. There now arises a demand for a more integrated approach, linking legal theory with legal practice. (MSE)

  7. Facts about Canadian musk-oxen

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the historical and current status of the Canadian musk-oxen. The musk-oxen's distribution, social structure, food and range, and breeding...

  8. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  9. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭万宏

    2015-01-01

    Canadian national identity is closely related to antiAmericanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  10. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭万宏

    2015-01-01

    Canadian national identity is closely related to anti-Americanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  11. Licensing assessment of the Candu Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor. Preliminary safety information document. Volume II. [USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    ERDA has requested United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C) to evaluate the design of the Canadian natural uranium fueled, heavy water moderated (CANDU) nuclear reactor power plant to assess its conformance with the licensing criteria and guidelines of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) for light water reactors. This assessment was used to identify cost significant items of nonconformance and to provide a basis for developing a detailed cost estimate for a 1140 MWe, 3-loop Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) located at the Middletown, USA Site.

  12. Canadian suppliers of mining goods and services: Links between Canadian mining companies and selected sectors of the Canadian economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Economic links between Canada's minerals and metals industry and Canadian suppliers of mining goods and services are examined to provide an insight into the interdependencies of these two key resource-related components of Canada's economy. The impact of globalization of the mining industry, estimates of its economic potential and the potential for exporting goods and services in conjunction with Canadian mining projects abroad are also assessed. The study concludes that the links between Canadian mining companies and the rest of the economy are difficult to quantify, due to the absence of statistical data that would differentiate supplier transactions with mining companies from those with other areas of the economy. At best, the approaches used in this study give but an imperfect understanding of the complex relationships between mining companies and their suppliers. It is clear, however, that as much of the demand for mining products is global, so is the supply, therefore, globalization of the mining industry, while creating unprecedented opportunities for Canadian suppliers to provide expertise, goods and services to Canadian and other customers offshore, the fact remains that mining multinationals buy a lot of their supplies locally. As a result, only some of the opportunities created by mining companies based in Canada and elsewhere will translate into sales for Canadian suppliers. Nevertheless, Canadian suppliers appear to have considerable depth in products related to underground mining, environment protection, exploration, feasibility studies, mineral processing, and mine automation. There appear to be considerable opportunities to derive further benefits from these areas of expertise. Appendices contain information about methodological aspects of the survey. 8 tabs., 32 figs., 6 appendices.

  13. Theorizing Gender in Contemporary Canadian Citizenship: Lessons Learned from the CBC's "Greatest Canadian" Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubas, Kaela

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I have used the 2004 Greatest Canadian contest as an example of media's educational function. Contrary to mainstream discourse of gender-neutral citizenship, this contest reiterates a notion of Canadian citizenship as masculinized, classed, and raced. Gramsci's concepts of "hegemony," "ideology", and…

  14. The regional control of the canadian energy production; Le contraste provincial de la production energetique canadienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitlaurent, S.; Sarrazin, J

    2004-12-01

    This document provides information and presents data on the energy situation in many regions of Canada. The first part deals with the petroleum and the bitumen shales of Alberta (reserves, exploitation and production, environmental impacts), the second part discusses with the hydroelectricity choice of Quebec and the 2004 crisis. The nuclear situation of Ontario is presented in the third part (nuclear park, programs, uranium reserves, research and development on Candu reactors), while the fourth part deals with the renewable energies (wind power and biomass). The canadian situation facing the Kyoto protocol is discussed in the last part. (A.L.B.)

  15. Medical cannabis - the Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.

  16. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  17. JUDGING SELECTION: APPOINTING CANADIAN JUDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McCormick

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, the appointment of trial judges in Canada has generally involved an arms-length committee of professionals, although the structure of these committees and their role in the process has varied from province to province, as well as evolving over time. Yet these “new” structures and “new” processes did not prevent a major judicial appointment scandal in the province of Quebec in 2010, culminating in the formation of the Bastarache Committee to recommend changes. This paper summarizes the forty-year history of Canadian judicial appointment committees, identifies the major challenges that face those committees, and suggests the basic values toward which reforms to the appointment process might be directed. Depuis les années 1970, la nomination des juges de première instance au Canada a généralement mis à contribution un comité de professionnels indépendants, bien que la structure de ce comité et son rôle dans le processus de nomination aient varié d’une province à l’autre et évolué avec le temps. Ces « nouvelles » structures et « nouveaux » processus n’ont certes pas empêché l’éclatement du scandale sur la nomination des juges au Québec en 2010. Ce scandale a donné lieu à la formation de la Commission Bastarache qui avait notamment le mandat de recommander des changements. La présent document résume les quarante ans d’histoire des comités canadiens de nomination des juges, recense les principaux défis que ces comités doivent relever, et propose les valeurs fondamentales qui devraient inspirer les réformes du processus de nomination.

  18. A Roadmap for Canadian Submillimetre Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Tracy; Di Francesco, James; Matthews, Brenda; Murray, Norm; Scott, Douglas; Wilson, Christine

    2013-01-01

    We survey the present landscape in submillimetre astronomy for Canada and describe a plan for continued engagement in observational facilities to ~2020. Building on Canada's decadal Long Range Plan process, we emphasize that continued involvement in a large, single-dish facility is crucial given Canada's substantial investment in ALMA and numerous PI-led submillimetre experiments. In particular, we recommend: i) an extension of Canadian participation in the JCMT until at least the unique JCMT Legacy Survey program is able to realize the full scientific potential provided by the world-leading SCUBA-2 instrument; and ii) involvement of the entire Canadian community in CCAT, with a large enough share in the partnership for Canadian astronomers to participate at all levels of the facility. We further recommend continued participation in ALMA development, involvement in many focused PI-led submillimetre experiments, and partnership in SPICA.

  19. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hiroto

    1995-02-07

    A reactor container of the present invention has a structure that the reactor container is entirely at the same temperature as that at the inlet of the reactor and, a hot pool is incorporated therein, and the reactor container has is entirely at the same temperature and has substantially uniform temperature follow-up property transiently. Namely, if the temperature at the inlet of the reactor core changes, the temperature of the entire reactor container changes following this change, but no great temperature gradient is caused in the axial direction and no great heat stresses due to axial temperature distribution is caused. Occurrence of thermal stresses caused by the axial temperature distribution can be suppressed to improve the reliability of the reactor container. In addition, since the laying of the reactor inlet pipelines over the inside of the reactor is eliminated, the reactor container is made compact and the heat shielding structures above the reactor and a protection structure of container walls are simplified. Further, secondary coolants are filled to the outside of the reactor container to simplify the shieldings. The combined effects described above can improve economical property and reliability. (N.H.).

  20. Aspects of the physics and chemistry of water radiolysis by fast neutrons and fast electrons in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCracken, D.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Tsang, K.T. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Laughton, P.J

    1998-09-01

    Detailed radiation physics calculations of energy deposition have been done for the coolant of CANDU reactors and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The geometry of the CANDU fuel channel was modelled in detail. Fluxes and energy-deposition rates for neutrons, recoil ions, photons, and fast electrons have been calculated using MCNP4B, WIMS-AECL, and specifically derived energy-transfer factors. These factors generate the energy/flux spectra of recoil ions from fast-neutron energy/flux spectra. The energy spectrum was divided into 89 discrete ranges (energy bins).The production of oxidizing species and net coolant radiolysis can be suppressed by the addition of hydrogen to the coolant of nuclear reactors. It is argued that the net dissociation of coolant by gamma rays is suppressed by lower levels of excess hydrogen than when dissociation is by ion recoils. This has consequences for the modelling of coolant radiolysis by homogeneous kinetics. More added hydrogen is required to stop water radiolysis by recoil ions acting alone than if recoil ions and gamma rays acted concurrently in space and time. Homogeneous kinetic models and experimental data suggest that track overlap is very inefficient in providing radicals from gamma-ray tracks to recombine molecular products in ion-recoil tracks. An inhomogeneous chemical model is needed that incorporates ionizing-particle track structure and track overlap. Such a model does not yet exist, but a number of limiting cases using homogeneous kinetics are discussed. There are sufficient uncertainties and contradictions in the data relevant to the radiolysis of reactor coolant that the relatively high CHC's (critical hydrogen concentration) observed in NRU reactor experiments (compared to model predictions) may be explainable by errors in fundamental data and understanding of water radiolysis under reactor conditions. The radiation chemistry program at CRL has been focused to generate quantitative water-radiolysis data in a

  1. Birth of the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ivan T

    2004-01-01

    The Canadian Digestive Disease Foundation, renamed the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation--Fondation canadienne pour la promotion de la santé digestive--in December 2001, is the culmination of ongoing efforts by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology to establish an independent charitable organization. In February 2001, it was officially endorsed as the Foundation for the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology. The initial efforts to establish this Foundation, led by Dr Richard McKenna in 1963, were unsuccessful. In 1991, Glaxo Canada (now GlaxoSmithKline) became a founding donor, and with the four founding physicians--Drs Ivan T Beck, Richard H Hunt, Suzanne E Lemire and Alan BR Thomson--the expenses to establish the Foundation were met. A charitable number was obtained in 1995 (0997427-11). The second founding donor was Janssen Canada (now Janssen-Ortho), and public education support came from Astra Canada (now AstraZeneca Canada). The Foundation initially relied on corporate donors, but now approaches physicians, patients and the general public. The objectives of the Foundation are to advance the science of gastroenterology and to provide knowledge of digestive diseases and nutrition to the general public, to enhance the quality of life of persons who are afflicted with these disorders. The major achievements of the Foundation are the provision of one-year operating grants to new investigators, which have allowed them to accumulate early data and subsequently obtain support from other major granting organizations. It also provides Fellowships and studentship support grants, in conjunction with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the pharmaceutical industry. The education committee found that there was little research support in this field, considering the large economic burden of digestive disease and the amount of outstanding work done by Canadian researchers. A bilingual Web site, a web-based specialist's discussion program and bilingual

  2. A Course in Canadian Film for U.S. Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenko, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Canadian Film will be a new course in the Communications Studies department at the University of Missouri at Kansas City particularly designed for non-Canadian Midwestern US students. It will not only introduce students to the richness and significance of Canadian film as both art and entertainment (which is virtually unrecognized around here),…

  3. 47 CFR 101.1423 - Canadian and Mexican coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian and Mexican coordination. 101.1423... GHz Band § 101.1423 Canadian and Mexican coordination. Pursuant to § 2.301 of this chapter, MVDDS systems in the United States within 56 km (35 miles) of the Canadian and Mexican border will be...

  4. Management of hereditary angioedema: 2010 Canadian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Tom

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract C1-inhibitor (C1-INH deficiency is a rare blood disorder resulting in angioedema attacks that are debilitating and may be life-threatening. Prophylaxis and therapy of events has changed since our first Canadian Consensus Conference on the diagnosis, therapy and management of HAE. We have formed the Canadian Hereditary Angioedema Network (CHAEN/Réseau Canadien d'Angioédème Héréditaire (RCAH - http://www.haecanada.com to advance care of patients with this disorder in Canada. We here present a review of management of HAE in Canada.

  5. Statistics in action a Canadian outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F

    2014-01-01

    Commissioned by the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC), Statistics in Action: A Canadian Outlook helps both general readers and users of statistics better appreciate the scope and importance of statistics. It presents the ways in which statistics is used while highlighting key contributions that Canadian statisticians are making to science, technology, business, government, and other areas. The book emphasizes the role and impact of computing in statistical modeling and analysis, including the issues involved with the huge amounts of data being generated by automated processes.The first two c

  6. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  7. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  8. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  9. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation: Guidelines on Colon Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Leddin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer affecting both men and women in Canada. Many of these cancers are preventable, and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation (CDHF strongly support the establishment of screening programs for colorectal cancer. These guidelines discuss a number of screening options, listing the advantages and disadvantages of each. Ultimately, the test that is used for screening should be determined by patient preference, current evidence and local resources.

  10. The Canadian Hypertension Education Program – a unique Canadian knowledge translation program

    OpenAIRE

    Tobe, Sheldon W; Touyz, Rhian M.; Campbell, Norm RC

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian Hypertension Education Program annually appraises data from hypertension research and updates clinical practice recommendation for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Enormous effort is devoted to disseminating these recommendations to target groups throughout the country and, through the use of institutional databases, to evaluating their effectiveness in improving the health of Canadians by lowering blood pressure in people with hypertension. The mission of the Canadi...

  11. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  12. Canadian Ethnohistory: A Source for Social Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, Wendy

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview of ethnohistory, a relatively new area of historical investigation that draws on anthropology, geography, and linguistics, as well as history, to document the pasts of predominantly indigenous peoples. Encourages social studies teachers to take notice of a major body of work being produced by Canadian ethnohistorians. (DSK)

  13. Who Are the Players in Canadian Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Geoffrey

    1987-01-01

    Labels range of persons advocating different theoretical positions of Canadian curriculum as "players." Describes players as "managers,""predictors,""transformers,""sleuths,""analysts." Values varied viewpoints for attention to language regarding curriculum, critical review of ideas/concepts, examination of current policies, awareness of history…

  14. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketovuori, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003-2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to…

  15. International surgery: definition, principles and Canadian practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Ronald

    2003-10-01

    This article is dedicated to the Canadian international surgeon, Norman Bethune (1890-1939). International surgery is defined as a humanitarian branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of bodily injuries or disorders by incision or manipulations, emphasizing cooperation and understanding among nations and involving education, research, development and advocacy. In this article I review the colonial past, the dark ages following the Declaration of Alma-Ata, the progress made and the present challenges in international surgery. I present a definition of international surgery that recognizes the current era of surgical humanitarianism, validates a global understanding of surgical issues and promotes cooperation among nations. Included are the principles of international surgery: education, research, infrastructure development and advocacy. International surgical projects are classified according to type (clinical, relief, developmental) and integration strategy (vertical or horizontal). Also reviewed are the Canadian practice of international surgery by nongovernmental, professional and academic organizations and the requirements of international and Canadian funding agencies, the development concepts basic to all projects, including results-based management and the cross-cutting themes of gender equity, environmental protection and human safety. I recommend formalizing international surgery into a discipline as a means of promoting surgical care in low-income countries. If international surgery is to be sustained in Canada, infrastructure and support from Canadian surgeons is particularly important. An understanding of the history, definition and classification of international surgery should promote surgical care in low-income countries.

  16. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five…

  17. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this journal's Fall 2009 issue, the Forum section included an article by Gordon Selman and Mark Selman arguing that although Canadian adult education had existed as a social movement in the middle part of the 20th century, it is no longer a social movement. They also speculated about the causes of this change. In the Spring 2011 issue, Tom…

  18. Canadian Children's Perceptions of Spirituality: Diverse Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria; Bosacki, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Few researchers have explored children's understandings of spirituality. Thus, Canadian children from different religious, spiritual and cultural backgrounds were asked open-ended questions concerning their spiritual thoughts, beliefs and experiences. Parents of participants completed a demographic questionnaire and reported children's religious…

  19. Canadian Perspectives on Equity in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlby, Brenda; Komlen, Mile

    2000-01-01

    Canadian school board administrators are increasingly expected to meet the needs of disabled or other students requiring specific types of accommodation. The duty to accommodate arises when otherwise legitimate school rules or policies affect the customs and observances of nonmajoritarian religions. (Contains 12 references.) (MLH)

  20. Asian and Pacific Migration: The Canadian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, T. John

    1994-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of landed immigrants (permanent settlers) from Asia, and explores their settlement, adaptation, and integration experience in Canada. It suggests that access to Canadian land does not always translate into equal opportunity in the economy and society, but notes that Canada may be more successful at assimilating Asian…

  1. Heat exposure in the Canadian workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Ollie; Kenny, Glen P

    2010-08-01

    Exposure to excessive heat is a physical hazard that threatens Canadian workers. As patterns of global climate change suggest an increased frequency of heat waves, the potential impact of these extreme climate events on the health and well-being of the Canadian workforce is a new and growing challenge. Increasingly, industries rely on available technology and information to ensure the safety of their workers. Current Canadian labor codes in all provinces employ the guidelines recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) that are Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) based upon Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT). The TLVs are set so that core body temperature of the workers supposedly does not exceed 38.0 degrees C. Legislation in most Canadian provinces also requires employers to install engineering and administrative controls to reduce the heat stress risk of their working environment should it exceed the levels permissible under the WBGT system. There are however severe limitations using the WGBT system because it only directly evaluates the environmental parameters and merely incorporates personal factors such as clothing insulation and metabolic heat production through simple correction factors for broadly generalized groups. An improved awareness of the strengths and limitations of TLVs and the WGBT index can minimize preventable measurement errors and improve their utilization in workplaces. Work is on-going, particularly in the European Union to develop an improved individualized heat stress risk assessment tool. More work is required to improve the predictive capacity of these indices.

  2. Family Business Training: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A. B.; Soufani, K.; Lam, Jose

    2003-01-01

    Family firms play an important role in the working of the Canadian economy; despite their importance to the economic activities and job creation it is observed that family businesses have lower survival rates than non-family firms, some argue that this can possibly be attributed (amongst other factors) to the lack of training. Most of the training…

  3. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M

    1990-01-01

    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia.

  4. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  5. SNTP program reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Lewis A.; Sapyta, Joseph J.

    1993-06-01

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program is evaluating the feasibility of a particle bed reactor for a high-performance nuclear thermal rocket engine. Reactors operating between 500 MW and 2,000 MW will produce engine thrusts ranging from 20,000 pounds to 80,000 pounds. The optimum reactor arrangement depends on the power level desired and the intended application. The key components of the reactor have been developed and are being tested. Flow-to-power matching considerations dominate the thermal-hydraulic design of the reactor. Optimal propellant management during decay heat cooling requires a three-pronged approach. Adequate computational methods exist to perform the neutronics analysis of the reactor core. These methods have been benchmarked to critical experiment data.

  6. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  7. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  8. Multi purpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raina, V.K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail: vkrain@magnum.barc.ernet.in; Sasidharan, K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sengupta, Samiran [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, Tej [Research Reactor Services Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2006-04-15

    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide the majority of research reactor based facilities to cater to the various needs of a vast pool of researchers in the field of material sciences, physics, chemistry, bio sciences, research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radio isotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 20 MWt multi purpose research reactor is being designed. This paper describes some of the design features and safety aspects of this reactor.

  9. INVAP's Research Reactor Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Villarino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INVAP, an Argentine company founded more than three decades ago, is today recognized as one of the leaders within the research reactor industry. INVAP has participated in several projects covering a wide range of facilities, designed in accordance with the requirements of our different clients. For complying with these requirements, INVAP developed special skills and capabilities to deal with different fuel assemblies, different core cooling systems, and different reactor layouts. This paper summarizes the general features and utilization of several INVAP research reactor designs, from subcritical and critical assemblies to high-power reactors.

  10. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru

    1997-04-04

    An LMFBR type reactor comprises a plurality of reactor cores in a reactor container. Namely, a plurality of pot containing vessels are disposed in the reactor vessel and a plurality of reactor cores are formed in a state where an integrated-type fuel assembly is each inserted to a pot, and a coolant pipeline is connected to each of the pot containing-vessel to cool the reactor core respectively. When fuels are exchanged, the integrated-type fuel assembly is taken out together with the pot from the reactor vessel in a state where the integrated-type fuel assembly is immersed in the coolants in the pot as it is. Accordingly, coolants are supplied to each of the pot containing-vessel connected with the coolant pipeline and circulate while cooling the integrated-type fuel assembly for every pot. Then, when the fuels are exchanged, the integrated type fuel assembly is taken out to the outside of the reactor together with the pot by taking up the pot from the pot-containing vessel. Then, neutron economy is improved to thereby improve reactor power and the breeding ratio. (N.H.)

  11. Seeing Oneself in a Book: The Changing Face of Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Fayjean, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Takes a look at children's literature over time, and its recent emergence as a respected body of literary work. Discusses what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Annotates six picture books. Notes that Canadian literature reflects the diversity of the Canadian population, the vast differences in the Canadian landscape, and the…

  12. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  13. Canadian petroleum history bibliography. Release update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2010-01-07

    The petroleum history bibliography was created over several years as a record dedicated to preserving the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. It comprises a list of more than 5000 publications, including books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles and stories of the many companies that have come and gone. It aims to include all publications and audio visual products from the Social Sciences and Humanities on company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry and humour. An author index is included. Most government documents are excluded as they are accessible through Library and Archives Canada. This bibliography is an ongoing piece of work, and welcomes any additions relating to the study and preservation of Canadian petroleum industry history.

  14. Webpages on copyright in Canadian academic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony G Horava

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic libraries value the web as being a vital channel for communicating information and policies to their user community. Designing a webpage on copyright is a challenging task that requires a consideration of the medium and the message. This article proposes a conceptual model and proactive approach for integrating policy objective and goals into the development of a copyright webpage, based on key elements of the library’s involvement in academia. To complement this theoretical approach, an analysis of Canadian academic library websites was conducted in order to gage the effectiveness of copyright webpages, in the Canadian legal context, according to the model as well as related design issues of visibility and access.

  15. A review of qualitative inspection aspects of end fittings in an Indian pressurized heavy water reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urva Pancholi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a summarized description of the current state of knowledge and practices used in India, in the qualitative inspection of end fittings – a key component of the fuel channel assembly of a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR, generally of a Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU type. Further it discusses various quality inspection techniques; and the high standards and mechanical precision of the job required, to be accepted as viable nuclear reactor component. The techniques, instruments and specific data for such components mentioned here are synthesized results from primary research and knowledge available in this area, in order to produce coherent argument focused on quality control of end fittings.

  16. 2003 Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines Executive Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Allan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma have been published over the last 15 years; however, there has been little focus on issues relating to asthma in childhood. Since the last revision of the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report, important new studies, particularly in children, have highlighted the need to incorporate new information into the asthma guidelines. The objectives of this article are to review the literature on asthma published between January 2000 and June 2003 and to evaluate the influence of new evidence on the recommendations made in the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report and its 2001 update, with a major focus on pediatric issues. Methods The diagnosis of asthma in young children and prevention strategies, pharmacotherapy, inhalation devices, immunotherapy, and asthma education were selected for review by small expert resource groups. The reviews were discussed in June 2003 at a meeting under the auspices of the Canadian Network For Asthma Care and the Canadian Thoracic Society. Data published through December 2004 were subsequently reviewed by the individual expert resource groups. Results This report evaluates early-life prevention strategies and focuses on treatment of asthma in children, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and preventive therapy, the benefits of additional therapy, and the essential role of asthma education. Conclusion We generally support previous recommendations and focus on new issues, particularly those relevant to children and their families. This document is a guide for asthma management based on the best available published data and the opinion of health care professionals, including asthma experts and educators.

  17. Morbidity Experiences and Disability Among Canadian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMeules, Marie; Turner, Linda; Cho, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Women are more frequently affected by chronic conditions and disability than men. Although some of these sex differences have been in part attributed to biological susceptibility, social determinants of health and other factors, these gaps have not been fully explained in the current literature. This chapter presents comparisons of hospitalization rates, and the prevalence of chronic conditions and physical disability between Canadian women and men and between various subgroups of women, adjusting for selected risk factors. The Canadian Hospital Morbidity Database (2000–2001) and Canadian Community Health Survey (2000–2001) were used to examine inpatient hospital morbidity, prevalence of chronic conditions and disability. Key Findings Hospitalization rates were 20% higher among women than men. This was due to the large number of hospitalizations for pregnancies and childbirth. When "normal" deliveries were excluded, hospitalization rates remained higher among women. Women had slightly lower rates of hospitalizations for ambulatory-care sensitive conditions than men. Prevalence of activity limitation (mild and severe) was higher among women than men, and differences remained after adjusting for age, chronic conditions, socio-economic status, and smoking. Women who reported a disability were less likely than men to be in a partnered relationship, have less tangible social support, and have lower income and employment rates. Data Gaps and Recommendations The impact of morbidity and disability on Canadian women is substantial. These results identify areas for interventions among more vulnerable subgroups, and point to the need for further research in the area of risk factors for the prevention of morbidity and disability in the population. PMID:15345073

  18. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagreen, L.A.; Lourie, B.A. [Summerhill Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada).

  19. Canadian Multiculturalism, Same as it ever Was?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hoyos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War ended, Canada was no longer mainly composed of its two dominant ethnocultural groups, French and English, but rather constituted by polyethnicity; meaning, Canadian culture was made up of many different ethnic groups. Since then, Canada has actively embraced multiculturalism and on 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, ‘An Act for the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada’. The Canadian multicultural experience has been much portrayed as a celebration of ethnicity where different cultural groups share their customs and learn from each other. However, it is recently being rumoured that the multiculturalism hype is not all it is cut out to be and segregates communities rather than integrate. According to Canadian authors Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, “in much of the world and particularly in Europe, there is a widespread perception that multiculturalism has failed” (44. In this paper, I examine some recent common issues of concern, especially, racism and discrimination, through the literary expression of Canadian playwrights and writers such as George F. Walker, Cecil Foster, and Mordecai Richler. These writers are not meant to represent any ethnic group as a whole, but rather try to project a general feeling about the nation in individual ways. I will finally explore the idea of how perhaps multiculturalism in Canada is evolving into another state since migratory patterns and the social circumstances that Canada is facing in the 21st century have changed. Today, the idea of celebrating different ethnicities and customs is no longer as important as celebrating the transcultural or “transnational” aspects of relations between individuals and groups of immigrants.

  20. The Canadian Assessment of Physical literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Claire E; Longmuir, Patricia E; Boyer, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) was conceptualized as a tool to monitor children's physical literacy. The original model (fitness, activity behavior, knowledge, motor skill) required revision and relative weights for calculating/interpreting scores were required....... Methods: Nineteen childhood physical activity/fitness experts completed a 3-round Delphi process. Round 1 was open-ended questions. Subsequent rounds rated statements using a 5-point Likert scale. Recommendations were sought regarding protocol inclusion, relative importance within composite scores...

  1. Canadian Light Infantry in Adaptive Dispersed Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    Sources Bercuson, David . Significant Incident: Canada’s Army, the Airborne and the murder in Somalia. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1996. Bernier...36 David Bercuson, Significant Incident: Canada’s Army, the Airborne and the Murder in Somalia...Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1996), 54-58. 37 Bernd Horn and M. Wyczynski, Hook-up! The Canadian Airborne Compendium (St.Catharines: Vanwell

  2. Science Traverses in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    The presentation is divided into three parts. Part I is an overview of early expeditions to the High Arctic, and their political consequences at the time. The focus then shifts to the Geological Survey of Canada s mapping program in the North (Operation Franklin), and to the Polar Continental Shelf Project (PCSP), a unique organization that resides within the Government of Canada s Department of Natural Resources, and supports mapping projects and science investigations. PCSP is highlighted throughout the presentation so a description of mandate, budgets, and support infrastructure is warranted. In Part II, the presenter describes the planning required in advance of scientific deployments carried out in the Canadian High Arctic from the perspective of government and university investigators. Field operations and challenges encountered while leading arctic field teams in fly camps are also described in this part of the presentation, with particular emphasis on the 2008 field season. Part III is a summary of preliminary results obtained from a Polar Survey questionnaire sent out to members of the Arctic research community in anticipation of the workshop. The last part of the talk is an update on the analog program at the Canadian Space Agency, specifically, the Canadian Analog Research Network (CARN) and current activities related to Analog missions, 2009-2010.

