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Sample records for canadian nru reactor

  1. A description of the Canadian irradiation-research facility proposed to replace the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To replace the aging NRU reactor, AECL has developed the concept for a dual-purpose national Irradiation Research Facility (IRF) that tests fuel and materials for CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactors and performs materials research using extracted neutron beams. The IRF includes a MAPLE reactor in a containment building, experimental facilities, and support facilities. At a nominal reactor power of 40 MWt, the IRF will generate powers up to 1 MW in natural-uranium CANDU bundles, fast-neutron fluxes up to 1.4 x 1018 n·m-2·s-1 in Zr-alloy specimens, and thermal-neutron fluxes matching those available to the NRU beam tubes. (author). 9 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  2. A description of the Canadian irradiation-research facility proposed to replace the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To replace the aging NRU reactor, AECL has developed the concept for a dual-purpose national Irradiation Research Facility (IRF) that tests fuel and materials for CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactors and performs materials research using extracted neutron beams. The IRF includes a MAPLE reactor in a containment building, experimental facilities, and support facilities. At a nominal reactor power of 40 MWt, the IRF will generate powers up to 1 MW in natural-uranium CANDU bundles, fast-neutron fluxes up to 1.4 x 1018 N·m-2·s-1 in Zr-alloy specimens, and thermal-neutron fluxes matching those available to the NRU beam tubes. (author). 9 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  3. A calculational model for the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new computer model to calculate neutronic properties of the NRU research reactor is being implemented at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL). The model is founded on numerous theoretical studies, on analysis of NRU support experiments done in a zero power reactor, and on comparison with measurements in the NRU reactor. This paper examines the elements of the new calculational model, concentrating on the unique features of NRU and their influences on neutron behaviour

  4. A calculational model for the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new computer model to calculate neutronic properties of the NRU research reactor is being implemented at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL). The model is founded on numerous theoretical studies, on analysis of NRU support experiments done in a zero power reactor, and on comparison with measurement in the NRU reactor. This paper examines the elements of the new calculational model, concentrating on the unique features of NRU and their influences on neutron behaviour

  5. Upgrading the NRU research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a nearly two-year long detailed review, AECL Research decided that its NRU research reactor will complete its mission around the turn of the century. The company's original intentions for major refurbishment have been revised and upgrading work will now mainly comprise add-ons to existing systems - so that research projects and isotope production schedules can be met - and procedure modifications to ensure continued safe operation. (Author)

  6. Safety upgrades to the NRU research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRU (National Research Universal) Reactor is a 135 MW thermal research facility located at Chalk River Laboratories, and is owned and operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. One of the largest and most versatile research reactors in the world, it serves as the R and D workhorse for Canada's CANDU business while at the same time filling the role as one of the world's major producers of medical radioisotopes. AECL plans to extend operation of the NRU reactor to approximately the year 2005 when a new replacement, the Irradiation Research Facility (IRF) will be available. To achieve this, AECL has undertaken a program of safety reassessment and upgrades to enhance the level of safety consistent with modem requirements. An engineering assessment/inspection of critical systems, equipment and components was completed and seven major safety upgrades are being designed and installed. These upgrades will significantly reduce the reactor's vulnerability to common mode failures and external hazards, with particular emphasis on seismic protection. The scheduled completion date for the project is 1999 December at a cost approximately twice the annual operating cost. All work on the NRU upgrade project is planned and integrated into the regular operating cycles of the reactor; no major outages are anticipated. This paper describes the safety upgrades and discusses the technical and managerial challenges involved in extending the operating life of the NRU reactor. (author)

  7. Safety upgrades to the NRU research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRU (National Research Universal) Reactor is a 135 MW thermal research facility located at Chalk River Laboratories. AECL owns and operates the multi-purpose research reactor that serves as the primary R and D facility for supporting the CANDU business. The reactor is also a major producer of the world's medical radioisotopes. Since NRU was started up in 1957, it has operated in a consistent and safe manner with an overall annual capacity factor of approximately 80 %. The demands on the operation to perform experiments and produce radioisotopes were increased significantly when the NRX (National Research Experimental) shut down in 1992. Radioisotope customers demand an uninterrupted supply of short-lived radioisotopes e g Molybdenum-99, while experimental researchers require frequent shutdowns to accommodate fuel and materials programs. A two year systematic review and assessment of NRU to determine the condition and state of the facility was completed in 1991. This engineering assessment was complemented by safety analyses which focused on systems and components critical to safety. Reactor aging, obsolescence, current codes, and hazards vulnerability (especially, seismic) were emphasized during the analyses. This initial assessment concluded that the overall condition of NRU was good and there was no undue risk to the public or environment with the present operation. In addition, seven major upgrades were identified to enhance reactor safety to satisfy modern standards. In 1992, the AECL executive approved the Upgrades Project. Implementation of the seven upgrades were then included in the Facility Authorization document that defines the limiting conditions for safe operation with the Chalk River site license. The Atomic Energy Control Board would approve and license the upgrades under the change control provisions of the FA. Each upgrade and/or assessment recommendation (minor modification) had to be implemented without adversely affecting the current

  8. A licence renewal approach for the NRU research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licence Renewal is not only a subject that is being addressed for power reactors, but it is one of immediate interest for a number of research facilities, world-wide. In Canada, research reactors and power reactors are issued an operating licence for a limited term (typically two years), hence, licence renewal is done on a regular basis. Therefore, licence renewal in the Canadian context is different than in the context of this topical meeting. The NRU research reactor facility is being assessed for a licence renewal beyond its original design life. This paper describes the licence renewal approach, the assessments being performed to establish the condition of the facility, and the Safety Assessment Basis which defines the requirements for licence renewal. The current status of the assessments is also described. (author)

  9. Corrosion control for the NRU reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories is a 135 MW (thermal) reactor that is used for research and medical isotope production. In May 2009, the NRU reactor entered a forced outage to repair a minor heavy-water leak from the vessel. Examination of the area of the vessel wall close to the leak site revealed that the leak was due to through-wall corrosion of the vessel from the gas filled annulus that surrounds the vessel. A review of the historical data showed that chemistry control of the water inside the vessel has been good and there has been very little degradation of the inside surface of the reactor vessel. This paper will describe the principal cause of the corrosion (the radiolytic production of nitric acid in the annulus around the reactor vessel) and explore the factors affecting the distribution of the corrosion identified by non-destructive examinations. The paper will discuss strategies being studied to improve chemistry control in the annulus and to minimize the rate of future corrosion. The importance of understanding the rationale underlying chemistry specifications and the lessons learned from the review of the chemistry in the annulus will also be presented. (author)

  10. Corrosion control for the NRU reactor vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, C.R.; Mancey, D.S.; Wright, M.D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories is a 135 MW (thermal) reactor that is used for research and medical isotope production. In May 2009, the NRU reactor entered a forced outage to repair a minor heavy-water leak from the vessel. Examination of the area of the vessel wall close to the leak site revealed that the leak was due to through-wall corrosion of the vessel from the gas filled annulus that surrounds the vessel. A review of the historical data showed that chemistry control of the water inside the vessel has been good and there has been very little degradation of the inside surface of the reactor vessel. This paper will describe the principal cause of the corrosion (the radiolytic production of nitric acid in the annulus around the reactor vessel) and explore the factors affecting the distribution of the corrosion identified by non-destructive examinations. The paper will discuss strategies being studied to improve chemistry control in the annulus and to minimize the rate of future corrosion. The importance of understanding the rationale underlying chemistry specifications and the lessons learned from the review of the chemistry in the annulus will also be presented. (author)

  11. Dose reduction in NRU reactor coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbala, N.P.; Stuart, C.R.; Rudzinski, H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The reduction of radiation dose exposure to operations and maintenance personnel is an important objective for an operating nuclear reactor. The National Research Universal (NRU) is a heavy-water cooled and moderated research reactor that uses aluminum clad fuel in an aluminum reactor vessel. The tramp uranium and activated corrosion products of aluminum, {sup 28}Al, characterized as non-ionic particulates, provide the largest contributions to radiation fields during reactor operation. The heavy water coolant purification system consists of an evaporator, mechanical filters, and mixed bed ion exchange (IX) columns. The evaporator alone provides a purification half-life of 12 days. However, the existing mechanical filters and the mixed bed ion exchange columns are not effective at removing the non-ionic particulates and reducing the radiation fields. Operation with a modified ion exchange column in parallel with the evaporator has resulted in a reduction in the concentration of uranium from 10.0 to 1.5 μg/kg in four and half months. Over the same period, the radiation field has decreased to 2.0 R/h, one half of the historical value. (author)

  12. Dose reduction in NRU reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of radiation dose exposure to operations and maintenance personnel is an important objective for an operating nuclear reactor. The National Research Universal (NRU) is a heavy-water cooled and moderated research reactor that uses aluminum clad fuel in an aluminum reactor vessel. The tramp uranium and activated corrosion products of aluminum, 28Al, characterized as non-ionic particulates, provide the largest contributions to radiation fields during reactor operation. The heavy water coolant purification system consists of an evaporator, mechanical filters, and mixed bed ion exchange (IX) columns. The evaporator alone provides a purification half-life of 12 days. However, the existing mechanical filters and the mixed bed ion exchange columns are not effective at removing the non-ionic particulates and reducing the radiation fields. Operation with a modified ion exchange column in parallel with the evaporator has resulted in a reduction in the concentration of uranium from 10.0 to 1.5 μg/kg in four and half months. Over the same period, the radiation field has decreased to 2.0 R/h, one half of the historical value. (author)

  13. Second trip system for NRU research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past four decades, the NRU research reactor has played an important role at the Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, serving as one of its major research and isotope production facilities. To ensure that it continues as an effective facility, compliant with the current safety standards, a comprehensive upgrade program is underway. Adding a second trip system (STS) is part of this upgrade program, aiming at improving the effectiveness and reliability of the overall shutdown function. This document describes the main features and basic principles of the STS.The STS is an independent, seismically qualified trip system, that guarantees reactor shutdown even if the existing trip system fails. It is designed based on 2 out of 3 general coincidence logic, with minimal interferences and changes to the existing system. In addition to the manual trip in the main control room, a remote manual trip is provided in the new Qualified Emergency Response Centre, which is also seismically qualified and always accessible. Thus, for any reason, if the main control room becomes uninhabitable, the reactor still can be manually shut down from this centre. ((orig.))

  14. Fuel burnup characteristics for the NRU research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The driver fuel of the NRU research reactor at AECL, Chalk River is a low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel alloy of Al-61 wt% U3Si, consisting of particles of U3Si dispersed in a continuous aluminum matrix, with 19.8% U235 in uranium. This paper describes the burnup characteristics for this type of fuel in NRU, including the determination of fuel depletion using the neutronic simulation code TRIAD, comparisons between simulated and measured burnup values, and the regulatory licensing operational average fuel burnup limit. (author)

  15. Fuel burnup characteristics for the NRU research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, T.C., E-mail: leungt@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The driver fuel of the NRU research reactor at AECL, Chalk River is a low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel alloy of Al-61 wt% U{sub 3}Si, consisting of particles of U{sub 3}Si dispersed in a continuous aluminum matrix, with 19.8% U235 in uranium. This paper describes the burnup characteristics for this type of fuel in NRU, including the determination of fuel depletion using the neutronic simulation code TRIAD, comparisons between simulated and measured burnup values, and the regulatory licensing operational average fuel burnup limit. (author)

  16. Balancing the risks: the NRU reactor and the isotope crisis in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extended shutdown of the NRU reactor at Chalk River at the end of 2007 caused a critical shortage of medical radioisotopes in Canada and the world, led to a unique meeting of Canada's Parliament to pass emergency legislation, and cost the President of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission her job. This paper, based on the public record, reviews these events from the perspective of the balance of risk between the safety of the NRU reactor and the impact of a shortage of isotopes. This leads to important questions about the mandate, independence and flexibility of the nuclear regulator, relations between the regulator, the government, and the licensee, and the government's overall management of risks. We argue that the government approaches individual risks in isolation and needs a mechanism to deal with multiple risks. (author)

  17. Balancing the risks: the NRU reactor and the isotope crisis in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, B.; Meneley, D

    2008-09-15

    The extended shutdown of the NRU reactor at Chalk River at the end of 2007 caused a critical shortage of medical radioisotopes in Canada and the world, led to a unique meeting of Canada's Parliament to pass emergency legislation, and cost the President of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission her job. This paper, based on the public record, reviews these events from the perspective of the balance of risk between the safety of the NRU reactor and the impact of a shortage of isotopes. This leads to important questions about the mandate, independence and flexibility of the nuclear regulator, relations between the regulator, the government, and the licensee, and the government's overall management of risks. We argue that the government approaches individual risks in isolation and needs a mechanism to deal with multiple risks. (author)

  18. Investigation of Fuel Defects in the NRU Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, D.F.; Montin, J.M.; Wang, N. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor is a heavy-water-cooled and - moderated, tank-type, multipurpose reactor that operates at up to 135 MW. Originally designed for operation with natural uranium, NRU was converted to high-enriched uranium fuel in 1964. In 1991, AECL converted NRU to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel containing Al-61 wt% U{sub 3}Si, with U enriched to 19.75 wt% {sup 235}U. Since the reactor was converted, the LEU silicide dispersion fuel performance has been excellent, with no reported fuel defects. However, in late 2008, monitoring showed an increasing trend in fission product activity in the D{sub 2}O coolant/moderator. Despite steps taken to increase monitoring and analysis, locating the source of the problem proved to be difficult. Fission product analysis and isotopic analysis of U extracted from the coolant indicated that the source was a small defect in the LEU driver fuel. This paper summarizes the investigation of the NRU fuel defect. Results are presented from post-irradiation examinations to determine the root cause of the failure mechanism. (author)

  19. Investigation of Fuel Defects in the NRU Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor is a heavy-water-cooled and - moderated, tank-type, multipurpose reactor that operates at up to 135 MW. Originally designed for operation with natural uranium, NRU was converted to high-enriched uranium fuel in 1964. In 1991, AECL converted NRU to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel containing Al-61 wt% U3Si, with U enriched to 19.75 wt% 235U. Since the reactor was converted, the LEU silicide dispersion fuel performance has been excellent, with no reported fuel defects. However, in late 2008, monitoring showed an increasing trend in fission product activity in the D2O coolant/moderator. Despite steps taken to increase monitoring and analysis, locating the source of the problem proved to be difficult. Fission product analysis and isotopic analysis of U extracted from the coolant indicated that the source was a small defect in the LEU driver fuel. This paper summarizes the investigation of the NRU fuel defect. Results are presented from post-irradiation examinations to determine the root cause of the failure mechanism. (author)

  20. Fuels for Canadian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper includes some statements and remarks concerning the uranium silicide fuels for which there is significant fabrication in AECL, irradiation and defect performance experience; description of two Canadian high flux research reactors which use high enrichment uranium (HEU) and the fuels currently used in these reactors; limited fabrication work done on Al-U alloys to uranium contents as high as 40 wt%. The latter concerns work aimed at AECL fast neutron program. This experience in general terms is applied to the NRX and NRU designs of fuel

  1. Current developments and future challenges in physics analyses of the NRU heavy water research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor is heavy water cooled and moderated, with on-power fueling capability. TRIAD, a 3D two-group diffusion code, is currently used for support of day-to-day NRU operations. Recently, an MCNP full reactor model of NRU has been developed for benchmarking TRIAD. While reactivity changes and flux and power distributions from both methods are in reasonably good agreement, MCNP appears to eliminate a k-eff bias in TRIAD. Beyond TRIAD's capability, MCNP enables the assessment of radiation in the NRU outer structure. Challenges include improving TRIAD accuracy and MCNP performance, as well as performing NRU core-following using MCNP. (author)

  2. The TRIAD3 code for NRU reactor simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRU research reactor is difficult to simulate due to its extreme heterogeneity. The simulation code system used for the last 25 years has given deteriorating results as more complex rod assemblies have been installed in the core. To the remedy this situation, various options for improving the code were studied. These included modelling the axial dimension, an improved representation of the lattice split, and using a better cell code (WIMS) to derive the homogenized cell parameters; but perhaps the most significant was the introduction of discontinuity factors, which account for the fact that the homogenized cell fluxes are not continuous across a cell interface. This improved diffusion-theory methodology gave much better comparison with careful measurements, taken in a zero-power reactor for certain NRU assemblies, than did the usual diffusion theory. A new, modular code system was written to incorporate these improvements, and it is now in a commissioning phase. The code is operated through an interactive monitor. Results so far are encouraging, although differences from the measured power distribution in NRU are still significant

  3. Summary of loops in the Chalk River NRX and NRU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and operating parameters of the high pressure, high temperature light water loops in the NRX and NRU reactors are presented to assist experimenters reviewing these facilities for their experiments. The NRX and NRU reactor design and operating data of interest to the experimenters are also presented. (author)

  4. Electronic data collection for AECL NRU Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, S., E-mail: kleins@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    An Electronic Data Collection program has been implemented at AECL's National Research Universal (NRU) Reactor to assists in the collection, trending and monitoring of system parameters. Prior to the implementation, daily surveillance was performed by Operators using hardcopy reading sheets. This was not conducive to proactive monitoring of equipment health as there was a significant delay from when the data was recorded to when it was accessible for trending. The electronically collected data allows for close to real-time monitoring of 971 unique instruments and approximately 7,200 data points per day. There are currently over 1,000,000 readings available in the database. (author)

  5. Electronic data collection for AECL NRU Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Electronic Data Collection program has been implemented at AECL's National Research Universal (NRU) Reactor to assists in the collection, trending and monitoring of system parameters. Prior to the implementation, daily surveillance was performed by Operators using hardcopy reading sheets. This was not conducive to proactive monitoring of equipment health as there was a significant delay from when the data was recorded to when it was accessible for trending. The electronically collected data allows for close to real-time monitoring of 971 unique instruments and approximately 7,200 data points per day. There are currently over 1,000,000 readings available in the database. (author)

  6. NRU vessel repair and return to service: enhancing a Canadian R and D asset for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D.S.; Arnold, J.B.; Lee, J.K., E-mail: coxd@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor was successfully returned to high power operation in 2010 August, after completing extensive inspections and repairs of the calandria vessel, in response to a small leak of heavy water that was discovered in 2009 May. The aluminum alloy vessel material had corroded from the outside surface over many years, and required application of weld build-up and plated weld repair at ten locations, executed by remote tooling deployed from inside the reactor vessel. Many specialized remotely operated tools were developed for inspection, sampling and repair operations. In parallel with the repair efforts, important maintenance activities were performed, enabled by the de-fuelled state with the heavy water drained from the vessel. Two annual inspection cycles have now been completed since the reactor was returned to high power operation, confirming the fitness of the vessel for continued operation. The NRU reactor is now entering its 56th year of operation and the current operating licence extends to 2016. Based on the outcome of a comprehensive Integrated Safety Review, AECL is continuing to implement major equipment upgrades and process improvements to support safe and reliable operation through 2021, for the benefit of Canadians and the world. (author)

  7. NRU vessel repair and return to service: enhancing a Canadian R and D asset for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor was successfully returned to high power operation in 2010 August, after completing extensive inspections and repairs of the calandria vessel, in response to a small leak of heavy water that was discovered in 2009 May. The aluminum alloy vessel material had corroded from the outside surface over many years, and required application of weld build-up and plated weld repair at ten locations, executed by remote tooling deployed from inside the reactor vessel. Many specialized remotely operated tools were developed for inspection, sampling and repair operations. In parallel with the repair efforts, important maintenance activities were performed, enabled by the de-fuelled state with the heavy water drained from the vessel. Two annual inspection cycles have now been completed since the reactor was returned to high power operation, confirming the fitness of the vessel for continued operation. The NRU reactor is now entering its 56th year of operation and the current operating licence extends to 2016. Based on the outcome of a comprehensive Integrated Safety Review, AECL is continuing to implement major equipment upgrades and process improvements to support safe and reliable operation through 2021, for the benefit of Canadians and the world. (author)

  8. Materials R and D with neutron beams - how the NRU reactor serves Canada further as a unique resource for science and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation discusses the use of NRU reactor for materials research and development with neutron beams at the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre at the Chalk River Laboratories. The facility has 5 beams for research and development on hard materials, 1 beam for research and development on nano-film and 1 beam for research and development on nano-solution, still under development.

  9. Materials R and D with neutron beams - how the NRU reactor serves Canada further as a unique resource for science and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Root, J. [National Research Council Canada, Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discusses the use of NRU reactor for materials research and development with neutron beams at the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre at the Chalk River Laboratories. The facility has 5 beams for research and development on hard materials, 1 beam for research and development on nano-film and 1 beam for research and development on nano-solution, still under development.

  10. Monte Carlo calculations applied to NRU reactor and radiation physics analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T.S.; Wilkin, G.B., E-mail: nguyens@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-12-15

    The statistical MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) code has been satisfactorily used for reactor and radiation physics calculations to support NRU operation and analysis. MCNP enables 3D modeling of the reactor and its components in great detail, the transport calculation of photons (in addition to neutrons), and the capability to model all locations in space, which are beyond the capabilities of the deterministic neutronics methods used for NRU. While the simple single-cell model is efficient for local analysis in any site of NRU, the complex full-reactor model is required for calculations of the core physics and beyond-the-core radiation. By supplementing, adjusting or benchmarking the results from the existing NRU codes, the MCNP calculations provide greater confidence that NRU remains within the licence envelope. (author)

  11. Monte Carlo calculations applied to NRU reactor and radiation physics analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The statistical MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) code has been satisfactorily used for reactor and radiation physics calculations to support NRU operation and analysis. MCNP enables 3D modeling of the reactor and its components in great detail, the transport calculation of photons (in addition to neutrons), and the capability to model all locations in space, which are beyond the capabilities of the deterministic neutronics methods used for NRU. While the simple single-cell model is efficient for local analysis in any site of NRU, the complex full-reactor model is required for calculations of the core physics and beyond-the-core radiation. By supplementing, adjusting or benchmarking the results from the existing NRU codes, the MCNP calculations provide greater confidence that NRU remains within the licence envelope. (author)

  12. Current developments and future challenges in physics analyses of the NRU heavy water research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, S.; Wilkin, B.; Leung, T., E-mail: nguyens@aecl.ca, E-mail: leungt@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor is heavy water cooled and moderated, with on-power fueling capability. TRIAD, a 3D two-group diffusion code, is currently used for support of day-to-day NRU operations. Recently, an MCNP full reactor model of NRU has been developed for benchmarking TRIAD. While reactivity changes and flux and power distributions from both methods are in reasonably good agreement, MCNP appears to eliminate a k-eff bias in TRIAD. Beyond TRIAD's capability, MCNP enables the assessment of radiation in the NRU outer structure. Challenges include improving TRIAD accuracy and MCNP performance, as well as performing NRU core-following using MCNP. (author)

  13. NRU turns 50! World's best research reactor still going strong after a half century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives a history of the NRU reactor at Chalk River Nuclear Labs (CRL), Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. The NRU reactor design was started in 1949 when CRL was Atomic Energy Project of the National Research Council. It was and still is a national facility used by scientists across Canada. As well as providing a source of neutrons for research, it was a home for much of the research required to develop the CANDU reactor design for nuclear power stations.

  14. A proposed irradiation-research facility to replace the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the replacement of the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor with a dual purpose irradiation research facility to test CANDU fuels and materials, and to perform materials research using neutrons

  15. Monte Carlo Calculations Applied to NRU Reactor and Radiation Physics Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    G.B. Wilkin; Nguyen, T. S.

    2012-01-01

    The statistical MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) code has been satisfactorily used for reactor and radiation physics calculations to support NRU operation and analysis. MCNP enables 3D modeling of the reactor and its components in great detail, the transport calculation of photons (in addition to neutrons), and the capability to model all locations in space, which are beyond the capabilities of the deterministic neutronics methods used for NRU. While the simple single-cell model is efficient for...

  16. NRX and NRU reactor research facilities and irradiation and examination charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the irradiation and examination charges on the NRX and NRU reactors at the Chalk River Nuclear Labs. It describes the NRX and NRU research facilities available to external users. It describes the various experimental holes and loops available for research. It also outlines the method used to calculate the facilities charges and the procedure for applying to use the facilities as well as the billing procedures.

  17. Final safety and hazards analysis for the Battelle LOCA simulation tests in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final safety and hazards report for the proposed Battelle LOCA simulation tests in NRU. A brief description of equipment test design and operating procedure precedes a safety analysis and hazards review of the project. The hazards review addresses potential equipment failures as well as potential for a metal/water reaction and evaluates the consequences. The operation of the tests as proposed does not present an unacceptable risk to the NRU Reactor, CRNL personnel or members of the public. (author)

  18. Safe operation of the NRU research reactor now and beyond 2021

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistry, Sunjay [AECL, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This paper will describe the approach that has been taken by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to ensure that the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor designed in the 1940's continues to remain safe and reliable to operate now and for the near future (2021 and beyond). This paper focuses on two major projects, the NRU Upgrades Project undertaken in the 1990's and the Integrated Safety Review (ISR) resulting in the Integrated Implementation Plan (IIP) that is currently underway. Through the NRU Upgrades Project, AECL was able to identify areas for safety improvement and implement changes in the field. Following the NRU Upgrades Project, AECL was able to demonstrate that for design basis accidents that the reactor was able to meet the four basic safety requirements namely:- · It shall be possible to shut down the reactor and maintain it in that state indefinitely; · The capability of removing decay heat from the fuel during this shut down period shall be maintained; · The confinement structure shall continue to be capable of limiting radioactivity release; and · Continuous monitoring of reactor safety functions shall remain available. The NRU Upgrades Project enabled AECL to continue to operate the NRU reactor beyond the year 2000 but it was recognised in 2008 that if operations were to continue up to and beyond 2021 then another assessment was warranted. This assessment resulted in the ISR project. The ISR project consisted of reviewing the NRU design against current codes and standards and, where applicable, addressing gaps identified. This project identified not only gaps in the analysis basis for NRU, it also identified the need to replace ageing equipment that was reaching the end of its design life. The findings of the ISR project have been captured in the IIP; IIP has enabled AECL to prioritise equipment replacement to enable continued safe and reliable operation of the NRU reactor beyond 2021. The paper demonstrates that, in order to

  19. Safe operation of the NRU research reactor now and beyond 2021

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will describe the approach that has been taken by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to ensure that the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor designed in the 1940's continues to remain safe and reliable to operate now and for the near future (2021 and beyond). This paper focuses on two major projects, the NRU Upgrades Project undertaken in the 1990's and the Integrated Safety Review (ISR) resulting in the Integrated Implementation Plan (IIP) that is currently underway. Through the NRU Upgrades Project, AECL was able to identify areas for safety improvement and implement changes in the field. Following the NRU Upgrades Project, AECL was able to demonstrate that for design basis accidents that the reactor was able to meet the four basic safety requirements namely:- · It shall be possible to shut down the reactor and maintain it in that state indefinitely; · The capability of removing decay heat from the fuel during this shut down period shall be maintained; · The confinement structure shall continue to be capable of limiting radioactivity release; and · Continuous monitoring of reactor safety functions shall remain available. The NRU Upgrades Project enabled AECL to continue to operate the NRU reactor beyond the year 2000 but it was recognised in 2008 that if operations were to continue up to and beyond 2021 then another assessment was warranted. This assessment resulted in the ISR project. The ISR project consisted of reviewing the NRU design against current codes and standards and, where applicable, addressing gaps identified. This project identified not only gaps in the analysis basis for NRU, it also identified the need to replace ageing equipment that was reaching the end of its design life. The findings of the ISR project have been captured in the IIP; IIP has enabled AECL to prioritise equipment replacement to enable continued safe and reliable operation of the NRU reactor beyond 2021. The paper demonstrates that, in order to safely

  20. 3-D kinetics simulations of the NRU reactor using the DONJON code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRU reactor is highly heterogeneous, heavy-water cooled and moderated, with online refuelling capability. It is licensed to operate at a maximum power of 135 MW, with a peak thermal flux of approximately 4.0 x 1018 n.m-2 . s-1. In support of the safe operation of NRU, three-dimensional kinetics calculations for reactor transients have been performed using the DONJON code. The code was initially designed to perform space-time kinetics calculations for the CANDUR power reactors. This paper describes how the DONJON code can be applied to perform neutronic simulations for the analysis of reactor transients in NRU, and presents calculation results for some transients. (authors)

  1. The New Emergency Core Cooling (NECC) system for the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Emergency Core Cooling (NECC) system is the penultimate of seven major safety upgrades being implemented at the National Research Universal (NRU) Reactor in Chalk River. The NECC upgrade was designed to improve the original systems for core cooling in the event of an unisolable failure within the primary cooling circuit. The NECC upgrade ensures that water is automatically made available to the emergency cooling circuit pumps in the event of a break. Reactor core cooling is achieved from the discharge of these pumps which distribute emergency coolant to the individual fuel rods. Heated water from the vessel returns to the heat exchangers within the emergency cooling circuits for heat removal to the secondary coolant. The NECC upgrade significantly improves protection for a wide range of Loss Of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) through the use of design features such as component redundancy, automatic initiation and hazard qualification. The introduction of the NECC upgrade combined with previous improvements in liquid confinement capability provide a closed loop system that ensures stable long term reactor core cooling. CATHENA (Canadian Algorithm for THErmalhydraulic Network Analysis) analysis was performed to assess the NECC upgrade and to validate the design for credible leak scenarios. (author)

  2. Validation of the TRIAD3 code used for the neutronic simulation of the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutronic simulation of the NRU research reactor at Chalk River is performed by the TRIAD3 code. TRIAD3 is a three-dimensional code using a modified neutron diffusion theory in two-energy groups. The modification is the use of cell discontinuity factors (cdf) to improve the radial neutron leakage calculation between adjacent cells. This paper describes three validation exercises performed over the past few years. It describes methods of obtaining the flux, power and reactivity measurements from the NRU reactor and presents comparisons between these measurement data and code simulation results. (author)

  3. Validation of the TRIAD3 code used for the neutronic simulation of the NRU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, T.C.; Atfield, M.D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The neutronic simulation of the NRU research reactor at Chalk River is performed by the TRIAD3 code. TRIAD3 is a three-dimensional code using a modified neutron diffusion theory in two-energy groups. The modification is the use of cell discontinuity factors (cdf) to improve the radial neutron leakage calculation between adjacent cells. This paper describes three validation exercises performed over the past few years. It describes methods of obtaining the flux, power and reactivity measurements from the NRU reactor and presents comparisons between these measurement data and code simulation results. (author)

  4. NRU turns 50{exclamation_point} World's best research reactor still going strong after a half century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, F. [Canadian Nuclear Society, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    This article gives a history of the NRU reactor at Chalk River Nuclear Labs (CRL), Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. The NRU reactor design was started in 1949 when CRL was Atomic Energy Project of the National Research Council. It was and still is a national facility used by scientists across Canada. As well as providing a source of neutrons for research, it was a home for much of the research required to develop the CANDU reactor design for nuclear power stations.

  5. NRU return to service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilkington, W. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation concerns the NRU reactor return to service. The cause of NRU reactor outage was a small heavy water leakage which resulted in airborne tritium release through the ventilation system. The heavy water leak was located in a high radioactivity environment. Non-destructive examination was conducted for assessment of the condition of the vessel. The NRU reactor vessel repair was then carried out.

  6. NRU return to service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation concerns the NRU reactor return to service. The cause of NRU reactor outage was a small heavy water leakage which resulted in airborne tritium release through the ventilation system. The heavy water leak was located in a high radioactivity environment. Non-destructive examination was conducted for assessment of the condition of the vessel. The NRU reactor vessel repair was then carried out.

  7. Physics aspects of reload and approach-to-critical of the NRU reactor after vessel repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River shut down on 2009 May 14 and there was a subsequent outage of 15 months to repair leaks from the vessel. On 2010 August 17, NRU returned to full power operation and resumed isotope production. This paper describes the physics aspects of reload, and the approach-to-critical (ATC) tests conducted to restart the reactor safely. Five ATC's, each at a different number of reloaded assemblies, plus a final one before reactor startup, were completed to confirm the calculated physics predictions of the subcritical state and critical point. Activities for preparation of the ATC tests, the responsibilities of the physicists during execution of the ATC's, and plots of neutron signal data during the ATC's are presented. The final measured critical point of CR 14 @190 cm agreed well with the calculated physics prediction of CR 14 @185 cm, or within ∼0.5 mk. (author)

  8. Remote robotic inspection of irregular surfaces on the inner diameter of the AECL NRU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeller, B., E-mail: bzeller@eclipsescientific.com [Eclipse Scientific Ltd., Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Lombardi, L., E-mail: llombardi@utex.com [Utex Scientific Instruments, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Cyr, P., E-mail: pcyr@eclipsescientific.com [Eclipse Scientific Ltd., Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Mair, H.D., E-mail: dmair@utex.com [Utex Scientific Instruments, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Ginzel, R., E-mail: rginzel@eclipsescientific.com [Eclipse Scientific Ltd., Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    In May of 2009, the NRU (National Research Universal) reactor was forced to shut down after a small heavy water leak. In 2009-2010 repairs were performed in order to restart medical isotope production mid-August 2010. Since the NRU vessel's return to service, a series of periodic inspections is required to ensure the safe operation of the reactor. Eclipse Scientific in collaboration with Utex Scientific Instruments and Liburdi Automation developed the NDE inspection system for the In-Service Inspection program of the NRU vessel. In addition to the difficult environmental, delivery and inspection circumstances the inspection team was faced with the problem of doing an immersion inspection of the inside surface of the reactor vessel through a small 120 mm access port at a distance of more than 10 m to the inspection area at the bottom of the reactor. The vessel was built over 50 years ago and as the inner surface was modified by the repair program during the forced outage, there were no accurate drawings of the inner surface of the vessel that an automated system could rely upon. Eclipse Scientific in collaboration with Liburdi Automation developed a robotic arm designed to enter from the remote access port to deploy the Phased Array and Eddy Current Array inspection heads into the reactor vessel. The motion control and data acquisition system was developed in collaboration with Utex Scientific Instruments using their Inspection Ware software. This paper will highlight the challenges faced in the development of an inspection system capable of using ultrasonic signals to learn a surface and, using this acquired surface topography, effectively and safely deploy and articulate the different inspection heads required to perform the In-Service Inspection of the NRU vessel. (author)

  9. Remote robotic inspection of irregular surfaces on the inner diameter of the AECL NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May of 2009, the NRU (National Research Universal) reactor was forced to shut down after a small heavy water leak. In 2009-2010 repairs were performed in order to restart medical isotope production mid-August 2010. Since the NRU vessel's return to service, a series of periodic inspections is required to ensure the safe operation of the reactor. Eclipse Scientific in collaboration with Utex Scientific Instruments and Liburdi Automation developed the NDE inspection system for the In-Service Inspection program of the NRU vessel. In addition to the difficult environmental, delivery and inspection circumstances the inspection team was faced with the problem of doing an immersion inspection of the inside surface of the reactor vessel through a small 120 mm access port at a distance of more than 10 m to the inspection area at the bottom of the reactor. The vessel was built over 50 years ago and as the inner surface was modified by the repair program during the forced outage, there were no accurate drawings of the inner surface of the vessel that an automated system could rely upon. Eclipse Scientific in collaboration with Liburdi Automation developed a robotic arm designed to enter from the remote access port to deploy the Phased Array and Eddy Current Array inspection heads into the reactor vessel. The motion control and data acquisition system was developed in collaboration with Utex Scientific Instruments using their Inspection Ware software. This paper will highlight the challenges faced in the development of an inspection system capable of using ultrasonic signals to learn a surface and, using this acquired surface topography, effectively and safely deploy and articulate the different inspection heads required to perform the In-Service Inspection of the NRU vessel. (author)

  10. Coolant radiolysis studies in the high temperature, fuelled U-2 loop in the NRU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot, A.J.; Stuart, C.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    An understanding of the radiolysis-induced chemistry in the coolant water of nuclear reactors is an important key to the understanding of materials integrity issues in reactor coolant systems. Significant materials and chemistry issues have emerged in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and CANDU reactors that have required a detailed understanding of the radiation chemistry of the coolant. For each reactor type, specific computer radiolysis models have been developed to gain insight into radiolysis processes and to make chemistry control adjustments to address the particular issue. In this respect, modelling the radiolysis chemistry has been successful enough to allow progress to be made. This report contains a description of the water radiolysis tests performed in the U-2 loop, NRU reactor in 1995, which measured the CHC under different physical conditions of the loop such as temperature, reactor power and steam quality. (author)

  11. Coolant radiolysis studies in the high temperature, fuelled U-2 loop in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An understanding of the radiolysis-induced chemistry in the coolant water of nuclear reactors is an important key to the understanding of materials integrity issues in reactor coolant systems. Significant materials and chemistry issues have emerged in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and CANDU reactors that have required a detailed understanding of the radiation chemistry of the coolant. For each reactor type, specific computer radiolysis models have been developed to gain insight into radiolysis processes and to make chemistry control adjustments to address the particular issue. In this respect, modelling the radiolysis chemistry has been successful enough to allow progress to be made. This report contains a description of the water radiolysis tests performed in the U-2 loop, NRU reactor in 1995, which measured the CHC under different physical conditions of the loop such as temperature, reactor power and steam quality. (author)

  12. Facility requirements for a NRU replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced MAPLE (Multipurpose Applied Physics Lattice Experiment) research reactor is a multipurpose, high-flux reactor concept that has been proposed as a possible future replacement for the NRU (National Research Universal) research reactor at AECL Research - Chalk River. This paper describes the presently envisaged facility requirements for the Advanced MAPLE research reactor as determined by a preliminary assessment of the needs expressed by experimental users. The large number of research reactor facility requirements identified in this study suggests that Canada will continue to need a state-of-the-art neutron source equivalent to or surpassing the capabilities of the present NRU reactor. Most of the research activities identified represent a continuation of programs presently underway in NRU, but they would benefit from the enhanced capabilities that an Advanced MAPLE design could provide. Probably the most pressing Canadian neutron research needs are for a high fast flux materials irradiation facility to support the CANDU power reactor program and for a cold neutron source to support basic research. The Advanced MAPLE design approach offers the prospect of enhanced cost effectiveness through the achievement of higher flux levels than NRU at a lower total thermal power. The needs of all the identified applications could likely be met with a single Advanced MAPLE research reactor facility, although probably not simultaneously. 11 refs., 2 figs

  13. Repair of the NRU Reactor Vessel: Technical Challenges and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In May 2009, following a Class 4 power outage that affected most of Eastern Ontario, including the Chalk River Laboratories site, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) announced to its various stakeholders that a small heavy-water leak in the NRU reactor had been detected during routine monitoring while the reactor was being readied for return to service. Over the next 15 months AECL located, inspected, repaired and returned the NRU reactor to service. This presentation will focus on the extensive efforts required to support the unique activities associated with reactor vessel inspection and repair including initial assessment, repair site challenges, repair preparation and finally repair execution. The presentation will summarize: - Initial leak search and assessment of the vessel condition through the use of specialized tooling and non-destructive evaluation which resulted in one of the largest single NDE inspection campaigns ever carried out in the nuclear industry; - Challenges of executing a repair through 12 cm access ports at a distance of nine meters including the development of the specialized tooling; - The importance of development of repair techniques through mock up testing to perform welding repairs on a thin wall aluminium vessel and the measures taken and engineering challenges overcome to achieve a successful repair; - The final repair process, including site preparation, weld execution and final NDE inspection techniques; - Challenges encountered and lesson learned during the execution of weld repair, NDE inspections, and return-to-service of the reactor. (author)

  14. Neutronic modeling and thermal neutron flux measurement of the MCR6 rod in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The six-barrel Multiple-Capsule Water Cooled Rods (MCR6) in the NRU reactor have been used to produce isotopes such as I-131 and Ir-192. This paper describes the modeling of the MCR6 rods and the simulation method used to predict the neutron fluxes. The sensitivity of various radioisotope loadings of MCR6 rods upon flux and power perturbations of neighbouring rods is investigated. This paper also presents the results of thermal neutron flux measurements in one of the MCR6 rods from gold wire detectors using the neutron activation technique. The measured fluxes match very well with the simulated fluxes, within ±2%. (author)

  15. Neutronic modeling and thermal neutron flux measurement of the MCR6 rod in the NRU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Leung, T.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The six-barrel Multiple-Capsule Water Cooled Rods (MCR6) in the NRU reactor have been used to produce isotopes such as I-131 and Ir-192. This paper describes the modeling of the MCR6 rods and the simulation method used to predict the neutron fluxes. The sensitivity of various radioisotope loadings of MCR6 rods upon flux and power perturbations of neighbouring rods is investigated. This paper also presents the results of thermal neutron flux measurements in one of the MCR6 rods from gold wire detectors using the neutron activation technique. The measured fluxes match very well with the simulated fluxes, within {+-}2%. (author)

  16. Physics aspects of reload and approach-to-critical of the NRU reactor after vessel repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, T.C.; Atfield, M.D.; Wang, X.; Nguyen, S.; Pfeiffer, P.; Budgell, J., E-mail: leungt@aecl.ca, E-mail: atfieldm@aecl.ca, E-mail: wangx@aecl.ca, E-mail: nguyens@aecl.ca, E-mail: pfeifferp@aecl.ca, E-mail: budgellj@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River shut down on 2009 May 14 and there was a subsequent outage of 15 months to repair leaks from the vessel. On 2010 August 17, NRU returned to full power operation and resumed isotope production. This paper describes the physics aspects of reload, and the approach-to-critical (ATC) tests conducted to restart the reactor safely. Five ATC's, each at a different number of reloaded assemblies, plus a final one before reactor startup, were completed to confirm the calculated physics predictions of the subcritical state and critical point. Activities for preparation of the ATC tests, the responsibilities of the physicists during execution of the ATC's, and plots of neutron signal data during the ATC's are presented. The final measured critical point of CR 14 @190 cm agreed well with the calculated physics prediction of CR 14 @185 cm, or within ∼0.5 mk. (author)

  17. 235U Determination using In-Beam Delayed Neutron Counting Technique at the NRU Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, M. T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bentoumi, G. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories; Corcoran, E. C. [Royal Military College of Canada; Dimayuga, I. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories; Kelly, D. G. [Royal Military College of Canada; Li, L. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories; Sur, B. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories; Rogge, R. B. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories

    2015-11-17

    This paper describes a collaborative effort that saw the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC)’s delayed neutron and gamma counting apparatus transported to Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) for use in the neutron beamline at the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor. Samples containing mg quantities of fissile material were re-interrogated, and their delayed neutron emissions measured. This collaboration offers significant advantages to previous delayed neutron research at both CNL and RMC. This paper details the determination of 235U content in enriched uranium via the assay of in-beam delayed neutron magnitudes and temporal behavior. 235U mass was determined with an average absolute error of ± 2.7 %. This error is lower than that obtained at RMCC for the assay of 235U content in aqueous solutions (3.6 %) using delayed neutron counting. Delayed neutron counting has been demonstrated to be a rapid, accurate, and precise method for special nuclear material detection and identification.

