Sample records for canadian national dose

  1. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Canadian national identity is closely related to antiAmericanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  2. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Canadian national identity is closely related to anti-Americanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  3. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I., E-mail: [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Summerell, I. [Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Totland, M. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Jonkmans, G. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Whitlock, J. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); El-jaby, A. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Inrig, E. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)


    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  4. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC) (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  5. Interpreting Critical Resource Issues in US and Canadian National Parks. (United States)

    Whatley, Michael E.


    A wide range of examples gathered in U.S. and Canadian national park service areas during several years of field study reinforce the value of matching issues and messages with interpretive techniques and audiences. (LZ)

  6. Canadian EdGEO National Workshop Program (United States)

    Clinton, L. A.; Haidl, F. M.; Hymers, L. A.; van der Flier-Keller, E.


    Established in the early 1970s, EdGEO supports locally driven geosciences workshops for Canadian teachers. Workshops are organized by geoscientists and teachers, and typically have field, laboratory and classroom components. Grants of up to $3000 per workshop are available from the National EdGEO Program. By providing educational opportunities for today's teachers and, through them, their students, EdGEO seeks to cultivate a heightened awareness of our planet. EdGEO workshops provide teachers with potential fieldtrip sites for their students and the knowledge, enthusiasm and materials to inspire their students to engage in geoscience. Networking opportunities with local experts promote the importance of the geoscience profession. The expected result is an improved capacity on the part of Canadians to understand the Earth and to make informed decisions, especially with regard to the use of mineral and energy resources, the maintenance and remediation of the environment, and response to geological hazards. There exists a critical need to provide teachers with training and resources to tackle their Earth science curricula. In 2008, EdGEO supported fourteen workshops, with an unprecedented 521 teachers attending. These teachers then used our resources to reach an estimated 14,000 students during that single academic year. EdGEO workshops are locally driven and are therefore very diverse. Workshops are strongly tied to the provincial curriculum, focus on a specific geoscience topic, or may be largely field-based to demonstrate and practice how field activities could be incorporated into Earth science teaching. Many strive to include all of these important components. Geoscientists and teachers work collaboratively to develop and deliver EdGEO workshops to ensure that the activities can be effectively used in the classroom. The length of these professional development opportunities range from two-hour sessions to several days, and can generally accommodate up to twenty

  7. Children's Experiences of Cyberbullying: A Canadian National Study (United States)

    Beran, Tanya; Mishna, Faye; McInroy, Lauren B.; Shariff, Shaheen


    This national study reports the prevalence of cyberbullying among youths in Canada according to demographic characteristics, its impact, and its relationship to six forms of victimization and perpetration. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a national household panel of families living in all Canadian provinces. The sample included 1,001…

  8. A Blended Approach to Canadian First Nations Education (United States)

    Sacher, Martin; Sacher, Mavis; Vaughan, Norman


    The purpose of this research study was to investigate if and how a blended approach to Canadian First Nations education could be used to foster student engagement and success. The study examined the SCcyber E-Learning Community program (2012) through the lens of the "Seven Principles of Effective Teaching" (Chickering & Gamson,…

  9. The Canadian National Dairy Study 2015-Adoption of milking practices in Canadian dairy herds. (United States)

    Belage, E; Dufour, S; Bauman, C; Jones-Bitton, A; Kelton, D F


    Several studies have investigated which management practices have the greatest effect on udder health, but little information is available on how broadly the recommended milking practices are adopted across Canada. The National Dairy Study 2015 was designed to gather dairy cattle health and management data on dairy farms across Canada. The objectives of the present study were to describe the current proportions of adoption of milking practices on Canadian dairy farms, and identify factors associated with their use on farms. A bilingual questionnaire measuring use of various practices, including an udder health-specific section, was developed and sent to all Canadian dairy farms. The questions in the udder health section of the questionnaire were adapted from a bilingual questionnaire previously validated and containing questions regarding general milking hygiene and routine, and on-farm mastitis management. Chi-squared tests were used to investigate simple associations between adoption of practices and various explanatory variables including region, milking system, herd size, and bulk tank somatic cell count. In total, 1,373 dairy producers completed the survey. The regional distribution of the participants was representative of the Canadian dairy farm population, and milk quality was, on average, similar to nonparticipants. Overall, Canadian dairy producers followed the recommendations for milking procedures, but some were more extensively used than others. Fore-stripping, cleaning teats, wiping teats dry, using single-cow towels, and use of postmilking teat disinfectant were widely adopted. Use of gloves and glove hygiene, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, and use of automatic takeoffs were not as extensively implemented. Adoption percentages for several practices, including use of gloves, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, teat drying methods, and use of automatic takeoffs were significantly associated with milking system, herd size, and region. It

  10. As Canadian as possible ... under what circumstances?: Public opinion on national identity in Canada outside Quebec. (United States)

    Raney, Tracey


    Public opinion on national identity in Canada is changing. Using data from the International Social Science Programme, this essay presents evidence that most Canadians have a strong national identity rooted in universal conceptions that everyone can share, such as citizenship. Data also show, however, that a growing number of Canadians define their national identity narrowly, such as through birthplace and religion. Drawing on research from social psychology, the essay suggests that theories of Canadian identity need to take into account the fact that many Canadians have strong national identities that do not fit cleanly into the civic/ethnic theoretical dichotomy.

  11. Sepsis in Canadian children: a national analysis using administrative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson GC


    Full Text Available Graham Thompson,1 Niranjan Kissoon2 1Alberta Children's Hospital, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2British Columbia Children’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaBackground: Severe infection resulting in sepsis is recognized as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The purpose of this study is to use longitudinal, population-based data to report national-level hospital metrics, providing a current assessment of the status of sepsis hospitalizations in Canadian children.Methods: We performed an analysis of previously abstracted data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI Discharge Abstract Database (DAD. Children aged 0–17 years at the time of hospital admission were identified from a cohort of patients with sepsis or severe sepsis using the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10-CA and the Canadian Classification of Health Interventions (CCI. Descriptive population-based statistics are reported.Results: Hospitalization data for 20,130 children admitted over 5 years were reviewed. The majority of children were young, with neonates (56.3% and infants under 2 months (18.8% representing the majority of cases. A decline in age-adjusted hospitalization rates was demonstrated in both overall and non-severe sepsis across the study period; however, no change was demonstrated for severe sepsis. While overall in-hospital crude mortality rates did not change significantly across the study period (range 5.1%–5.4%, a significant decrease was found in children aged 3–23 months and adolescents. Multi-organ failure was reported in more than one-quarter of children with severe sepsis. Odds of mortality increased significantly with number of organs failed.Conclusion: Sepsis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Canadian children, posing a significant burden on health care resources. Age continues to be associated

  12. Injuries at a Canadian National Taekwondo Championships: a prospective study

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    Pieter Willy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the injury rates in male and female adult Canadian Taekwondo athletes relative to total number of injuries, type and body part injured. Methods Subjects (219 males, 99 females participated in the 1997 Canadian National Taekwondo Championships in Toronto, Canada. Injuries were recorded on an injury form to documents any injury seen and treatment provided by the health care team. These data were later used for this study. The injury form describes the athlete and nature, site, severity and mechanism of the injury. Results The overall rate of injuries was 62.9/1,000 athlete-exposures (A-E. The males (79.9/1,000 A-E sustained significantly more injuries than the females (25.3/1,000 A-E. The lower extremities were the most commonly injured body region in the men (32.0 /1,000 A-E, followed by the head and neck (18.3/1,000 A-E. Injuries to the spine (neck, upper back, low back and coccyx were the third most often injured body region in males (13.8/1,000 A-E. All injuries to the women were sustained to the lower extremities. The most common type of injury in women was the contusion (15.2/1,000 A-E. However, men's most common type of injury was the sprain (22.8/1,000 A-E followed by joint dysfunction (13.7/1,000A-E. Concussions were only reported in males (6.9/1,000 A-E. Compared to international counterparts, the Canadian men and women recorded lower total injury rates. However, the males incurred more cerebral concussions than their American colleagues (4.7/1,000 A-E. Conclusions Similar to what was found in previous studies, the current investigation seems to suggest that areas of particular concern for preventive measures involve the head and neck as well as the lower extremities. This is the first paper to identify spinal joint dysfunction.

  13. The Role of Canadian Children's Literature in National Identity Formation. (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce M.


    Seeks to understand teachers' practices in relation to selecting children's literature for use in classrooms, and to understand the wider issues associated with book selection and in particular with Canadian children's literature. Supports a strong need for rethinking the implications of the literacy events that occur on an everyday basis in…

  14. University Supports for Open Access: A Canadian National Survey (United States)

    Greyson, Devon; Vezina, Kumiko; Morrison, Heather; Taylor, Donald; Black, Charlyn


    The advent of policies at research-funding organizations requiring grantees to make their funded research openly accessible alters the life cycle of scholarly research. This survey-based study explores the approaches that libraries and research administration offices at the major Canadian universities are employing to support the…

  15. Refining estimates of public health spending as measured in national health expenditure accounts: the Canadian experience. (United States)

    Ballinger, Geoff


    The recent focus on public health stemming from, among other things, severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian flu has created an imperative to refine health-spending estimates in the Canadian Health Accounts. This article presents the Canadian experience in attempting to address the challenges associated with developing the needed taxonomies for systematically capturing, measuring, and analyzing the national investment in the Canadian public health system. The first phase of this process was completed in 2005, which was a 2-year project to estimate public health spending based on a more classic definition by removing the administration component of the previously combined public health and administration category. Comparing the refined public health estimate with recent data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development still positions Canada with the highest share of total health expenditure devoted to public health than any other country reporting. The article also provides an analysis of the comparability of public health estimates across jurisdictions within Canada as well as a discussion of the recommendations for ongoing improvement of public health spending estimates. The Canadian Institute for Health Information is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides Canadians with essential statistics and analysis on the performance of the Canadian health system, the delivery of healthcare, and the health status of Canadians. The Canadian Institute for Health Information administers more than 20 databases and registries, including Canada's Health Accounts, which tracks historically 40 categories of health spending by 5 sources of finance for 13 provincial and territorial jurisdictions. Until 2005, expenditure on public health services in the Canadian Health Accounts included measures to prevent the spread of communicable disease, food and drug safety, health inspections, health promotion, community mental health programs, public

  16. Perceived lactose intolerance in adult Canadians: a national survey. (United States)

    Barr, Susan I


    Although double-blind studies show that lactose-intolerant individuals can consume moderate quantities of milk products without perceptible symptoms, many who perceive that they are lactose intolerant limit or avoid milk products, potentially compromising calcium and vitamin D intakes. Adult Canadians are at risk of inadequate intakes of these nutrients, but no data exist on the prevalence, correlates, and potential impact of perceived lactose intolerance among Canadians. To address this, a Web-based survey of a population-representative sample of 2251 Canadians aged ≥19 years was conducted. Overall, 16% self-reported lactose intolerance. This was more common in women (odds ratio (OR), 1.84; 95% CI, 1.46-2.33) and in nonwhites (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.24-2.58) and less common in those >50 years of age (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.90) and in those completing the survey in French (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99). Those with self-reported lactose intolerance had lower covariate-adjusted milk product and alternative intakes (mean ± SE; 1.40 ± 0.08 servings·day(-1) vs. 2.33 ± 0.03 servings·day(-1), p lactose intolerance by sex, age, and language preference was unexpected and suggests that some groups may be more vulnerable to the perception that they are lactose intolerant. Regardless of whether lactose intolerance is physiologically based or perceptual, education is required to ensure that calcium intakes are not compromised.

  17. Colluding with the Enemy?: Nationalism and Depictions of "Aboriginality" in Canadian Olympic Moments (United States)

    Adese, Jennifer


    The 1976 Montreal Summer Olympic closing ceremony, the 1988 Calgary Winter Olympic opening ceremony, and the 2010 Winter Olympic opening ceremony in Vancouver each placed Indigenous peoples at the heart of its expressions of regional, provincial, and Canadian national identity in one form or another. Why is it that organizing committees view…

  18. A National Study of Teaching and Assessing Writing in Canadian Middle Grades Classrooms (United States)

    Peterson, Shelley Stagg; McClay, Jill


    This article reports comprehensive findings from a national study of the teaching and assessment of writing in classrooms across ten Canadian provinces and two of three territories. Through interviews with 216 grade 4-8 teachers and observations and interviews in 22 classrooms (1 to 3 classrooms in each province), we gathered information about…

  19. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe


    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  20. Viral Hepatitis in a Canadian First Nations Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GY Minuk


    Full Text Available Serological markers for hepatitis A (HAV, B (HBV and C (HCV were documented in 315 inhabitants (27% of a central Manitoba First Nations community. Serologic evidence of HAV infection (anti-HAV positive was almost universal (92% by the age of 20 years. HBV infection (antibody to hepatitis B core antigen positive had occurred in only 2.3% of the study population and no chronic carriers were identified. Serological evidence of HCV infection (anti-HCV positive was documented in 2.2% of the population but ongoing viremia (HCV-RNA positive by polymerase chain reaction was absent. The results of this study highlight the importance of universal HAV vaccination; likely reflect the efficacy of existing prenatal screening and immunoprophylaxis programs for HBV; and raise the possibility that First Nations peoples have an enhanced ability to spontaneously clear HCV.