  3. Canadian oil and gas survey 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberge, R.B. [ed.

    1998-11-01

    The year 1997 brought record levels of financing for the Canadian oil and gas industry which led to record levels of capital spending and unprecedented merger and acquisition activity. Production records were achieved, but soft commodity prices in the fourth quarter resulted in a significant downturn in the equity markets. El Nino reduced demand for natural gas and heating oil, resulting in increased storage levels for both commodities. Record drilling and capital spending fueled the Canadian oilfield service industry as total market capitalization rose to $10 billion. As for the 1998 outlook, the industry has turned to natural gas as the favoured commodity, as indicated by the conclusion of the Alliance pipeline hearings and the Nova/TCPL merger. This survey presents a review of crude oil and natural gas production, prices, and capital spending for development and exploratory wells, and the financial and operating results for fiscal year 1997 of selected oil and gas companies and income trusts. All listed companies are Canadian public companies, or publicly traded income trusts, traded on one of the country`s four major stock exchanges. They are ranked according to gross oil and gas production revenue only (before royalties). Syncrude and oil sands production is also included. The remaining data in the financial statistics tables includes all business segments of each company included. The survey excluded companies that were wholly-owned subsidiaries, divisions or U.S. subsidiaries and private companies. tabs., figs.

  4. Light water reactor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  5. Space Nuclear Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We needed to find a space reactor concept that could be attractive to NASA for flight and proven with a rapid turnaround, low-cost nuclear test. Heat-pipe-cooled reactors coupled to Stirling engines long identified as the easiest path to near-term, low-cost concept.

  6. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2001-04-01

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  7. Nuclear reactor design

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on core design and methods for design and analysis. It is based on advances made in nuclear power utilization and computational methods over the past 40 years, covering core design of boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors, as well as fast reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The objectives of this book are to help graduate and advanced undergraduate students to understand core design and analysis, and to serve as a background reference for engineers actively working in light water reactors. Methodologies for core design and analysis, together with physical descriptions, are emphasized. The book also covers coupled thermal hydraulic core calculations, plant dynamics, and safety analysis, allowing readers to understand core design in relation to plant control and safety.

  8. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  9. Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Prepared by: Guy Jonkmans Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River ON...INSTALLATION OF THE CANADIAN MUON CARGO INSPECTION SYSTEM AT CRL 153-30100-REPT-001 Revision 0 2013/02/19 UNRESTRICTED 2013/02/19 ILLIMITÉ 153...30100-REPT-001 2013/02/19 Report, General Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Research and Development 153-30100

  10. Should investors prefer Canadian hedge funds or stocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiao Yan; Zhou, Weihui

    2007-01-01

    This paper updates Brulhart and Klein (2006) by comparing the magnitude of extreme returns from Tremont, HFRI hedge fund indices with stock indices. It also compares the magnitude of extreme returns from Canadian hedge fund indices with stock indices. We found that the results from Brulhart and Klein hold for the updated US data. However, the results do not hold for the Canadian hedge fund indices. The magnitude of extreme returns from Canadian hedge fund indices is lower than the magnitude o...

  11. Cross-language acoustic similarity predicts perceptual assimilation of Canadian English and Canadian French vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Vasiliev, Polina

    2011-11-01

    Monolingual Peruvian Spanish listeners identified natural tokens of the Canadian French (CF) and Canadian English (CE) /ɛ/ and /æ/, produced in five consonantal contexts. The results demonstrate that while the CF vowels were mapped to two different native vowels, /e/ and /a/, in all consonantal contexts, the CE contrast was mapped to the single native vowel /a/ in four out of five contexts. Linear discriminant analysis revealed that acoustic similarity between native and target language vowels was a very good predictor of context-specific perceptual mappings. Predictions are made for Spanish learners of the /ɛ/-/æ/ contrast in CF and CE.

  12. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Driving: A Canadian Thoracic Society and Canadian Sleep Society Position Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Ayas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA experience sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality that results in daytime sleepiness, which impairs performance during driving and leads to an increased risk for collisions. Not surprisingly, observational studies have shown that patients with OSA experience a two- to 10-fold higher risk for collision compared with healthy controls. Although treatment would clearly mitigate these risks, there is no current Canadian position on driving and OSA. This article, the first Canadian position statement addressing the issue, provides an overview of provincial regulations and proposes recommendations with regard to driving in patients with OSA.

  13. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  14. Plutonium Consumption Program, CANDU Reactor Project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-31

    DOE is investigating methods for long term dispositioning of weapons grade plutonium. One such method would be to utilize the plutonium in Mixed OXide (MOX) fuel assemblies in existing CANDU reactors. CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium) reactors are designed, licensed, built, and supported by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), and currently use natural uranium oxide as fuel. The MOX spent fuel assemblies removed from the reactor would be similar to the spent fuel currently produced using natural uranium fuel, thus rendering the plutonium as unattractive as that in the stockpiles of commercial spent fuel. This report presents the results of a study sponsored by the DOE for dispositioning the plutonium using CANDU technology. Ontario Hydro`s Bruce A was used as reference. The fuel design study defined the optimum parameters to disposition 50 tons of Pu in 25 years (or 100 tons). Two alternate fuel designs were studied. Safeguards, security, environment, safety, health, economics, etc. were considered. Options for complete destruction of the Pu were also studied briefly; CANDU has a superior ability for this. Alternative deployment options were explored and the potential impact on Pu dispositioning in the former Soviet Union was studied. An integrated system can be ready to begin Pu consumption in 4 years, with no changes required to the reactors other than for safe, secure storage of new fuel.

  15. Gas cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-06-01

    Although most of the development work on fast breeder reactors has been devoted to the use of liquid metal cooling, interest has been expressed for a number of years in alternative breeder concepts using other coolants. One of a number of concepts in which interest has been retained is the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). As presently envisioned, it would operate on the uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycle, similar to that used in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), and would use helium gas as the coolant.

  16. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G [Champaign, IL; Mitrovski, Svetlana M [Urbana, IL

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  17. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  18. The Canadian Teaching Commons: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuetherick, Brad; Yu, Stan

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reports on a national study exploring the current state of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) and assessing the perceptions of Canadian SoTL scholars at the micro (individual), meso (departmental), macro (institutional), and mega (disciplinary) contexts.

  19. The Canadian Niagara Power Company story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, N.R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2005-07-01

    This book chronicles the history and contributions of the Canadian Niagara Power Company and its employees toward the establishment of electricity generation and distribution in Niagara Falls and Fort Erie, Ontario, dating back to its founding in 1892. Through historical photographs, maps and drawings, the book demonstrates the impact of electricity on the Niagara region. It emphasizes the many skills and jobs required to run the company that generated electricity and maintained a complete system to deliver power, metering, and billing services through the depression, wars, and postwar booms, even during lightning, snow and ice storms. The company began producing power in 1905 with what had been the world's largest-capacity turbines and generators that supplied power to both sides of the Niagara River. Initially, most of the electricity was exported to New York State. The company eventually expanded its Canadian customer service area from Niagara Falls, Ontario, to Fort Erie, Bridgeburg, Amigari, Ridgeway, Stevensville, Crystal Beach and Point Abino. Throughout its history, the Canadian Niagara Power Company provided power at a lower cost than its neighbouring competitors. The William Birch Rankine Generating Station became an important tourist attraction, showcasing the latest electrical appliances of the time in an effort to promote the use of electricity in homes and offices. Today, the station remains a tribute to the fact that natural beauty can coincide with industry. The book also chronicles the difficult business challenges caused by restructuring in the electric power industry in the 1990s, repairing aging equipment and applying the latest in automation and remote sensing technology. Today, the company as FortisOntario is expanding to other communities around Ontario. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2001-04-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  1. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these and their associated uncertainties are crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to-date have been determined by either conversion of measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that makeup the spectra using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to beta-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  2. New reactor type proposed

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Russian scientists at the Research Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering in Moscow are hoping to develop a new reactor that will use lead and bismuth as fuel instead of uranium and plutonium" (1/2 page).

  3. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  4. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  5. Reinventing an industry at Western Canadian Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.

    2006-09-15

    Western Canadian Coal is applying lessons learned from past disruptions to coal production operations in British Columbia in order to build a low cost, long term production operation. Northeast British Columbia has huge coal deposits and an established infrastructure that includes the town of Tumbler Ridge, rail facilities, and access to Port Rupert. The company is developing 50,000 hectares of coal-bearing property. Production commenced in 2004, and it is planned to produce four million tonnes of coal per year by the end of 2007, increasing to 10 million tonnes by 2012. Equipment, staffing, and activities at the Dillon, Wolverine, and Brule mines are described. 2 photos.

  6. Refugees and education in Canadian schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprielian-Churchill, Isabel

    1996-07-01

    This article summarizes some of the findings and recommendations of a research project focusing on the nature and needs of refugee students in Canadian schools. The school performance of refugee students is examined under the following headings: immigration regulations; initial identification, assessment, placement and monitoring; unaccompanied youngsters; "at risk" students; academic needs; the conflict of cultures. In particular, the article discusses the changing role of the school in the light of recent immigration trends. Many of the findings are applicable to other national settings.

  7. Helias reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidler, C.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Grieger, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Harmeyer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kisslinger, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Karulin, N. [Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maurer, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany); Nuehrenberg, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Rau, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Sapper, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Wobig, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    The present status of Helias reactor studies is characterised by the identification and investigation of specific issues which result from the particular properties of this type of stellarator. On the technical side these are issues related to the coil system, while physics studies have concentrated on confinement, alpha-particle behaviour and ignition conditions. The usual assumptions have been made in those fields which are common to all toroidal fusion reactors: blanket and shield, refuelling and exhaust, safety and economic aspects. For blanket and shield sufficient space has been provided, a detailed concept will be developed in future. To date more emphasis has been placed on scoping and parameter studies as opposed to fixing a specific set of parameters and providing a detailed point study. One result of the Helias reactor studies is that physical dimensions are on the same order as those of tokamak reactors. However, it should be noticed that this comparison is difficult in view of the large spectrum of tokamak reactors ranging from a small reactor like Aries, to a large device such as SEAFP. The notion that the large aspect ratio of 10 or more in Helias configurations also leads to large reactors is misleading, since the large major radius of 22 m is compensated by the average plasma radius of 1.8 m and the average coil radius of 5 m. The plasma volume of 1400 m{sup 3} is about the same as the ITER reactor and the magnetic energy of the coil system is about the same or even slightly smaller than envisaged in ITER. (orig.)

  8. Future Reactor Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    He, Miao

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ opens a gateway for the next generation experiments to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy and the leptonic CP-violating phase. Future reactor experiments will focus on mass hierarchy determination and the precision measurement of mixing parameters. Mass hierarchy can be determined from the disappearance of reactor electron antineutrinos based on the interference effect of two separated oscillation modes. Relative and absolute measure...

  9. Reactor Neutrino Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Precisely measuring $\\theta_{13}$ is one of the highest priority in neutrino oscillation study. Reactor experiments can cleanly determine $\\theta_{13}$. Past reactor neutrino experiments are reviewed and status of next precision $\\theta_{13}$ experiments are presented. Daya Bay is designed to measure $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ to better than 0.01 and Double Chooz and RENO are designed to measure it to 0.02-0.03. All are heading to full operation in 2010. Recent improvements in neutrino moment measu...

  10. Department of Reactor Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included.......The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included....

  11. 47 CFR 101.1527 - Canadian and Mexican coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian and Mexican coordination. 101.1527 Section 101.1527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Canadian and Mexican coordination. (a) A licensee of bands 71.0-76.0, 81.0-86.0, 92-94 GHz and 94.1-95...

  12. International Disputes and Cultural Ideas in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    of the Canadian-Arctic relationship. Using Canada as the focus for the analysis, the purpose of this project is to contribute to the existing Arctic studies and international relations literature by examining how interests and disputes in the Canadian Arctic region have been affected by domestic cultural...

  13. The Canadian Context: Monolingual Education in an "Officially" Multilingual Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Julia E.

    2011-01-01

    This article will examine the sociopolitical language contexts that exist in institutions of Canadian post-secondary education, through investigating how government policies affect the consumption and teaching of language in writing classrooms. A survey of Canadian multiculturalist policy, multilingualism, and post-secondary education in terms of…

  14. Attitudes Toward Oral Contraception Among Canadian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardis, Panos D.

    The author conducted a cross-cultural survey of attitudes toward the pill among university students, part of this international sample being a group of young Canadians. The subjects were students from a southwestern Canadian university and were stratified as to sex and amount of education. The author employed his Pill Scale, a 25-item Likert type…

  15. Characters with Exceptionalities Portrayed in Contemporary Canadian Children's Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Jean; Brenna, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which exceptionality is addressed in Canadian children's literature, offering critical literacy as an avenue toward social justice. A content analysis (Berg, 2009) of 134 Canadian children's books offers a wide scope of contemporary titles to include in classrooms. We developed conceptual categories to explore…

  16. Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Child Health:A Canadian Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stuart Macleod

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction Canadian academic centres and children's hospitals have had a longstanding interest in the improvement of drug therapy for children through research conducted across the four pillars of activity identified as being of critical importance by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research(viz,basic research,clinical research,population health research,applied health and policy research)[1].

  17. Indigenous knowledge in Canadian science curricula: cases from Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung

    2016-09-01

    To enhance Aboriginal students' educational opportunities in sciences, culturally relevant science curriculum has been examined and practiced in Western Canadian science classrooms. This article shares some examples of inclusion of indigenous knowledge in science curricula and discusses the improvement and challenges of culturally relevant science curricula in Canadian contexts.

  18. Seeking Internationalization: The State of Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the internationalization of Canadian universities, with a focus on the rise of foreign postsecondary students in Canada, the economic impacts, and the various benefits, challenges, and adjustments that have been influenced by the continuing demographic shifts on Canadian campuses since 2000. Rooted in recent global and…

  19. How Canadian Universities Use Social Media to Brand Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Charles H.; Bali, Suchita; Longden, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores social media marketing strategies applied by Canadian universities as a tool for institutional branding, recruitment and engagement of home and international students. The target sample involves the total population of Canadian university-status institutions ("N" = 106). Qualitative data were collected from two major…

  20. School Autonomy and 21st Century Learning: The Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul; da Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the policy and practice contexts for school autonomy and twenty-first century learning in Canadian provinces. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on an analysis of policies in Canadian provinces (particularly the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan). The authors review policies…

  1. Moon base reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  2. Canadian Asthma Consensus Conference Summary of Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ernst

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The Asthma Committee of the Canadian Thoracic Society invited a group of Canadian physicians with a particular interest in asthma to meet in Montebello, Quebec, March 9-12, 1995 to arrive at a consensus statement on the optimal approach to the management of asthma in the pediatric and adult ambulatory care settings. The societies and associations represented are listed in the appendix with the names of the contributors to this document. The objectives of the Montebello conference were: 1. To review the current ambulatory care management of asthma in Canada; 2. To develop guidelines with the participation of family physicians and specialists; 3. To develop guidelines which are evidence-based; 4. In creating evidence-based guidelines to focus attention on aspects of asthma management that are currently not supported by randomized controlled trials; 5. To develop strategies that allow for the implementation of rational guidelines at a local level. Recommendations were based on a critical review of the scientific literature by small groups prior to the meeting and are categorized according to the strength of the scientific evidence supporting each recommendation (Table 1.

  3. Exploring Canadian Echinoderm Diversity through DNA Barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding has proven an effective tool for species identification in varied groups of marine invertebrates including crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes and echinoderms. In this study, we further validate its utility by analyzing almost half of the 300 species of Echinodermata known from Canadian waters. COI sequences from 999 specimens were assigned to 145 BINs. In most cases, species discrimination was straightforward due to the large difference (25-fold) between mean intra- (0.48%) and inter- (12.0%) specific divergence. Six species were flagged for further taxonomic investigation because specimens assigned to them fell into two or three discrete sequence clusters. The potential influence of larval dispersal capacity and glacial events on patterns of genetic diversity is discussed for 19 trans-oceanic species. Although additional research is needed to clarify biogeographic patterns and resolve taxonomic questions, this study represents an important step in the assembly of a DNA barcode library for all Canadian echinoderms, a valuable resource for future biosurveillance programs. PMID:27870868

  4. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian prairie agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellert, B.H.; Janzen, H.H. [Agriculture and Agri-food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB, (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    There is a close relationship between soil and air quality, on the one hand, and the exchange of greenhouse gases between the earth and atmosphere, on the other. International efforts by people such as soil conservationists and climatologists to control emissions of these gases and negotiations surrounding the Kyoto Protocol have increased the debate regarding the role of agricultural activities. From evaluation of both data available before global change became important and recent research efforts, much information on greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian agriculture has been gained. A summary is included of the contribution of Canadian prairie agriculture to emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane gas. A stress is placed on the subject of the carbon cycle and on how land management practices could influence soil carbon storage capacity. The potential for increasing this carbon storage capacity is described in relation to land use, historical changes in agricultural land, and recent observations on the influence of agricultural parctices, and obstacles to estimating changes in soil carbon dioxide emissions and carbon storage, and extending the estimates to large land areas are examined. Emissions of nitrous oxide and methane gas are considered in relation to the influence of agricultural management practices. (Abstract only)

  6. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Delmolino

    2005-05-06

    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.

  7. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  8. Scaleable, High Efficiency Microchannel Sabatier Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System (MSRS) consisting of cross connected arrays of isothermal or graded temperature reactors is proposed. The reactor array...

  9. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Iida, Masaaki; Moriki, Yasuyuki

    1994-10-18

    A reactor core is divided into a plurality of coolants flowrate regions, and electromagnetic pumps exclusively used for each of the flowrate regions are disposed to distribute coolants flowrates in the reactor core. Further, the flowrate of each of the electromagnetic pumps is automatically controlled depending on signals from a temperature detector disposed at the exit of the reactor core, so that the flowrate of the region can be controlled optimally depending on the burning of reactor core fuels. Then, the electromagnetic pumps disposed for every divided region are controlled respectively, so that the coolants flowrate distribution suitable to each of the regions can be attained. Margin for fuel design is decreased, fuels are used effectively, as well as an operation efficiency can be improved. Moreover, since the electromagnetic pump has less flow resistance compared with a mechanical type pump, and flow resistance of the reactor core flowrate control mechanism is eliminated, greater circulating flowrate can be ensured after occurrence of accident in a natural convection using a buoyancy of coolants utilizable for after-heat removal as a driving force. (N.H.).

  10. 22 CFR 41.33 - Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification card (BCC). 41.33 Section 41.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION... Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC). (a) Validity of Canadian BCC. A Canadian BCC or the BCC portion of a Canadian B-1/B-2 Visa/BCC issued to a permanent resident of...

  11. Evaluation of hydride blisters in zirconium pressure tube in CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Y. M.; Kim, Y. S.; Gong, U. S.; Kwon, S. C.; Kim, S. S.; Choo, K.N

    2000-09-01

    When the garter springs for maintaining the gap between the pressure tube and the calandria tube are displaced in the CANDU reactor, the sagging of pressure tube results in a contact to the calandria tube. This causes a temperature difference between the inner and outer surface of the pressure tube. The hydride can be formed at the cold spot of outer surface and the volume expansion by hydride dormation causes the blistering in the zirconium alloys. An incident of pressure tube rupture due to the hydride blisters had happened in the Canadian CANDU reactor. This report describes the theoretical development and models on the formation and growth of hydride blister and some experimental results. The evaluation methodology and non-destructive testing for hydride blister in operating reactors are also described.

  12. Reactor Structural Materials: Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Rector Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels are:(1) to complete the fracture toughness data bank of various reactor pressure vessel steels by using precracked Charpy specimens that were tested statically as well as dynamically; (2) to implement the enhanced surveillance approach in a user-friendly software; (3) to improve the existing reconstitution technology by reducing the input energy (short cycle welding) and modifying the stud geometry. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  13. The Canadian National Dairy Study 2015-Adoption of milking practices in Canadian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belage, E; Dufour, S; Bauman, C; Jones-Bitton, A; Kelton, D F

    2017-03-16

    Several studies have investigated which management practices have the greatest effect on udder health, but little information is available on how broadly the recommended milking practices are adopted across Canada. The National Dairy Study 2015 was designed to gather dairy cattle health and management data on dairy farms across Canada. The objectives of the present study were to describe the current proportions of adoption of milking practices on Canadian dairy farms, and identify factors associated with their use on farms. A bilingual questionnaire measuring use of various practices, including an udder health-specific section, was developed and sent to all Canadian dairy farms. The questions in the udder health section of the questionnaire were adapted from a bilingual questionnaire previously validated and containing questions regarding general milking hygiene and routine, and on-farm mastitis management. Chi-squared tests were used to investigate simple associations between adoption of practices and various explanatory variables including region, milking system, herd size, and bulk tank somatic cell count. In total, 1,373 dairy producers completed the survey. The regional distribution of the participants was representative of the Canadian dairy farm population, and milk quality was, on average, similar to nonparticipants. Overall, Canadian dairy producers followed the recommendations for milking procedures, but some were more extensively used than others. Fore-stripping, cleaning teats, wiping teats dry, using single-cow towels, and use of postmilking teat disinfectant were widely adopted. Use of gloves and glove hygiene, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, and use of automatic takeoffs were not as extensively implemented. Adoption percentages for several practices, including use of gloves, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, teat drying methods, and use of automatic takeoffs were significantly associated with milking system, herd size, and region. It

  14. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  15. Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER ) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  16. Operation of Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    3.1 Annual Report of SPR Operation Chu Shaochu Having overseen by National Nuclear Safety Administration and specialists, the reactor restarted up successfully after Safety renovation on April 16, 1996. In August 1996 the normal operation of SPR was approved by the authorities of Naitonal Nuclear Safety Administration. 1 Operation status In 1996, the reactor operated safely for 40 d and the energy released was about 137.3 MW·d. The operation status of SPR is shown in table 1. The reactor started up to higher power (power more than 1 MW) and lower power (for physics experiments) 4 times and 14 times respectively. Measurement of control rod efficiency and other measurement tasks were 2 times and 5 times respectively.

  17. The Canadian war on drugs: structural violence and unequal treatment of Black Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khenti, Akwatu

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the impact of Canada's war on drugs on segments of the Black community, specifically with respect to the impact of structural violence, over-policing, and high incarceration rates. It offers evidence of the systemic nature of these dynamics by examining the early context of the war, growing stigma against Blacks, globalizing influences, and the punitive focus of funding and policy. The paper also explores how Black men have been identified as the main enemy and how drug control efforts have served to diminish the health, well-being, and self-image of Black men via discriminatory and inequitable treatment before the law. The current high rates of imprisonment of Black men are an indicator of systematic deprivation of significant social capital, which will perpetuate socioeconomic harm and cycles of violence. This commentary calls for an immediate dissolution of policies regulating the war on drugs as the first step in remedying the injustices experienced by Black Canadians. Due to the lack of Canadian data in this important area, the paper also emphasizes the critical need for more research to shed more light on the Canadian-specific complexities.

  18. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavnić Danijela S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

  19. Pre-licensing of the Advanced CANDU Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ion, R.; Popov, N.K.; Snell, V. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: popovn@aecl.ca; West, J. [Candesco, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Xu, C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) developed the Advanced CANDU Reactor-700 (ACR-700) as an evolutionary advancement of the current CANDU 6 reactor. As further advancement of the ACR design, AECL is currently developing the ACR-1000 for the Canadian and international market. The ACR-1000 is aimed at producing electrical power for a capital cost and a unit-energy cost significantly less than that of the current generation of operating nuclear plants, while achieving shorter construction schedule, high plant capacity factor, improved operations and maintenance, increased operating life, and enhanced safety features. The reference ACR-1000 plant design is based on an integrated two-unit plant, using enriched fuel and light-water coolant, with each unit having a nominal gross output of about 1200 MWe. AECL initiated pre-licensing reviews of the ACR reactor design in Canada, US and China, with an objective to take into account regulatory feedback early in the design process. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is performing a pre-project pre-licensing assessment of the ACR design. The objective of the assessment is to issue a formal statement as to whether there are any fundamental barriers that would prevent the licensing of the new CANDU reactor design in Canada under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act. The CNSC review is being conducted in four phases. In Phase 1 (September 2003 to September 2004) CNSC performed a pre-licensing review of the ACR-700, and focused on the design process, methodology, design concepts and R and D. CNSC staff reviewed about 100 reports, and submitted to AECL questions and comments. In Phase 2 (September 2004 to August 2005) AECL provided responses and additional information to CNSC on their comments and questions in Phase 1. Phase 3 is the Transition Phase (September 2005 to May 2006), bridging the transition from the ACR-700 to the ACR-1000 design. Phase 3 focused on review of generic aspects of the ACR design, on the Safety

  20. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ian D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  1. CanWEA Pan-Canadian wind integration study paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Martin [GL Garrad Hassan Canada Inc, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gardner, Paul [GL Garrad Hassan and Partners, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Price, Doug; Le, Don [GL Garrad Hassan America, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    GL Garrad Hassan has been contracted by CanWEA to undertake a scoping study for a future Pan-Canadian Wide-Scale Wind Integration Study. The scoping study provides the methodology and the rationale on which the actual wind integration study and request for proposals will be based on. Major system operators and owners of each Canadian Province along with experts involved in major US wind integration studies have been consulted and contributed to the decisional process. This paper provides a summary of the factors considered in the study and outline the actual methodology that was adopted for the future Pan-Canadian wind integration study. (orig.)

  2. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ian D

    2012-02-09

    The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  3. Pulsus Group, the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and CDDW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At the recent Canadian Digestive Diseases Week in Banff, Alberta, the third annual Dr ABR Thomson - Dr CN Williams Award was presented to Dr Krikor Kichian. This Award was initiated in 2002 by Pulsus Group in honour of Drs Alan Thomson and Noel Williams, the founding Co- Editors-in-Chief of The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, who served from 1987 to 2000. Robert Kalina, publisher of The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, invited Dr Williams to present the award to Dr Kichian.

  4. Perspectives on reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  5. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2002-04-01

    The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel.

  6. A Canadian paradox: Tommy Douglas and eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Tommy Douglas is an icon of Canadian 20th Century political history and is considered by many as the "Father" of Medicare, a key component of our national identity. Throughout his career, he was associated at both the provincial and federal levels with progressive causes concerning disadvantaged populations. In his sociology Master's thesis written in the early 1930's, Douglas endorsed eugenic oriented solutions such as segregation and sterilization to address what was perceived to be an endemic and biologically determined problem. At first glance, this endorsement of eugenics appears to be paradoxical, but careful analysis revealed that this paradox has multiple roots in religion, political belief, historical exposure and our own desire to view our collective history in a favourable light.