  18. A probabilistic risk assessment of loss of fuel rod cooling in the NRU 135 mw research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic analysis techniques have been applied to calculate the risk of loss of fuel cooling leading to core melt in the NRU 135 MW (thermal) research reactor. No credit has been taken in this present study for the operation of the emergency cooling system. Whole body gamma doses to the public from a noble gas release resulting from a complete core melt have also been assessed using an appropriate dispersion model

  19. Probabilistic safety assessment precursor studies in support of the NRU research reactor life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A probabilistic safety assessment program is being undertaken in support of a major upgrade planned for the NRU research reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Research. This paper describes the objectives of the program and discusses the safety issues against which the success of the upgrade program is being judged. A licensing basis for the reactor in the form of detailed safety goals and release criteria as a function of event frequency has been proposed. An allowance has been made in the setting of the release criteria as a function of frequency such that the summing of event sequences is not a requirement to demonstrate compliance. The ability to assess each individual sequence that leads to core damage and/or fission-product release from confinement against these release criteria has, to a large extent, dictated the character of the supporting safety analyses. To identify the release frequencies in accident sequences, a probabilistic assessment comprising a number of probabilistic precursor studies is being undertaken. Descriptive event sequences are being used extensively in these studies to complement the more traditional event/fault tree techniques, to - ensure that operating and maintenance staff are involved in their preparation. Details of the program, assessment basis, and the analysis techniques being used in support of the assessment are given. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs

  20. Post-irradiation examination of Al-61 wt% U3Si fuel rods from the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the post-irradiation examination of 4 intact low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel rods from the national research universal (NRU) reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories of AECL. The rods were irradiated during the period 1993 through 1995, under typical driver fuel operating conditions in NRU, i.e., nominal D2O coolant inlet temperature 37E C, inlet pressure 654 kPa and mass flow 12.4 L/s. Irradiation exposures ranged from 147 to 251 full-power days, corresponding to 40 to 84 atom % 235U burnup. The maximum rod power was ∼2 MW, with element linear power ratings up to 68 kW/m. Post-irradiation examinations, conducted in 1997, focused on optical metallography to measure cladding oxide thickness and fuel core and cladding microstructural examinations. The cladding oxide was approximately 24 : m thick at the mid-plane of fuel rods irradiated to 251 full-power days, with small areas up to 34 : m thick on the fins. The cladding retained significant ductility after irradiation, and its microstructure appeared unchanged. Fuel core diametral increases were small (up to 4%) and within the range previously observed on Al-61 wt% U3Si fuel irradiated in the NRU reactor. (author)

  1. Modelling of pressure distributions over fuel-strings for fuel irradiation experiments in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pressure-drop model has been developed for the U-1 and U-2 loops of the NRU reactor. It provides local pressure distributions between instrument locations at the inlet and outlet of each loop. Piping components and fuel-string assemblies are modeled for single-phase and two-phase flows. The overall pressure drop comprises frictional and form losses, as well as changes due to acceleration and gravity. Detailed pressure profiles have been established along the U-1 and U-2 loops at two powers. The pressure loss over the fuel string is typically larger than losses over the inlet, connecting, and outlet piping components. A linear pressure profile has been observed over the fuel string at low power, indicating single-phase flow in the channel. The pressure profile becomes non-linear at high power, signifying the presence of two-phase flow at the downstream end. Different combinations of fuel type in the string appear to have little impact on the pressure profile. This is mainly due to the similarity of pressure-drop characteristics of the fuel types used in fuel irradiation experiments. (author)

  2. Canadian Experience in Application of Graded Approach for Safety Assessment of Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Research reactors are typically used for basic and applied research, education and training, production of isotopes, material testing, neutron activation analysis and other purposes. Most research reactors have a small potential for hazard to the public compared with power reactors. Safety assessment for the research reactors needs to be undertaken to evaluate compliance with safety requirements and to determine the measures to ensure reactor safety. Considering the different types of research reactors and their associated utilization, safety assessment should be commensurate with the potential hazard, ensuring that the design and operation of each reactor lead to adequate safety and defence in depth. The scope of presentation will cover the following topics: - Canadian regulatory framework for licensing research reactors; - Graded approach applied to safety assessment of the research reactors; - Use of graded approach to safety assessment of SLOWPOKE and NRU reactors. Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) has developed a regulatory framework for licensing small reactor facilities (including research reactors) that sets out requirements for the safety analysis and reactor design. CNSC staff considers each application individually in determining how much rigour and stringency are required for the safety assessment. All important factors affecting the overall reactor safety, such as safety system design, inherent safety features, the amount of fissile and fissionable materials, and the source terms are considered. The graded approach introduced, allows safety requirements to be implemented in such way that the level of safety assessment is proportional to the potential hazards posed by the research reactor. Licensing requirements vary with the type of facility and they may be applied in a graded fashion based on overall risk. Graded approach can be applied to all components of safety assessment including radiation risk, safety functions, defence in

  3. Early innovation - NRX and NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innovation has been an integral part of the entire histories of both the NRX and NRU reactors, their systems and the programs conducted in them. I have chosen to emphasize the period of the first decade of NRX operation because it was such a time of discovery. What might be considered obvious today was unknown then. It was at the end of this period that NRU's operation began. This is not a technical paper nor is it intended to be. Rather, it is my version of an oral history of the time recorded from my memory of events or from information told to me by others. The basic facts have been verified through reference to Dr. D.A. Keys' excellent reports and the other progress reports of the time. Some of my old colleagues might have chosen different examples. I do believe that what is included is a reasonable cross-section of examples of early innovation. To help orient those who are not familiar with NRX and NRU and perhaps jog the memories of others, appended are a cutaway view and simple cross-section of each reactor as well as a schematic view of the uranium fuel rod originally used in NRX. With the startup of NRX in 1947 Canada became a major player on the world's nuclear stage. Much work had been done before this date. There was early research by Canadian scientists such as Dr. G.C. Laurence at NRC. As part of the war effort, through the collaborative efforts with our allies led by the U.K. and the U.S. the program to build NRX evolved. At the time the primary purpose of the reactor was to produce Plutonium-239 and Uranium-233. ZEEP was the first reactor to operate outside the U.S. as a step in the development of NRX. The Canadian nuclear industry owes much to those who contributed to the design and building of NRX. They did an outstanding job. A reactor that was built with war in mind was so astonishingly flexible that it became one of the world's renowned contributors to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy

  4. Calculation and comparisons with measurement of fast neutron fluxes in the material testing facilities of the NRU research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRU reactor at Chalk River provides three irradiation facilities to study the effects of fast neutrons (E> 1 MeV) on reactor materials for assessing material damage and deformation. The facilities comprise two types of fast neutron rods (Mark 4 and Mark 7), and a Material Test Bundle (MTB) irradiated in a loop site. This paper describes the neutronic simulation of these testing facilities using the WIMS-AECL and TRIAD codes, and comparisons with the fast neutron flux measurements using iron-wire activation techniques. It also provides comparisons of flux levels, neutron spectra, and size limitations of the experimental cavities between these test facilities. (author)

  5. Calculation and comparisons with measurement of fast neutron fluxes in the material testing facilities of the NRU research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, T.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The NRU reactor at Chalk River provides three irradiation facilities to study the effects of fast neutrons (E> 1 MeV) on reactor materials for assessing material damage and deformation. The facilities comprise two types of fast neutron rods (Mark 4 and Mark 7), and a Material Test Bundle (MTB) irradiated in a loop site. This paper describes the neutronic simulation of these testing facilities using the WIMS-AECL and TRIAD codes, and comparisons with the fast neutron flux measurements using iron-wire activation techniques. It also provides comparisons of flux levels, neutron spectra, and size limitations of the experimental cavities between these test facilities. (author)

  6. Pre-test prediction and post-test analysis of PWR fuel rod ballooning in the MT-3 in-pile LOCA simulation experiment in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The USNRC and the UKAEA have jointly funded a series of in-pile LOCA simulation experiments in the Canadian NRU reactor in order to secure further information on the thermal hydraulic and clad deformation response of PWR fuel rod bundles. Test MT-3 in the series was performed using reflood rate and rod internal pressure conditions specified by the UK nuclear industry. The parameters were selected to ensure the development of a near-isothermal clad temperature history during which zircaloy was required to balloon and rupture near the alpha-alpha/beta phase transition. Specification of the reflood rate conditions was assisted by the performance of a precursor test on an unpressurised rod bundle and by complementary application of appropriate thermal hydraulic analyses. Identification of the rod internal pressure needed to cause ballooning and rupture was achieved using a creep deformation model, BALLOON, in conjunction with the clad thermal history defined by the prior thermal hydraulic test. This paper presents the basis of the BALLOON analysis and describes its application in calculating the fill gas pressure for rods MT-3, their axial ballooning profile and the clad temperature at peak radial strain elevations. (author)

  7. Safety aspects of the emergency filtration system (EFS) for NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the NRU emergency filter system (EFS) is presented, including operation, testing and hazards. Operation of the NRU EFS reduces the dose to the thyroid for members of the public and site personnel by a factor of 100. The calculated thyroid doses for off-site and on-site locations for the current system configuration are 91 and 160 mSv, respectively. An unavailability analysis was performed on the control system which recognized subtle problems in the current system. Modifications to the system result in a system unavailability of 2.0 E-3. The thyroid risk analysis revealed that these improvements in system availability result in risk reduction by approximately a factor of three. Improvements beyond the availability analysis recommendations do not result in substantial risk benefit for members of the public or on-site personnel

  8. Monte Carlo calculations of heat deposition in fuel and non-fuel materials irradiated in the National Research Universal reactor (NRU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional reactor codes relate heat deposition in fuel and coolant to the fission power using approximate conversion factors, whose inaccuracy may lead to incorrect results that challenge the operating and safety limits imposed on channel power to coolant and/or heat ratings of fuel elements. The Monte Carlo transport code MCNP can be used for determining the heating power to fission power ratios (HPFPR) and power to coolant ratios (PTCR) for various types of fuel irradiated in NRU, depending on the fuel burnup. The method also applies to heating calculations of materials that contain no fuel. In-house patches to MCNP, QFISS (Fission Q-Values) and DPERT (Direct Cross-Section Perturbation), are incorporated for facilitating the process and dealing better with delayed energy deposition. As a result, this approach provides greater confidence that NRU remains within the license envelope. (author)

  9. Monte Carlo calculations of heat deposition in fuel and non-fuel materials irradiated in the National Research Universal reactor (NRU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, S.; Wilkin, G.B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Traditional reactor codes relate heat deposition in fuel and coolant to the fission power using approximate conversion factors, whose inaccuracy may lead to incorrect results that challenge the operating and safety limits imposed on channel power to coolant and/or heat ratings of fuel elements. The Monte Carlo transport code MCNP can be used for determining the heating power to fission power ratios (HPFPR) and power to coolant ratios (PTCR) for various types of fuel irradiated in NRU, depending on the fuel burnup. The method also applies to heating calculations of materials that contain no fuel. In-house patches to MCNP, QFISS (Fission Q-Values) and DPERT (Direct Cross-Section Perturbation), are incorporated for facilitating the process and dealing better with delayed energy deposition. As a result, this approach provides greater confidence that NRU remains within the license envelope. (author)

  10. Fuels for Canadian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a period of about 10 years AECL had a significant program looking into the possibility of developing U3Si as a high density replacement for the UO2 pellet fuel in use in CANDU power reactors. The element design consisted of a Zircaloy-clad U3Si rod containing suitable voidage to accommodate swelling. We found that the binary U3Si could not meet the defect criterion for our power reactors, i.e., one month in 300 degree C water with a defect in the sheath and no significant damage to the element. Since U3Si could not do the job, a new corrosion resistant ternary U-Si-Al alloy was developed and patented. Fuel elements containing this alloy came close to meeting the defect criterion and showed slightly better irradiation stability than U3Si. Shortly after this, the program was terminated for other reasons. We have made much of this experience available to the Low Enrichment Fuel Development Program and will be glad to supply further data to assist this program

  11. Reduced enrichment fuels for Canadian research reactors - Fabrication and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our facilities have been upgraded to manufacture fuel rods comprising dispersions of U3Si in aluminum, to complement the dispersions of U3Si alloyed with 1.5 and 3.0 wt% Al fabricated and tested previously. Further advances have been made in process optimization particularly in core extrusion where production rate has been doubled while maintaining high quality standards. Our mini-element irradiations of Al-61.5 wt% (U,3.5 wt% Si, 1.5 wt% Al) and Al-62.4 wt% (U,3.2 wt% Si, 30 wt% Al) have been completed successfully up to the terminal burnup of 93 atomic percent. Fuel core swelling remained marginally below 1% per 10 atomic percent burnup over the whole irradiation. Also mini-elements containing Al-72.4 wt% USiAl and Al-73.4 wt% USi*Al have been irradiated to 82 atomic percent burnup, their swelling rate marginally exceeding 1% per 10 atomic percent burnup. Three full-size 12-element NRU assemblies containing Al-62.4 wt% USi*Al have been fabricated and installed in the NRU reactor where they have performed normally without problems. The cores for four more full-size 12-element NRU assemblies containing Al-61.0 wt% U3Si have been manufactured. (author)

  12. AECL's Experimental Fuel and Materials Test Loops in NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) maintains two experimental fuel and materials test loops, U1 and U2, within the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). These loops operate at conditions typical of CANDU reactors. Each vertical test section (one in U1, two in U2) has the capacity to irradiate a test assembly 3 m in length and 10.16 cm in diameter; equivalent to six CANDU fuel bundles. The assembly is made up of six interchangeable bundles containing experimental fuels or materials test specimens. The fuel bundles can be 'fixed', with elements welded together into a rigid bundle, or 'demountable', where a frame with some fixed elements and element mounting mechanisms facilitate the placement of additional removable fuel elements. The materials test bundle has 30 fuel elements surrounding a 4.0 cm diameter tube. Currently, there are two specimen holder designs which fit within the tube: a ring of six 13.1 mm diameter specimen tubes, and a triangular assembly, 2.9 cm per side. In addition to standard fuel and materials irradiations, AECL has also performed instrumented test irradiations with modified test assemblies in the NRU Loops. The instrumented test irradiations were conducted in the Blowdown Test Facility (BTF; formerly part of U1) which simulated accident scenarios. AECL has recently qualified a new top closure plug for use with chemistry experiments in the loops. The plug provides electrical connections between instruments and the data acquisition hardware, through the pressure boundary, which will facilitate instrumented irradiations. In addition, an online gamma spectrometer is being added to the U2 loop to monitor loop coolant gamma activity and to facilitate fuel defect detection and characterization. The Canadian Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) fuel design will require irradiation testing. The reference fuel design, (Th, Pu)O2 fuel with high Pu content (13%), will require supporting fuel irradiations. AECL plans

  13. Fuel condition in Canadian CANDU 6 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cornerstone of the CANDU concept is its natural uranium fuel, and the success of its reactor operation hinges on the fuel condition in the reactor. Neutron economy, on power refuelling, and simple fuel design are among the unique characteristics of CANDU fuel. In Canadian CANDU 6 reactors (Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau), the 37-element fuel has provided an enviable record of safe, economic and reliable plant operation for 29 reactor years to date. The fuelling cost is among the lowest in the world - a corollary of high neutron economy, simple fuel design, and judicial fuelling scheme. The reliability of fuel is high: only 21 of the 60000 bundles discharged from Gentilly 2 were confirmed defective and the five-year period from March 1992 to February 1997 saw no defect at all at Gentilly-2. Also, thanks to the inherent on-power refuelling capability and an effective defect detection and removal system, the primary coolant loops are kept extremely clean (very low activity level) - benefiting both maintenance and safety. Moreover, the inventories of fission products in the core and in the channel are maintained within the safety analysis envelope, due to on-power fuelling and sophisticated fuel management. In this paper, CANDU 6 fuel performance is reviewed against the feedback from post-irradiation examinations, and the findings from our ongoing R and D program. The results suggest that the fuel behavior m reactor are basically as originally anticipated, despite an evolutionary 3% increase in bundle uranium mass in the 1980's. For operating conditions within the CANDU 6 37-element experience, the average strains are typically 0.09%; and fission gas release, 2.7%. The UO2 fuel remains stoichiometric after irradiation. In-core measurements of pressure tube fitting are generally low. All these observations are consistent with the excellent fuel performance statistics coming out of the two Canadian CANDU 6 reactors. Additionally, this paper will briefly discuss our

  14. Design basis neutronics calculations for NRU-LOCA experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the neutronics analysis for the LOCA simulation experiments in the NRU reactor. The experimental program will provide greater understanding of nuclear fuel assembly behavior during the heatup, reflood and quench sequence of a hypothetical LOCA. The decay heat and stored heat, which are the energy source in a LOCA will be simulated by fission heat provided by the NRU reactor. The reactor, the test and test operation are described

  15. The development of lower enrichment fuels for Canadian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the world wide move to proliferation resistant fuels, new fuels which use reduced enrichment uranium are being developed for use in the NRX and NRU reactors. A fuel consisting of particles of a USiAl alloy dispersed in an Al matrix has been selected for development along with Al-37 wt% U alloy and Al-U3O8 cermet as backup fuels. This report outlines the progress made in the development of the Al-USiAl and Al-37 wt% U. Results show that good quality extruded rods containing either fuel can be made with techniques similar to those used to fabricate the current NRX and NRU fuels. However, the new fuels will be more expensive to make. Although the oxidation behaviour of the Al-USiAl is not as good as that of the Al-U alloys, its corrosion behaviour in high temperature water does not seem much worse. The oxidation and aqueous corrosion of A-37 wt% U are not much different from those of the Al-U alloys currently used. (author)

  16. Development of lower enrichment fuels for Canadian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the worldwide move to proliferation resistant fuels, new fuels which use reduced enrichment uranium are being developed for use in the NRX and NRU reactors. A fuel consisting of particles of a USiAl alloy dispersed in an Al matrix has been selected for development along with Al-37 wt % U alloy and Al-U3O8 cermet as backup fuels. This report outlines the progress made in the development of the Al-USiAl and Al-37 wt % U. Results show that good quality extruded rods containing either fuel can be made with techniques similar to those used to fabricate the current NRX and NRU fuels. However, the new fuels will be more expensive to make. Although the oxidation behavior of the Al-USiAl is not as good as that of the Al-U alloys, its corrosion behavior in high temperature water does not seem much worse. The oxidation and aqueous corrosion of Al-37 wt % U are not much different from those of the Al-U alloys currently used

  17. The isotope crisis - a Canadian viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the fall of 2007 the summer of 2010 there were repeated cries in the media of North America and Europe of an -isotope crisis-. This concerned the on-going shortage of the isotope Molybdenum 99 and more specifically of its daughter product Technetium Mo 99. The latter is used in about 80 percent of medical imagining procedures in North America, Europe, Japan and a number of other countries. Both isotopes are short-lived and can not be stock-piled. Mo 99 is produced in only a handful of reactors around the world. The fifty-year old Nru reactor in Canada and the equally old Hfr reactor in the Netherlands have each traditionally supplied about a third of the world's supply. In late 2007 the Canadian nuclear regulator ordered the owner and operator of Nru, to shut down the reactor over a matter that was not a clear licence condition. Sensing the impending shortage of Mo 99, the nuclear medicine community raised a major concern sufficient to convince the Canadian government to overrule the regulator. Then in early 2009 a major leak was observed in the Nru reactor vessel. Although it did not present a safety concern it was decided to shut down the reactor to conduct an inspection. This proved to be extremely difficult since the leaks were near the bottom of the 10 metre tall vessel and the only access was through a 20 cm diameter hole at the top of the vessel. The reactor was finally restarted in August 2010, just as the Hfr reactor was shut down for a lengthy overhaul. The paper provides a background on Canada's pioneering involvement in the production and use of radioactive isotopes for medical purposes, a brief account of the Nru repair and an overview of Mo 99 production. (Author)

  18. The isotope crisis - a Canadian viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    From the fall of 2007 the summer of 2010 there were repeated cries in the media of North America and Europe of an -isotope crisis-. This concerned the on-going shortage of the isotope Molybdenum 99 and more specifically of its daughter product Technetium Mo 99. The latter is used in about 80 percent of medical imagining procedures in North America, Europe, Japan and a number of other countries. Both isotopes are short-lived and can not be stock-piled. Mo 99 is produced in only a handful of reactors around the world. The fifty-year old Nru reactor in Canada and the equally old Hfr reactor in the Netherlands have each traditionally supplied about a third of the world's supply. In late 2007 the Canadian nuclear regulator ordered the owner and operator of Nru, to shut down the reactor over a matter that was not a clear licence condition. Sensing the impending shortage of Mo 99, the nuclear medicine community raised a major concern sufficient to convince the Canadian government to overrule the regulator. Then in early 2009 a major leak was observed in the Nru reactor vessel. Although it did not present a safety concern it was decided to shut down the reactor to conduct an inspection. This proved to be extremely difficult since the leaks were near the bottom of the 10 metre tall vessel and the only access was through a 20 cm diameter hole at the top of the vessel. The reactor was finally restarted in August 2010, just as the Hfr reactor was shut down for a lengthy overhaul. The paper provides a background on Canada's pioneering involvement in the production and use of radioactive isotopes for medical purposes, a brief account of the Nru repair and an overview of Mo 99 production. (Author)

  19. NRU analysis support experiments performed in ZED-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of measurements have been performed in ZED-2 to investigate voiding in a simulated NRU loop site containing uniform and non-uniform UO2 fuel strings. The objective of the measurements was to provide experimental data to validate NRU reactor physics codes. Using a simulated NRU loop site containing various UO2 fuel strings, in a simulated NRU lattice in ZED-2, measurements were made of: a) reactivity effects, as measured by critical height changes, associated with the loop site and its contents, b) detailed and macroscopic flux shapes at the loop site and throughout the lattice, respectively, and c) Westcott spectral parameters. The report describes and presents the results of the experiments and is the second of a two part set of reports on this series of measurements. 6 refs

  20. Development Of NRU Reflector Wall Inspection System

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, N.; B.V. Luloff; N. Zahn; R. Lumsden

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 May, the National Research Universal (NRU) calandria leaked. During the next year, the calandria was inspected with six new Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques to determine the extent of the corrosion, repaired, and finally the repair was inspected with four additional new NDE techniques before the reactor was returned to service.The calandria is surrounded by a light-water reflector vessel fabricated from the same material as the calandria vessel. Concerns that the same corro...

  1. The Canadian research reactor spent fuel situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the present research reactor spent fuel situation in Canada. The research reactors currently operating are listed along with the types of fuel that they utilize. Other shut down research reactors contributing to the storage volume are included for completeness. The spent fuel storage facilities associated with these reactors and the methods used to determine criticality safety are described. Finally the current inventory of spent fuel and where it is stored is presented along with concerns for future storage. (author). 3 figs

  2. Severe accident considerations in Canadian nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a current study on severe accidents being sponsored by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) and provides background on other related Canadian work. Scoping calculations are performed in Phase I of the AECB study to establish the relative consequences of several permutations resulting from six postulated initiating events, nine containment states, and a selection of meteorological conditions and health effects mitigating criteria. In Phase II of the study, selected accidents sequences would be analyzed in detail using models suitable for the design features of the Canadian nuclear power reactors

  3. NRU analysis support experiments performed in ZED-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been performed in the ZED-2 critical facility which are representative, from a calculational point of view, of irradiation experiments performed in loops of the NRU research reactor. The objective was to provide detailed reactor physics data to check methods of calculation. Using a simulated NRU lattice in ZED-2 and a simulated NRU loop site, the following studies were made: reactivity effects associated with the loop site and its contents, as measured by changes in critical height; macroscopic flux perturbation effects on the surrounding lattice due to the presence of the loop site and its contents; and detailed reaction rate measurements within and about the loop site and its contents. (auth)

  4. ZED-2 experiments on the effect of a Co absorber rod on an NRU loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments has been performed in ZED-2 to measure the perturbing effects of an NRU cobalt absorber rod on a simulated NRU loop site containing graded enrichment U02 fuel. The objective of the measurements was to provide data useful in validating NRU reactor physics codes. Using a simulated NRU lattice containing a simulated NRU loop site and an asymmetrically placed Co absorber rod, measurements were made of: (a) reactivity effects, as measured by critical height changes, associated with voiding the loop and stepped insertion of the Co absorber rod, (b) flux perturbations at the simulated loop site and throughout the lattice induced by the Co rod, (c) Westcott r√T/Tsub(o) values throughout the lattice

  5. The conversion of NRU from HEU to LEU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) to develop and test low-enriched uranium fuel (LEU, 3Si, USiAl, USi*Al and U3Si2 (U-3.96 wt% Si; U-3.5 wt% Si-1.5 wt% Al; U-3.2 wt% Si-3 wt% Al; U-7.3 wt% Si, respectively). Fuel elements were fabricated with uranium loadings suitable for NRU, 3.15 gU/cm3, and for NRX, 4.5 gU/cm3, and were irradiated under normal fuel-operating conditions. Eight experimental irradiations involving 100 mini-elements and 84 full-length elements (7x12-element rods) were completed to qualify the LEU fuel and the fabrication technology. Post-irradiation examinations confirmed that the performance of the LEU fuel, and that of a medium- enrichment uranium (MEU, 45% U-235) alloy fuel tested as a back-up, was comparable to the HEU fuel. The uranium silicide dispersion fuel swelling was approximately linear up to burnups exceeding NRU's design terminal burnup (80 at%). NRU was partially converted to LEU fuel when the first 31 prototype fuel rods manufactured with industrial-scale production equipment were installed in the reactor. The rods were loaded in NRU at a fuelling rate of about two rods per week over the period 1988 September to December. This partial LEU core (one third of a full NRU core) has allowed the reactor engineers and physicists to evaluate the bulk effects of the LEU conversion on NRU operations. As expected, the irradiation is proceeding without incident

  6. Detecting, locating and identifying failed fuel in Canadian power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes how defected fuel elements are detected, located and identified in Canadian CANDU power reactors. Fuel defects are detected by monitoring the primary coolant for gaseous fission products and radioiodines, while location in core is usually performed on-power by delayed neutron monitoring of coolant samples from individual fuel channels or off-power by gamma-ray monitoring of the channel feeder pipes. The systems and techniques used to detect and locate defected fuel in both Ontario Hydro and CANDU 6 power stations are described, along with examples provided by station experience. The ability to detect and locate defected fuel in power stations was greatly enhanced by a fundamental R and D program, which provided an understanding and models of fission-product release and transport, and the post-defect deterioration of failed fuel. Techniques and equipment used to identify and store defected fuel after it has been discharged from the reactor are briefly reviewed

  7. Canadian experience in implementing modern regulations to existing research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of the modern regime presented a number of challenges to the research reactor facilities. These facilities have usually small organizations and fewer resources to devote to address the new demands. Also, with the mature operations and the established good performance and safety records, the new requirements may be perceived as an added burden without additional safety benefits. The CNSC approach is characterized by the following: Risk Informed Approach: Many CNSC requirements were originally designed for nuclear power reactors. They have been tailored to research reactor to take into account the smaller risks imposed by the research reactor facilities. The graded risk approach has been used to define both the applicability of specific requirements and the acceptance criteria. Transitional Periods: The CNSC recognizes the need for transitional periods for rolling in and implementing the various new requirements. Transitional periods for full compliance with each requirement are imposed after careful assessment of the priority and feasibility of the required action. This is to ensure that the upgrade to the current standard is done within a reasonable time frame and also effectively. Compliance Promotion: As expected in any change, there is a need to communicate fully with the licensees and provide the rationale for each new requirement. The notion that issuance of a new requirement by the CNSC does not mean that what was safe yesterday is not safe today, is explained fully to the licensees. All is aimed toward a common goal of ensuring that the Canadian worker, public and environment are protected from undue risk from research reactors by adapting the best safety standards

  8. MAPLE: a Canadian multipurpose reactor concept for national nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, following an investigation of Canadian and international needs and world-market prospects for research reactors, has developed a new multipurpose concept, called MAPLE (Multipurpose Applied Physics Lattice Experimental). The MAPLE concept combines H2O- and D2O-moderated lattices within a D2O calandria tank in order to achieve the flux advantages of a basic H2O-cooled and moderated core along with the flexibility and space of a D2O-moderated core. The SUGAR (Slowpoke Uprated for General Applied Research) MAPLE version of the conept provides a range of utilization that is well suited to the needs of countries with nuclear programs at an early stage. The higher power MAPLE version furnishes high neutron flux levels and the variety of irradiation facilities that are appropriate for more advanced nuclear programs

  9. Low enriched fuels for NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low enriched uranium silicide dispersion fuels are under development for use in Canadian test reactors. These 20% enriched dispersion fuels are to replace the current 93% enriched uranium-aluminum alloy driver fuels. The reduced enrichment is intended to reduce the risk of illegal diversion for weapons proliferation. Developments in uranium silicide dispersion manufacturing technology have proven the production viability of the fuel. Success in the irradiation testing of the dispersion fuels in mini-element form has led to the irradiation of seven full-size fuel assemblies

  10. Nuclear commissioning of the NRU blowdown test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Blowdown Test Facility in the NRU reactor will be used to conduct all-effects experiments under postulated Loss-of-Coolant Accident and Severe Fuel Damage conditions. Experiments conducted in the BTF will provide information on the release, transport and deposition of fission products, and the thermal and mechanical behaviour of nuclear fuel under these conditions. This paper describes results from the nuclear commissioning experiment for the BTF. (2 refs., 4 figs.)

  11. NRU main cooling circuit heat exchangers - life after 50 years of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrea, L.; Gold, R.; Dam, R.F.; Nickerson, J.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Continued operation of the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor is recognized as essential for AECL and the wider research community to sustain existing programs of national research, isotope production, and fuel and materials testing. To support its continued operation beyond December 2005, AECL initiated a NRU Licensability Extension (LE) Program, of which the NRU LE Plant Life Management (PLiM) Project is one of the major components. As part of the NRU LE PLiM Project, a life assessment of the NRU heavy water main cooling circuit heat exchangers was performed. These heat exchangers have been in operation for 50 years and have provided excellent operational service to date. Inspection results show that the heat exchangers are still in good condition and the outcome of a rigorous and systematic assessment is that they have a good prognosis to achieve a further 10 to 20 years of service life. While recommendations have been made to support their continued operation, no concerns were identified as life limiting. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated assessment of the NRU heat exchangers and the strategies that were applied in support of a further 10 to 20 years of service life. (author)

  12. NRU main cooling circuit heat exchangers - life after 50 years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continued operation of the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor is recognized as essential for AECL and the wider research community to sustain existing programs of national research, isotope production, and fuel and materials testing. To support its continued operation beyond December 2005, AECL initiated a NRU Licensability Extension (LE) Program, of which the NRU LE Plant Life Management (PLiM) Project is one of the major components. As part of the NRU LE PLiM Project, a life assessment of the NRU heavy water main cooling circuit heat exchangers was performed. These heat exchangers have been in operation for 50 years and have provided excellent operational service to date. Inspection results show that the heat exchangers are still in good condition and the outcome of a rigorous and systematic assessment is that they have a good prognosis to achieve a further 10 to 20 years of service life. While recommendations have been made to support their continued operation, no concerns were identified as life limiting. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated assessment of the NRU heat exchangers and the strategies that were applied in support of a further 10 to 20 years of service life. (author)

  13. A safety review of the NRU effluent heat recovery project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRU effluent heat recovery project diverts heated effluent water from the NRU process effluent weir and distributes the water for various heating applications in both the inner and active area at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL). The dominant hazard of the system operation is from leakage of tritiated heavy water from the reactor heavy water system into the light water system and the subsequent contamination of the steam system. Protective features include continuous leakage monitoring and automatic isolation of the recovery system. Modelling of the worst case accident, predicts a dose equivalent from tritium in steam humidification of about 26 mrem (260 μSv). The operation of the heat recovery project does not present an unacceptable risk to CRNL personnel

  14. The fabrication and performance of Canadian silicide dispersion fuel for test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel fabrication effort is now concentrated on the commissioning of large-scale process equipment, defining product specifications, developing a quality assurance plan, and setting up a mini-computer material accountancy system. In the irradiation testing program, full-size NRU assemblies containing 20% enriched silicide dispersion fuel have been Irradiated successfully to burnups in the range 65-80 atomic percent. Irradiations have also been conducted on mini-elements having 1.2 mm diameter holes In their mid-sections, some drilled before irradiation and others after irradiation to 22-83 atomic percent burnup. Uranium was lost to the coolant in direct proportion to the surface area of exposed core material. Pre-irradiation in the intact condition appeared to reduce in-reactor corrosion. Fuel cores developed for the NRU reactor are dimensionally very stable, swelling by only 6-8% at the very high burnup of 93 atomic percent. Two important factors contributing to this good performance are cylindrical clad restraint and coarse silicide particles. Thermal ramping tests were conducted on irradiated silicide aspersion fuels. Small segments of fuel cores released 85Kr starting at about 520 deg. C and peaking at about 680 deg C. After a holding period of 1 hour at 720 deg. C a secondary 85Kr peak occurred during cooling (at about 330 deg. C) probably due to thermal contraction cracking. Whole mini-elements irradiated to 93 atomic percent burnup were also ramped thermally, with encouraging results. After about 0.25 h at 530 deg. C the aluminum cladding developed very localized small blisters, some with penetrating pin-hole cracks preventing gross pillowing or ballooning. (author)

  15. L-Area STS MTR/NRU/NRX Grapple Assembly Closure Mechanics Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizenga, D. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS)

    2016-06-08

    Reference 1 was issued to have Structural Mechanics (SM) perform a review of the closure mechanics associated with the Shielded Transfer System (STS) MTR/NRU/NRX grapple assembly utilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This review was prompted by an operational event which occurred at the Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) utilizing a DTS-XL grapple assembly which is essentially identical to the STS MTR/NRU/NRX grapple assembly used at the SRS. The CNL operational event occurred when a NRU/NRX fuel basket containing spent nuclear fuel assemblies was inadvertently released by the DTS-XL grapple assembly during a transfer. The SM review of the STS MTR/NRU/NRX grapple assembly will examine the operational aspects of the STS and the engineered features of the STS which prevent such an event at the SRS. The design requirements for the STS NRU/NRX modifications were provided in Reference 2 and the overall layout of the STS is provided by Reference 3.

  16. Application of plant life management program and experience at NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor has seen extensive and excellent service since going into operation in 1957. During that time, significant investments in upgrading and improving the facility have been implemented. Recently, as part of the NRU Licenseability Extension (LE) program, AECL has developed a Plant Life Management (PLiM) program to support planned operation to at least 2012. The objective of the PLiM program is to systematically assess the various aging related degradation mechanisms in order to evaluate both current condition and the potential for further extending service life. Another objective is to identify the associated maintenance, surveillance and inspection strategy for service life extension of important Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs). The strategy uses approaches that build on AECL's PLiM/PLEx experience at CANDU plants, but also utilizes previous Age Management and refurbishment work performed at NRU. The program is multi-faceted, systematic and integrated, and involves the facility operations organization in the assessment process. The PLiM program has used a number of pilot studies in the initial stages to test out PLiM procedures, gain experience with the various aging assessment techniques and enhance effectiveness of interfaces between the aging assessment team and the facility staff. The aging assessment process begins with the screening and prioritization of the facility SSCs. Selection of the appropriate assessment technique is based on priority and component type. Life and condition assessment techniques used at other plants have been adapted to NRU and performed on important components and structures. For important systems, a combination of condition assessment and systematic maintenance assessment techniques are being used. Detailed PLiM procedures have been developed and are in trial use in pilot studies. These procedures are currently being updated with the experience gained during the pilot studies. In

  17. The role of the test and research reactors in supporting regulatory technical assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frappier, G. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    An increasingly important contribution of activities conducted in test and research reactors in the last two decades is in supporting the regulatory independent technical assessment. The provision of samples for measurement is an important infrastructure activity and the availability of facilities able to supply the demands of modern measurements remains a crucial issue. After providing a brief overview of the contribution of the ZED-2 and NRU reactors to safety research, and the international as well as Canadian approach to regulatory technical assessments, few examples of contribution of results from safety research programs conducted at ZED-2 and NRU facilities in supporting regulatory technical assessment in the areas of reactor physics and fuel for current CANDU reactors and new designs are discussed.

  18. The role of the test and research reactors in supporting regulatory technical assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increasingly important contribution of activities conducted in test and research reactors in the last two decades is in supporting the regulatory independent technical assessment. The provision of samples for measurement is an important infrastructure activity and the availability of facilities able to supply the demands of modern measurements remains a crucial issue. After providing a brief overview of the contribution of the ZED-2 and NRU reactors to safety research, and the international as well as Canadian approach to regulatory technical assessments, few examples of contribution of results from safety research programs conducted at ZED-2 and NRU facilities in supporting regulatory technical assessment in the areas of reactor physics and fuel for current CANDU reactors and new designs are discussed.

  19. Medical isotope shortage 2009-2010 and future options NRU, SLOWPOKE and MAPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 15 month shutdown of NRU and the unexpected termination of the AECL/Nordion MAPLE project caused a world-wide shortage of medical isotopes. After the recent repair of NRU, AECL is confident that it could continue operating safely and reliably as a multi-purpose reactor until 2021 or longer. There is convincing evidence that the restoration of the MAPLE reactors is technically feasible, but it is highly improbable that a 10 MW MAPLE production reactor can ever be cost-effective. However, conversion of the present 10 MW reactors to 3 MW, without major changes to the structural hardware, warrants serious consideration. Finally, even the 20 kW SLOWPOKE reactor could produce useful quantities of Mo-99. If the present fuel rods were replaced with a small tank containing a solution of low-enriched uranyl sulphate in water, three of these liquid core reactors could supply all of Canada. (author)

  20. Medical isotope shortage 2009-2010 and future options NRU, SLOWPOKE and MAPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilborn, J. [Deep River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The 15 month shutdown of NRU and the unexpected termination of the AECL/Nordion MAPLE project caused a world-wide shortage of medical isotopes. After the recent repair of NRU, AECL is confident that it could continue operating safely and reliably as a multi-purpose reactor until 2021 or longer. There is convincing evidence that the restoration of the MAPLE reactors is technically feasible, but it is highly improbable that a 10 MW MAPLE production reactor can ever be cost-effective. However, conversion of the present 10 MW reactors to 3 MW, without major changes to the structural hardware, warrants serious consideration. Finally, even the 20 kW SLOWPOKE reactor could produce useful quantities of Mo-99. If the present fuel rods were replaced with a small tank containing a solution of low-enriched uranyl sulphate in water, three of these liquid core reactors could supply all of Canada. (author)

  1. Development of NRU reflector wall inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009 May, the National Research Universal (NRU) calandria leaked. During the next year, the calandria was inspected with six new Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques to determine the extent of the corrosion, repaired, and finally the repair was inspected with four additional new NDE techniques before the reactor was returned to service. The calandria is surrounded by a light-water reflector vessel fabricated from the same material as the calandria vessel. Concerns that the same corrosion mechanism had damaged the reflector vessel led to the development of a system to inspect the full circumference of the reflector wall for corrosion damage. The inspection region could only be accessed through 64 mm diameter ports, was 10 m below the port, and had to be inspected from the corroded surface. The ultrasonic technique was designed to produce a closely spaced wall thickness (WT) grid over an area of approximately 5 m2 on the corroded surface using a very small probe holder. This paper describes the Reflector Wall Inspection (RWI) development project and the system that resulted. (author)

  2. Development of NRU reflector wall inspection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsden, R.H.; Luloff, B.V.; Zahn, N.; Simpson, N., E-mail: lumsdenr@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    In 2009 May, the National Research Universal (NRU) calandria leaked. During the next year, the calandria was inspected with six new Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques to determine the extent of the corrosion, repaired, and finally the repair was inspected with four additional new NDE techniques before the reactor was returned to service. The calandria is surrounded by a light-water reflector vessel fabricated from the same material as the calandria vessel. Concerns that the same corrosion mechanism had damaged the reflector vessel led to the development of a system to inspect the full circumference of the reflector wall for corrosion damage. The inspection region could only be accessed through 64 mm diameter ports, was 10 m below the port, and had to be inspected from the corroded surface. The ultrasonic technique was designed to produce a closely spaced wall thickness (WT) grid over an area of approximately 5 m2 on the corroded surface using a very small probe holder. This paper describes the Reflector Wall Inspection (RWI) development project and the system that resulted. (author)

  3. Replacement of the NRU sequence of events recorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NRU is a 135MW(th) reactor owned and operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. In operation since 1957 it is capable of producing neutron fluxes in the order of 2.5 x 1014 neutrons/cm2s. It serves as both a valuable scientific instrument as well as the producer of a significant quantity of the world's medical isotopes, most notably molybdenum-99. NRU's Sequential Events Recorder (SER) is a early 1980's vintage computer system that monitors the reactor's trip and alarm system. It is a supplemental alarm annunciation system that operates in tandem with the main alarm panel. The SER operates by scanning approximately 1024 contacts to determine if these contacts have changed state (i.e., Closed to Open or vice versa). Once a contact has changed state the SER then determines if the event is an alarm or a clearing of an alarm. The SER then prints this information on the printer as well as on the Video Display Unit (VDU) with a timestamp. Early in 2006 NRU's SER started to show signs of deteriorated performance. This resulted in a project aimed at replacing the SER with a modern digital solution. The solution revolves around the use of AECL's Advanced Control Centre Information System (ACCIS) as the system-machine-interface, commercial off-the-shelf computer hardware components and RTP corporation's RTP-2500 controller. This presentation will describe the details of the solution architecture as well as the design, installation and commissioning activities leading up to placing the solution in-services. Lessons learned from the project as well as opportunities for expansion and extended use of the system will also be discussed. (author)

  4. Small reactors in the Canadian context: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R.S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This presentation discusses the opportunities and challenges for small reactors in Canada. It concludes by suggesting that the success of small reactors in Canada will depend on a number of factors including private sector investment, access to international markets, stable, equitable and adaptable regulatory regime, public trust and technology.