  1. Radiation by the numbers: developing an on-line Canadian radiation dose calculator as a public engagement and education tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalzell, M.T.J. [Sylvia Fedoruk Canadian Centre for Nuclear Innovation, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)


    Concerns arising from misunderstandings about radiation are often cited as a main reason for public antipathy towards nuclear development and impede decision-making by governments and individuals. A lack of information about everyday sources of radiation exposure that is accessible, relatable and factual contributes to the problem. As part of its efforts to be a fact-based source of information on nuclear issues, the Sylvia Fedoruk Canadian Centre for Nuclear Innovation has developed an on-line Canadian Radiation Dose Calculator as a tool to provide context about common sources of radiation. This paper discusses the development of the calculator and describes how the Fedoruk Centre is using it and other tools to support public engagement on nuclear topics. (author)

  2. Measures of organizational effectiveness of Canadian national sport organizations. (United States)

    Chelladurai, P; Haggerty, T R


    This study of national sport organizations (NSOs) investigated the interrelationships among (a) administrators' perceptions of the effectiveness of the processes of organization, decision making, and personnel relations; (b) administrators' job satisfaction; and (c) Sport Canada ratings of NSOs in high performance, domestic sport, and combined categories. The subjects, 153 volunteer and 84 professional administrators of the 51 NSOs in Ottawa, were grouped on the basis of work status (volunteer/professional) and Olympic status (Olympic/non-Olympic). The four subgroups did not differ in levels of job satisfaction. Volunteer administrators viewed their respective NSO's processes more favourably than did the professional administrators. Higher ratings of decision making and personnel relations related positively to higher levels of job satisfaction. There was minimal association between Sport Canada ratings and administrators' job satisfaction or their perceptions of process effectiveness.

  3. Occupational dose estimates for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J F


    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is currently being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). During peak operation, the NIF will attain D-T fusion yields of 20 MJ in a single experiment and 1200 MJ/y. With such high yields, neutron activation will be important within the NIF Target Bay. The total dose equivalent (dose) will be maintained {<=} 10 person-rem/y with individual doses {<=} 500 mrem/y, and all doses will be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This work outlines planned maintenance activities, expected dose rates, and the resulting worker dose. Methods for the reduction of this dose are discussed, and a tool for the rapid calculation of the occupational dose is presented.

  4. Us, them, and others: reflections on Canadian multiculturalism and national identity at the turn of the twenty-first century. (United States)

    Winter, Elke


    The John Porter Lecture at the annual meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria 2013 draws upon my book Us, Them, and Others: Pluralism and National Identity in Diverse Societies. Incorporating the findings from an analysis of Canadian English-language newspaper discourses during the 1990s into a theoretical framework inspired by Weberian sociology, the book argues that pluralism is best understood as a dynamic set of triangular relations where the compromise between unequal groups--"us" and "others"--is rendered meaningful through the confrontation with real or imagined outsiders ("them"). The lecture summarizes the theoretical contribution and explains how multiculturalism became consolidated in dominant Canadian discourses in the late 1990s. The lecture then discusses changes to Canadian multicultural identity at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

  5. Pan-Canadian Respiratory Standards Initiative for Electronic Health Records (PRESTINE: 2011 National Forum Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Diane Lougheed


    Full Text Available In a novel knowledge translation initiative, the Government of Ontario’s Asthma Plan of Action funded the development of an Asthma Care Map to enable adherence with the Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines developed under the auspices of the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS. Following its successful evaluation within the Primary Care Asthma Pilot Project, respiratory clinicians from the Asthma Research Unit, Queen’s University (Kingston, Ontario are leading an initiative to incorporate standardized Asthma Care Map data elements into electronic health records in primary care in Ontario. Acknowledging that the issue of data standards affects all respiratory conditions, and all provinces and territories, the Government of Ontario approached the CTS Respiratory Guidelines Committee. At its meeting in September 2010, the CTS Respiratory Guidelines Committee agreed that developing and standardizing respiratory data elements for electronic health records are strategically important. In follow-up to that commitment, representatives from the CTS, the Lung Association, the Government of Ontario, the National Lung Health Framework and Canada Health Infoway came together to form a planning committee. The planning committee proposed a phased approach to inform stakeholders about the issue, and engage them in the development, implementation and evaluation of a standardized dataset. An environmental scan was completed in July 2011, which identified data definitions and standards currently available for clinical variables that are likely to be included in electronic medical records in primary care for diagnosis, management and patient education related to asthma and COPD. The scan, sponsored by the Government of Ontario, includes compliance with clinical nomenclatures such as SNOMED-CT® and LOINC®. To help launch and create momentum for this initiative, a national forum was convened on October 2 and 3, 2011, in Toronto, Ontario. The forum was designed to

  6. A comparison of traditional vs. Canadian tailored prophylaxis dosing of prophylactic factor infusions in children with haemophilia A and B in a single hemophilia treatment center. (United States)

    Dodd, C; Watts, R G


    Prophylactic infusion of clotting factor concentrates is a developing standard of care for individuals with haemophilia. The ideal schedule and techniques of prophylactic infusions remain incompletely defined. Our aim was to determine the optimal techniques and schedules for factor prophylaxis in paediatric patients. A retrospective electronic medical record review of all children treated with prophylactic factor infusions in a single Haemophilia Treatment Center was conducted. Comparison of traditional vs. Canadian dosing regimens and primary vs. secondary prophylaxis was made. Failure of prophylaxis was defined as the first serious bleed. A total of 58 children were identified for review. Five cases were excluded (four due to high titre inhibitors and one due to repeated non-compliance), thus there were 53 total cases: 46 with severe haemophilia, 2 with moderate haemophilia, 5 with mild haemophilia, 44 with haemophilia A and 9 with haemophilia B; 32 Traditional dosing and 21 Canadian dosing regimens. Patients on primary prophylaxis had a decreased failure rate (25%) compared to children treated with secondary prophylaxis (67%) regardless of technique of prophylaxis. When compared to a 'Traditional' factor prophylaxis schedule, the 'Canadian' tailored prophylaxis protocol was comparable with the exception of a decreased use of implanted venous devices in the 'Canadian' group. Ongoing bleeding (primarily joint bleeds) occurs with all prophylactic regimens. The lowest incidence of treatment failure was noted in children who began primary prophylaxis at a young age and before initial joint bleeds. Primary prophylaxis is superior to secondary prophylaxis regardless of dosing regimen. Traditional and Canadian dosing regimens were equivalent in outcome when measured over several years of follow-up.

  7. Modeling historical tuberculosis epidemics among Canadian First Nations: effects of malnutrition and genetic variation

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    Sarah F. Ackley


    Full Text Available Late 19th century epidemics of tuberculosis (TB in Western Canadian First Nations resulted in peak TB mortality rates more than six times the highest rates recorded in Europe. Using a mathematical modeling approach and historical TB mortality time series, we investigate potential causes of high TB mortality and rapid epidemic decline in First Nations from 1885 to 1940. We explore two potential causes of dramatic epidemic dynamics observed in this setting: first, we explore effects of famine prior to 1900 on both TB and population dynamics. Malnutrition is recognized as an individual-level risk factor for TB progression and mortality; its population-level effects on TB epidemics have not been explored previously. Second, we explore effects of heterogeneity in susceptibility to TB in two ways: modeling heterogeneity in susceptibility to infection, and heterogeneity in risk of developing disease once infected. Our results indicate that models lacking famine-related changes in TB parameters or heterogeneity result in an implausibly poor fit to both the TB mortality time series and census data; the inclusion of these features allows for the characteristic decline and rise in population observed in First Nations during this time period and confers improved fits to TB mortality data.

  8. Canadian Children's Literature. (United States)

    School Libraries in Canada, 2001


    Includes 15 articles that relate to Canadian children's literature, including the power of literature; using Canadian literature in Canada; the principal's role in promoting literacy; Canadian Children's Book Centre; the National Library of Canada's children's literature collection; book promotion; selection guide; publisher's perspective; and…

  9. Impediments to recruitment in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study: response and resolution. (United States)

    Baines, C J


    Eighteen months after the 1980 initiation of the Canadian National Breast Screening Study (NBSS) (a multicenter randomized controlled trial that will involve 90,000 women), the Toronto center experience such severe problems with recruitment that the study as a whole was jeopardized. Impediments to recruitment arose in five areas. The design of the protocol was criticized by some physicians and participants, a problem that could only be met by justifying the design. A second problem was a lack of understanding of the concept of screening and mistaken assumptions about what participation in the NBSS entailed. Thirdly, recruitment problems occurred at a time when the media were focusing much attention on the hazards of low-level ionizing radiation. Fourthly, women were found to have a variety of personal reasons for delaying or avoiding entry into the study. Finally, factors characteristic of the Canadian milieu such as universal health coverage may have acted as a disincentive to entry. To improve physician understanding, NBSS personnel made presentations at medical rounds and scientific meetings; articles were written for medical journals. To win support from the lay public, talks were given to recreation or work-based groups. Appearances on radio and television talk shows were sought out. Mass mailings to university staff and professional associations did not produce large responses, nor did advertisements on television, radio, or in newspapers. The distribution of a check insert in a government mailing gave rise to hundreds of appointments across Canada. However, for generating an ongoing adequate level of recruitment, the best measure has been the mailing of personally addressed letters to eligible women followed by a telephone call. Data on response rates, cost and women's attitudes toward the study are reported. By early 1983, Toronto met its recruitment target of 12,000.

  10. Banal Race Thinking: Ties of Blood, Canadian History Textbooks and Ethnic Nationalism (United States)

    Montgomery, Ken


    This paper examines how the idea of "race" is represented in high school Canadian history textbooks. It looks at textbooks authorized by the Province of Ontario between 1940 and 1960 and those authorized after 2000. It is argued in this paper that even though historical racisms have increasingly made their way into Canadian history…

  11. On the Integration of Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) by Canadian Mathematicians: Results of a National Survey (United States)

    Buteau, Chantal; Jarvis, Daniel H.; Lavicza, Zsolt


    In this article, we outline the findings of a Canadian survey study (N = 302) that focused on the extent of computer algebra systems (CAS)-based technology use in postsecondary mathematics instruction. Results suggest that a considerable number of Canadian mathematicians use CAS in research and teaching. CAS use in research was found to be the…

  12. De-identifying a public use microdata file from the Canadian national discharge abstract database

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    Paton David


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI collects hospital discharge abstract data (DAD from Canadian provinces and territories. There are many demands for the disclosure of this data for research and analysis to inform policy making. To expedite the disclosure of data for some of these purposes, the construction of a DAD public use microdata file (PUMF was considered. Such purposes include: confirming some published results, providing broader feedback to CIHI to improve data quality, training students and fellows, providing an easily accessible data set for researchers to prepare for analyses on the full DAD data set, and serve as a large health data set for computer scientists and statisticians to evaluate analysis and data mining techniques. The objective of this study was to measure the probability of re-identification for records in a PUMF, and to de-identify a national DAD PUMF consisting of 10% of records. Methods Plausible attacks on a PUMF were evaluated. Based on these attacks, the 2008-2009 national DAD was de-identified. A new algorithm was developed to minimize the amount of suppression while maximizing the precision of the data. The acceptable threshold for the probability of correct re-identification of a record was set at between 0.04 and 0.05. Information loss was measured in terms of the extent of suppression and entropy. Results Two different PUMF files were produced, one with geographic information, and one with no geographic information but more clinical information. At a threshold of 0.05, the maximum proportion of records with the diagnosis code suppressed was 20%, but these suppressions represented only 8-9% of all values in the DAD. Our suppression algorithm has less information loss than a more traditional approach to suppression. Smaller regions, patients with longer stays, and age groups that are infrequently admitted to hospitals tend to be the ones with the highest rates of suppression

  13. The Development and Validation of a Human Systems Integration (HSI) Program for the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) (United States)


    The Development and Validation of a Human Systems Integration (HSI) Program for the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) Mike Greenley ... Greenley , Andrea Scipione, Jeremy Brooks and Alice Salway CAE Professional Services (Canada) Limited (Formerly Greenley & Associates Incorporated...IHS et à appuyer la mise en œuvre d’un programme officiel et amélioré d’IHS au MDN du Canada. Greenley & Associates Incorporated ix Table of

  14. The "Canadian" in Canadian Children's Literature. (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Wolodko, Brenda


    Notes that a rich body of Canadian children's literature exists that reflects the country's literary and socio-cultural values, beliefs, themes and images, including those of geography, history, language and identity. Discusses how Canadians tend to identify themselves first by region or province and then by nation. (SG)

  15. Development of the national radionuclide dose calibrator standardisation service. (United States)

    van der Gaast, H; Buckman, S; Sherlock, S


    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, acting as agent for the CSIRO Division of Applied Physics, maintains the Australian standard of measurement for activity. The standard includes all nuclear medicine gamma emitters and a new standard for pure positron emitters. Under Section 10 of the National Measurement Act 1960, if a measurement is made for a legal purpose, or if the legality of a measurement is in dispute, it can only be confirmed if the following two conditions are fulfilled: (a) that the measurement be in terms of the prescribed Australian legal units of measurement. (b) that it can be proven to be traceable to an Australian primary standard of measurement. To satisfy these requirements, radionuclide dose calibrators require a calibration report determined by Ansto. For this reason, Ansto has developed the national radionuclide dose calibrator standardisation service.