  7. Feminist Approaches to Journalism Studies: Canadian Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrude J. Robinson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the orthodoxies of communication scholarship is that much of the gender-based differences between males and females with regard to experiences in newsrooms can be attributed to demographics. The discussion presented in this paper challenges this claim by comparing the findings of two national surveys that measured the professional progress of Canadian press and television journalists. The first survey was undertaken in 1975, and the second in 1995. While the historical evidence points to reductions in gender-based structural inequalities over time, it also identifies the continued presence of gender-based assumptions about how work and family obligations should be combined. Such assumptions, it is argued, help to foster and reproduce systemic biases in the newsroom culture that still resonate today in the journalism profession and which can be best understood as a manifestation of the meaning of gender at three levels: as a classifying system, as a structuring structure, and as an ideology.

  8. Economic security in an aging Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert L

    2011-09-01

    Recent research indicates that today's retirees are doing very well in terms of their replacement ratios and that Canadian poverty rates among the elderly are low relative to other Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Government-sponsored plans have been strengthened either through explicit expansion - for example, the Guaranteed Income Supplement (GIS) - or through the reform of the Canada/Quebec Pension Plans (C/QPP). Also important is the maturation of employer-sponsored pension plans, although coverage rates are down. Future generations of retirees may not achieve the standard of living that exists today, however, which is a concern. The author argues that today's economic security programs are affordable and that their costs could be stabilized if the retirement age were raised.

  9. Review of Canadian literature to estimate risks associated with Salmonella in broilers from retail to consumption in Canadian homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadi, Hanan; Sargeant, Jan M

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to review the literature related to the risk of salmonellosis from chicken consumed in private homes in Canada. The pathway of concern was retail-to-consumption at private homes due to the direct link between this pathway and public health. A qualitative review was conducted by searching Canadian governmental agencies' webpages, published peer-reviewed journals, and by contacting experts in the field. Overall, with the data available, estimating risk from Salmonella in chicken breasts using only Canadian information was limited. Enumeration data for Salmonella in retail raw chicken at different regions across Canada are needed to be able to generalize the risk of salmonellosis in the Canadian population. Few Canadian surveys were found to describe consumers' food safety behaviors at Canadians' private homes. Observational designs to study food safety practices and Canadian consumers' behavior in private kitchens are needed to ensure that consumer behavior is consistent with consumer perceptions of their behavior. The results of such studies will give valuable input for designing educational programs needed to increase awareness of safe food handling practices by Canadian consumers when preparing food at their homes.

  10. Survive Bravely——Main Features of Contemporary Canadian Literature Themes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Fang

    2015-01-01

    The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada’s particular history,geograph y,climate,religion,demographic factors,generation,development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures.The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Literature:keep working hard for survival and love bravely.Meanwhile,modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic literary works.

  11. Survive Bravely——Main Features of Contemporary Canadian Literature Themes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳

    2015-01-01

    The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada's particular history,geograph y,climate,religion,demographic factors,generation,development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures.The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Literature:keep working hard for survival and love bravely.Meanwhile,modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic literary works.

  12. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  13. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a light-water cooled and moderated reactor that is the United States’ highest flux reactor-based neutron source. HFIR...

  15. Reactor operation safety information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  16. Guide to Canadian Aerospace Related Industries,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Andrews (Quebec) Plant - specializes in fiberglass wound tubes for underground duct and high pressure pipes. They accept custom orders for military...During this time, it has developed the CANDU - pressurized heavy water reactor system. It has helped to commercialize the radioisotope industry in the... Tubing Assembly Fabrication 1 NWI Tuneable C02 11 ULI Tungsten Electrodes 8, 20 VOR Turbine Blade Inspection 1, 7, 10, 19 DIP Turbine Engines 1 PWA

  17. Thermal Reactor Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  18. Chromatographic and Related Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-07

    special information about effects of surface heteroge- neity in the methanation reaction. Studies of an efficient multicolumn assembly for measuring...of organic basic catalysts such as pyridine and 4-methylpicoline. It was demonstrated that the chromatographic reactor gave special information about...Programmed Reaction to obtain special information about surface heterogeneity in the methanation reaction. Advantages of stopped flow over steady state

  19. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. [eds.

    1992-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  20. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  1. WATER BOILER REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L.D.P.

    1960-11-22

    As its name implies, this reactor utilizes an aqueous solution of a fissionable element salt, and is also conventional in that it contains a heat exchanger cooling coil immersed in the fuel. Its novelty lies in the utilization of a cylindrical reactor vessel to provide a critical region having a large and constant interface with a supernatant vapor region, and the use of a hollow sleeve coolant member suspended from the cover assembly in coaxial relation with the reactor vessel. Cool water is circulated inside this hollow coolant member, and a gap between its outer wall and the reactor vessel is used to carry off radiolytic gases for recombination in an external catalyst chamber. The central passage of the coolant member defines a reflux condenser passage into which the externally recombined gases are returned and condensed. The large and constant interface between fuel solution and vapor region prevents the formation of large bubbles and minimizes the amount of fuel salt carried off by water vapor, thus making possible higher flux densities, specific powers and power densities.

  2. The First Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    On December 2, 1942, in a racquet court underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi created the first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. This updated and revised story of the first reactor (or "pile") is based on postwar interviews (as told to Corbin…

  3. MULTISTAGE FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonke, A.A.; Graae, J.E.A.; Levitz, N.M.

    1959-11-01

    A multistage fluidized bed reactor is described in which each of a number of stages is arranged with respect to an associated baffle so that a fluidizing gas flows upward and a granular solid downward through the stages and baffles, whereas the granular solid stopsflowing downward when the flow of fluidizing gas is shut off.

  4. English for Academic Purposes through Canadian Literature and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lynne; O'Brien, Trudy

    1979-01-01

    Describes a program designed to improve English skills in university students learning English as a second language through a Canadian literature and history component. Reading lists are appended. (AM)

  5. Interpreting Critical Resource Issues in US and Canadian National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Michael E.

    1995-01-01

    A wide range of examples gathered in U.S. and Canadian national park service areas during several years of field study reinforce the value of matching issues and messages with interpretive techniques and audiences. (LZ)

  6. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  7. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  8. Modeling Chemical Reactors I: Quiescent Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Michoski, C E; Schmitz, P G

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a fully generalized quiescent chemical reactor system in arbitrary space $\\vdim =1,2$ or 3, with $n\\in\\mathbb{N}$ chemical constituents $\\alpha_{i}$, where the character of the numerical solution is strongly determined by the relative scaling between the local reactivity of species $\\alpha_{i}$ and the local functional diffusivity $\\mathscr{D}_{ij}(\\alpha)$ of the reaction mixture. We develop an operator time-splitting predictor multi-corrector RK--LDG scheme, and utilize $hp$-adaptivity relying only on the entropy $\\mathscr{S}_{\\mathfrak{R}}$ of the reactive system $\\mathfrak{R}$. This condition preserves these bounded nonlinear entropy functionals as a necessarily enforced stability condition on the coupled system. We apply this scheme to a number of application problems in chemical kinetics; including a difficult classical problem arising in nonequilibrium thermodynamics known as the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction where we utilize a concentration-dependent diffusivity tensor $\\mathscr{D}_{ij}(...

  9. Antioxidant activity of selected wild Canadian prairie fruits

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background. Canadian prairies are a habitat for unique wild plants. The main object of the present study was to investigate phytochemicals content and antioxidant activity in seven wild Canadian prairie fruits. Material and methods. The presence of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity were identified in the extracts according to standard procedure. Results. Wild rose had the highest amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids, whereas ...

  10. The evolution of PAs in the Canadian Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Jonathan; Descoteaux, Marc

    2017-01-01

    This study documents the growing role of the physician assistant (PA) in the Canadian Armed Forces. PAs have served as the backbone of the Royal Canadian Medical Services' frontline medical operations since 1984, on land, aboard ships and submarines, and domestically in garrison. Candidates begin as medical technicians and receive advanced training to become PAs at midcareer. The current rank of PAs as warrant officers is evolving and a commissioned status is under consideration.

  11. "Complicated Bearers of Cultural Difference" : Canadian Magazines and Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    McKend, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Describes the history of Canadian policy on magazines, policy designed primarily to protect Canadian culture in a market heavily dominated by U.S. magazines. Canada's traditional strategy has been to consider magazines as a "cultural exception" to trade regulations. In 2005, Canada was the country first to ratify the UNESCO Convention supporting the protection of cultural diversity as a “sovereign responsibility.”

  12. Canadian Impressions Title: Impresiones canadienses Title: Impressions canadiennes

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2011-01-01

    Canadian Impressions pays tribute to Canada and Calgary, Alberta, home of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors of the Inter-American Development Bank. Twelve Canadian artists who were selected in an open call, present a total of 34 prints in various techniques from etching to monotype. Among the participating artists are: Briar Craig, Delio Delgado, René Derouin, Katie Fife, Joscelyn Gardner, Michel Gautier, Vanessa Hall-Patch, Miriam Rudolph, Tracy Lynn Templeton, Todd Treme, Os...

  13. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  14. Word Segmentation in Monolingual Infants Acquiring Canadian English and Canadian French: Native Language, Cross-Dialect, and Cross-Language Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polka, Linda; Sundara, Megha

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we tested segmentation of word forms from natural speech materials by 8-month-old monolingual infants who are acquiring Canadian French or Canadian English. These two languages belong to different rhythm classes; Canadian French is syllable-timed and Canada English is stress-timed. Findings of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 show that…

  15. Advanced CANDU reactor pre-licensing progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, N.K.; West, J.; Snell, V.G.; Ion, R.; Archinoff, G.; Xu, C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: popovn@aecl.ca

    2005-07-01

    The Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) is an evolutionary advancement of the current CANDU 6 reactor, aimed at producing electrical power for a capital cost and at a unit-energy cost significantly less than that of the current reactor designs. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) staff are currently reviewing the ACR design to determine whether, in their opinion, there are any fundamental barriers that would prevent the licensing of the design in Canada. This CNSC licensability review will not constitute a licence, but is expected to reduce regulatory risk. The CNSC pre-licensing review started in September 2003, and was focused on identifying topics and issues for ACR-700 that will require a more detailed review. CNSC staff reviewed about 120 reports, and issued to AECL 65 packages of questions and comments. Currently CNSC staff is reviewing AECL responses to all packages of comments. AECL has recently refocused the design efforts to the ACR-1000, which is a larger version of the ACR design. During the remainder of the pre-licensing review, the CNSC review will be focused on the ACR-1000. AECL Technologies Inc. (AECLT), a wholly-owned US subsidiary of AECL, is engaged in a pre-application process for the ACR-700 with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to identify and resolve major issues prior to entering a formal process to obtain standard design certification. To date, the USNRC has produced a Pre-Application Safety Assessment Report (PASAR), which contains their reviews of key focus topics. During the remainder of the pre-application phase, AECLT will address the issues identified in the PASAR. Pursuant to the bilateral agreement between AECL and the Chinese nuclear regulator, the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) and its Nuclear Safety Center (NSC), NNSA/NSC are reviewing the ACR in seven focus areas. The review started in September 2004, and will take three years. The main objective of the review is to determine how the ACR complies

  16. Reactor monitoring using antineutrino detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, N. S.

    2011-08-01

    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactor as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and/or other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway worldwide.

  17. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

    1980-05-09

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  18. Methanogenesis in Thermophilic Biogas Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process...... as indicated by a lower concentration of volatile fatty acids in the effluent from the reactors. The specific methanogenic activity in a thermophilic pilot-plant biogas reactor fed with a mixture of cow and pig manure reflected the stability of the reactor. The numbers of methanogens counted by the most...... against Methanothrix soehngenii or Methanothrix CALS-I in any of the thermophilic biogas reactors examined. Studies using 2-14C-labeled acetate showed that at high concentrations (more than approx. 1 mM) acetate was metabolized via the aceticlastic pathway, transforming the methyl-group of acetate...

  19. Identifying Canadian freshwater fishes through DNA barcodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Hubert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding aims to provide an efficient method for species-level identifications using an array of species specific molecular tags derived from the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene. The efficiency of the method hinges on the degree of sequence divergence among species and species-level identifications are relatively straightforward when the average genetic distance among individuals within a species does not exceed the average genetic distance between sister species. Fishes constitute a highly diverse group of vertebrates that exhibit deep phenotypic changes during development. In this context, the identification of fish species is challenging and DNA barcoding provide new perspectives in ecology and systematics of fishes. Here we examined the degree to which DNA barcoding discriminate freshwater fish species from the well-known Canadian fauna, which currently encompasses nearly 200 species, some which are of high economic value like salmons and sturgeons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We bi-directionally sequenced the standard 652 bp "barcode" region of COI for 1360 individuals belonging to 190 of the 203 Canadian freshwater fish species (95%. Most species were represented by multiple individuals (7.6 on average, the majority of which were retained as voucher specimens. The average genetic distance was 27 fold higher between species than within species, as K2P distance estimates averaged 8.3% among congeners and only 0.3% among concpecifics. However, shared polymorphism between sister-species was detected in 15 species (8% of the cases. The distribution of K2P distance between individuals and species overlapped and identifications were only possible to species group using DNA barcodes in these cases. Conversely, deep hidden genetic divergence was revealed within two species, suggesting the presence of cryptic species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study evidenced that freshwater fish

  20. Canadian plans for participation in GSETT 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. North

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC is making preparations for Canadian participation in GSETT 3 but will be unable to make a formal commitment until the necessary resources have been secured. As Canada is expected to provide at least four alpha stations, and a significant number of beta stations, the financial resources that will be needed are substantial, even though in many respccts the GSC is, with the recent modernization of the Yellowknife array and the ongoing installation of the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN, well positioned to make a significant contribution to GSETT 3. The CNSN currently (October 1993 consists of 17 broad band stations and will grow to 23 and 33 such stations by December 1993 and December 1994 respectively. Some 40 50 short period stations will complete the network. Data from all sites are continuously telemetered in real time to network acquisition centres in Ottawa and Sidney, British Columbia, archived to optical disk, and kept on line in a 72 h ring buffer. Most of the broadband sites could serve as either alpha or beta stations once the necessary software for continuous data transfer, or on request provision, of data from the selected sites has been completed. This software wili be configured so that changes in station selection are easy to implement, and this will provide considerable flexibility to the GSETT 3 planning and operations working groups in selecting the optimum network. Backup stations can be designated in the case of station failures, and the network centre in British Columbia will serve, at least for beta stations, as a backup NDC to that in Ottawa. Data from. the Yellowknife array are collected in Yellowknife and forwarded in ten minute files to Ottawa, where processing is completed and the results archived. This arrangement would not meet the deadlines for receipt of alpha station data at the IDC and new hardware and software will be needed to forward the data more immediately from

  1. MEANS FOR COOLING REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J.A.

    1957-11-01

    A design of a reactor is presented in which the fuel elements may be immersed in a liquid coolant when desired without the necessity of removing them from the reactor structure. The fuel elements, containing the fissionable material are in plate form and are disposed within spaced slots in a moderator material, such as graphite to form the core. Adjacent the core is a tank containing the liquid coolant. The fuel elements are mounted in spaced relationship on a rotatable shaft which is located between the core and the tank so that by rotation of the shaft the fuel elements may be either inserted in the slots in the core to sustain a chain reaction or immersed in the coolant.

  2. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  3. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, A. C.; Vogel, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these spectra and their associated uncertainties is crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to date have been determined either by converting measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that make up the spectra, using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to β-decay plague both methods, and we ...

  4. REACTOR MODERATOR STRUCTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstreet, B.L.

    1963-12-31

    A system for maintaining the alignment of moderator block structures in reactors is presented. Integral restraining grids are placed between each layer of blocks in the moderator structure, at the top of the uppermost layer, and at the bottom of the lowermost layer. Slots are provided in the top and bottom surfaces of the moderator blocks so as to provide a keying action with the grids. The grids are maintained in alignment by vertical guiding members disposed about their peripheries. (AEC)

  5. Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Bandura, Kevin; Amiri, Mandana; Bond, J Richard; Campbell-Wilson, Duncan; Connor, Liam; Cliche, Jean-Francois; Davis, Greg; Deng, Meiling; Denman, Nolan; Dobbs, Matt; Fandino, Mateus; Gibbs, Kenneth; Gilbert, Adam; Halpern, Mark; Hanna, David; Hincks, Adam D; Hinshaw, Gary; Hofer, Carolin; Klages, Peter; Landecker, Tom L; Masui, Kiyoshi; Mena, Juan; Newburgh, Laura B; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Recnik, Andre; Shaw, J Richard; Sigurdson, Kris; Sitwell, Michael; Smecher, Graeme; Smegal, Rick; Vanderlinde, Keith; Wiebe, Don

    2014-01-01

    A pathfinder version of CHIME (the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment) is currently being commissioned at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) in Penticton, BC. The instrument is a hybrid cylindrical interferometer designed to measure the large scale neutral hydrogen power spectrum across the redshift range 0.8 to 2.5. The power spectrum will be used to measure the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale across this poorly probed redshift range where dark energy becomes a significant contributor to the evolution of the Universe. The instrument revives the cylinder design in radio astronomy with a wide field survey as a primary goal. Modern low-noise amplifiers and digital processing remove the necessity for the analog beamforming that characterized previous designs. The Pathfinder consists of two cylinders 37\\,m long by 20\\,m wide oriented north-south for a total collecting area of 1,500 square meters. The cylinders are stationary with no moving parts, and form a transit instrument ...

  6. Canadian survey on pandemic flu preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy CS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of pandemic influenza creates public health challenges. An ethical framework, 'Stand on Guard for Thee: ethical considerations in pandemic influenza preparedness' that served as a template for the World Health Organization's global consultation on pandemic planning, was transformed into a survey administered to a random sample of 500 Canadians to obtain opinions on key ethical issues in pandemic preparedness planning. Methods All framework authors and additional investigators created items that were pilot-tested with volunteers of both sexes and all socioeconomic strata. Surveys were telephone administered with random sampling achieved via random digit dialing (RDD. Eligible participants were adults, 18 years or older, with per province stratification equaling provincial percent of national population. Descriptive results were tabulated and logistic regression analyses were used to assess whether demographic factors were significantly associated with outcomes. Results 5464 calls identified 559 eligible participants of whom 88.5% completed surveys. Over 90% of subjects agreed the most important goal of pandemic influenza preparations was saving lives, with 41% endorsing saving lives solely in Canada and 50% endorsing saving lives globally as the highest priority. Older age (OR = 8.51, p Conclusions Results suggest trust in public health officials to make difficult decisions, providing emphasis on reciprocity and respect for individual rights.

  7. The bituminous sands : a Canadian mirage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousse, D.R. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Nasr, G.J. [Lebanese Univ., Roumieh (Lebanon). Faculty of Engineering; Turcotte, S.F. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre d' Etudes Internationales et Mondialisation; Salah, N.B. [Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques De Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia). LMMP

    2009-07-01

    This paper examined the controversy about the potential role of a significant increase in Canadian oil sands production in order to bridge the upcoming gap between the world's increasing energy demand and the total recoverable oil supply. The paper presented the actual potential of different scenarios and considered the prediction cost forecasts. A brief overview of environmental impacts and the real return on investments were also provided. Environmental impacts that were considered included land degradation; water contamination; ecosystem damage; and air pollution. Nuclear energy was also presented as a possible solution. The paper demonstrated that even in a very optimistic scenario, Canada's oil sands accelerated production has a negligible effect on the aforementioned gap, has a considerable impact on environment that has yet to be accounted for. Energy ratios that were presented included energy return on energy investment; energy available on energy used; and energy payback. It was concluded that enhanced recovery techniques are clearly needed for future sustainable exploitation of these bituminous sands. 32 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Managing occupational HIV exposures: a Canadian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, L I; Northcott, H C

    1995-10-01

    The findings reported in this paper are part of a larger study that explored how nurses cope with the risk of acquiring HIV infection while caring for persons with AIDS (PWAs). The data were collected through in-depth interviews with 13 nurses who cared for PWAs in a large Western Canadian hospital. Seven of these nurses perceived that they had been exposed to HIV-infected blood or body fluids. This paper describes how these seven nurses coped with actual exposures to HIV-infected blood or body fluids. Data were analyzed using the methodology of grounded theory. Nurses' coping efforts after exposure were grouped into four categories: minimizing the effect of exposures, reducing a sense of vulnerability, selective disclosure to others, and assigning meaning. Nurses minimized the physical effects of exposure through measures such as 'bleeding' the needlestick injury and immersing the affected area in bleach solution. Nurses reduced their sense of vulnerability by assessing the possibility of harm, avoiding situations that aroused fear, and confronting the decision for HIV testing. Nurses limited their disclosures to co-workers to avoid rejection and to preserve professional self-esteem. Disclousre to significant others was influenced primarily by the support nurses perceived they would receive. Finally, nurses attempted to assign meaning to the exposure by determining why the event occurred and by evaluating the implications it has had on their lives. The article concludes with implications for nursing practice.

  9. Medical cannabis – the Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol – the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts. PMID:27757048

  10. The strongest links : the Canadian coal chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, E.

    2008-09-15

    Issues related to the transportation of coal in Canada were discussed. Coal mines in Alberta and British Columbia are often required to transport their products over 1000 km for export at Pacific ports to countries in Asia or power plants in Ontario. The effectiveness of the supply chain is dependent on the inter-relationships between mine, rail, terminals, and ship transport. Coal customers are typically required to hire shipping companies and nominate vessels for terminals that have contracts with coal suppliers. Mines typically inform railway lines of the amounts of coal that will need to be transported each month. Many railways have increased the amounts of coal they are transporting by using lighter-weight aluminum train cars. Further efficiencies have been realized due to new braking and power distribution technologies in trains. Multiple locomotives are now also being used to provide improved control over the cars that carry the coal. Despite advances in rail technologies, coal deliveries are often delayed by harsh weather conditions and rain. It was concluded that the Canadian coal industry's success relies on its ability to transport large amounts of coal across long distances. 2 figs.

  11. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.

  12. Discovery of herpesviruses in Canadian wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Chimoné S; van de Rakt, Karen; Fahlman, Åsa; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen; Neuhaus, Peter; Popko, Richard; Kutz, Susan; van der Meer, Frank

    2017-02-01

    Herpesviruses (HVs) have a wide range of hosts in the animal kingdom. The result of infection with HVs can vary from asymptomatic to fatal diseases depending on subtype, strain, and host. To date, little is known about HVs naturally circulating in wildlife species and the impact of these viruses on other species. In our study, we used genetic and comparative approaches to increase our understanding of circulating HVs in Canadian wildlife. Using nested polymerase chain reaction targeting a conserved region of the HV DNA polymerase gene, we analyzed material derived from wildlife of western and northern Canada collected between February 2009 and Sept 2014. For classification of new virus sequences, we compared our viral sequences with published sequences in GenBank to identify conserved residues and motifs that are unique to each subfamily, alongside phylogenetic analysis. All alphaherpesviruses shared a conserved tryptophan (W856) and tyrosine (Y880), betaherpesviruses all shared a serine (S836), and gammaherpesviruses had a conserved glutamic acid (E835). Most of our wildlife HV sequences grouped together with HVs from taxonomically related host species. From Martes americana, we detected previously uncharacterized alpha- and beta-herpesviruses.

  13. BOILER-SUPERHEATED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, T.P.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear power reactor of the type in which a liquid moderator-coolant is transformed by nuclear heating into a vapor that may be used to drive a turbo- generator is described. The core of this reactor comprises a plurality of freely suspended tubular fuel elements, called fuel element trains, within which nonboiling pressurized liquid moderator-coolant is preheated and sprayed through orifices in the walls of the trains against the outer walls thereof to be converted into vapor. Passage of the vapor ovcr other unwetted portions of the outside of the fuel elements causes the steam to be superheated. The moderatorcoolant within the fuel elements remains in the liqUid state, and that between the fuel elements remains substantiaily in the vapor state. A unique liquid neutron-absorber control system is used. Advantages expected from the reactor design include reduced fuel element failure, increased stability of operation, direct response to power demand, and circulation of a minimum amount of liquid moderatorcoolant. (A.G.W.)

  14. Investigation of Thermal Hydraulics of a Nuclear Reactor Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarchami, Araz

    A three-dimensional numerical modeling of the thermo hydraulics of Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) nuclear reactor is conducted. The moderator tank is a Pressurized heavy water reactor which uses heavy water as moderator in a cylindrical tank. The main use of the tank is to bring the fast neutrons to the thermal neutron energy levels. The moderator tank compromises of several bundled tubes containing nuclear rods immersed inside the heavy water. It is important to keep the water temperature in the moderator at sub-cooled conditions, to prevent potential failure due to overheating of the tubes. Because of difficulties in measuring flow characteristics and temperature conditions inside a real reactor moderator, tests are conducted using a scaled moderator in moderator test facility (MTF) by Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (CRL, AECL). MTF tests are conducted using heating elements to heat tube surfaces. This is different than the real reactor where nuclear radiation is the source of heating which results in a volumetric heating of the heavy water. The data recorded inside the MTF tank have shown levels of fluctuations in the moderator temperatures and requires in depth investigation of causes and effects. The purpose of the current investigation is to determine the causes for, and the nature of the moderator temperature fluctuations using three-dimensional simulation of MTF with both (surface heating and volumetric heating) modes. In addition, three dimensional simulation of full scale actual moderator tank with volumetric heating is conducted to investigate the effects of scaling on the temperature distribution. The numerical simulations are performed on a 24-processor cluster using parallel version of the FLUENT 12. During the transient simulation, 55 points of interest inside the tank are monitored for their temperature and velocity fluctuations with time.

  15. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  16. Implementing E-Health through CHI: A Very Canadian Solution to a Very Canadian Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Daniels

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Canada Health Infoway (CHI was established as an arms-length body by the federal government in 2001 to provide funding to provinces for the development of interoperable e-health systems. CHI was established in response to a number of reports calling on the government to act to make use of technological advances to improve health care quality and provide more rigorous data. In addition to these explicit goals, through establishing CHI the federal government also sought to avoid potential criticism if the implementation of e-health failed, increase its own popularity ahead of the 2000 election and subtly redistribute wealth between the provinces. The paper suggests that the major influence behind the policy to establish CHI came from Canadian institutions and the fact that the federal government was hamstrung by the Canadian Constitution and Canada Health Act. Evaluation of the reform shows that progress has been made by CHI in implementing e-health solutions, but that Canada still lags behind other comparable health systems in the use of technologies. SWOT analysis of the CHI implementation highlights the criticism that CHI could stifle provincial innovation but recognizes that it also offers the opportunity for best practice dissemination across Canada and ensures that ring-fenced funding is available for e-health implementation across the provinces. In conclusion, the paper suggests that, because of constitutional constraints, the federal government was limited in options to implement e-health and that CHI represents a fair compromise.