  5. NRU light water reflector inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009 May, the National Research Universal (NRU) calandria leaked. In the next year the calandria was inspected with six new techniques, repaired, and the repair inspected with four additional new techniques. The calandria is surrounded by a light water reflector vessel. Concerns that the same corrosion mechanism may have damaged the reflector vessel led to plans to inspect the full circumference of the reflector wall for corrosion damage, through a 64 mm diameter port, from 10 m away, while inspecting from the corroded surface. The ultrasonic technique is intended to produce a very fine inspection grid, through the corroded surface, using a very small probe body over the approximately 5 m2 to be inspected. The calandria vessel inspections were successfully performed, in a short time period, under difficult conditions. This paper will discuss Operating Experience (OPEX) from the 2009/2010 calandria wall inspections and industry dialogue that were applied to the Reflector Wall Inspection (RWI) project. Interaction with the CANDU Inspection Qualification Bureau (CIQB) on procedures, training plans, and mock-up training, led to improvements in how these activities were performed for the RWI project. Experience with shift turnover meetings led to improvements in how the inspection team captures lessons learned, trends issues, and eliminates reoccurring design and procedure problems. Experience with collected and analyzed data, inspection shift logs, and video captured from inspections and repairs, were used to improve inspection performance. Finally, OPEX from radiation/activation and the calibration process reduced dose through tool design and procedure changes. (author)

  6. The Canadian initiative to bring the international thermonuclear experimental reactor to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the next step in fusion research. It is expected to be the last major experimental facility, before the construction of a prototype commercial reactor. The Engineering Design Activities (EDA) of ITER are being funded by the USA, Japan, the Russian Federation, and the European Union, with each of the major parties contributing about 25% of the cost. Canada participates as part of the European coalition. The EDA is due to be completed in 1998, and the major funding partners are preparing for the decision on the siting and construction of ITER. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP) formed a Canadian ITER Siting Task Group to study siting ITER in Canada. The study indicated that hosting ITER would provide significant benefits, both technological and economic, to Canada. We have also confirmed that there would be substantial benefits to the ITER Project. CFFTP then formed a Canadian ITER Siting Board, with representation from a broad range of stakeholders, to champion, 'Canada as Host'. This paper briefly outlines the ITER Project, and the benefits to both Canada and the Project of a Canadian site. With this as background, the paper discusses the international scene and assesses Canada's prospects of being chosen to host ITER. (author)

  7. Physics analysis on the NRU core for an accident scenario of a loop pressure tube crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Research Universal (NRU) reactor loops are high temperature, high pressure test facilities, designed for power reactor fuel development and materials testing within the core of the NRU reactor. The loops allow test material to be subject to neutron flux, temperature and pressure conditions typical of a power reactor. This paper describes the physics analysis on the NRU core for an accident scenario of a loop pressure tube crack with a concurrent liner tube failure. After the crack has occurred, thermal-hydraulic analysis predicts the formation of a steam bubble of 50 cm radius in the D2O moderator/coolant around the loop test section. The steam displaces the D2O moderator and has a negative reactivity effect. This negative reactivity effect is large enough to overcome the positive loop void reactivity such that the reactor is shut down and reactor safety is not compromised. The paper also describes the sensitivity of steam bubble densities on the reactivity effect and presents results for subsequent reductions of fluxes and channel powers around the loop site. (author)

  8. Physics analysis on the NRU core for an accident scenario of a loop pressure tube crack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, T.C., E-mail: leungt@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Nuclear Research Universal (NRU) reactor loops are high temperature, high pressure test facilities, designed for power reactor fuel development and materials testing within the core of the NRU reactor. The loops allow test material to be subject to neutron flux, temperature and pressure conditions typical of a power reactor. This paper describes the physics analysis on the NRU core for an accident scenario of a loop pressure tube crack with a concurrent liner tube failure. After the crack has occurred, thermal-hydraulic analysis predicts the formation of a steam bubble of 50 cm radius in the D{sub 2}O moderator/coolant around the loop test section. The steam displaces the D{sub 2}O moderator and has a negative reactivity effect. This negative reactivity effect is large enough to overcome the positive loop void reactivity such that the reactor is shut down and reactor safety is not compromised. The paper also describes the sensitivity of steam bubble densities on the reactivity effect and presents results for subsequent reductions of fluxes and channel powers around the loop site. (author)

  9. NRU light water reflector inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsden, R.H.; Hebert, H.; Zahn, N.; Simpson, N.W. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In 2009 May, the National Research Universal (NRU) calandria leaked. In the next year the calandria was inspected with six new techniques, repaired, and the repair inspected with four additional new techniques. The calandria is surrounded by a light water reflector vessel. Concerns that the same corrosion mechanism may have damaged the reflector vessel led to plans to inspect the full circumference of the reflector wall for corrosion damage, through a 64 mm diameter port, from 10 m away, while inspecting from the corroded surface. The ultrasonic technique is intended to produce a very fine inspection grid, through the corroded surface, using a very small probe body over the approximately 5 m{sup 2} to be inspected. The calandria vessel inspections were successfully performed, in a short time period, under difficult conditions. This paper will discuss Operating Experience (OPEX) from the 2009/2010 calandria wall inspections and industry dialogue that were applied to the Reflector Wall Inspection (RWI) project. Interaction with the CANDU Inspection Qualification Bureau (CIQB) on procedures, training plans, and mock-up training, led to improvements in how these activities were performed for the RWI project. Experience with shift turnover meetings led to improvements in how the inspection team captures lessons learned, trends issues, and eliminates reoccurring design and procedure problems. Experience with collected and analyzed data, inspection shift logs, and video captured from inspections and repairs, were used to improve inspection performance. Finally, OPEX from radiation/activation and the calibration process reduced dose through tool design and procedure changes. (author)

  10. Progress in developing research-reactor technology for Canadian and international applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) continues to develop multipurpose research-reactor technology to meet Canadian and international requirements into the next millennium. Considerable progress has been made in refining the concept for a new Canadian Irradiation Research Facility (JRF) that will underpin the evolutionary development of CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) technology and generate neutrons for basic and applied materials science. Additionally, an IRF-based standardized MAPLE research centre is being developed with various reactor-core options to meet international needs for neutron-beam research plus ancillary isotope production (a 1 5-MWt 19-site core), for multipurpose materials testing plus neutron-beam applications (a 30-MWt 31-site core), and high-flux neutron-beam plus materials-testing applications (a 30 to 40-MWt complex core with twin 18-site core segments). (author)

  11. Measurement of the axial distribution of thermal neutron flux beside NRU loop fuel test sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Chalk River Laboratories, fuel bundle tests for the CANDU power reactor fuel development program are performed in the fuel test sites of the NRU reactor loops. At present, calculated axial neutron flux profiles from neutronics modeling of the NRU reactor are used to distribute the total measured powers of the loop fuel test sites to determine the relative fuel bundle powers and burnups of the test bundles. In order to provide data for validating the calculated fluxes, measurements of the axial neutron flux distributions adjacent to the loop fuel test sites were also performed. This paper describes how the axial thermal neutron flux distributions were measured using in-core flux detectors and presents the results of comparisons between the measured fluxes and the calculated fluxes predicted by the neutronics simulation code. (author)

  12. Lesson Learned in Preparation for Decommissioning of Three Canadian Prototype Power Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesson learned by Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL)(former AECL) in preparation for decommissioning of three Prototype Reactors is a result of various strategies used for each site. CNL is responsible for the eventual decommissioning of three prototype power reactors; Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD), Gentilly-1 and Douglas Point. Each of the Canadian prototype power reactor sites shutdown using different strategies. Depending on the site location, configuration, and intended designation of the respective sites, the individual facility systems (ventilation, electrical system, fire detection etc.) were also shut down using different strategies and operating objectives. As CNL embarks on decommissioning the first Canadian prototype reactor, this paper will reflect on the lessons learned over the past thirty years and what CNL is adjusting in the decommissioning strategy to prepare better plans for the future. The Nuclear Power Demonstration Nuclear Generating Station (NPDNGS) was constructed in late 1950's and operated from 1962 to 1987 when it was permanently shutdown after exceeding its operational goals. The NPD reactor was the first Canadian nuclear power reactor and it consisted of a single 20 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor located on a single facility site in Rolphton, Ontario. The NPD facility was shutdown to a 'Cold, Dark and Quiet' state and is maintained using an unmanned strategy by managing the site remotely with active fire detection and security surveillance systems, minimal electrical supply and an active ventilation system which is operated periodically to allow for intermittent inspections. The Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station (DPNGS) was constructed in the early 1960's and operated from 1968 to 1984 when it was permanently shutdown. It consisted of a 200 MW prototype Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor and is embedded on the Bruce Power site near Kincardine, Ontario. The Douglas Point site is maintained in a

  13. Present Status of Canadian Organic-Cooled Reactor Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has been operating the first organic-cooled D2O-moderated pressure-tube reactor (WR-1) since November 1965. The operation of WR-1 and the supporting development programmes at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment are of direct interest to those seeking to exploit the advantages of organic coolants. The following contributions have been made which bear on the technical feasibility of the concept. 1. HB-40, a partially hydrogenated terphenyl mixture, has been used routinely in WR-1 at temperatures up to 370°C. It is now developed to the point where it is the major contender for use in a power reactor. It has the advantages of being liquid at room temperature and offering cost savings over other organic coolants at comparable conditions. 2. Zirconium base alloys can be made compatible with organic coolants provided 50 to 300 ppm of water are added to condition the surface of the zirconium alloy against hydrogen penetration. Chlorine contamination must be controlled. 3. Fuel can be operated at practical ratings without limitations imposed by fouling provided reasonable attention is paid to coolant chemistry. 4. Non-bonded uranium carbide fuels have been taken to bumups as high 11 000 MWd/t and would probably be acceptable at burnups in excess of 16 000 MWd/tU. These and other subjects associated with the present status of the technology are the subject of this paper. The excellent performance of WR-1 indicates that, as yet, no insurmountable technical limitation faces the designers of organic cooled reactors. (author)

  14. Control of Canadian once-through direct cycle supercritical water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Dynamic characteristics of Canadian SCWR are analyzed. • Hybrid feedforward and feedback control is adopted to deal with cross-coupling. • Gain scheduling control with smooth weight is applied to deal with nonlinearity. • It demonstrates through simulation that the control requirements are satisfied. - Abstract: Canadian supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) can be modelled as a Multiple-input Multiple-output (MIMO) system. It has a high power-to-flow ratio, strong cross-coupling and high degree of nonlinearity in its dynamic characteristics. Among the outputs, the steam temperature is strongly affected by the reactor power and the most challenging to control. It is difficult to adopt a traditional control system design methodology to obtain a control system with satisfactory performance. In this paper, feedforward control is applied to reduce the effect on steam temperature from the reactor power. Single-input Single-output (SISO) feedback controllers are synthesized in the frequency domain. Using the feedforward controller, the steam temperature variation due to disturbances at the reactor power has been significantly suppressed. The control system can effectively maintain the overall system stability and regulate the plant around a specified operating condition. To deal with the nonlinearities, gain scheduling control strategy is adopted. Different sets of controllers combined by smooth weight functions are used for the plant at different load conditions. The proposed control strategies have been evaluated under various operating scenarios. Simulation results show that satisfactory performance can successfully achieved by the designed control system

  15. Predictions regarding the supply of 99Mo and 99mTc when NRU ceases production in 2018

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, C. K.; Diamond, W. T.

    2015-01-01

    The NRU reactor in Chalk River had been scheduled to stop producing medical isotopes by the end of 2016 but the Government of Canada recently announced that it will remain available to support isotope production until its operating license expires on 31 March, 2018. NRU has the capability of producing up to 80 % of the world's requirements for 99Mo but is presently producing less than 20 %. There are a number of initiatives underway, both within Canada and around the world, to find alternativ...

  16. Study of power end peaking for NRU loop fuel calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    End-flux peaking effects in fuel bundles irradiated in the NRU (National Research Universal reactor) loop test sections are investigated using MCNP (the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code). The current method for calculating powers in the loop bundles only allows for an integrated end-power-peaking correction. In this paper, an element axial power ratio (APR), determined as the 3D MCNP-calculated fission power at an element axial location relative to the 2D WIMS (Winfrith Improved Multigroup Scheme lattice transport code) power, is introduced. This may be used, as supplementary information to BURFEL (the Burnup of Fuel Elements code and database system), to obtain the accurate axial distributions of element powers, thereby, enabling the quantification of those element-end power increases that are important for design of bundles and safety analysis. (author)

  17. Study of power end peaking for NRU loop fuel calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T.S.; Donders, R.E. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    End-flux peaking effects in fuel bundles irradiated in the NRU (National Research Universal reactor) loop test sections are investigated using MCNP (the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code). The current method for calculating powers in the loop bundles only allows for an integrated end-power-peaking correction. In this paper, an element axial power ratio (APR), determined as the 3D MCNP-calculated fission power at an element axial location relative to the 2D WIMS (Winfrith Improved Multigroup Scheme lattice transport code) power, is introduced. This may be used, as supplementary information to BURFEL (the Burnup of Fuel Elements code and database system), to obtain the accurate axial distributions of element powers, thereby, enabling the quantification of those element-end power increases that are important for design of bundles and safety analysis. (author)

  18. Long-term performance of the CANDU-type of vanadium self-powered neutron detectors in NRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, T.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: leungt@aecl.ca

    2007-07-01

    The CANDU-type of in-core vanadium self-powered neutron flux detectors have been installed in NRU to monitor the axial neutron flux distributions adjacent to the loop fuel test sites since 1996. This paper describes how the thermal neutron fluxes were measured at two monitoring sites, and presents a method of correcting the vanadium burn-up effect, which can be up to 2 to 3% per year, depending on the detector locations in the reactor. It also presents the results of measurements from neutron flux detectors that have operated for over eight-years in NRU. There is good agreement between the measured and simulated neutron fluxes, to within {+-} 6.5%, and the long-term performance of the CANDU-type of vanadium neutron flux detectors in NRU is satisfactory. (author)

  19. Long-term performance of the CANDU-type of vanadium self-powered neutron detectors in NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU-type of in-core vanadium self-powered neutron flux detectors have been installed in NRU to monitor the axial neutron flux distributions adjacent to the loop fuel test sites since 1996. This paper describes how the thermal neutron fluxes were measured at two monitoring sites, and presents a method of correcting the vanadium burn-up effect, which can be up to 2 to 3% per year, depending on the detector locations in the reactor. It also presents the results of measurements from neutron flux detectors that have operated for over eight-years in NRU. There is good agreement between the measured and simulated neutron fluxes, to within ± 6.5%, and the long-term performance of the CANDU-type of vanadium neutron flux detectors in NRU is satisfactory. (author)

  20. A human reliability assessment screening method for the NRU upgrade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor is a 130MW, low pressure, heavy water cooled and moderated research reactor. The reactor is used for research, both in support of Canada's CANDU development program, and for a wide variety of other research applications. In addition, NRU plays an important part in the production of medical isotopes, e.g., generating 80% of worldwide supplies of Molybdenum-99. NRU is owned and operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), and is currently undergoing upgrading as part of AECL's continuing commitment to operate their facilities in a safe manner. As part of these upgrades both deterministic and probabilistic safety assessments are being carried out. It was recognized that the assignment of Human Error Probabilities (HEPs) is an important part of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies, particularly for a facility whose design predates modern ergonomic practices, and which will undergo a series of backfitted modifications whilst continuing to operate. A simple Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) screening method, looking at both pre- and post-accident errors, was used in the initial safety studies. However, following review of this method within AECL and externally by the regulator, it was judged that benefits could be gained for future error reduction by including additional features, as later described in this document. The HRA development project consisted of several stages; needs analysis, literature review, development of method (including testing and evaluation), and implementation. This paper discusses each of these stages in further detail. (author)

  1. Follow-up of AECL employees involved in the decontamination of NRU in 1958

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1958 the NRU reactor hall was badly contaminated by a damaged fuel rod that broke apart during its removal from the reactor. Radioactive fission products were spread around the reactor hall and into adjacent areas when a piece of the fuel rod fell into the maintenance pit and burned. AECL staff and others completed the decontamination in 2 1/2 months. This paper reports the results of a follow-up study of the AECL participants. No statistically significant increases in deaths from cancer or other diseases were found in this group

  2. LPV Modeling and Control of Canadian Supercritical Water-cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadian direct-cycle supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is a pressure-tube type SCWR under development in Canada. The coolant flow rate is required to be maintained in a correct proportion to the reactor power output so that the main steam temperature can be kept at a constant. As a result, the gain and the time constant of the system vary significantly as the power level changes and Canadian SCWR is a highly nonlinear system. To deal with the high degree of nonlinearity, gain scheduling control can be applied. But the stability is only achieved at selected operating points, it cannot be guaranteed for all operating region in theory. What's more, there are abrupt changes when the controllers are switching. The control performance can be deteriorated. In this paper, a linear parameter varying (LPV) method is proposed to solve such problems. Linear dynamic models are obtained through Jacobian linearization at six operating points. The power level is chosen as the varying parameter. An LPV model is derived through fitting these linear dynamic models and it is verified with the nonlinear model. H∞ theory is applied to design the LPV controller. Through wide range simulation, the performance of the LPV controller is verified

  3. The SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada: applications for the Canadian Armed Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Royal Military College of Canada (RMCC) has a 20 kW SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear research reactor which is used for teaching and research. Since its commissioning, the reactor facility and instruments have been continuously upgraded to develop and enhance nuclear capabilities for the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF). Specific applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA), delayed neutron counting (DNC) and neutron imaging relevant to the CAF are discussed. (author)

  4. The SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada: applications for the Canadian Armed Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Royal Military College of Canada (RMCC) has a 20 kW SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear research reactor which is used for teaching and research.Since its commissioning, the reactor facility and instruments have been continuously upgraded to develop and enhance nuclear capabilities for the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF). Specific applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA), delayed neutron counting (DNC) and neutron imaging relevant to the CAF are discussed. (author)

  5. FCC Study of Canadian Heavy Gas Oils Comparisons of Product Yields and Qualities between Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SiauwH.Ng; AdrianHumphries; CraigFairbridge; ZhuYuxia; SokYui

    2005-01-01

    Several series of cracking tests in a comprehensive study were conducted on separate occasions involving all or parts of ten Canadian vacuum gas oils (VGOs) and two catalysts with bottoms-cracking or octane-barrel capability.VGOs were cracked in fixed- and/or fluid-bed microactivity test (MAT) units, in an Advanced Cracking Evaluation (ACE)unit, and in a modified ARCO riser reactor. Individual yields of gas, liquid, and coke from the MATs at 55, 65, 70, and 81 wt% conversion levels were compared with their respective pilot plant data. Good linear correlations could be established between MAT and riser yields except for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and light cycle oil (LCO). At a given conversion,correlations existed among the fixed- and fluid-bed MAT units and the ACE for each product yield. Liquid products from the fixed or fluid-bed MAT were analyzed for hydrocarbon types, sulfur, nitrogen and density, most of which showed good agreement with those obtained from the riser study. When cracking Canadian oil-sands-derived VGOs, the bottomscracking catalyst containing a large-pore active matrix was found to be more suitable than the octane-barrel catalyst with smaller pores to produce higher yields of valuable distillates, but with less superior qualities (in terms of sulfur and nitrogen contents). The advantages of hydrotreating some poor feeds to improve product yields and qualities were demonstrated and discussed.

  6. Improving Safety, Economic, Substantiality, and Security of Nuclear Energy with Canadian Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactor Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Holly; Pencer, Jeremy; Yetisir, Metin; Leung, Laurence [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactor is one of the six design concepts being developed under the Generation IV International Forum. It is the only concept evolving from the water-cooled reactors and taking advantages of the balance-of-plant design and operation experience of the fossil-power plants. Canada is developing the SCR concept from the well-established pressure-tube reactor technology. The Canadian SCWR maintains modular design approach using relative small fuel channels with the separation of coolant and moderator. It is equipped with an advanced fuel channel design that is capable to transfer decay heat from the fuel to the moderator under the long-term cooling stage. Coupled with the advanced passive-moderator cooling system, cooling of fuel and fuel channel is continuous even without external power or operator intervention. The Canadian SCWR is operating at a pressure of 25 MPa with a core outlet temperature of 625 deg. C. This has led to a drastic increase in thermal efficiency to 48% from 34% of the current fleet of reactors (a 40% rise in relative efficiency). With the high core outlet temperature, a direct thermal cycle has been adopted and has led to simplification in plant design attributing to the cost reduction compared to the current reactor designs. The Canadian SCWR adopts the advanced Thorium fuel cycle to enhance the substantiality, economic, and security. than uranium in the world (estimated to be three times more). This provides the long-term fuel supply. Thorium's price is stable compared to uranium and is consistently lower than uranium. This would maintain the predictability and economic of fuel supply. Thorium itself is a non-fissile material and once irradiated requires special handling. This improves proliferative resistance. The objective of this paper is to highlight these improvements in generating nuclear energy with the Canadian SCWR.

  7. Improving Safety, Economic, Substantiality, and Security of Nuclear Energy with Canadian Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactor Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactor is one of the six design concepts being developed under the Generation IV International Forum. It is the only concept evolving from the water-cooled reactors and taking advantages of the balance-of-plant design and operation experience of the fossil-power plants. Canada is developing the SCR concept from the well-established pressure-tube reactor technology. The Canadian SCWR maintains modular design approach using relative small fuel channels with the separation of coolant and moderator. It is equipped with an advanced fuel channel design that is capable to transfer decay heat from the fuel to the moderator under the long-term cooling stage. Coupled with the advanced passive-moderator cooling system, cooling of fuel and fuel channel is continuous even without external power or operator intervention. The Canadian SCWR is operating at a pressure of 25 MPa with a core outlet temperature of 625 deg. C. This has led to a drastic increase in thermal efficiency to 48% from 34% of the current fleet of reactors (a 40% rise in relative efficiency). With the high core outlet temperature, a direct thermal cycle has been adopted and has led to simplification in plant design attributing to the cost reduction compared to the current reactor designs. The Canadian SCWR adopts the advanced Thorium fuel cycle to enhance the substantiality, economic, and security. than uranium in the world (estimated to be three times more). This provides the long-term fuel supply. Thorium's price is stable compared to uranium and is consistently lower than uranium. This would maintain the predictability and economic of fuel supply. Thorium itself is a non-fissile material and once irradiated requires special handling. This improves proliferative resistance. The objective of this paper is to highlight these improvements in generating nuclear energy with the Canadian SCWR

  8. ZED-2 experiments in support of Mo-99 production in NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been performed in the ZED-2 critical facility which attempt to represent the arrangements used in the NRU reactor for production of Mo-99. The measurements used copper flux indicators to plot both macroscopic and detailed distributions. As part of the detailed neutron flux measurements, the fission product activity distribution in Mo-99 production pins was measured using a collimated Ge(Li) detector. The end flux peaking in the arrangement used was found to be approximately 20% with a consequent increase in Mo-99 production of approximately 3%

  9. Development and field application of a leak sealant for the NRU water reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and successful application of a unique leak sealant formulation comprised of a mixture of graded, hollow ceramic microspheres, surface oxidized aluminum powder and saturated gibbsite suspension is described. The project was undertaken to address the escalating leakage from up to 15 small weld defects in the water reflector vessel, an integral component of the NRU (National Research Universal) reactor calandria. The reflector surrounds the reactor core with a neutron reflecting blanket of light water. Injection of the sealant is typically done with the reactor shutdown and the water reflector system operating normally, but can also be performed with the reactor at full power. The procedure is simple and effective. Individual treatments of as little as 125 ml of sealant (10 ppm in the 12,500 L system) have yielded leak reductions exceeding 2000 L/day. The accumulated leak reductions of several treatments now total 90% of the historic high of 5,400 L/day. (author)

  10. Lessons learned from the NRU vessel leak repair and return to service projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 2009 the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor was shut down due to a small leak detected from the reactor vessel into the annulus surrounding the reactor. What ensued was a challenging, yet successful, 15 month long Repair and Return to Service Outage. This Repair and Return to Service Outage presented many first-of-a-kind challenges that provide learning opportunities which have been incorporated into subsequent planned outages. These lessons learned are invaluable tools to be used in the planning and execution of future outages. Following the repair of the NRU vessel, AECL was required to conduct annual inspections of the vessel wall. These inspections require an annual Extended Outage (up to 4 weeks in length). A planned Extended Outage was conducted in May/June 2011 and provided an opportunity to implement some of the lessons learned during the Repair and Return to Service Outage. Lessons learned from that Extended Outage have been incorporated in the subsequent monthly maintenance outages, with lessons learned sessions being held after each outage to ensure that the execution of outages is constantly improving. (author)

  11. Lessons learned from the NRU vessel leak repair and return to service projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeney, P.; Turcotte, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In May 2009 the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor was shut down due to a small leak detected from the reactor vessel into the annulus surrounding the reactor. What ensued was a challenging, yet successful, 15 month long Repair and Return to Service Outage. This Repair and Return to Service Outage presented many first-of-a-kind challenges that provide learning opportunities which have been incorporated into subsequent planned outages. These lessons learned are invaluable tools to be used in the planning and execution of future outages. Following the repair of the NRU vessel, AECL was required to conduct annual inspections of the vessel wall. These inspections require an annual Extended Outage (up to 4 weeks in length). A planned Extended Outage was conducted in May/June 2011 and provided an opportunity to implement some of the lessons learned during the Repair and Return to Service Outage. Lessons learned from that Extended Outage have been incorporated in the subsequent monthly maintenance outages, with lessons learned sessions being held after each outage to ensure that the execution of outages is constantly improving. (author)

  12. Neutronic simulations of the NRU Mk7 fast-neutron rods for material testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mk7 fast-neutron (FN) rods in the NRU reactor provide a facility in which the effects of irradiation on CANDU reactor materials are studied. These rods will be used for testing of ACR materials in the future. Each rod contains two 28-element fuel rings with 19.75% enriched uranium fuel. This paper describes how the Mk7 FN rod was modeled to calculate the fast-neutron spectrum in its experimental cavity. A sensitivity study on the fast neutron flux due to changes in pressure tube thickness and coolant temperature is presented. The paper also describes the simulation method used to determine the axial flux and power distributions of the Mk7 rods. Finally, a comparison of the measured and simulated powers throughout the life cycle of a typical Mk7 rod is also presented. (author)

  13. Predictions regarding the supply of 99Mo and 99mTc when NRU ceases production in 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, C K

    2015-01-01

    The NRU reactor in Chalk River had been scheduled to stop producing medical isotopes by the end of 2016 but the Government of Canada recently announced that it will remain available to support isotope production until its operating license expires on 31 March, 2018. NRU has the capability of producing up to 80 % of the world's requirements for 99Mo but is presently producing less than 20 %. There are a number of initiatives underway, both within Canada and around the world, to find alternative ways of producing 99Mo or its daughter, 99mTc. We examine the status of the main proposals and conclude that it will be challenging for any of them to meet the required demand by the end of 2016. An additional year should be enough time for some of the proposals to complete the development of manufacturing facilities and achieve regulatory approval. It is likely that these operators will have enough production capability to make up for the shortfall when the NRU operating license expires.

  14. Materials research with neutron beams from a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the unique ways that neutrons interact with matter, neutron beams from a research reactor can reveal knowledge about materials that cannot be obtained as easily with other scientific methods. Neutron beams are suitable for imaging methods (radiography or tomography), for scattering methods (diffraction, spectroscopy, and reflectometry) and for other possibilities. Neutron-beam methods are applied by students and researchers from academia, industry and government to support their materials research programs in several disciplines: physics, chemistry, materials science and life science. The arising knowledge about materials has been applied to advance technologies that appear in everyday life: transportation, communication, energy, environment and health. This paper illustrates the broad spectrum of materials research with neutron beams, by presenting examples from the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre at the NRU research reactor in Chalk River. (author)

  15. Materials research with neutron beams from a research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Root, J.; Banks, D. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Because of the unique ways that neutrons interact with matter, neutron beams from a research reactor can reveal knowledge about materials that cannot be obtained as easily with other scientific methods. Neutron beams are suitable for imaging methods (radiography or tomography), for scattering methods (diffraction, spectroscopy, and reflectometry) and for other possibilities. Neutron-beam methods are applied by students and researchers from academia, industry and government to support their materials research programs in several disciplines: physics, chemistry, materials science and life science. The arising knowledge about materials has been applied to advance technologies that appear in everyday life: transportation, communication, energy, environment and health. This paper illustrates the broad spectrum of materials research with neutron beams, by presenting examples from the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre at the NRU research reactor in Chalk River. (author)

  16. Status of LEU fuel development and conversion of NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the status of the LEU conversion program and the progress made in the fuel development program over the last year. The results from post-irradiation examinations of prototype NRU fuel rods containing Al-U3Si dispersion fuel, and of mini-elements containing Al-U3Si2 dispersion fuel, are presented. (orig.)

  17. Status of LEU fuel development and conversion of NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the low-enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel development and NRU conversion program at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories is reviewed. Construction of a new fuel fabrication facility is essentially completed and installation of LEW fuel manufacturing equipment has begun. The irradiation of 31 prototype Al-61 wt% U3Si dispersion fuel rods, approximately one third of a full NRU core, is continuing without incident. Recent post-irradiation examination of spent fuel rods revealed that the prototype LEU fuel achieved the design burnup (80 at%) in excellent condition, confirming that the Al-U3Si2 dispersion fuel to complement out Al-U3Si capability. Three full-size NRU rods containing Al-U3Si2 dispersion fuel have been fabricated for a qualification irradiation in NRU. Post-irradiation examinations of mini-elements containing Al-U3Si2 fuel revealed that the U3Si2 behaved similarly to U3Si2 fuel revealed that the U3Si2 particles and the aluminum matrix, and fission gas bubbles up to 10 μm in diameter, could be seen in the particles after 60 at% and 80 at% burnup. The mini-elements contained a variety of silicide particle sizes; however, no significant swelling dependence on particle size distribution was observed

  18. Nuclear data sensitivity and uncertainty for the Canadian supercritical water-cooled reactor II: Full core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • H-2, Pu-239, and Th-232 make large contributions to SCWR modelling sensitivity. • H-2, Pu-239, and Th-232 make large contributions to SCWR modelling uncertainty. • Isotopes of Zr make large contributions to SCWR modelling uncertainty. - Abstract: Uncertainties in nuclear data are a fundamental source of uncertainty in reactor physics calculations. To determine their contribution to uncertainties in calculated reactor physics parameters, a nuclear data sensitivity and uncertainty study is performed on the Canadian supercritical water reactor (SCWR) concept. The nuclear data uncertainty contributions to the neutron multiplication factor keff are 6.31 mk for the SCWR at the beginning of cycle (BOC) and 6.99 mk at the end of cycle (EOC). Both of these uncertainties have a statistical uncertainty of 0.02 mk. The nuclear data uncertainty contributions to Coolant Void Reactivity (CVR) are 1.0 mk and 0.9 mk for BOC and EOC, respectively, both with statistical uncertainties of 0.1 mk. The nuclear data uncertainty contributions to other reactivity parameters range from as low as 3% of to as high as ten times the values of the reactivity coefficients. The largest contributors to the uncertainties in the reactor physics parameters are Pu-239, Th-232, H-2, and isotopes of zirconium

  19. Safety requirements in the design of research reactors: A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Canada, the formal development of safety requirements for the design of research reactors in general began under an inter-organizational Small Reactor Criteria Committee. This committee developed safety and licensing criteria for use by several small reactor projects in their licensing discussions with the Atomic Energy Control Board. The small reactor projects or facilities represented included the MAPLE-X10 reactor, the proposed SES-10 heating reactor and its prototype, the SDR reactor at the Whiteshell Laboratories, the Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (a.k.a., HANARO) in Korea, the SCORE project, and the McMaster University Nuclear Reactor. The top level set of criteria which form a safety philosophy and serve as a framework for more detailed developments was presented at an IAEA Conference in 1989. AECL continued this work to develop safety principles and design criteria for new small reactors. The first major application of this work has been to the design, safety analysis and licensing of the MAPLE 1 and 2 reactors for the MDS Nordion Medical Isotope Reactor Project. This paper provides an overview of the safety principles and design criteria. Examples of an implementation of these safety principles and design criteria are drawn from the work to design the MAPLE 1 and 2 reactors. (author)

  20. The NRU blowdown test facility commissioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major experimental program has been established at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRL) that will provide essential data on the thermal and mechanical behaviour of nuclear fuel under abnormal reactor operating conditions and on the transient release, transport and deposition of fission product activity from severely degraded fuel. A number of severe fuel damage (SFD) experiments will be conducted within the Blowdown Test Facility (BTF) at CRL. A series of experiments are being conducted to commission this new facility prior to the SFD program. This paper describes the features and the commissioning program for the BTF. A development and testing program is described for critical components used on the reactor test section. In-reactor commissioning with a fuel assembly simulator commenced in 1989 June and preliminary results are given. The paper also outlines plans for future all-effects, in-reactor tests of CANDU-designed fuel. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  1. Validation of computer codes used in the safety analysis of Canadian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL has embarked on a validation program for the suite of computer codes that it uses in performing the safety analyses for its research reactors. Current focus is on codes used for the analysis of the two MAPLE reactors under construction at Chalk River but the program will be extended to include additional codes that will be used for the Irradiation Research Facility. The program structure is similar to that used for the validation of codes used in the safety analyses for CANDU power reactors. (author)

  2. Post-irradiation examination of prototype Al-64 wt% U3Si2 fuel rods from NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three prototype fuel rods containing Al-64 wt% U3Si2 (3.15 gU/cm3) have been irradiated to their design burnup in the NRU reactor without incident. The fuel was fabricated using production-scale equipment and processes previously developed for Al-U3Si fuel fabrication at Chalk River Laboratories, and special equipment developed for U3Si2 powder production and handling. The rods were irradiated in NRU up to 87 at% U-235 burnup under typical driver fuel conditions; i.e., nominal coolant inlet temperature 37 degrees C, inlet pressure 654 kPa, mass flow 12.4 L/s, and element linear power ratings up to 73 kW/m. Post-irradiation examinations showed that the fuel elements survived the irradiation without defects. Fuel core diametral increases and volumetric swelling were significantly lower than that of Al-61 wt% U3Si fuel irradiated under similar conditions. This irradiation demonstrated that the fabrication techniques are adequate for full-scale fuel manufacture, and qualified the fuel for use in AECL's research reactors

  3. Post-irradiation examination of uranium-molybdenum dispersion fuel irradiated to high burn-up in NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UMo dispersion fuels are promising candidates for research and test reactors. Mini-elements containing U7Mo and U10Mo (7 and 10 wt% Mo in U alloy) fuel particles dispersed in aluminium have been fabricated with a nominal loading of 4.5 gU/cm3. In order to compare the performance of the different UMo alloys, the mini-elements were irradiated adjacent to each other under nominally identical conditions in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor. Maximum element linear ratings up to 100 kW/m and discharge burnups up to 80 atom% 235U were achieved. The experiment was conducted in phases such that adjacent pairs of mini-elements could be removed for post-irradiation examinations (PIE) after 20, 40, 60 and 80 atom% 235U burnup. PIE included underwater inspections, visual examinations and photography in the hot cells, gamma spectroscopy, dimensional measurements, immersion density measurements, metallography, and chemical burnup analysis. The results from the high burnup fuels are presented in this paper. The assessments compare the microstructural changes, porosity formation and fuel swelling in the two UMo dispersion fuels. The results indicate that U7Mo fuel is less stable that U10 Mo fuel under the conditions tested in NRU. (author)

  4. A floating desalination/co-generation system using the KLT-40 reactor and Canadian RO desalination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    indicated that under these conditions approximately 100,000 m3/d of potable water can be produced The use of preheated feedwater results in an improvement in water production efficiency of up to about 15% relative to a system operating at the ambient seawater temperature. This preliminary design study has shown that significant improvements in the cost of water production can be achieved through this 'marriage' of Russian small reactor technology and Canadian RO technology. The potential benefits warrant further detailed evaluation followed by a demonstration project. (author)

  5. The Maple reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MDS Nordion supplies the majority of the world's reactor-produced medical isotopes. These isotopes are currently produced in the NRU reactor at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). Medical isotopes and related technology are relied upon around the world to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. The NRU reactor, which has played a key role in supplying medical isotopes to date, has been in operation for over 40 years. Replacing this aging reactor has been a priority for MDS Nordion to assure the global nuclear medicine community that Canada will continue to be a dependable supplier of medical isotopes. MDS Nordion contracted AECL to construct two MAPLE reactors dedicated to the production of medical isotopes. The MDS Nordion Medical Isotope Reactor (MMIR) project started in September 1996. This paper describes the MAPLE reactors that AECL has built at its CRL site, and will operate for MDS Nordion. (author)

  6. CFD analysis of flow and heat transfer in Canadian supercritical water reactor bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Flow and heat transfer in SCWR fuel bundle design by AECL is studied using CFD. • Bare-rod bundle geometry is tested at 23.5, 25 and 28 MPa using STAR-CCM+ code. • SST k–ω low-Re model was used to study occurrence of heat transfer deterioration. - Abstract: Within the Gen-IV International Forum, AECL is leading the effort in developing a conceptual design for the Canadian SCWR. AECL proposed a new fuel bundle design with two rings of fuel elements placed between central flow tube and the pressure tube. In line with the scope of the conceptual design, the objective of the present CFD work is to aid in developing a bundle heat transfer correlation for the Canadian SCWR fuel bundle design. This paper presents results from an ongoing effort in determining the conditions favorable for occurrence of HTD in the supercritical bundle flows. In the current investigation, bare-rod bundle geometry was tested for the proposed fuel bundle design at 23.5, 25 and 28 MPa using STAR-CCM+ CFD code. Taking advantage of the design symmetry of the fuel bundle, only 1/32 of the computational domain was simulated. The low-Reynolds number modification of SST k–ω turbulence model along with y+ < 1 was used in the simulations. For lower mass flow simulations, the increase of inlet temperature and operational pressure was found effective in reducing the occurrence of HTD. For higher mass flow simulations, normal heat transfer behaviour was observed except for the lower pressure range (23.5 MPa)

  7. Severe-fuel-damage experiments in the Canadian in-reactor Blowdown Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Blowdown Test Facility consists of an instrumented in-reactor irradiation site plus an out-reactor piping system. These are used to irradiate CANDU fuel under conditions representative of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) or LOCA with Loss-Of-Emergency-Core-Cooling (LOECC) in order to study fuel performance, fission-product release from the fuel and the transport of fission products through the piping system. An overview of the facility and the experimental program is given in this paper. (author)

  8. Canadian Neutron Source (CNS): a research reactor solution for medical isotopes and neutrons for science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes a dual purpose research facility at the University of Saskatchewan for Canada for the production of medical isotopes and neutrons for scientific research. The proposed research reactor is intended to supply most of Canada's medical isotope requirements and provide a neutron source for Canada's research community. Scientific research would include materials research, biomedical research and imaging.

  9. Purification and solidification of reactor wastes at a Canadian nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories are developing methods to condition power reactor wastes and to immobilize their radionuclides. Evaporation alone and combined with bituminization has been an important part of the program. After testing at the laboratories a 0.5 m2 wiped-film evaporator was sent to the Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station (220 MWe) to demonstrate its suitability to handle typical reactor liquid wastes. Two specific tasks undertaken with the wiped-film evaporator were successfully completed. The first was purification of contaminated heavy water which had leaked from the moderator circuit. The heavy water is normally recovered, cleaned by filters and ion-exchange resin and then upgraded by electrolysis. Cleaning the heavy water with the wiped-film evaporator produced better quality water for upgrading than had been achieved by any previous method and at much lower operating cost. The second task was to concentrate and immobilize a decontamination waste. The waste was generated from the decontamination of pump bowls used in the primary heat transport circuit. The simultaneous addition of the liquid waste and bitumen emulsion to the wiped-film evaporator produced a solid containing 30 wt% waste solids in a bitumen matrix. The volume reduction achieved was 16:1 based on the volumes of initial liquid waste and the final product generated. The quantity sent to storage was 20 times less than had the waste been immobilized in a cement matrix. The successful demonstration has resulted in a proposal to install a wiped-film evaporator at the station to clean heavy water and immobilize decontamination wastes. (author)

  10. Development of the new Canadian Irradiation-Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To replace the aging NRU reactor, AECL has developed the concept for a dual-purpose national Irradiation Research Facility (IRF) that tests fuel and materials for CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) reactors and performs materials research using extracted neutron beams. The IRF includes a MAPLE reactor in a containment building, experimental facilities and support facilities. The reactor concept was developed to provide a realistic environment for irradiating up to nine natural- or enriched-uranium CANDU bundles at powers up to 1 MWp to generate fast-neutron fluxes up to 1.4x1018 n m-2 s-1 in materials-damage and corrosion specimens, and to match the thermal-neutron fluxes available in NRU for a set of eight thermal beam tubes plus two cold sources equipped with neutron guides. (author)

  11. The case and concept for a proposed new Canadian irradiation research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1957, the NRU reactor has been the key irradiation facility that underpinned the development of the CANDU power reactor, and it has facilitated world-class materials research using neutrons. In 1995, AECL developed a case for replacing NRU with the Irradiation Research Facility (IRF) to test CANDU fuels and materials and, to provide facilities for materials research using neutrons. A reference IRF concept with an estimated cost of $500 million and a reference schedule to completion of 87 months was produced. Subsequently, a pre-project program has begun to develop the IRF concept to minimize uncertainties related to feasibility and licensability before project implementation begins

  12. A Canadian isotope success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides some historical background on the commercial production of radioisotopes in Canada, and the evolution of the present vendor, MDS Nordion. The chief isotopes are molybdenum 99, iodine 131, and cobalt 60. Cobalt 60 for medical sterilization and irradiation is considered to be a significant growing market. Food irradiation is believed to be a big marketing opportunity, although attempts to popularize it have so far met with limited success. Candu reactors supply the bulk of the world's 60Co supply. Eighty percent of the world's 99Mo supply for medical imaging comes from Canada, and is at present produced in NRU Reactor, which is to be replaced by two Maple reactors coming into production in 1999 and 2000

  13. Fabrication of a CANFLEX-RU designed bundle for power ramp irradiation test in NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BDL-443 CANFLEX-RU bundle AKW was fabricated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for power ramp irradiation testing in NRU reactor. The bundle was fabricated with IDR and ADU fuel pellets in adjacent elements and contains fuel pellets enriched to 1.65 wt% 235U in the outer and intermediate rings and also contains pellets enriched to 2.00 wt% 235U in the inner ring. This bundle does not have a center element to allow for insertion on a hanger bar. KAERI produced the IDR pellets with the IDR-source UO2 powder supplied by BNFL. ADU pellets were fabricated and supplied by AECL. Bundle kits (Zircaloy-4 end plates, end plugs, and sheaths with brazed appendages) manufactured at KAERI earlier in 1996 were used for the fabrication of the bundle. The CANFLEX bundle was fabricated successfully at KAERI according to the QA provisions specified in references and as per relevant KAERI drawings and technical specification. This report covers the fabrication activities performed at KAERI. Fabrication processes performed at AECL will be documented in a separate report

  14. Canadian power reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following subjects are covered: the basic CANDU fuel design, the history of the bundle design, the significant differences between CANDU and LWR fuel, bundle manufacture, fissile and structural materials and coolants used in the CANDU fuel program, fuel and material behaviour, and performance under irradiation, fuel physics and management, booster rods and reactivity mechanisms, fuel procurement, organization and industry, and fuel costs. (author)

  15. Post-irradiation examination of prototype Al-64 wt% U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel rods from NRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, D.F.; Primeau, M.F.; Buchanan, C.; Rose, D. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    Three prototype fuel rods containing Al-64 wt% U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} (3.15 gU/cm{sup 3}) have been irradiated to their design burnup in the NRU reactor without incident. The fuel was fabricated using production-scale equipment and processes previously developed for Al-U{sub 3}Si fuel fabrication at Chalk River Laboratories, and special equipment developed for U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} powder production and handling. The rods were irradiated in NRU up to 87 at% U-235 burnup under typical driver fuel conditions; i.e., nominal coolant inlet temperature 37{degrees}C, inlet pressure 654 kPa, mass flow 12.4 L/s, and element linear power ratings up to 73 kW/m. Post-irradiation examinations showed that the fuel elements survived the irradiation without defects. Fuel core diametral increases and volumetric swelling were significantly lower than that of Al-61 wt% U{sub 3}Si fuel irradiated under similar conditions. This irradiation demonstrated that the fabrication techniques are adequate for full-scale fuel manufacture, and qualified the fuel for use in AECL`s research reactors.

  16. Regulatory Oversight. Approach to life extension of nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As nuclear power plants and large research and isotope production facilities age, licensees are applying for permission to extend the operation of such nuclear installations beyond their assumed design life. It is the current practice in such cases for the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) to request the licensee to conduct an Integrated Safety Review (ISR). This is to collect sufficient and necessary information to allow CNSC staff to make determinations and recommendations to support regulatory decisions on granting a licence for safe and reliable continued operation of such facilities. The ISR (a process equivalent to a one-time Periodic Safety Review (PSR)) is a systematic and comprehensive assessment to determine the extent to which the plant conforms to modern codes, standards and practices; the licensing bases remains valid over the proposed extended operation period; arrangements are in place to maintain continued plant safety; and to ensure improvements are implemented to resolve identified issues. This paper presents the Canadian regulatory oversight experience, challenges, and lessons learned from the assessment of the results of an ISR that was conducted by a licensee to extend the operating licence of the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Canada. (orig.)

  17. Regulatory Oversight. Approach to life extension of nuclear research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdebil, I. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Nuclear Laboratories and Research Reactors Div.; Omar, A. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Assessment Integration Div.

    2014-07-15

    As nuclear power plants and large research and isotope production facilities age, licensees are applying for permission to extend the operation of such nuclear installations beyond their assumed design life. It is the current practice in such cases for the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) to request the licensee to conduct an Integrated Safety Review (ISR). This is to collect sufficient and necessary information to allow CNSC staff to make determinations and recommendations to support regulatory decisions on granting a licence for safe and reliable continued operation of such facilities. The ISR (a process equivalent to a one-time Periodic Safety Review (PSR)) is a systematic and comprehensive assessment to determine the extent to which the plant conforms to modern codes, standards and practices; the licensing bases remains valid over the proposed extended operation period; arrangements are in place to maintain continued plant safety; and to ensure improvements are implemented to resolve identified issues. This paper presents the Canadian regulatory oversight experience, challenges, and lessons learned from the assessment of the results of an ISR that was conducted by a licensee to extend the operating licence of the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Canada. (orig.)