  16. The Canadian Forces Use of Private Security in Afghanistan: A Consequence of National Decisions (United States)


    which it is not good practice to operate, these costs are rarely to the economic loss of the PSC. In a business where the commodity is the labor...Strategy, 7. 81Canadian Army website, terre /news-nouvelles/story- reportage-eng.asp?id=425 (accessed 17 May 2013). 30...the Land Staff from a speech on 9 March 2009. 87Canadian Army website, terre /news-nouvelles/story- reportage

  17. Do Children Who Bully Their Peers Also Play Violent Video Games? A Canadian National Study (United States)

    Dittrick, Crystal J.; Beran, Tanya N.; Mishna, Faye; Hetherington, Ross; Shariff, Shaheen


    The study examined whether children who bully others are likely to prefer playing video games that are rated high in maturity and violence. A stratified random sample of Canadian children ages 10 to 17 years from the provinces of Canada was obtained. Parents (n = 397) and their children (n = 492) completed an online survey of children's…

  18. Showing Your Pride: A National Survey of Queer Student Centres in Canadian Colleges and Universities (United States)

    Ecker, John; Rae, Jennifer; Bassi, Amandeep


    The presence of queer student centres (QSCs) across Canadian universities and colleges is largely unknown. It is an important area of investigation since queer-identified students have previously identified several benefits of these services, including receiving support from other queer individuals. The focus of the current study was to determine…

  19. Do Children Who Bully Their Peers Also Play Violent Video Games? A Canadian National Study (United States)

    Dittrick, Crystal J.; Beran, Tanya N.; Mishna, Faye; Hetherington, Ross; Shariff, Shaheen


    The study examined whether children who bully others are likely to prefer playing video games that are rated high in maturity and violence. A stratified random sample of Canadian children ages 10 to 17 years from the provinces of Canada was obtained. Parents (n = 397) and their children (n = 492) completed an online survey of children's bullying…

  20. The Canadian Registry for Pulmonary Fibrosis: Design and Rationale of a National Pulmonary Fibrosis Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Ryerson


    Full Text Available Background. The relative rarity and diversity of fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD have made it challenging to study these diseases in single-centre cohorts. Here we describe formation of a multicentre Canadian registry that is needed to describe the outcomes of fibrotic ILD and to enable detailed healthcare utilization analyses that will be the cornerstone for future healthcare planning. Methods. The Canadian Registry for Pulmonary Fibrosis (CARE-PF is a prospective cohort anticipated to consist of at least 2,800 patients with fibrotic ILD. CARE-PF will be used to (1 describe the natural history of fibrotic ILD, specifically determining the incidence and outcomes of acute exacerbations of ILD subtypes and (2 determine the impact of ILD and acute exacerbations of ILD on health services use and healthcare costs in the Canadian population. Consecutive patients with fibrotic ILD will be recruited from five Canadian ILD centres over a period of five years. Patients will be followed up as clinically indicated and will complete standardized questionnaires at each clinic visit. Prespecified outcomes and health services use will be measured based on self-report and linkage to provincial health administrative databases. Conclusion. CARE-PF will be among the largest prospective multicentre ILD registries in the world, providing detailed data on the natural history of fibrotic ILD and the healthcare resources used by these patients. As the largest and most comprehensive cohort of Canadian ILD patients, CARE-PF establishes a network for future clinical research and early phase clinical trials and provides a platform for translational and basic science research.

  1. Nationally representative levels of selected volatile organic compounds in Canadian residential indoor air: population-based survey. (United States)

    Zhu, Jiping; Wong, Suzy L; Cakmak, Sabit


    A comprehensive, population-based national indoor air survey was conducted in 2009-2011 in Canada. A total of 84 volatile organic carbons (VOCs) from 3218 houses, 546 apartments, and 93 other dwelling types were measured using passive sampling followed by thermal desorption GC/MS. A total of 12 VOCs were measured in both this study and the 1992 Canadian national study. Arithmetic means of VOCs in this study were 2-5 times lower than those in the 1992 study with the exception of a higher styrene level (1.13 μg · m(-3)). Comparing the geometric means of the 24 VOCs showed that levels for the VOCs in this study were comparable to those reported in Europe. They were generally within a factor of 2; 1,4-dichlorobenzene (0.21 μg · m(-3)) and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (0.51 μg · m(-3)) were noticeably lower in this study than in the European studies. There were 47 VOCs detected in more than 50% of Canadian households; 33 of them were higher in houses than in apartments for all nonsmoking homes, while only 4 were lower in houses than in apartments. A total of 11 of 47 VOCs were higher in smoking homes compared to nonsmoking homes, while the rest had similar levels. Principal component analysis identified several groups of VOCs with possible common sources.

  2. Management of Hepatitis B: A Longitudinal National Survey – Impact of the Canadian Hepatitis B Consensus Guidelines

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    Paul Marotta


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver, and The Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Canada, jointly developed the Canadian Chronic Hepatitis B (HBV Consensus Guidelines to assist practitioners involved in the management of this complex disease. These guidelines were published in The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology in June 2007 and distributed to all Canadian gastroenterologists and hepatologists.

  3. Policy and procedures for domestic violence patients in Canadian emergency departments: a national survey. (United States)

    Hotch, D; Grunfeld, A; Mackay, K; Ritch, L


    A cross-sectional research survey aimed to obtain information concerning 1) the proportion of Canadian emergency departments with domestic violence intervention policies and procedures; 2) how hospitals identify and provide service to patients who have been abused; and 3) measures that have been problematic/helpful in implementing domestic violence protocols in emergency departments. The study sample included 230 Canadian hospitals with emergency departments. Results showed that 198 hospitals returned the questionnaires, of which 39% indicated that there were policies and procedures concerning domestic violence for the emergency departments. Large, major hospitals were more likely than smaller community hospitals to have policies or protocols in place. About 26 hospitals reported screening all patients for domestic violence and 61 hospitals provided referral services and 46 hospitals provided on-site counseling. Physicians were principally involved in the physical examination, referral and identification. Follow-up, emotional support, and safety planning were provided by social workers. Findings of this survey encourage hospitals and individual health care providers to adopt guidelines concerning domestic violence to ensure a widespread adoption and implementation.

  4. Examining the Link between Education Related Outcomes and Student Health Risk Behaviours among Canadian Youth: Data from the 2006 National Youth Smoking Survey (United States)

    Pathammavong, Ratsamy; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid; Griffith, Jane; Nowatzki, Janet; Manske, Steve


    This study examined whether student tobacco, alcohol, marijuana use, and sedentary behaviour were associated with the educational outcomes of health-related absenteeism, truancy, and academic motivation in a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth. Descriptive analyses indicate a high proportion of students missed school due to health,…

  5. The Road to Psychological Safety: Legal, Scientific, and Social Foundations for a Canadian National Standard on Psychological Safety in the Workplace (United States)

    Shain, Martin; Arnold, Ian; GermAnn, Kathy


    In Part 1 of this article, the legal and scientific origins of the concept of psychological safety are examined as background to, and support for, the new Canadian National Standard on Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace (CSA Z1003/BNQ 9700). It is shown that five factors influencing psychological safety can be identified as being…

  6. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes of On-Reserve First Nations Schoolchildren Compared to Canadian Averages and Current Recommendations

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    Ian D. Martin


    Full Text Available This study investigated, in on-reserve First Nations (FN youth in Ontario, Canada, the following: (a the intakes of vegetable and fruit, “other” foods and relevant nutrients as compared to current recommendations and national averages, (b current prevalence rates of overweight and obesity and (c the relationship between latitude and dietary intakes. Twenty-four-hour diet recalls were collected via the Waterloo Web-Based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q (n = 443. Heights and weights of participants were self reported using measured values and Body Mass Index was categorized using the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. Food group and nutrient intakes were compared to current standards, Southern Ontario Food Behaviour data and the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, using descriptive statistics. Mean vegetable and fruit, fibre and folate intakes were less than current recommendations. Girls aged 14–18 years had mean intakes of vitamin A below current recommendations for this sub-group; for all sub-groups, mean intakes of vegetables and fruit were below Canadian averages. All sub-groups also had intakes of all nutrients and food groups investigated that were less than those observed in non-FN youth from Southern Ontario, with the exception of “other” foods in boys 12–18 years. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 31.8% and 19.6%, respectively, exceeding rates in the general population. Dietary intakes did not vary consistently by latitude (n = 248, as revealed by ANOVA. This study provided a unique investigation of the dietary intakes of on-reserve FN youth in Ontario and revealed poor intakes of vegetables and fruit and related nutrients and high intakes of “other” foods. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity exceed those of the general population.

  7. Establishing a national knowledge translation and generation network in kidney disease: the CAnadian KidNey KNowledge TraNslation and GEneration NeTwork. (United States)

    Manns, Braden; Barrett, Brendan; Evans, Michael; Garg, Amit; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Kappel, Joanne; Klarenbach, Scott; Madore, Francois; Parfrey, Patrick; Samuel, Susan; Soroka, Steven; Suri, Rita; Tonelli, Marcello; Wald, Ron; Walsh, Michael; Zappitelli, Michael


    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) do not always receive care consistent with guidelines, in part due to complexities in CKD management, lack of randomized trial data to inform care, and a failure to disseminate best practice. At a 2007 conference of key Canadian stakeholders in kidney disease, attendees noted that the impact of Canadian Society of Nephrology (CSN) guidelines was attenuated given limited formal linkages between the CSN Clinical Practice Guidelines Group, kidney researchers, decision makers and knowledge users, and that further knowledge was required to guide care in patients with kidney disease. The idea for the Canadian Kidney Knowledge Translation and Generation Network (CANN-NET) developed from this meeting. CANN-NET is a pan-Canadian network established in partnership with CSN, the Kidney Foundation of Canada and other professional societies to improve the care and outcomes of patients with and at risk for kidney disease. The initial priority areas for knowledge translation include improving optimal timing of dialysis initiation, and increasing the appropriate use of home dialysis. Given the urgent need for new knowledge, CANN-NET has also brought together a national group of experienced Canadian researchers to address knowledge gaps by encouraging and supporting multicentre randomized trials in priority areas, including management of cardiovascular disease in patients with kidney failure.

  8. Evaluation of different methods to handle misreporting in obesity research: evidence from the Canadian national nutrition survey. (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Lou, Wendy Y; L'Abbé, Mary R


    The association of dietary exposures with health outcomes may be attenuated or reversed as a result of energy intake (EI) misreporting. This study evaluated several methods for dealing with implausible recalls when analysing the association between dietary factors and obesity. We examined data from 16,187 Canadians aged ≥12 years in the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Under- and over-reporting were defined as the ratio of EI:estimated energy requirement 1·42, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression-generalised logit model was conducted to test the utility of different methods for handling misreporting, including (a) adjusting for variables related to misreporting, (b) excluding misreported recalls, (c) adjusting for reporting groups (under-, plausible and over-reporters), (d) adjusting for propensity score and (e) stratifying the analyses by reporting groups. In the basic model, EI showed a negative association with overweight (OR 0·988; 95% CI 0·979, 0·998) and obesity (OR 0·989; 95% CI 0·977, 0·999). Similarly, the association between total energy density and overweight (OR 0·670; 95% CI 0·487, 0·923) and obesity (OR 0·709; 95% CI 0·495, 1·016) was inverse. Among all methods of handling misreporting, adjusting for the reporting status revealed the most satisfactory results, where a positive association between EI and overweight (OR 1·037; 95% CI 1·019, 1·055) and obesity (OR 1·109; 95% CI 1·082, 1·137) was observed (Pobesity (Pobesity and demonstrate to researchers and nutrition policy makers the importance of adjusting for recall plausibility in obesity research, which is highly relevant in light of global obesity epidemic.

  9. Developing Canadian oncology education goals and objectives for medical students: a national modified Delphi study (United States)

    Tam, Vincent C.; Ingledew, Paris-Ann; Berry, Scott; Verma, Sunil; Giuliani, Meredith E.