  17. Implementing e-Health through CHI: A Very Canadian Solution to a Very Canadian Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Daniels

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Canada Health Infoway (CHI was established as an arms-length body by the federal government in 2001 to provide funding to provinces for the development of interoperable e-health systems. CHI was established in response to a number of reports calling on the government to act to make use of technological advances to improve health care quality and provide more rigorous data. In addition to these explicit goals, through establishing CHI the federal government also sought to avoid potential criticism if the implementation of e-health failed, increase its own popularity ahead of the 2000 election and subtly redistribute wealth between the provinces. The paper suggests that the major influence behind the policy to establish CHI came from Canadian institutions and the fact that the federal government was hamstrung by the Canadian Constitution and Canada Health Act. Evaluation of the reform shows that progress has been made by CHI in implementing e-health solutions, but that Canada still lags behind other comparable health systems in the use of technologies. SWOT analysis of the CHI implementation highlights the criticism that CHI could stifle provincial innovation but recognizes that it also offers the opportunity for best practice dissemination across Canada and ensures that ring-fenced funding is available for e-health implementation across the provinces. In conclusion, the paper suggests that, because of constitutional constraints, the federal government was limited in options to implement e-health and that CHI represents a fair compromise.

  18. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic

  19. Speciation of iodine (I-127) in the natural environment around Canadian CANDU sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, S.J.; Kotzer, T.G.; Chant, L.A

    2001-06-01

    In Canada, very little data is available regarding the concentrations and chemical speciation of iodine in the environment proximal and distal to CANDU Nuclear Power Generating Stations (NPGS). In the immediate vicinity of CANDU reactors, the short-lived iodine isotope {sup 131}I (t{sub 1/2} = 8.04 d), which is produced from fission reactions, is generally below detection and yields little information about the environmental cycling of iodine. Conversely, the fission product {sup 129}I has a long half-life (t{sub 1/2} = 1.57x10{sup 7} y) and has had other anthropogenic inputs (weapons testing, nuclear fuel reprocessing) other than CANDU over the past 50 years. As a result, the concentrations of stable iodine ({sup 127}I) have been used as a proxy. In this study, a sampling system was developed and tested at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) to collect and measure the particulate and gaseous inorganic and organic fractions of stable iodine ({sup 127}I) in air and associated organic and inorganic reservoirs. Air, vegetation and soil samples were collected at CRL, and at Canadian CANDU Nuclear Power Generating Stations (NPGS) at OPG's (Ontario Power Generation) Pickering (PNGS) and Darlington NPGS (DNGS) in Ontario, as well as at NB Power's Pt. Lepreau NPGS in New Brunswick. The concentrations of particulate and inorganic iodine in air at CRL were extremely low, and were often found to be below detection. The concentrations are believed to be at this level because the sediments in the CRL area are glacial fluvial and devoid of marine ionic species, and the local atmospheric conditions at the sampling site are very humid. Concentrations of a gaseous organic species were comparable to worldwide levels. The concentrations of particulate and inorganic iodine in air were also found to be low at PNGS and DNGS, which may be attributed to reservoir effects of the large freshwater lakes in southern Ontario, which might serve to dilute the atmospheric iodine

  20. Mining Legal and Business Resources on Canadian Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Johal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the distinct nature of the Canadian banking system, it is important for novice researchers to know which business and legal resources to consult in order to quickly find information that is particular to Canadian banking. However, there are very few articles or monographs in the library literature that describe how to find information sources exclusively on this subject from a Canadian perspective. Most available publications tend to specialize in sources for the US banking and Federal Reserve System with little attention to Canada. The paper begins with a brief introduction to Canadian banking. From there, the authors demonstrate where researchers can find primary sources such as legislation, regulations and case law. In addition, this article identifies and discusses the different types of information found on the websites of associations and government agencies such as the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, which supervises and regulates various areas of Canada’s financial system. Also discussed are secondary sources such as industry research and reports that are available from reliable websites and subscription-based resources. This paper also explores the best business and legal databases for researchers. Based on results from searching in periodical directories and indexes, the paper additionally provides a description of the most pertinent academic, trade and general publications relevant to the Canadian banking system and where their contents are indexed.

  1. A scoping review of interprofessional education within Canadian nursing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Rachel Elizabeth; Goldman, Joanne; LeGrow, Karen; MacMillan, Kathleen M; van Soeren, Mary; Kitto, Simon

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this scoping review is to examine the nature of the interprofessional education (IPE) discussion that the Canadian nursing profession is having within the Canadian peer-reviewed nursing literature. An electronic database search of CINAHL was conducted using a modified Arksey & O'Malley scoping review framework. Peer-reviewed, English-language articles published in Canadian nursing journals from January 1981 to February 2016 were retrieved. Articles were included if they discussed IPE, or described an educational activity that met our conceptual definition of IPE. A total of 88 articles were screened, and 11 articles were eligible for analysis. Analysis revealed that this body of literature does not seem to be purposefully engaging Canadian nurses in a critical discourse about the role of IPE. The majority of articles located were reflective or commentaries. At the time of this review, there was a paucity of theoretically informed empirical research articles on IPE in the nursing literature. While IPE may be viewed by some critical scholars as a means of shifting the control of healthcare delivery traditionally held by medicine to other professions, our results suggest that this may not be the case in the Canadian nursing profession.

  2. Turning points in reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  3. Fast reactor programme in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Chellapandi; P R Vasudeva Rao; Prabhat Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Role of fast breeder reactor (FBR) in the Indian context has been discussed with appropriate justification. The FBR programme since 1985 till 2030 is highlighted focussing on the current status and future direction of fast breeder test reactor (FBTR), prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) and FBR-1 and 2. Design and technological challenges of PFBR and design and safety targets with means to achieve the same are the major highlights of this paper.

  4. Acceptability of reactors in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  5. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2015-08-20

    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body is configured to receive water and a disinfectant at the inlet such that the water is exposed to the disinfectant as the water flows through the spiral flow path. Also disclosed are processes for disinfecting water in such disinfection reactors.

  6. Hydrogen Production in Fusion Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M; Uenosono, C.

    1993-01-01

    As one of methods of innovative energy production in fusion reactors without having a conventional turbine-type generator, an efficient use of radiation produced in a fusion reactor with utilizing semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas are studied. Taking the candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system for application of the new concepts, the expected efficiency and a concept of plant system are investigated.

  7. Canadian EdGEO National Workshop Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, L. A.; Haidl, F. M.; Hymers, L. A.; van der Flier-Keller, E.

    2009-05-01

    Established in the early 1970s, EdGEO supports locally driven geosciences workshops for Canadian teachers. Workshops are organized by geoscientists and teachers, and typically have field, laboratory and classroom components. Grants of up to $3000 per workshop are available from the National EdGEO Program. By providing educational opportunities for today's teachers and, through them, their students, EdGEO seeks to cultivate a heightened awareness of our planet. EdGEO workshops provide teachers with potential fieldtrip sites for their students and the knowledge, enthusiasm and materials to inspire their students to engage in geoscience. Networking opportunities with local experts promote the importance of the geoscience profession. The expected result is an improved capacity on the part of Canadians to understand the Earth and to make informed decisions, especially with regard to the use of mineral and energy resources, the maintenance and remediation of the environment, and response to geological hazards. There exists a critical need to provide teachers with training and resources to tackle their Earth science curricula. In 2008, EdGEO supported fourteen workshops, with an unprecedented 521 teachers attending. These teachers then used our resources to reach an estimated 14,000 students during that single academic year. EdGEO workshops are locally driven and are therefore very diverse. Workshops are strongly tied to the provincial curriculum, focus on a specific geoscience topic, or may be largely field-based to demonstrate and practice how field activities could be incorporated into Earth science teaching. Many strive to include all of these important components. Geoscientists and teachers work collaboratively to develop and deliver EdGEO workshops to ensure that the activities can be effectively used in the classroom. The length of these professional development opportunities range from two-hour sessions to several days, and can generally accommodate up to twenty

  8. Neutrino Oscillation Studies with Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Petr; Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective, and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavors are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  9. From the Fur Trade to Acid Rain: A Study of Canadian Natural Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winans, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Presents a teaching module for upper elementary students that devotes eight class periods of study to Canadian resources. Includes study of the Canadian fur trade, fishing industry, forestry, and the problems caused by acid rain. Includes the unit evaluation. (DB)

  10. Canadian Content in School Texts and the Changing Goals of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpwood, Graham

    1980-01-01

    The lack of "Canadian content" in Canadian public school textbooks can be more easily explained by changing national educational goals than by foreign ownership of the publishing industry. Science textbooks are used to illustrate. (SB)

  11. Nine-Lump Kinetic Study of Catalytic Pyrolysis of Gas Oils Derived from Canadian Synthetic Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic pyrolysis of gas oils derived from Canadian synthetic crude oil on a kind of zeolite catalyst was conducted in a confined fluidized bed reactor for the production of light olefins. The overall reactants and products were classified into nine species, and a nine-lump kinetic model was proposed to describe the reactions based on appropriate assumptions. This kinetic model had 24 rate constants and a catalyst deactivation constant. The kinetic constants at 620°C, 640°C, 660°C, and 680°C were estimated by means of nonlinear least-square regression method. Preexponential factors and apparent activation energies were then calculated according to the Arrhenius equation. The apparent activation energies of the three feed lumps were lower than those of the intermediate product lumps. The nine-lump kinetic model showed good calculation precision and the calculated yields were close to the experimental ones.

  12. FAST NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, A.H.

    1957-12-01

    This patent relates to a reactor and process for carrying out a controlled fast neutron chain reaction. A cubical reactive mass, weighing at least 920 metric tons, of uranium metal containing predominantly U/sup 238/ and having a U/sup 235/ content of at least 7.63% is assembled and the maximum neutron reproduction ratio is limited to not substantially over 1.01 by insertion and removal of a varying amount of boron, the reactive mass being substantially freed of moderator.

  13. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  14. Worksite health and wellness programs: Canadian achievements & prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Alméras, Natalie; Gauvin, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Canada has experienced a substantial reduction in mortality related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is a general consensus that more effective and widespread health promotion interventions may lead to further reductions in CVD risk factors and actual disease states. In this paper, we briefly outline the prevalence of selected risk factors for CVD in Canada, describe characteristics of the Canadian labor market and workforce, and depict what is known about health and wellness program delivery systems in Canadian workplaces. Our review indicates that there have been numerous and diverse relevant legislative and policy initiatives to create a context conducive to improve the healthfulness of Canadian workplaces. However, there is still a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of the delivery system and the actual impact of workplace health and wellness programs in reducing CVD risk in Canada. Thus, while a promising model, more research is needed in this area.

  15. Internationalization at Canadian Universities: Where are we Now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Weber

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization is powerfully impacting the missions, planning documents, and learning environments of Canadian universities. Internationalization within Canadian universities is viewed from a local as well as global context. Accounts of the composition of domestic students studying abroad and international students studying in Canada, and the implications of these statistics, are related. Emphasis is given to a discussion of the contribution that economic factors play in internationalization decisions. Economic factors have undeniably shaped the face of internationalization at Canadian universities. Complexities of the relationship between global context and educational goals are outlined and educators are challenged to responsibly interpret and implement university changes resulting from internationalization while prioritizing the learning needs of students.

  16. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology: go...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ......: government and parliament ideology. The results suggest that government ideology influenced labor market reforms: market-oriented governments promoted liberalization of the labor market. Parliamentary ideology did not influence economic liberalization at all. This finding (1) identifies differences between...

  17. Residential water demand with endogenous pricing: The Canadian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Arnaud; Renzetti, Steven; Villeneuve, Michel

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we show that the rate structure endogeneity may result in a misspecification of the residential water demand function. We propose to solve this endogeneity problem by estimating a probabilistic model describing how water rates are chosen by local communities. This model is estimated on a sample of Canadian local communities. We first show that the pricing structure choice reflects efficiency considerations, equity concerns, and, in some cases, a strategy of price discrimination across consumers by Canadian communities. Hence estimating the residential water demand without taking into account the pricing structures' endogeneity leads to a biased estimation of price and income elasticities. We also demonstrate that the pricing structure per se plays a significant role in influencing price responsiveness of Canadian residential consumers.

  18. Reference Values of Pulmonary Function Tests for Canadian Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gutierrez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A multicentre, cross-sectional study was carried out in six centres across Canada to establish a national standard for pulmonary function tests using healthy, lifetime nonsmokers, with each centre aiming to test 10 men and 10 women from each decade from 20 to 80 years of age. Data from each centre were used to derive prediction equations for each centre, and pooled data from all centres (total: 327 women and 300 men were used to derive Canadian predicted equations. The predictive models were compared with three widely used published models for selected tests. It was found that, in general, the equations modelled for each centre could be replaced by the models obtained when pooling all data (Canadian model. Comparisons with the published references showed good agreement and similar slopes for most tests. The results suggest that pulmonary function test results obtained from different centres in Canada were comparable and that standards currently used remain valid for Canadian Caucasians.

  19. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Education Committee Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J Bridges

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available I am pleased to provide an update regarding the activities and future directions of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG Education Committee. The mandate of the CAG Education Committee is to facilitate, develop and promote excellence as it pertains to educational initiatives for the Canadian gastroenterology community. Professional education has long remained a priority of the CAG - a fact well recognized by the membership. The 2002 CAG Strategic Planning Survey showed that members rate Canadian Digestive Diseases Week (CDDW as the most important CAG service, on par with Digestive Diseases Week regarding its usefulness (1. CDDW 2004 offered delegates a variety of basic science and clinical symposia, the popular and well received 'Breakfast with the Expert' sessions and a comprehensive Postgraduate Course reviewing key developments in gastroenterology, nutrition and hepatology.

  20. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  1. Reactor Physics Analysis Models for a CANDU Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok

    2007-10-15

    Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor physics analysis is typically performed in three steps. At first, macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice is produced by modeling the reference fuel channel. Secondly macroscopic cross-sections of reactivity devices in the reactor are generated. The macroscopic cross-sections of a reactivity device are calculated as incremental cross-sections by subtracting macroscopic cross-sections of a three-dimensional lattice without reactivity device from those of a three-dimensional lattice with a reactivity device. Using the macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice and incremental cross-sections of the reactivity devices, reactor physics calculations are performed. This report summarizes input data of typical CANDU reactor physics codes, which can be utilized for the future CANDU reactor physics analysis.

  2. Implications and Challenges to Using Data Mining in Educational Research in the Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElAtia, Samira; Ipperciel, Donald; Hammad, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Canadian institutions of higher education are major players on the international arena for educating future generations and producing leaders around the world in various fields. In the last decade, Canadian universities have seen an influx in their incoming international students, who contribute over $3.5 billion to the Canadian economy (Madgett…

  3. Official Portrait of STS-52 Canadian Payload Specialist Steve G. MacLean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Canadian Payload Specialist Steven G. MacLean, wearing a launch and entry suit (LES), poses with a launch and entry helmet (LEH) and Canadian flag for his Official portrait. MacLean representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) will fly aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, for the STS-52 mission.

  4. The Contemporary Reality of Canadian Imperialism: Settler Colonialism and the Hybrid Colonial State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Adam J.

    2009-01-01

    The author's fundamental contention is this: Canadian society remains driven by the logic of imperialism and engages in concerted colonial action against Indigenous peoples whose claims to land and self-determination continue to undermine the legitimacy of Canadian authority and hegemony. The imperial ambitions of the Canadian state and its…

  5. Integrated Library Systems in Canadian Public, Academic and Special Libraries: Fifth Annual Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilees, Bobbie

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the results of the fifth annual survey of integrated library systems in Canadian public, academic, and special libraries. Highlights include systems based on personal computers; bilingual systems; the use of consultants; differences between Canadian and U.S. markets; Canadian international sales; and vendor information. (LRW)

  6. Computers behind bars : Information technology in Canadian prison libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prange, Laurie

    This report is the result of an independent study undertaken with the Faculty of Information and Media Studies (FIMS) at The University of Western Ontario (UWO) and advised by Dr. Carole Farber, Professor. The focus of this study is upon the impact the increased popularity of electronic provision...... of information can have upon Canadian prison libraries. Gathered information is compared with the results of Canadian policy regarding the provision of information to inmates. The analysis of the collected facts can provide insight to help prison librarians deal with the increasing popularity of electronic...... provision of information in relation to legal constraints....

  7. Has Multiculturalism Really Failed? A Canadian Muslim Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljit Nagra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, claims that multiculturalism has created segregated communities, encouraged terrorism, and failed to foster shared national identities in western nations have gained popularity. In this paper, we use young Canadian Muslims’ lived experience of multiculturalism to reflect on this debate. Contrary to popular rhetoric, our interviews of 50 young Muslim adults show that many maintain a dual Canadian-Muslim identity by utilizing the ideology of multiculturalism, even though they are increasingly stigmatized for their religion. These findings lead us to problematize the discourse surrounding the ‘failure’ of multiculturalism and to highlight the contradictions within it.

  8. Assessing Canadian Bank Branch Operating Efficiency Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zijiang

    2009-10-01

    In today's economy and society, performance analyses in the services industries attract more and more attention. This paper presents an evaluation of 240 branches of one big Canadian bank in Greater Toronto Area using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Special emphasis was placed on how to present the DEA results to management so as to provide more guidance to them on what to manage and how to accomplish the changes. Finally the potential management uses of the DEA results were presented. All the findings are discussed in the context of the Canadian banking market.

  9. Social Problems in Canadian Ice Hockey: An Exploration Through Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogel Curtis A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While celebrated as a highly popular sport in Canada, there are many social problems existing within and around Canadian ice hockey. These problems are often overlooked and rarely depicted in academic and journalistic research on sport. These social problems include, but are not limited to: extreme violence resulting in injuries and death, hazing rituals, multiple types of sexual violence, drug abuse, financial corruption, as well as various forms of prejudice and discrimination. Prompted by pop-cultural depictions in films, this paper further identifies and explores social problems in Canadian ice hockey revealing the realism embedded within various seemingly fictional films.

  10. Advancing intercultural competency: Canadian engineering employers' experiences with immigrant engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Marcia; Ingram, Sandra

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores Canadian engineering employers' perceptions of and experiences with internationally educated engineers (recent immigrants to Canada) employed in their organisations for varying lengths of time. Qualitative data were collected from employers using focus group methodology. Findings reflected employers' observations of culturally different behaviours and characteristics in their internationally educated employees, employers' reactions to cultural differences ranging from negative attributions to tolerance, and the implementation of largely ad hoc intra-organisational strategies for managing cultural differences in employer-employee relationships. Findings exposed the lack of corporate intercultural competency in the Canadian engineering profession. Equity and gatekeeping implications are discussed.

  11. Writing on Boundaries: The Split Subject in Chinese Canadian Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shaobo

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual grasp of the corpus of work produced by Chinese Canadian writers and a framework for analysing its tropes and interpreting their political resonance. It defines the Chinese Canadian work as a three-phase counterhegemonic discourse: Writing back into a forbidden past; negotiating into the present; writing on boundaries. For the ambivalent, split diasporic subject to negotiate into the present from the forbidden past is to reinscribe itself as a locus of crisis, a non-identity, a doubling, a third term. Writing on boundaries can be read as a strategy of decolonization deployed by the subaltern in striving for self-vindication and self-fulfilment.

  12. Circulating metals and persistent organic pollutant concentrations in Canadian and non-Canadian born primiparous women from five Canadian centres: Results of a pilot biomonitoring study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Warren G., E-mail: fosterw@mcmaster.ca [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Cheung, Anthony P. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Davis, Karelyn [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Graves, Gillian [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Jarrell, John [University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Leblanc, Alain [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Leech, Tara [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Walker, Mark [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Weber, Jean Philippe [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Van Oostdam, Jay [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    The developing foetus is thought to be at increased risk from exposure to environmental contaminants; however, developmental exposure data is notably lacking for many contaminants. Moreover, potential regional differences or effect of place of birth on residue levels measured in pregnant women is also unknown. Therefore, as part of a multinational biomonitoring study, 125 primiparous pregnant Canadian women were recruited from five Canadian centres (Vancouver, Calgary, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Halifax). Metals in whole blood and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in plasma were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), respectively. Of the 125 women recruited to this study, complete data sets were available for 123 of which 103 were Canadian born. Data were analysed by analysis of covariance and linear mixed models using age and body mass index as covariates. The metals cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and total mercury (Hg) were detected in more than 93% of the samples tested. {beta}-Hexachlorohexane ({beta}-HCH), oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p Prime -DDE), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (PBDE-153, PBDE-47), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB-138, -153, and -180), and the dioxin-like PCB congener PCB-118 were quantified in greater than 70% of the samples tested. Significant differences in the concentrations of Cd, Ni, PCB-153, and p,p Prime -DDE were found between the centres studied. Furthermore, foreign-born pregnant women had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, {beta}-HCH, PBDE-47, PCB-138, -153, -180, and p,p Prime -DDE compared to Canadian born pregnant women. Taken together, the data suggest that there are potential regional differences in contaminant body burden and place of birth may also contribute to differences in maternal residue concentrations. -- Highlights: Black

  13. Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Szeman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil and Canada in their respective attempts to create genuine national cultures. As in many postcolonial situations, the problem of creating an authentic culture is directly related to the sense that postcolonial culture is necessarily imitative and belated. In Misplaced Ideas, Roberto Schwarz exposes the hidden class character of the problem of cultural authenticity in Brazil, and in so doing, shows that the trauma of national-cultural identity merely reflects the contradictory structural position of Brazil’s postcolonial elite. Using Schwarz’s insights to explore the Canadian situation, the author shows that the same forces are at work in Canada. Though the crisis of a lack of an authentic Canadian culture has recently been surmounted as a result of the apparent international success of Canadian culture (especially literary fiction, that author cautions that this “success” story hides the class basis of Canadian culture in both its belated and isochronic phases (the latter being the moment when cultural belatedness is overcome. Making use of Brazilian theory to examine problems in Canadian culture allows us to see that Canadian modernity, long thought to be simply a derivative of the UK and USA, has similarities with Brazilian modernity that are essential to understanding the space and place Canada occupies in globalization. In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil

  14. Gut Microbiome of the Canadian Arctic Inuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromas, Nicolas; Amyot, Marc

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and “traditional” diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome. We used deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to compare the gut microbiomes of Montrealers with a Western diet to those of the Inuit consuming a range of traditional and Western diets. At the overall microbial community level, the gut microbiomes of Montrealers and Inuit were indistinguishable and contained similar levels of microbial diversity. However, we observed significant differences in the relative abundances of certain microbial taxa down to the subgenus level using oligotyping. For example, Prevotella spp., which have been previously associated with high-fiber diets, were enriched in Montrealers and among the Inuit consuming a Western diet. The gut microbiomes of Inuit consuming a traditional diet also had significantly less genetic diversity within the Prevotella genus, suggesting that a low-fiber diet might not only select against Prevotella but also reduce its diversity. Other microbes, such as Akkermansia, were associated with geography as well as diet, suggesting limited dispersal to the Arctic. Our report provides a snapshot of the Inuit microbiome as Western-like in overall community structure but distinct in the relative abundances and diversity of certain genera and strains. IMPORTANCE Non-Western populations have been shown to have distinct gut microbial communities shaped by traditional diets. The hitherto-uncharacterized microbiome of the Inuit may help us to

  15. Brookhaven leak reactor to close

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C

    1999-01-01

    The DOE has announced that the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven is to close for good. Though the news was not unexpected researchers were angry the decision had been taken before the review to assess the impact of reopening the reactor had been concluded (1 page).

  16. Thermochemical reactor systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinski, Wojciech; Davidson, Jane Holloway; Chase, Thomas Richard

    2016-11-29

    Thermochemical reactor systems that may be used to produce a fuel, and methods of using the thermochemical reactor systems, utilizing a reactive cylindrical element, an optional energy transfer cylindrical element, an inlet gas management system, and an outlet gas management system.

  17. Chemical-vapor-deposition reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, S.

    1979-01-01

    Reactor utilizes multiple stacked trays compactly arranged in paths of horizontally channeled reactant gas streams. Design allows faster and more efficient deposits of film on substrates, and reduces gas and energy consumption. Lack of dead spots that trap reactive gases reduces reactor purge time.

  18. Antineutrino Monitoring of Thorium Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Akindele, Oluwatomi A; Norman, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Various groups have demonstrated that antineutrino monitoring can be successful in assessing the plutonium content in water-cooled nuclear reactors for nonproliferation applications. New reactor designs and concepts incorporate nontraditional fuels types and chemistry. Understanding how these properties affect the antineutrino emission from a reactor can extend the applicability of antineutrino monitoring.Thorium molten salt reactors (MSR) breed U-233, that if diverted constitute an IAEA direct use material. The antineutrino spectrum from the fission of U-233 has been determined, the feasibility of detecting the diversion of a significant quantity, 8 kg of U-233, within the IAEA timeliness goal of 30 days has been evaluated. The antineutrino emission from a thorium reactor operating under normal conditions is compared to a diversion scenario at a 25 meter standoff by evaluating the daily antineutrino count rate and the energy spectrum of the detected antineutrinos. It was found that the diversion of a signifi...

  19. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivek V Ranade

    2014-03-01

    Catalytic reactions are ubiquitous in chemical and allied industries. A homogeneous or heterogeneous catalyst which provides an alternative route of reaction with lower activation energy and better control on selectivity can make substantial impact on process viability and economics. Extensive studies have been conducted to establish sound basis for design and engineering of reactors for practising such catalytic reactions and for realizing improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is discussed. Some examples where performance enhancement was realized by catalyst design, appropriate choice of reactor, better injection and dispersion strategies and recent advances in process intensification/ multifunctional reactors are discussed to illustrate the approach.

  20. Unsteady processes in catalytic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matros, Yu.Sh.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years a realization has occurred that reaction and reactor dynamics must be considered when designing and operating catalytic reactors. In this book, the author has focussed on both the processes occurring on individual porous-catalyst particles as well as the phenomena displayed by collections of these particles in fixed-bed reactors. The major topics discussed include the effects of unsteady-state heat and mass transfer, the influence of inhomogeneities and stagnant regions in fixed beds, and reactor operation during forced cycling of operating conditions. Despite the title of the book, attention is also paid to the determination of the number and stability of fixed-bed steady states, with the aim of describing the possibility of controlling reactors at unstable steady states. However, this development is somewhat dated, given the recent literature on multiplicity phenomena and process control.

  1. A model of reactor kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, A.S.; Thompson, B.R.

    1988-09-01

    The analytical model of nuclear reactor transients, incorporating both mechanical and nuclear effects, simulates reactor kinetics. Linear analysis shows the stability borderline for small power perturbations. In a stable system, initial power disturbances die out with time. With an unstable combination of nuclear and mechanical characteristics, initial disturbances persist and may increase with time. With large instability, oscillations of great magnitude occur. Stability requirements set limits on the power density at which particular reactors can operate. The limiting power density depends largely on the product of two terms: the fraction of delayed neutrons and the frictional damping of vibratory motion in reactor core components. As the fraction of delayed neutrons is essentially fixed, mechanical damping largely determines the maximum power density. A computer program, based on the analytical model, calculates and plots reactor power as a nonlinear function of time in response to assigned values of mechanical and nuclear characteristics.

  2. Metallic fuels for advanced reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, W. J.; Porter, D. L.; Chang, Y. I.; Hayes, S. L.; Meyer, M. K.; Burkes, D. E.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Delage, F.; Somers, J.