  18. The 25 MW Super Near Boiling nuclear reactor (SNB25) for supplying co-generation energy to an Arctic Canadian Forces Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy represents a better alternative for the supply of heat and electricity to the Canadian Forces bases in the Arctic (CFS Alert and CFB Nanisivik). In this context, the Super Near-Boiling 25-MWth reactor (SNB25) has been designed as a small unpressurized LWR that displays inherent safety and is intended to run in automatic mode. The reactor employs TRISO fuel particles (20% enrichment) in zirconium-sheathed fuel rods, and is light water cooled and moderated with a normal output temperature is 95 o C at atmospheric pressure. Control is via 133 control rods and six adjustable radial reflector plates. The design work used the probabilistic simulation code MCNP 5 and the deterministic code WIMS-AECL Version 3.1, permitting a code-to-code comparison of the results. Inherent safety was confirmed and is mostly due to the large negative void reactivity coefficient of -5.17 mk per % void. A kinetic model that includes thermal-hydraulics calculations was developed to determine the reactor's behaviour in transient states, and the results further confirm the inherent safety. Large power excursions temperatures that could compromise structural integrity cannot be produced. If the coolant/moderator temperature exceeds the saturation temperature of 100 o C, the coolant begins to boil and the large negative void coefficient causes the reactor to become subcritical in 0.84 seconds. The SNB25 reactor's core life exceeds 12 years between refuellings. A group of 4 SNB25 reactors meets both the heating and electricity requirements of a base like CFB Nanisivik via a hot water network and through an organic Rankine cycle conversion plant. (author)

  19. Overview of research reactor operation within AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents information on reactor operations within the Research Company of Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) today relative to a few years ago, and speculates on future operations. In recent years, the need for Research Company reactors has diminished. This, combined with economic pressures, has led to the shutdown of some of the company's major reactors. However, compliance with the government agenda to privatize government companies in Canada, and a Research Company policy of business development, has led to some offsetting activities. The building of a pool-type 10 MWt MAPLE (Multipurpose Applied Physics Lattice Experimental) reactor for isotope production will assist in the sale of the AECL isotopes marketing company. A Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel fabrication facility and a Tritium Extraction Plant (TEP), both currently under construction, are needed in support of the NRU (National Research Universal) reactor and are in line with business development strategies. The research program demands on NRU stretch many years into the future and the strategies for achieving effective operation of this aging reactor, now 32 years old, are discussed. The repair of the leaking light-water reflector of the NRU reactor is highlighted. The isotope business requires that a second reactor be available for back-up production and the operation of the 42 year old NRX (National Research Experimental) reactor in its present 'hot standby' mode is believed to be unique in the world

  20. Cloning of NruI and Sbo13I restriction and modification sstems in E. coli and amino acid sequence comparison of M.NruI and M.Sbo13I with other amino-methyltransferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benner Jack

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NruI and Sbo13I are restriction enzyme isoschizomers with the same recognition sequence 5' TCG↓CGA 3' (cleavage as indicated↓. Here we report the cloning of NruI and Sbo13I restriction-modification (R-M systems in E. coli. The NruI restriction endonuclease gene (nruIR was cloned by PCR and inverse PCR using primers designed from the N-terminal amino acid sequence. The NruI methylase gene (nruIM was derived by inverse PCR walking. Results The amino acid sequences of NruI endonuclease and methylase are very similar to the Sbo13I R-M system which has been cloned and expressed in E. coli by phage selection of a plasmid DNA library. Dot blot analysis using rabbit polyclonal antibodies to N6mA- or N4mC-modified DNA indicated that M.NruI is possibly a N6mA-type amino-methyltransferase that most likely modifies the external A in the 5' TCGCGA 3' sequence. M.Sbo13I, however, is implicated as a probable N4mC-type methylase since plasmid carrying sbo13IM gene is not restricted by Mrr endonuclease and Sbo13I digestion is not blocked by Dam methylation of the overlapping site. The amino acid sequence of M.NruI and M.Sbo13I did not show significant sequence similarity to many known amino-methyltransferases in the α, β, and γ groups, except to a few putative methylases in sequenced microbial genomes. Conclusions The order of the conserved amino acid motifs (blocks in M.NruI/M.Sbo13I is similar to the γ. group amino-methyltranferases, but with two distinct features: In motif IV, the sequence is DPPY instead of NPPY; there are two additional conserved motifs, IVa and Xa as extension of motifs IV and X, in this family of enzymes. We propose that M.NruI and M.Sbo13I form a subgroup in the γ group of amino-methyltransferases.

  1. Calculation of power distributions for experimental bundles in the NRU loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRU reactor is a large D2O tank filled with many different kinds of experimental and isotope-producing fuel and absorber assemblies in a vertical orientation. Some of the most important facilities are closed H2O loops, in which advanced CANDU fuel concepts can be irradiated in CANDU bundle formats. Six bundles are arranged linearly in a fuel string assembly, which can be installed in a loop test section. Each bundle can be different, and can contain different types of fuel in each ring of elements, so that different fuel concepts and power histories can be run in the same irradiation. The most important piece of information needed to design these irradiations and interpret the PIE results is the power history that each fuel segment experiences during irradiation. The initial power distribution under nominal full reactor power conditions must be calculated to determine if experimental requirements and thermalhydraulic limits can be met. The expected power variation during irradiation must also be known. Following irradiation, the actual power history experienced by each fuel segment must be calculated, to help assess fuel performance. Since only the total loop power-to-coolant is measured directly, it must be broken down into the fission powers of all the different fuel types, elements and segments that were irradiated together. This paper presents a review of the method currently used to achieve this devolution. It involves the use of the 2-D neutron transport code WIMS-AECL to determine the fission power distribution through each type of fuel bundle in the loop string as a function of burnup, and an estimate of the axial thermal flux shape in the moderator outside of the loop. These are input to an accounting code, BURFEL, which uses them to calculate the initial relative powers in all fuel segments in the loop, and sums them to the total loop power. In predictive mode, this is renormalized to the expected loop power at full reactor power, calculated

  2. Some considerations on utilizing a Canadian heavy-water reactor in a dual-purpose power-desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper two approaches are illustrated: Use of Douglas Point design with a condensing turbine to produce mainly power but with some steam extracted to produce a moderate amount of desalted water; use of typical Pickering reactor with a back pressure turbine to produce a large quantity of desalinated water and a moderate amount of power. 2 figs, 6 tabs

  3. MAPLE reactors for the secure supply of medical isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MDS Nordion supplies the majority of the world's reactor-produced medical isotopes. These isotopes are currently produced in the NRU reactor at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). Medical isotopes and related technology are relied upon around the world to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. The NRU reactor, which has played a key role in supplying medical isotopes to date, has been in operation for over 40 years. Replacing this aging reactor has been a priority for MDS Nordion to assure the global nuclear medicine community that Canada will continue to be a dependable supplier of medical isotopes. MDS Nordion contracted AECL to construct two MAPLE reactors dedicated to the production of medical isotopes. The MDS Nordion Medical Isotope Reactor (MMIR) project started in September 1996. This paper describes the MAPLE reactors that AECL has built at its CRL site, and will operate for MDS Nordion. (author)

  4. Post-test simulations of BTF-107: an in-reactor loss-of-coolant test with flow blockage and rewet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Blowdown Test Facility (BTF) located in the NRU reactor at Chalk River Laboratories is the principal experimental tool for the Canadian in-reactor safety research program. This dedicated facility was designed for performing integrated 'all effects' tests on CANDU-type fuel to generate data for verifying and assessing Canadian safety analysis codes and models. This paper briefly describes the first BTF experiment, designated BTF-107, and presents the results of post-test thermalhydraulics and fuel behaviour simulations of this experiment. The thermalhydraulics simulations, performed using the CATHENA computer code, focus on analyzing the response of the BTF test section following blowdown, during dryout, and during the final rewet phase of the experiment. The fuel behaviour simulations, performed using the ELOCA Mk5 code, give estimates of the thermo-mechanical and fission-product release behaviour of the fuel during the course of the transient. The results of these simulations illustrate the capabilities of the CATHENA and ELOCA codes to model the processes involved in this severe high-temperature transient, and indicate possible areas for future improvement of these codes. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  5. In-reactor deformation of a pilgered cold-worked Zr-2.5 wt% Nb pressure tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zr-2.5 wt% Nb pressure tubes in CANDU reactors are cold-drawn to achieve the desired mechanical strength and tube dimensions. As part of an assessment of possible alternative fabrication processes, a pressure tube was cold-worked by pilgering and its dimensional stability monitored during service in the U-1 loop in the NRU test reactor. Strain rates have been determined for the pilgered tube from measured diameter and length changes after 22,060 h of reactor operation. These rates were compared with those for a cold-drawn tube also tested in NRU, and with the calculated behaviour of current power reactor pressure tubes extrapolated to the NRU test conditions. The deformation rates of the pilgered tube were found to be only marginally inferior to those of cold-drawn tubes

  6. Cost analysis and economic comparison for alternative fuel cycles in the heavy water cooled canadian reactor (CANDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three main options in a CANDU fuel cycle involve use of: (1) natural uranium (0.711 weight percent U-235) fuel, (2) slightly enriched uranium (1.2 weight percent U-235) fuel, and (3) recovered uranium (0.83 weight percent U-235) fuel from light water reactor spent fuel. ORIGEN-2 computer code was used to identify composition of the spent fuel for each option, including the standard LWR fuel (3.3 weight percent U-235). Uranium and plutonium credit calculations were performed using ORIGEN-2 output. WIMSD-5 computer code was used to determine maximum discharge burnup values for each case. For the 3 cycles selected (natural uranium, slightly enriched uranium, recovered uranium), levelized fuel cycle cost calculations are performed over the reactor lifetime of 40 years, using unit process costs obtained from literature. Components of the fuel cycle costs are U purchase, conversion, enrichment, fabrication, SF storage, SF disposal, and reprocessing where applicable. Cost parameters whose effects on the fuel cycle cost are to be investigated are escalation ratio, discount rate and SF storage time. Cost estimations were carried out using specially developed computer programs. Share of each cost component on the total cost was determined and sensitivity analysis was performed in order to show how a change in a main cost component affects the fuel cycle cost. The main objective of this study has been to find out the most economical option for CANDU fuel cycle by changing unit prices and cost parameters

  7. A floating cogeneration system using the Russian KLT-40 reactor and Canadian reverse osmosis water purification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the global consumption of water increases with growing populations and rising levels of industrialization, major new sources of potable water production must be developed. To address this issue efficiently and economically, a new approach has been developed in Canada for the integration of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems with nuclear reactors as an energy source. The use of waste heat from the electrical generation process to preheat the RO feedwater, advanced feedwater pre-treatment and sophisticated system design integration and optimization techniques have led to improved water production efficiency, lower water production costs and reduced environmental impacts. CANDESAL Inc., has studied the use of its approach to the application of RO technology in the Russian APWS-80 floating nuclear desalination plant. Case studies show that water production efficiently improvements up to about 16% can be achieved. The energy consumed for the CANDESAL optimized APWS-80 design configuration is 4.2 kW·h/m3 compared to the base APWS-80 design value of 4.9 kW·h/m3. Although only a preliminary study, these results suggest that significant improvements in the cost of water production can be achieved. The potential benefits warrant further detailed evaluation followed by a demonstration project. (author). 1 ref., 6 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Canadian fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Research Council of Canada is establishing a coordinated national program of fusion research and development that is planned to grow to a total annual operating level of about $20 million in 1985. The long-term objective of the program is to put Canadian industry in a position to manufacture sub-systems and components of fusion power reactors. In the near term the program is designed to establish a minimum base of scientific and technical expertise sufficient to make recognized contributions and thereby gain access to the international effort. The Canadian program must be narrowly focussed on a few specializations where Canada has special indigenous skills or technologies. The programs being funded are the Tokamak de Varennes, the Fusion Fuels Technology Project centered on tritium management, and high-power gas laser technology and associated diagnostic instrumentation

  9. A novel approach to the production of medical radioisotopes: the homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, H.W., E-mail: bonin-h@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Hilborn, J.W. [retired, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Carlin, G.E. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gagnon, R.; Busatta, P. [Royal Canadian Navy, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    In 2009, the unexpected 15-month outage of the Canadian NRU nuclear reactor resulted in a sudden 30% world shortage, with higher shortages experienced in North America than in Europe. Commercial radioisotope production is from just eight nuclear reactors, most being aging systems near the end of their service life. This paper proposes a more efficient production and distribution model. Tc-99m unit doses would be distributed to regional hospitals from ten integrated 'industrial radiopharmacies', located at existing licensed nuclear reactor sites in North America. At each site, one or more 20 kW Homogeneous SLOWPOKE nuclear reactors would deliver 15 litres of irradiated aqueous uranyl sulfate fuel solution daily to industrial-scale hot cells, for extraction of Mo-99; and the low-enriched uranium would be recycled. Purified Mo-99 would be incorporated in large Mo-99/Tc-99m generators for extraction of Tc-99m five days a week; and each automated hot-cell facility would be designed to load up to 7,000 Tc-99m syringes daily for road delivery to all of the nuclear medicine hospitals within a 3-hour range. At the current price of $20 per unit dose, the annual gross income from 10 sites would be approximately $360 million. The Homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor evolved from the inherently safe SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor, with a double goal: replacing the heterogeneous SLOWPOKE-2 reactors at the end-of-core life, enabling them to continue their primary missions of research and education, together with full time commercial radioisotope production. The Homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor was modelled using both deterministic and probabilistic reactor simulation codes. The homogeneous fuel mixture is a dilute aqueous solution of low-enriched uranyl sulfate containing approximately 1 kg of U-235. The reactor is controlled by mechanical absorber rods in the beryllium reflector. Safety analysis was carried out for both normal operation and transient conditions. The most severe

  10. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society 15. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the 15. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society cover a wide range of nuclear topics, but the emphasis is on CANDU reactors and Canadian experience. The 89 papers are arranged in 17 sessions dealing with the following subjects: thermalhydraulics, fuel channels, operations, reactor physics, fuel, new technology, safety, training, waste management. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  11. Safety analysis for non-power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-power reactors have been operating in Canada since 1945, with NRU (National Research Universal, 1957) being the oldest operating non-power reactor. Presently, there are five generic 'types' of non-power reactors: NRU, ZED-2, SLOWPOKE, MNR and MAPLE, the latter undergoing commissioning as the MDS Medical Isotope Reactor. These reactors range in thermal power from 200 Watts to more than 100 MW. Other non-power reactors are likely to be built for new applications and to replace older reactors. The uniqueness of each reactor, the wide range of power levels and the evolution of safety philosophy over time have lead to non-uniform practices for safety analysis. This non-uniformity may be a problem for the preparation by the licensee and review by the regulator of the safety analysis report required for licensing of the reactor facility. Clearly, there is no universally applicable practice, while at the same time, expectations for safety analyses have evolved in order to demonstrate higher levels of overall safety. This paper examines a new 'graded approach' to preparing the safety analysis report for reactors of diverse features but with a common standard of safety. It discusses necessary content, methods and the training and qualification of the safety analyst. (author)

  12. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we present the design review done to date in Canada by AECL. From the Canadian point of view it covers: 1) relevant information on the Chernobyl design and the accident, both as presented by the Soviets at the Post-Accident Review Meeting (PARM) held in Vienna from August 25-29, 1986, and as deduced from publicly available Soviet documentation; and 2) details of AECL's technical review of the CANDU PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) against the background of the Chernobyl accident, and implications of the Chernobyl accident. Reviews of operational aspects are underway by the Canadian electrical utilities and a review by the Canadian regulatory agency (the Atomic Energy Control Board) is near completion

  13. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  14. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society 12. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the seventeen Technical Sessions from the Twelfth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society held in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, June 9 to 12, 1991. As in previous years, the Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society was held in conjunction with the Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association. The major topics of discussion included: reactor physics; thermal hydraulics; industrial irradiation; computer applications; fuel channel analysis; small reactors; severe accidents; fuel behaviour under accident conditions; reactor components; safety related computer software; nuclear fuel management; nuclear waste management; and, uranium mining processing

  15. Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry study at two research nuclear reactors using bonner sphere spectrometer (BSS), rotational spectrometer (ROSPEC) and cylindrical nested neutron spectrometer (NNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron spectrometry and subsequent dosimetry measurements were undertaken at the McMaster Nuclear Reactor (MNR) and AECL Chalk River National Research Universal (NRU) Reactor. The instruments used were a Bonner sphere spectrometer (BSS), a cylindrical nested neutron spectrometer (NNS) and a commercially available rotational proton recoil spectrometer. The purposes of these measurements were to: (1) compare the results obtained by three different neutron measuring instruments and (2) quantify neutron fields of interest. The results showed vastly different neutron spectral shapes for the two different reactors. This is not surprising, considering the type of the reactors and the locations where the measurements were performed. MNR is a heavily shielded light water moderated reactor, while NRU is a heavy water moderated reactor. The measurements at MNR were taken at the base of the reactor pool, where a large amount of water and concrete shielding is present, while measurements at NRU were taken at the top of the reactor (TOR) plate, where there is only heavy water and steel between the reactor core and the measuring instrument. As a result, a large component of the thermal neutron fluence was measured at MNR, while a negligible amount of thermal neutrons was measured at NRU. The neutron ambient dose rates at NRU TOR were measured to be between 0.03 and 0.06 mSv h-1, while at MNR, these values were between 0.07 and 2.8 mSv h-1 inside the beam port and -1 between two operating beam ports. The conservative uncertainty of these values is 15 %. The conservative uncertainty of the measured integral neutron fluence is 5 %. It was also found that BSS over-responded slightly due to a non-calibrated response matrix. (authors)

  16. Conference summaries of the Canadian Nuclear Association 30. annual conference, and the Canadian Nuclear Society 11. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains conference summaries for the 30. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association, and the 11. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society. Topics of discussion include: energy needs and challenges facing the Canadian nuclear industry; the environment and nuclear power; the problems of maintaining and developing industrial capacity; the challenges of the 1990's; programmes and issues for the 1990's; thermalhydraulics; reactor physics and fuel management; nuclear safety; small reactors; fuel behaviour; energy production and the environment; computer applications; nuclear systems; fusion; materials handling; and, reactor components

  17. Rationalization and future planning for AECL's research reactor capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL's research reactor capability has played a crucial role in the development of Canada's nuclear program. All essential concepts for the CANDU reactors were developed and tested in the NRX and NRU reactors, and in parallel, important contributions to basic physics were made. The technical feasibility of advanced fuel cycles and of the organic-cooled option for CANDU reactors were also demonstrated in the two reactors and the WR-1 reactor. In addition, an important and growing radio-isotope production industry was established and marketed on a world-wide basis. In 1984, however, it was recognized that a review and rationalization of the research reactor capability was required. The commercial success of the CANDU reactor system had reduced the scope and size of the required development program. Limited research and development funding and competition from other research facilities and programs, required that the scope be reduced to a support basis essential to maintain strategic capability. Currently, AECL, is part-way through this rationalization program and completion should be attained during 1992/93 when the MAPLE reactor is operational and decisions on NRX decommissioning will be made. A companion paper describes some of the unique operational and maintenance problems which have resulted from this program and the solutions which have been developed. Future planning must recognize the age of the NRU reactor (currently 32 years) and the need to plan for eventual replacement. Strategy is being developed and supporting studies include a full technical assessment of the NRU reactor and the required age-related upgrading program, evaluation of the performance characteristics and costs of potential future replacement reactors, particularly the advanced MAPLE concept, and opportunities for international co-operation in developing mutually supportive research programs

  18. Canadian fuel development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU power reactor fuel has demonstrated an enviable operational record. More than 99.9% of the bundles irradiated have provided defect-free service. Defect excursions are responsible for the majority of reported defects. In some cases research and development effort is necessary to resolve these problems. In addition, development initiatives are also directed at improvements of the current design or reduction of fueling cost. The majority of the funding for this effort has been provided by COG (CANDU Owners' Group) over the past 10 to 15 years. This paper contains an overview of some key fuel technology programs within COG. The CANDU reactor is unique among the world's power reactors in its flexibility and its ability to use a number of different fuel cycles. An active program of analysis and development, to demonstrate the viability of different fuel cycles in CANDU, has been funded by AECL in parallel with the work on the natural uranium cycle. Market forces and advances in technology have obliged us to reassess and refocus some parts of our effort in this area, and significant success has been achieved in integrating all the Canadian efforts in this area. This paper contains a brief summary of some key components of the advanced fuel cycle program. (Author) 4 figs., tab., 18 refs

  19. The prospects for Canadian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1980s have seen a decline in markets for uranium concentrate, largely as a result of falling estimates for reactor fuel requirements and rising inventories. Spot market prices fell to $44 in September 1982, but have since risen back to $60. World production also fell in 1982 and is not expected to increase significantly before 1990. Some opportunities exist for Canadian producers with new low-cost deposits to replace high-cost producers in Canada and other countries, particularly the United States. There will be strong competition between Canadian producers as well as from Australia. Australia's reserves are somewhat larger than Canada's, although the reported ore grades tend to be lower than those of Saskatchewan

  20. Mortality study of Canadian military personnel exposed to radiation: atomic test blasts and Chalk River nuclear reactor clean-ups, 1950's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a historical cohort study of the group of Canadian military personnel exposed to radiation in the 1950s at atomic bomb test blasts in the U.S. and Australia, and at clean-up operations at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Overall and cause-specific mortality in the exposed group was compared to that of the control cohort of unexposed military personnel, matched on age, service, rank and trade. Analyses indicated no elevation in the exposed cohort, in overall or cause-specific mortality due to diseases associated with radiation. Since this study was restricted to an investigation of mortality, we must stress that we cannot generalize these results or conclusions to current morbidity experienced by the exposed cohort

  1. Protest: The Canadian pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This popularly written article compares Canadian attitudes to protests against nuclear power to those in the United States. Canadian protesters are more peaceful, expressing their opinions within the law. The article describes the main anti-nuclear groups in Canada and presents the results of public opinion surveys of Canadians on the use of nuclear power for generating electricity. (TI)

  2. The Canadian approach to nuclear power safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the Canadian nuclear power safety philosophy and practice is traced from its early roots at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratory to the licensing of the current generation of power reactors. Basic to the philosophy is a recognition that the primary responsibility for achieving a high standard of safety resides with the licensee. As a consequence, regulatory requirements have emphasized numerical safety goals and objectives and minimized specific design or operating rules. The Canadian licensing process is described along with a discussion of some of the difficulties encountered. Examples of specific licensing considerations for each phase of a project are included

  3. Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To provide a spray cooling structure wherein the steam phase in a bwr reactor vessel can sufficiently be cooled and the upper cap and flanges in the vessel can be cooled rapidly which kept from direct contaction with cold water. Constitution: An apertured shielding is provided in parallel spaced apart from the inner wall surface at the upper portion of a reactor vessel equipped with a spray nozzle, and the lower end of the shielding and the inner wall of the vessel are closed to each other so as to store the cooling water. Upon spray cooling, cooling water jetting out from the nozzle cools the vapor phase in the vessel and then hits against the shielding. Then the cooling water mostly falls as it is, while partially enters through the apertures to the back of the shielding plate, abuts against stoppers and falls down. The stoppers are formed in an inverted L shape so that the spray water may not in direct contaction with the inner wall of the vessel. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society sixth annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the Sixth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society comprise 103 papers on the following subjects: fuel technology, nuclear plant safety, instrumentation, public and regulatory matters, fusion, fuel behaviour under normal and accident conditions, nuclear plant design and operations, thermal hydraulics, reactor physics, accelerators, waste management, new reactor concepts

  5. Canadian capabilities in fusion fuels technology and remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes Canadian expertise in fusion fuels technology and remote handling. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP) was established and is funded by the Canadian government, the province of Ontario and Ontario Hydro to focus on the technology necessary to produce and manage the tritium and deuterium fuels to be used in fusion power reactors. Its activities are divided amongst three responsibility areas, namely, the development of blanket, first wall, reactor exhaust and fuel processing systems, the development of safe and reliable operating procedures for fusion facilities, and, finally, the application of these developments to specific projects such as tritium laboratories. CFFTP also hopes to utilize and adapt Canadian developments in an international sense, by, for instance, offering training courses to the international tritium community. Tritium management expertise is widely available in Canada because tritium is a byproduct of the routine operation of CANDU reactors. Expertise in remote handling is another byproduct of research and development of of CANDU facilities. In addition to describing the remote handling technology developed in Canada, this report contains a brief description of the Canadian tritium laboratories, storage beds and extraction plants as well as a discussion of tritium monitors and equipment developed in support of the CANDU reactor and fusion programs. Appendix A lists Canadian manufacturers of tritium equipment and Appendix B describes some of the projects performed by CFFTP for offshore clients

  6. The Benefits of the 3T3 NRU Test in the Safety Assessment of Cosmetics: Long-Term Experience from Pre-Marketing Testing in the Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jírová, D.; Kejlová, K.; Brabec, Marek; Bendová, H.; Kolářová, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 5-6 (2003), s. 791-796. ISSN 0887-2333 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : cytotoxicity * 3T3 NRU assay * irritation * nonparametric statistical model Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.642, year: 2003

  7. Reactor loops at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes broadly the nine in-reactor loops, and their components, located in and around the NRX and NRU reactors at Chalk River. First an introduction and general description is given of the loops and their function, supplemented with a table outlining some loop specifications and nine simplified flow sheets, one for each individual loop. The report then proceeds to classify each loop into two categories, the 'main loop circuit' and the 'auxiliary circuit', and descriptions are given of each circuit's components in turn. These components, in part, are comprised of the main loop pumps, the test section, loop heaters, loop coolers, delayed-neutron monitors, surge tank, Dowtherm coolers, loop piping. Here again photographs, drawings and tables are included to provide a clearer understanding of the descriptive literature and to include, in tables, some specifications of the more important components in each loop. (author)

  8. Transient fission product release during reactor shutdown and startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweep gas experiments performed at CRL from 1979 to 1985 have been analysed to determine the fraction of the fission product gas inventory that is released on reactor shutdown and startup. Empirical equations were derived and applied to calculate the xenon release from companion fuel elements and from a well documented experimental fuel bundle irradiated in the NRU reactor. The measured gas release could be matched to within about a factor of two for an experimental irradiation with a burnup of 217 MWh/kgU. (author)

  9. Organizing the Canadian nuclear industry to meet the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU reactor is struggling for a share of the dwindling reactor market against formidable and well-established competition. The Canadian nuclear industry has historically depended upon two crown corporations, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. and Ontario Hydro, which have taken the lead in designing and engineering the reactor. Crown corporations are not notably successful in marketing, however, and the time has come for the industry to organize itself in preparation for an aggressive export drive

  10. Markets for Canadian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation presented charts and graphs on the market for Canadian oil. Graphs included crude oil and natural gas prices and heavy oil discount differential. Graphs depicting heavy oil economics such as bitumen blending with condensate were also included along with global crude oil reserves by country. Information on oil sands projects in the Athabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lake deposits was presented along with graphs on oil sands supply costs by recovery type; Canadian production for conventional, oil sands and offshore oil; new emerging oil sands crude types; and 2003 market demand by crude type in the United States and Canada. Maps included Canada and United States crude oil pipelines; western Canadian crude oil markets; long term oil pipeline expansion projects; Canadian and United States crude oil pipeline alternatives; and potential tanker markets for Canadian oil sands production. Lastly, the presentation provided graphs on 2003 refinery crude demand and California market demand. tabs., figs

  11. Some aspects of materials in organic-cooled reactors. Status report from Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    extension of the CANDU-PHW reactors. Construction of the WR-1 reactor was not curtailed, since the development work and operating experience with WR-1 would give us first-hand information and allow us to keep abreast of advances in organic coolant technology. Also the versatility of WR-1 was of major importance in the overall Whiteshell programme. However, the organic coolant development programmes were curtailed to areas of direct concern to WR-1. A partly hydrogenated terphenyl mixture, produced by the Monsanto Company under the trademark 'HB-40', has been used as the start-up coolant for WR-1. This mixture is liquid at room-temperature, a feature which simplified commissioning of the reactor. The performance of HB-40 as a possible equilibrium coolant for WR-1 is now being assessed. The irradiation programmes on fuel and coolant development for WR-1 were done mainly in three reactor loops at Chalk River, E-2 and X-7 in NRX reactor and U-3 in NRU reactor. The WR-1 coolant system is divided into two large multichannel loops and is particularly useful for parallel studies of different methods of chemical control. Following an agreement with the United States Atomic Energy Commission, the U-3 and E-2 loops and part of the WR-1 reactor will be used for further development in support of the American Heavy-Water Organic-Cooled Reactor (HWOCR). The future Canadian development programme on organic coolants will be limited to the following: (a) Continuation of long-term out-of-reactor corrosion and hydriding tests of zirconium alloys in organics. The aim is to use these alloys to improve fuel performance and to replace the stainless-steel pressure tubes in WR-1. (b) Assessment of HB-40 as an equilibrium coolant for WR-1. (c) Comparison of various methods of chemical control, including filtration, adsorption and distillation, with particular attention directed towards minimizing fouling. The information from this programme in WR-1 over the next two years should be a significant

  12. Safety re-assessment of AECL test and research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited currently has four operating engineering test/research reactors of various sizes and ages; a new isotope-production reactor Maple-X10, under construction at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), and a heating demonstration reactor, SDR, undergoing high-power commissioning at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE). The company is also performing design studies of small reactors for hot water and electricity production. The older reactors are ZED-2, PTR, NRX, and NRU; these range in age from 42 years (NRX) to 29 years (ZED-2). Since 1984, limited-scope safety re-assessments have been underway on three of these reactors (ZED-2, NRX AND NRU). ZED-2 and PTR are operated by the Reactor Physics Branch; all other reactors are operated by the respective site Reactor Operations Branches. For the older reactors the original safety reports produced were entirely deterministic in nature and based on the design-basis accident concept. The limited scope safety re-assessments for these older reactors, carried out over the past 5 years, have comprised both quantitative probabilistic safety-assessment techniques, such as event tree and fault analysis, and/or qualitative techniques, such as failure mode and effect analysis. The technique used for an individual assessment was dependent upon the specific scope required. This paper discusses the types of analyses carried out, specific insights/recommendations resulting from the analysis, and the plan for future analysis. In addition, during the last four years safety assessments have been carried out on the new isotope-, heat-, and electricity-producing reactors, as part of the safety design review, commissioning and licensing activities

  13. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  14. Bilingualism: A Canadian Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Bilingualism in French and English is a much-to-be hoped for common and shared characteristic of Canadian citizenship—even though to date the effect of forty years of the Official Languages Act has been most marked in government services and among various Canadian elites. Although it is important that Canada hold onto a goal of the widest possible bilingualism,more modest objectives are outlined for the years immediately ahead.

  15. Simplification of coding of NRU loop experiment software with dimensional generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following are specific topics of this paper: 1.There is much creativity in the manner in which Dimensional Generator can be applied to a specific programming task [2]. This paper tells how Dimensional Generator was applied to a reactor-physics task. 2. In this first practical use, Dimensional Generator itself proved not to need change, but a better user interface was found necessary, essentially because the relevance of Dimensional Generator to reactor physics was initially underestimated. It is briefly described. 3. The use of Dimensional Generator helps make reactor-physics source code somewhat simpler. That is explained here with brief examples from BURFEL-PC and WIMSBURF. 4. Most importantly, with the help of Dimensional Generator, all erroneous physical expressions were automatically detected. The errors are detailed here (in spite of the author's embarrassment) because they show clearly, both in theory and in practice, how Dimensional Generator offers quality enhancement of reactor-physics programming. (authors)

  16. Proceedings of the 32. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference proceedings comprise 34 papers, arranged under the following sessions: Plenary; The international CANDU program; Canadian used fuel management program; Public information advocates; Fuel and electricity supply; In which direction should reactors advance?; Canadian advanced nuclear research programs; International cooperation in operations; Safety in design, operation, regulation; Renovation of operating stations; CNS/CNA luncheon addresses. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  17. Cobalt-60 production in CANDU power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    therapy machines. Today the majority of the cancer therapy cobalt-60 sources used in the world are manufactured using material from the NRU reactor in Chalk River. The same technology that was used for producing cobalt-60 in a research reactor was then adapted and transferred for use in a CANDU power reactor. In the early 1970s, in co-operation with Ontario Power Generation (formerly Ontario Hydro), bulk cobalt-60 production was initiated in the four Pickering A CANDU reactors located east of Toronto. This was the first full scale production of millions of curies of cobalt-60 per year. As the demand and acceptance of sterilization of medical products grew, MDS Nordion expanded its bulk supply by installing the proprietary Canadian technology in additional CANDUs. Over the years MDS Nordion has partnered with CANDU reactor owners to produce cobalt-60 at various sites. CANDU reactors that have, or are still producing cobalt-60, include Pickering A, Pickering B, Gentilly 2, Embalse in Argentina, and Bruce B. In conclusion, the technology for cobalt-60 production in CANDU reactors, designed and developed by MDS Nordion and Atomic Energy of Canada, has been safely, economically and successfully employed in CANDU reactors with over 195 reactor years of production. Today over forty percent of the world's disposable medical supplies are made safer through sterilization using cobalt-60 sources from MDS Nordion. Over the past 40 years, MDS Nordion with its CANDU reactor owner partners, has safely and reliably shipped more than 500 million curies of cobalt-60 sources to customers around the world. MDS Nordion is presently adding three more CANDU power reactors to its supply chain. These three additional cobalt producing CANDU's will help supplement the ability of the health care industry to provide safe, sterile, medical disposable products to people around the world. As new applications for cobalt-60 are identified, and the demand for bulk cobalt-60 increases, MDS Nordion and AECL

  18. Securing the future of medical isotopes and neutron science in Canada: the Canadian Neutron Source (CNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation discusses establishment of the Canadian Neutron Source (CNS) that could be utilized for production of medical isotopes and neutron science in Canada. The Canadian Neutron Source would be 20 MWth research reactor optimized for delivery of medical isotopes and neutron beams for neutron science to serve both industry and the public sector. Employing existing reactor and isotope technology minimizes the risk and schedule. Neutron beams could be used in materials science research, biomedical research as well as imaging.

  19. The Canadian nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of the Canadian nuclear power program is presented. Domestically developed CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactors account for all of Canada's nuclear electric capacity (5000 MWe in operation and 10,000 MWe under construction or in commissioning) and have also been exported. CANDU reactors are reliable, efficient, and consistently register in the world's top ten in performance. The safety record is excellent. Canada has excess capability in heavy water and uranium production and can easily service export demands. The economic activity generated in the nuclear sector is high and supports a large number of jobs. The growth in nuclear commitments has slowed somewhat as a result of the worldwide recession; however, the nuclear share of expected electricity demand is likely to continue to rise in the next decade. Priorities in the future direction of the program lie in the areas of maintaining high response capability to in-service problems, improving technology, high-level waste management, and advanced fuel cycles. (author)

  20. Canadian competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the Canadian petrochemical industry was outlined, emphasizing the proximity to feedstocks as the principal advantage enjoyed by the industry over its international competitors. Annual sales statistics for 1995 were provided. Key players in the Canadian petrochemical industry (Nova, Dow, DuPont, Methanex, Esso, Union Carbide, Shell and Celanese), their share of the market and key products were noted. Manufacturing facilities are located primarily in Alberta, southern Ontario and Quebec. The feedstock supply infrastructure, historical and alternative ethane pricing in Canada and the US, the North American market for petrochemicals, the competitiveness of the industry, tax competitiveness among Canadian provinces and the US, the Canada - US unit labour cost ratio, ethylene facility construction costs in Canada relative to the US Gulf Coast, and projected 1997 financial requirements were reviewed. 19 figs

  1. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual Canadian Nuclear Society conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seventeenth annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society, presented in Fredericton, New Brunswick. The conference includes papers on general topics of interest on the nuclear community, waste management and the environment, instrumentation and design of Candu reactors, safety analysis, thermal hydraulics, fuel channels, plant operations and in-core instrumentation

  2. Canadian Irradiation Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Irradiation Centre is a non-profit cooperative project between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Radiochemical Company and Universite du Quebec, Institut Armand-Frappier, Centre for Applied Research in Food Science. The Centre's objectives are to develop, demonstrate and promote Canada's radiation processing technology and its applications by conducting applied research; training technical, professional and scientific personnel; educating industry and government; demonstrating operational and scientific procedures; developing processing procedures and standards, and performing product and market acceptance trials. This pamphlet outlines the history of radoation technology and the services offered by the Canadian Irradiation Centre

  3. Canadian beef quality audit.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; M. Mann; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E.; C. Mills; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) wa...

  4. Developing the MAPLE materials test reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAPLE-MTR is a new multipurpose research facility being planned by AECL Research as a possible replacement for the 35-year-old NRU reactor. In developing the MAPLE-MTR concept, AECL is starting from the recent design and licensing experience with the MAPLE-X10 reactor. By starting from technology developed to support the MAPLE-X10 design and adapting it to produce a concept that satisfies the requirements of fuel channel materials testing and fuel irradiation programs, AECL expects to minimize the need for major advances in nuclear technology (e.g., fuel, heat transfer). Formulation of the MAPLE-MTR concept is at an early stage. This report describes the irradiation requirements of the research areas, how these needs are translated into design criteria for the project and elements of the preliminary design concept

  5. Canadian heavy water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews Canadian experience in the production of heavy water, presents a long-term supply projection, relates this projection to the anticipated long-term electrical energy demand, and highlights principal areas for further improvement that form the bulk of our research and development program on heavy water processes

  6. Canadian hydrogen safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian hydrogen safety program (CHSP) is a project initiative of the Codes and Standards Working Group of the Canadian transportation fuel cell alliance (CTFCA) that represents industry, academia, government, and regulators. The Program rationale, structure and contents contribute to acceptance of the products, services and systems of the Canadian Hydrogen Industry into the Canadian hydrogen stakeholder community. It facilitates trade through fair insurance policies and rates, effective and efficient regulatory approval procedures and accommodation of the interests of the general public. The Program integrates a consistent quantitative risk assessment methodology with experimental (destructive and non-destructive) failure rates and consequence-of-release data for key hydrogen components and systems into risk assessment of commercial application scenarios. Its current and past six projects include Intelligent Virtual Hydrogen Filling Station (IVHFS), Hydrogen clearance distances, comparative quantitative risk comparison of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) refuelling options; computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling validation, calibration and enhancement; enhancement of frequency and probability analysis, and Consequence analysis of key component failures of hydrogen systems; and fuel cell oxidant outlet hydrogen sensor project. The Program projects are tightly linked with the content of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 19 Hydrogen Safety. (author)

  7. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  8. Reform in Canadian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 67 Canadian university vice presidents and 66 deans concerning reform in recent years found that the many changes reported were modest and reactive rather than bold and proactive. Most common changes involved strategic planning, retrenchment, curriculum expansion, response to enrollment changes, administrative restructuring, and more…

  9. Canadian Red Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level. PMID:18551842

  10. Canadian petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide ranging discussion about the factors that have influenced oil and natural gas prices, the differences of the Canadian market from international markets, the differences between eastern and western Canadian markets, and shareholders' perspectives on recent commodity price developments was presented. Developments in the OPEC countries were reviewed, noting that current OPEC production of 25 mmbbls is about 60 per cent higher than it was in 1985. It is expected that OPEC countries will continue to expand capacity to meet expected demand growth and the continuing need created by the UN embargo on Iraqi oil sales. Demand for natural gas is also likely to continue to rise especially in view of the deregulation of the electricity industry where natural gas may well become the favored fuel for incremental thermal generation capacity. Prices of both crude oil and natural gas are expected to hold owing to unusually low storage levels of both fuels. The inadequacy of infrastructure, particularly pipeline capacity as a key factor in the Canadian market was noted, along with the dynamic that will emerge in the next several years that may have potential consequences for Canadian production - namely the reversal of the Sarnia to Montreal pipeline. With regard to shareholders' expectations the main issues are (1) whether international markets reach back to the wellhead, hence the producer's positioning with respect to transportation capacity and contract portfolios, and (2) whether the proceeds from increased prices are invested in projects that are yielding more than the cost of capital. 28 figs

  11. Proceedings of the 11th Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the thirteen technical sessions at the 11. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society. The 68 papers presented at this conference cover the areas of programmes and issues for the 90's; thermalhydraulics; reactor physics and fuel management; nuclear safety; small reactors; fuel behaviour; energy production and the environment; computer applications; nuclear systems; fusion; reactor decommissioning, irradiated fuel and materials handling; and reactor components, (L.L.)

  12. FCC Study of Canadian Heavy Gas Oils--Comparisons of Product Yields and Qualities between Reactors%加拿大重瓦斯油催化裂化研究--不同反应器的产品产率与质量对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Several series of cracking tests in a comprehensive study were conducted on separate occasions involving all or parts of ten Canadian vacuum gas oils (VGOs) and two catalysts with bottoms-cracking or octane-barrel capability.VGOs were cracked in fixed- and/or fluid-bed microactivity test (MAT) units, in an Advanced Cracking Evaluation (ACE)unit, and in a modified ARCO riser reactor. Individual yields of gas, liquid, and coke from the MATs at 55, 65, 70, and 81wt% conversion levels were compared with their respective pilot plant data. Good linear correlations could be established between MAT and riser yields except for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and light cycle oil (LCO). At a given conversion,correlations existed among the fixed- and fluid-bed MAT units and the ACE for each product yield. Liquid products from the fixed or fluid-bed MAT were analyzed for hydrocarbon types, sulfur, nitrogen and density, most of which showed good agreement with those obtained from the riser study. When cracking Canadian oil-sands-derived VGOs, the bottomscracking catalyst containing a large-pore active matrix was found to be more suitable than the octane-barrel catalyst with smaller pores to produce higher yields of valuable distillates, but with less superior qualities (in terms of sulfur and nitrogen contents). The advantages of hydrotreating some poor feeds to improve product yields and qualities were demonstrated and discussed.

  13. Finally, nuclear engineering textbooks with a Canadian flavour!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for nuclear engineering textbooks more appropriate to the Canadian nuclear industry context and the CANDU nuclear reactor program has long been felt not only among the universities offering nuclear engineering programs at the graduate level, but also within the Canadian nuclear industry itself. Coverage of the CANDU reactor system in the textbooks presently supporting teaching is limited to a brief description of the concept. Course instructors usually complement these textbooks with course notes written from their personal experience from past employment within the nuclear industry and from their research interests In the last ten years, the Canadian nuclear industry has been involved on an increasing basis with the issue of the technology transfer to foreign countries which have purchased CANDU reactors or have been in the process of purchasing one or several CANDUs. For some of these countries, the 'turn key' approach is required, in which the Canadian nuclear industry looks after everything up to the commissioning of the nuclear power plant, including the education and training of local nuclear engineers and plant personnel. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in particular has dispatched some personnel tasked to prepare and give short courses on some specific aspects of CANDU design and operation, but a lack of consistency was observed as different persons prepared and gave the courses rather independently. To address the many problems tied with nuclear engineering education, the CANTEACH program was set up involving major partners of the Canadian nuclear industry. Parts of the activities foreseen by CANTEACH consist in the writing of nuclear engineering textbooks and associated computer-based pedagogical material. The present paper discusses the main parts of two textbooks being produced, one in reactor physics at steady state and the other on nuclear fuel management. (author)

  14. Canadian acid rain policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 13 of 1991, the Prime Minister of Canada, Brian Mulroney and the President of the United States of America, George Bush, signed an Agreement on Air Quality. This agreement enshrines Principle 21 of the 1972 Stockholm Declaration which states that countries are to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction do not cause damage to the environment of another country. This agreement also includes provisions for controlling acid rain. The Agreement on Air Quality followed years of discussion between the two countries and is a significant milestone in the history of Canadian acid rain policy. This paper begins by describing Canadian acid rain policy and its evolution. The paper also outlines the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement and the effect of the acid rain provisions on deposition in Canada. Finally, it considers the future work that must be undertaken to further resolve the acid rain problem. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  16. Financing Canadian international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primer on financing international operations by Canadian corporations was provided. Factors affecting the availability to project finance (location, political risk), the various forms of financing (debt, equity, and combinations), the main sources of government backed financing to corporations (the International Finance Corporation) (IFC), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Overseas Property Insurance Corporation (OPIC), government or agency guarantees, political risk coverage, the use of offshore financial centres, and the where, when and how these various organizations operate, were reviewed. Examples of all of the above, taken from the experiences of Canadian Occidental Petroleum of Calgary in the U.S., in South America, in the Middle and Far East, and in Kazakhstan, were used as illustrations. figs

  17. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  18. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  19. Proceedings of the 13. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 1 of the proceedings of the 13. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society includes sessions on the following topics: reactor physics, new concepts and technology, fuel behaviour, reactor design, safety analysis, fuel channel behaviour, equipment and design qualification. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  20. Planning a new research reactor for AECL: The MAPLE-MTR concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL Research is assessing its needs and options for future irradiation research facilities. A planning team has been assembled to identify the irradiation requirements for AECL's research programs and compile options for satisfying the irradiation requirements. The planning team is formulating a set of criteria to evaluate the options and will recommend a plan for developing an appropriate research facility. Developing the MAPLE Materials Test Reactor (MAPLE-MTR) concept to satisfy AECL's irradiation requirements is one option under consideration by the planning team. AECL is undertaking this planning phase because the NRU reactor is 35 years old and many components are nearing the end of their design life. This reactor has been a versatile facility for proof testing CANDU components and fuel designs because the CANDU irradiation environment was simulated quite well. However, the CANDU design has matured and the irradiation requirements have changed. Future research programs will emphasize testing CANDU components near or beyond their design limits. To provide these irradiation conditions, the NRU reactor needs to be upgraded. Upgrading and refurbishing the NRU reactor is being considered, but the potentially large costs and regulatory uncertainties make this option very challenging. AECL is also developing the MAPLE-MTR concept as a potential replacement for the NRU reactor. The MAPLE-MTR concept starts from the recent MAPLE-X10 design and licensing experience and adapts this technology to satisfy the primary irradiation requirements of AECL's research programs. This approach should enable AECL to minimize the need for major advances in nuclear technology (e.g., fuel design, heat transfer). The preliminary considerations for developing the MAPLE-MTR concept are presented in this report. A summary of AECL's research programs is presented along with their irradiation requirements. This is followed by a description of safety criteria that need to be taken into

  1. Canadian identity: Implications for international social work by Canadians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2011-01-01

    This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all, to cr...