    Background: Studies have shown that there is a deficiency in focused oncology teaching during medical school in Canada. This study aimed to develop oncology education goals and objectives for medical students through consensus of oncology educators from across Canada. Methods: In 2014 we created a comprehensive list of oncology education objectives using existing resources. Experts in oncology education and undergraduate medical education from all 17 Canadian medical schools were invited to participate in a 3-round modified Delphi process. In round 1, the participants scored the objectives on a 9-point Likert scale according to the degree to which they agreed an objective should be taught to medical students. Objectives with a mean score of 7.0 or greater were retained, those with a mean score of 1.0-3.9 were excluded, and those with a mean score of 4.0-6.9 were discussed at a round 2 Web meeting. In round 3, the participants voted on inclusion and exclusion of the round 2 objectives. Results: Thirty-four (92%) of the 37 invited oncology educators, representing 14 medical schools, participated in the study. They included oncologists, family physicians, members of undergraduate medical education curriculum committees and a psychologist. Of the 214 objectives reviewed in round 1, 146 received a mean score of 7.0 or greater, and 68 were scored 4.0-6.9; no objective received a mean score below 4.0. Nine new objectives were suggested. The main themes of participants' comments were to minimize the number of objectives and to aim objectives at the knowledge level required for family physicians. In round 2, the participants were able to combine 28 of the objectives with other existing objectives. In round 3, 7 of the 49 objectives received consensus of at least 75% for inclusion. The final Canadian Oncology Goals and Objectives for Medical Students contained 10 goals and 153 objectives. Interpretation: Through a systematic process, we created a comprehensive, consensus

  10. DCFPAK: Dose coefficient data file package for Sandia National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Leggett, R.W.


    The FORTRAN-based computer package DCFPAK (Dose Coefficient File Package) has been developed to provide electronic access to the dose coefficient data files summarized in Federal Guidance Reports 11 and 12. DCFPAK also provides access to standard information regarding decay chains and assembles dose coefficients for all dosimetrically significant radioactive progeny of a specified radionuclide. DCFPAK was designed for application on a PC but, with minor modifications, may be implemented on a UNIX workstation.

  11. Petro-Canada: The National Oil Company as a Tool of Canadian Energy Policy. (United States)


    per day MMBD million barrels per day NEB National Energy Board OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development PEMEX Petroleos Mexicanos ...of the actual sale were negotiated between the national oil companies, Petro-Canada and Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). 25 CHAPTER 5 "THE WINDOW ON THE...Government for working out technical matters with PEMEX ( Petroleos Mexicanos ), the Mexican national oil company, and actually delivering and

  12. Adjustable Maintenance Dosing with Budesonide/Formoterol Reduces Asthma Exacerbations Compared with Traditional Fixed Dosing: A Five-Month Multicentre Canadian Study

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    J Mark FitzGerlad


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adjustable maintenance dosing with budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler (Symbicort, AstraZeneca, Lund, Sweden may provide a convenient means of maintaining asthma control with the minimum effective medication level.

  13. Evaluating National Environmental Sustainability: Performance Measures and Influential Factors for OECD-Member Countries featuring Canadian Performance and Policy Implications (United States)

    Calbick, Kenneth S.

    This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95

  14. Autoimmune liver disease and the Canadian First Nations Aboriginal Communities of British Columbia's Pacific Northwest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric M Yoshida; Mark Riley; Laura T Arbour


    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a well-known but uncommon chronic liver disease that is presumed to be of autoimmune etiology. Recently, investigations in British Columbia (BC), a province of Canada situated along the Pacific North-West of North America, have suggested that PBC is not a rare disease amongst BC's Aboriginal (i.e. First Nations) communities. Geographically, BC is adjacent to South East Alaska, an American state that has also reported an increased prevalence of PBC amongst its Aboriginal communities. In this article, the medical evidence supporting a hypothesis of increased risk of PBC amongst BC's First Nations communities is reviewed. Evidence suggesting that autoimmune hepatitis is also more likely amongst BC's First Nations communities is also presented.(C)2006 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

  15. 77 FR 35113 - Canadian National Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Niagara County, NY (United States)


    ... milepost 0.20 to approximately milepost 0.35 in the City of Niagara Falls, Niagara County, N.Y., a distance... track in Niagara Falls, extending between the eastern end of the Bridge and the beginning of the Niagara... Niagara Falls, N.Y., and Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada, and is owned by the bi-national Niagara......


    Scanff, P; Crescini, D; Roy, H; Billarand, Y; Rannou, A


    Over the past decade, France has developed an electronic dose register at national level called SISERI. Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety is in charge of the management of this information system. Besides the main purpose of being a central register of any doses measured for the individual dosimetric monitoring of all exposed workers, SISERI has been developed so as to constitute a tool for occupational physicians and radiation protection officers allowing access in real-time to the results of the individual monitoring. The SISERI information system centralises, verifies and keeps the records of all personal dosimetric results of the 370 000 workers annually monitored in France. Moreover, since the publication of a new order in 2013, employers shall declare any new workers in SISERI before the beginning of their occupation and they shall upload data concerning in particular the activity field/sector and the occupation of each worker. The enforcement of this new order is going to enrich the individual dosimetric information stored in SISERI. Thus, it is expected that more precise and accurate statistics on occupational exposure to ionising radiation in France will be established in the next few years.

  17. Canadian identity: Implications for international social work by Canadians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder


    This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all......, to critically examine and unpack our ‘Canadian’ identity in order to practice international work that is socially just and anti-imperialist. Drawing on the work of post-colonial authors, critical race theorists, and those who study national myth-making, this essay revisits Canadian identity because...... it is this identity that Canadian social workers often carry into their international work....

  18. Simulation-based assessment of anesthesiology residents' competence: development and implementation of the Canadian National Anesthesiology Simulation Curriculum (CanNASC). (United States)

    Chiu, Michelle; Tarshis, Jordan; Antoniou, Andreas; Bosma, T Laine; Burjorjee, Jessica E; Cowie, Neil; Crooks, Simone; Doyle, Kate; Dubois, David; Everett, Tobias; Fisher, Rachel; Hayter, Megan; McKinnon, Genevieve; Noseworthy, Diana; O'Regan, Noel; Peachey, Greg; Robitaille, Arnaud; Sullivan, Michael; Tenenbein, Marshall; Tremblay, Marie-Helene


    The specialty of anesthesiology will soon adopt the Competence By Design (CBD) approach to residency education developed by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC). A foundational component of CBD is frequent and contextualized assessment of trainees. In 2013, the RCPSC Anesthesiology Specialty Committee assembled a group of simulation educators, representing each of the 17 Canadian anesthesiology residency programs, to form the Canadian National Anesthesiology Simulation Curriculum (CanNASC) Task Force. The goals were to develop, implement, and evaluate a set of consensus-driven standardized mannequin-based simulation scenarios that every trainee must complete satisfactorily prior to completion of anesthesiology residency and certification. Curriculum development followed Kern's principles and was accomplished via monthly teleconferences and annual face-to-face meetings. The development and implementation processes included the following key elements: 1) Curriculum needs assessment: 368 of 958 invitees (38.4%) responded to a national survey resulting in 64 suggested scenario topics. Use of a modified Delphi technique resulted in seven important and technically feasible scenarios. 2) Scenario development: All scenarios have learning objectives from the National Curriculum for Canadian Anesthesiology Residency. Standardized scenario templates were created, and the content was refined and piloted. 3) Assessment: A validated Global Rating Scale (GRS) is the primary assessment tool, informed by using scenario-specific checklists (created via a modified Delphi technique) and the Anesthesia Non-Technical Skills GRS. 4) Implementation: Standardized implementation guidelines, pre-brief/debrief documents, and rater training videos, guide, and commentary were generated. National implementation of the scenarios and program evaluation is currently underway. It is highly feasible to achieve specialty-based consensus on the elements of a national

  19. On Realities of Canadian Multiculturalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Canada is a multicultural country which was mainly established by immigrants. Just because of that, Canadian govern⁃ment has carried out the policy of multiculturalism since1970s. However, it has encountered many problems such as policy con⁃flicts, national identity, democracy-inquiry and racial discrimination, etc. Hence the Canadian multiculturalism has been in a di⁃lemma.

  20. Human Activity Differentially Redistributes Large Mammals in the Canadian Rockies National Parks

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    James Kimo. Rogala


    Full Text Available National parks are important for conservation of species such as wolves (Canis lupus and elk (Cervus canadensis. However, topography, vegetation conditions, and anthropogenic infrastructure within parks may limit available habitat. Human activity on trails and roads may lead to indirect habitat loss, further limiting available habitat. Predators and prey may respond differentially to human activity, potentially disrupting ecological processes. However, research on such impacts to wildlife is incomplete, especially at fine spatial and temporal scales. Our research investigated the relationship between wolf and elk distribution and human activity using fine-scale Global Positioning System (GPS wildlife telemetry locations and hourly human activity measures on trails and roads in Banff, Kootenay, and Yoho National Parks, Canada. We observed a complex interaction between the distance animals were located from trails and human activity level resulting in species adopting both mutual avoidance and differential response behaviors. In areas < 50 m from trails human activity led to a mutual avoidance response by both wolves and elk. In areas 50 - 400 m from trails low levels of human activity led to differential responses; wolves avoided these areas, whereas elk appeared to use these areas as a predation refugia. These differential impacts on elk and wolves may have important implications for trophic dynamics. As human activity increased above two people/hour, areas 50 - 400 m from trails were mutually avoided by both species, resulting in the indirect loss of important montane habitat. If park managers are concerned with human impacts on wolves and elk, or on these species' trophic interactions with other species, they can monitor locations near trails and roads and consider hourly changes of human activity levels in areas important to wildlife.

  1. Timing of first exposure to maternal depression and adolescent emotional disorder in a national Canadian cohort.

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    Kiyuri Naicker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Correlations have been reported between behavioral and cognitive outcomes in adolescence and exposure to maternal depression during the first postpartum year, but the effects of timing of maternal depression during subsequent exposure periods have rarely been controlled for. This study aims to methodically investigate the importance of timing of initial exposure to maternal depression with respect to adolescent mental health outcomes. METHODS: This study used data on 937 children from the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth (NLSCY, a nationally-representative longitudinal survey established in 1994 by Statistics Canada. Ordinal logistic regression was used to confirm associations between adolescent emotional disorder (at 12-13 years and initial exposure to maternal depression during 2-year intervals from birth to adolescence. Following their initial exposure to maternal depression, children were dropped from subsequent cycles. Stressful life events, chronic health conditions, maternal alcohol use, maternal marital status, gender, and SES were included as covariates. RESULTS: The results indicated that adolescents who were initially exposed to maternal depression between the ages of 2-3 years and 4-5 years had a two-fold increase in odds of emotional disorder. No increase in odds was observed in those initially exposed during the first postpartum year or later in childhood. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that a sensitive period of initial exposure to maternal depression may occur between the ages of 2 and 5, and not during the first year of life indicated by previous research. These findings are congruent with the literature on emotional and behavioral development in early childhood.

  2. Vitamin D in a northern Canadian first nation population: dietary intake, serum concentrations and functional gene polymorphisms.

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    Linda Larcombe

    Full Text Available The wide spectrum of vitamin D activity has focused attention on its potential role in the elevated burden of disease in a northern Canadian First Nations (Dené cohort. Vitamin D insufficiency, and gene polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR and vitamin D binding protein (VDBP have been implicated in susceptibility to infectious and chronic diseases. The objectives of this study were to determine the contribution of vitamin D from food, and measure the serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3 (25-OHD(3 and VDBP in Dené participants. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with the dysregulation of the innate immune response were typed and counted. Potential correlations between the SNPs and serum concentrations of 25-OHD(3 and VDBP were evaluated. Venous blood was collected in summer and winter over a one-year period and analyzed for 25-OHD(3 and VDBP concentrations (N = 46. A questionnaire was administered to determine the amount of dietary vitamin D consumed. Sixty-one percent and 30% of the participants had 25-OHD(3 serum concentrations <75 nmol/L in the winter and summer respectively. Mean vitamin D binding protein concentrations were within the normal range in the winter but below normal in the summer. VDBP and VDR gene polymorphisms affect the bioavailability and regulation of 25-OHD(3. The Dené had a high frequency of the VDBP D432E-G allele (71% and the Gc1 genotype (90%, associated with high concentrations of VDBP and a high binding affinity to 25-OHD(3. The Dené had a high frequency of VDR Fok1-f allele (82%, which has been associated with a down-regulated Th1 immune response. VDBP and VDR polymorphisms, and low winter 25-OHD(3 serum concentrations may be risk factors for infectious diseases and chronic conditions related to the dysregulation of the vitamin D pathway.

  3. Survey of pediatric MDCT radiation dose from university hospitals in Thailand. A preliminary for national dose survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika [Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla Univ., Hat Yai (Thailand)], e-mail:; Trinavarat, Panruethai [Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand); Visrutaratna, Pannee [Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai Univ., Chiang Mai (Thailand)


    Background: Increasing pediatric CT usage worldwide needs the optimization of CT protocol examination. Although there are previous published dose reference level (DRL) values, the local DRLs should be established to guide for clinical practice and monitor the CT radiation. Purpose: To determine the multidetector CT (MDCT) radiation dose in children in three university hospitals in Thailand in four age groups using the CT dose index (CTDI) and dose length product (DLP). Material and Methods: A retrospective review of CT dosimetry in pediatric patients (<15 years of age) who had undergone head, chest, and abdominal MDCT in three major university hospitals in Thailand was performed. Volume CTDI (CTDIvol) and DLP were recorded, categorized into four age groups: <1 year, 1- < 5 years, 5- <10 years, and 10- <15 years in each scanner. Range, mean, and third quartile values were compared with the national reference dose levels for CT in pediatric patients from the UK and Switzerland according to International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendation. Results: Per age group, the third quartile values for brain, chest, and abdominal CTs were, respectively, in terms of CTDIvol: 25, 30, 40, and 45 mGy; 4.5, 5.7, 10, and 15.6 mGy; 8.5, 9, 14, and 17 mGy; and in terms of DLP: 400, 570, 610, and 800 mGy cm; 80, 140, 305, and 470 mGy cm; and 190, 275, 560,765 mGy cm. Conclusion: This preliminary national dose survey for pediatric CT in Thailand found that the majority of CTDIvol and DLP values in brain, chest, and abdominal CTs were still below the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) from the UK and Switzerland regarding to ICRP recommendation.