    2009-07-01

    In the framework of the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor Program, the Advanced Fuel Project has conducted an evaluation of the available fuel systems supporting future sodium cooled fast reactors. This paper presents an evaluation of metallic alloy fuels. Early US fast reactor developers originally favored metal alloy fuel due to its high fissile density and compatibility with sodium. The goal of fast reactor fuel development programs is to develop and qualify a nuclear fuel system that performs all of the functions of a conventional fast spectrum nuclear fuel while destroying recycled actinides. This will provide a mechanism for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. Metal fuels are candidates for this application, based on documented performance of metallic fast reactor fuels and the early results of tests currently being conducted in US and international transmutation fuel development programs.

  3. Neutrino Experiments at Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, F.; Gurr, H. S.; Jenkins, T. L.; Munsee, J. H.

    1968-09-09

    A description is given of the electron-antineutrino program using a large fission reactor. A search has been made for a neutral weak interaction via the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> p + n + electron antineutrino), the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> n + n + e{sup +}) has now been detected, and an effort is underway to observe the elastic scattering reaction (electron antineutrino + e{sup -} .> electron antineutrino + e{sup -}) as well as to measure more precisely the reaction (electron antineutrino + p .> n + e{sup+}). The upper limit on the elastic scattering reaction which we have obtained with our large composite NaI, plastic, liquid scintillation detector is now about 50 times the predicted value.

  4. Neutronic Reactor Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, Enrico; Zinn, Walter H.

    The argument of the present Patent is a radiation shield suitable for protection of personnel from both gamma rays and neutrons. Such a shield from dangerous radiations is achieved to the best by the combined action of a neutron slowing material (a moderator) and a neutron absorbing material. Hydrogen is particularly effective for this shield since it is a good absorber of slow neutrons and a good moderator of fast neutrons. The neutrons slowed down by hydrogen may, then, be absorbed by other materials such as boron, cadmium, gadolinium, samarium or steel. Steel is particularly convenient for the purpose, given its effectiveness in absorbing also the gamma rays from the reactor (both primary gamma rays and secondary ones produced by the moderation of neutrons). In particular, in the present Patent a shield is described, made of alternate layers of steel and Masonite (an hydrolized ligno-cellulose material). The object of the present Patent is not discussed in any other published paper.

  5. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  6. Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-09-01

    For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

  7. Return on Investment for Workplace Training: The Canadian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Jennifer C.; Cozzarin, Brian P.; Formaneck, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    One of the central problems in managing technological change and maintaining a competitive advantage in business is improving the skills of the workforce through investment in human capital and a variety of training practices. This paper explores the evidence on the impact of training investment on productivity in 14 Canadian industries from 1999…

  8. Electronic Commerce: Canadian Community Colleges and Institutes of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges.

    This paper reports on the Canadian college system's collaboration with industry and community services in the development and delivery of non-credit e-commerce courses offered through continuing education departments at community colleges and institutes of technology. The paper argues that, in today's changing economy, the accelerated need for…

  9. The Canadian Labour Market: Readings in Manpower Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, A.M., Ed.; Meltz, N.M., Ed.

    Canadian manpower problems were researched by a group of economists at the University of Toronto in areas of interest to manpower planners and students of the labor market. The dissatisfaction of policy makers with the present operation of the labor market is discussed in three areas: (1) inadequate output due to alleged labor shortages, (2)…

  10. Stages Of Gender Education In Canadian Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukovskyi Vasyl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of educational preconditions of gender education formation and development in Canadian secondary schools. On the basis of conducted scientific and pedagogical literature analysis it has been determined that gender education has undergone three main stages and is currently developing during its fourth, modern period.

  11. Giving Canadian Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education an Independent Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Derek

    2015-01-01

    It is noted that the "Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education" (CJSMTE) was founded with the support of a donation of $1.0 million from the Imperial Oil Charitable Foundation. Four goals were uppermost in the thinking behind the journal: first, it should be bilingual; second, it should be cross-disciplinary;…

  12. Financial Management of Canadian Universities: Adaptive Strategies to Fiscal Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Darren; Sá, Creso M.

    2014-01-01

    Decreasing government funding and regulated tuition policies have created a financially constrained environment for Canada's universities. The conventional response to such conditions is to cut programme offerings and services in an attempt to lower costs throughout the institution. However, we argue that three Canadian universities have reacted…

  13. In their own words: describing Canadian physician leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Anita J; Dickson, Graham; Wirtzfeld, Debrah; Van Aerde, John

    2016-07-04

    Purpose This is the first study to compile statistical data to describe the functions and responsibilities of physicians in formal and informal leadership roles in the Canadian health system. This mixed-methods research study offers baseline data relative to this purpose, and also describes physician leaders' views on fundamental aspects of their leadership responsibility. Design/methodology/approach A survey with both quantitative and qualitative fields yielded 689 valid responses from physician leaders. Data from the survey were utilized in the development of a semi-structured interview guide; 15 physician leaders were interviewed. Findings A profile of Canadian physician leadership has been compiled, including demographics; an outline of roles, responsibilities, time commitments and related compensation; and personal factors that support, engage and deter physicians when considering taking on leadership roles. The role of health-care organizations in encouraging and supporting physician leadership is explicated. Practical implications The baseline data on Canadian physician leaders create the opportunity to determine potential steps for improving the state of physician leadership in Canada; and health-care organizations are provided with a wealth of information on how to encourage and support physician leaders. Using the data as a benchmark, comparisons can also be made with physician leadership as practiced in other nations. Originality/value There are no other research studies available that provide the depth and breadth of detail on Canadian physician leadership, and the embedded recommendations to health-care organizations are informed by this in-depth knowledge.

  14. Microplastics in aquatic environments: Implications for Canadian ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julie C; Park, Bradley J; Palace, Vince P

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics have been increasingly detected and quantified in marine and freshwater environments, and there are growing concerns about potential effects in biota. A literature review was conducted to summarize the current state of knowledge of microplastics in Canadian aquatic environments; specifically, the sources, environmental fate, behaviour, abundance, and toxicological effects in aquatic organisms. While we found that research and publications on these topics have increased dramatically since 2010, relatively few studies have assessed the presence, fate, and effects of microplastics in Canadian water bodies. We suggest that efforts to determine aquatic receptors at greatest risk of detrimental effects due to microplastic exposure, and their associated contaminants, are particularly warranted. There is also a need to address the gaps identified, with a particular focus on the species and conditions found in Canadian aquatic systems. These gaps include characterization of the presence of microplastics in Canadian freshwater ecosystems, identifying key sources of microplastics to these systems, and evaluating the presence of microplastics in Arctic waters and biota.

  15. Global Education in Canadian Elementary Schools: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Karen; Manion, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the implementation of global education in Canadian elementary schools. Curriculum analysis and 76 interviews at school, ministry, and district levels revealed limited coordination among ministry, district and NGO efforts and little support for curriculum development and teacher training. In schools, fund-raising for…

  16. Baselines for the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2013-01-01

    Using a Canadian student achievement assessment database, the Science Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP), and employing the Rasch partial credit measurement model, this study estimated the difficulties of items corresponding to the learning outcomes in the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework and the latent abilities of students of grades 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 and OAC (Ontario Academic Course). The above estimates serve as baselines for validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework in terms of the learning progression of learning outcomes and expected mastery of learning outcomes by grades. It was found that there was no statistically significant progression in learning outcomes from grades 4-6 to grades 7-9, and from grades 7-9 to grades 10-12; the curriculum framework sets mastery expectation about 2 grades higher than students' potential abilities. In light of the above findings, this paper discusses theoretical issues related to deciding progression of learning outcomes and setting expectation of student mastery of learning outcomes, and highlights the importance of using national assessment data to establish baselines for the above purposes. This paper concludes with recommendations for further validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum frameworks.

  17. Enhancing Canadian Teacher Education Using a Story Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The "Accord on Initial Teacher Education" was created by the Canadian Deans of Education in 2006 to guide teacher educators across Canada. The "Story Model" (Drake et al., 1992) is aligned with the principles in the Accord and has proven useful in teacher education. Here it is explored as a framework for curriculum development…

  18. Intersectionality and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamoon, Rita Kaur; Hankivsky, Olena

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the authors propose than an intersectionality perspective can transform understandings of the contentious content of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR). The use of an intersectionality perspective starts from the position that such discourses as racialization, gendering, capitalism, and ableism are mutually…

  19. Canadian Physicians’ Choices for Their Own Colon Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoon Raza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compliance with colorectal cancer (CRC screening in Canada is low. The aim of the present survey was to determine whether Canadian physicians older than 50 years were pursuing colon cancer screening. Specifically, physicians were asked to identify their modality of choice and identify their barriers to screening.

  20. Canadian Indian Children Who Had Never Attended School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lolita

    1973-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the performance on selected intelligence tests of a group of Canadian Indian children who had never been to school with the performance of a similar group of children who were attending school regularly. (Author/RK)

  1. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Canadian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réjeanne Gougeon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a clinical tool designed to facilitate implementation of therapeutic lifestyle recommendations for people with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG recommendations is essential to address varied patient populations within and among diverse regions worldwide. The Canadian version of tDNA supports and targets behavioural changes to improve nutritional quality and to promote regular daily physical activity consistent with Canadian Diabetes Association CPG, as well as channelling the concomitant management of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycaemia in primary care. Assessing glycaemic index (GI (the ranking of foods by effects on postprandial blood glucose levels and glycaemic load (GL (the product of mean GI and the total carbohydrate content of a meal will be a central part of the Canadian tDNA and complement nutrition therapy by facilitating glycaemic control using specific food selections. This component can also enhance other metabolic interventions, such as reducing the need for antihyperglycaemic medication and improving the effectiveness of weight loss programs. This tDNA strategy will be adapted to the cultural specificities of the Canadian population and incorporated into the tDNA validation methodology.

  2. Children's Experiences of Cyberbullying: A Canadian National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Tanya; Mishna, Faye; McInroy, Lauren B.; Shariff, Shaheen

    2015-01-01

    This national study reports the prevalence of cyberbullying among youths in Canada according to demographic characteristics, its impact, and its relationship to six forms of victimization and perpetration. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a national household panel of families living in all Canadian provinces. The sample included 1,001…

  3. Assessing Patterns of Admixture and Ancestry in Canadian Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada has a large beekeeping industry comprised of 8483 beekeepers managing 672094 23 colonies. Canadian honey bees, like all honey bees in the New World, originate from centuries of importation of predominately European honey bees, but their precise ancestry remains unknown. There have been no i...

  4. Canadian Cultural Materialism: Personal Values and Television Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.; Squire, Larry A.

    A study examined the relationship between social and material values and attitudes toward television advertising. Using the Rokeach Value Survey Form E, 157 Canadian college students ranked the 18 terminal and 18 instrumental values in order of their importance as guiding principles for life. The values were classified as either material, social,…

  5. Irreversible mass loss of Canadian Arctic Archipelago glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van Angelen, J.H.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Gardner, A.S.; Wouters, Bert; van Meijgaard, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) contains the largest volume of glacier ice on Earth outside of Antarctica and Greenland. In the absence of significant calving, CAA glacier mass balance is governed by the difference between surface snow accumulation and meltwater runoff—surface mass balance. He

  6. Canadian Community College Counselling Services--How Are They Staffed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, E. F.; Miles, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    Because little is known about counselling services in Canadian community colleges, the authors sent questionnaires to 179 post-secondary, non-university, educational institutions and received replies from 83. Data on numbers of counseling personnel, their educational level, salaries, counsellor-student ratios, support staff, and other relevant…

  7. A Blended Approach to Canadian First Nations Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacher, Martin; Sacher, Mavis; Vaughan, Norman

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate if and how a blended approach to Canadian First Nations education could be used to foster student engagement and success. The study examined the SCcyber E-Learning Community program (2012) through the lens of the "Seven Principles of Effective Teaching" (Chickering & Gamson,…

  8. Un vocabulaire juridique bilingue canadien (A Canadian Bilingual Legal Vocabulary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauziere, Lucie

    1979-01-01

    Describes a project called JURIVOC which sought to deal with the problem of a duality of language and a duality in legal systems in Canada. The development of a bilingual lexicon is discussed, and an example is given of the classic language/legal system duality in Canadian law. (AM)

  9. The Role of Canadian Children's Literature in National Identity Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce M.

    2002-01-01

    Seeks to understand teachers' practices in relation to selecting children's literature for use in classrooms, and to understand the wider issues associated with book selection and in particular with Canadian children's literature. Supports a strong need for rethinking the implications of the literacy events that occur on an everyday basis in…

  10. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievenpiper, John L.; Jenkins, David; Yale, Jean-François; Bell, Rhonda; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ransom, Thomas P. P.; Dupre, John; Kendall, Cyril; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Marchetti, Albert; Hamdy, Osama; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a clinical tool designed to facilitate implementation of therapeutic lifestyle recommendations for people with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG) recommendations is essential to address varied patient populations within and among diverse regions worldwide. The Canadian version of tDNA supports and targets behavioural changes to improve nutritional quality and to promote regular daily physical activity consistent with Canadian Diabetes Association CPG, as well as channelling the concomitant management of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycaemia in primary care. Assessing glycaemic index (GI) (the ranking of foods by effects on postprandial blood glucose levels) and glycaemic load (GL) (the product of mean GI and the total carbohydrate content of a meal) will be a central part of the Canadian tDNA and complement nutrition therapy by facilitating glycaemic control using specific food selections. This component can also enhance other metabolic interventions, such as reducing the need for antihyperglycaemic medication and improving the effectiveness of weight loss programs. This tDNA strategy will be adapted to the cultural specificities of the Canadian population and incorporated into the tDNA validation methodology. PMID:24550982

  11. Culture and Parenting: Psychological Adjustment among Chinese Canadian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Cynthia S. M.; Miller, Lynn D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adolescents' cultural identification, perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting, and psychological adjustment with a sample of 192 Chinese Canadian adolescents. Participants were recruited from public urban high schools and completed 4 self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed using…

  12. Religiosity and Music Copyright Theft among Canadian Baptist Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Bruce G.; Francis, Leslie J.; Henderson, Amanda J.; Robbins, Mandy; Linkletter, Jody

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the views of 706 Canadian Baptist youth (between the ages of 14 and 18 years) on the moral issue of music copyright theft, and explores the influence on these views of age, sex, Sunday church attendance, personal prayer, personal Bible reading, and conservative Bible believing. The participants were attending Springforth 2005…

  13. The Management of Retrenchment in Canadian Academic Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Laurent-G.; Auster, Ethel

    This exploratory study focuses on the management of decline as characterized by shrinking resources and substantial reductions in operating budgets (retrenchment) in academic research libraries in Canada. The first of four major sections of the report addresses the management of retrenchment in Canadian research libraries, including the design of…

  14. Graduate Writing Assignments across Faculties in a Canadian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ling; Dong, Yanning

    2015-01-01

    This study examines 143 graduate assignments across 12 faculties or schools in a Canadian university in order to identify types of writing tasks. Based on the descriptions provided by the instructors, we identified nine types of assignments, with scholarly essay being the most common, followed by summary and response, literature review, project,…

  15. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  16. The Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors: Instructor Certification Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Glenda

    Since its formation in 1976, the Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors (CANSI) has certified over 2600 instructors across Canada. CANSI aims to provide a standard of excellence in certified nordic ski instruction by maintaining uniform and current nordic techniques, to encourage the skiing public to take advantage of the benefits of…

  17. Canadian Youth Volunteering Abroad: Rethinking Issues of Power and Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Mai

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of institutions in the ethical engagement of Canadian youth volunteers abroad. In recent years, researchers and practitioners in the international field have questioned the ethics of volunteering as part of development, with scrutiny on who actually benefits from volunteering initiatives. Since the 1960s, over 65,000…

  18. Knowledge Matters: Skills and Learning for Canadians. Canada's Innovation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources Development Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This paper outlines the skills and learning challenges that Canada faces to ensure it meets its skills and learning requirements for the 21st century. It proposes a series of national goals and milestones against which progress can be measured over time and reported on regularly to Canadians. Following an introduction, Sections 2-5 discuss the…

  19. Canadian Space Launch: Exploiting Northern Latitudes For Efficient Space Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    AU/ACSC/KLEMEN, J/AY15 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY CANADIAN SPACE LAUNCH: EXPLOITING NORTHERN LATITUDES FOR EFFICIENT...large provincial wildlife park, the environmental impact posed by any development would be certain to draw extensive criticism. This site is also

  20. Canadian Women's Labor Force Behavior: A Forty Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Janet E.; Skrypnek, Berna J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three dimensions of labor force behavior: participation, attachment, and commitment. Presents a picture of trends in Canadian women's labor force behavior over the last 40 years using existing data. Discusses the implications of these trends for family life and corporate and public policy. (JOW)

  1. Ethical Leadership in Canadian School Organizations: Tensions and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Lyse; Lapointe, Claire

    2007-01-01

    This study, which was sponsored by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, was conducted in French-language minority schools in seven Canadian provinces: British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia. Using an open-ended interview guide, 47 principals were asked about the…

  2. Entrepreneurship and Educational Leadership Development: Canadian and Australian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Charles F.; Scott, Shelleyann

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the entrepreneurial activities of two university faculties, one Canadian and the other Australian, that were designed to meet the educational needs of students and to garner the resources necessary for program delivery. A conceptual framework for educational entrepreneurship, containing six dimensions, is proposed. The…

  3. Educational Goal-Setting in a Native-Canadian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, H. Joseph

    A revitalization of Canadian Indian culture occurred as a result of the 1967 Hawthorn Report, which advocated the integration of Canada natives into white society. On the Eskasoni Indian Reserve, home of 1700 Micma Indians in Nova Scotia, the revitalization was shown in the results of two questionnaires about local education. On the first…

  4. Strategic Planning for Academic Research: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Creso M.; Tamtik, Merli

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical study of research planning in Canadian universities. Drawing on data compiled during interviews with senior administrators from 27 academic units in 10 universities, the paper analyses how strategic planning has been applied to the research mission over the past decade. Findings reveal variability in processes…

  5. Financial Management of Canadian Universities: Adaptive Strategies to Fiscal Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Darren; Sá, Creso M.

    2014-01-01

    Decreasing government funding and regulated tuition policies have created a financially constrained environment for Canada's universities. The conventional response to such conditions is to cut programme offerings and services in an attempt to lower costs throughout the institution. However, we argue that three Canadian universities have…

  6. Entrepreneurialism for Canadian Principals: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shelleyann; Webber, Charles F.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the various elements of Canadian educational entrepreneurialism as manifested yesterday, today, and tomorrow and in relation to the social and political influences of the time. This discussion is informed by the findings of the International Study of the Preparation of Principals (ISPP) and represents an expansion of the…

  7. Marginalizing Significant Others: The Canadian Contribution to Educational Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlynka, Denis

    1994-01-01

    Considers Canadian contributions to the philosophical basis of educational technology which have helped shape the model shifts now occurring in the field. Four individuals are highlighted: Harold Innis and his work on media; Marshall McLuhan, who built on Innis' work; Ursula Franklin and her philosophical analysis of technology; and Arthur Kroker.…

  8. Canadian Decisions in a Shifting North American Security Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    who definitely piqued my interests in Canadian politics, if nothing else, just to be able to follow their satirical interpretation of the news. Now...naval exercises and operations outside of NATO. Now this planning has been transferred from JFCOM in Norfolk, Virginia , to NORTHCOM in Colorado

  9. Epidemiological and Economic Burden of Pneumococcal Disease in Canadian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Petit

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the arrival of a new conjugate pneumococcal vaccine, it is important to estimate the burden of pneumococcal diseases in Canadian children. The epidemiological data and the economic cost of these diseases are crucial elements in evaluating the relevance of a vaccination program.

  10. System architecture for the Canadian interim mobile satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatmadar, M.; Gordon, K.; Skerry, B.; Eldamhougy, H.; Bossler, D.

    1988-05-01

    The system architecture for the Canadian Interim Mobile Satellite Service (IMSS) which is planned for commencement of commercial service in late 1989 is reviewed. The results of an associated field trial program which was carried out to determine the limits of coverage and the preliminary performance characteristics of the system are discussed.

  11. Research Integrity/Misconduct Policies of Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, Jordan; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2011-01-01

    In a context of increasing attention to issues of scientific integrity in university research, it is important to reflect on the governance mechanisms that universities use to shape the behaviour of students, researchers, and faculty. This paper presents the results of a study of 47 Canadian university research integrity/misconduct (RIM) policies:…

  12. A Glimpse of Canadian Education: 1990-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Mildred

    2000-01-01

    As for every aspect of Canadian life, duality of origins has defined and shaped education. French Catholic religious personnel created an elementary education system for fur traders, farmers, and native peoples; elites had a privately funded system. English Protestants oriented their systems toward extraction industries and trade. (Contains 41…

  13. Nomads, Pilgrims, Tourists: Women Teachers in the Canadian North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on notions of the modern pilgrim and postmodern tourist, this paper explores the discursive resources concerning women, travel, and transience as they apply to female teachers working in the Canadian north. In particular, it traces the discourses evident in the talk of twenty-five women teachers currently working in northern First Nations…

  14. University Supports for Open Access: A Canadian National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyson, Devon; Vezina, Kumiko; Morrison, Heather; Taylor, Donald; Black, Charlyn

    2009-01-01

    The advent of policies at research-funding organizations requiring grantees to make their funded research openly accessible alters the life cycle of scholarly research. This survey-based study explores the approaches that libraries and research administration offices at the major Canadian universities are employing to support the…

  15. How Well Do Canadian Distance Education Students Understand Plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier, Cheryl Ann

    2014-01-01

    This project ascertains how well students taking online, distance education courses at a Canadian university recognize plagiarised material and how well they paraphrase. It also assesses the types of errors made. Slightly more than half of 420 psychology students correctly selected plagiarised phrases from four multiple choice questions. Only a…

  16. The Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure and health mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Yi, Xiaolun

    2008-01-01

    Due to the recent outbreak of SARS and the danger of pandemic Bird Flu, the ability to strengthen health surveillance and disease control is a growing need among governments. The development of the Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (CGDI) has shown great potential in many industries...

  17. Association of Canadian Community Colleges Annual Report, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Established in 1972, the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) is the national and international voice of Canada's colleges, institutes, cegeps, university colleges, and polytechnics. This report outlines highlights of the Association's activities over the 2009-2010 year. The auditors' report is also included. [For "Association of…

  18. The War's Positive Impact on the Canadian Astronomical Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of WWI, the Canadian astronomical community was tiny and astrophysical research was just beginning. By the end of the war, the country had established the forerunner of its National Research Council and had the world's largest fully operational telescope, thanks to the late entry of the USA into the conflict. By 1918, Canada was on the verge of making significant contributions to science.In spite of the immense loss of life in this pointless war, I am aware of only one casualty affecting Canadian professional astronomers, and that was the indirect death of James Chant, son of University of Toronto's only professor of astronomy. Other Canadian astronomers, including Tom Parker, Bert Topham, and Harry Plaskett were on active service; each of their stories is unique.Among those engaged in scientific work during the war were two Canadians temporarily in England: John McLennan whose helium research for dirigibles led him to establish a cryogenic lab in Toronto where the green line in the spectrum of the aurora was identified in 1925, and Allie Douglas who worked as a statistician in the War Office. Later work with Eddington led her to become his biographer and to her distinction as the first person in Canada to earn a PhD in astronomy (in 1926).

  19. Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Society of Cardiac Surgeons/Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery Joint Position Statement on Open and Endovascular Surgery for Thoracic Aortic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appoo, Jehangir J; Bozinovski, John; Chu, Michael W A; El-Hamamsy, Ismail; Forbes, Thomas L; Moon, Michael; Ouzounian, Maral; Peterson, Mark D; Tittley, Jacques; Boodhwani, Munir

    2016-06-01

    In 2014, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) published a position statement on the management of thoracic aortic disease addressing size thresholds for surgery, imaging modalities, medical therapy, and genetics. It did not address issues related to surgical intervention. This joint Position Statement on behalf of the CCS, Canadian Society of Cardiac Surgeons, and the Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery provides recommendations about thoracic aortic disease interventions, including: aortic valve repair, perfusion strategies for arch repair, extended arch hybrid reconstruction for acute type A dissection, endovascular management of arch and descending aortic aneurysms, and type B dissection. The position statement is constructed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology, and has been approved by the primary panel, an international secondary panel, and the CCS Guidelines Committee. Advent of endovascular technology has improved aortic surgery safety and extended the indications of minimally invasive thoracic aortic surgery. The combination of safer open surgery with endovascular treatment has improved patient outcomes in this rapidly evolving subspecialty field of cardiovascular surgery.

  20. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Leigh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Methods Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1 where in Canada these businesses are located; 2 the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3 the medical procedures they promote; 4 core marketing messages; and 5 whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Results Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism

  1. Pre-licensing of the Advanced CANDU Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ion, R.; Popov, N.; Snell, V.; Xu, C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); West, J. [Candesco Co., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) developed the Advanced CANDU Reactor-700 (ACR-700) as an evolutionary advancement of the current CANDU 6 reactor. As further advancement of the ACR design, AECL is currently developing the ACR-1000 for the Canadian and international market. The ACR-1000 is aimed at producing electrical power for a capital cost and a unit-energy cost significantly less than that of the current generation of operating nuclear plants, while achieving shorter construction schedule, high plant capacity factor, improved operations and maintenance, increased operating life, and enhanced safety features. The reference ACR-1000 plant design is based on an integrated two-unit plant, using enriched fuel and light-water coolant, with each unit having a nominal gross electrical output of 1165 MWe. The ACR-1000 design has evolved from AECL's in-depth knowledge of CANDU systems, components, and materials, as well as the experience and feedback received from owners and operators of CANDU plants. The ACR design retains the proven strengths and features of CANDU reactors, while incorporating innovations and state-of-the-art technology. It also features major improvements in economics, inherent safety characteristics, and performance, while retaining the proven benefits of the CANDU family of nuclear power plants. The CANDU system is ideally suited to this evolutionary approach since the modular fuel channel reactor design can be modified, through a series of incremental changes in the reactor core design, to increase the power output and improve the overall safety, economics, and performance. The safety enhancements made in ACR-1000 encompass improved safety margins, performance and reliability of safety related systems. In particular, the use of the CANFLEX-ACR fuel bundle, with lower linear rating and higher critical heat flux, provides increased operating and safety margins. Safety features draw from those of the existing CANDU plants (e.g., the two

  2. Live And Love-Brave Theme Features In Canadian Classical Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fang

    2015-01-01

    Canadian classical works are becoming more and more popular all over the world. People began to understand and mar⁃vel at the Canadian literatures that are quite life-meaningful and full of lessons and tips for lives. The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada's particular history, geography, climate, religion, demographic factors, generation, development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures. The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Litera⁃ture:keep working hard for survival and love bravely. Meanwhile, modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic lit⁃erary works.