  2. Canadian CANDU fuel development programs and recent fuel operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the performance and operating experience of CANDU fuel in Canadian CANDU reactors in 1999 and 2000. The extremely low rate of fuel defects continues to demonstrate that CANDU fuel is performing exceptionally well. Over the 2-year period, the fuel bundle defect rate for all bundles irradiated in Canadian CANDU reactors has remained very low, between 0.011% (suspected defects) and 0.007% (confirmed defects). On a fuel element basis, this represents a rate of confirmed defects of about 0.0002%; this rate is approaching 2 defects per million fuel elements! This successful performance is the result of a number of contributing factors, including a simple and robust fuel design with conservative design margins, reliable and specialized manufacturing processes that have been developed over the years, and fuel operations that conform to the fuel operating limits. Strong linkages between plant operation, designers, and Canadian fuel research and development programs also contribute to the high performance of the current CANDU fuel. The Fuel Design and Performance program, funded by the CANDU Owners Group, addresses licensing and operational issues that are common to the Canadian CANDU utilities. In addition, AECL's Fuel and Fuel Cycles working group directs R and D to support evolutionary improvements to the fuel products, as well as longer-term R and D for advanced fuel concepts. This paper describes the development programs in 1999/2000. (author)

  3. Canadian CANDU fuel development programs and recent fuel operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the performance and operating experience of CANDU fuel in Canadian CANDU reactors in 1999 and 2000. The extremely low rate of fuel defects continues to demonstrate that CANDU fuel is performing exceptionally well. Over the 2-year period, the fuel bundle defect rate for all bundles irradiated in Canadian CANDU reactors has remained very low, between 0.011% (suspected defects) and 0.007% (confirmed defects). On a fuel element basis, this represents a rate of confirmed defects of about 0.0002%; this rate is approaching 2 defects per million fuel elements. This successful performance is the result of a number of contributing factors, including a simple and robust fuel design with conservative design margins, reliable and specialized manufacturing processes that have been developed over the years, and fuel operations that conform to the fuel operating limits. Strong linkages between plant operation, designers, and Canadian fuel research and development programs also contribute to the high performance of the current CANDU fuel. The Fuel Design and Performance program, funded by the CANDU Owners Group, addresses licensing and operational issues that are common to the Canadian CANDU utilities. In addition, AECL's Fuel and Fuel Cycles working group directs R and D to support evolutionary improvements to the fuel products, as well as long-term R and D for advanced fuel concepts. This paper describes the development programs in 1999/2000. (author)

  4. Canadian photovoltaic industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory has been prepared to help potential photovoltaic (PV) customers identify Canadian-based companies who can meet their needs, and to help product manufacturers and distributors identify potential new clients and/or partners within the PV industry for new and improved technologies. To assist the reader, an information matrix is provided that identifies the product and service types offered by each firm and its primary clients served. A list of companies by province or territory is also included. The main section lists companies in alphabetical order. Information presented for each includes address, contact person, prime activity, geographic area served, languages in which services are offered, and a brief company profile

  5. The Canadian safeguards program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Canada provides technical support to the International Atomic Energy Agency for the development of safeguards relevant to Canadian designed and built nuclear facilities. Some details of this program are discussed, including the philosophy and development of CANDU safeguards systems; the unique equipment developed for these systems; the provision of technical experts; training programs; liaison with other technical organizations; research and development; implementation of safeguards systems at various nuclear facilities; and the anticipated future direction of the safeguards program

  6. On Realities of Canadian Multiculturalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦辰

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a multicultural country which was mainly established by immigrants. Just because of that, Canadian govern⁃ment has carried out the policy of multiculturalism since1970s. However, it has encountered many problems such as policy con⁃flicts, national identity, democracy-inquiry and racial discrimination, etc. Hence the Canadian multiculturalism has been in a di⁃lemma.

  7. Canadian contributions to the safety and environmental aspects of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since next-step fusion devices will be fuelled with mixtures of tritium and deuterium, the knowledge base and tritium handling experience associated with the operation of CANDU reactors is viewed as relevant to the development of safe fusion technology. Fusion safety issues will be compared with fission safety experience, after which specific Canadian activities in support of fusion safety will be overviewed. In addition, recommendations for appropriate fusion safety criteria will be summarized. 18 refs

  8. Canadian beef quality audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) was observed on 34% of the cattle. Bruises were found on 78% of the carcasses, 81% of which were minor in severity. Fifteen percent of the bruises were located on the round, 29% on the loin, 40% on the rib, 16% on the chuck, and 0.02% on the brisket. Grubs were observed in 0.02% of the steers, and injection sites were observed in 1.3% of whole hanging carcasses. Seventy percent of the livers were passed for human food and 14% for pet food; 16% were condemned. Approximately 71% of the liver condemnations were due to liver abscesses. Four percent of the heads, 6% of the tongues, and 0.2% of whole carcasses were condemned. The pregnancy rate in female cattle was approximately 6.7%. The average hot carcass weight was 357 kg (s = 40) in steers, 325 kg (s = 41) in heifers, 305 kg (s = 53) in cows, 388 kg (s = 62) in virgin bulls and 340 kg (s = 39) in mature bulls. The average ribeye area in all cattle was 84 cm2 (s = 12); range 29 cm2 to 128 cm2. Grade fat was highly variable and averaged 9 mm (s = 4) for steers and heifers, 6 mm (s = 6) for cows, 5 mm (s = 1) for virgin bulls, and 4 mm (s = 0.5) for mature bulls. The average lean meat yield was 59.7% in cattle (s = 3.4); range 39% to 67%. One percent of the carcasses were devoid of marbling, 1% were dark cutters, and 0.05% of the steer carcasses were staggy. Six percent of the carcasses had poor conformation, 3.7% were underfinished, and 0.7% were overfinished. Yellow fat was observed in 4% of the carcasses; 10% of carcasses were

  9. Canadian cogeneration economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aggressive cogeneration industry has developed in Canada, and is becoming a tool for provincial utilities to manage the procurement of independently generated power, while restricting plant size, maximizing socioeconomic benefit, minimizing environmental impacts and managing their own risks. An overview is presented of the economics of cogeneration in Canada. The Canadian cogeneration industry is driven by 3 key economic factors: utility power sale contracts, fuel pricing, and tax benefits. Utility cogeneration purchases, tax benefits, fuel prices, cogeneration efficiency, fuels, fuel strategies, displacement projects, solid fuel vs natural gas, operating flexibility, gas turbines, heat recovery steam generators, industrial and aeroderivative units, combined cycle steam turbines, steam injection, supplementary or duct firing, financial aspects and project management are discussed. 15 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  11. Thermal-hydraulic interfacing code modules for CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach for CANDU reactor safety analysis in Ontario Hydro Nuclear (OHN) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is presented. Reflecting the unique characteristics of CANDU reactors, the procedure of coupling the thermal-hydraulics, reactor physics and fuel channel/element codes in the safety analysis is described. The experience generated in the Canadian nuclear industry may be useful to other types of reactors in the areas of reactor safety analysis

  12. Thermal-hydraulic interfacing code modules for CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.S.; Gold, M.; Sills, H. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The approach for CANDU reactor safety analysis in Ontario Hydro Nuclear (OHN) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is presented. Reflecting the unique characteristics of CANDU reactors, the procedure of coupling the thermal-hydraulics, reactor physics and fuel channel/element codes in the safety analysis is described. The experience generated in the Canadian nuclear industry may be useful to other types of reactors in the areas of reactor safety analysis.

  13. 1944. The Canadians in Normandy

    OpenAIRE

    W.A. Dorning

    2012-01-01

    The story of the Allied invasion of France in June 1944 has been told in countless military-history books. Previous publications on the Allied invasion and the subsequent Normandy campaign have, however, tended to concentrate on the British and American role in the fighting, while the Canadian contribution has received scant attention. This in itself is surprising, as the Canadians played a far from peripheral role in the invasion and the campaign which followed in the hinterland of Normandy....

  14. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs

  15. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Association 28. annual conference held in Winnipeg, Manitoba, June 12-15, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the 28. CNA (Canadian Nuclear Association) conference contain 28 papers under the following headings: power reactors; fuel cycles; nuclear power and public understanding; future trends; and, applications of nuclear technology. CANDU reactors are emphasized. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  16. Canadian leadership in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Canadian perspectives in evaluating transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's mission is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety, and security of Canadians and the environment, as well as to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In 2001, the CNSC established a vision to be one of the best nuclear regulators in the world and established four strategic priorities of effectiveness, transparency, excellence in staff, and efficiency. While fulfilling a very comprehensive mandate, the CNSC operates with a. very clear vision of its clientele - the Canadian people. That commitment guides every employee and every action of the CNSC and ensures a firm commitment to transparency. The presentation will begin with a brief overview of the worldwide context of transparency and transparency measurement, with a look at what lessons can be learned from other organizations and initiatives. It will look broadly at the Canadian context and the government framework that establishes transparency, including the keystone legislation of the Access to Information Act. The presentation will then focus on the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The CNSC is firmly committed to putting additional measures in place to ensure transparency, which is being done concurrently with an overall organisational performance measurement system. It is within this framework that the presentation will address the transparency efforts at the CNSC as well transparency measurement activities. And, finally, the presentation will look at future directions for transparency and its measurement at the CNSC. (author)

  18. Canadian Food Irradiation Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) began work on the irradiation of potatoes in 1956, using spent fuel rods as the radiation source. In 1958 the first Gammacell 220, a self-contained irradiator, was designed and manufactured by AECL, and cobalt-60 was then used exclusively in the food irradiation programme. In 1960 the first food and drug clearance was obtained for potatoes. The next stage was to demonstrate to the potato industry that cobalt-60 was a safe, simple and reliable tool, and that irradiation would inhibit sprouting under field conditions. A mobile irradiator was designed and produced by AECL in 1961 to carry out this pilot-plant programme. The irradiator was mounted on a fully-equipped road trailer and spent the 1961/1962 season irradiating one million pounds of potatoes at various points in Eastern Canada. In 1965 the first commercial food irradiator was designed and built by AECL for Newfield Products, Ltd. Whilst the potato programme was under way, AECL initiated co-operative programmes with Canadian food research laboratories, using additional Gammacells. In 1960, AECL constructed an irradiation facility in a shielded room at its own plant in Ottawa for the irradiation of larger objects, such as sides of pork and stems of bananas. During 1963 the mobile irradiator, already a most useful tool, was made more versatile when its source strength was increased and it was equipped with a product cooling system and van air conditioning. Following these modifications, the unit was employed in California for the irradiation of a wide spectrum of fruits at the United States Department of Agriculture Station in Fresno. The Gammacell, mobile irradiator, shielded-room facility, the commercial food irradiator and some of the main food programmes are described in detail. There is an increasing amount of interest in irradiation by the food industry, and prospects are encouraging for future installations. (author)

  19. Canadian physical activity guidelines for adults: are Canadians aware?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; LeBlanc, Allana G; Orr, Krystn; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norm; Rhodes, Ryan E; Tremblay, Mark S; Faulkner, Guy

    2016-09-01

    The present study evaluated awareness of the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology's 2011 Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults and assessed correlates. Reported awareness of the physical activity (PA) guidelines was 12.9% (204/1586) of the total sample surveyed. More than half (55%) self-reported meeting PA guidelines of ≥ 150 min of moderate to vigorous PA per week. Awareness of PA guidelines was significantly related to participants' level of PA (χ(2) (1) = 30.63, p < 0.001, φ = -0.14), but not to any demographic variables. PMID:27560541

  20. The Canadian Safeguards Support Program - A future outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP) is one of the first safeguards support programs with an overall objective to assist the IAEA by providing technical assistance and other resources and by developing equipment to improve the effectiveness of international safeguards. This paper provides a brief discussion of the evolution of the CSSP, from the beginning when the program was under joint management between the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), a Canadian crown corporation, until recent years when the AECB became responsible for all projects and financial management. Recently, new legislation came into force and the AECB became the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC). However, the mandate and management of the CSSP under the CNSC remain fundamentally unchanged. Major CSSP activities are devoted to the following areas: (a) Human resource assistance through the provision of cost-free experts (CFEs) to the IAEA; (b) Training of IAEA inspectors and facility operators, development of training resources and integrated approaches for training; (c) System studies, e.g. the development of integrated safeguards approach for CANDU reactors, geological repository, and physical model; (d) Equipment development, e.g. the VXI Integrated Fuel Monitor, Digital Cerenkov Viewing Device, seals, remote monitoring, encryption and authentication; (e) Information technology which includes satellite imagery, Geographical Information System (GIS), and position tracking of spent fuel containers. The CSSP has continued to evolve during the past 25 years. Although formerly larger the CSSP budget has settled to a stable level of just slightly above (Canadian) $2M. Leveraging of the CSSP budget through collaborations with several Member State Support Programs and Canadian government departments has provided mutual benefits for all parties involved and useful results that have been put into practical use by the IAEA. (author)

  1. Political Affiliation of Canadian Professors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reza Nakhaie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The social role of universities has been the subject of a lengthy debate as to whether those who teach in the academy are system-legitimizing conservatives or radicals helping to generate critical thinking that challenges the status quo. The aim of this paper is to evaluate political affiliations of Canadian university professors based on a national survey conducted in 2000. The study shows that Canadian professors’ political affiliation can be identified as either left or right depending on how the political orientation of political parties is conceptualized. University professors tend to vote more for the Liberal Party than other parties, and view it as centrist party. Moreover, the study highlights a complex and non-monolithic picture of the Canadian academy. University professors are not politically homogenous and party vote depends on the prestige of their university, their discipline, gender, ethnicity, marital status, generation, and agreement with liberalism.

  2. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  3. Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report January - March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, C. M

    1980-10-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory from January 1 through March 31, 1980, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Evaluation of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibilty of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibilty of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor steam generator tubes where serviceinduced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include the loss-of-coolant accident simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; the fuel rod deformation and post-accident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, Ispra, Italy; the blowdown and reflood tests in the test facility at Cadarache, France; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and the experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  4. Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report October - December 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, S. K.

    1982-03-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest laboratory (PNL) from October 1 through December 31, 1981, for the Division of Accident Evaluation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where serviceinduced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipe-to-pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and post accident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, lspra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho Falls, Idaho. These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  5. Transnational archives: the Canadian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Creet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.

  6. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  7. The MNSR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This tank-in-pool reactor is based on the same design concept as the Canadian Slowpoke. The core is a right circular cylinder, 24 cm diameter by 25 cm long, containing 411 fuel pin positions. The pins are HEU-Aluminium alloy, 0.5 cm in diameter. Critical mass is about 900 g. The reactor has a single cadmium control rod. The back-up shutdown system is the insertion of a cadmium capsule in a core position. Excess reactivity is limited to 3.5mk. In both the MNSR and Slowpoke, the insertion of the maximum excess reactivity results in a power transient limited by the coolant/moderator temperature to safe values, independent of any operator action. This reactor is used primarily in training and neutron activation analysis. Up to 64 elements have been analyzed in a great variety of different disciplines. (author)

  8. Canadian Postcolonialism: Recovering British Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2005-01-01

    The field of Postcolonial Studies is one of the academic fashions that has arisen in an attempt to amend or replace radical theories of social power since the alleged discrediting of Marxism. The Canadian case is more ambiguous. Postcolonialism, already an essentially contested concept, is especially conflicted where Canada is concerned. Canada…

  9. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  10. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  11. Nuclear regulation - the Canadian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the Atomic Energy Control Board was established 35 years ago the basic philosophy of nuclear regulation in Canada and the underlying principles of the regulatory process remain essentially unchanged. This paper outlines the Canadian approach to nuclear regulation and explains in practical terms how the principles of regulation are applied. (author)

  12. The regional control of the canadian energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information and presents data on the energy situation in many regions of Canada. The first part deals with the petroleum and the bitumen shales of Alberta (reserves, exploitation and production, environmental impacts), the second part discusses with the hydroelectricity choice of Quebec and the 2004 crisis. The nuclear situation of Ontario is presented in the third part (nuclear park, programs, uranium reserves, research and development on Candu reactors), while the fourth part deals with the renewable energies (wind power and biomass). The canadian situation facing the Kyoto protocol is discussed in the last part. (A.L.B.)

  13. Executive brief to federal government 'the Canadian nuclear industry - a national asset'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over a period of 40 years Canada has developed a remarkable nuclear industry. In keeping with our mining heritage, we are the world's leading uranium producer, with the highest grade orebodies in existence still waiting to be tapped. In the realm of high technology development, our CANDU reactor is second to none. Year after year Canadian CANDUs dominate the 'top 10' performance records world-wide. The nuclear industry has created direct employment for over 30,000 Canadians. The 'high tech' sectors of the industry are now vigorously seeking export markets for their products and services. As the world recovers from the recent prolonged recession, electricity demand is rising. Once again electricity is the engine of growth. Already utilities are planning to add new generating capacity. Canadian nuclear resources, technology and skilled people are proven and available. By seizing the opportunities which are opening up for us, a properly recognized nuclear industry can make a vital contribution to Canada's economic renewal. This brief has been prepared by the Canadian Nuclear Association (CNA) in response to the challenge issued to Canadians in Finance Minister Michael Wilson's document 'A New Direction for Canada'. This brief responds in terms of the major policy issues and opportunities as seen by the Canadian nuclear industry

  14. An update on the LEU target development and conversion program for the MAPLE reactors and new processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, the production of molybdenum-99 in the NRU research reactors at Chalk River, Canada, has been extracted from reactor targets employing highly enriched uranium (HEU). A reliable supply of HEU metal from the United States used in the manufacture of targets for the NRU research reactor has been a key factor to enable MDS Nordion to develop a secure supply of medical isotopes for the international nuclear medicine community. The molybdenum extraction process from HEU targets provides predictable, consistent yields for our high-volume molybdenum production process. Each link of the isotope supply chain, from isotope production to ultimate use by the physician, has been established using this proven and established method of HEU target irradiation and processing to extract molybdenum-99. To ensure a continued reliable and timely supply of medical isotopes, MDS Nordion is completing the construction of two MAPLE reactors and a New Processing Facility. The design of the MAPLE facilities was based on an established process developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL)-extraction of isotopes from HEU target material. However, in concert with the global trend to utilize low enriched uranium (LEU) in research reactors, MDS Nordion has launched a three phase LEU Target Development and Conversion Program for the MAPLE facilities. Phase 1, the Initial Feasibility Study, which identified the technical issues to convert the MAPLE reactor targets from HEU to LEU for large scale commercial production was reported on at the RERTR-2000 conference. The second phase of the LEU Target Development and Conversion Program was developed with extensive consultation and involvement of experts knowledgeable in target development, process system design, enriched uranium conversion chemistry and commercial scale reactor operations and molybdenum production. This paper will provide an overview of the Phase 2 Conversion Development Program, report on progress to date, and further

  15. Nuclear Technology and Canadian Oil Sands: Integration of Nuclear Power with In-Situ Oil Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyzes the technical aspects and the economics of utilizing nuclear reactors to provide the energy needed for a Canadian oil sands extraction facility using Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) technology. The energy from the nuclear reactor would replace the energy supplied by natural gas, which is currently burned at these facilities. There are a number of concerns surrounding the continued use of natural gas, including carbon dioxide emissions and increasing gas prices. Three scenarios for the use of the reactor are analyzed:(1) using the reactor to produce only the steam needed for the SAGD process; (2) using the reactor to produce steam as well as electricity for the oil sands facility; and (3) using the reactor to produce steam, electricity, and hydrogen for upgrading the bitumen from the oil sands to syncrude, a material similar to conventional crude oil. Three reactor designs were down-selected from available options to meet the expected mission demands and siting requirements. These include the Canadian ACR- 700, Westinghouse's AP 600 and the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). The report shows that nuclear energy would be feasible, practical, and economical for use at an oil sands facility. Nuclear energy is two to three times cheaper than natural gas for each of the three scenarios analyzed. Also, by using nuclear energy instead of natural gas, a plant producing 100,000 barrels of bitumen per day would prevent up to 100 mega-tonnes of CO2 per year from being released into the atmosphere. (authors)

  16. Canadian inter-laboratory organically bound tritium (OBT) analysis exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Olfert, J; Baglan, N; St-Amant, N; Carter, B; Clark, I; Bucur, C

    2015-12-01

    Tritium emissions are one of the main concerns with regard to CANDU reactors and Canadian nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima accident, the Canadian Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggested that models used in risk assessment of Canadian nuclear facilities be firmly based on measured data. Procedures for measurement of tritium as HTO (tritiated water) are well established, but there are no standard methods and certified reference materials for measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples. This paper describes and discusses an inter-laboratory comparison study in which OBT in three different dried environmental samples (fish, Swiss chard and potato) was measured to evaluate OBT analysis methods currently used by CANDU Owners Group (COG) members. The variations in the measured OBT activity concentrations between all laboratories were less than approximately 20%, with a total uncertainty between 11 and 17%. Based on the results using the dried samples, the current OBT analysis methods for combustion, distillation and counting are generally acceptable. However, a complete consensus OBT analysis methodology with respect to freeze-drying, rinsing, combustion, distillation and counting is required. Also, an exercise using low-level tritium samples (less than 100 Bq/L or 20 Bq/kg-fresh) would be useful in the near future to more fully evaluate the current OBT analysis methods. PMID:26372740

  17. Corrosion Assessment of Candidate Materials for Fuel Cladding in Canadian SCWR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yimin; Guzonas, David

    2016-02-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is an innovative next generation reactor that offers many promising features, but the high-temperature high-pressure coolant introduces unique challenges to the long-term safe and reliable operation of in-core components, in particular the fuel cladding. To achieve high thermal efficiency, the Canadian SCWR concept has a coolant core outlet temperature of 625°C at 25 MPa with a peak cladding temperature as high as 800°C. International and Canadian research programs on corrosion issues in supercritical water have been conducted to support the SCWR concept. This paper provides a brief review of corrosion in supercritical water and summarizes the Canadian corrosion assessment work on potential fuel cladding materials. Five alloys, SS 347H, SS310S, Alloy 800H, Alloy 625 and Alloy 214, have been shown to have sufficient corrosion resistance to be used as the fuel cladding. Additional work, including tests in an in-reactor loop, is needed to confirm that these alloys would work as the fuel cladding in the Canadian SCWR.

  18. Canadian fusion breeder blanket program: Irradiation facilities at chalk river*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, I. J.; Burton, D. G.; Celli, A.; Delaney, R. D.; Fehrenbach, P. J.; Howe, L. M.; Larson, L. L.; MacEwen, S. R.; Miller, J. M.; Naeem, T. A.; Sawicki, J. A.; Swanson, M. L.; Verrall, R. A.; Zee, R. H.

    1986-11-01

    The major irradiation facility at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) is the NRU research reactor. Both unvented and vented capsule experiments on candidate blanket ceramics can be performed. In the unvented tests, tritium release data (HT-to-HTO ratio, tritium retention) are obtained by post-irradiation heating of the breeder ceramic in the presence of a sweep gas. Four tests have been completed on Li 2O and LiAlO 2. Effects of sweep gas composition, extraction vessel material and ceramic properties have been determined. Two unvented irradiations under the BEATRIX international breeder exchange program have been completed; analysis is underway. The vented tests involve long-term irradiation of candidate blanket materials. CRITIC-I, scheduled for mid-1986 under BEATRIX, will examine ANL-fabricated Li 2O in a six-month irradiation at 700-1200 K, varying sweep gas composition, with on-line HT/HTO measurement. Additionally, accelerator simulation techniques are available, using 70 kV and 2.0 MV mass separators, a 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator and a tandem accelerator super-conducting cyclotron, the latter allowing irradiation with protons, deuterons or helium at 18-20 MeV.

  19. Canadian regulatory requirements and practices for qualification of computer codes used in safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Code verification and validation are the key elements during any computer program development. Canadian regulatory framework provides requirements and guidelines for conducting code validation activities that are consistent with other jurisdictions. It also ensures that verification and validation process in support of the design and licensing of CANDU power reactors is compliant with regulatory expectations. The paper presents a new Canadian regulatory perspective for key software QA activities: code verification and validation. Also, the regulatory approved practices for planning, conducting and documentation produced to support verification and validation of computer codes are also discussed. (author)

  20. An in-reactor loss-of-coolant test with flow blockage and rewet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three CANDU-type fuel elements were subjected to a blowdown transient in the Blowdown Test Facility of the NRU reactor. These elements, operating at 41 to 43 kW/m, went into sustained dryout about 22 seconds after depressurization. Sheath temperatures escalated rapidly following dryout, and subsequent damage to the elements caused a flow blockage below the fuel assembly. The high-temperature transient was terminated by automatic reactor shutdown and the initiation of cold water rewet. The first rewet water vapourized, but rewet eventually cooled the fuel. Fission products were released and measured during and following the transient. Post-irradiation examination has shown severe fuel damage at the bottom of the assembly

  1. CANDU nuclear reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL has over 40 years of experience in the nuclear field. Over the past 20 years, this unique Canadian nuclear technology has made a worldwide presence, In addition to 22 CANDU reactors in Canada, there are also two in India, one in Pakistan, one in Argentina, four in Korea and five in Romania. CANDU advancements are based on evolutionary plant improvements. They consist of system performance improvements, design technology improvements and research and development in support of advanced nuclear power. Given the good performance of CANOU plants, it is important that this CANDU operating experience be incorporated into new and repeat designs

  2. Canadian Nuclear laboratorie's Thoria road map project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of thorium as a fuel in current water-cooled power reactors has been assessed in numerous studies for decades. Thorium dioxide could be deployed as a fertile fuel matrix in current reactors, for consuming plutonium or transmuting nuclides. Thoria-based fuels for LWRs and HWRs show potential for improved in-core fuel performance in terms of reduced fission product release and reduced erosion, if defected. Test programmes (out-reactor and in-reactor) of thoria fuels have been carried out in the past, are currently ongoing, or are planned to determine key properties, performance, and behaviour of thorium dioxide fuels. These efforts have been essential to consider extensive use of thoria in existing reactors. Nevertheless, thorium-based fuels require further characterization and their behaviour must be well understood to ensure their safe performance under normal operating conditions and accident scenarios; processes must be further developed for manufacturing and reprocessing thorium-based fuels on an industrial scale. Computer codes for design, safety analyses and core following must be developed and validated; and challenges in radiation protection, waste management and safeguards must be addressed. The Canadian Nuclear Laboratories Thoria Road Map Project looks at eleven technological areas and defines gaps to be addressed. Specific examples of current experimental and modelling work to address these gaps will be discussed. (author)

  3. Documentation and post-irradiation examination of Canadian nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadian nuclear fuels includes fuels irradiated in CANDU power stations by our utilities and experimental fuels irradiated in the AECL-RC research reactors. Both types of fuel are documented with fabrication records, irradiation histories and power burnup logs. Many of these documents are generated by computer allowing individual fuel bundles and elements to be tracked from their delivery at the reactor to their final storage. Post-irradiation examination of our fuels takes place in underwater bays near the reactors and in shielded hot cells at AECL-Research Company (AECL-RC) laboratories using specialized equipment and techniques. Included in the fuel inspection procedures is a computer file for keeping examination records and a quality control system for shielded cell work. Most of the techniques, systems, codes and equipment used in documentation and in post-irradiation examination are illustrated in the report by three actual fuel irradiations, an experimental test in our research reactors, high burnup fuel from the Bruce reactor and fuel from a failed Pickering fuel channel

  4. The Canadian safeguards support program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada supports international safeguards as a means by which the proliferation of nuclear weapons can be discouraged. Canada recognizes that,to meet that the IAEA must have effective safeguards techniques and the active cooperation of Member States. Therefore the Canadian Government decided in 1976 to initiate a program in support of IAEA safeguards, known as the Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP). The CSSP is funded and administered by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The CSSP is a co-ordinated program for the development and the application of safeguards instruments and techniques for nuclear facilities and materials on behalf of the IAEA and also in support of Canada's own national nuclear material safeguards system, implemented by the AECB. (author)

  5. Canadian fuel development program in 1997/98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the CANDU fuel development activities in Canada during 1997 through 1998. The activities include those of the Fuel Technology Program sponsored by the CANDU Owners Group. The goal of the Fuel Technology Program is to maintain and improve the reliability, economics and safety of CANDU fuel in operating reactors. These activities, therefore, concentrate on the present designs of 28-element and 37-element fuel bundles. The Canadian fuel development activities also include those of the Advanced Fuel and Fuel Cycle Technology Program at AECL. These activities concentrate on the development of advanced fuel designs and advanced fuel cycles, which among other advantages, can reduce the capital and fuelling costs, maintain operating margins in aging reactors, improve natural-uranium utilization, and reduce the amount of spent fuel. (author)

  6. Exporting the Canadian licensing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the problems of an overseas regulatory agency in licensing a Canadian-supplied nuclear plant which is referenced to a plant in Canada. Firstly, the general problems associated with the use of a reference plant are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of specific problems which arise from the licensing practices in Canada. The paper concludes with recommendations to simplify the task of demonstrating the licensability of an overseas CANDU plant

  7. Canadian wind energy industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The companies and organizations involved, either directly or indirectly, in the wind energy industry in Canada, are listed in this directory. Some U.S. and international companies which are active or interested in Canadian industry activities are also listed. The first section of the directory is an alphabetical listing which includes corporate descriptions, company logos, addresses, phone and fax numbers, e-mail addresses and contact names. The second section contains 54 categories of products and services associated with the industry

  8. Canadian Content in Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    THEME: Internationalism: Worlds at Play Topics: Internationalism, Identity in Gaming and Learning to Play Abstract: How does Canada fit into the global cultural context of video games? This paper investigates the culture being reflected in video games being produced in Canada as Canada is one of the world's leading producers of video games. It examines the how Canadian culture is represented in current new media artistic output against the culture, or lack of culture, being represented in vid...

  9. Providing cleaner air to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is designed to explain salient aspects of the Ozone Annex, negotiated and signed recently by Canada and the United States, in a joint effort to improve air quality in North America. By significantly reducing the transboundary flows of air pollutants that cause smog, the Ozone Annex will benefit some 16 million people in central and eastern Canada and provide an example for a future round of negotiations to address concerns of the millions of Canadians and Americans who live in the border area between British Columbia and Washington State. The brochure provide summaries of the Canadian and American commitments, focusing on transportation, monitoring and reporting. The Ozone Annex complements other air quality initiatives by the Government of Canada enacted under the Environmental Protection Act, 1999. These measures include regulations to reduce sulphur content to 30 parts per million by Jan 1, 2005; proposing to restrict toxic particulate matter (PM) to less than 10 microns; establishing daily smog forecasts in the Maritimes and committing to a national program built upon existing smog advisories and forecasts in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia; and investing in more clean air research through the newly created Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

  10. Canadian fusion fuels technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project was launched in 1982 to coordinate Canada's provision of fusion fuels technology to international fusion power development programs. The project has a mandate to extend and adapt existing Canadian tritium technologies for use in international fusion power development programs. 1985-86 represents the fourth year of the first five-year term of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP). This reporting period coincides with an increasing trend in global fusion R and D to direct more effort towards the management of tritium. This has resulted in an increased linking of CFFTP activities and objectives with those of facilities abroad. In this way there has been a continuing achievement resulting from CFFTP efforts to have cooperative R and D and service activities with organizations abroad. All of this is aided by the cooperative international atmosphere within the fusion community. This report summarizes our past year and provides some highlights of the upcoming year 1986/87, which is the final year of the first five-year phase of the program. AECL (representing the Federal Government), the Ministry of Energy (representing Ontario) and Ontario Hydro, have given formal indication of their intent to continue with a second five-year program. Plans for the second phase will continue to emphasize tritium technology and remote handling

  11. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Conference summaries. Canadian Nuclear Association 29. annual conference; Canadian Nuclear Society 10. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 papers from the twenty-ninth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association. Abstracts were also prepared for the 102 papers from the tenth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society

  13. Risk-informed decision-making in Canadian nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of concepts pertaining to risk management and risk-informed decision-making, in order to promote the understanding of their application in the Canadian nuclear regulatory climate. As stated in the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA), the CNSC is required to protect the Canadian public against 'unreasonable risk' posed by activities it regulates. Additionally, the CNSC is expected to respect findings given in reports from the Office of the Auditor General (OAG), and to follow directives issued by the Government of Canada through Cabinet, hence, the Cabinet Directive on Streamlining Regulation (CDSR). The CNSC applies an approach that strives to be easily understandable, adaptable to many situations, supported by tools to gather information, is defensible, respects stakeholder consultations and is founded on open communication. The CNSC's conformance to the NSCA is broken into categories depending on the nature of the regulated facility: Class I power reactor facilities, non-power-reactor Class I facilities and Class II facilities. Internationally, different countries have different perspectives on risk. The paper argues that the CNSC's approach is consistent with practices of other nuclear regulatory bodies, which factor risk into their decision-making process. (author)

  14. Are Canadian Banks Ready for Basel III?

    OpenAIRE

    Imad Kutum; Khaled Hussainey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and test the current liquidity coverage ratio of Canadian banks’, and draw conclusions about the readiness of Canadian banks to meet Basel III regulations. Liquidity coverage ratios for six major Canadian banks were calculated using the liquid assets and liabilities listed on their balance sheets from 2009 to 2013. The actual assets that meet Basel III requirements could not be acquired, as this is private information that does not have to be released u...

  15. entering the postindustrial society: the canadian case

    OpenAIRE

    Matejko, Alexander J.

    1986-01-01

    abstract: the canadian federation is based on the substantial autonomy of the provinces constituting it, the welfare orientation of central bodies, the volunteer activities at the grass-root level, and the external policy open to the world. there are no any doubts about the genuinely democratic character of canadian internal politics or the commitment of canadians to the world peace. the economic prosperity of the country is secured by the mineral resources, good agriculture, and the intensiv...

  16. The Secret of Canadian Banking: Common Sense?

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Booth

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at the basic reasons why the Canadian banking system was recently judged by the World Economic Forum to be the soundest in the world. It does so by first examining the basic functions of a financial system and what Canadian banks are allowed to do as intermediaries within that system. It then considers the market structure of Canadian banking and the role of the Canadian government in regulating the financial system. It finishes with a discussion of the four basic managemen...

  17. Formulating the Canadian regulatory position on severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the increasing potential of new nuclear build in Canada, and as part of documentation harmonization effort, CNSC staff has initiated development of requirements for design of nuclear power plants. These requirements build both on the IAEA standards, most notably, NS-R-1, and the Canadian practices and experience. The three safety objectives, formulated by the IAEA, are adopted, and Safety Goals are proposed consistent with the international trend. This Canadian standard will require, for the first time, explicit consideration of severe accidents in design and safety assessments. Specific requirements are formulated for several plant systems that assure an effective fourth level of defence in depth. Available results from probabilistic safety assessments indicate that the risks posed by severe accidents are acceptably low. Nevertheless, such risks are not negligible. CNSC staff considers that severe accident management (SAM) represents the most practical way to achieve risk reduction with a moderate effort. Ultimately, SAM actions are aimed at bringing the reactor, and the plant in general, into a controlled and stable state. For the operating reactors, SAM provides an additional defense barrier against the consequences of those accidents that fall beyond the scope of events considered in the reactor design basis. The establishment of a SAM program ensures availability of the information, procedures, and resources necessary to take full advantage of existing plant capabilities to arrest core degradation, and prevent or mitigate large releases of radioactive material. To the extent practicable, a SAM program builds on the existing emergency operating procedures and makes use of the plant design capabilities. On this basis, the CNSC requested nuclear power reactor licensees to develop and implement SAM at all operating reactors. To be able to demonstrate compliance with requirements for plant design and severe accident management, it is necessary to

  18. CNSC staff annual report for 2001 on the Canadian nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) staff assessments of the Canadian nuclear power industry's operational performance in 2001. The report presents the CNSC staff score card of licensee programs and performance in nine safety areas. In addition, the report makes comparisons where possible, shows trends and highlights significant issues that pertain to the industry at large. More detailed information on issues can be found in the licensing Commission Member Documents (CMD) for each facility. The report's conclusions are supported by information gathered by CNSC staff inspections and document reviews, event reviews and studies of performance indicators.Through these activities, CNSC staff identifies strengths and weaknesses in licensees' performance and raise issues requiring attention or corrective action. Of the 22 CANDU reactors that have been issued operating licences by the CNSC, eight have produced no electric power since 1998. The Bruce A reactors are defuelled and in a layed-up state. The Pickering A reactors are fuelled, but remain in a drained guaranteed shutdown state. The Bruce B reactors are currently limited to operating at or below 90% of full power. The Darlington reactors are limited to 98% of full power. The remaining reactors are nominally operating at full power. Figure 2 shows the location of each site, the number and generating capacity of the reactors, and the initial start-up date, licence holders and licence expiry date (at the time of the production of the report). To meet the legal requirements of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and Regulations licensees must implement programs which ensure that station operation has adequate provisions for the protection of the environment, the health and safety of persons and the maintenance of national security and measures required to implement international obligations to which Canada has agreed. CNSC staff assesses every stations' performance against legal

  19. Isotope shortage triggers delays for patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Paula

    2009-07-01

    An unplanned shutdown of a nuclear reactor in Canada is disrupting the supply of medical isotopes across North America and forcing some hospitals to cancel or postpone patients' tests. The closure of the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Chalk River, Ontario, has also embarrassed Canadian officials, including a senior government minister who was forced to apologize after calling the isotope shortage a "sexy" career challenge.

  20. The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Schade, D.; Astronomy Data Centre, Canadian

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) is the world's largest astronomical data center, holding over 0.5 Petabytes of information, and serving nearly 3000 astronomers worldwide. Its current data collections include BLAST, CFHT, CGPS, FUSE, Gemini, HST, JCMT, MACHO, MOST, and numerous other archives and services. It provides extensive data archiving, curation, and processing expertise, via projects such as MegaPipe, and enables substantial day-to-day collaboration between resident astronomers and computer specialists. It is a stable, powerful, persistent, and properly supported environment for the storage and processing of large volumes of data, a condition that is now absolutely vital for their science potential to be exploited by the community. Through initiatives such as the Common Archive Observation Model (CAOM), the Canadian Virtual Observatory (CVO), and the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), the CADC is at the global forefront of advancing astronomical research through improved data services. The CAOM aims to provide homogeneous data access, and hence viable interoperability between a potentially unlimited number of different data collections, at many wavelengths. It is active in the definition of numerous emerging standards within the International Virtual Observatory, and several datasets are already available. The CANFAR project is an initiative to make cloud computing for storage and data-intensive processing available to the community. It does this via a Virtual Machine environment that is equivalent to managing a local desktop. Several groups are already processing science data. CADC is also at the forefront of advanced astronomical data analysis, driven by the science requirements of astronomers both locally and further afield. The emergence of 'Astroinformatics' promises to provide not only utility items like object classifications, but to directly enable new science by accessing previously undiscovered or intractable

  1. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, the Canadian government committed to reporting annual national indicators of air quality, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and freshwater quality in order to provide Canadians with more regular and consistent information on the state of the environment and how it is linked with human activities. The national air quality indicators in this report focused on human exposure to ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The report showed that from 1990 to 2004, the ozone indicator showed year-to-year variability, with an averaged increase of 0.9 per cent per year. Stations in southern Ontario reported the highest levels of ozone and PM2.5 in the country in 2004. There was no discernible upward or downward trend in PM2.5 levels at the national level for the 2000 to 2004 period, and GHG emissions rose 27 per cent from 1990 to 2004. In 2004, emissions were 35 per cent above the target to which Canada committed under the Kyoto Protocol. However, while total emissions rose, emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) fell by 14 per cent from 1990 to 2004. GHG emissions also grew faster than the Canadian population, resulting in a 10 per cent rise in emissions per person. The freshwater quality indicator presented in this report covered the period from 2002 to 2004, and focused on the ability of Canada's surface waters to support aquatic life. For the 340 sites selected across southern Canada, water quality was rated as good or excellent at 44 per cent of sites, fair at 34 per cent of sites, and marginal or poor at 22 per cent of sites. The report included a chapter which attempted to integrate the indicators with other environmental impacts, measures of economic performance, and indices of social progress to improve the ability of the report to influence decision-making that fully accounts for environmental sustainability. 63 refs., 18 figs

  2. Experience in the application of NUSS and Canadian quality assurance standards for overseas CANDU projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian QA standards - the CSA Z299 series for manufacture, which first appeared in 1975, and the CSA N286 series for all other phases of plant life which appeared in 1979, have been based on experience with the CANDU reactor program. The CSA Technical Committee responsible for issue and for updating the two series have a direct liaison with the IAEA Technical Review Committee for Quality Assurance. Ontario Hydro, which has a substantial commitment to nuclear power using CANDU reactors, has played a large part in the Canadian QA standards program. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has also taken a major part in the development of CSA QA standards. As a main contractor the Company has supplied CANDU plants in Canada and to Argentina, South Korea and Romania. Because of the compatibility of the Canadian QA standards used, the Embalse plant in Argentina and the Wolsung 1 plant in Korea, are essentially in compliance with NUSS QA standards. The plant under construction at Cernavoda in Romania similarly follows Canadian QA standards

  3. Molten salt converter reactors: from DMSR to SmAHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten salt reactors were developed extensively from the 1950s to 1970s as a thermal breeder alternative on the Thorium-233U cycle. Simplified designs running as fluid fuel converters without salt processing as well as TRISO fueled, salt cooled reactors both hold much promise as potential small modular reactors and as larger base load producers. A background will be presented along with the most likely routes forward for a Canadian development program. (author)

  4. The Canadian National Seismograph Network

    OpenAIRE

    North, R G

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian National Seismograph Network currently consists of 5 very-broadband (VBB) and 15 broadband (BB) stations across Canada, supplemented by 6 short period (SP) stations. When it is completed by the end of 1995, a further 1 VBB, 12 BB and over 40 SP stations will have been added. Data from all sites are telemetered in real time to twin network acquisition, processing and archiving centres in Eastern and Western Canada. All data are continuously archived in SEED format on optical disk ...

  5. REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADIAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Modern English is an international language inthe world.Besides Great Britain,English is spokenas first language in 39 countries.These countries arelocated in different regions with different naturalfeatures,history development and cultural character-istics.Thus,English used in these different regionscarries its own regional character—forming Englishregional varieties.The main English regional varieties are:BritishEnglish,American English,Canadian English andSouth African English.Canada is a rich country inNorth America with its own characteristics,which of

  6. The Canadian Hospital Executive Simulation System (CHESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, G H; Knotts, U A; Parrish, L G; Shields, C A

    1991-01-01

    The Canadian Hospital Executive Simulation System (CHESS) is a computer-based management decision-making game designed specifically for Canadian hospital managers. The paper begins with an introduction on the development of business and health services industry-specific simulation games. An overview of CHESS is provided, along with a description of its development and a discussion of its educational benefits. PMID:10109530

  7. Theoretical Analysis of Canadian Lifelong Education Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Natalia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the problem of Canadian lifelong education development has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; periods of lifelong education development; and determination of lifelong learning role and importance in modern Canadian society.