  4. Severe vitamin D deficiency in 6 Canadian First Nation formula-fed infants

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    Melissa L. Gross


    Full Text Available Background. Rickets was first described in the 17th century and vitamin D deficiency was recognized as the underlying cause in the early 1900s. Despite this long history, vitamin D deficiency remains a significant health concern. Currently, vitamin D supplementation is recommended in Canada for breast fed infants. There are no recommendations for supplementation in formula-fed infants. Objective. The objective of this report is to bring attention to the risk of severe vitamin D deficiency in high risk, formula fed infants. Design. A retrospective chart review was used to create this clinical case series. Results. Severe vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed in six formula-fed infants over a two-and-a-half year period. All six infants presented with seizures and they resided in First Nation communities located at latitude 54 in the province of Manitoba. While these infants had several risk factors for vitamin D deficiency, they were all receiving cow's milk based formula supplemented with 400 IU/L of vitamin D. Conclusion. This report suggests that current practice with regards to vitamin D supplementation may be inadequate, especially for high-risk infants. Health care professionals providing service to infants in a similar situation should be aware of this preventable condition. Hopefully this would contribute to its prevention, diagnosis and management.

  5. Charitable giving for HIV and AIDS: results from a Canadian national survey.

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    Dan Allman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For the first time, a national survey of adults in Canada posed questions on charitable giving for HIV and AIDS. The objective of this analysis was to explore the behaviour and attitudes of this population in terms of charitable giving. METHODS: In 2011, individuals in Canada 16 years of age or older were recruited for a survey from an online panel supplemented by random digit dial telephone interviewing. The margin of error was +/-2.1 percentage points (95%. Chi-square tests were used to detect bivariate associations. A multivariate logistic regression model was fit to compare those who had donated to HIV and AIDS in the past 12 months with those who had donated to other disease or illness charities. RESULTS: 2,139 participated. 82.5% had donated to a charitable cause in the past 12 months. 22.2% had ever donated to HIV and AIDS, with 7.8% doing so in the past 12 months. Individuals who had donated to HIV and AIDS versus other disease or illness charities tended to be younger (p<0.05, single (p<0.005, more highly educated (p<0.001 and to self-identify as a member of a sexual minority group (p<0.001. Multivariate analysis revealed individuals who self-identified as a member of a sexual minority group were significantly much more likely to have donated to HIV and AIDS than to other disease or illness charities in the past 12 months (OR, 7.73; p<0.001; CI 4.32-13.88. DISCUSSION: Despite a generally philanthropic orientation, relatively few respondents had ever been involved in charitable giving for HIV and AIDS. Those who had could be understood relationally as individuals at closer social proximity to HIV and AIDS such as members of sexual minority groups.

  6. First analysis of 10-year trends in national factor concentrates usage in haemophilia: data from CHARMS, the Canadian Hemophilia Assessment and Resource Management System. (United States)

    Traore, A N; Chan, A K C; Webert, K E; Heddle, N; Ritchie, B; St-Louis, J; Teitel, J; Lillicrap, D; Iorio, A; Walker, I


    The Canadian Hemophilia Assessment and Resource Management System (CHARMS) tracks factor concentrates (FC) from the sole suppliers, Canadian Blood Services (CBS) and Hema-Quebec (HQ), to hospitals and to patients' homes. Patients FC infusion data are entered into CHARMS at Canadian Hemophilia Treatment Centres (HTCs) then exported to the national database (CentrePoint). From 2000 to 2009, 2260 registered haemophilia A or B patients received FVIII (1,009,097,765 IU) and FIX (272,406,859 IU). Over 91% of FVIII and over 84% of FIX was infused at home. Utilization of FVIII progressively increased; this was accounted for by an increase in the number of patients treated (r = 0.97; P < 0.001), there being a linear relationship between the increase in utilization and the increase in number of patients treated (P < 0.001). There was also a correlation with the annual amount used per patient (r = 0.95; P < 0.001). Utilization of FIX did not increase over time. The highest proportional utilization of both FVIII and FIX was for prophylaxis, and this proportion progressively increased being, in year 10 (2009), 77% and 66% for FVIII and FIX respectively. The proportion used for bleeding remained steady; in year 10 that proportion was 14% for FVIII and 26% for FIX, the use per patient for bleeding decreasing. The HTC-based CHARMS tracking system is essential, in Canada, for analysing indications for infusion, for predicting utilization and planning for future needs.

  7. Treatment Algorithm for Chronic Idiopathic Constipation and Constipation-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Derived from a Canadian National Survey and Needs Assessment on Choices of Therapeutic Agents

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    Yvonne Tse


    Full Text Available Background. Chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C are common functional lower gastrointestinal disorders that impair patients’ quality of life. In a national survey, we aimed to evaluate (1 Canadian physician practice patterns in the utilization of therapeutic agents listed in the new ACG and AGA guidelines; (2 physicians satisfaction with these agents for their CIC and IBS-C patients; and (3 the usefulness of these new guidelines in their clinical practice. Methods. A 9-item questionnaire was sent to 350 Canadian specialists to evaluate their clinical practice for the management of CIC and IBS-C. Results. The response rate to the survey was 16% (n=55. Almost all (96% respondents followed a standard, stepwise approach for management while they believed that only 24% of referring physicians followed the same approach. Respondents found guanylyl cyclase C (GCC agonist most satisfying when treating their patients. Among the 69% of respondents who were aware of published guidelines, only 50% found them helpful in prioritizing treatment choices and 69% of respondents indicated that a treatment algorithm, applicable to Canadian practice, would be valuable. Conclusion. Based on this needs assessment, a treatment algorithm was developed to provide clinical guidance in the management of IBS-C and CIC in Canada.

  8. National inventory report 1990-2009: greenhouse gas sourcesand sinks in Canada - The Canadian Government's submission to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document is the national inventory report for 1990 to 2009 on greenhouse gas sources and sinks in Canada. Herein is provided an inventory of the emissions of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), hydrofluorocarbon (HFCs), perfluorocarbon (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) by the energy, industrial and agricultural sectors in Canada for every year between 1990 and 2009. An analysis of every Canadian province and territory in terms of electricity consumption and greenhouse gas emissions is then provided. Finally, an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions, electricity generation and greenhouse gas intensity is provided for the years 1990 and 2000 to 2009.

  9. Canadian/US update: The emerging visibility and role of agroforestry in national and international climate change strategies (United States)

    U.S. and Canadian agricultural lands are being targeted to provide more environmental and economic services while at the same time their continued capability to provide these services under potential climate change (CC) is being questioned. Addressing both concerns requires a broader approach of des...

  10. Evaluating the Impact of a Canadian National Anatomy and Radiology Contouring Boot Camp for Radiation Oncology Residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaswal, Jasbir [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); D' Souza, Leah; Johnson, Marjorie [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); Tay, KengYeow [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, London Health Sciences, London, Ontario (Canada); Fung, Kevin; Nichols, Anthony [Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Victoria Hospital, London, Ontario (Canada); Landis, Mark [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, London Health Sciences, London, Ontario (Canada); Leung, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Kassam, Zahra [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, St. Joseph' s Health Care London, London, Ontario (Canada); Willmore, Katherine [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); D' Souza, David; Sexton, Tracy [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Palma, David A., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)


    Background: Radiation therapy treatment planning has advanced over the past 2 decades, with increased emphasis on 3-dimensional imaging for target and organ-at-risk (OAR) delineation. Recent studies suggest a need for improved resident instruction in this area. We developed and evaluated an intensive national educational course (“boot camp”) designed to provide dedicated instruction in site-specific anatomy, radiology, and contouring using a multidisciplinary (MDT) approach. Methods: The anatomy and radiology contouring (ARC) boot camp was modeled after prior single-institution pilot studies and a needs-assessment survey. The boot camp incorporated joint lectures from radiation oncologists, anatomists, radiologists, and surgeons, with hands-on contouring instruction and small group interactive seminars using cadaveric prosections and correlative axial radiographs. Outcomes were evaluated using pretesting and posttesting, including anatomy/radiology multiple-choice questions (MCQ), timed contouring sessions (evaluated relative to a gold standard using Dice similarity metrics), and qualitative questions on satisfaction and perceived effectiveness. Analyses of pretest versus posttest scores were performed using nonparametric paired testing. Results: Twenty-nine radiation oncology residents from 10 Canadian universities participated. As part of their current training, 29%, 75%, and 21% receive anatomy, radiology, and contouring instruction, respectively. On posttest scores, the MCQ knowledge scores improved significantly (pretest mean 60% vs posttest mean 80%, P<.001). Across all contoured structures, there was a 0.20 median improvement in students' average Dice score (P<.001). For individual structures, significant Dice improvements occurred in 10 structures. Residents self-reported an improved ability to contour OARs and interpret radiographs in all anatomic sites, 92% of students found the MDT format effective for their learning, and 93% found the boot camp

  11. Testing the Capacity of the National Biological Dose Response Plan (NBDRP) EX40801 (United States)


    providing radiation biological dose estimates using the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA). As indicated in the CRTI-06-0146RD charter, the existing...laboratories of the National Biological Dose Response Plan plus two US laboratories. Samples were scored for the dicentric chromosome assay and the CBMN...Wilkins, R.C. QuickScan dicentric chromosome analysis for radiation biodosimetry , Health Physics Journal, In Press (2009). 2. McNamee, J.P., Flegal

  12. Conceptual and practical challenges for implementing the communities of practice model on a national scale - a Canadian cancer control initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browman George P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer program delivery, like the rest of health care in Canada, faces two ongoing challenges: to coordinate a pan-Canadian approach across complex provincial jurisdictions, and to facilitate the rapid translation of knowledge into clinical practice. Communities of practice, or CoPs, which have been described by Etienne Wenger as a collaborative learning platform, represent a promising solution to these challenges because they rely on bottom-up rather than top-down social structures for integrating knowledge and practice across regions and agencies. The communities of practice model has been realized in the corporate (e.g., Royal Dutch Shell, Xerox, IBM, etc and development (e.g., World Bank sectors, but its application to health care is relatively new. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (CPAC is exploring the potential of Wenger's concept in the Canadian health care context. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of Wenger's concept with a focus on its applicability to the health care sector. Discussion Empirical studies and social science theory are used to examine the utility of Wenger's concept. Its value lies in emphasizing learning from peers and through practice in settings where innovation is valued. Yet the communities of practice concept lacks conceptual clarity because Wenger defines it so broadly and sidelines issues of decision making within CoPs. We consider the implications of his broad definition to establishing an informed nomenclature around this specific type of collaborative group. The CoP Project under CPAC and communities of practice in Canadian health care are discussed. Summary The use of communities of practice in Canadian health care has been shown in some instances to facilitate quality improvements, encourage buy in among participants, and generate high levels of satisfaction with clinical leadership and knowledge translation among participating physicians. Despite these individual success

  13. Who is using e-cigarettes in Canada? Nationally representative data on the prevalence of e-cigarette use among Canadians. (United States)

    Reid, Jessica L; Rynard, Vicki L; Czoli, Christine D; Hammond, David


    The current study examined prevalence and correlates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in the Canadian population, using data from the nationally representative 2013 Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (n=14,565). Sociodemographic correlates of e-cigarette use (ever, and in the past 30 days) were examined using logistic regression models. Overall, 8.5% of Canadians aged 15 and older reported having ever tried an e-cigarette; 1.8% had used one in the past 30 days. E-cigarette use was particularly high among smokers and young people. Overall, prevalence did not differ between males and females, for ever (P=0.24) or past 30-day use (P=0.30). Smoking status was the strongest correlate of e-cigarette use (ever and in the past 30 days, Pe-cigarette (9.6% used in the past 30 days), compared to 3.0% of never-smokers (0.3% past 30-days), and 5.1% of former smokers (0.9% past 30-day). E-cigarette use also varied by age (Pe-cigarette users were never-smokers, while the majority of adult users were smokers. In Canada, e-cigarette use is particularly high among smokers and young people. Dual use with cigarettes was common, with most e-cigarette users also smoking conventional cigarettes. Continued monitoring of e-cigarette use and its relationship with smoking should be a priority, given the rapidly-evolving e-cigarette market and implementation of new policy measures.