  3. Unravelling the mystery of reality : typical Canadian elements in the short stories of Alice Munro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kustec

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary Canadian short story has a specific place among literary genres in Canadian literature. It culminated in the sixties of this century, when the Canadians looked to their literature with greater interest. Canadian short story writers started to write in a different tone, and showed special interest for new themes. After 1960 authors, such as Henry Kreisel, Norman Levine, Anne Hebert, Mavis Gallant, Ethel Wilson, Joyce Marshall, Hugh Hood, Hugh Garner, Margaret Laurence, Audrey Callahan Thomas, Mordecai Richler, and Alice Munro, refused to use the traditional plot, and showed more interest for characterisation. By using a typical Canadian setting, their stories began to reflect social events of their time. A new awareness of identity stepped forward, and above all their stories became a reflection of the diversity of life in all Canadian provinces. The contemporary Canadian short story writers began to overstep the boundaries of their imagination.

  4. Reactor service life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-12-31

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  5. Reactor service life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  6. Cohort Working Life Tables for Older Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer, Byron G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe construct cohort working life tables for Canadian men and women aged 50and older and, for comparison, corresponding period tables. The tables arederived using annual single-age time series of participation rates for 1976-2006from the master files of the Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey. The cohortcalculations are based on stochastic projections of mortality coupled withalternative assumptions about future participation rates. Separate tables areprovided for the years 1976, 1991, and 2006, thus spanning a period ofsubstantial gains in life expectancy and strong upward trends in femaleparticipation. Life expectancies based on the cohort tables are greater thanthose based on the period tables, for both men and women, and that is reflectedin increased retirement expectancies. For example, a male aged 50 in 1976could have expected to live three years longer and to have almost four moreyears in retirement, based on the male cohort table under medium assumptions,as compared with the corresponding period table.RésuméNous avons établis des tables de vie active par génération pour les Canadiens etCanadiennes âgés de 50 ans ou plus ainsi que des tables du momentcorrespondantes pour servir de comparaison. Les tables sont dérivées à l'aidede séries chronologiques annuelles d'un seul âge pour le taux d'activité pour lesannées 1976 à 2006 provenant des fichiers maîtres de l'Enquête sur lapopulation active de Statistique Canada. Les calculs par génération sont baséessur des projections stochastiques de mortalité et sur des suppositions quant àde futurs taux d'activité possibles. Des tables séparées ont été établies pour lesannées 1976, 1991 et 2006 ; ce qui représente une période qui a vu des gainssubstantiels en ce qui concerne l'espérance de vie et une forte hausse d'activitéchez les femmes. Les espérance de vie basées sur les tables par génération sontplus élevées que celles basées sur les tables du

  7. Assessment of torsatrons as reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, J.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Painter, S.L. (Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia))

    1992-12-01

    Stellarators have significant operational advantages over tokamaks as ignited steady-state reactors because stellarators have no dangerous disruptions and no need for continuous current drive or power recirculated to the plasma, both easing the first wall, blanket, and shield design; less severe constraints on the plasma parameters and profiles; and better access for maintenance. This study shows that a reactor based on the torsatron configuration (a stellarator variant) could also have up to double the mass utilization efficiency (MUE) and a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a conventional tokamak reactor (ARIES-I) for a range of assumptions. Torsatron reactors can have much smaller coil systems than tokamak reactors because the coils are closer to the plasma and they have a smaller cross section (higher average current density because of the lower magnetic field). The reactor optimization approach and the costing and component models are those used in the current stage of the ARIES-I tokamak reactor study. Typical reactor parameters for a 1-GW(e) Compact Torsatron reactor example are major radius R[sub 0] = 6.6-8.8 m, on-axis magnetic field B[sup 0] = 4.8-7.5 T, B[sub max] (on coils) = 16 T, MUE 140-210 kW(e)/tonne, and COE (in constant 1990 dollars) = 67-79 mill/kW(e)h. The results are relatively sensitive to assumptions on the level of confinement improvement and the blanket thickness under the inboard half of the helical windings but relatively insensitive to other assumptions.

  8. Concept for LEU Burst Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Design and performance of a proposed LEU burst reactor are sketched. Salient conclusions reached are the following: size would be ~1,500 kg or greater, depending on the size of the central cavity; internal stresses during burst require split rings for relief; the reactor would likely require multiple control and safety rods for fine control; the energy spectrum would be comparable to that of HEU machines; and burst yields and steady-state power levels will be significantly greater in an LEU reactor.

  9. Nuclear reactor downcomer flow deflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Charles B. (Greensburg, PA); Altman, David A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)

    2011-02-15

    A nuclear reactor having a coolant flow deflector secured to a reactor core barrel in line with a coolant inlet nozzle. The flow deflector redirects incoming coolant down an annulus between the core barrel and the reactor vessel. The deflector has a main body with a front side facing the fluid inlet nozzle and a rear side facing the core barrel. The rear side of the main body has at least one protrusion secured to the core barrel so that a gap exists between the rear side of the main body adjacent the protrusion and the core barrel. Preferably, the protrusion is a relief that circumscribes the rear side of the main body.

  10. Safety of VVER-440 reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Slugen, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Safety of VVER-440 Reactors endeavours to promote an increase in the safety of VVER-440 nuclear reactors via the improvement of fission products limitation systems and the implementation of special non-destructive spectroscopic methods for materials testing. All theoretical and experimental studies performed the by author over the last 25 years have been undertaken with the aim of improving VVER-440 defence in depth, which is one of the most important principle for ensuring safety in nuclear power plants. Safety of VVER-440 Reactors is focused on the barrier system through which the safety pri

  11. Random processes in nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, M M R

    1974-01-01

    Random Processes in Nuclear Reactors describes the problems that a nuclear engineer may meet which involve random fluctuations and sets out in detail how they may be interpreted in terms of various models of the reactor system. Chapters set out to discuss topics on the origins of random processes and sources; the general technique to zero-power problems and bring out the basic effect of fission, and fluctuations in the lifetime of neutrons, on the measured response; the interpretation of power reactor noise; and associated problems connected with mechanical, hydraulic and thermal noise sources

  12. Fuel Fabrication and Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The uranium from the enrichment plant is still in the form of UF6. UF6 is not suitable for use in a reactor due to its highly corrosive chemistry as well as its phase diagram. UF6 is converted into UO2 fuel pellets, which are in turn placed in fuel rods and assemblies. Reactor designs are variable in moderators, coolants, fuel, performance etc.The dream of energy ‘too-cheap to meter’ is no more, and now the nuclear power industry is pushing ahead with advanced reactor designs.

  13. Abstracts from the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society Quebec City, April 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, S.; Finch, L.; Sara', A; Muir, Susan; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Kennedy, C. C.; Giangregorio, L. M.; Adachi, J. D.; Morin, S.N.; Crilly, R G; Marr, S; Josse, R G; Matta, J.; Dionne, I.; Payette, H

    2012-01-01

    The opinions expressed in the abstracts are those of the authors and are not to be construed as the opinion of the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) or the organizers of the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society. Although the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) has made every effort to accurately reproduce the abstracts, the Canadian Geriatrics Society and the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society assumes no responsibility and/...

  14. Nuclear reactor PBMR and cogeneration; Reactor nuclear PBMR y cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In recent years the nuclear reactor designs for the electricity generation have increased their costs, so that at the moment costs are managed of around the 5000 US D for installed kw, reason for which a big nuclear plant requires of investments of the order of billions of dollars, the designed reactors as modular of low power seek to lighten the initial investment of a big reactor dividing the power in parts and dividing in modules the components to lower the production costs, this way it can begin to build a module and finished this to build other, differing the long term investment, getting less risk therefore in the investment. On the other hand the reactors of low power can be very useful in regions where is difficult to have access to the electric net being able to take advantage of the thermal energy of the reactor to feed other processes like the water desalination or the vapor generation for the processes industry like the petrochemical, or even more the possible hydrogen production to be used as fuel. In this work the possibility to generate vapor of high quality for the petrochemical industry is described using a spheres bed reactor of high temperature. (Author)

  15. FASTER test reactor preconceptual design report summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The FASTER reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  16. ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav K. Mayevski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a mathematical model of an industrial chemical reactor for production of synthetic rubber. During reactor operation the model parameters vary considerably. To create a control algorithm performed transformation of mathematical model of the reactor in order to obtain a dependency that can be used to determine the model parameters are changing during reactor operation.

  17. FASTER Test Reactor Preconceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The FASTER test reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  18. Breeder Reactors, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Walter, III; Turner, Stanley E.

    The theory of breeder reactors in relationship to a discussion of fission is presented. Different kinds of reactors are characterized by the cooling fluids used, such as liquid metal, gas, and molten salt. The historical development of breeder reactors over the past twenty-five years includes specific examples of reactors. The location and a brief…

  19. Evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, G.A.; Logan, B.G.

    1982-03-09

    We discuss the evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept from the original conceptual reactor design (1977) through the first application of the thermal barrier concept to a reactor design (1979) to the beginning of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (1982).

  20. Canadian tax policy and renewable energy : are the benefits illusory : a comparison of Canadian and US approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chant, A. [Ortech International, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Tax policies for targeted activities such as wind energy need to be efficient and effective in promoting activities that may not otherwise take place. An efficient tax policy will not have unintended consequences that may lead to tax leakage or benefits outside the targeted activity, and will be consistent with other incentives promoting the target activity. This presentation discussed Canadian tax policies related to wind power and then compared them to tax policies in the United States directed at promoting wind energy development. Benefits and subsidies available to Canadian wind energy producers include the ecoEnergy program, the Canadian Renewable and Conservation Expense (CRCE) program; and Class 43.2 directed at high efficiency and renewable energy generation equipment. The Canadian valuation methodology considers capacity factors; capital costs; leverage; interest rates; corporate tax rates; and required equity. While the ecoEnergy program is valuable as it removes the tax risk for the recipient, the CRCE may be more valuable as it does not expire and is not subject to limitations on amounts deductible. Class 43.2 is valuable but constrained by the limitations of a project's income. The United States has a production tax credit (PTC) for wind developers based on a tax credit of $15 per MWh subject to adjustment, and is available for a 10-year period, is transferable to taxable investors, and has a current value of $20. It was concluded that while Canadian subsidies are the equivalent of $7.15, US subsidies are the equivalent of $17. tabs., figs.

  1. The Canadian Dollar versus the Collection: How Canadian University Libraries are Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Scott

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Through 2015 and into 2016, Canadian academic libraries’ collections budgets were severely strained due to the steady decline of the CAD/USD exchange rate. As most subscription fees for electronic resources (e-resources are billed in US dollars, the falling value of the Canadian dollar significantly reduced libraries’ purchasing power. This study is based on a survey of the English-speaking member institutions of the Canadian Research Knowledge Network (CRKN, a Canadian collections consortium, carried out to determine the impact of the poor exchange rate on collections development and how libraries are coping with new budgetary pressures. Librarians from 33 universities provided survey responses. Of these, 22 participated in telephone interviews to further discuss concerns and ideas regarding the current crisis. The study finds that all participant libraries have taken actions to address the budgetary shortfall, including cancelling serial and database subscriptions, negotiating lower costs with vendors, purchasing fewer monographs, and soliciting additional funding from their institutions. While the financial strain resulting from exchange rate fluctuations is indeed a significant problem for which solutions should be sought, several respondents stressed that it only exacerbates the ongoing inflation of e-resource subscriptions. This deeper and enduring issue, which is expected to outlast the present exchange rate crisis, is enabled by an inherently flawed scholarly publishing system. Thus, librarians engaged in discussions with their wider academic communities concerning collections budgets should not focus exclusively on the exchange rate but should leverage the opportunity to explore alternatives to the current scholarly communication model. If solutions exist, they will likely only be achieved through the support of faculty and university administrators, as well as cooperation among post-secondary institutions and library consortia. Au

  2. Jules Horowitz Reactor, basic design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, Y.; Bouilloux, Y.; Chantoin, P.; Guigon, B.; Bravo, X.; Germain, C.; Rommens, M.; Tremodeux, P

    2003-07-01

    Since the shutdown of the SILOE reactor in 1997, the OSIRIS reactor has ensured the needs regarding technological irradiation at CEA including those of its industrial partners and customers. The Jules Horowitz Reactor will replace it. It has the ambition to provide the necessary nuclear data and maintain a fission research capacity in Europe after 2010. This capacity should be service-oriented. It will be established in Cadarache. The Jules Horowitz reactor will also: - represent a significant step in term of performances and experimental capabilities, - be designed with a high flexibility, in order to satisfy the current demand from European industry, research and be able to accommodate future requirements, - reach a high level of safety, according to the best current practice. This paper will present the main functionalities and the design options resulting from the 'preliminary design' studies. (authors)

  3. Advanced Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinaldo M. Machado

    2002-08-15

    Industrial hydrogenation is often performed using a slurry catalyst in large stirred-tank reactors. These systems are inherently problematic in a number of areas, including industrial hygiene, process safety, environmental contamination, waste production, process operability and productivity. This program proposed the development of a practical replacement for the slurry catalysts using a novel fixed-bed monolith catalyst reactor, which could be retrofitted onto an existing stirred-tank reactor and would mitigate many of the minitations and problems associated with slurry catalysts. The full retrofit monolith system, consisting of a recirculation pump, gas/liquid ejector and monolith catalyst, is described as a monolith loop reactor or MLR. The MLR technology can reduce waste and increase raw material efficiency, which reduces the overall energy required to produce specialty and fine chemicals.

  4. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase 1 effort was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) Reactor concept. Unlike...

  5. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1989-12-01

    This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)

  6. Unique features of space reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K.

  7. Thermal Analysis for Mobile Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Mobile reactor design in the paper is consisted of two grades of thermal electric conversion. The first grade is the thermionic conversion inside the core and the second grade is thermocouple conversion

  8. Teaching About Nature's Nuclear Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J M

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring nuclear reactors existed in uranium deposits on Earth long before Enrico Fermi built the first man-made nuclear reactor beneath Staggs Field in 1942. In the story of their discovery, there are important lessons to be learned about scientific inquiry and scientific discovery. Now, there is evidence to suggest that the Earth's magnetic field and Jupiter's atmospheric turbulence are driven by planetary-scale nuclear reactors. The subject of planetocentric nuclear fission reactors can be a jumping off point for stimulating classroom discussions about the nature and implications of planetary energy sources and about the geomagnetic field. But more importantly, the subject can help to bring into focus the importance of discussing, debating, and challenging current thinking in a variety of areas.

  9. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) reactor to efficiently extract oxygen from lunar regolith. Unlike state-of-the-art carbothermal...

  10. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  11. Microchannel Reactors for ISRU Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Susana; Makel, Darby B.; Blizman, Brandon; Ward, Benjamin J.

    2005-02-01

    Affordable planning and execution of prolonged manned space missions depend upon the utilization of local resources and the waste products which are formed in manned spacecraft and surface bases. Successful in-situ resources utilization (ISRU) will require component technologies which provide optimal size, weight, volume, and power efficiency. Microchannel reactors enable the efficient chemical processing of in situ resources. The reactors can be designed for the processes that generate the most benefit for each mission. For instance, propellants (methane) can be produced from carbon dioxide from the Mars atmosphere using the Sabatier reaction and ethylene can be produced from the partial oxidation of methane. A system that synthesizes ethylene could be the precursor for systems to synthesize ethanol and polyethylene. Ethanol can be used as a nutrient for Astrobiology experiments, as well as the production of nutrients for human crew (e.g. sugars). Polyethylene can be used in the construction of habitats, tools, and replacement parts. This paper will present recent developments in miniature chemical reactors using advanced Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and microchannel technology to support ISRU of Mars and lunar missions. Among other applications, the technology has been demonstrated for the Sabatier process and for the partial oxidation of methane. Microchannel reactors were developed based on ceramic substrates as well as metal substrates. In both types of reactors, multiple layers coated with catalytic material are bonded, forming a monolithic structure. Such reactors are readily scalable with the incorporation of extra layers. In addition, this reactor structure minimizes pressure drop and catalyst settling, which are common problems in conventional packed bed reactors.

  12. Reactor antineutrinos and nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    Short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments successfully measured the neutrino parameters they set out to measure, but they also identified a shape distortion in the 5-7 MeV range as well as a reduction from the predicted value of the flux. Nuclear physics input into the calculations of reactor antineutrino spectra needs to be better refined if this anomaly is to be interpreted as due to sterile neutrino states.

  13. Reactor Simulator Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  14. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  15. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashige, Kengo

    1996-06-21

    In an LMFBR type reactor, partitions are disposed to a coolant channel at positions lower than the free liquid level, and the width of the partitions is adapted to have a predetermined condition. Namely, when low temperature fluid overflowing the wall of the coolant channel, flows down and collided against the free liquid surface in the coolant channel, since the dropping speed thereof is reduced abruptly, large pressure waves are caused by kinetic force of the low temperature fluid. However, if appropriate numbers of partitions having an appropriate shape are formed, the dropping speed of the low temperature fluid is moderated to reduce the pressure waves. In addition, since the pressure waves are dispersed to the circumferential and lateral directions of the coolant flow channel respectively, the propagation of the pressure waves can be prevented effectively. Further, when the flow of the low temperature fluid is changed to the circumferential direction, for example, by earthquakes, since the partitions act as members resisting against the circumferential change of the low temperature fluid, the change of the direction can be suppressed. (N.H.)

  16. Calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra in TEXONO

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Dong Liang; Mao Ze Pu; Wong, T H

    2002-01-01

    In the low energy reactor antineutrino physics experiments, either for the researches of antineutrino oscillation and antineutrino reactions, or for the measurement of abnormal magnetic moment of antineutrino, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino must be described accurately. The method of calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra was discussed in detail. Furthermore, based on the actual circumstances of NP2 reactors and the arrangement of detectors, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino in TEXONO were worked out

  17. Tritium management in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1978-05-01

    This is a review paper covering the key environmental and safety issues and how they have been handled in the various magnetic and inertial confinement concepts and reference designs. The issues treated include: tritium accident analyses, tritium process control, occupational safety, HTO formation rate from the gas-phase, disposal of tritium contaminated wastes, and environmental impact--each covering the Joint European Tokamak (J.E.T. experiment), Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), Russian T-20, The Next Step (TNS) designs by Westinghouse/ORNL and General Atomic/ANL, the ANL and ORNL EPR's, the G.A. Doublet Demonstration Reactor, the Italian Fintor-D and the ORNL Demo Studies. There are also the following full scale plant reference designs: UWMAK-III, LASL's Theta Pinch Reactor Design (RTPR), Mirror Fusion Reactor (MFR), Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR), and the Mirror Hybrid Reactor (MHR). There are four laser device breakeven experiments, SHIVA-NOVA, LLL reference designs, ORNL Laser Fusion power plant, the German ''Saturn,'' and LLL's Laser Fusion EPR I and II.

  18. Dietary Sodium Intakes and Food Sources of Sodium in Canadian-Born and Asian-Born Individuals of Chinese Ethnicity at a Canadian University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan Han; Farmer, Anna; Mager, Diana; Willows, Noreen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To document the sodium intake and food sources of sodium of Canadian-born Chinese (CBC) and Asian-born Chinese (ABC) individuals at a Canadian university campus. Participants: Healthy adults aged 18-58 years originating from Canada, China, Hong Kong, or Taiwan were recruited from the University of Alberta (n = 40 CBC, n = 41 ABC)…

  19. Innovative hybrid biological reactors using membranes; Reactores biologico hibrido innovadores utilizando membranas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, R.; Esteban-Garcia, A. L.; Florio, L. de; Rodriguez-Hernandez, L.; Tejero, I.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present two lines of research on hybrid reactors including the use of membranes, although with different functions: RBPM, biofilm reactors and membranes filtration RBSOM, supported biofilm reactors and oxygen membranes. (Author) 14 refs.

  20. Trends and variability in summer sea ice cover in the Canadian Arctic based on the Canadian Ice Service Digital Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, S.; Tivy, A. C.; Alt, B.; McCourt, S.; Chagnon, R.; Crocker, G.; Carrieres, T. G.; Yackel, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Canadian Ice Service Digital Archive (CISDA) is a compilation of weekly ice charts that cover Canadian Waters; the data set is continually updated and it extends back to the early 1960s. The ice charts are represent and integration of remotely sensed sea ice data, surface observations, airborne and ship reports, operational model results and the expertise of experience ice forecasters. Although the accuracy, type and detail of information far exceeds what is attainable from a single satellite source, errors and uncertainties in the data are non-uniform in both space and time. In part one of this study the main sources of uncertainty in the database are reviewed and the data are validated for use in climate studies. In part two, trends and variability in summer sea ice in the Canadian Arctic are investigated using CISDA. These data revealed that between 1968 and 2008, summer sea ice cover has decreased by 8.9% ± 3.1% per decade in Hudson Bay, 2.9% ± 1.2% per decade in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, 8.9% ± 3.1% per decade in Baffin Bay, and 5.2% ± 2.4% per decade in the Beaufort Sea. In general, these reductions in sea ice cover are linked to increases in early summer surface air temperature (SAT); significant increases in SAT were observed in every season and with the exception of the Hudson Bay region they are consistently greater than the pan-Arctic change by up to ~0.2oC per decade. Within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index correlates well with multi-year ice coverage (positive correlation) and first-year ice coverage (negative correlation) suggesting that El Nino episodes precede summers with more multi-year ice and less first-year ice. Extending the trend calculations back to 1960 along the major shipping routes through the Canadian Arctic revealed significant decreases in summer sea ice coverage ranging between 11% and 15% per decade along the shipping route through Hudson Bay, the western

  1. Exporting a Canadian parenting education program to the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, John D; Leon, Tina; Haffey, Sue; Barker, Leslie A S

    2009-01-01

    The framework of a Canadian-developed parent education program, Nobody's Perfect, was used in the development of a new parent education program offered to parents attending a child nutrition rehabilitation program in the Dominican Republic. While key teaching elements of the original program were retained (e.g., encouraging active participation, emphasizing facilitation over didactic teaching, using experiential learning), locally relevant content was inserted (e.g., diarrhea prevention and treatment strategies). A Canadian team trained a group of Dominicans to deliver the new program to parents of children recovering from malnutrition. This paper describes the development, implementation, and resulting parenting program from this effort. This 8-week program may find use in other settings. In addition, the experience gained from this exportation endeavor may be useful for others undertaking similar initiatives.

  2. The influence of power in the Canadian healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenandan-Sookdeo, Kendra-Ann I

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of the literature as it relates to the influence of the word power in the context of the Canadian healthcare system. The concept of power is used to explore issues of gender and the evolution of advanced nurse practice in the development of the Canadian healthcare system. Furthermore, issues related to the call for interprofessional collaboration are addressed. Healthcare workers, in particular nurses, are trusted in a society that seeks, promotes, and aspires for power and control. In addition, societal norms continue to shape our healthcare reform. As a consequence, the discussion centers on a call for true collaboration among our healthcare providers and concludes with implications for nursing.

  3. Gray whale sightings in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, September 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahara, Yuka; Fujiwara, Amane; Ito, Keizo; Miyashita, Kazushi; Mitani, Yoko

    2016-06-01

    Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) are distributed within the productive neritic and estuarine waters of the North Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea, and adjacent waters of the Arctic Ocean. They migrate to high-latitude feeding grounds each spring. Their main feeding grounds in the Arctic include the Chirikov Basin, the northeastern Chukchi Sea from Pt. Hope to Cape Lisburne and Pt. Lay to Pt. Barrow, and the northwestern Chukchi Sea along the Chukotka coast. Although sightings are rare in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, we observed three gray whales in two groups in this area in September 2014. A mud plume was observed near one of the whales, suggesting the animal had been feeding. In the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, large-scale monitoring of the distributions of marine mammals has been continuously conducted since 1979; however, there has been less monitoring in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Therefore, it is necessary to record opportunistic sightings, such as those described here.

  4. Expressive freedom and tobacco advertising: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Christopher P

    2002-03-01

    In 1989, Canada enacted the Tobacco Products Control Act (TPCA), which prohibited tobacco advertising, required health warnings on tobacco packaging, and restricted promotional activities. Canada's tobacco companies challenged the TPCA's constitutionality, arguing that it infringed on freedom of expression. Although it seemed likely that the Canadian Supreme Court would uphold the legislation, in 1995 the court declared the impugned provisions to be unconstitutional. The decision is testimony to the constraining force of liberalism on tobacco regulation, but it is also evidence of the power of political will. While the Canadian government could have used the decision to justify withdrawing from further confrontations with powerful commercial interests, it chose instead to enact new tobacco control legislation in 1997.

  5. Canadian-Acquired Hydatid Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al Saghier

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcal cysts are unusual in Canada, and most cases seen are in immigrants. In northern Canadian communities, Echinococcus granulosis infection occasionally is acquired from dogs that feed on the entrails of caribou or moose. Seventeen patients with Canadian-acquired hydatid cysts were seen over an 11-year period. One challenging case is described in detail. An 18-year-old aboriginal woman presented with jaundice, pain, lower extremity edema and coagulopathy from a 26 cm echinococcal hepatic cyst. She was successfully treated with a combination of oral albendazole, percutaneous drainage and surgery. One-year follow-up showed no recurrence of disease. The management options for echinococcal cysts are extensively reviewed.

  6. 1st Workshop of the Canadian Society for Virology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Craig; Grandvaux, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    The 1st Workshop of the Canadian Society for Virology (CSV2016) was a Special Workshop of the 35th Annual Meeting for the American Society for Virology, held on 18 June 2016 on the beautiful Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, Virginia. The workshop provided a forum for discussion of recent advances in the field, in an informal setting conducive to interaction with colleagues. CSV2016 featured two internationally-renowned Canadian keynote speakers who discussed translational virology research; American Society for Virology President Grant McFadden (then from University of Florida, now relocated to Arizona State University) who presented his studies of oncolytic poxviruses, while Matthew Miller (McMaster University) reviewed the prospects for a universal influenza vaccine. The workshop also featured a variety of trainee oral and poster presentations, and a panel discussion on the topic of the future of the CSV and virus research in Canada. PMID:28335511

  7. Consequences of BSE disease outbreaks in the Canadian beef industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Čechura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines farm to wholesale prices spreads to measure the impact of the BSE disease outbreak on the Canadian beef industry. The study uses structure break tests developed by Gregory and Hansen (1996 and Hansen (1992 examine possible breaks within co integrating relationships. The study finds evidence that the industry began realignment as a result of the UK BSE disease outbreak, and the Canadian BSE disease outbreak was simply the largest realignment of the process beginning with the UK disease outbreak. However, the only statistically significant break was the BSE disease outbreak itself in May 2003. Stability was not restored until the border was reopened in 2005. Specific results indicated that the processing sector exploited the border closure in May 2003 to enhance its market power and that the system returned to a competitive one after the border re-opened in July 2005.