  8. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  9. Looking Back: Tracing Trends in Canadian CALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Mary-Louise; Sinyor, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    "CCALLNET" ("The Canadian Computer-Assisted Language Learning Network at the Post-Secondary Level") was a semi-annual newsletter published from 1987 to 2002 that was distributed to colleagues across Canada who taught languages to university students. Its objective was to create a network of Canadian faculty interested in CALL by informing them…

  10. Canadian and United States regulatory models compared: doses from atmospheric pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU reactors sold offshore are licensed primarily to satisfy Canadian Regulations. For radioactive emissions during normal operation, the Canadian Standards Association's CAN/CSA-N288.1-M87 is used. This standard provides guidelines and methodologies for calculating a rate of radionuclide release that exposes a member of the public to the annual dose limit. To calculate doses from air concentrations, either CSA-N288.1 or the Regulatory Guide 1.109 of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which has already been used to license light-water reactors in these countries, may be used. When dose predictions from CSA-N288.1 are compared with those from the U.S. Regulatory Guides, the differences in projected doses raise questions about the predictions. This report explains differences between the two models for ingestion, inhalation, external and immersion doses

  11. Nuclear energy: a world of service to humanity. 27th annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 30th Canadian Nuclear Society/Canadian Nuclear Association student conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 27th Annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society was held on June 11-14, 2006 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The conference gathered close to 400 scientists, engineers, technologists and students interested in all aspects and applications of energy from the atom. The central objective of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of views on how this technical enterprise can best serve the needs of humanity, now and in the future. The plenary sessions addressed broad industrial and commercial developments in the field. Over eighty papers were presented in 15 technical sessions on the following topics: safety analysis; plant refurbishment; control room operation; nuclear chemistry and materials; advanced reactor design; plant operation; reactor physics; safety analysis; nuclear instrumentation; and, nuclear general topics. Embedded in the conference was the 30th student conference, sponsored by the Canadian Nuclear Society and the Canadian Nuclear Association. Over thirty-five papers were presented in five sessions on the following topics: corrosion processes; control systems / physics / modelling; and, chemistry / chemical engineering

  12. Emerging Canadian QA standards for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Canada operates a publicly funded health care system in which 70% of health care costs are paid by some level of government. Radiotherapy, indeed most cancer management, falls within the publicly funded realm of Canada's health care system. National legislation (the Canada Health Act) guarantees access to cancer services for all Canadians. However, the financial responsibility for these services is borne by the provinces. Most Canadian provinces manage the cancer management problem through central cancer agencies. In the past few decades, these provincial cancer agencies have formed the Canadian Association of Provincial Cancer Agencies (CAPCA). This association has adopted a broad mandate for cancer management in Canada (see www.capca.ca). Included in this mandate is the adoption of standards and guidelines for all aspects of cancer control. The complexity of radiation therapy has long underscored the need for cooperation at the international and national levels in defining programmes and standards. In recent decades formal quality assurance programme recommendations have emerged in the United States, Europe and Great Britain. When defining quality assurance programs, Canadian radiation treatment centres have referenced U.S. and other program standards since they have been available. Recently, under the leadership of the Canadian Association of Provincial Cancer Agencies (CAPCA), Canadian national quality assurance program recommendations are emerging. A CAPCA sponsored project to harmonize Canadian quality assurance processes has resulted in a draft document entitled 'Standards for Quality Assurance at Canadian Radiation Treatment Centres'. This document provides recommendations for the broad framework of radiation therapy quality assurance programs. In addition, detailed work is currently underway regarding equipment quality control procedures. This paper explores the historical and political landscape in which the quality assurance problem has

  13. The Canadian National Seismograph Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. North

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian National Seismograph Network currently consists of 5 very-broadband (VBB and 15 broadband (BB stations across Canada, supplemented by 6 short period (SP stations. When it is completed by the end of 1995, a further 1 VBB, 12 BB and over 40 SP stations will have been added. Data from all sites are telemetered in real time to twin network acquisition, processing and archiving centres in Eastern and Western Canada. All data are continuously archived in SEED format on optical disk and access to the most recent three days of data is provided through a mail-based AutoDRM system. Continuous data from the VBB sites are sent to the FDSN Data Management Centre approximately one month after being recorded.

  14. Canadian natural gas price debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunoco Inc. is a subsidiary of Suncor Energy, one of Canada's largest integrated energy companies having total assets of $2.8 billion. As one of the major energy suppliers in the country, Sunoco Inc has a substantial stake in the emerging trends in the natural gas industry, including the Canadian natural gas price debate. Traditionally, natural gas prices have been determined by the number of pipeline expansions, weather, energy supply and demand, and storage levels. In addition to all these traditional factors which still apply today, the present day natural gas industry also has to deal with deregulation, open competition and the global energy situation, all of which also have an impact on prices. How to face up to these challenges is the subject of this discourse. tabs., figs

  15. THE CANADIAN POLITICAL BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Libby

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the existence of a Canadian Political Business Cycle (PBC during the period 1946-1989. Logit analysis was used to determine if changes in the unemployment rate, growth of real GNE and the rate of inflation are significantly different in the period before an election than during the rest of the electoral term. It was found that the rate of growth in the unemployment rate declines and the rate of growth of real GNP increases in the four quarters before an election. The behavior of these variables reverses in the period after an election. These findings are consistent with a political business cycle. Policy variables, under a majority government, also behave in a manner associated with a PBC, with the government stimulating the economy approximately two years into its term so that good economic news will occur before it has to call an election. Minority governments tend to simulate the economy immediately after taking office.

  16. Nuclear communications : A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Times have changed since the early days of nuclear energy when it was a symbol of a brave new world, Public information strategies have evolved to meet increasing public concerns, and have shifted from being a largely unfocused attempt at publicity to being more concerned with managing issues and solving problems. This paper describes some of the salient features of the Canadian experience in nuclear communications and examines four key aspects: opinion and attitude research; media relations; coeducation; and advertising. It also addresses the challenge of responding to the allegations and tactics of those who are actively hostile to nuclear energy, and recommends that the principles of Total Quality Management and of organizational effectiveness be applied more thorough and more consistently to the public affairs function

  17. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul

    2010-09-15

    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  18. Dental fitness classification in the Canadian forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Richard R

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Forces Dental Services utilizes a dental classification system to identify those military members dentally fit for an overseas deployment where dental resources may be limited. Although the Canadian Forces Dental Services dental classification system is based on NATO standards, it differs slightly from the dental classification systems of other NATO country dental services. Data collected by dental teams on overseas deployments indicate a low rate of emergency dental visits by Canadian Forces members who were screened as dentally fit to deploy. PMID:18277717

  19. Canadian national internal dosimetry performance testing programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and construction of new Performance Testing programme that was implemented in Canada in 2008. The Canadian Regulator (Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission - CNSC) had determined that their licensees, in addition to the existing In Vivo and In Vitro performance tests, needed to demonstrate their ability in interpreting bioassay results. The program is administered by the Canadian National Calibration Reference Centre for Bioassay and In Vivo Monitoring (NCRC). Currently the NCRC carries out the performance testing for the In Vitro and In Vivo. At time of writing, the first round has not been completed and the pass/fail criteria have not been determined. (author)

  20. Instrumentation and control in the Canadian nuclear power program -1989 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada currently has 18 CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors in operation and 4 under construction, for an installed nuclear capacity of 15,500 MWe. Most of the reactors are in the province of Ontario where 50% of the electricity is nuclear generated. Atomic Energy of Canada is developing the CANDU-3, a 450 MWe reactor incorporating the latest available technologies, including distributed control. The three Canadian Utilities with CANDU reactors have made a major commitment to full-scope training simulators. In Canada there is a growing commitment to developing major improvements to the interface between the control systems, the field equipment and the operating staff. The development program underway makes extensive use of information technology, particularly expert systems and interactive media tools. Out of this will come an advanced CANDU control concept that should further improve the reliability and availability of CANDU stations. (author). 3 refs

  1. N Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The last of Hanfordqaodmasdkwaspemas7ajkqlsmdqpakldnzsdflss nine plutonium production reactors to be built was the N Reactor.This reactor was called a dual purpose...

  2. Canadian Law Schools: In Search of Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakman, Leon E.

    1980-01-01

    Academically, Canadian education is at the crossroads between formalism and functionalism, with the latter prevailing in recent years. There now arises a demand for a more integrated approach, linking legal theory with legal practice. (MSE)

  3. Canadian used fuel disposal concept review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A federal government environmental assessment review of the disposal concept developed under the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is currently underway. The Canadian concept is, simply stated, the placement of used fuel (or fuel waste) in long-lived containers at a depth between 500 m and 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited submitted an Environmental Impact Statement in 1994 and the public hearing aspect of the concept review is in its final phase. A unique aspect of the Canadian situation is that government has stipulated that site selection can not commence until the concept has been approved. Hence, the safety and acceptability of the concept is being reviewed in the context of a generic site. Some comments and lessons learned to date related to the review process are discussed. (author)

  4. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  5. Canadian media representations of mad cow disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Amanda D; Jardine, Cynthia G; Driedger, S Michelle

    2009-01-01

    A Canadian case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or "mad cow disease" was confirmed in May, 2003. An in-depth content analysis of newspaper articles was conducted to understand the portrayal of BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the Canadian media. Articles in the "first 10 days" following the initial discovery of a cow with BSE in Canada on May 20, 2003, were examined based on the premise that these initial stories provide the major frames that dominate news media reporting of the same issue over time and multiple occurrences. Subsequent confirmed Canadian cases were similarly analyzed to determine if coverage changed in these later media articles. The results include a prominence of economic articles, de-emphasis of health aspects, and anchoring the Canadian outbreak to that of Britain's crisis. The variation in media representations between those in Canada and those documented in Britain are explored in this study. PMID:19697246

  6. Canadian experience with structured clinical examinations.

    OpenAIRE

    Grand'Maison, P.; Lescop, J; Brailovsky, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    The use of structured clinical examinations to improve the evaluation of medical students and graduates has become significantly more common in the past 25 years. Many Canadian medical educators have contributed to the development of this technique. The Canadian experience is reviewed from the introduction of simulated-standardized patients and objective-structured clinical examinations to more recent developments and the use of such examinations for licensure and certification.

  7. South Asian Canadian experiences of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Amarjit

    2010-01-01

    This narrative research study explored the socio-cultural context surrounding depression through semi-structured interviews with six South Asian Canadian participants, who self identified as having experienced depression. The study sought to expand on the knowledge of depression and South Asian Canadians by considering the roles of the family, the community, and the culture in the experiences of depression. Thematic analysis of the participant interviews resulted in five major themes: the exp...

  8. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭万宏

    2015-01-01

    Canadian national identity is closely related to anti-Americanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  9. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭万宏

    2015-01-01

    Canadian national identity is closely related to antiAmericanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  10. How Canadians feel about nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey conducted by Decima Research in April 1989 showed that 50% of Canadians were somewhat or strongly in favour of nuclear energy, the percentage varying from 37% in British Columbia to 65% in Ontario. A majority (56%) questioned the nuclear industry's ability to handle its waste safely, but 45% believed that it was working hard to solve the problem. It was evident that an advertising campaign by the Canadian Nuclear Association had an effect

  11. Shocking Aspects of Canadian Labor Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett Sutton; Tamim Bayoumi; Andrew Swiston

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the flexibility of the Canadian labor market across provinces in both an interand intra-national context using macroeconomic data on employment, unemployment, participation, and (for Canada) migration and real wages. We find that Canadian labor markets respond in a similar manner to their U.S. counterparts and are more flexible than those in major euro area countries. Within Canada, the results indicate that labor markets in Ontario and provinces further west are more flexible, par...

  12. Labour Market Progression of Canadian Immigrant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana

    2014-01-01

    We use the confidential files of the 1991-2006 Canadian Census, combined with information from O*NET on the skill requirements of jobs, to explore whether Canadian immigrant women behave as secondary workers, remaining marginally attached to the labour market and experiencing little career progression over time. Our results show that the labor market patterns of female immigrants to Canada do not fit the profile of secondary workers, but rather conform to patterns recently exhibited by marrie...

  13. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ketovuori, Mikko Mr.

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003–2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure arts education for children in the schools. Despite the fact that Canadian learning methods appeared to be quite similar to the ones Finnish teacher...

  14. The LEU target development and conversion program for the MAPLE reactors and new processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, the production of molybdenum-99 in the NRU research reactors at Chalk River, Canada has been extracted from reactor targets employing highly enriched uranium (HEU). A reliable supply of HEU metal from the United States used in the manufacture of targets for the NRU research reactor has been a key factor to enable MDS Nordion to develop a secure supply of medical isotopes for the international nuclear medicine community. The molybdenum extraction process from HEU targets provides predictable, consistent yields for our high-volume molybdenum production process. Each link of the isotope supply chain, from isotope production to ultimate use by the physician, has been established using this proven and established method of HEU target irradiation and processing to extract molybdenum-99. To ensure a continued reliable and timely supply of medical isotopes, MDS Nordion is completing the construction of two MAPLE reactors and a New Processing Facility. The design of the MAPLE facilities was based on an established process developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) - extraction of isotopes from HEU target material. However, in concert with the global trend to utilize low enriched uranium (LEU) in research reactors, MDS Nordion has launched a three phase LEU Target Development and Conversion Program for the MAPLE facilities. Phase 1, the Initial Feasibility Study, which identified the technical issues to convert the MAPLE reactor targets from HEU to LEU for large scale commercial production was reported on at the RERTR- 2000 conference. The second phase of the LEU Target Development and Conversion Program was developed with extensive consultation and involvement of experts knowledgeable in target development, process system design, enriched uranium conversion chemistry and commercial scale reactor operations and molybdenum production. This paper will provide an overview of the Phase 2 Conversion Development Program, report on progress to date, and further

  15. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, the Number 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the Soviet Union suffered a severe accident which destroyed the reactor core and led to a loss of life. The four reactors at this station are of the RBMK-1000 type - boiling-light-water cooled, graphite moderated, vertical pressure-tube reactors, each generating 1000 MW of electricity through two turbines. AECL has carefully studied the accident, and the design of Chernobyl, to see if anything has been overlooked in the CANDU design. This report reviews the results of that study, in particular the relevant features of the Chernobyl design which exacerbated the accident, and compares them to the CANDU 600 design. A number of issues (the sign of the void coefficent and the pressure-tube design) have also been given some international prominence in the post-Chernobyl analysis; these are discussed in this report and shown to be irrelevant to the CANDU design. Finally this report describes the subjects identified for further design follow-up in Canada

  16. Development of a High Flux Research Reactor with Assembly- Integral Flux Traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the demand for irradiation services has increased as research reactors face a number of challenges. These challenges include reduction in enrichment, the need for economical use of fuel, and the medical isotope crisis brought about by the temporary shutdowns of the NRU and HFR. These challenges have inspired the design of a revolutionary research reactor assembly concept making use of the new U-Mo monolithic fuel form. Each assembly consists of a trapezoidal plate-fueled region and integral triangular flux trap. When placed in a hexagonal core, this structure permits multiple orientations of the flux trap with respect to those surrounding it. As a result, multiple orientations, sizes and shapes of the flux trap are possible. These flux trap parameters can be adjusted to provide the spectra needed to meet ever-changing experimental needs. This assembly concept was applied to the development of a 5 MWth research reactor core, and optimized for peak thermal flux. During the design process, attention was given to making the design economical, manufacturable, and maintainable. The design was able to produce a maximum unperturbed thermal flux of 1.2 x 1014 neutrons/cm2 s, 70% higher than existing research reactors of the same power rating. Despite this optimization for thermal flux, the reactor is still capable of producing fast fluxes in excess of 1 x 1014 neutrons/cm2 s in other regions of the core. The response of the resulting core to thermal hydraulic transients was also analyzed. (author)

  17. Canadian Attitudes toward Labour Market Issues: A Survey of Canadian Opinion. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, Human Resources and Social Development Canada commissioned Environics Research Group Limited to conduct a public opinion survey on labour market issues among 3,000 adult Canadians. The objective of the public opinion survey was to better understand the perceptions of Canadians regarding labour market challenges and opportunities in order…

  18. Canadian photovoltaic industry directory --1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The directory is intended to help potential PV customers identify Canadian-based companies who can meet their needs, and to help product manufacturers and distributors identify potential new clients and/or partners within the PV industry for new and improved technologies leading to greater end-use customer satisfaction. The principal feature of the directory is an information matrix that identifies the product and service types offered by each firm and the primary clients served. There is also a list of companies by province and territory, followed by an alphabetical listing of all companies, with detailed information including, mailing address, contact person, prime activity, geographic area served, languages in which services are provided, and a brief company profile. Additional information provided by the companies themselves, dealing with items such as number of systems sold, the total installed capacity, etc., is included in an 'experience matrix' for each firm. Sources of additional information on photovoltaic systems are included in a list at the end of the directory

  19. The Canadian mobile satellite program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, P. M.; Breithaupt, R. W.; McNally, J. L.

    The progressions and selection of design features for the Canadian segment of a mobile satellite (MSAT) communications system are traced. The feasibility study for a satellite-based public and government mobile communications service to underserved areas was carried out between 1980-82. The results covered the market demand, commercial viability, user cost-benefit, and spacecraft concepts. A subsequent 2 yr study was initiated to proceed with project definition. A market of 1.1 million users was identified in all of Canada, with MSAT replacing other systems for 50 percent of the market. Operations would be in the 806-890 MHz range. Traffic will be routed through gateway links functioning in the 8/7 GHz SHF band while the mobile units will be connected through an 821-825 MHz up link and an 866-870 MH downlink. New technologies will be needed for a central control station, the gateway stations, and the base stations for the mobile radio service, the mobile user terminals, and data collection platforms.

  20. Canadian landmine detection research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFee, John E.; Das, Yogadhish; Faust, Anthony A.

    2003-09-01

    Defence R&D Canada (DRDC), an agency within the Department of National Defence, has been conducting research and development (R&D) on the detection of landmines for countermine operations and of unexploded ordnance (UXO) for range clearance since 1975. The Canadian Centre for Mine Action Technologies (CCMAT), located at DRDC Suffield, was formed in 1998 to carry out R&D related to humanitarian demining. The lead group responsible for formulating and executing both countermine and humanitarian R&D programs in detection is the Threat Detection Group at DRDC Suffield. This paper describes R&D for both programs under the major headings of remote minefield detection, close-in scanning detection, confirmation detection and teleoperated systems. Among DRDC's achievements in landmine and UXO detection R&D are pioneering work in electromagnetic and magnetic identification and classification; the first military-fielded multisensor, teleoperated vehicle-mounted landmine detection system; pioneering use of confirmation detectors for multisensor landmine detection systems; the first fielded thermal neutron activation landmine confirmation sensor; the first detection of landmines using a real-time hyperspectral imager; electrical impedance imaging detection of landmines and UXO and a unique neutron backscatter landmine imager.

  1. Papers presented by A.E.C.L. to the International Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on May 25-27, 1964. There were six papers presented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The titles were: I. Canada - A Nuclear Power Plant Supplier, by J.L. Gray; II. Nuclear Power Development in Canada and Other Countries, by W.B. Lewis; III. The Development and Some Applications of Cobalt-60 Irradiators, by R.F. Errington; IV. The Definition and Achievement of Development Targets for the Canadian Power Reactor Program, by A.J. Mooradian; V. Recent Applications of Tracers in the Physical Sciences in Canada, by R.H. Betts and J.A. Davies; and, VI. Economic Comparison of Oyster Creek, Nine Mile Point and CANDU-type Stations under Canadian Conditions, by G.A. Pon and R.L. Beck.

  2. Canadian guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide a clinical summary of the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) that includes relevant considerations for family physicians. Quality of evidence Guideline authors performed a systematic literature search and drafted recommendations. Recommendations received both strength of evidence and strength of recommendation ratings. Input from external content experts was sought, as was endorsement from Canadian medical societies (Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, and the Family Physicians Airways Group of Canada). Main message Diagnosis of ABRS is based on the presence of specific symptoms and their duration; imaging or culture are not needed in uncomplicated cases. Treatment is dependent on symptom severity, with intranasal corticosteroids (INCSs) recommended as monotherapy for mild and moderate cases, although the benefit might be modest. Use of INCSs plus antibiotics is reserved for patients who fail to respond to INCSs after 72 hours, and for initial treatment of patients with severe symptoms. Antibiotic selection must account for the suspected pathogen, the risk of resistance, comorbid conditions, and local antimicrobial resistance trends. Adjunct therapies such as nasal saline irrigation are recommended. Failure to respond to treatment, recurrent episodes, and signs of complications should prompt referral to an otolaryngologist. The guidelines address situations unique to the Canadian health care environment, including actions to take during prolonged wait periods for specialist referral or imaging. Conclusion The Canadian guidelines provide up-to-date recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of ABRS that reflect an evolving understanding of the disease. In addition, the guidelines offer useful tools to help

  3. Build your own Candu reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the marketing of Candu reactors, particularly the export trade. Future sales will probably be of the nuclear side of a station only, thus striking a compromise between licensing and 'turnkey' sales. It is suggested that AECL might have made more money in the past had it not given the right to manufacture Candu fuel away to Canadian industry. Future sales to certain potential customers may be limited by the requirement of strict safeguards, which will almost certainly never be relaxed. (N.D.H.)

  4. ACR-1000TM - advanced Candu reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the Advanced CANDU ReactorTM- 1000 (ACR-1000TM) as an evolutionary advancement of the current CANDU 6TM reactor. This evolutionary advancement is based on AECL's in-depth knowledge of CANDU structures, systems, components and materials, gained during 50 years of continuous construction, engineering and commissioning, as well as on the experience and feedback received from operators of CANDU plants. The ACR design retains the proven strengths and features of CANDU reactors, while incorporating innovations and state-of-the-art technology. These innovations improve economics, inherent safety characteristics, and performance, while retaining the proven benefits of the CANDU family of nuclear power plants. The Canadian nuclear reactor design evolution that has reached today's stage represented by the ACR-1000, has a long history dating back to the early 1950's. In this regard, Canada is in a unique situation, shared only by a very few other countries, where original nuclear power technology has been invented and further developed. The ACR design has been reviewed by domestic and international regulatory bodies, and has been given a positive regulatory opinion about its licensability. The Canadian regulator, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) completed the Phase 1 and Phase 2 pre-project design reviews in December 2008 and August 2009, respectively, and concluded that there are no fundamental barriers to licensing the ACR-1000 design in Canada. The final stage of the ACR-1000 design is currently underway and will be completed by fall of 2011, along with the final elements of the safety analyses and probabilistic safety analyses supporting the finalized design. The generic Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) for the ACR-1000 was completed in September 2009. The PSAR demonstrates ACR-1000 safety case and compliance with Canadian and international regulatory requirements and expectations. (authors)

  5. Assessment of the National Research Universal Reactor Proposed New Stack Sampling Probe Location for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Antonio, Ernest J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    This document reports on a series of tests conducted to assess the proposed air sampling location for the National Research Universal reactor (NRU) complex exhaust stack, located in Chalk River, Ontario, Canada, with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. Due to the age of the equipment in the existing monitoring system, and the increasing difficulty in acquiring replacement parts to maintain this equipment, a more up-to-date system is planned to replace the current effluent monitoring system, and a new monitoring location has been proposed. The new sampling probe should be located within the exhaust stack according to the criteria established by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream. The internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) project for this task was 65167, Atomic Energy Canada Ltd. Chalk River Effluent Duct Flow Qualification. The testing described in this document was guided by the Test Plan: Testing of the NRU Stack Air Sampling Position (TP-STMON-032).

  6. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators: highlights 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadians' health and their social and economic well-being are fundamentally linked to the quality of their environment. Recognizing this, in 2004 the Government of Canada committed to establishing national indicators of freshwater quality, air quality and greenhouse gas emissions. The goal of these new indicators is to provide Canadians with more regular and reliable information on the state of their environment and how it is linked with human activity. Canadians need clearly defined environmental indicators - measuring sticks that can track the results that have been achieved through the efforts of governments, industries and individuals to protect and improve the environment. Environment Canada, Statistics Canada and Health Canada are working together to further develop and communicate these indicators. Reflecting the joint responsibility for environmental management in Canada, this effort has benefited from the cooperation and input of the provinces and territories. The indicators are: air quality; greenhouse gas emissions; and, freshwater quality. Air quality tracks Canadians' exposure to ground-level ozone - a key component of smog. The indicator measures one of the most common, harmful air pollutants to which people are exposed. The use of the seasonal average of ozone concentrations reflects the potential for long-term health effects. Greenhouse gas emissions tracks the annual releases of the six greenhouse gases that are the major contributors to climate change. The indicator comes directly from the greenhouse gas inventory report prepared by Environment Canada for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. The data are widely used to report on progress toward Canada's Kyoto target for reduced emissions. Freshwater quality reports the status of surface water quality at selected monitoring sites across the country. For this first report, the focus of the indicator is on the protection of aquatic life, such as

  7. 2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

  8. VLF propagation measurements in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Wilfred R.; Bertrand, Jean M.

    1993-05-01

    For the past three years, during a period of high sun spot numbers, propagation measurements were made on the reception of VLF signals in the Canadian Arctic. Between Aug. and Dec. 1989, the received signal strengths were measured on the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker, John A. MacDonald in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Between Jul. 1991 and Jun. 1992, the received signal strengths were measured at Nanisivik, Baffin Island. The purposes of this work were to check the accuracy and estimate variances of the Naval Ocean Systems Center's (NOSC) Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) predictions in the Canadian Arctic and to gather ionospheric storm data. In addition, the NOSC data taken at Fort Smith and our data at Nanisivik were used to test the newly developed Longwave Noise Prediction (LNP) program and the CCIR noise predictions, at 21.4 and 24.0 kHz. The results of the work presented and discussed in this paper show that in general the LWPC predicts accurate values of received signal strength in the Canadian Arctic with standard deviations of 1 to 2 dB over several months. Ionospheric storms can gauge the received signal strengths to decrease some 10 dB for a period of several hours or days. However, the effects of these storms are highly dependent on the propagation path. Finally the new LNP atmospheric noise model predicts lower values of noise in the Arctic than the CCIR model and our limited measurements tend to support these lower values.

  9. JUDGING SELECTION: APPOINTING CANADIAN JUDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McCormick

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, the appointment of trial judges in Canada has generally involved an arms-length committee of professionals, although the structure of these committees and their role in the process has varied from province to province, as well as evolving over time. Yet these “new” structures and “new” processes did not prevent a major judicial appointment scandal in the province of Quebec in 2010, culminating in the formation of the Bastarache Committee to recommend changes. This paper summarizes the forty-year history of Canadian judicial appointment committees, identifies the major challenges that face those committees, and suggests the basic values toward which reforms to the appointment process might be directed. Depuis les années 1970, la nomination des juges de première instance au Canada a généralement mis à contribution un comité de professionnels indépendants, bien que la structure de ce comité et son rôle dans le processus de nomination aient varié d’une province à l’autre et évolué avec le temps. Ces « nouvelles » structures et « nouveaux » processus n’ont certes pas empêché l’éclatement du scandale sur la nomination des juges au Québec en 2010. Ce scandale a donné lieu à la formation de la Commission Bastarache qui avait notamment le mandat de recommander des changements. La présent document résume les quarante ans d’histoire des comités canadiens de nomination des juges, recense les principaux défis que ces comités doivent relever, et propose les valeurs fondamentales qui devraient inspirer les réformes du processus de nomination.

  10. Development of High-Performance Pressure Tube Material for the Canadian SCWR Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, L.; Donohue, S.

    2016-02-01

    The Canadian super-critical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) concept is moderated by using heavy water, while the coolant is light water at 25 MPa with an inlet temperature of 625 K and an outlet temperature of 900 K. The fuel assemblies reside in vertical pressure tubes that are the pressure boundary. The pressure tubes are insulated from the fuel assemblies and operate at temperatures near the moderator temperature, at 390 K. The zirconium alloy Excel has been selected as a candidate material for the pressure tube based on favorable properties such as high strength, resistance to radiation-induced diametral strain, and high terminal solid solubility. However, significant future effort will be required to obtain material properties and crack initiation mechanisms at super-critical water (SCW) conditions to verify that annealed Excel is a viable option as a pressure tube material in the Canadian SCWR.

  11. Performance indicators for power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of Canadian and worldwide performance indicator definitions and data was performed to identify a set of indicators that could be used for comparison of performance among nuclear power plants. The results of this review are to be used as input to an AECB team developing a consistent set of performance indicators for measuring Canadian power reactor safety performance. To support the identification of performance indicators, a set of criteria was developed to assess the effectiveness of each indicator for meaningful comparison of performance information. The project identified a recommended set of performance indicators that could be used by AECB staff to compare the performance of Canadian nuclear power plants among themselves, and with international performance. The basis for selection of the recommended set and exclusion of others is provided. This report provides definitions and calculation methods for each recommended performance indicator. In addition, a spreadsheet has been developed for comparison and trending for the recommended set of indicators. Example trend graphs are included to demonstrate the use of the spreadsheet. (author). 50 refs., 11 tabs., 3 figs

  12. Assessing CANDU requirements for irradiation - Research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian nuclear program needs ongoing access to irradiation-research facilities to support the safe operation of existing CANDU reactors and the evolutionary development of CANDU components and design features. The irradiation-research program must facilitate the testing of unique CANDU technology such as the fuel bundle, on-power refueling, the pressure tube, and the heavy-water coolant and moderator. Since 1957, NRU has operated as Canada's principal irradiation facility; however, it has become clear that NRU needs costly refurbishing if its lifetime is to be significantly extended. Accordingly, AECL has reviewed the requirements for CANDU irradiation research and is presently assessing alternatives for providing the necessary future access to irradiation-research facilities. Various options are under consideration, including renting space in existing research reactors, performing irradiations in CANDU power reactors, and building a new indigenous materials testing reactor specifically to meet essential program requirements

  13. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  14. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised

  15. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  16. Thorium fuel studies for CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applying the once-through Thorium (OTT) cycle in existing and advanced CANDU reactors might be seen as an evolved concept for the sustainable development both from the economic and waste management points of view. Using the Canadian proposed scheme - loading mixed ThO2-SEU CANFLEX bundles in CANDU 6 reactors - simulated at lattice cell level led to promising conclusions on higher burnup, lesser actinide inventory and proliferation resistance. The calculations were performed using the lattice codes WIMS and DRAGON (together with the corresponding nuclear data library based on ENDF/B-VII). (authors)

  17. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  18. A Roadmap for Canadian Submillimetre Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Tracy; Di Francesco, James; Matthews, Brenda; Murray, Norm; Scott, Douglas; Wilson, Christine

    2013-01-01

    We survey the present landscape in submillimetre astronomy for Canada and describe a plan for continued engagement in observational facilities to ~2020. Building on Canada's decadal Long Range Plan process, we emphasize that continued involvement in a large, single-dish facility is crucial given Canada's substantial investment in ALMA and numerous PI-led submillimetre experiments. In particular, we recommend: i) an extension of Canadian participation in the JCMT until at least the unique JCMT Legacy Survey program is able to realize the full scientific potential provided by the world-leading SCUBA-2 instrument; and ii) involvement of the entire Canadian community in CCAT, with a large enough share in the partnership for Canadian astronomers to participate at all levels of the facility. We further recommend continued participation in ALMA development, involvement in many focused PI-led submillimetre experiments, and partnership in SPICA.

  19. Introducing Western Canadian Spill Services Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This special issue of OSCAR introduced the newly created Western Canadian Spill Services Ltd. (WCSS). The organizations known as PROSCARAC and the oil spill co-ops WCOC have been dissolved and their operations have merged into the WCSS. The history of PROSCARAC and the WCOC, the process leading to their merger, and the new organization's plans to increase the petroleum industry's spill response capabilities were described. WCSS is run by a board of directors representing the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, the Small Explorers and Producers Association of Canada, the Canadian Petroleum Products Association, Trans Mountain Pipe Line Company Ltd., and Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc. Organizations with similar objectives in Manitoba and Saskatchewan have been invited to join

  20. Peacock: 100 years of servicing Canadian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997 Peacock Inc., a supplier of pipeline, filtration, pumping, materials handling and mechanical equipment of all kinds to the Canadian oil and natural gas industries, will celebrate its 100th year of servicing Canadian industry, and 50th year in the oil patch. The company has outlets in several Canadian cities from Halifax to Vancouver. It manufactures, distributes, maintains and repairs all types of industrial equipment. It also manages the Naval Engineering Test Establishment at LaSalle, PQ, for the Department of Defence. Peacock service centres provide 24-hour service response to emergency breakdowns anywhere in Canada; its engineers and technicians are ISO 9003 qualified or better, and are experts in turnarounds and planned maintenance outages, major overhauls of critical equipment, supplying mechanical crews for emergency equipment breakdowns, and grouting of heavy machinery. By close coordination of its four divisions, and by maintaining their dedication to service, the company looks to the future with pride and confidence

  1. Distinctive safety aspects of the CANDU-PHW reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two lectures are presented in this report. They were prepared in response to a request from IAEA to provide information on the 'Special characteristics of the safety analysis of heavy water reactors' to delegates from member states attending the Interregional Training Course on Safety Analysis Review, held at Karlsruhe, November 19 to December 20, 1979. The CANDU-PHW reactor is used as a model for discussion. The first lecture describes the distinctive features of the CANDU reactor and how they impact on reactor safety. In the second lecture the Canadian safety philosophy, the safety design objective, and other selected topics on reactor safety analysis are discussed. The material in this report was selected with a view to assisting those not familiar with the CANDU heavy water reactor design in evaluating the distinctive safety aspects of these reactors. (auth)

  2. The Canadian oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is provided of the global oil and gas market, industry, reserves, and factors affecting the market's instability. The Canadian oil and gas sector is then profiled. Research and technology strategies in the global oil and gas sector are reviewed in the areas of increasing supplies, improving energy efficiency, developing alternative energy sources, mitigating environmental impacts, and developing new products and services. Finally, research, development, and technology strategies in the Canadian oil and gas sector are evaluated, including private sector research and development (R ampersand D) government support programs, and technology opportunities for the industry in refining, in-situ oil sands production, ultrasour gas production, and downstream gas processing. Total R ampersand D spending by the Canadian oil and gas industry is only ca $300 million/y, with most small to medium-size companies doing little R ampersand D. Since 64% of the Canadian petroleum sector is foreign owned, decisions to increase R ampersand D investment must involve foreign decision makers. The focus of Canadian R ampersand D tends to be upstream-oriented and on the exploitation of unconventional resources, notably the oil sands. Opportunities also exist in downstream R ampersand D such as alternative fuels and energy systems management. Since upstream R ampersand D is a risky long-term proposition, the roles of resource companies, refiners, research institutions, and Canadian and overseas governments must be defined to ensure that research efforts are coordinated and costs are shared equitably. This will likely require a concerted action plan specifying technology goals, memoranda of understanding between all the players, and reasonable accountability levels. 19 refs., 10 tabs

  3. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  4. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  5. Statistics in action a Canadian outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F

    2014-01-01

    Commissioned by the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC), Statistics in Action: A Canadian Outlook helps both general readers and users of statistics better appreciate the scope and importance of statistics. It presents the ways in which statistics is used while highlighting key contributions that Canadian statisticians are making to science, technology, business, government, and other areas. The book emphasizes the role and impact of computing in statistical modeling and analysis, including the issues involved with the huge amounts of data being generated by automated processes.The first two c

  6. Management of hereditary angioedema: 2010 Canadian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Tom

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract C1-inhibitor (C1-INH deficiency is a rare blood disorder resulting in angioedema attacks that are debilitating and may be life-threatening. Prophylaxis and therapy of events has changed since our first Canadian Consensus Conference on the diagnosis, therapy and management of HAE. We have formed the Canadian Hereditary Angioedema Network (CHAEN/Réseau Canadien d'Angioédème Héréditaire (RCAH - http://www.haecanada.com to advance care of patients with this disorder in Canada. We here present a review of management of HAE in Canada.

  7. Open Access Funds: A Canadian Library Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fernandez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of Canadian research libraries was conducted to determine the extent of funding support for open access publications in these institutions. Results indicate that there is substantial support for open access publishing, and a diversity of approaches is being used to fund open access resources. The reasons for funding support along with policy and promotional issues are explored. The broader implications of funding open access are discussed in the context of a changing scholarly publishing landscape. This paper will be especially relevant to Canadian academic libraries that are exploring options for funding open access publications.

  8. A Demographic and Career Profile of Canadian Research University Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date career and demographic profile of Canadian research university librarians by comparing newly derived data from the 8Rs Study: The "Future of Human Resources in Canadian Libraries", with corresponding information from the author's 2006 survey: "The Scholarship of Canadian Research University Librarians", and other…

  9. The flow of radionuclides through the Canadian archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of contaminants to the Canadian Arctic by air and in water and their concentration through the marine food web has lead to enhanced levels of contaminants in several foods of Canadian northern inhabitants. Artificial radionuclides in the marine water can be used to determine water circulation and to trace contaminant transport through the Canadian Archipelago

  10. Transnational Education -- An Opportunity and a Canadian Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Transnational education is a huge growth industry and a potential source of considerable income for Canadian educational institutions. Canadian educational establishments seem to be missing out on this, and this seems short sighted. Canada has a very good reputation globally; this could be utilized when selling Canadian educational institutions in…

  11. Women in the Canadian Economy: A Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Sylvia; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains activities on the economic status and roles of Canadian women. The first of 4 sections presents a profile of male and female occupations. Section 2 contains statistics on females in the Canadian labor force. Section 3,…

  12. Canadian municipal carbon trading primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is being suggested as an effective economic way to meet Canada's Kyoto target. Emissions trading is a market-based instrument that can help achieve environmental improvements while using the market to absorb the economical and effective measures to achieve emissions reductions. Placing a value on emissions means that in order to minimize costs, companies will be motivated to apply the lowest-cost emission reductions possible for regulatory approval. The two main types of emissions trading that exist in Canada are the trading of emissions that lead to the formation of smog or acid rain, and the trading of greenhouse gas emissions that lead to climate change. Since carbon dioxide is the most prevalent GHG, making up approximately 75 per cent of Canadian GHG emissions, the trading of units of GHGs is often referred to as carbon trading. The impact that emissions trading will have on municipal operations was the focus of this primer. The trading of GHG involves buying and selling of allowances of GHGs between contracting parties, usually between one party that is short of GHG credits and another that has excess credits. The 3 common approaches to emissions trading include allowance trading (cap and trade), credit trading (baseline and credit), and a hybrid system which combines both credit and allowance trading systems. The issues that impact municipalities include the debate regarding who owns the credits from landfills, particularly if power is generated using landfill gas and the power is sold as green power. Other viable questions were also addressed, including who can claim emission reduction credits if a city implements energy efficiency projects, or fuel substitution programs. Also, will municipalities be allowed to trade internationally, for example, with municipalities in the United States, and how should they spend their money earned from selling credits. This report also presents highlights from 3 emissions

  13. Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Frederick H. [Argonne National Laboratory; Jacobson, Norman H.

    1968-09-01

    This booklet discusses research reactors - reactors designed to provide a source of neutrons and/or gamma radiation for research, or to aid in the investigation of the effects of radiation on any type of material.

  14. Research reactor status for future nuclear research in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, Patrick; Bignan, Gilles; Guidez, Joel [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique - CEA (France)

    2010-07-01

    Scandinavia). The nuclear renaissance is effective worldwide, with 33 power plants today under construction in the world and a lot of projects in discussion or in preparation in various countries (England, Italy, South Africa, USA...). In Europe, some countries, who phase-out the development nuclear energy, are also coming back in nuclear perspectives as Sweden, Italy, England, Poland,.. All these facts begin to give more work to the MTR (material testing reactors) for testing new materials and new fuels to improve their capacities and their performances. For the ZPR (Zero Power Reactors) test with new fuels allowing additives to suppress Bore utilisation, or allowing to reduce uranium consumption, will be necessary in the near future. For the safety dedicated reactors, test for compliance to last safety requirements are necessary. In this field the refurbishment of the CABRI reactor for Reactivity Insertion Accident studies, is now almost finished for test that should begin in 2010. For the radio isotope production the world demand is increasing year after year, especially for {sup 99}Mo, used in about 70 millions of medicine procedures each year in the world. Today 95% of this world production is assumed by five reactors: HFR (Netherlands), OSIRIS (France), SAFARI (South Africa), BRII (Belgium), and NRU (Canada). The youngest is OSIRIS (41 years) and should be close in 2015. Due to ageing problems NRU and HFR were shut down in 2009 for necessary repair. These points have conduced to some radio isotopes crisis in 2009. This paper explains some projects in line for the future to avoid this type of problems (FRMII initiative, RJH utilisation and PALLAS project). For training activities, needs are huge with nuclear renaissance, especially for the new countries coming back in nuclear field. It will also give a lot of opportunities to low power reactors and to the universities reactors. This paper also provides information on the status of the new projects such as the JHR ongoing

  15. A history of ZED-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ZED-2 Reactor at Chalk River Laboratories was 50 years old this fall. First criticality occurred in September 1960. ZED-2 is perhaps not very well known in the Canadian Nuclear Industry, certainly not as well known as the various CANDU power reactors or the research reactors NRU and NRX. Part of the reason for this I suspect is that when casually judging the importance of reactors the first parameters that spring to mind are power generated (for power reactors) or neutron flux (for research reactors), bigger being 'better in both cases. By these standards ZED-2 does indeed appear puny: the maximum allowed power is 200W and the corresponding flux about 108 to 109 neutrons cm-2 s-1, both numbers being about a factor of 500,000 smaller than the corresponding values for NRU. So, what is it all about? How is it that such an apparently insignificant reactor has operated for 50 years?, longer than any other Canadian reactor except NRU and the McMaster Reactor. What is it used for? What contributions has it made to the Canadian industry? Maybe one might also ask for how long is it going to continue? Well, that's what this talk is about, although I think I will leave the final question to wiser heads than mine. ZED-2 is a descendant of famous progenitors: starting with Enrico Farm's first critical pile of graphite and uranium (created at the University of Chicago in 1942) through Canada's ZEEP (first reactor to go critical outside the USA) that went critical in 1945. These early critical facilities were first about proof of principle that a self sustaining nuclear chain reaction could be established and controlled in a reasonable sized facility and second, in the longer term, developing understanding of the underlying reactor physics and the development of theories and methods to accurately predict the important properties of critical assemblies generally. (author)

  16. Canada's reactor exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management

  17. Human security and Canadian foreign policy: the new face of Canadian internationalism

    OpenAIRE

    DeJong, Melissa Joy

    2011-01-01

    In the late 1990s, human security was promoted as a new idea to guide the formation of Canadian foreign policy in the post-Cold War era. However, a review of the ideas which have influenced foreign policymaking in Canada since the end of the Second World War demonstrates that human security is rooted in internationalism, the dominant Canadian foreign policy tendency. Internationalism prescribes that cooperation, multilateralism, responsibility, international law and a consideration of the v...

  18. Bidi and Hookah Use Among Canadian Youth: Findings From the 2010 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Czoli, Christine D; Leatherdale, Scott T; Rynard, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although cigarette use among Canadian youth has decreased significantly in recent years, alternative forms of tobacco use are becoming increasingly popular. Surveillance of youth tobacco use can help inform prevention programs by monitoring trends in risk behaviors. We examined the prevalence of bidi and hookah use and factors associated with their use among Canadian youth by using data from the 2010–2011 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). Methods We analyzed YSS data from 28,416 studen...

  19. The status of the Canadian nuclear power program and possible future strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present Canadian nuclear power program based on the CANDU-PHW reactor, future commitments, and the status of heavy water production, are discussed, together with short term prospects over the next 20 years. The longer term favours fuels with higher fissile content than natural uranium. Possible future strategies are discussed, which include consideration of a number of different fuel cycles for the different types of CANDU reactor, i.e. CANDU-PHW, CANDU-BLW, CANDU-PLW and CANDU-OCR. It is concluded that: CANDU-PHW reactor is fully reliable and competative; organic and boiling water cooled variations promise savings of 15 to 20% in both capital and unit energy costs; the CANDU concept offers the opportunity for large improvements in uranium conservation whilst remaining economically competitive, by use of plutonium recycle and/or thorium; using the CANDU concept with thorium it is possible to limit the total uranium requirement for a given nuclear power capacity; and finally a system based on CANDU-PHW reactors could introduce FBR reactors more quickly and efficiently than one based on LWR reactors. (U.K.)