  14. Guidance document for setting an Acute Reference Dose in Dutch national pesticide evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaij MTM van; CSR


    This report describes a proposal for the procedures for setting an Acute Reference Dose (ARfD) for pesticides evaluated in the Netherlands. This deals with both evaluations on the national level (on behalf of the Dutch Board for the Authorisation of Pesticides (CTB)) and evaluations at the European

  15. Patient dose estimation from CT scans at the Mexican National Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute (United States)

    Alva-Sánchez, Héctor; Reynoso-Mejía, Alberto; Casares-Cruz, Katiuzka; Taboada-Barajas, Jesús


    In the radiology department of the Mexican National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, a dedicated institute in Mexico City, on average 19.3 computed tomography (CT) examinations are performed daily on hospitalized patients for neurological disease diagnosis, control scans and follow-up imaging. The purpose of this work was to estimate the effective dose received by hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan using typical effective dose values for all CT types and to obtain the estimated effective dose distributions received by surgical and non-surgical patients. Effective patient doses were estimated from values per study type reported in the applications guide provided by the scanner manufacturer. This retrospective study included all hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2012. A total of 8777 CT scans were performed in this two-year period. Simple brain scan was the CT type performed the most (74.3%) followed by contrasted brain scan (6.1%) and head angiotomography (5.7%). The average number of CT scans per patient was 2.83; the average effective dose per patient was 7.9 mSv; the mean estimated radiation dose was significantly higher for surgical (9.1 mSv) than non-surgical patients (6.0 mSv). Three percent of the patients had 10 or more brain CT scans and exceeded the organ radiation dose threshold set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for deterministic effects of the eye-lens. Although radiation patient doses from CT scans were in general relatively low, 187 patients received a high effective dose (>20 mSv) and 3% might develop cataract from cumulative doses to the eye lens.

  16. Patient dose estimation from CT scans at the Mexican National Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alva-Sánchez, Héctor, E-mail: [Unidad de Imagen Molecular PET/CT, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez, Insurgentes Sur 3877 Col. La Fama, 14269, México D.F. (Mexico); Reynoso-Mejía, Alberto [Unidad de Imagen Molecular PET/CT, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez, Insurgentes Sur 3877 Col. La Fama, 14269, México D.F., Mexico and Departamento de Neuroimagen, Instituto Nacional de (Mexico); Casares-Cruz, Katiuzka; Taboada-Barajas, Jesús [Departamento de Neuroimagen, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez, Insurgentes Sur 3877 Col. La Fama, 14269, México D.F. (Mexico)


    In the radiology department of the Mexican National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, a dedicated institute in Mexico City, on average 19.3 computed tomography (CT) examinations are performed daily on hospitalized patients for neurological disease diagnosis, control scans and follow-up imaging. The purpose of this work was to estimate the effective dose received by hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan using typical effective dose values for all CT types and to obtain the estimated effective dose distributions received by surgical and non-surgical patients. Effective patient doses were estimated from values per study type reported in the applications guide provided by the scanner manufacturer. This retrospective study included all hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2012. A total of 8777 CT scans were performed in this two-year period. Simple brain scan was the CT type performed the most (74.3%) followed by contrasted brain scan (6.1%) and head angiotomography (5.7%). The average number of CT scans per patient was 2.83; the average effective dose per patient was 7.9 mSv; the mean estimated radiation dose was significantly higher for surgical (9.1 mSv) than non-surgical patients (6.0 mSv). Three percent of the patients had 10 or more brain CT scans and exceeded the organ radiation dose threshold set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for deterministic effects of the eye-lens. Although radiation patient doses from CT scans were in general relatively low, 187 patients received a high effective dose (>20 mSv) and 3% might develop cataract from cumulative doses to the eye lens.

  17. Exploring Canadian Identity through Canadian Children's Literature. (United States)

    Pantaleo, Sylvia


    Considers what commonplaces of culture and identity are being, could be, transmitted through the use of children's literature in classrooms. Explores what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Describes a study which involved Canadian elementary school children who read Canadian children's books. Concludes that literature plays a…

  18. Transnational archives: the Canadian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Creet


    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.

  19. Risk messages about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine Gardasil: a content analysis of Canadian and U.S. national newspaper articles. (United States)

    Abdelmutti, Nazek; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie


    The human papillomavirus vaccine (Gardasil) is a significant advancement in women's health. We compared the reporting of fear-inducing messages about human papillomavirus, cervical cancer, and the human papillomavirus vaccine in Canadian and U.S. national newspapers between January 2006 and December 2007. Significant differences between countries were found in the number of articles containing fear messages about human papillomavirus, cervical cancer, and the human papillomavirus vaccine. Educational level of readability was higher than recommended for the public, and the emotional tone of the articles became progressively negative over time. Our findings suggest that public discussion of some elements of the human papillomavirus vaccine message that could cause alarm or worry for women may need to be addressed within political and cultural contexts.

  20. Cardiovascular Risk According to Plasma Apolipoprotein and Lipid Profiles in a Canadian First Nation* * This article is part of a joint publication initiative between Preventing Chronic Disease and Chronic Diseases in Canada. Preventing Chronic Disease is the primary publisher, while Chronic Diseases in Canada is the secondary publisher.


    Riediger, Natalie D; Bruce, Sharon G; T. Kue Young


    Introduction Despite high diabetes rates among Canadian First Nations people, little is known about their cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to describe the apolipoprotein profile with respect to cardiovascular risk in a Canadian First Nation community. Methods In 2003, a representative sample of adult members of a Manitoba First Nation (N = 483) participated in a screening study for diabetes and diabetes complications. We assessed their cardiovascular risk factors. Results Sixty percen...

  1. Canadian Literature in American Libraries (United States)

    Rogers, A. Robert


    Acquisition of Canadian literature by American libraries was investigated in three ways: questionnaires were sent to selected large libraries, titles were checked against the National Union Catalog'' and published literature describing major collections was examined. With the exception of the Library of Congress, American libraries purchase…

  2. Establishing the Canadian HIV Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS: Operationalizing Community-based Research in a Large National Quantitative Study

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    Mona Loutfy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based research has gained increasing recognition in health research over the last two decades. Such participatory research approaches are lauded for their ability to anchor research in lived experiences, ensuring cultural appropriateness, accessing local knowledge, reaching marginalized communities, building capacity, and facilitating research-to-action. While having these positive attributes, the community-based health research literature is predominantly composed of small projects, using qualitative methods, and set within geographically limited communities. Its use in larger health studies, including clinical trials and cohorts, is limited. We present the Canadian HIV Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS, a large-scale, multi-site, national, longitudinal quantitative study that has operationalized community-based research in all steps of the research process. Successes, challenges and further considerations are offered. Discussion Through the integration of community-based research principles, we have been successful in: facilitating a two-year long formative phase for this study; developing a novel survey instrument with national involvement; training 39 Peer Research Associates (PRAs; offering ongoing comprehensive support to PRAs; and engaging in an ongoing iterative community-based research process. Our community-based research approach within CHIWOS demanded that we be cognizant of challenges managing a large national team, inherent power imbalances and challenges with communication, compensation and volunteering considerations, and extensive delays in institutional processes. It is important to consider the iterative nature of community-based research and to work through tensions that emerge given the diverse perspectives of numerous team members. Conclusions Community-based research, as an approach to large-scale quantitative health research projects, is an increasingly viable

  3. Validation of a Culturally Appropriate Social Capital Framework to Explore Health Conditions in Canadian First Nations Communities

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    Brenda Elias


    Full Text Available An earlier study of our research group formulated a conceptual framework of social capital for First Nation communities and developed a culturally appropriate instrument for its measurement. We tested this instrument further with the Manitoba (Canada First Nations Regional Health Survey, 2003. Using data from this survey, we investigated the bonding dimension of the social capital conceptual framework, with a total sample of 2,765 First Nations individuals living in 24 Manitoba First Nations communities. Twenty seven Likert-scale survey questions measured aspects of bonding social capital, socially-invested resources, ethos,and networks. Validation analyses included an evaluation of internal consistency, factor analyses to explore how well the items clustered together into the components of the social capital framework, and the ability of the items to discriminate across the communities represented in the sample. Cronbach’s Alpha was computed on the 27 scale items, producing an Alpha of 0.84 indicating high internal consistency. The factor analyses produced five distinct factors with a total explained variance of 54.3%. Lastly, a one-way analysis of variancerun by community produced highly significant F-ratios between the groups on all twenty-seven bonding items. The culturally-sensitive items included in the social capital framework were found to be an appropriate tool to measure bonding aspects among Manitoba First Nations communities. Research and policy implications are discussed.

  4. National Survey of Radiation Dose and Image Quality in Adult CT Head Scans in Taiwan.

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    Chung-Jung Lin

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different variables on radiation dose and image quality based on a national database.Taiwan's Ministry of Health and Welfare requested all radiology departments to complete a questionnaire for each of their CT scanners. Information gathered included all scanning parameters for CT head scans. For the present analysis, CT machines were divided into three subgroups: single slice CT (Group A; multi-detector CT (MDCT with 2-64 slices (Group B; and MDCT with more than 64 slices (Group C. Correlations between computed tomography dose index (CTDI and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR with cumulated tube rotation number (CTW(n and cumulated tube rotation time (CTW(s, and sub group analyses of CTDI and SNR across the three groups were performed.CTDI values demonstrated a weak correlation (r = 0.33 with CTW(n in Group A. SNR values demonstrated a weak negative correlation (r = -0.46 with CTW(n in Group C. MDCT with higher slice numbers used more tube potential resulting in higher effective doses. There were both significantly lower CTDI and SNR values in helical mode than in axial mode in Group B, but not Group C.CTW(n and CTW(s did not influence radiation output. Helical mode is more often used in MDCT and results in both lower CTDI and SNR compared to axial mode in MDCT with less than 64 slices.

  5. Dose profile modeling of Idaho National Laboratory's active neutron interrogation laboratory. (United States)

    Chichester, D L; Seabury, E H; Zabriskie, J M; Wharton, J; Caffrey, A J


    A new laboratory has been commissioned at Idaho National Laboratory for performing active neutron interrogation research and development. The facility is designed to provide radiation shielding for deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion (14.1 MeV) neutron generators (2 x 10(8) n/s), deuterium-deuterium (DD) fusion (2.5 MeV) neutron generators (1 x 10(7) n/s), and (252)Cf spontaneous fission neutron sources (6.96 x 10(7) n/s, 30 microg). Shielding at the laboratory is comprised of modular concrete shield blocks 0.76 m thick with tongue-in-groove features to prevent radiation streaming, arranged into one small and one large test vault. The larger vault is designed to allow operation of the DT generator and has walls 3.8m tall, an entrance maze, and a fully integrated electrical interlock system; the smaller test vault is designed for (252)Cf and DD neutron sources and has walls 1.9 m tall and a simple entrance maze. Both analytical calculations and numerical simulations were used in the design process for the building to assess the performance of the shielding walls and to ensure external dose rates are within required facility limits. Dose rate contour plots have been generated for the facility to visualize the effectiveness of the shield walls and entrance mazes and to illustrate the spatial profile of the radiation dose field above the facility and the effects of skyshine around the vaults.

  6. Aerobic physical activity and resistance training: an application of the theory of planned behavior among adults with type 2 diabetes in a random, national sample of Canadians

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    Karunamuni Nandini


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aerobic physical activity (PA and resistance training are paramount in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but few studies have examined the determinants of both types of exercise in the same sample. Objective The primary purpose was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB in explaining aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults. Methods A total of 244 individuals were recruited through a random national sample which was created by generating a random list of household phone numbers. The list was proportionate to the actual number of household telephone numbers for each Canadian province (with the exception of Quebec. These individuals completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention, and a 3-month follow-up that assessed aerobic PA and resistance training. Results TPB explained 10% and 8% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training; and accounted for 39% and 45% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training intentions. Conclusion These results may guide the development of appropriate PA interventions for aerobic PA and resistance training based on the TPB.

  7. Identification of dietary patterns associated with obesity in a nationally representative survey of Canadian adults: application of a priori, hybrid, and simplified dietary pattern techniques. (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Wolfinger, Russell D; Lou, Wendy Y; L'Abbé, Mary R


    Background: Analyzing the effects of dietary patterns is an important approach for examining the complex role of nutrition in the etiology of obesity and chronic diseases.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to characterize the dietary patterns of Canadians with the use of a priori, hybrid, and simplified dietary pattern techniques, and to compare the associations of these patterns with obesity risk in individuals with and without chronic diseases (unhealthy and healthy obesity).Design: Dietary recalls from 11,748 participants (≥18 y of age) in the cross-sectional, nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 were used. A priori dietary pattern was characterized with the use of the previously validated 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adherence Index (DGAI). Weighted partial least squares (hybrid method) was used to derive an energy-dense (ED), high-fat (HF), low-fiber density (LFD) dietary pattern with the use of 38 food groups. The associations of derived dietary patterns with disease outcomes were then tested with the use of multinomial logistic regression.Results: An ED, HF, and LFD dietary pattern had high positive loadings for fast foods, carbonated drinks, and refined grains, and high negative loadings for whole fruits and vegetables (≥|0.17|). Food groups with a high loading were summed to form a simplified dietary pattern score. Moving from the first (healthiest) to the fourth (least healthy) quartiles of the ED, HF, and LFD pattern and the simplified dietary pattern scores was associated with increasingly elevated ORs for unhealthy obesity, with individuals in quartile 4 having an OR of 2.57 (95% CI: 1.75, 3.76) and 2.73 (95% CI: 1.88, 3.98), respectively (P-trend patterns with healthy obesity and unhealthy nonobesity were weaker, albeit significant.Conclusions: Consuming an ED, HF, and LFD dietary pattern and lack of adherence to the recommendations of the 2015 DGAI were associated with a significantly higher risk of

  8. Comparison of precipitation chemistry measurements obtained by the Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network and National Atmospheric Deposition Program for the period 1995-2004 (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Shaw, Michael J.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Rothert, Jane E.