  8. Attitudes Toward Chiropractic: A Survey of Canadian Obstetricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Carol Ann; Stuber, Kent; Barrett, Jon; Greco, Alexandra; Kipershlak, Alexander; Glenn, Tierney; Desjardins, Ryan; Nash, Jennifer; Busse, Jason

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the attitudes of Canadian obstetricians toward chiropractic with a 38-item cross-sectional survey. Ninety-one obstetricians completed the survey, for a response rate of 14% (91 of 659). Overall, 30% of respondents held positive views toward chiropractic, 37% were neutral, and 33% reported negative views. Most (77%) reported that chiropractic care was effective for some musculoskeletal complaints, but 74% disagreed that chiropractic had a role in treatment of non-musculoskeletal conditions. Forty percent of respondents referred at least some patients for chiropractic care each year, and 56% were interested in learning more about chiropractic care. Written comments from respondents revealed concerns regarding safety of spinal manipulation and variability among chiropractors. Canadian obstetricians' attitudes toward chiropractic are diverse and referrals to chiropractic care for their patients who suffer from pregnancy-related low back pain are limited. Improved interprofessional relations may help optimize care of pregnant patients suffering from low back pain.

  9. Current issues in occupational health nursing. A Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C

    1991-07-01

    The National Association of Occupational Health Nurses is still in its infancy and is striving to become an interest group under the umbrella of the Canadian Nurses Association. This will bring together the provincial associations in a common goal of promoting worker health and safety. The diversity of the country and the sheer magnitude of the various occupations of Canadians reflect the need for the occupational health nurse to be well educated and kept abreast of new developments. Changes in the worksite echo changes in health and safety legislation that will help to improve conditions in the workplace. Future challenges arise from changes in the work force and the nature of work and include: ergonomic issues, job stress, older workers, EAPs, and increased competition.

  10. The Use of Phallometric Evidence in Canadian Criminal Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Michael S; Chandler, Jennifer A; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2015-06-01

    The use of phallometric evidence by Canadian criminal courts has steadily increased since the early 1980s. Phallometry was initially considered by courts to be a potentially useful tool in the determination of accused persons' culpability; however, its contemporary use is limited to the postconviction contexts of sentencing and dangerous and long-term offender applications, as one of several means of diagnosing offenders, determining recidivism risk, and assessing treatment prospects. We provide an overview and assessment of the use of phallometric evidence by Canadian criminal courts and conclude that its contemporary application appears to be consistent with the expert psychiatric consensus on its proper role and function in the forensic context. We further identify potential difficulties associated with the adequacy of offenders' consent and the occasional divergence of expert opinion about the reliability and validity of phallometry for diagnosis and risk assessment.

  11. Ebooks Licensing and Canadian Copyright Legislation: A Few Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony G Horava

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebooks have become increasingly common in collection development strategies. The availability and delivery of monographs in digital formats has gained significantly in popularity in many libraries, particularly in the academic sector. Licensing is the common method of acquiring ebooks, whether as a subscription or a purchase. Libraries have had to transform selection and workflow processes in order to acquire ebooks in an efficient manner. Little attention, however, has been paid to the interplay between licensing as a contractual arrangement and the statutory rights available under Canadian copyright law. Fair dealing is a concept of critical importance in Canadian copyright, as it provides the foundation for user rights in support of culture, learning, and innovation. There are other provisions of specific value for libraries, such as interlibrary loans and access by persons with perceptual disabilities. This article will examine these issues and proposes a few strategies that libraries can adopt to ensure that statutory rights are not eroded in licensing agreements

  12. Establishment of licensing process for development reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik (and others)

    2006-02-15

    A study on licensing processes for development reactors has been performed to prepare the licensing of development reactors developed in Korea. The contents and results of the study are summarized as follows. The licensing processes for nuclear reactors in Korea, U.S.A., Japan, France, U.K., Canada, and IAEA were surveyed and analyzed to obtain technical bases necessary for establishing licensing processes applicable to development reactors in Korea. Based on the technical bases obtained the above analysis, the purpose, power output, and design characteristics of development reactors were analyzed in detail. The analysis results suggested that development reactors should be classified as a new reactor category (called as 'development reactor') separated from the current reactor categories such as the research reactor and the power reactor. Therefore, it is proposed to establish a new reactor category classified as 'development reactor' for the development reactors. And licensing processes, including licensing technical requirements, licensing document requirements, and other regulatory requirements, were also proposed for the development reactors. In order to institutionalize the licensing processes developed in this study, it is necessary to revise the current laws. Therefore, draft provisions of Atomic Energy Act, Enforcement Decree of the Atomic Energy Act, and Enforcement Regulation of the Atomic Energy Act have been developed for the preparation of the future legalization of the licensing processes proposed for the development reactors. Conclusively, a proposal of licensing processes and draft provisions of laws have been developed for the development reactors. The results proposed in this study can be applied directly to the licensing of the future development reactors. Furthermore, they will also contribute to establishing successfully the licensing processes of the development reactors.

  13. Repairing liner of the reactor; Reparacion del liner del reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-07-15

    Due to the corrosion problems of the aluminum coating of the reactor pool, a periodic inspections program by ultrasound to evaluate the advance grade and the corrosion speed was settled down. This inspections have shown the necessity to repair some areas, in those that the slimming is significant, of not making it can arrive to the water escape of the reactor pool. The objective of the repair is to place patches of plates of 1/4 inch aluminum thickness in the areas of the reactor 'liner', in those that it has been detected by ultrasound a smaller thickness or similar to 3 mm. To carry out this the fuels are move (of the core and those that are decaying) to a temporary storage, the structure of the core is confined in a tank that this placed inside the pool of the reactor, a shield is placed in the thermal column and it is completely extracted the water for to leave uncover the 'liner' of the reactor. (Author)

  14. Reactor Simulator Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise Jon

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz. Keywords: fission, space power, nuclear, liquid metal, NaK.

  15. Community engagement in US and Canadian medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Adam O.; Rachel Sobel Bearman

    2011-01-01

    Adam O Goldstein, Rachel Sobel BearmanDepartment of Family Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAIntroduction: This study examines the integration of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship at all accredited US and Canadian medical schools in order to better understand and assess their current state of engagement.Methods: A 32-question data abstraction instrument measured the role of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship...

  16. Mercury in the Canadian Arctic terrestrial environment: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberg, Mary; Chételat, John; Poulain, Alexandre J; Zdanowicz, Christian; Zheng, Jiancheng

    2015-03-15

    Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic have been studied over the last twenty years under the guidance of the Northern Contaminants Program. This paper provides the current state of knowledge on mercury (Hg) in the Canadian Arctic terrestrial environment. Snow, ice, and soils on land are key reservoirs for atmospheric deposition and can become sources of Hg through the melting of terrestrial ice and snow and via soil erosion. In the Canadian Arctic, new data have been collected for snow and ice that provide more information on the net accumulation and storage of Hg in the cryosphere. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) in terrestrial snow are highly variable but on average, relatively low (Arctic glaciers are much lower than those reported on terrestrial lowlands or sea ice. Hg in snow may be affected by photochemical exchanges with the atmosphere mediated by marine aerosols and halogens, and by post-depositional redistribution within the snow pack. Regional accumulation rates of THg in Canadian Arctic glaciers varied little during the past century but show evidence of an increasing north-to-south gradient. Temporal trends of THg in glacier cores indicate an abrupt increase in the early 1990 s, possibly due to volcanic emissions, followed by more stable, but relatively elevated levels. Little information is available on Hg concentrations and processes in Arctic soils. Terrestrial Arctic wildlife typically have low levels of THg (<5 μg g(-1) dry weight) in their tissues, although caribou (Rangifer tarandus) can have higher Hg because they consume large amounts of lichen. THg concentrations in the Yukon's Porcupine caribou herd vary among years but there has been no significant increase or decrease over the last two decades.

  17. Strategic Planning for Sustainability in Canadian Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Bieler; Marcia McKenzie

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews representations of sustainability in the strategic plans of Canadian higher education institutions (HEIs). A content analysis of the strategic plans of 50 HEIs was undertaken to determine the extent to which sustainability is included as a significant policy priority in the plans, including across the five domains of governance, education, campus operations, research, and community outreach. We found 41 strategic plans with some discussion of sustainability, and identified ...

  18. The use of neuroscientific evidence in Canadian criminal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Jennifer A

    2015-11-01

    This article addresses the question of how neuroscientific evidence is currently used in the Canadian criminal justice system, with a view to identifying the main contexts in which this evidence is raised, as well as to discern the impact of this evidence on judgements of responsibility, dangerousness, and treatability. The most general Canadian legal database was searched for cases in the five-year period between 2008 and 2012 in which neuroscientific evidence related to the responsibility and recidivism risk of criminal offenders was considered. Canadian courts consider neuroscientific evidence of many types, particularly evidence of prenatal alcohol exposure, traumatic brain injury, and neuropsychological testing. The majority of the cases are sentencing decisions, which is useful given that it offers an opportunity to observe how judges wrestle with the tension that evidence of diminished capacity due to brain damage tends to reduce moral blameworthiness, while it also tends to increase perceptions of risk and dangerousness. This so-called double-edged sword of the biological explanation of criminal behavior was reflected in this study, and raises questions about whether and when the pursuit of such evidence is advisable from the defense perspective.

  19. Attrition of Canadian Internet pharmacy websites: what are the implications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronin, Michael A; Clancy, Kristen M

    2013-01-01

    Background The unavailability of Internet pharmacy websites may impact a consumer’s drug purchases and health care. Objective To address the issue of attrition, a defined set of Canadian Internet pharmacy websites was examined at three separate time intervals. Methods In February to March 2006, 117 distinct, fully functional “Canadian Internet pharmacy” websites were located using the advanced search options of Google and the uniform resource locator (URL) for each website was recorded. To determine website attrition, each of the 117 websites obtained and recorded from the previous study was revisited at two later periods of time within a 4-year period. Results After approximately 4 years and 5 months, only 59 (50.4%) sites were found in the original state. Thirty-four sites (29.1%) had moved to a new URL address and were not functioning as the original Internet pharmacy. For 24 sites (20.5%) the viewer was redirected to another Canadian Internet pharmacy site. Conclusion Of concern for patients if Internet pharmacy sites were suddenly inaccessible would be the disruption of continuity of care. PMID:23983491

  20. The Canadian Astronomy Education and Public Outreach Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    In Canada, astronomers do not have access to science and mathematics education funding such as NSF and NASA provide in the USA. Nevertheless, the Canadian astronomical community has always been very active in education and public outreach (EPO) at the local, provincial, and national level, thanks to the initiative of astronomers -- both professional and amateur -- and their institutions and associations. In 2001, the Canadian astronomical community embarked on a major EPO initiative, led by the Canadian Astronomical Society (CAS) in partnership with the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada (RASC) and other organizations. The initiative was motivated by a new long-range plan for astronomy in Canada, by the availability of modest funding for EPO, by the appearance of astronomy in the school science curriculum in several provinces, and by a heightened national interest in science education and literacy. As Chair of the CAS Education Committee, and coordinator of the EPO initiative, I shall describe its origin, funding, goals and strategies, organization, partnerships, programs, and projects. Supported by a PromoScience grant from NSERC Canada.

  1. Comparison between Canadian Canola Harvest and Export Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthet, Véronique J

    2016-07-20

    Parameters, such as oil, protein, glucosinolates, chlorophyll content and fatty acid composition, were determined using reference methods for both harvest survey samples and Canadian Canola exports. Canola harvest survey and export data were assessed to evaluate if canola harvest survey data can be extrapolated to predict the quality of the Canadian canola exports. There were some differences in some measured parameters between harvest and export data, while other parameters showed little difference. Protein content and fatty acid composition showed very similar data for harvest and export averages. Canadian export data showed lower oil content when compared to the oil content of harvest survey was mainly due to a diluting effect of dockage in the export cargoes which remained constant over the years (1.7% to 1.9%). Chlorophyll was the least predictable parameter; dockage quality as well as commingling of the other grades in Canola No. 1 Canada affected the chlorophyll content of the exports. Free fatty acids (FFA) were also different for the export and harvest survey. FFA levels are affected by storage conditions; they increase during the shipping season and, therefore, are difficult to predict from their harvest survey averages.

  2. Canadian R&D on oil-fired integrated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, A.C.S.; Entchev, E. [CCRL/ERL/CANMET, Ottawa (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    This presentation will describe research and development presently being conducted on oil-fired space and water heating systems at the Combustion & Carbonization Research Laboratory (CCRL) in Ottawa, Canada. It will focus on R& D activities at CCRL in support of the Canadian Oil Heat Association (COHA); in particular, progress will be reported on activities to develop suitable oil-fired integrated systems to satisfy the low energy demands of new homes and to define outstanding issues and recommend solutions relating to sidewall venting, particularly in cold climates. Additional activities to be discussed relate to the development of appropriate seasonal efficiency standards for oil-fired combustion systems, in support of Canadian federal and provincial policy initiatives. The first activity in this standards area is a determination of the most appropriate measure of seasonal efficiency of complex integrated space/water heating systems. Performance of a range of existing and prototype integrated systems will be examined and their overall performances defined, using heat loss, heat balance and combined methods, for a wide range of cyclic operations and demands. The draft standard may be either a (slight or detailed) modification of the existing ASHRAE standard, or may be a new more appropriate test and analysis procedure, for the range of present and future systems suitable for Canadian applications in both new, low energy housing and in existing housing. The second standards activity is the development of an appropriate measure for the seasonal efficiency of sidewall vented oil-fired appliances.

  3. Comparison between Canadian Canola Harvest and Export Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique J. Barthet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Parameters, such as oil, protein, glucosinolates, chlorophyll content and fatty acid composition, were determined using reference methods for both harvest survey samples and Canadian Canola exports. Canola harvest survey and export data were assessed to evaluate if canola harvest survey data can be extrapolated to predict the quality of the Canadian canola exports. There were some differences in some measured parameters between harvest and export data, while other parameters showed little difference. Protein content and fatty acid composition showed very similar data for harvest and export averages. Canadian export data showed lower oil content when compared to the oil content of harvest survey was mainly due to a diluting effect of dockage in the export cargoes which remained constant over the years (1.7% to 1.9%. Chlorophyll was the least predictable parameter; dockage quality as well as commingling of the other grades in Canola No. 1 Canada affected the chlorophyll content of the exports. Free fatty acids (FFA were also different for the export and harvest survey. FFA levels are affected by storage conditions; they increase during the shipping season and, therefore, are difficult to predict from their harvest survey averages.

  4. Antioxidant activity of selected wild Canadian prairie fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Klensporf-Pawlik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Canadian prairies are a habitat for unique wild plants. The main object of the present study was to investigate phytochemicals content and antioxidant activity in seven wild Canadian prairie fruits. Material and methods. The presence of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity were identified in the extracts according to standard procedure. Results. Wild rose had the highest amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids, whereas elderberry ex- hibited the highest amount of anthocyanins. All extracts showed good scavenging activities towards DPPH radicals. The results showed a good linear relationship between oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total phenolics indicating that radicals are scavenged at a greater rate as the total phenolics content increases. Addi- tionally, all extracts when applied at concentration of 800 ppm, showed ability to inhibit oxidation of canola oil. In SOT test the best results were obtained when extract of American mountain ash was used. In general, wild rose followed by American mountain ash demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity among assessed Canadian prairie fruits. Conclusion. From the results it can be concluded that prairie fruit extracts are a rich source of phenolic compounds and poses a high antioxidant activity, confirmed by assessment with different type of radicals employed.

  5. Coalbed methane : Canadian potential : is it analogous to the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatens, M. [MGV Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    A historical review of coalbed methane (CBM) evolution in North America was presented with reference to development in Canada and recent advances in technology. The Canadian CBM resource is estimated at several hundred Tcf. It was noted that the characteristics of CBM development in Canada are unique. The issues faced in Canadian CBM basins are different from those in the United States. Non-technical issues, such as CBM ownership and environmental concerns in the United States are having a growing impact on the pace of Canadian CBM development. For example, the problem of handling produced water in the Powder River Basin is inhibiting Canadian CBM development. However, the author pointed out that there is no produced water in Canadian CBM development. The author emphasized that stakeholders should be educated in Canadian CBM facts to ensure that CBM development in Canada proceeds responsibly, without confusion of U.S. issues that are non-issues in Canada.

  6. Job displacement effects of Canadian immigrants by country of origin and occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A S

    1997-01-01

    "Some previous Canadian studies have shown that considering the labor market as a whole and also pooling all immigrants as a group, immigrants do not have any job displacement effects on the Canadian born. This study presents some new evidence. It disaggregates immigrants by country of origin and by occupation groups and provides an analysis of job displacement effects of immigrants on the native-born Canadians by these dimensions. The study finds that (1) U.S. immigrants and the Canadians are substitutes [for] competing groups in the labor market and the effect is quite significant; (2) Canadians and Europeans are competing groups in certain occupations, while they have complementary skills in others; and (3) immigrants from the Third World and the Canadians are slightly competing groups in certain occupations."

  7. Reactivity determination in accelerator driven reactors using reactor noise analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Ljiljana 1

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Feynman-alpha and Rossi-alpha methods are used in traditional nuclear reactors to determine the subcritical reactivity of a system. The methods are based on the measurement of the mean value, variance and the covariance of detector counts for different measurement times. Such methods attracted renewed attention recently with the advent of the so-called accelerator driven reactors (ADS proposed some time ago. The ADS systems, intended to be used either in energy generation or transuranium transmutation, will use a subcritical core with a strong spallation source. A spallation source has statistical properties that are different from those traditionally used by radioactive sources. In such reactors the monitoring of the subcritical reactivity is very important, and a statistical method, such as the Feynman-alpha method, is capable of resolving this problem.

  8. The Canadian community health survey as a potential recruitment vehicle for the Canadian longitudinal study on aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Christina; Raina, Parminder S; Kirkland, Susan A; Pelletier, Amélie; Uniat, Jennifer; Furlini, Linda; Angus, Camille L; Strople, Geoff; Keshavarz, Homa; Szala-Meneok, Karen

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTThe goal of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) is to recruit 50,000 participants aged 45 to 85 years of age and follow them for at least 20 years. The sampling and recruitment processes for a study of this scope and magnitude present important challenges. Statistics Canada was approached to collaborate with the CLSA with the goal of determining whether the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) could be used as a recruitment vehicle for the CLSA. In this pilot study conducted in 2004, it was determined that 63.8 per cent and 75.8 per cent of the respondents agreed to share their contact information and their survey responses with the CLSA, respectively. The most commonly reported concerns were confidentiality/privacy issues, lack of interest, and commitment issues. This pilot study identified some challenges to the use of the CCHS as a recruitment vehicle for the CLSA.

  9. What Makes a Leader: Identifying the Strengths of Canadian Physical Therapists

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Zachary; Bruxer, Ashley; Lee, Jonathan; Sims, Katelin; Wainwright, Matthew; Brooks, Dina; Desveaux, Laura

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the personal strengths of Canadian physical therapists who hold leadership positions and compare them with the strengths of Canadian physical therapists who do not occupy positions of leadership. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional online survey was distributed to registered Canadian physical therapists. We used the Clifton StrengthsFinder to evaluate 34 characteristics and determine which characteristics described a participant's strengths. Population demog...

  10. Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Bays

    2007-09-01

    The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

  11. Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical pr...

  12. Canadian Space Agency Space Station Freedom utilization plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, James; Wilkinson, Ron

    Under the terms of the NASA/CSA Memorandum of Understanding, Canada will contribute the Mobile Servicing System and be entitled to use 3 percent of all Space Station utilization resources and user accommodations over the 30 year life of the Station. Equally importantly Canada, like NASA, can begin to exploit these benefits as soon as the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) phase begins, in early 1997. Canada has been preparing its scientific community to fully utilize the Space Station for the past five years; most specifically by encouraging, and providing funding, in the area of Materials Science and Applications, and in the area of Space Life Sciences. The goal has been to develop potential applications and an experienced and proficient Canadian community able to effectively utilize microgravity environment facilities such as Space Station Freedom. In addition, CSA is currently supporting four facilities; a Laser Test System, a Large Motion Isolation Mount, a Canadian Float Zone Furnace, and a Canadian Protein Crystallization Apparatus. In late April of this year CSA sent out a Solicitation of Interest (SOI) to potential Canadian user from universities, industry, and government. The intent of the SOI was to determine who was interested, and the type of payloads which the community at large intended to propose. The SOI will be followed by the release of an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) following governmental approval of the Long Term Space plan later this year, or early next year. Responses to the AO will be evaluated and prioritized in a fair and impartial payload selection process, within the guidelines set by our international partners and the Canadian Government. Payload selection is relatively simple compared to the development and qualification process. An end-to-end user support program is therefore also being defined. Much of this support will be provided at the new headquarters currently being built in St. Hubert, Quebec. It is recognized that utilizing the

  13. Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Miyadera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.

  14. Fast breeder reactors an engineering introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, A M

    1981-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors: An Engineering Introduction is an introductory text to fast breeder reactors and covers topics ranging from reactor physics and design to engineering and safety considerations. Reactor fuels, coolant circuits, steam plants, and control systems are also discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with a brief summary of the history of fast reactors, with emphasis on international and the prospect of making accessible enormous reserves of energy. The next chapter deals with the physics of fast reactors and considers calculation methods, flux distribution,

  15. U. S. consumer perceptions of U. S. and Canadian beef quality grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, J L; Rodas-González, A; Garmyn, A J; Brooks, J C; Johnson, B J; Starkey, J D; Clark, G O; Derington, A J; Collins, J A; Miller, M F

    2014-08-01

    A U.S. consumer (n = 642) study (Baltimore, MD; Phoenix, AZ; and Lubbock, TX) was conducted to compare consumer sensory scores of U.S. beef (83 USDA Choice [Choice] and 96 USDA Select [Select]) and Canadian beef (77 AAA and 82 AA) strip loins. Strip loins (n = 338) were obtained from beef processors in Canada and the United States and were wet aged until 21 d postmortem at 2°C. Marbling scores were assigned at 21 d and loins were paired according to quality grades and marbling score. Strip loins were fabricated into 2.54-cm thick steaks; steaks were vacuum packaged and frozen until further evaluations. Proximate analysis was performed to compare fat, moisture, and protein. Choice and Canadian AAA had similar marbling scores and intramuscular fat. Both Choice and Canadian AAA had greater (P grades (P > 0.05). Consumers' opinions did not differ when comparing equivalent grades (Choice with Canadian AAA and Select with Canadian AA), but they rated Choice and Canadian AAA more palatable than Select and Canadian AA for all sensory attributes (P grade carcasses (Choice and Canadian AAA) than lower quality grade carcasses (Select and Canada AA). Additionally, consumers gave their opinion of Canadian beef, where its quality and safety were rated as "good" to "excellent" for both attributes (76.72% and 88.36%, respectively; P grades; however, strip loin steaks from higher quality grades were more palatable than lower quality grades according to consumer scores for eating quality traits.

  16. As Canadian as possible ... under what circumstances?: Public opinion on national identity in Canada outside Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Public opinion on national identity in Canada is changing. Using data from the International Social Science Programme, this essay presents evidence that most Canadians have a strong national identity rooted in universal conceptions that everyone can share, such as citizenship. Data also show, however, that a growing number of Canadians define their national identity narrowly, such as through birthplace and religion. Drawing on research from social psychology, the essay suggests that theories of Canadian identity need to take into account the fact that many Canadians have strong national identities that do not fit cleanly into the civic/ethnic theoretical dichotomy.

  17. Antimicrobial Resistance among Salmonella and Shigella Isolates in Five Canadian Provinces (1997 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah J Martin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR among Salmonella and Shigella isolates reported in five Canadian provinces, focusing on clinically important antimicrobials.

  18. Noninvasive Ventilation Practice Patterns for Acute Respiratory Failure in Canadian Tertiary Care Centres: A Descriptive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève C Digby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extent of noninvasive ventilation (NIV use for patients with acute respiratory failure in Canadian hospitals, indications for use and associated outcomes are unknown.

  19. Plasma reactor waste management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Robert O., Jr.; Rindt, John R.; Ness, Sumitra R.

    1992-01-01

    The University of North Dakota is developing a plasma reactor system for use in closed-loop processing that includes biological, materials, manufacturing, and waste processing. Direct-current, high-frequency, or microwave discharges will be used to produce plasmas for the treatment of materials. The plasma reactors offer several advantages over other systems, including low operating temperatures, low operating pressures, mechanical simplicity, and relatively safe operation. Human fecal material, sunflowers, oats, soybeans, and plastic were oxidized in a batch plasma reactor. Over 98 percent of the organic material was converted to gaseous products. The solids were then analyzed and a large amount of water and acid-soluble materials were detected. These materials could possibly be used as nutrients for biological systems.

  20. Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Chavez-Mercado; Jaime B. Morales-Sandoval; Benjamin E. Zayas-Perez

    1998-12-31

    The Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory (NREAL) is a sophisticated computer system with state-of-the-art analytical tools and technology for analysis of light water reactors. Multiple application software tools can be activated to carry out different analyses and studies such as nuclear fuel reload evaluation, safety operation margin measurement, transient and severe accident analysis, nuclear reactor instability, operator training, normal and emergency procedures optimization, and human factors engineering studies. An advanced graphic interface, driven through touch-sensitive screens, provides the means to interact with specialized software and nuclear codes. The interface allows the visualization and control of all observable variables in a nuclear power plant (NPP), as well as a selected set of nonobservable or not directly controllable variables from conventional control panels.

  1. Utilisation of thorium in reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaman, K.; Shivakumar, V.; Saha, D.

    2008-12-01

    India's nuclear programme envisages a large-scale utilisation of thorium, as it has limited deposits of uranium but vast deposits of thorium. The large-scale utilisation of thorium requires the adoption of closed fuel cycle. The stable nature of thoria and the radiological issues associated with thoria poses challenges in the adoption of a closed fuel cycle. A thorium fuel based Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being planned to provide impetus to development of technologies for the closed thorium fuel cycle. Thoria fuel has been loaded in Indian reactors and test irradiations have been carried out with (Th-Pu) MOX fuel. Irradiated thorium assemblies have been reprocessed and the separated 233U fuel has been used for test reactor KAMINI. The paper highlights the Indian experience with the use of thorium and brings out various issues associated with the thorium cycle.

  2. A tubular focused sonochemistry reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuangPing; LIANG ZhaoFeng; LI ZhengZhong; ZHANG YiHui

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new sonochemistry reactor, which consists of a cylindrical tube with a certain length and piezoelectric transducers at tube's end with the longitudinal vibration. The tube can effectively transform the longitudinal vibration into the radial vibration and thereby generates ultrasound. Furthermore, ultrasound can be focused to form high-intensity ultrasonic field inside tube. The reactor boasts of simple structure and its whole vessel wall can radiate ultrasound so that the electroacoustic transfer efficiency is high. The focused ultrasonic field provides good condition for sonochemical reaction. The length of the reactor can be up to 2 meters, and liquids can pass through it continuously, so it can be widely applied in liquid processing such as sonochemistry.

  3. A compact Tokamak transmutation reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuLi-Jian; XiaoBing-Jia

    1997-01-01

    The low aspect ration tokamak is proposed for the driver of a transmutation reactor.The main parameters of the reactor core,neutronic analysis of the blanket are given>the neutron wall loading can be lowered from the magnitude order of 1 MW/m2 to 0.5MW/m2 which is much easier to reach in the near future,and the transmutation efficiency (fission/absorption ratio)is raised further.The blanket power density is about 200MW/m3 which is not difficult to deal with.The key components such as diverter and center conductor post are also designed and compared with conventional TOkamak,Finally,by comparison with the other drivers such as FBR,PWR and accelerator,it can be anticipated that the low aspect ratio transmutation reactor would be one way of fusion energy applications in the near future.