  20. Forecasting Canadian nuclear power station construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the huge volume of capital required to construct a modern electric power generating station, investment decisions have to be made with as complete an understanding of the consequences of the decision as possible. This understanding must be provided by the evaluation of future situations. A key consideration in an evaluation is the financial component. This paper attempts to use an econometric method to forecast the construction costs escalation of a standard Canadian nuclear generating station (NGS). A brief review of the history of Canadian nuclear electric power is provided. The major components of the construction costs of a Canadian NGS are studied and summarized. A database is built and indexes are prepared. Based on these indexes, an econometric forecasting model is constructed using an apparently new econometric methodology of forecasting modelling. Forecasts for a period of 40 years are generated and applications (such as alternative scenario forecasts and range forecasts) to uncertainty assessment and/or decision-making are demonstrated. The indexes, the model, and the forecasts and their applications, to the best of the author's knowledge, are the first for Canadian NGS constructions. (author)

  1. The Canadian nuclear scene - a 1983 perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews the previous year's performance and future prospects for the Canadian nuclear industry. Continued economic difficulties have meant continued streamlining of the industry. Basic strength is still the year-after-year record performance of the Ontario Hydro CANDU units. Given this performance, flexibility in the structure of the industry, and strong government support commercial success can be achieved eventually

  2. Asian and Pacific Migration: The Canadian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, T. John

    1994-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of landed immigrants (permanent settlers) from Asia, and explores their settlement, adaptation, and integration experience in Canada. It suggests that access to Canadian land does not always translate into equal opportunity in the economy and society, but notes that Canada may be more successful at assimilating Asian…

  3. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five trends that…

  4. Canadian export potential for EMF 9 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Board staff study of Canadian export potential for EMF-9 considers conventionally producible gas from western Canada, northern Canada and eastern offshore regions. The supply is limited only by the size and physical characteristics of the resource base, economic factors, and the ability of the industry to drill and equip the required number of wells. A potential for additional supply from the very low permeability reservoirs of west-central Alberta and the adjacent sector of northeastern British Columbia is recognized, but because there has been very little experience in producing this gas we do not feel we have enough information to estimate with confidence either the size of the resource base or future levels of production. To the extent that supply from this source does prove to be available, our projections will be understated. Canadian Hunter Exploration, Ltd., in its submission to the EMF-9 study estimates that under the price assumptions of the study production in excess of 1 Tcf/year could be achieved by about the year 2000 from the better quality low permeability sands, those having in situ permeabilities between 0.006 and 0.05 millidarcies. The Canadian Energy Research Institute in a report made public recently includes about 300 Bcf/year of tight sand production by 2005 in its projection of Canadian supply

  5. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada

  6. Computer Language Settings and Canadian Spellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The language settings used on personal computers interact with the spell-checker in Microsoft Word, which directly affects the flagging of spellings that are deemed incorrect. This study examined the language settings of personal computers owned by a group of Canadian university students. Of 21 computers examined, only eight had their Windows…

  7. Heat exposure in the Canadian workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Ollie; Kenny, Glen P

    2010-08-01

    Exposure to excessive heat is a physical hazard that threatens Canadian workers. As patterns of global climate change suggest an increased frequency of heat waves, the potential impact of these extreme climate events on the health and well-being of the Canadian workforce is a new and growing challenge. Increasingly, industries rely on available technology and information to ensure the safety of their workers. Current Canadian labor codes in all provinces employ the guidelines recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) that are Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) based upon Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT). The TLVs are set so that core body temperature of the workers supposedly does not exceed 38.0 degrees C. Legislation in most Canadian provinces also requires employers to install engineering and administrative controls to reduce the heat stress risk of their working environment should it exceed the levels permissible under the WBGT system. There are however severe limitations using the WGBT system because it only directly evaluates the environmental parameters and merely incorporates personal factors such as clothing insulation and metabolic heat production through simple correction factors for broadly generalized groups. An improved awareness of the strengths and limitations of TLVs and the WGBT index can minimize preventable measurement errors and improve their utilization in workplaces. Work is on-going, particularly in the European Union to develop an improved individualized heat stress risk assessment tool. More work is required to improve the predictive capacity of these indices. PMID:20623643

  8. An Overview of Canadian Education. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayfer, Margaret

    An overview of Canadian education is provided in this book. Chapter 1 presents basic facts and figures on the educational system's general structure and diversity and the role of the federal government. The second chapter describes provincial/territorial structure, specifically: the role of the departments of education and school board, financing,…

  9. Family Business Training: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A. B.; Soufani, K.; Lam, Jose

    2003-01-01

    Family firms play an important role in the working of the Canadian economy; despite their importance to the economic activities and job creation it is observed that family businesses have lower survival rates than non-family firms, some argue that this can possibly be attributed (amongst other factors) to the lack of training. Most of the training…

  10. After Access: Canadian Education and Copyright Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Michael

    2006-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of the Internet in the 1990s, the Canadian government developed a well-regarded strategy for addressing the emerging issues posed by the "information highway." The strategy featured legal reforms to address privacy and e-commerce, administrative reforms for the government online initiative, and connectivity programs such…

  11. In the Field: The Canadian Ecology Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Clare

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Ecology Centre (Ontario) offers year-round residential and day programs in outdoor and environmental education for secondary students, field placement and internship opportunities for college students, and ecotourism programs, while providing employment and tax revenues to the local community. Dubbed consensus environmentalism, the…

  12. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  13. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketovuori, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003-2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure…

  14. Heroes and Canadian History. Current Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Penney

    1999-01-01

    Believes that social studies teachers should encourage young people to learn about Canadian heroes but simultaneously assist them in developing skepticism as opposed to only idealizing heroes. Explains that when students understand the qualities of heroes they will be able to cope when someone they hold as a hero falters. (CMK)

  15. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article proposes an overview of research reactors, i.e. nuclear reactors of less than 100 MW. Generally, these reactors are used as neutron generators for basic research in matter sciences and for technological research as a support to power reactors. The author proposes an overview of the general design of research reactors in terms of core size, of number of fissions, of neutron flow, of neutron space distribution. He outlines that this design is a compromise between a compact enough core, a sufficient experiment volume, and high enough power densities without affecting neutron performance or its experimental use. The author evokes the safety framework (same regulations as for power reactors, more constraining measures after Fukushima, international bodies). He presents the main characteristics and operation of the two families which represent almost all research reactors; firstly, heavy water reactors (photos, drawings and figures illustrate different examples); and secondly light water moderated and cooled reactors with a distinction between open core pool reactors like Melusine and Triton, pool reactors with containment, experimental fast breeder reactors (Rapsodie, the Russian BOR 60, the Chinese CEFR). The author describes the main uses of research reactors: basic research, applied and technological research, safety tests, production of radio-isotopes for medicine and industry, analysis of elements present under the form of traces at very low concentrations, non destructive testing, doping of silicon mono-crystalline ingots. The author then discusses the relationship between research reactors and non proliferation, and finally evokes perspectives (decrease of the number of research reactors in the world, the Jules Horowitz project)

  16. Reactor physics and reactor computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical methods and computer calculations for nuclear and thermonuclear reactor kinetics, reactor physics, neutron transport theory, core lattice parameters, waste treatment by transmutation, breeding, nuclear and thermonuclear fuels are the main interests of the conference

  17. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are currently 284 research reactors in operation, and 12 under construction around the world. Of the operating reactors, nearly two-thirds are used exclusively for research, and the rest for a variety of purposes, including training, testing, and critical assembly. For more than 50 years, research reactor programs have contributed greatly to the scientific and educational communities. Today, six of the world's research reactors are being shut down, three of which are in the USA. With government budget constraints and the growing proliferation concerns surrounding the use of highly enriched uranium in some of these reactors, the future of nuclear research could be impacted

  18. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To provide a jet and missile protective wall of a configuration being inflated toward the center of a reactor container on the inside of a body of the reactor container disposed within a biological shield wall to thereby increase safety of the reactor container. Structure: A jet and missile protective wall comprised of curved surfaces internally formed with a plurality of arch inflations filled with concrete between inner and outer iron plates and shape steel beam is provided between a reactor container surrounded by a biological shield wall and a thermal shield wall surrounding the reactor pressure vessel, and an adiabatic heat insulating material is filled in space therebetween. (Yoshino, Y.)

  19. Financial outlook for the Canadian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The financial outlook for the Canadian natural gas industry is discussed in terms of the price of Canadian gas and its production and transportation costs. Demand growth for natural gas is fairly steady, reflecting economic growth and technological advances. Supply growth is more volatile, overshooting demand growth in an up market and undershooting in a down market. In the past year and a half, gas prices have improved as the supply deliverability surplus has eroded. It is predicted that supply will again exceed demand and prices will decline, the length of this price cycle being a few years. Production costs for western Canadian gas had been declining during the mid-1980s to 1991, and current replacement costs average ca $1.87/GJ. It is doubtful that fieldgate costs will increase to overtake fieldgate market prices and the Canadian gas industry will remain in a healthy state. The availability and cost of gas transport, however, is critically important. The major costs of pipeline transport are fixed demand charges and the value of transport services out of western Canada is determined by the demand and the supply (the location and size of the pipeline infrastructure, which is essentially fixed over short to medium time frames). This value can vary significantly as the demand for pipeline space varies both daily and seasonally. Excess pipeline capacity is generally good for the Canadian producing industry since it lowers transport costs, but excess capacity also plays a role in linking producing-basin and market area prices to one another. This is illustrated for the case of Alberta and Texas gas prices, which show higher correlation with falling load factors on ex-Alberta pipeline capacity. 5 figs

  20. The regional control of the canadian energy production; Le contraste provincial de la production energetique canadienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitlaurent, S.; Sarrazin, J

    2004-12-01

    This document provides information and presents data on the energy situation in many regions of Canada. The first part deals with the petroleum and the bitumen shales of Alberta (reserves, exploitation and production, environmental impacts), the second part discusses with the hydroelectricity choice of Quebec and the 2004 crisis. The nuclear situation of Ontario is presented in the third part (nuclear park, programs, uranium reserves, research and development on Candu reactors), while the fourth part deals with the renewable energies (wind power and biomass). The canadian situation facing the Kyoto protocol is discussed in the last part. (A.L.B.)

  1. The risk of shortage of radioelements at medical use must not lead to overlook the reactors safety that produce them; Le risque de penurie de radioelements a usage medical ne doit pas conduire a faire l'impasse sur la surete des reacteurs qui les produisent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    As the reactors supplying the world production of radioelements for medical use have over 40 years of operation, the nuclear safety authority alerts the stake holders on the necessity to prevent the conflicts between public health and nuclear safety in the production of these elements; Asn estimates that the solution is not to extend the lifetime of the reactors but goes for a new international concerted approach. The most of the present production comes from five old reactors: N.R.U. at Chalk river (Canada, 40%), H.F.R. at Petten (Netherlands, 30%), Safari at Pelindaba (South Africa, 10%) B.R.2 at Mol (Belgium, 9%) and Osiris at Saclay (France, 5%). In this context, Asn organised in january 2009 a seminar on the safety-availability of facilities of radio-isotopes production with safety authorities of the concerned countries. Nea organised a seminar on the radiopharmaceuticals supply at the end of january 2009. (N.C.)

  2. A CANDU-type small/medium power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation reviews some of the main factors that will govern the design and operation of reactors in remote Northern Canadian communities, as applied to a small CANDU-type power plant. The central advantage of the CANDU is the fact that it is modular at the level of a single fuel channel. Examining each of the main features of this SMR plant on a hypothetical site in the Canadian Arctic reveals some of the unique characteristics that will be either desirable or mandatory for any such power plant applied to service in this remote region. (author)

  3. Spectral effects on stress relaxation of Inconel X-750 springs in CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, M.; Butcher, F.J.; Ariani, I.; Douglas, S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Garner, F.A.; Greenwood, L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington (United States)

    2008-07-01

    CANDU reactors have been operating for periods up to about 25 years. During this time there are changes to the nuclear reactor core components that are a function of operating environment and time. It is important to know how the properties of critical core components are likely to change over the life of a reactor and therefore their behaviours are characterised long before the end of the reactor design life. Tests are typically conducted in materials test reactors. The behaviour of a material is often characterised as a function of fast neutron fluence and the expected effect of operating time is established by simply extrapolating as a function of fluence. This may be appropriate when the neutron energy spectrum for the materials test reactor matches closely the neutron spectrum where the component resides in the power reactor. However, in cases where the spectrum is very different one has to convert the accumulated dose into a unit that is common in its effect on the material properties. For many property changes in nuclear reactor cores this unit is displacements per atom (dpa). There are different processes that cause atomic displacements and the main ones have to be included in any dpa calculation in order to accurately predict how a given component will perform. One property that is significantly affected by irradiation is stress. Irradiation-induced stress relaxation is a phenomenon that has been used as a method for studying in-reactor creep. Stress relaxation also results in a loss of tension in springs if these springs are in a reactor core environment. This paper describes the stress relaxation of Inconel X-750 in the National Research Universal (NRU) materials test reactor and relates this to the expected relaxation of springs that are installed in the periphery of CANDU reactors. The results show that spectral effects are particularly significant for certain components at the edge of the CANDU reactor core where the neutron spectrum is changing

  4. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole reactor building is accommodated in a shaft and is sealed level with the earth's surface by a building ceiling, which provides protection against penetration due to external effects. The building ceiling is supported on walls of the reactor building, which line the shaft and transfer the vertical components of forces to the foundations. The thickness of the walls is designed to withstand horizontal pressure waves in the floor. The building ceiling has an opening above the reactor, which must be closed by cover plates. Operating equipment for the reactor can be situated above the building ceiling. (orig./HP)

  5. Heterogeneous reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microscopic study of a cell is meant for the determination of the infinite multiplication factor of the cell, which is given by the four factor formula: K(infinite) = n(epsilon)pf. The analysis of an homogeneous reactor is similar to that of an heterogeneous reactor, but each factor of the four factor formula can not be calculated by the formulas developed in the case of an homogeneous reactor. A great number of methods was developed for the calculation of heterogeneous reactors and some of them are discussed. (Author)

  6. Seeing Oneself in a Book: The Changing Face of Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Fayjean, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Takes a look at children's literature over time, and its recent emergence as a respected body of literary work. Discusses what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Annotates six picture books. Notes that Canadian literature reflects the diversity of the Canadian population, the vast differences in the Canadian landscape, and the…

  7. International uranium production. An eastern Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eastern Canadian perspective on uranium production is based on 30 years of continuous mining at Elliot Lake and on the experience of selling uranium over the same time period, mainly to export markets. In Ontario the orebodies are basically contiguous, being part of the same large formation. All the mining is underground. Ore grades are low, but economic extraction is improved by continuity and uniformity of grades, stable ground conditions, and the ability to mine and mill on a large scale. Mining is being carried out by two companies, Denison and Rio Algom. It is unlikely that mine capacity will be increased. Government policies have significant effects on the Eastern Canadian uranium industry in particular, as to U.S. import policies. (L.L.)

  8. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. CPPI conducts research to develop industry policy on a wide variety of environmental, health, safety and business issues. Key activities include: developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, establishing environmental policies, managing a national environmental protection network of over 100 centers across Canada; providing information on industry activities to the public; and developing working partnerships with government and public interest groups to address issues of common concern. An overview is provided of industry operations, economics and financial performance, and environmental protection and safety. Lists of CPPI publications, awards, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  9. Survey of Canadian hospitals radiation emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the findings of a survey of Canadian hospitals conducted by Social Data Research Ltd. during the Spring and Summer, 1995. The main objective of the survey was to determine the state of readiness of Canadian hospitals in respect of radiation emergency planning. In addition, the AECB was interested in knowing the extent to which a report by the Group of Medical Advisors, 'GMA-3: Guidelines on Hospital Emergency Plans for the Management of Minor Radiation Accidents', which was sponsored and distributed in 1993, was received and was useful to hospital administrators and emergency personnel. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 598 acute care hospitals, and 274 responses were received. The main conclusion of this study is that, with the exception of a few large institutions, hospitals generally do not have specific action plans to handle minor radiation accidents. (author)

  10. Canadian oil and gas survey : 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An outlook of the Canadian Petroleum Industry, financial and operating statistics of the top 100 Canadian public oil and gas companies and 15 energy income trusts, were summarized for the fiscal year ending in 1996. In general, 1996 was a good year for the industry. Greater industry financing resulted in increased drilling activity and good stock market returns for investors. However, strong commodity prices also resulted in record levels of hedging activity, which meant lost revenues for the industry. The top 100 companies recorded losses of about $800 million in 1996, largely on crude oil hedges. The fact that volumes hedged forward to 1997 are down from 1996 indicate that many companies are rethinking their commitment to risk management. Details of crude oil and natural gas prices and production levels during 1996 were provided. A list of significant corporate mergers and acquisitions during the year under review rounded out the presentation

  11. Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines for Rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Yuka; Tan, Jerry; Baibergenova, Akerke; Barankin, Benjamin; Cochrane, Chris L; Humphrey, Shannon; Lynde, Charles W; Marcoux, Danielle; Poulin, Yves; Rivers, Jason K; Sapijaszko, Mariusz; Sibbald, R Gary; Toole, John; Ulmer, Marcie; Zip, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic facial inflammatory dermatosis characterized by background facial erythema and flushing and may be accompanied by inflammatory papules and pustules, cutaneous fibrosis and hyperplasia known as phyma, and ocular involvement. These features can have adverse impact on quality of life, and ocular involvement can lead to visual dysfunction. The past decade has witnessed increased research into pathogenic pathways involved in rosacea and the introduction of novel treatment innovations. The objective of these guidelines is to offer evidence-based recommendations to assist Canadian health care providers in the diagnosis and management of rosacea. These guidelines were developed by an expert panel of Canadian dermatologists taking into consideration the balance of desirable and undesirable outcomes, the quality of supporting evidence, the values and preferences of patients, and the costs of treatment. The 2015 Cochrane review "Interventions in Rosacea" was used as a source of clinical trial evidence on which to base the recommendations. PMID:27207355

  12. Canadian petroleum history bibliography. Release update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2010-01-07

    The petroleum history bibliography was created over several years as a record dedicated to preserving the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. It comprises a list of more than 5000 publications, including books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles and stories of the many companies that have come and gone. It aims to include all publications and audio visual products from the Social Sciences and Humanities on company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry and humour. An author index is included. Most government documents are excluded as they are accessible through Library and Archives Canada. This bibliography is an ongoing piece of work, and welcomes any additions relating to the study and preservation of Canadian petroleum industry history.

  13. Canadian gas surplus to linger through 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Canada's natural gas surplus will persist at least through 1995, although the gap between production and deliverability will narrow. Meantime, prices will slowly rise, the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) predicts. The Calgary firm says surplus productive capacity will fall to 426 bcf in 1992 from 874 bcf in 1990. Those volumes amount to 12% and 25%, respectively, of deliverability. Prices for a processing plant's outlet stream, pegged at $1.38 (Canadian)/Mcf in 1991, will inch up to $1.53 in 1994, then climb to $1.69 in 1995, all in current dollars. Prices will firm as a reduced surplus reduces sales competition among producers. Increasing sales as a result of expanded export pipeline capacity will be a major factor in reducing surplus capacity. The study says after 1995 increased drilling will raise productive capacity and create some downward pressure on prices

  14. Development of excavation technologies at the Canadian underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several countries, Canada being among them, are developing concepts for disposal of used fuel from power generating nuclear reactors. As in underground mining operations, the disposal facilities will require excavation of many kilometres of shafts and tunnels through the host rock mass. The need to maintain the stability of excavations and safety of workers will be of paramount importance. Also, excavations required for many radioactive waste repositories will ultimately need to be backfilled and sealed to maintain stability and minimize any potential for migration of radionuclides, should they escape their disposal containers. The method used to excavate the tunnels and shafts, and the rock damage that occurs due to excavation, will greatly affect the performance characteristics of repository sealing systems. The underground rock mechanics and geotechnical engineering work performed at the Canadian Underground Research Laboratory (URL) has led to the development of excavation technologies that reduce rock damage in subsurface excavations. This paper discusses the excavation methods used to construct the URL and their application in planning for the construction of similar underground laboratories and repositories for radioactive wastes. (author)

  15. Hepatitis E in a Canadian Traveller

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Hepatitis E is clinically indistinguishable from hepatitis A and is caused by an enterically transmitted rna virus that is endemic in developing countries of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and North America. This report describes a Canadian traveller to Nepal, Thailand and India with one of the first confirmed cases of hepatitis E reported in Canada. Although this disease is usually self-limited with no known sequelae, it may produce fulminant hepatitis with a high case fatality rate in pregna...

  16. Electronic fetal monitoring: a Canadian survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, B L; Niday, P A; Nimrod, C A; Drake, E R; Sprague, A E; Trépanier, M J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the current status of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) in Canadian teaching and nonteaching hospitals, to review the medical and nursing standards of practice for EFM and to determine the availability of EFM educational programs. DESIGN: National survey in 1989. PARTICIPANTS: The directors of nursing at the 737 hospitals providing obstetric care were sent a questionnaire and asked to have it completed by the most appropriate staff member. The response rate was 80.5% ...

  17. The Development of the Canadian Veterinary Profession

    OpenAIRE

    Prescott, J F

    1985-01-01

    A proposal for the development of Canadian veterinary education and of the organization of the profession is described. There should be one veterinary school with four branches (the current colleges). A student would train at any college in comparative medicine for two and one-half years and then train for 12 months or more in a specialty taught at one or more colleges. These specialties are general veterinary practice, poultry practice, public health and regulatory medicine, ruminant practic...

  18. Development options for Canadian natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haughey, D.J.; Varangu, K.

    1982-01-01

    This work provides a methodology for, and preliminary economic examination of, alternative development options for Western Canadian natural gas. Four development options are addressed: pipeline exports to the U.S., domestic pipeline expansion to the Maritimes, liquefied natural gas exports to Japan, and methanol manufacturing in Alberta. Each option was evaluated in terms of the costs and benefits which accrue as producer returns, project sponsor returns, and government returns.

  19. Canadians trying to join US transmission groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various competition problems faced by Canadian utilities and attempts to solve them, were described. E.g. B.C. Hydro and its electricity trade subsidiary Powerex have moved to become members of the Western Regional Transmission Association (WRTA), an association of about 40 utilities which serve part of the western United States. Through the WRTA, Powerex seeks fair terms to ensure its access to the U.S. market. Membership allows fast dispute resolution and enhances sales to California and other western states. Concern was expressed by the U.S Dept.of Energy about the lack of reciprocity.In the year ending March 1994, Powerex exported 2,600 gigawatt-hours of electricity, over 90% to the U.S. This was a low water year for hydroelectric-based BC Hydro, in which surplus energy available for export was only about half of what is usually available. Ontario Hydro and other provincially owned utilities were said to be challenged by U.S. industry deregulation and open transmission policies. If Canadian utilities fail to initiate structural changes leading to open access policies, their economic competitiveness may well decline. If on the other hand Canadian utilities decided to adopt open access policies, they would need to shed their monopolistic practices and accelerate restructuring in the face of wholesale competition. They could face direct retail competition in their currently captive provincial markets from U.S. and alternative Canadian suppliers. In an open competition scenario up to 20% of Ontario Hydro's domestic sales were said to be in danger of being displaced by imports from New York and Michigan

  20. Roundtable Discussion on the Canadian Economy


    OpenAIRE

    McArthur, Doug; Ivanova, Iglika; Dobrzanski, Chris; Garrosino, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Since the 2008 global financial earthquake, the world economy has continued to be turbulent.

The roundtable discussion focussed on the Canadian economy within the 2012 global environment, but with a specific Vancouver and BC based perspective. Each of the panellists, from their own vantage point, talked about concerns with the economy, opportunities in the mid and long term for BC, and public policy ideas that they would put forward to improve the BC economy. The discussion was  followe...

  1. Tornado Mitigation in the Canadian Prairie Region

    OpenAIRE

    Durage, Samanthi, Prof.

    2014-01-01

    Tornadoes are a destructive form of the extreme weather associated with thunderstorms. Canada gets more tornadoes than any other country with the exception of the US. This paper presents some results of a study on tornado mitigation in the Canadian Prairie region. Initially, a regression-based analysis of the Prairie tornado database was conducted, and the trend for the number of tornadoes reported in each year is discussed in this paper. The detection, warning, communication, and evacuation ...

  2. Canadian Multiculturalism, Same as it ever Was?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hoyos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War ended, Canada was no longer mainly composed of its two dominant ethnocultural groups, French and English, but rather constituted by polyethnicity; meaning, Canadian culture was made up of many different ethnic groups. Since then, Canada has actively embraced multiculturalism and on 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, ‘An Act for the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada’. The Canadian multicultural experience has been much portrayed as a celebration of ethnicity where different cultural groups share their customs and learn from each other. However, it is recently being rumoured that the multiculturalism hype is not all it is cut out to be and segregates communities rather than integrate. According to Canadian authors Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, “in much of the world and particularly in Europe, there is a widespread perception that multiculturalism has failed” (44. In this paper, I examine some recent common issues of concern, especially, racism and discrimination, through the literary expression of Canadian playwrights and writers such as George F. Walker, Cecil Foster, and Mordecai Richler. These writers are not meant to represent any ethnic group as a whole, but rather try to project a general feeling about the nation in individual ways. I will finally explore the idea of how perhaps multiculturalism in Canada is evolving into another state since migratory patterns and the social circumstances that Canada is facing in the 21st century have changed. Today, the idea of celebrating different ethnicities and customs is no longer as important as celebrating the transcultural or “transnational” aspects of relations between individuals and groups of immigrants.

  3. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagreen, L.A.; Lourie, B.A. [Summerhill Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada).

  4. The Canadian Lung Cancer Conference 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Melosky, B.; Ho, C

    2016-01-01

    Each February, the Canadian Lung Cancer Conference brings together lung cancer researchers, clinicians, and care professionals who are united in their commitment to improve the care of patients with lung cancer. This year’s meeting, held 11–12 February, featured a resident education session, a welcome dinner, networking sessions, lectures, breakout sessions, debates, and a satellite symposium. Key themes from this year’s meeting included innovations across the care spectrum and results of rec...

  5. Basic Living Expenses for the Canadian Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnie-Jeanne MacDonald; Doug Andrews; Brown, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Our research undertakes to determine the basic living expenses required by Canadian seniors living in different circumstances in terms of age, gender, city of residence, household size, homeowner or renter, means of transportation and health status. The paper develops required expenses for food, shelter, health care, transportation and miscellaneous. The research identifies the typical expenses of seniors in each of these categories. Using 2001 as our base year, we follow the US Elder Standar...

  6. Competition in the Canadian Mortgage Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Allen

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a brief examination of the Canadian mortgage market, focusing on the market’s evolution following changes to the Bank Act in 1992, which allowed chartered banks to enter the trust business, and the subsequent entrance of virtual banks and mortgage brokers. It then summarizes key research currently being undertaken by the Bank of Canada. This research suggests that the mortgage rates paid by borrowers depend on their observable characteristics, their local market, and ...

  7. Morbidity Experiences and Disability Among Canadian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Linda

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Women are more frequently affected by chronic conditions and disability than men. Although some of these sex differences have been in part attributed to biological susceptibility, social determinants of health and other factors, these gaps have not been fully explained in the current literature. This chapter presents comparisons of hospitalization rates, and the prevalence of chronic conditions and physical disability between Canadian women and men and between various subgroups of women, adjusting for selected risk factors. The Canadian Hospital Morbidity Database (2000–2001 and Canadian Community Health Survey (2000–2001 were used to examine inpatient hospital morbidity, prevalence of chronic conditions and disability. Key Findings Hospitalization rates were 20% higher among women than men. This was due to the large number of hospitalizations for pregnancies and childbirth. When "normal" deliveries were excluded, hospitalization rates remained higher among women. Women had slightly lower rates of hospitalizations for ambulatory-care sensitive conditions than men. Prevalence of activity limitation (mild and severe was higher among women than men, and differences remained after adjusting for age, chronic conditions, socio-economic status, and smoking. Women who reported a disability were less likely than men to be in a partnered relationship, have less tangible social support, and have lower income and employment rates. Data Gaps and Recommendations The impact of morbidity and disability on Canadian women is substantial. These results identify areas for interventions among more vulnerable subgroups, and point to the need for further research in the area of risk factors for the prevention of morbidity and disability in the population.

  8. Immunization policies in Canadian medical schools.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowan, M S; Carter, A O; Walker, V J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the policies of Canadian medical schools concerning immunization of students and the methods used to promote these policies. DESIGN: Mail survey with the use of a 12-item, self-administered questionnaire; telephone follow-up to ensure response. SETTING: All 16 medical schools in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Deans of Canada's 16 medical schools or their designates. All of them responded to the questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Policies on vaccination of students against di...

  9. Fatal falciparum malaria in Canadian travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Humar, A.; Sharma, S.; Zoutman, D; Kain, K. C.

    1997-01-01

    The authors report 2 cases of severe falciparum malaria in Canadians that had fatal outcomes. In the first case a man presented to a local hospital shortly after returning from Africa, but a diagnosis of malaria was not considered. He was transferred to a secondary and then to a tertiary care facility, where he subsequently died. Intravenous quinidine therapy, the treatment of choice, was unavailable at all 3 hospitals. In the second case, a woman taking chloroquine prophylaxis while visiting...

  10. Globalization, health, and the future Canadian metropolis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrecker, Ted

    2010-01-01

    This chapter represents a preliminary effort to understand the health implications of transnsational economic integration (globalization) for population health in Canadian metropolitan areas, and to inform the development of policy responses and strategies of resistance. Special emphasis is placed on health equity as it is affected by social determinants of health. I first provide a stylized description of the rationale for concentrating on major metropolitan areas, rather than on...

  11. Canadian survey on pandemic flu preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy CS; Guglietti C; Gibson JL; Wilson Kumanan; Ritvo Paul; Nie JX; Jadad AR; Upshur REG

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The management of pandemic influenza creates public health challenges. An ethical framework, 'Stand on Guard for Thee: ethical considerations in pandemic influenza preparedness' that served as a template for the World Health Organization's global consultation on pandemic planning, was transformed into a survey administered to a random sample of 500 Canadians to obtain opinions on key ethical issues in pandemic preparedness planning. Methods All framework authors and additi...

  12. Industry analysis - Canadian medical doctoral universities

    OpenAIRE

    Crighton, Lyla Eileen

    2005-01-01

    Most public sector and non-profit entities do not undergo standard business analysis that is typically found in their private sector counterparts, however such approaches may provide administrators with information to better understand their industry. A high-level industry analysis of Canadian medical-doctoral universities, based on Porter's five forces and value chain analysis, combined with an analysis of pertinent issues indicated that universities are greatly affected by strategic decisio...

  13. A Canadian Medical Team in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, J. Paul; Kain, Brian F.; Robert C. McDonald

    1985-01-01

    In February 1985, a Canadian medical relief team was established in a northern Ethiopia refugee camp. Volunteer physicians, nurses, and support staff have worked in the camp since February 1985. Their activities range from supervising intensive feeding programs, to controlling infections, to educating patients. About 300-400 patients visit the outpatient clinics daily. Malnutrition, vitamin A and B deficiencies, scurvy, rickets, gastroenteritis, malaria, leprosy, tuberculosis, pneumonia, trac...

  14. Open Access Funds: A Canadian Library Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Fernandez; Rajiv Nariani

    2011-01-01

    A survey of Canadian research libraries was conducted to determine the extent of funding support for open access publications in these institutions. Results indicate that there is substantial support for open access publishing, and a diversity of approaches is being used to fund open access resources. The reasons for funding support along with policy and promotional issues are explored. The broader implications of funding open access are discussed in the context of a changing scholarly publis...

  15. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada)

  16. Medium Term Outlook for Canadian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Charlebois, Pierre; Gagne, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the features of the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) Medium Term Outlook for Canadian Agriculture (previously entitled Medium Term Policy Baseline) covering the period 2007 to 2017. The outlook is an attempt to outline a plausible future of the international and domestic agri-food sectors. It serves as a benchmark for discussion and scenario analysis. The outlook makes specific assumptions and outlines their implications. Since it assumes tha...

  17. Viewpoint: Canadian competition policy: progress and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Ross

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the state of competition policy - in particular the economics of competition policy - in Canada today and considers its prospects going forward. It argues that: (i) the importance of competition policy has become accepted widely in Canada and indeed throughout much of the world; (ii) competition policy design and enforcement is in general well done in Canada; (iii) economists, including many Canadians, have played a central role in the development of an efficient and effe...

  18. A Canadian perspective on environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leading environmental concerns in Canada are acid rain, ozone depletion, toxic substances, climate change, and biodiversity. These concerns have a number of elements in common, including a need for international actions for their solution, a high degree of scientific complexity, long life cycles from a policy point of view, and large differences in priorities between developing and developed countries. Canadians have favorable attitudes toward sustainable development and expect government and industry to be active in protecting the environment. Canadians also demand and expect a secure supply of competitively priced energy. Although industry may be concerned that incorporating environmental considerations into their business may impede competitiveness, this view is shown to be unsound for the following reasons: productivity is closely linked to a healthy environment; pollution prevention is less costly than cleanup; environmental protection can create new business opportunities; and the market is demanding more environmentally friendly industries. In the energy sector, a number of successful initiatives are under way to integrate environmental considerations into their decision making. The challenge is for industries to go beyond individual activities and build a case for sustainable energy development. The role of government includes informing Canadians about environmental risks and government priorities, ensuring that environmental assessment rules are clear and fair, streamlining regulatory processes, and using a balanced mix of legislation and regulation with market-based approaches to environmental protection

  19. Canadian oil and gas survey 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The year 1997 brought record levels of financing for the Canadian oil and gas industry which led to record levels of capital spending and unprecedented merger and acquisition activity. Production records were achieved, but soft commodity prices in the fourth quarter resulted in a significant downturn in the equity markets. El Nino reduced demand for natural gas and heating oil, resulting in increased storage levels for both commodities. Record drilling and capital spending fueled the Canadian oilfield service industry as total market capitalization rose to $10 billion. As for the 1998 outlook, the industry has turned to natural gas as the favoured commodity, as indicated by the conclusion of the Alliance pipeline hearings and the Nova/TCPL merger. This survey presents a review of crude oil and natural gas production, prices, and capital spending for development and exploratory wells, and the financial and operating results for fiscal year 1997 of selected oil and gas companies and income trusts. All listed companies are Canadian public companies, or publicly traded income trusts, traded on one of the country's four major stock exchanges. They are ranked according to gross oil and gas production revenue only (before royalties). Syncrude and oil sands production is also included. The remaining data in the financial statistics tables includes all business segments of each company included. The survey excluded companies that were wholly-owned subsidiaries, divisions or U.S. subsidiaries and private companies. tabs., figs

  20. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute 1995 annual review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute works on behalf of its member companies involved in the refining, distribution, and marketing of petroleum products. It is involved in the development of industry policy of business, environmental, health and safety issues. The 1995 annual review presented a summary of industry operations and trends. This included a summary of imports and exports of petroleum products, Canadian refining areas and pipelines, refinery utilization rates, and demand versus capacity for refined petroleum products. Demand for petroleum products increased in 1995, with the transportation sector representing over two-thirds of petroleum products sold. The debate concerning the use of the octane enhancing additive MMT in gasoline in Canada, was discussed. The additive reduces air emissions, but has been alleged to cause failures of some new vehicle emission control monitoring systems. A review of institute highlights included a table of average price of regular gasoline in Canada since 1980, gasoline prices for major markets, and average Canadian pump price components. 14 figs

  1. Deep saline groundwater within the Canadian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwaters have been sampled from depths greater than 1000 m within the Canadian Shield. The samples were obtained from boreholes in mines and from test drilling programs carried out as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. At the depths explored, water is found in fractures, shear zones and similar structural features. The salinity of the water is frequently very high, with total dissolved solids often exceeding 200 g.L-1. These saline waters can be classified as Ca-Na-Cl brines. Isotopic analyses for 2H and 18O show that these fluids are not modern, local meteoric waters which dissolve salts in sedimentary, metasedimentary or metamorphic rocks. The chemical and isotopic data suggest that all saline waters analyzed to date have a similar origin. This source is not well-understood but could be highly modified Paleozoic seawater, residual metamorphic fluids, or less likely, groundwaters that have been in contact with the rocks in the Canadian Shield for millions of years. In all cases the fluids appear to have been isolated from the biosphere for geological time periods. The existence of these highly saline fluids influences the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program in several areas. A major concern is the corrosion resistance of the radioactive waste containers. Saline waters may also influence the buffer and backfill and vault sealing materials, the rock mass and the waste form itself, although the effects may not always be deleterious. Corrosion of underground test equipment during the geoscience research phase is also a concern

  2. The development of the Canadian peat industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibault, J.J. (New Brunswick Dept. of Natural Resources and Energy, Bathurst, NB (Canada). Mineral Resources Division)

    1994-02-01

    Peatlands occupy 111 million hectares or about 12% of Canada's land surface and are principally located in the boreal region of the country. Most of the bog surveys which were initiated in Canada since 1908 have been prompted by a national interest in gaining fuel self-sufficiency, but the production of peat has almost always been exclusively for horticultural purposes. The birth of the Canadian peat industry dates back to the early 1940s, when the United States' traditional supplies from Europe were cut off during the Second World War. Between 1938 and 1992, the production of horticultural peat has grown from 4,000 and 745,000 tonnes, making Canada the world's third largest producer of horticultural peat. Canadian peat is exported to 25 countries. In 1992, the United States accounted for 89% of all exports, and Japan ranked second with 10%. In 1992, the total value of the production was estimated at 108 million dollars and provided employment for thousands of people in rural areas. The present industry owes its existence to an abundant supply of sphagnum moss located near population centres and in proximity to important transportation corridors. The continued development of the Canadian peat industry depends on establishing sound environmental practices, examining alternate uses for peat and exploring new market opportunities. 27 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Development of a fuel performance model for evaluating conceptual Th-based Canadian SCWR fuel designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel assembly for the Canadian Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR) is in the conceptual design phase. The proposed fuel pellets are made of ceramic Th-Pu mixed oxide ((Th,Pu)O2). Neutronics and thermal hydraulics calculations are being undertaken by the nuclear industry to optimize the fuel assembly within a pressure tube. The SCWR working group shave established two conceptual fuel element designs (outer diameter, fuel composition, cladding material, exit burnup etc.) within an assembly for performance assessment. A detailed fuel element performance assessment under in-reactor conditions could be used to determine cladding material thickness/suitability and to optimize the fuel pellet geometry. This work reports the development of a fuel performance model to predict the behaviour of the Canadian SCWR fuel using the finite element method. An initial approach is to develop a thorium-uranium mixed-oxide ((Th,U)O2) model.Preliminary results from this model agree with fuel irradiation data . Uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel, under the same conditions, is also being modeled and compared. A plan to model (Th, Pu)O2 SCWR fuel is briefly presented here. (author)

  4. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ...

  5. Social relations and remittances: evidence from Canadian micro data

    OpenAIRE

    Vadean, Florin P.; DeVoretz, Don J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper models transfers outside the household for both the Canadian- born and foreign-born Canadian populations in a traditional expenditure framework with an unique composition of goods to illustrate the special motivations to remit by immigrants. We theorise that remittances to persons outside the households represent transfers to maintain social relations with relatives and friends and religious/charitable remittances are expenditures which foster group membership. Using Canadian surve...

  6. Predicting Canadian Recessions Using Financial Variables: A Probit Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Atta-Mensah, Joseph; Tkacz, Greg

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the ability of a number of financial variables to predict Canadian recessions. Regarding methodology, we follow closely the technique employed by Estrella and Mishkin (1998), who use a probit model to predict U.S. recessions up to eight quarters in advance. Our main finding is that the spread between the yield on Canadian long bonds and the 90-day commercial paper rate is particularly useful in predicting Canadian recessions. This result is consistent with those of Estrell...

  7. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    OpenAIRE

    Turner Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to publi...

  8. Endoscopy training in Canadian general surgery residency programs

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Nori L.; Bazzerelli, Amy; Lim, Jenny; Ying, Valerie Wu Chao; Steigerwald, Sarah; Strickland, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Currently, general surgeons provide about 50% of endoscopy services across Canada and an even greater proportion outside large urban centres. It is essential that endoscopy remain a core component of general surgery practice and a core competency of general surgery residency training. The Canadian Association of General Surgeons Residents Committee supports the position that quality endoscopy training for all Canadian general surgery residents is in the best interest of the Canadian public. H...

  9. Canadian capital spending to slip 4.7% in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total capital and exploration spending by the Canadian petroleum industry is estimated at $6.579 billion in 1993, a drop of 4.7% from estimated 1992 outlays. Last year Canadian capital spending of $6.9 billion represented a drop of 8.9% from 1991 outlays, according to an Oil and Gas Journal survey. All survey related spending estimates in this paper are in U.S. dollars. All individual company spending estimates are in Canadian dollars

  10. Plasma reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Mansilla, Ricardo; Erra Serrabasa, Pilar; Bertrán Serra, Enric

    2008-01-01

    [EN] A plasma reactor that can operate in a wide pressure range, from vacuum and low pressures to atmospheric pressure and higher pressures. The plasma reactor is also able to regulate other important settings and can be used for processing a wide range of different samples, such as relatively large samples or samples with rough surfaces.

  11. Reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in research on reactor physics in 1997 at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. Activities in the following four domains are discussed: core physics, ex-core neutron transport, experiments in Materials Testing Reactors, international benchmarks

  12. Radioactive waste disposal - ethical and environmental considerations - A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with ethical and environmental considerations of radioactive waste disposal in Canada. It begins with the canadian attitudes toward nature and environment. Then are given the canadian institutions which reflect an environmental ethic, the development of a canadian radioactive waste management policy, the establishment of formal assessment and review process for a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, some studies of the ethical and risk dimensions of nuclear waste decisions, the canadian societal response to issues of radioactive wastes, the analysis of risks associated with fuel waste disposal, the influence of other energy related environmental assessments and some common ground and possible accommodation between the different views. (O.L.). 50 refs

  13. A high-speed data acquisition system to measure low-level current from self-powered flux detectors in CANDU nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-powered flux detectors are used in CANDU nuclear power reactors to determine the spatial neutron flux distribution in the reactor core for use by both the reactor control and safety systems. To establish the dynamic response of different types of flux detectors, the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories have an ongoing experimental irradiation program in the NRU research reactor for which a data acquistion system has been developed. The system described in this paper is used to measure the currents from the detectors both at a slow, regular logging interval, and at a rapid, adaptive rate following a reactor shutdown. Currents that range from 100 pA to 1 mA full scale can be measured from up to 38 detectors and stored at sampling rates of up to 20 samples per second. The dynamic characteristics of the detectors can be computed from the stored records. The data acquisition system comprises a DEC LSI-11/23 microcomputer, dual cartridge disks, floppy disks, a hard copy and a video display terminal. The RT-11 operating system is used and all application programs are written in FORTRAN

  14. Compact Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date

  15. Aspects of the physics and chemistry of water radiolysis by fast neutrons and fast electrons in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed radiation physics calculations of energy deposition have been done for the coolant of CANDU reactors and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The geometry of the CANDU fuel channel was modelled in detail. Fluxes and energy-deposition rates for neutrons, recoil ions, photons, and fast electrons have been calculated using MCNP4B, WIMS-AECL, and specifically derived energy-transfer factors. These factors generate the energy/flux spectra of recoil ions from fast-neutron energy/flux spectra. The energy spectrum was divided into 89 discrete ranges (energy bins). The production of oxidizing species and net coolant radiolysis can be suppressed by the addition of hydrogen to the coolant of nuclear reactors. It is argued that the net dissociation of coolant by gamma rays is suppressed by lower levels of excess hydrogen than when dissociation is by ion recoils. This has consequences for the modelling of coolant radiolysis by homogeneous kinetics. More added hydrogen is required to stop water radiolysis by recoil ions acting alone than if recoil ions and gamma rays acted concurrently in space and time. Homogeneous kinetic models and experimental data suggest that track overlap is very inefficient in providing radicals from gamma-ray tracks to recombine molecular products in ion-recoil tracks. An inhomogeneous chemical model is needed that incorporates ionizing-particle track structure and track overlap. Such a model does not yet exist, but a number of limiting cases using homogeneous kinetics are discussed. There are sufficient uncertainties and contradictions in the data relevant to the radiolysis of reactor coolant that the relatively high CHC's (critical hydrogen concentration) observed in NRU reactor experiments (compared to model predictions) may be explainable by errors in fundamental data and understanding of water radiolysis under reactor conditions. The radiation chemistry program at CRL has been focused to generate quantitative water-radiolysis data in a

  16. Luncheon address: Development of the CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is a highlight of the some of the achievements in the development of the CANDU Reactor, taken from the book Canada Enters the Nuclear Age. The CANDU reactor is one of Canada's greatest scientific/engineering achievements, that started in the 1940's and bore fruit with the reactors of the 60's, 70's, and 80's. The Government decided in the 1950's to proceed with a demonstration nuclear power reactor (NPD), AECL invited 7 Canadian corporations to bid on a contract to design and construct the NPD plant. General Electric was selected. A utility was also essential for participation and Ontario Hydro was chosen. In May 1957 it was concluded that the minimum commercial size would be about 200MWe and it should use horizontal pressure tubes to contain the fuel and pressurized heavy water coolant. The book also talks of standard out-reactor components such as pumps, valves, steam generators and piping. A major in-reactor component of interest was the fuel, fuel channels and pressure tubes. A very high level of cooperation was required for the success of the CANDU program

  17. Canadian natural gas market: dynamics and pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication by the National Energy Board is part of a continuing program of assessing applications for long-term natural gas export licences. The market-based procedure used by the Board is based on the premise that the marketplace will generally operate in a way that will ensure that Canadian requirements for natural gas will be met at fair market prices. The market--based procedure consists of a public hearing and a monitoring component. The monitoring component involves the on-going assessment of Canadian energy markets to provide analyses of major energy commodities on either an individual or integrated commodity basis. This report is the result of the most recent assessment . It identifies factors that affect natural gas prices and describes the functioning of regional markets in Canada. It provides an overview of the energy demand, including recent trends, reviews the North American gas supply and markets, the natural gas pricing dynamics in Canada, and a regional analysis of markets, prices and dynamics in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and the Atlantic provinces. In general, demand growth outstripped growth in supply, but natural gas producers throughout North America have been responding to the current high price environment with aggressive drilling programs. The Board anticipates that in time, there will be a supply and demand response and accompanying relief in natural gas prices. A review of the annual weighted average border price paid for Alberta gas indicates that domestic gas users paid less than export customers until 1998, at which point the two prices converged, suggesting that Canadians have had access to natural gas at prices no less favourable than export customers. The influence of electronic trading systems such as NYMEX and AECO-C/NIT have had significant impact on the pricing of natural gas. These systems, by providing timely information to market participants. enables them to manage price

  18. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  19. Refugees and education in Canadian schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprielian-Churchill, Isabel

    1996-07-01

    This article summarizes some of the findings and recommendations of a research project focusing on the nature and needs of refugee students in Canadian schools. The school performance of refugee students is examined under the following headings: immigration regulations; initial identification, assessment, placement and monitoring; unaccompanied youngsters; "at risk" students; academic needs; the conflict of cultures. In particular, the article discusses the changing role of the school in the light of recent immigration trends. Many of the findings are applicable to other national settings.