    Precipitation chemistry and depth measurements obtained by the Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN) and the US National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) were compared for the 10-year period 1995–2004. Colocated sets of CAPMoN and NADP instrumentation, consisting of precipitation collectors and rain gages, were operated simultaneously per standard protocols for each network at Sutton, Ontario and Frelighsburg, Ontario, Canada and at State College, PA, USA. CAPMoN samples were collected daily, and NADP samples were collected weekly, and samples were analyzed exclusively by each network’s laboratory for pH, H + , Ca2+  , Mg2+  , Na + , K + , NH+4 , Cl − , NO−3 , and SO2−4 . Weekly and annual precipitation-weighted mean concentrations for each network were compared. This study is a follow-up to an earlier internetwork comparison for the period 1986–1993, published by Alain Sirois, Robert Vet, and Dennis Lamb in 2000. Median weekly internetwork differences for 1995–2004 data were the same to slightly lower than for data for the previous study period (1986–1993) for all analytes except NO−3 , SO2−4 , and sample depth. A 1994 NADP sampling protocol change and a 1998 change in the types of filters used to process NADP samples reversed the previously identified negative bias in NADP data for hydrogen-ion and sodium concentrations. Statistically significant biases (α = 0.10) for sodium and hydrogen-ion concentrations observed in the 1986–1993 data were not significant for 1995–2004. Weekly CAPMoN measurements generally are higher than weekly NADP measurements due to differences in sample filtration and field instrumentation, not sample evaporation, contamination, or analytical laboratory differences.

  9. Ear Infection and Its Associated Risk Factors in First Nations and Rural School-Aged Canadian Children

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    Chandima P. Karunanayake


    Full Text Available Background. Ear infections in children are a major health problem and may be associated with hearing impairment and delayed language development. Objective. To determine the prevalence and the associated risk factors of ear infections in children 6–17 years old residing on two reserves and rural areas in the province of Saskatchewan. Methodology. Data were provided from two rural cross-sectional children studies. Outcome variable of interest was presence/absence of an ear infection. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between ear infection and the other covariates. Results. The prevalence of ear infection was 57.8% for rural Caucasian children and 43.6% for First Nations children living on-reserve. First Nations children had a lower risk of ear infection. Ear infection prevalence was positively associated with younger age; first born in the family; self-reported physician-diagnosed tonsillitis; self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma; and any respiratory related allergy. Protective effect of breastfeeding longer than three months was observed on the prevalence of ear infection. Conclusions. While ear infection is a prevalent condition of childhood, First Nations children were less likely to have a history of ear infections when compared to their rural Caucasian counterparts.

  10. The imperative for new approaches for managing and leading in healthcare for the 21st century--observations from the Canadian Nurses Association's National Expert Commission Experience and Report. (United States)

    McTeer, Maureen


    The Canadian healthcare system must change to meet current and future realities, particularly to respond effectively to changing age and cultural demographics and new medical/scientific technologies. To meet its ongoing policy role, the Canadian Nurses Association established a National Expert Commission in 2011, mandated to prepare a report on healthcare reform and transformation, with a clear focus on the role individual nurses and the nursing profession generally could play in ensuring better health, better care and better value for Canadians. In this paper, Commission co-chair, health law specialist Maureen McTeer, outlines the key findings and recommendations of their final report, titled A Nursing Call to Action: The Health of our Nation, the Future of our Health System which she and co-chair Dr. Marlene Smadu presented originally at the CNA's biennial meeting in Vancouver, in June, 2012. The discussion focuses on the rationale behind the commission's recommendation for a new registered nursing education curriculum and approach to training.

  11. Universal values of Canadian astronauts (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina


    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  12. Medical aid provided by American, Canadian and British Nationals to the Spanish Republic during the Civil War, 1936-1939. (United States)

    Shapiro, M F


    During international or civil wars, private citizens of noncombatant nations often provide medical aid to one of the contending factions, particularly when they support a participant not favored by their own government. This paper details and analyzes the prominent campaign in the United States, Canada and Great Britain to provide medical aid to the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War (1936 to 1939). The substantial medical aid that was provided clearly alleviated some suffering, but one of the major objectives of the campaign was to arouse public opinion sufficiently to end the boycott of military aid to Republicans; this objective was never achieved. Whether it be in Republican Spain, Vietnam or El Salvador, even a successful medical aid campaign to people in a military conflict may save some lives but may not affect substantially the course of the conflict. Those who are primarily interested in influencing political or military developments, hoping to advance the cause of a particular contending faction, may find tactics other than medical aid campaigns more useful in accomplishing their goals.

  13. Canadian construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, M.


    The principal sectors of the Canadian construction industry - commercial, industrial, institutional and residential - are examined with regard to their technical considerations concerning the subject of sustainability. Apart from the different needs of each of the sectors of the industry there are also regional differences caused by population distribution, and differences in climate, that have to be identified and accommodated in considering attitudes to recycling and sustainable development. Some indications that there is growing awareness of recycling and reuse are: the increasing frequency of life cycle costing in the commercial and institutional sectors, the use of recycled or otherwise waste materials in concrete, examples of using steel supporting structures and roof joists salvaged from previous uncompleted projects in the industrial sector, improved building envelope and indoor air quality concerns, collective ground source heating, and new basement and framing technologies and construction materials in the residential sector. These improvements notwithstanding, there remains much to be done. The new objective-based National Building Code, for which comments are now being solicited across the country, is expected to identify new and innovative solutions and to kick-start serious efforts to come up with solutions towards increasing overall sustainability in all sectors of the Canadian construction industry.

  14. Parenting-by-gender interactions in child psychopathology: attempting to address inconsistencies with a Canadian national database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabane Lehana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown strong links between parenting and child psychopathology. The moderating role of child gender is of particular interest, due to gender differences in socialization history and in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Currently there is little agreement on how gender moderates the relationship between parenting and child psychopathology. This study attempts to address this lack of consensus by drawing upon two theories (self-salience vs. gender stereotyped misbehaviour to determine how child gender moderates the role of parenting, if at all. Methods Using generalized estimating equations (GEE associations between three parenting dimensions (hostile-ineffective parenting, parental consistency, and positive interaction were examined in relationship to child externalizing (physical aggression, indirect aggression, and hyperactivity-inattention and internalizing (emotional disorder-anxiety dimensions of psychopathology. A sample 4 and 5 year olds from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY were selected for analysis and followed over 6 years (N = 1214. Two models with main effects (Model 1 and main effects plus interactions (Model 2 were tested. Results No child gender-by-parenting interactions were observed for child physical aggression and indirect aggression. The association between hostile-ineffective parenting and child hyperactivity was stronger for girls, though this effect did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance (p = .059. The associations between parenting and child emotional disorder did vary as a function of gender, where influences of parental consistency and positive interaction were stronger for boys. Discussion Despite the presence of a few significant interaction effects, hypotheses were not supported for either theory (i.e. self-salience or gender stereotyped misbehaviour. We believe that the inconsistencies in the literature regarding child gender

  15. Canadian Content in School Texts and the Changing Goals of Education. (United States)

    Orpwood, Graham


    The lack of "Canadian content" in Canadian public school textbooks can be more easily explained by changing national educational goals than by foreign ownership of the publishing industry. Science textbooks are used to illustrate. (SB)

  16. A national survey on radiation dose in CT in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, A.J. van der; Schilham, A.; Stoop, P.; Prokop, M.; Geleijns, J.


    Objectives To assess radiation exposure due to CT in the Netherlands. Methods Twenty-one hospitals participated in a dose survey for the 21 most frequently used CT protocols. Hospitals completed a Web survey with detailed parameters for one patient per protocol, including the dose length product (

  17. Three-dimensional dose distribution of tangential breast treatment; A national dosimetry intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bree, N.A.M. van; Battum, L.J. van (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands) Dr. Daniel Den Hoed Cancer Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Department of Clinical Physics); Huizenga, H.; Mijnheer, B.J. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands))


    From Aug.'90-Feb.'91, dosimetry intercomparison of breast treatment was performed at all 21 radiotherapy centres in The Netherlands. The absorbed dose was measured in three planes in a breast phantom during tangential breast irradiation, according to a prescribed technique. The beam energy could be chosen by the radiotherapy centre as normally applied for this type of 'patient', and varied between {sup 60}Co and 8MV X-rays. The dose measured by the visiting team in 22 points inside the phantom was compared with the dose calculated by the institution using their local treatment planning system. In the institutions mean ratio (mean value of ratios of the absolute calculated dose and measured absolute dose in the 22 points) varied between 0.92-1.08 with an over-all mean ratio of 1.04. There was no significant difference in this ratio between the 3 planes in a particular institution. In the isocentre mean ratio of calculated and measured dose was 1.021 with a SD of 0.028 i.e. the algorithms in the 6 different commercial treatment planning systems calculate the dose generally somewhat too high. In order to explain results, a measurement of the output under reference conditions was performed at each treatment unit. Mean ratio of the dose stated by the institution and the dose measured by the visiting team was 1.011 with a 0.015-SD with a maximum deviation of 0.040. This small deviation explains therefore only part of variation in the ratio of calculated and measured dose for tangential breast irradiation. In several centres large deviations between actual beam data and beam data implemented in the planning system were found, which was the main reason for observed discrepancies. (author). 15 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs.

  18. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland (United States)

    Ketovuori, Mikko


    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003-2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to…

  19. Doses delivered to normal brain under different treatment protocols at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J.; Coderre, J.A.; Liu, H.B. [and others


    As of October 31, 1996, 23 glioblastoma multiforme patients underwent BNCT under several treatment protocols at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor. For treatment planning and dosimetry purposes, these protocols may be divided into four groups. The first group comprises protocols that used an 8-cm collimator and allowed a peak normal brain dose of 10.5 Gy-Eq to avolume of 1 cm{sup 3} were the thermal neutron flux was maximal (even if it happened to be in the tumor volume). The second group differs from the first in that it allowed a peak normal brain dose of 12.6 Gy-Eq. The protocols of the third and fourth groups allowed the prescribed peak normal brain dose of 12.6 Gy-Eq to be outside of the tumor volume, used a 12-cm collimator and, respectively, uni- or bilateral irradiations. We describe the treatment planning procedures and report the doses delivered to various structures of the brain.

  20. National assessment of shoreline change: a GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the north coast of Alaska, U.S.-Canadian border to Icy Cape (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Karen A. Ohman,; Richmond, Bruce M.


    The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native communities, and encompasses unique habitats of global significance. Coastal erosion along the Arctic coast is chronic, widespread, and may be accelerating, which threatens defense- and energy-related infrastructure, natural shoreline habitats, and Native communities. There is an increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present shoreline changes across the United States. To meet these national needs, the Coastal and Marine Geology Program of the U.S. Geological Survey is compiling existing reliable historical shoreline data along sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Alaska and Hawaii under the National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project (hereafter referred to as the "National Assessment project"; A comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines and rates of shoreline change for Alaska, from the U.S.-Canadian border to Icy Cape, is presented in this report as part of the National Assessment project.

  1. Radioactive materials in biosolids : national survey, dose modeling, and publicly owned treatment works (POTW) guidance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastian, R. K.; Bachmaier, J. T.; Schmidt, D. W.; Salomon, S. N.; Jones, A.; Chiu, W. A.; Setlow, L. W.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Yu, C.; Goodman, J.; Lenhart, T.; Environmental Assessment; U.S. EPA; U.S. DOE; U.S. NRC; NJ Dept of Environmental Radiation; NE Ohio Regional Sewer District


    Received for publication March 1, 2004. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) announced the availability of three new documents concerning radioactive materials in sewage sludge and ash from publicly owned treatment works (POTW). One of the documents is a report presenting the results of a volunteer survey of sewage sludge and ash samples provided by 313 POTWs. The second document is a dose modeling document, using multiple exposure pathway modeling focused on a series of generic scenarios, to track possible exposure of POTW workers and members of the general public to radioactivity from the sewage sludge or ash. The third document is a guidance report providing recommendations on the management of radioactivity in sewage sludge and ash for POTW owners and operators. This paper explains how radioactive materials enter POTWs, provides criteria for evaluating levels of radioactive material in sludge and ash, and gives a summary of the results of the survey and dose modeling efforts.