  4. Investigation of KW reactor incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturges, D G [USAEC Hanford Operations Office, Richland, WA (United States); Hauff, T W; Greager, O H [General Electric Co., Richland, WA (United States). Hanford Atomic Products Operation

    1955-02-11

    The new KW reactor was placed in operation on January 4, 1955, and had been running at relatively low power levels for only 17 hours when it was shut down because of a process tube water leak which appeared to be associated with a slug rupture. After several days of unrewarding effort to remove the slugs and tube by customary methods, it developed that considerable melting of the tube and slugs had taken place. It was then evident that removal of the stuck mass and repairs to the damaged tube channel would require unusual measures that were certain to extend the reactor outage for several weeks. This report documents the work and findings of the Committee which investigated the KW reactor incident. Its content represents unanimous agreement among the three Committee members.

  5. Fundamentals of Nuclear Reactor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, E E

    2008-01-01

    This new streamlined text offers a one-semester treatment of the essentials of how the fission nuclear reactor works, the various approaches to the design of reactors, and their safe and efficient operation. The book includes numerous worked-out examples and end-of-chapter questions to help reinforce the knowledge presented. This textbook offers an engineering-oriented introduction to nuclear physics, with a particular focus on how those physics are put to work in the service of generating nuclear-based power, particularly the importance of neutron reactions and neutron behavior. Engin

  6. PITR: Princeton Ignition Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The principal objectives of the PITR - Princeton Ignition Test Reactor - are to demonstrate the attainment of thermonuclear ignition in deuterium-tritium, and to develop optimal start-up techniques for plasma heating and current induction, in order to determine the most favorable means of reducing the size and cost of tokamak power reactors. This report describes the status of the plasma and engineering design features of the PITR. The PITR geometry is chosen to provide the highest MHD-stable values of beta in a D-shaped plasma, as well as ease of access for remote handling and neutral-beam injection.

  7. Analysis of Adiabatic Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erald Gjonaj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of acetic anhydride is reacted with excess water in an adiabatic batch reactor to form an exothermic reaction. The concentration of acetic anhydride and the temperature inside the adiabatic batch reactor are calculated with an initial temperature of 20°C, an initial temperature of 30°C, and with a cooling jacket maintaining the temperature at a constant of 20°C. The graphs of the three different scenarios show that the highest temperatures will cause the reaction to occur faster.

  8. External fuel thermionic reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    Thermionic reactors are prime candidates for nuclear electric propulsion. The national thermionic reactor effort is concentrated on the flashlight concept with the external-fuel concept as the backup. The external-fuel concept is very adaptable to a completely modular power subsystem which is attractive for highly reliable long-life applications. The 20- to 25-cm long, externally-fueled converters have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested with many thermal cycles by electrical heating. However, difficulties have been encountered during encapsulation for nuclear heated tests and none have been started to date. These nuclear tests are required to demonstrate the concept feasibility.

  9. Request for Naval Reactors Comment on Proposed Prometheus Space Flight Nuclear Reactor High Tier Reactor Safety Requirements and for Naval Reactors Approval to Transmit These Requirements to JPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Kokkinos

    2005-04-28

    The purpose of this letter is to request Naval Reactors comments on the nuclear reactor high tier requirements for the PROMETHEUS space flight reactor design, pre-launch operations, launch, ascent, operation, and disposal, and to request Naval Reactors approval to transmit these requirements to Jet Propulsion Laboratory to ensure consistency between the reactor safety requirements and the spacecraft safety requirements. The proposed PROMETHEUS nuclear reactor high tier safety requirements are consistent with the long standing safety culture of the Naval Reactors Program and its commitment to protecting the health and safety of the public and the environment. In addition, the philosophy on which these requirements are based is consistent with the Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group recommendations on space nuclear propulsion safety (Reference 1), DOE Nuclear Safety Criteria and Specifications for Space Nuclear Reactors (Reference 2), the Nuclear Space Power Safety and Facility Guidelines Study of the Applied Physics Laboratory.

  10. Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.V.; Johnson, A.G.; Bennett, S.L.; Ringle, J.C.

    1979-08-31

    The use of the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor during the year ending June 30, 1979, is summarized. Environmental and radiation protection data related to reactor operation and effluents are included.

  11. Reactor Antineutrino Signals at Morton and Boulby

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the distance from which an antineutrino detector is capable of monitoring the operation of a registered reactor, or discovering a clandestine reactor, strengthens the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty. This report presents calculations of reactor antineutrino interactions, from quasi-elastic neutrino-proton scattering and elastic neutrino-electron scattering, in a water-based detector operated >10 km from a commercial power reactor. It separately calculates signal from the proximal reactor and background from all other registered reactors. The main results are interaction rates and kinetic energy distributions of charged leptons scattered from quasi-elastic and elastic processes. Comparing signal and background distributions evaluates reactor monitoring capability. Scaling the results to detectors of different sizes, target media, and standoff distances is straightforward. Calculations are for two examples of a commercial reactor (P_th~3 GW) operating nearby (L~20 km) an underground facil...

  12. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides.

  13. Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-02-01

    The Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (LEFR) is a modular, lab scale, single-user reactor for the study of catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP). This system can be employed to study a variety of reactor conditions for both in situ and ex situ CFP.

  14. Some new viewpoints in reactor noise analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗征培; 李富; 等

    1996-01-01

    It is propsed that the linearity criterion and order criterion via frequency spectrum features without any limitation of the model's phase can be used in reactor noise analysis.The time constant,natural frequency as well as the recovered transfer function of reactors can bhe obtained via the analyzable model based on reactor noise.

  15. Heat-pipe thermionic reactor concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm Pedersen, E.

    1967-01-01

    Main components are reactor core, heat pipe, thermionic converter, secondary cooling system, and waste heat radiator; thermal power generated in reactor core is transported by heat pipes to thermionic converters located outside reactor core behind radiation shield; thermionic emitters are in direct...

  16. Heavy Water Reactor; Reacteurs a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, St.; HOpwood, J.; Meneley, D. [Energie Atomique du Canada (Canada)

    2000-04-01

    This document deals with the Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) technology and especially the Candu (Canada Deuterium Uranium) reactor. This reactors type offers many advantages that promote them for the future. General concepts, a description of the Candu nuclear power plants, the safety systems, the fuel cycle and economical and environmental aspects are included. (A.L.B.)

  17. Operating Modes Of Chemical Reactors Of Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meruyert Berdieva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the work the issues of stable technological modes of operation of main devices of producing polysterol reactors have been researched as well as modes of stable operation of a chemical reactor have been presented, which enables to create optimum mode parameters of polymerization process, to prevent emergency situations of chemical reactor operation in industrial conditions.

  18. Nuclear Reactors and Technology; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on EDB and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to EDB, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user's needs.

  19. A Simple Tubular Reactor Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Robert R.; Cayrol, Bertrand

    1981-01-01

    Using the hydrolysis of crystal violet dye by sodium hydroxide as an example, the theory, apparatus, and procedure for a laboratory demonstration of tubular reactor behavior are described. The reaction presented can occur at room temperature and features a color change to reinforce measured results. (WB)

  20. Silica-Immobilized Enzyme Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    immobilized artificial membrane chromatography and lysophospholipid micellar electrokinetic chromatography . J. Chromatogr. A 1998, 810, 95-103. 50...Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies. Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing Directorate Airbase...immobilized enzyme reactors (IMERs) can also be integrated directly to further analytical methods such as liquid chromatography or mass spectrometry.[6] In

  1. British high flux beam reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelstaff, P A

    1970-10-24

    The neutron scattering technique has become an accepted method for the study of condensed matter. Because of the great scientific and technical value of neutron experiments and the growing body of users, several proposals have been made during the past decade for a nuclear reactor devoted primarily to this technique. This article reviews the reasons for and history behind these proposals.

  2. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of IPEN produces nuclear fuel for the continuous operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN. The serial production started in 1988, when the first nuclear fuel element was delivered for IEA-R1. In 2011, CCN proudly presents the 100{sup th} nuclear fuel element produced. Besides routine production, development of new technologies is also a permanent concern at CCN. In 2005, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were replaced by U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-based fuels, and the research of U Mo is currently under investigation. Additionally, the Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB), whose project will rely on the CCN for supplying fuel and uranium targets. Evolving from an annual production from 10 to 70 nuclear fuel elements, plus a thousand uranium targets, is a huge and challenging task. To accomplish it, a new and modern Nuclear Fuel Factory is being concluded, and it will provide not only structure for scaling up, but also a safer and greener production. The Nuclear Engineering Center has shown, along several years, expertise in the field of nuclear, energy systems and correlated areas. Due to the experience obtained during decades in research and technological development at Brazilian Nuclear Program, personnel has been trained and started to actively participate in design of the main system that will compose the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) which will make Brazil self-sufficient in production of radiopharmaceuticals. The institution has participated in the monitoring and technical support concerning the safety, licensing and modernization of the research reactors IPEN/MB-01 and IEA-R1. Along the last two decades, numerous specialized services of engineering for the Brazilian nuclear power plants Angra 1 and Angra 2 have been carried out. The contribution in service, research, training, and teaching in addition to the development of many related technologies applied to nuclear engineering and correlated areas enable the institution to

  3. Experience with Emergency Ultrasound Training by Canadian Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Starting in 2008, emergency ultrasound (EUS was introduced as a core competency to the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (Royal College emergency medicine (EM training standards. The Royal College accredits postgraduate EM specialty training in Canada through 5-year residency programs. The objective of this study is to describe both the current experience with and the perceptions of EUS by Canadian Royal College EM senior residents. Methods: This was a web-based survey conducted from January to March 2011 of all 39 Canadian Royal College postgraduate fifth-year (PGY-5 EM residents. Main outcome measures were characteristics of EUS training and perceptions of EUS. Results: Survey response rate was 95% (37/39. EUS was part of the formal residency curriculum for 86% of respondents (32/37. Residents most commonly received training in focused assessment with sonography for trauma, intrauterine pregnancy, abdominal aortic aneurysm, cardiac, and procedural guidance. Although the most commonly provided instructional material (86% [32/37] was an ultrasound course, 73% (27/37 of residents used educational resources outside of residency training to supplement their ultrasound knowledge. Most residents (95% [35/37] made clinical decisions and patient dispositions based on their EUS interpretation without a consultative study by radiology. Residents had very favorable perceptions and opinions of EUS. Conclusion: EUS training in Royal College EM programs was prevalent and perceived favorably by residents, but there was heterogeneity in resident training and practice of EUS. This suggests variability in both the level and quality of EUS training in Canadian Royal College EM residency programs.

  4. Perceived lactose intolerance in adult Canadians: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan I

    2013-08-01

    Although double-blind studies show that lactose-intolerant individuals can consume moderate quantities of milk products without perceptible symptoms, many who perceive that they are lactose intolerant limit or avoid milk products, potentially compromising calcium and vitamin D intakes. Adult Canadians are at risk of inadequate intakes of these nutrients, but no data exist on the prevalence, correlates, and potential impact of perceived lactose intolerance among Canadians. To address this, a Web-based survey of a population-representative sample of 2251 Canadians aged ≥19 years was conducted. Overall, 16% self-reported lactose intolerance. This was more common in women (odds ratio (OR), 1.84; 95% CI, 1.46-2.33) and in nonwhites (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.24-2.58) and less common in those >50 years of age (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.90) and in those completing the survey in French (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99). Those with self-reported lactose intolerance had lower covariate-adjusted milk product and alternative intakes (mean ± SE; 1.40 ± 0.08 servings·day(-1) vs. 2.33 ± 0.03 servings·day(-1), p lactose intolerance by sex, age, and language preference was unexpected and suggests that some groups may be more vulnerable to the perception that they are lactose intolerant. Regardless of whether lactose intolerance is physiologically based or perceptual, education is required to ensure that calcium intakes are not compromised.

  5. Tele-Epidemiology and Public Health in the Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeau, Stephanie; Kotchi, Serge Olivier; Ludwig, Antoinette; Turgeon, Patricia; Pelcat, Yann; Aube, Guy; Ogden, Nicholas H.

    2016-08-01

    The management of key public health issues requires solid evidence-based knowledge for the prevention and control of various emerging or re-emerging vector borne diseases (e.g. Lyme disease, West Nile virus, etc.) and environmentally-linked diseases (e.g. enteric infections from recreational water contamination). Earth observation (EO) images enhance knowledge and capacity to characterize risk of illness across the vast Canadian territory by deriving new and up-to-date data from population, climatic and environmental determinants of health relevant to public health actions such as risk mapping, risk communication and identification of vulnerable populations.Modeling of infectious disease transmission has made possible the identification of risk areas and the underlying factors (human activities, ecology, environment and climate) that may explain this emergence. New data products derived from Earth observation satellites pertaining to climate, land cover and land use, and distribution and density of animal and human populations have greatly improved the resolution and the specificity of explanatory and predictive models.This article focuses on the scope of tele-epidemiology activities of the Canadian public health community as well as current and potential future fields of application for Earth observation data. It will demonstrate the strength, sustainability and innovative character of these approaches to improve scale-dependent decision- making at different levels of government in Canada (federal, provincial/territorial and regional) and increase the efficiency of many preventive, preparedness and response actions.Examples of tele-epidemiology applications will be presented such as the risk assessment of microbial contamination of recreational waters and modelling the risk of vector borne diseases in the Canadian context.

  6. Environmental contaminants and human health in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, S G; Van Oostdam, J; Tikhonov, C; Feeley, M; Armstrong, B; Ayotte, P; Boucher, O; Bowers, W; Chan, L; Dallaire, F; Dallaire, R; Dewailly, E; Edwards, J; Egeland, G M; Fontaine, J; Furgal, C; Leech, T; Loring, E; Muckle, G; Nancarrow, T; Pereg, D; Plusquellec, P; Potyrala, M; Receveur, O; Shearer, R G

    2010-10-15

    The third Canadian Arctic Human Health Assessment conducted under the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), in association with the circumpolar Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), addresses concerns about possible adverse health effects in individuals exposed to environmental contaminants through a diet containing country foods. The objectives here are to: 1) provide data on changes in human contaminant concentrations and exposure among Canadian Arctic peoples; 2) identify new contaminants of concern; 3) discuss possible health effects; 4) outline risk communication about contaminants in country food; and 5) identify knowledge gaps for future contaminant research and monitoring. The nutritional and cultural benefits of country foods are substantial; however, some dietary studies suggest declines in the amount of country foods being consumed. Significant declines were found for most contaminants in maternal blood over the last 10 years within all three Arctic regions studied. Inuit continue to have the highest levels of almost all persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among the ethnic groups studied. A greater proportion of people in the East exceed Health Canada's guidelines for PCBs and mercury, although the proportion of mothers exceeding these guidelines has decreased since the previous assessment. Further monitoring and research are required to assess trends and health effects of emerging contaminants. Infant development studies have shown possible subtle effects of prenatal exposure to heavy metals and some POPs on immune system function and neurodevelopment. New data suggest important beneficial effects on brain development for Inuit infants from some country food nutrients. The most successful risk communication processes balance the risks and benefits of a diet of country food through input from a variety of regional experts and the community, to incorporate the many socio-cultural and economic factors to arrive at a risk

  7. Patterns of DNA barcode variation in Canadian marine molluscs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara K S Layton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molluscs are the most diverse marine phylum and this high diversity has resulted in considerable taxonomic problems. Because the number of species in Canadian oceans remains uncertain, there is a need to incorporate molecular methods into species identifications. A 648 base pair segment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene has proven useful for the identification and discovery of species in many animal lineages. While the utility of DNA barcoding in molluscs has been demonstrated in other studies, this is the first effort to construct a DNA barcode registry for marine molluscs across such a large geographic area. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study examines patterns of DNA barcode variation in 227 species of Canadian marine molluscs. Intraspecific sequence divergences ranged from 0-26.4% and a barcode gap existed for most taxa. Eleven cases of relatively deep (>2% intraspecific divergence were detected, suggesting the possible presence of overlooked species. Structural variation was detected in COI with indels found in 37 species, mostly bivalves. Some indels were present in divergent lineages, primarily in the region of the first external loop, suggesting certain areas are hotspots for change. Lastly, mean GC content varied substantially among orders (24.5%-46.5%, and showed a significant positive correlation with nearest neighbour distances. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DNA barcoding is an effective tool for the identification of Canadian marine molluscs and for revealing possible cases of overlooked species. Some species with deep intraspecific divergence showed a biogeographic partition between lineages on the Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific coasts, suggesting the role of Pleistocene glaciations in the subdivision of their populations. Indels were prevalent in the barcode region of the COI gene in bivalves and gastropods. This study highlights the efficacy of DNA barcoding for providing insights into sequence variation

  8. How Well do Canadian Distance Education Students Understand Plagiarism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Ann Kier

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This project ascertains how well students taking online, distance education courses at a Canadian university recognize plagiarised material and how well they paraphrase. It also assesses the types of errors made. Slightly more than half of 420 psychology students correctly selected plagiarised phrases from four multiple choice questions. Only a minority was able to rewrite a phrase properly in their own words. A more diverse sample of university students also had difficulty recognizing plagiarised passages from multiple choice options. The poor ability of students to identify plagiarised passages may suggest poor understanding of the concept. Students may benefit from training to improve their understanding of plagiarism.

  9. Indigenous housing and health in the Canadian North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julia

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I explore the relationship between housing, home and health amongst Indigenous homeless people living in the Canadian North. In particular, I examine the ways in which Indigenous homemaking practices conflict with housing policy, and exacerbate individual pathways to homelessness....... I argue that integral components in northern Indigenous conceptualizations of home and, in turn, health are not only unrecognized in housing policy, but actively discouraged. The potential for homemaking to inform health and housing policy speaks to the relevance of cultural safety not only...... to Indigenous health services, but also to a comprehensive framing of Indigenous health....

  10. Research Use by Leaders in Canadian School Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Cooper

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, part of a larger study, investigates the ways research is used by leaders in Canadian schools and districts, an area in which there is relatively little empirical evidence. The paper analyzes survey results from 188 education leaders in 11 school districts across Canada about school and district practices related to the use of research. Results indicate a growing awareness in districts of the importance of research use, reported district capacity, and many kinds of support available for research-related activities; however, actual research use remains modest. Districts appear to have relatively weak processes and systems for finding, sharing, and using relevant research.

  11. Policy and evidence in Canadian health human resources planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The health human resources supply in Canada swings reactively between over- and under-supply. There are numerous policy actors in this arena, each of whom could contribute to good data collection and an agreed-on process for decision-making. This could form the basis for evidence-informed policy. Absent these tools for pan-Canadian health human resources policy development, smaller health jurisdictions are experimenting with quality improvement initiatives which, when properly evaluated, can discover useful methods of aligning patient and community needs with healthcare resources.

  12. Sepsis in Canadian children: a national analysis using administrative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson GC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Graham Thompson,1 Niranjan Kissoon2 1Alberta Children's Hospital, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2British Columbia Children’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaBackground: Severe infection resulting in sepsis is recognized as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The purpose of this study is to use longitudinal, population-based data to report national-level hospital metrics, providing a current assessment of the status of sepsis hospitalizations in Canadian children.Methods: We performed an analysis of previously abstracted data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI Discharge Abstract Database (DAD. Children aged 0–17 years at the time of hospital admission were identified from a cohort of patients with sepsis or severe sepsis using the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10-CA and the Canadian Classification of Health Interventions (CCI. Descriptive population-based statistics are reported.Results: Hospitalization data for 20,130 children admitted over 5 years were reviewed. The majority of children were young, with neonates (56.3% and infants under 2 months (18.8% representing the majority of cases. A decline in age-adjusted hospitalization rates was demonstrated in both overall and non-severe sepsis across the study period; however, no change was demonstrated for severe sepsis. While overall in-hospital crude mortality rates did not change significantly across the study period (range 5.1%–5.4%, a significant decrease was found in children aged 3–23 months and adolescents. Multi-organ failure was reported in more than one-quarter of children with severe sepsis. Odds of mortality increased significantly with number of organs failed.Conclusion: Sepsis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Canadian children, posing a significant burden on health care resources. Age continues to be associated

  13. Rapid Oligocene Exhumation of the Western Canadian Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szameitat, A.; Parrish, R. R.; Stuart, F. M.; Carter, A.; Fishwick, S.

    2014-12-01

    As part of the North American Cordillera the Rocky Mountains of Canada impact the deflection of weather systems and the jet stream and form a distinct barrier to Pacific moisture reaching the continental interior. The extent to which this climatic pattern extended into the past is at present uncertain, so improving our understanding of the elevation history of the Rockies is critical to determining the controls on climate change within the Northern Hemisphere. We have undertaken a comprehensive apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission track study of the southeastern Canadian Cordillera, i.e. the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains, in order to provide insight into the mid to late Cenozoic uplift and exhumation history of this region. Thermal history and exhumation models of widespread low elevation samples in combination with 6 vertical profiles covering elevations from 500 up to 3100 m a.s.l. show at least 1500 m of rapid exhumation west of the Rocky Mountain Trench (RMT) during the Oligocene (Figure 1). In contrast, the ranges east of the RMT low elevation samples provide Eocene ages throughout. The data show a very different history of recent uplift of the Canadian Rockies compared to what is currently known from published work, which mostly infer that the eastern Canadian Cordillera has not experienced significant uplift since the Eocene. We propose that the most likely cause of this rock uplift was upwelling of asthenosphere around the eastward subducting Farallon Plate. This also led to the eruption of the nearby mainly Miocene Chilcotin Group flood basalts and could have caused underplating of the thin lithosphere west of the RMT, adding to the buoyancy of the plate and lifting the range. Because the Trench marks the edge of the normal thickness craton which was underthrust beneath the Rocky Mountains during the initial upper Cretaceous orogeny, the eastern Rockies have a normal lithosperic thickness. This would impede recent uplift and provides an explanation for the

  14. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome: Report of the First Canadian Paediatric Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonita E Lee

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS was first recognized as a severe respiratory illness transmitted through rodent excreta in the southwestern United States in 1993. As of November 1997, 175 cases have been reported in the United States. The mortality rate of this disease has been reported to be as high as 52% in the United States, and the majority of the cases (94% involved adults. Twenty-one cases have been recognized in Canada. This paper describes the first Canadian paediatric case and discusses some of the clinical features of this disease.

  15. Isotopes and innovation: Canadian success in a global market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, S. [Nordion Inc., Kanata, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Canadian nuclear technology for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease has a global presence. Innovation has as much to do with the way you take a product to market as with the product itself. Nordion targeted therapies are used in the treatment in a variety of cancers. TheraSphere fills a specific medical need for a targeted liver cancer treatment. Nordion is the world's leading supplier of Cobalt-60, the isotope producing gamma radiation required to destroy micro-organisms. Nordion is a world leader in medical isotope processing, packaging and delivery.

  16. The importance of being first: evidence from Canadian generic pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Aidan

    2002-12-01

    This paper uses pooled cross-section data on Canadian ethical drug sales to examine the effect of entry timing on sales of generic drugs. The data is for all drugs for which the first generic competitor entered during the years 1994-1997. It is found that the first generic entrant has a lasting competitive advantage: being first into the market appears to lead to an increase of around 30% in market share (among generics) over a period of at least 4 years. This finding has considerable implications for the current policy of allowing brandname drug companies to issue pseudo-generic equivalents as a preemptive strike against true generic competitors.

  17. Human resources needs in the Canadian wind energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittholz, H. [Synova International Business Development, London, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper reviewed human resources issues related to wind energy expansion. As the fastest growing energy source in the world, wind energy has the potential to provide thousands of jobs. With the signing of the Kyoto Protocol, the Canadian government and industry will take measures to increase the use of renewable energy. As such, forecasters predict that Canada's total installed capacity will increase from 444 MW in 2004 to 5,600 MW by 2012. Initially, employment opportunities will be in the service industry, followed by an increased demand for scientists, engineers, technicians and other personnel with specialized knowledge in the wind industry. This paper described the assumptions on which the forecasted demand for skilled labour is based. Approximately 2,230 technicians will be required by 2012 to develop and manufacture wind turbines and to establish an infrastructure that would maximize the benefits of the emerging industry for Canadians. Wind energy initiatives include the establishment of a competitive manufacturing and service base; the provision of specialized training and education to meet the human resources demands of the industry; and, support from research and development to reduce the knowledge gap between Canada and Europe. Canada also holds the potential to establish a niche market for hybrid wind-diesel-storage systems. Insurance companies and investors will require high standards to safeguard their investments. A breakdown of various jobs in the wind power industry was presented along with forecasts of revenues and employment in Canada's wind energy industry. This paper also outlined the wind energy research programs available at Canadian universities, colleges and institutes. It was recommended that education and training programs in this field of study should be developed based on proven programs with a governing body to ensure industry requirements are met. It was also suggested that partnerships should be formed with successful

  18. Performance of municipal waste stabilization ponds in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragush, Colin M.; Schmidt, Jordan J.; Krkosek, Wendy H.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of small remote communities in the Canadian arctic territory of Nunavut utilize waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) for municipal wastewater treatment because of their relatively low capital and operational costs, and minimal complexity. New national effluent quality regulations have been...... implemented in Canada, but not yet applied to Canada’s Arctic due to uncertainty related to the performance of current wastewater treatment systems. Waste stabilization pond (WSP) treatment performance is impacted by community water use, pond design, and climate. The greatest challenge arctic communities...

  19. Constructions and Negotiations of Sexuality in Canadian Federal Men's Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Rose; Grills, Sylvia; Craig, Ailsa

    2016-12-01

    Nuances lacing the organization of sexuality across cultures and contexts shape sexual behavior and identity. In this article, the culture and understandings of sexual identity and behavior in Canadian men's federal prisons are examined to reveal how prisoners construct and interpret their own sexuality, as well as that of others, within the heteronormative prison space. Drawing from interviews with formerly incarcerated men, we explore how sexuality constitutes a product of dominant cultural discourses that differentiates between sexual behavior and identity. We frame how sexuality is constructed and regulated in prison within the theoretical context of shame and stigmatization, finding definitions of heterosexuality that do not preclude same-sex sexual activity.

  20. Canadian political science and medicare: six decades of inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Michael A; McGuinty, Dylan; Teskey, Bryan

    2011-05-01

    Based on an extensive sample of the literature, this critical review dissects the principal themes that have animated the Canadian political science profession on the topic of medicare. The review considers the coincidence of economic eras and how these are reflected in the methodological approaches to the study of medicare. As is to be expected, most of the scholarly activity coincides with the economic era marked by fiscal restraint and decreases in social investments (1993-2003). At the same time, the review notes the prevalence of institutionalism as an approach to the topic and the scholarly community's near-consensus on medicare as a defining characteristic of the country and its people.