  20. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  1. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  2. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program involves research into the storage and transportation of used nuclear fuel, immobilization of fuel waste, and deep geological disposal of the immobilized waste. The program is now in the fourth year of a ten-year generic research and development phase. The objective of this phase of the program is to assess the safety and environmental aspects of the deep underground disposal of immobilized fuel waste in plutonic rock. The objectives of the research for each component of the program and the progress made to the end of 1983 are described in this report

  3. Radiocesium body burdens in northern Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole body measurements were carried out on 1117 Canadians living in five Arctic communities during 1989 and 1990 in order to assess the uptake of radiocesium, from the lichen-caribou-human food chain. The Cs-137 body burdens increased with age, and were twice as high for men as for women. There was a discrepancy between the reported meat consumption and the measured body burdens. Average radiation doses from ingested radiocesium varied from 0.01 to 0.10 mSv/a. (author)

  4. Airborne organochlorines in the Canadian High Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    PATTON, G. W.; HINCKLEY, D. A.; Walla, M D; T. F. Bidleman; HARGRAVE, B. T.

    2011-01-01

    In 1984, the Canadian Polar Continental Shelf Project established a research camp on a floating ice island in the Beaufort Sea. The 7 × 4 km island is presently located about 50 km off Ellesmere Island at about 81°N, 100°W. Air samples of 1400–3000 m3 were collected on the island in August-September 1986 and June 1987, using a filter-solid adsorbent train. Organochlorines in melted snow and Arctic Ocean surface water were preconcentrated using solid adsorbent cartridges. Samples were analyzed...

  5. The Canadian Lung Cancer Conference 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosky, B.; Ho, C.

    2016-01-01

    Each February, the Canadian Lung Cancer Conference brings together lung cancer researchers, clinicians, and care professionals who are united in their commitment to improve the care of patients with lung cancer. This year’s meeting, held 11–12 February, featured a resident education session, a welcome dinner, networking sessions, lectures, breakout sessions, debates, and a satellite symposium. Key themes from this year’s meeting included innovations across the care spectrum and results of recent clinical trials with targeted agents, immuno-oncology agents, and novel drug combinations.

  6. Tax Effects in Canadian Equity Option Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Moshe Arye Milevsky; Eliezer Z. Prisman

    1997-01-01

    The Canadian Income Tax Act induces individual investors to close their short equity option positions at the end of the year and, if necessary, reopen them at the beginning of next year. This article analyzes the conditions under which it is optimal to close or leave open a short option position over the tax year boundary. The analysis shows that the latter decision depends on transaction costs, the investor’s marginal tax rate, the interest rates, the initial and end-of-the-year option price...

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H.L.

    1960-09-20

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising fissionable material dispersed in graphite blocks, helium filling the voids of the blocks and the spaces therebetween, and means other than the helium in thermal conductive contact with the graphite for removing heat.

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  9. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This draft chart contains graphical symbols from which the type of (nuclear) reactor can be seen. They will serve as illustrations for graphical sketches. Important features of the individual reactor types are marked out graphically. The user can combine these symbols to characterize a specific reactor type. The basic graphical symbol is a square with a point in the centre. Functional groups can be depicted for closer specification. If two functional groups are not clearly separated, this is symbolized by a dotted line or a channel. Supply and discharge lines for coolant, moderator and fuel are specified in accordance with DIN 2481 and can be further specified by additional symbols if necessary. The examples in the paper show several different reactor types. (orig./AK)

  10. To question of NPP power reactor choice for Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The requirements to NPP power reactors that will be under construction in Kazakhstan are proved and given in the report. A comparative analysis of the most advanced projects of power reactors with light and heavy water under pressure of large, medium and low power is carried out. Different reactors have been considered as follows: 1. Reactors with high-power (700 MW(el) and up) such as EPR, French - German reactor; CANDU-9, Canadian heavy-water reactor; System 80+, developed by ABB Combustion Engineering company, USA; KNGR, Korean reactor of the next generation; APWR, Japanese advanced reactor; WWER-1000 (V-392) - development of Atomenergoproect /Gydropress, Russian Federation; EP 1000, European passive reactor. 2. Reactors with medium power (300 MW (el) - 700 MW (el): AP-600, passive PWR of the Westinghouse company; CANDU-6, Canadian heavy-water reactor; AC-600, Chinese passive PWR; WWER-640, Russian passive reactor; MS-600 Japanese reactor of Mitsubishi Company; KSNP-600, South Korean reactor. 3. Reactors with low power (a few MW(el)- 300 MW(el)): IRIS, reactor of IV generation, developed by the International Corporation of 13 organizations from 7 countries, SMART, South Korean integrated reactor; CAREM, Argentina integrated reactor; MRX, Japanese integrated reactor; 'UNITERM', Russian NPP with integrated reactor, development of NIKIET; AHEC-80, Russian NPP, developed by OKBM. A comparison of the projects of the above-mentioned power reactors was carried out with respect to 15 criteria of nuclear, radiating, ecological safety and economic competitiveness, developed especially for this case. Data on a condition and prospects of power production and power consumption, stations and networks in Kazakhstan necessary for the choice of projects of NPP reactors for Kazakhstan are given. According to the data a balance of power production and power consumption as a whole in the country was received at the level of 59 milliard kw/h. However, strong dis balance

  11. To question of NPP power reactor choice for Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements to NPP power reactors that will be under construction in Kazakhstan are proved and given in the report. A comparative analysis of the most advanced projects of power reactors with light and heavy water under pressure of large, medium and low power is carried out. Different reactors have been considered as follows: 1. Reactors with high-power (700 MW(el) and up) such as EPR, French - German reactor; CANDU-9, Canadian heavy-water reactor; System 80+, developed by ABB Combustion Engineering company, USA; KNGR, Korean reactor of the next generation; APWR, Japanese advanced reactor; WWER-1000 (V-392) - development of Atomenergoproect /Gydropress, Russian Federation; EP 1000, European passive reactor. 2. Reactors with medium power (300 MW (el) - 700 MW (el): AP-600, passive PWR of the Westinghouse company; CANDU-6, Canadian heavy-water reactor; AC-600, Chinese passive PWR; WWER-640, Russian passive reactor; MS-600 Japanese reactor of Mitsubishi Company; KSNP-600, South Korean reactor. 3. Reactors with low power (a few MW(el)- 300 MW(el)): IRIS, reactor of IV generation, developed by the International Corporation of 13 organizations from 7 countries, SMART, South Korean integrated reactor; CAREM, Argentina integrated reactor; MRX, Japanese integrated reactor; 'UNITERM', Russian NPP with integrated reactor, development of NIKIET; AHEC-80, Russian NPP, developed by OKBM. A comparison of the projects of the above-mentioned power reactors was carried out with respect to 15 criteria of nuclear, radiating, ecological safety and economic competitiveness, developed especially for this case. Data on a condition and prospects of power production and power consumption, stations and networks in Kazakhstan necessary for the choice of projects of NPP reactors for Kazakhstan are given. According to the data a balance of power production and power consumption as a whole in the country was received at the level of 59 milliard kw/h. However, strong dis balance in the

  12. Production and Supplies of 99Mo: Lessons Learnt and New Options within Research Reactors and Neutron Sources Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past few years, the research reactor (RR) topic has occupied the centre stage being the major factor in the crisis faced world over in the supplies of medical isotopes, molybdenum-99 in particular. It is therefore an important aspect for discussion at the quadrennial international conference on research reactors organised by the IAEA. The November 2011 IAEA conference at Rabat, Morocco comes at a time when the international availability of 99Mo has fairly stabilised following the excellent technological efforts in terms of repairs done in the two large reactors, in Canada (NRU) and The Netherlands (HFR), serving the bulk of 99Mo users. The author, who had led and coordinated the IAEA activities in addressing the various issues and extending support to international efforts and initiatives during the period until March 2011, shares in this article his professional analysis of the field of 99Mo production, lessons and experience from the crisis as well as the aspects to be addressed to securing sustainable supplies of both 99Mo and 99mTc in future. In line with the suggestion of the International Programme Committee of the IAEA Conference, the scope of coverage is confined to sourcing 99Mo and 99mTc from RR and other neutron sources, while accelerator-based options are not included in this article. (author)

  13. Multifunctional reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much emphasis in research in the last decade. A survey is given of modern developments and the first successful applications on a large scale. It is explained why their application in many instances is ...

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  15. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce neutron embrittlement of the pressue vessel of an LWR, blanked off elements are fitted at the edge of the reactor core, with the same dimensions as the fuel elements. They are parallel to each other, and to the edge of the reactor taking the place of fuel rods, and are plates of neutron-absorbing material (stainless steel, boron steel, borated Al). (HP)

  16. Breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reasons for the development of fast reactors are briefly reviewed (a propitious neutron balance oriented towards a maximum uranium burnup) and its special requirements (cooling, fissile material density and reprocessing) discussed. The three stages in the French program of fast reactor development are outlined with Rapsodie at Cadarache, Phenix at Marcoule, and Super Phenix at Creys-Malville. The more specific features of the program of research and development are emphasized: kinetics and the core, the fuel and the components

  17. Ecknomic benefits arising from the Canadian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a collection of surveys of the Canadian nuclear industry, with forecasts covering a number of possible scenarios. Topics covered include uranium mining and processing; economic benefits arising from the design, manufacture and construction of CANDU generating stations; employment and economic activity in the Canadian nqclear industry; and an overview of the remainder of the industry

  18. Self-Help Book Prescription Practices of Canadian University Counsellors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Ronald E.

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 80 Canadian university counselors to determine whether they prescribed self-help books and to compare titles of most prescribed books to those selected by Canadian psychologists. Found that 74.4 percent of 78 counselors answering question responded affirmatively to recommending books with 56 titles being prescribed. Lists 10 books most…

  19. Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Child Health:A Canadian Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stuart Macleod

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction Canadian academic centres and children's hospitals have had a longstanding interest in the improvement of drug therapy for children through research conducted across the four pillars of activity identified as being of critical importance by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research(viz,basic research,clinical research,population health research,applied health and policy research)[1].

  20. How Canadian Universities Use Social Media to Brand Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Charles H.; Bali, Suchita; Longden, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores social media marketing strategies applied by Canadian universities as a tool for institutional branding, recruitment and engagement of home and international students. The target sample involves the total population of Canadian university-status institutions ("N" = 106). Qualitative data were collected from two major…

  1. Canadian Educational Development Centre Websites: More Ebb than Flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines information portrayed on Canadian educational development (ED) centre websites and, in particular, whether information that corresponds to questions compiled from a literature search of ED centre practices is readily available from centre websites. This study phase is part of a larger national study of Canadian educational…

  2. Trends: The Canadian University in Profile. 1991 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report offers an overview of Canadian universities primarily by means of statistical data on enrollment, degrees, faculty, finance, and research. The report uses data from Statistics Canada and from the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. An introduction provides an analysis of the financial status of Canadian universities…

  3. Seeking Internationalization: The State of Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the internationalization of Canadian universities, with a focus on the rise of foreign postsecondary students in Canada, the economic impacts, and the various benefits, challenges, and adjustments that have been influenced by the continuing demographic shifts on Canadian campuses since 2000. Rooted in recent global and…

  4. The Dividend and Share Repurchase Policies of Canadian Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Jong (Abe); R. van Dijk (Ronald); C.H. Veld

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe empirically investigate dividend and share repurchase policies of Canadian firms. We have sent a questionnaire to the 500 largest non-financial Canadian companies listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange, of which 191 usable responses were returned. These data are used to measure firm cha

  5. Mutagenic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic properties of tobacco smoke produced by cigarillos available on the Canadian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, W S; Trivedi, A H; Momin, R A; Wagstaff, W G; Lauterbach, J H

    2011-11-01

    Cigarillos (aka little cigars) have been increasing in popularity unlike cigarettes; but relatively little is known about the toxicology of the mainstream smoke (MSS) from such products. Therefore, the objective of this work was to compare the toxicological properties of the MSS (Health Canada Intensive smoking conditions) from a range of cigarillo products with the toxicological properties of MSS of cigarettes. Three in vitro assays were used to evaluate the toxicities of the MSS total particulate matter (TPM): (1) mutagenicity using Ames assay with Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 with S9 metabolic activation (+S9); (2) cytotoxicity using the Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay with CHO (Chinese Hamster Ovary) cells; and (3) genotoxicity using the micronucleus assay with CHO cells and short-term exposures (3-h ± S9). The Ames assay (TA100+S9) and the NRU assay were also applied to the gas/vapour phase of the MSS that passed through the Cambridge pad. On a per-milligram-nicotine basis, the preferred way of comparing toxicities of different types of tobacco products, the MSS from cigarillos was not less toxic, and in some cases more toxic (TPM fraction TA98+S9, NRU), than the MSS from cigarettes. Thus, our findings support our prior work on smoke mutagenicity that showed MSS from cigarillos was not less toxic than MSS from cigarettes. PMID:21821091

  6. The abortion battle: the Canadian scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, P

    1994-01-01

    In January 1988 the Supreme Court of Canada struck down the country's archaic abortion law on the ground that it imposed arbitrary delays and unfair disparities in access to abortion across the country. Since then, the conservative government of Canada has made a few attempts to introduce a new abortion policy, but it did not get passed in the parliament because the revised bills failed to protect women's right to 'life, liberty, and security of the person' within the meaning of the Canadian Charter. Canada has been without an abortion law for over four years and there has been a wide range of provincial policies and confusion in the country. Despite the legal vacuum, Canadian women are not frenziedly having abortions. However, the militancy of the anti-abortion groups has steadily intensified with continued assault on a woman's right to make reproductive choices. Since no law, short of banning abortions altogether, is going to satisfy abortion opponents, the abortion battle will rage on in Canada. PMID:8065237

  7. Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. and a review of their 1998 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. The company's core oil and gas business activities include exploration, development, production and marketing of crude oil and natural gas. The company produces oil and gas in Canada, Yemen, the Gulf of Mexico and Nigeria. Canadian Occidental also owns a 7.23 per cent share in the Syncrude joint venture. The company is developing new production in Hay, British Columbia, offshore west Africa and offshore northwest Australia. They are also one of North America's top three manufacturers of sodium chlorate. The report presents a summary of operations, a thorough management discussion and analysis of results and provides the customary consolidated financial statements and notes. Overall, 1998 was described as a difficult year financially, due to falling commodity prices. On the operations side, the company experienced its best results to date, producing more oil and gas than ever before. The company also invested over $ 950 million in new projects and opportunities. Some of the Company's most promising projects are located offshore Nigeria, offshore northwest Australia, in the Gulf of Mexico and in western Canada. These projects are expected to add 40,000 BOE of production by early 2000, with promise of attractive returns even at current low oil prices. tabs., figs

  8. Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project activities report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project was formally established in 1982. The project is directed toward the further development of Canadian capabilities in five major areas: tritium technology, breeder technology, materials technology, equipment development and safety and the environment. The project is funded by three partners - Government of Canada (50%), Ontario Provincial Government (25%) and Ontario Hydro (25%). The fiscal year 1984/85 represents the third year of operation of the project. In 1984/85, 108 contracts were awarded totalling $4 million. Supplementary funding by subcontractors added approximately $1.9 million to the total project value. More than 200 people participated in the technical work involved in the project. Sixteen people were on attachment to foreign facilities for terms ranging from 1 month to 2.5 years. Five patents were applied for including a tritium discrimination monitor, a new radio-chemical tritium separation method, a new variation of fuel cleanup by gas chromatography, a passive tritium permeation system using bimetallic membranes, and a new breeder process using lithium salts dissolved in heavy water

  9. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups. PMID:23618638

  10. Controlling the temperature in Canadian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Programmable thermostats can be used to optimize the operation of heating and cooling systems by reducing system usage when occupants are asleep or when dwellings are unoccupied. This paper used the results of a 2006 households and the environment survey to examine how programmable thermostats are currently being used in Canadian households. The demographic factors associated with thermostat use were discussed, as well as how their usage varied in different areas of Canada. The study showed that most Canadian households set their temperature at between 20 to 22 degrees C during times when they are home and awake. Home temperatures were reduced to between 16 and 18 degrees C when household members were away or asleep. Only 4 out of 10 households used programmable thermostats. Of those who used programmable thermostats, only 7 in 10 programmed the thermostat to lower the temperature when occupants were asleep. Senior citizens and people with lower levels of education were less likely to use programmable thermostats. It was concluded that incentive programs and the distribution of free programmable thermostats will increase their use in households. Assistance in programming during the installation process should also be provided. Factor analyses must also be conducted to examine the influence of age, education, and income and the decisions made by households in relation to temperature regulation. 7 tabs

  11. Controlling the temperature in Canadian homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewis, G.

    2008-09-15

    Programmable thermostats can be used to optimize the operation of heating and cooling systems by reducing system usage when occupants are asleep or when dwellings are unoccupied. This paper used the results of a 2006 households and the environment survey to examine how programmable thermostats are currently being used in Canadian households. The demographic factors associated with thermostat use were discussed, as well as how their usage varied in different areas of Canada. The study showed that most Canadian households set their temperature at between 20 to 22 degrees C during times when they are home and awake. Home temperatures were reduced to between 16 and 18 degrees C when household members were away or asleep. Only 4 out of 10 households used programmable thermostats. Of those who used programmable thermostats, only 7 in 10 programmed the thermostat to lower the temperature when occupants were asleep. Senior citizens and people with lower levels of education were less likely to use programmable thermostats. It was concluded that incentive programs and the distribution of free programmable thermostats will increase their use in households. Assistance in programming during the installation process should also be provided. Factor analyses must also be conducted to examine the influence of age, education, and income and the decisions made by households in relation to temperature regulation. 7 tabs.

  12. Canadian resources of uranium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has been one of the world's leading producers of uranium since the metal became important as a raw material in the development and production of atomic energy. One of the largest known deposits in the world is in Canada where present reserves represent about 37 per cent of the total among those countries that have published reserve statistics. The production of uranium has been characterized by features which are unique in Canadian mining, because the industry was created by the government at a time of emergency and, unlike other minerals, the sale of its product is controlled by the state. The rapid growth of the uranium-mining industry since World War II has been a remarkable achievement. In 1958, Canada was the world's leading producer of uranium and the value of U3O8 produced in both 1958 and 1959 exceeded the value of any other Canadian-produced metal. As an export commodity, uranium ranked fourth in value in 1959 following newsprint, wheat, and lumber. Production from 25 mines in that year was 14 462 tonnes of U3O8 valued at $345 million (all monetary values are in U.S. dollars). Since 1959, however, the decline in production, resulting from declining export markets, has been almost as rapid as the spectacular rise from 1953 to 1959. At the end of 1963 only seven mines were in production and by the end of 1965 only two mines are expected to remain in operation. (author)

  13. Global change and Canadians: A teacher's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report called Global Change and Canadians has been produced by the Royal Society of Canada to answer basic questions being asked about global change issues. A teacher's guide is presented to help teachers make effective use of the report in developing programs with students concerning global change. A basic set of teaching and learning activities related to the major topics in the report is provided, curricular connections between global change topics and school programs are suggested, and some additional resources on global change are listed. The guide is divided into six chapters, each corresponding to the chapters of the global change report. Each chapter contains a summary of the major concepts from the report, some of the learning outcomes that occur when those concepts are addressed, a series of suggested activities or ideas, and a guide for assessing students' abilities relative to the concepts of the chapter. The topics of the chapters cover the nature of global change, the importance of global change to Canada, the causes of global change, the consequences of global change (including climate change and the greenhouse effect), the effects of global change on society, and Canadian responses to global change. 64 refs., 3 figs

  14. Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The best types of refineries for processing western Canadian bitumen-based feedstock (BBF) were identified and a potential market for these feedstock for year 2007 was calculated. In addition, this power point presentation provided an estimation of potential regional and total demand for BBF. BBF included Athabasca bitumen blend, de-asphalted blend, coked sour crude oil (SCO), coked sweet SCO, hydrocracked SCO and hydrocracked/aromatic saturated SCO (HAS). Refinery prototypes included light and mixed prototypes for primary cracking units, light and heavy prototypes for primary coking units, as well as no coking, coking severe and residuum prototypes for primary hydrocracking units. The presentation included graphs depicting the natural market for Western Canadian crudes as well as U.S. crude oil production forecasts by PADD districts. It was forecasted that the market for bitumen-based feedstock in 2007 will be tight and that the potential demand for bitumen-based blends would be similar to expected production. It was also forecasted that the potential demand for SCO is not as promising relative to the expected production, unless price discounting or HAS will be available. 11 figs

  15. Arctic response strategy: Canadian Coast Guard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revision of the Canadian Coast Guard's Arctic response strategy was described with particular focus on the consultative method used to ensure that all perspectives were taken into consideration. Some tankers used to re-supply fuel to remote Arctic communities carry more than 30,000 tonnes of product, putting them at risk for major spills. The Arctic response strategy was revised to emphasize recommendations for prevention, preparedness and response. Prevention was recognized as the most effective solution to oil spills in the Arctic. The leadership and coordination roles of the Canadian Coast Guard were demonstrated in relation to ship-source oil pollution. The new strategy also outlined the equipment requirements needed to respond to a large spill in the Arctic. Categorization of spill sizes as tier 1 to 4 was determined by examining southern regimes as was the characterization of corresponding equipment. Implementation of the new recommendations of the revised Arctic response strategy will take place over the next 2 years. The prevention aspect will include some legislative changes or stricter guidelines

  16. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute 1996 annual review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) is an association of Canadian companies involved in the downstream sector of the petroleum industry which includes refining, distributing and marketing of petroleum products. CPPI's mandate includes: (1) establishing environmental policies, (2) establishing working relationships with governments to develop public policy, (3) developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, and (4) providing information about the petroleum industry to the public. Canada's 19 refineries processed an average of 1.5 million barrels of crude oil per day in 1996. Domestic sources of crude made up 61 per cent of crude oil processed in 1996. Total exports during the year amounted to 105 million barrels. Some of the issues that the CPPI focused on during 1996 included the controversy over the future of the octane enhancing fuel additive MMT, fuel quality standards for transportation fuels and reformulated fuels, gasoline pricing, air quality and workplace safety. CPPI members' participation in the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions was also discussed. The industry was also actively involved in seeking to improve its refinery wastewater discharges

  17. Canadian experience with uranium tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first years of uranium production in Canada uranium tailings were discharged directly into valleys or lakes near the mill. Treatment with barium chloride to precipitate radium began in 1965 at the Nordic Mine at Elliot Lake, Ontario. In the mid-60s and early 70s water quality studies indicated that discharges from uranium tailings areas were causing degradation to the upper part of the Serpent River water system. Studies into acid generation, revegetation, and leaching of radium were initiated by the mining companies and resulted in the construction of treatment plants at a number of sites. Abandoned tailings sites were revegetated. At hearings into the expansion of the Elliot Lake operations the issue of tailings management was a major item for discussion. As a result federal and provincial agencies developed guidelines for the siting and development of urnaium tailings areas prior to issuing operating licences. Western Canadian uranium producers do not have the acid generation problem of the Elliot Lake operations. The Rabbit Lake mill uses settling ponds followed by filtration. High-grade tailings from Cluff Lake are sealed in concrete and buried. Uranium producers feel that the interim criteria developed by the Atomic Energy Control Board, if adopted, would have a harmful effect on the viability of the Canadian uranium industry

  18. Arctic response strategy: Canadian Coast Guard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, J.C. [Canadian Coast Guard, Sarnia, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The revision of the Canadian Coast Guard's Arctic response strategy was described with particular focus on the consultative method used to ensure that all perspectives were taken into consideration. Some tankers used to re-supply fuel to remote Arctic communities carry more than 30,000 tonnes of product, putting them at risk for major spills. The Arctic response strategy was revised to emphasize recommendations for prevention, preparedness and response. Prevention was recognized as the most effective solution to oil spills in the Arctic. The leadership and coordination roles of the Canadian Coast Guard were demonstrated in relation to ship-source oil pollution. The new strategy also outlined the equipment requirements needed to respond to a large spill in the Arctic. Categorization of spill sizes as tier 1 to 4 was determined by examining southern regimes as was the characterization of corresponding equipment. Implementation of the new recommendations of the revised Arctic response strategy will take place over the next 2 years. The prevention aspect will include some legislative changes or stricter guidelines.

  19. Research reactors - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Competitiveness and viability impact on the Canadian refining industry of reducing sulphur in Canadian gasoline and diesel. Phase II: Pricing dynamics of the Canadian and international product markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of Canadian and international petroleum product pricing are discussed. Petroleum product prices are developed for use in assessing the competitiveness of the Canadian refining industry, both before and after the impact of the various sulphur reduction scenarios. In assessing the competitiveness of the Canadian refining industry, five critical factors have been taken into account. These are product prices, feedstock costs, capacity utilization, operating costs, and future capital requirements. Refining margin is considered to be the best indicator of refining performance. In Canada, refining margins are directly influenced by refining margins at the U.S. Gulf Coast (USGC). U.S. impact, European impact and the resulting Canadian grade gasoline and low sulphur diesel prices were examined in great detail. It was found that current returns are below acceptable rates in both the Canadian and U. S. industries. Separate price determinations were made for Ontario, Montreal, the Atlantic provinces, the Prairie provinces and British Columbia for gasoline and diesel fuel taking into account future sulphur scenario prices, the impact of legislation on fuel pricing, and crude oil pricing practices. Criteria for addressing future refinery viability, the advent of unique Canadian quality specifications starting in 1999, and the effects of these changes on independent marketers were also discussed

  1. Topical papers on heavy water, fuel fabrication and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of four papers is presented. The first contribution of the Federal Republic of Germany reviews the market situation for reactors and the relations between reactor producers and buyers as reflected in sales agreements. The second West German contribution gives a world-wide survey of fuel element production as well as of fuel and fuel element demand up to the year 2000. The Canadian paper discusses the future prospects of heavy-water production, while the Ecuador contribution deals with small and medium-sized nuclear power plants

  2. Reactor utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1962, the RA reactor was operated almost three times more than in 1961, producing total of 25 555 MWh. Diagram containing comparative data about reactor operation for 1960, 1961, and 1962, percent of fuel used and U-235 burnup shows increase in reactor operation. Number of samples irradiated was 659, number of experiments done was 16. mean powered level was 5.93 MW. Fuel was added into the core twice during the reporting year. In fact the core was increased from 56 to 68 fuel channels and later to 84 fuel channels. Fuel was added to the core when the reactivity worth decreased to the minimum operation level due to burnup. In addition to this 5 central fuel channels were exchanged with fresh fuel in february for the purpose of irradiation in the VISA-2 channel

  3. Reactor Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Lasserre, T; Lasserre, Thierry; Sobel, Henry W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments, that toe the cutting edge of neutrino research. Short baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and are still searching for important phenomena such as the neutrino magnetic moment. They could open the door to the measurement of coherent neutrino scattering in a near future. Middle and long baseline oscillation experiments at Chooz and KamLAND have played a relevant role in neutrino oscillation physics in the last years. It is now widely accepted that a new middle baseline disappearance reactor neutrino experiment with multiple detectors could provide a clean measurement of the last undetermined neutrino mixing angle theta13. We conclude by opening on possible use of neutrinos for Society: NonProliferation of Nuclear materials and Geophysics.

  4. Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken in an effort to determine the market potential for crude bitumen and derivative products from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in 2007. As part of the study, CERI assessed the economic viability of a wide range of bitumen-based feedstock based on their refining values, investigated the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, and examined the competitiveness of bitumen-based feedstocks and conventional crudes. A US$18.00 per barrel price for West Texas Intermediate at Cushing, Oklahoma, was assumed in all calculations, including other crude prices, as well as for Western Canadian and US crude oil production forecasts. Four different scenarios have been considered, but only the 'most plausible' scenario is discussed in the report. Consequently, Hydrocracked/Aromatics Saturated Synthetic Crude Oil, which is currently only a hypothetical product, is excluded from consideration. The availability of historical price differentials for the various competing crudes was another assumption used in developing the scenario. Proxy prices for the bitumen-based feedstock were based on their respective supply costs. The study concludes that the principal dilemma facing bitumen producers in Western Canada is to determine the amount of upgrading necessary to ensure an economic market for their product in the future. In general, the greater the degree of upgrading, the higher is the demand for bitumen-based feedstock. However, it must be kept in mind that the upgrading decisions of other bitumen producers, along with many other factors, will have a decisive impact on the economics of any individual project. The combination of coking capacity and asphalt demand limits the market for heavy and extra-heavy crudes. As a result, the researchers concluded that major expansion of heavy crude conversion capacity may have to wait until the end of the current decade. The economic market for bitumen-based blends in 2007 is estimated at

  5. The business acumen of Canadian plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, J A; Caputy, G G

    1995-08-01

    We as plastic surgeons are engrossed and consumed by our quest to optimize patient care. In so doing, we are often distracted by that aspect of our practice which has direct bearing on patient care yet for which we are the least prepared--the business aspect. The entire population of Canadian plastic surgeons was surveyed in an effort to establish real and perceived needs of this group with respect to the business management of their practices. The survey elicited demographic information, information on business educational background, interest, and current commitment in acquiring business knowledge, and a final category of questions dealing with how well these surgeons function as business managers. Of the 315 plastic surgeons surveyed, 122 (39 percent) responded, which, in and of itself, indicates an interest in this aspect of their practices. Twelve respondents were excluded from the study for various reasons. Eighty of the 110 remaining respondents (72 percent) used a hospital-integrated facility for both emergency and elective outpatient procedures. Eighty-four of the 110 respondents (76 percent) indicated that 10 percent of their hours per week of inpatient booked operating time was canceled. Ninety-three percent of respondents felt that a business course to familiarize surgeons with common business situations and areas of personal finance would be beneficial. Few were previously educated in business, and similarly, few had great ongoing interest in business, although the majority of respondents used publications specifically dealing with financial matters (provided by the Canadian Medical Association). Twenty-three percent of respondents saw themselves in a growing role as businesspeople; 24 percent felt this dual role was enjoyable, while 29 percent felt this role was forced on them. A total of 21 percent of respondents did not see themselves as businesspeople at all. The six basic functions of a manager (planning, acquiring, organizing, actuating

  6. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor has a large prompt negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. A reactor core assembly of a plurality of fluid-tight fuel elements is located within a water-filled tank. Each fuel element contains a solid homogeneous mixture of 50-79 w/o zirconium hydride, 20-50 w/o uranium and 0.5-1.5 W erbium. The uranium is not more than 20 percent enriched, and the ratio of hydrogen atoms to zirconium atoms is between 1.5:1 and 7:1. The core has a long lifetime, E.G., at least about 1200 days

  7. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a liquid cooled nuclear reactor, the combination is described for a single-walled vessel containing liquid coolant in which the reactor core is submerged, and a containment structure, primarily of material for shielding against radioactivity, surrounding at least the liquid-containing part of the vessel with clearance therebetween and having that surface thereof which faces the vessel make compatible with the liquid, thereby providing a leak jacket for the vessel. The structure is preferably a metal-lined concrete vault, and cooling means are provided for protecting the concrete against reaching a temperature at which damage would occur. (U.S.)

  8. A Canadian perspective on the source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a continuing commitment in Canada to perform research to improve our knowledge of fission-product behaviour, and to understand the consequences of possible nuclear reactor accidents. This work was given additional justification by the accident at the Three Mile Island II nuclear generating station. During this accident, the release of radioactive iodine to the environment was low compared to the predictions of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400), a study known to be overly conservative in some areas. There has been considerable effort, through both experiments and computer modelling, to re-evaluate the technical bases for predicting fission-product releases during nuclear reactor accidents. The research work is conventionally referred to under the general title of 'source-term' research. The source term is the amount and type of radioactive material that escapes the boundary of a nuclear reactor containment building, and thus could result in possible exposure of the general public. The source term depends on the type of reactor and the accident sequence. In general, fission-product release to the environment depends on the the airborne fission product concentrations within the containment building. This, in turn, depends on all the physical and chemical factors controlling the release from fuel, migration and transport, chemical speciation, surface interactions, and aerosol behaviour. The scope of the factors influencing the behaviour of fission products within the containment is sufficiently broad to include virtually all the research relevant to reactor safety. It includes studies of thermalhydraulics, fission-product releases from fuel under transient conditions, aerosol behaviour, fission-product chemistry, gas/solution partitoning and fission-product/surface interactions. This report will summarize four areas: (1) the use of the source term in the licensing of nuclear power reactors; (2) the methods used to determine the source term; (3) problems in

  9. ATHLET code and its application in low temperature heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal-hydraulic computer code ATHLET (Analysis of Thermal-Hydraulics of Leaks and Transients) is developed by the GRS (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit) for the analysis of anticipated and abnormal plant transients, small and intermediate leaks as well as large breaks in light water reactors. Besides conventional and advanced PWR and BWR, the range of applicability is being extended to the Russian reactor types VVER and RBMK and Canadian CANDU. The PC-based version of ATHELT MOD 1.2 A code was introduced and the analysis results of steady-state natural circulation for 5 MW low temperature heating reactor of Tsinghua University was reported. The comparison has shown that the calculation results agree satisfactorily well with the operational test data of 5 MW heating reactor

  10. The Canadian nuclear power industry. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power, the production of electricity from uranium through nuclear fission, is by far the most prominent segment of the nuclear industry. The value of the electricity produced, $3.7 billion in Canada in 1992, far exceeds the value of any other product of the civilian nuclear industry. Power production employs many more people than any other sector, the capital investment is much greater, and nuclear power plants are much larger and more visible than uranium mining and processing facilities. They are also often located close to large population centres. This paper provides an overview of some of the enormously complex issues surrounding nuclear power. It describes the Canadian nuclear power industry, addressing i particular its performance so far and future prospects. (author). 1 tab

  11. Prospects for the Canadian uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada became the world's largest uranium producer in 1984. That leadership position is likely to be maintained for many years into the future because of a firm production base, many undeveloped known deposits with commercial promise, and a large geological potential for new discoveries. There are some uncertainties on the horizon, principally because of restrictive actions in process within the USA, which are aimed at preserving a deteriorating domestic uranium industry. Should such actions result in import restriction, for example, there would be a negative effect on foreign producers at least in the short term. Canada may avoid such difficulties under a tentative U.S.-Canada free-trade agreement where restrictions on the import of Canadian uranium into the United States would be eliminated. Over the longer term, demand for Canada's uranium resources will grow because of the foreseen growth in the world's installed nuclear power capacity

  12. Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's intern program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Intern Program was introduced at the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Canada's Nuclear Regulator in response to the current competitive market for engineers and scientists and the CNSC's aging workforce. It is an entry level staff development program designed to recruit and train new engineering and science graduates to eventually regulate Canada's nuclear industry. The program provides meaningful work experience and exposes the interns to the general work activities of the Commission. It also provides them with a broad awareness of the regulatory issues in which the CNSC is involved. The intern program is a two-year program focusing on the operational areas and, more specifically, on the generalist functions of project officers. (author)

  13. A Canadian Indian Health Status Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connop, P J

    1983-01-01

    Health care services for registered "band" Indians in Ontario are provided primarily by the Canadian Federal Government. Complex management methods preclude the direct involvement of Indian people in the decisions for their health resource allocation. Health indicators, need, and health status indexes are reviewed. The biostatistics of mortality and demography of the Indian and reference populations are aggregated with hospitalization/morbidity experience as the Chen G'1 Index, as an indicator of normative and comparative need. This is weighted by linear measurements of perceived need for preventive medicine programs, as ranked and scaled values of priorities, Zj. These were determined by community survey on 11 Indian reserves using a non-probabilistic psychometric method of "pair comparisons," based upon "Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement.," The calculation of the aggregate single unit Indian Health Status Index [Log.G'1].Zj and its potential application in a "zero-base" budget is described. PMID:6601223

  14. Pharmacist-led minor ailment programs: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeff Gordon; Joubert, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacists have a long history of helping Canadians with minor ailments. This often has involved management with over-the-counter medications. If pharmacists felt that the best care required something more robust, they would refer the patient to a physician. In hopes of improving the care of such ailments, Canadian provinces have granted pharmacists the option of selecting medications traditionally under physician control. This review examines the Canadian perspective on pharmacists prescribing for minor ailments and the evidence of value for these programs. It might provide guidance for other jurisdictions contemplating such a move. PMID:27570460

  15. Adaptation of the ITER facility design to a Canadian site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the status of Canadian efforts to adapt the newly revised ITER facility design to suit the specific characteristics of the proposed Canadian site located in Clarington, west of Toronto, Ontario. ITER Canada formed a site-specific design team in 1999, comprising participants from three Canadian consulting companies to undertake this work. The technical aspects of this design activity includes: construction planning, geotechnical investigations, plant layout, heat sink design, electrical system interface, site-specific modifications and tie-ins, seismic design, and radwaste management. These areas are each addressed in this paper. (author)

  16. Research and Production Corporation Radiy activities within Canadian nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents key results of RPC Radiy activities within Canadian nuclear market. RPC Radiy (located in Kirovograd, Ukraine) is a vendor which designs and produces digital safety I and C platform as well as turnkey applications, based on the platform, for NPPs (safety systems). The main feature of the Radiy Platform is the application of Field Programmable Gates Arrays (FPGA) as programmable components for logic control operations. Since 2009 RPC Radiy started to explore the possibility to conduct the expansion to Canadian nuclear market. The activities performed by RPC Radiy related to this direction are resulted in several joint projects with Canadian companies. (author)

  17. Canadian natural gas and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Gas Association (CGA) has expressed concerns regarding how the goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions can be met. It also has concerns regarding the possible economic impacts of required measures to reduce emissions to 6 per cent below 1990 levels. The CGA argued that since the initial negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, Canada's greenhouse gas emissions have increased significantly, meaning that if the agreement were to come into force, Canada would have to reduce emissions by about 29 per cent below the currently-projected 2008-2012 level. The report states that 28 per cent of Canada's energy needs are met by natural gas. Excluding energy use in transportation, natural gas contributes more than 40 per cent to Canada's energy portfolio. More than half of Canadian households rely on pipeline services and distribution companies to deliver natural gas for household use. The manufacturing sector relies on natural gas for more than half of its energy needs. Natural gas is a major energy source for the iron/steel, petroleum refining and chemical manufacturing industries. Natural gas is a cleaner-burning fuel than coal or crude oil, and its use results in fewer environmental impacts than other fossil fuels. Vehicles powered by natural gas produce 20 - 30 per cent less carbon dioxide emissions than vehicles powered by gasoline. Pipelines are also a more efficient way of transporting and distributing natural gas than marine transport, railways or trucks. The CGA recommends that policy development should emphasize the environmental benefits of natural gas and recognize its role as a bridge fuel to a cleaner energy-based economy. It also recommends that policies should be developed to encourage the use of natural gas in electricity generation to lower greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen that cause smog

  18. Canadian heavy water production - 1970 to 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade, heavy water production in Canada has progressed from the commissioning of a single unit plant in Nova Scotia to a major production industry employing 2200 persons and operating three plants with an aggregate annual production capability in excess of 1800 Mg. The decade opened with an impending crisis in the supply of heavy water due to failure of the first Glace Bay Heavy Water Plant and difficulty in commissioning the second Canadian plant at Port Hawkesbury. Lessons learned at this latter plant were applied to the Bruce plant where the first two units were under construction. When the Bruce units were commissioned in 1973 the rate of approach to design production rates was much improved, renewing confidence in Canada's ability to succeed in large scale heavy water production. In the early 1970's a decision was made to rehabilitate the Glace Bay plant using a novel flowsheet and this rebuilt plant commenced production in 1976. The middle of the decade was marked by two main events: changes in ownership of the operating plants and initiation of a massive construction program to support the forecast of a rapidly expanding CANDU power station construction program. New production units embodying the best features of their predecessors were committed at Bruce by Ontario Hydro and at La Prade, Quebec, by AECL. The high growth rate in electrical demand did not continue and some new plant construction was curtailed. The present installed production capacity will now probably be adequate to meet anticipated demand for the next decade. Canadian plants have now produced more than 7800 Mg of heavy water at a commercially acceptable cost and with a high degree of safety and compliance with appropriate environmental regulations

  19. Canadian consumer battery baseline study : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provided information about the estimated number of consumer and household batteries sold, re-used, stored, recycled, and disposed each year in Canada. The report discussed the ways in which different batteries posed risks to human health and the environment, and legislative trends were also reviewed. Data used in the report were obtained from a literature review as well as through a series of interviews. The study showed that alkaline batteries are the most common primary batteries used by Canadians, followed by zinc carbon batteries. However, lithium primary batteries are gaining in popularity, and silver oxide and zinc air button cell batteries are also used in applications requiring a flat voltage and high energy. Secondary batteries used in laptop computers, and cell phones are often made of nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal-hydroxide, and lithium ion. Small sealed lead batteries are also commonly used in emergency lighting and alarm systems. Annual consumption statistics for all types of batteries were provided. Results of the study showed that the primary battery market is expected to decline. Total units of secondary batteries are expected to increase to 38.6 million units by 2010. The report also used a spreadsheet model to estimate the flow of consumer batteries through the Canadian waste management system. An estimated 347 million consumer batteries were discarded in 2004. By 2010, it is expected that an estimated 494 million units will be discarded by consumers. The study also considered issues related to lead, cadmium, mercury, and nickel disposal and the potential for groundwater contamination. It was concluded that neither Canada nor its provinces or territories have initiated legislative or producer responsibility programs targeting primary or secondary consumer batteries. 79 refs., 37 tabs., 1 fig

  20. Canadian petroleum industry: 1991 [annual] monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are provided on the financial performance of the oil and gas industry in Canada during 1991. The report is based on data from 154 companies accounting for ca 90% of total revenues of the petroleum industry. The report lists noteworthy happenings in the industry, gives highlights of the year, then details financial performance, sources and uses of funds, comparative performance with other industries, ownership and control trends, research and development expenditures, and income tax-related data for the current and previous years. In 1991, the overall industry experienced a fall in cash flow of 22% to $7.6 billion, and net income dropped from a profit of $2.3 billion in 1990 to a loss of $2.4 billion in 1991. Upstream revenues fell $2.8 billion as a result of lower crude oil and marketable natural gas prices. The drop in natural gas prices to their lowest level in over a decade resulted in many companies taking asset write-offs totalling almost $2 billion. Rate of return on average shareholder's equity was -6% in 1991 against +5.6% in 1990. The industry increased overall capital expenditures by 10% to $9.7 billion, largely on the strength of participation in major projects such as Caroline gas field development, Hibernia, Cohasset/Panuke and the Bi-Provincial Upgrader. Canadian ownership of upstream revenues increased to 45.2% from 44% in 1990, while Canadian control rose from 40.9% to 42.8%. 24 figs., 56 tabs