  2. Canadian 12^th National Metropolis Conference and Canadian Multiculturalism in Time of the Post - Economical Crisis%从加拿大第12次全国大都市会议看后经济危机背景下的加拿大多元文化主义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The 12^th National Metropolis Conference was held in Montreal in March, 2010. Its major priorities includ Citizenship and social, cultural, linguistic and civic integration; Economic and labor market integration; Family, children, youth; The role of the host communities for new- comers and minorities; Justice, policing and security; Housing, neighborhoods and the urban environment. The paper follows the reports on Conference priorities, discusses the significance of Canadian federal multicuhural policies in the time of the post -economic crisis, exams the fresh requirements and challenges prompted by the new historical and international circumstances, tries to cast a would - be panorama of the integrated Canadian society to come, and sees how its multicuhural ideology contributes to the human society at large.%2010年3月在加拿大的蒙特利尔市举行的第12次全国大都市会议围绕社会文化融合、经济与劳动力市场协调、家庭及青少年问题、住房、社区、城乡环境、社会公正和安全保障等六项议题展开研讨,以此次会议的宗旨和要义为主线,审视独特的加拿大多元文化主义治国策略在后经济危机背景下所发挥的作用,分析新历史条件和国际形势对多元文化主义政策的要求和挑战,展望理解、宽容、和谐、共荣的加拿大社会理念的发展愿景,以及对人类社会整体进步的促进和推动。

  3. National bank of occupational Doses of the Cuba Republic: main results and experiences; Banco Nacional de Dosis ocupacionales de la Republica de Cuba: principales resultados y experiencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Ramos, M.; Prendes Alonso, M.; Tomas Zerquera, J.; Molina Perez, D.; Soler Castro, A., E-mail: [Agencia de Energia Nuclear y Tecnologias de Avanzada (CPHR/AENTA), La Habana (Cuba). Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones; De la Fuentes Puch, A. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba)


    The general objective of the development of the National Bank of Dose was to contribute for improving security monitoring in applications, by providing Cuban Regulatory Authority an effective tool to comply with the requirements that the records of individual occupational doses of Cuban workers are retained and available for competent authorities and individuals.

  4. International surgery: definition, principles and Canadian practice. (United States)

    Lett, Ronald


    This article is dedicated to the Canadian international surgeon, Norman Bethune (1890-1939). International surgery is defined as a humanitarian branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of bodily injuries or disorders by incision or manipulations, emphasizing cooperation and understanding among nations and involving education, research, development and advocacy. In this article I review the colonial past, the dark ages following the Declaration of Alma-Ata, the progress made and the present challenges in international surgery. I present a definition of international surgery that recognizes the current era of surgical humanitarianism, validates a global understanding of surgical issues and promotes cooperation among nations. Included are the principles of international surgery: education, research, infrastructure development and advocacy. International surgical projects are classified according to type (clinical, relief, developmental) and integration strategy (vertical or horizontal). Also reviewed are the Canadian practice of international surgery by nongovernmental, professional and academic organizations and the requirements of international and Canadian funding agencies, the development concepts basic to all projects, including results-based management and the cross-cutting themes of gender equity, environmental protection and human safety. I recommend formalizing international surgery into a discipline as a means of promoting surgical care in low-income countries. If international surgery is to be sustained in Canada, infrastructure and support from Canadian surgeons is particularly important. An understanding of the history, definition and classification of international surgery should promote surgical care in low-income countries.

  5. The Study of Canadian Culture (United States)

    Mandel, Eli


    Discussed are Canadian novels, short stories, poems and a film which revolve around man's confrontation with nature, the depression, the problem of isolation, realism in Canadian literature. (Author/AF)

  6. The Canadian Teaching Commons: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Canadian Higher Education (United States)

    Wuetherick, Brad; Yu, Stan


    This chapter reports on a national study exploring the current state of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) and assessing the perceptions of Canadian SoTL scholars at the micro (individual), meso (departmental), macro (institutional), and mega (disciplinary) contexts.

  7. Teaching Canadian Literature: An Evaluation. (United States)

    Harker, W. John


    Suggests granting greater recognition to the artistic integrity of Canadian literature by removing it from the broader context of Canadian studies. Indicates that understanding and appreciation of Canadian literature as a representation of reality filtered through the perception of an author should be focus of literature in schools. (NEC)

  8. Twitter and Canadian Educators (United States)

    Cooke, Max


    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  9. Canadian Adult Basic Education. (United States)

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional…

  10. Effects of CT dose and nodule characteristics on lung-nodule detectability in a cohort of 90 national lung screening trial patients (United States)

    Young, Stefano; Lo, Pechin; Hoffman, John M.; Kim, H. J. Grace; Brown, Matthew S.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.


    Lung cancer screening CT is already performed at low dose. There are many techniques to reduce the dose even further, but it is not clear how such techniques will affect nodule detectability. In this work, we used an in-house CAD algorithm to evaluate detectability. 90348 patients and their raw CT data files were drawn from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) database. All scans were acquired at ~2 mGy CTDIvol with fixed tube current, 1 mm slice thickness, and B50 reconstruction kernel on a Sensation 64 scanner (Siemens Healthcare). We used the raw CT data to simulate two additional reduced-dose scans for each patient corresponding to 1 mGy (50%) and 0.5 mGy (25%). Radiologists' findings on the NLST reader forms indicated 65 nodules in the cohort, which we subdivided based on LungRADS criteria. For larger category 4 nodules, median sensitivities were 100% at all three dose levels, and mean sensitivity decreased with dose. For smaller nodules meeting the category 2 or 3 criteria, the dose dependence was less obvious. Overall, mean patient-level sensitivity varied from 38.5% at 100% dose to 40.4% at 50% dose, a difference of only 1.9%. However, the false-positive rate quadrupled from 1 per case at 100% dose to 4 per case at 25% dose. Dose reduction affected lung-nodule detectability differently depending on the LungRADS category, and the false-positive rate was very sensitive at sub-screening dose levels. Thus, care should be taken to adapt CAD for the very challenging noise characteristics of screening.

  11. Radionuclides in pinon pine (Pinus edulis) nuts from Los Alamos National Laboratory lands and the dose from consumption. (United States)

    Fresquez, P R; Huchton, J D; Mullen, M A; Naranjo, L


    One of the dominant tree species growing within and around the eastern portion of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, lands is the pinon pine (Pinus edulis). Pinon pine is used for firewood, fence posts, and building materials and is a source of nuts for food--the seeds are consumed by a wide variety of animals and are also gathered by people in the area and eaten raw or roasted. This study investigated the (1) concentration of 3H, 137Cs, 90Sr, totU, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, and 241Am in soils (0- to 12-in. [31 cm] depth underneath the tree), pinon pine shoots (PPS), and pinon pine nuts (PPN) collected from LANL lands and regional background (BG) locations, (2) committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from the ingestion of nuts, and (3) soil to PPS to PPN concentration ratios (CRs). Most radionuclides, with the exception of 3H in soils, were not significantly higher (p < 0.10) in soils, PPS, and PPN collected from LANL as compared to BG locations, and concentrations of most radionuclides in PPN fromLANL have decreased over time. The maximum net CEDE (the CEDE plus two sigma minus BG) at the most conservative ingestion rate (10 lb [4.5 kg]) was 0.0018 mrem (0.018 microSv); this is far below the International Commission on Radiological Protection (all pathway) permissible dose limit of 100 mrem (1000 microSv). Soil-to-nut CRs for most radionuclides were within the range of default values in the literature for common fruits and vegetables.

  12. CANLIT (Canadian Literature) Teachers' Crash Course. (United States)

    CANLIT, Toronto (Ontario).

    As a result of a study of the situation of Canadian literature in Canadian high schools and universities, this course was developed to provide teachers with useful information about Canadian literature. Included in this kit are sections on Canadian literature (the great debate about the importance of Canadian content), history and sources…

  13. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server


    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  14. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner


    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  15. Management of small-cell lung cancer with radiotherapy—a pan-Canadian survey of radiation oncologists (United States)

    Shahi, J.; Wright, J.R.; Gabos, Z.; Swaminath, A.


    Background The management of small-cell lung cancer (sclc) with radiotherapy (rt) varies, with many treatment regimens having been described in the literature. We created a survey to assess patterns of practice and clinical decision-making in the management of sclc by Canadian radiation oncologists (ros). Methods A 35-item survey was sent by e-mail to Canadian ros. The questions investigated the role of rt, the dose and timing of rt, target delineation, and use of prophylactic cranial irradiation (pci) in limited-stage (ls) and extensive-stage (es) sclc. Results Responses were received from 52 eligible ros. For ls-sclc, staging (98%) and simulation or dosimetric (96%) computed tomography imaging were key determinants of rt suitability. The most common dose and fractionation schedule was 40–45 Gy in 15 once-daily fractions (40%), with elective nodal irradiation performed by 31% of ros. Preferred management of clinical T1/2aN0 sclc favoured primary chemoradiotherapy (64%). For es-sclc, consolidative thoracic rt was frequently offered (88%), with a preferred dose and fractionation schedule of 30 Gy in 10 once-daily fractions (70%). Extrathoracic consolidative rt would not be offered by 23 ros (44%). Prophylactic cranial irradiation was generally offered in ls-sclc (100%) and es-sclc (98%) after response to initial treatment. Performance status, baseline cognition, and pre-pci brain imaging were important patient factors assessed before an offer of pci. Conclusions Canadian ros show practice variation in sclc management. Future clinical trials and national treatment guidelines might reduce variability in the treatment of early-stage disease, optimization of dose and targeting in ls-sclc, and definition of suitability for pci or consolidative rt. PMID:27330347

  16. Cloud-based CT dose monitoring using the DICOM-structured report. Fully automated analysis in regard to national diagnostic reference levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boos, J.; Rubbert, C.; Heusch, P.; Lanzman, R.S.; Aissa, J.; Antoch, G.; Kroepil, P. [Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic an Interventional Radiology; Meineke, A. [Cerner Health Services, Idstein (Germany)


    To implement automated CT dose data monitoring using the DICOM-Structured Report (DICOM-SR) in order to monitor dose-related CT data in regard to national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). Materials and Methods: We used a novel in-house co-developed software tool based on the DICOM-SR to automatically monitor dose-related data from CT examinations. The DICOM-SR for each CT examination performed between 09/2011 and 03/2015 was automatically anonymized and sent from the CT scanners to a cloud server. Data was automatically analyzed in accordance with body region, patient age and corresponding DRL for volumetric computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose length product (DLP). Results: Data of 36 523 examinations (131 527 scan series) performed on three different CT scanners and one PET/CT were analyzed. The overall mean CTDI{sub vol} and DLP were 51.3 % and 52.8 % of the national DRLs, respectively. CTDI{sub vol} and DLP reached 43.8 % and 43.1 % for abdominal CT (n = 10 590), 66.6 % and 69.6 % for cranial CT (n = 16 098) and 37.8 % and 44.0 % for chest CT (n = 10 387) of the compared national DRLs, respectively. Overall, the CTDI{sub vol} exceeded national DRLs in 1.9 % of the examinations, while the DLP exceeded national DRLs in 2.9 % of the examinations. Between different CT protocols of the same body region, radiation exposure varied up to 50 % of the DRLs. Conclusion: The implemented cloud-based CT dose monitoring based on the DICOM-SR enables automated benchmarking in regard to national DRLs. Overall the local dose exposure from CT reached approximately 50 % of these DRLs indicating that DRL actualization as well as protocol-specific DRLs are desirable. The cloud-based approach enables multi-center dose monitoring and offers great potential to further optimize radiation exposure in radiological departments.

  17. French national evaluation for helical tomo-therapy: description of indications, dose constraints and set-up margins; Evaluation nationale de la tomotherapie helicoidale: description des indications, des contraintes de dose et des seuils de repositionnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantor, G.; Richaud, P.; Caron, J.; Dejean, C. [Institut Bergonie, Service de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux cedex (France); Mahe, M.A. [Centre Rene-Gauducheau, Service de Radiotherapie, 44 - Saint-Herblain (France); Giraud, P.; Alapetite, C.; Fourquet, A.; Zefkili, S.; Mazal, A. [Institut Curie, Service de Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Giraud, P.; Durdux, C. [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Service d' Oncoradiotherapie, 75 - Paris, (France); Gardner, M. [Centre Rene-Huguenin, Service de Radiotherapie, 92 - Saint-Cloud (France); Le Prise, E. [Centre Eugene-Marquis, Service de Radiotherapie, 35 - Rennes (France); Maire, J.P.; Vendrely, V. [Hopital Saint-Andre, Service de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Lisbona, A.; Munos, C. [Centre Rene-Gauducheau, Service de Physique Medicale, 44 - Saint-Herblain (France)


    After a request for proposal initiated by National Institute against cancer (I.n.c.a.) in 2005, three French centers in France started tomo-therapy in the first semester of 2007. A national policy of evaluation was performed to study the feasibility of this innovative technique and to compare the interest of helical tomo-therapy with other modalities of conformal therapy. Common protocols have been designed to facilitate this evaluation. Description of dose, I.M.R.T. levels and constraints are achieved according to each selected indication as: sarcoma, head and neck tumors, lung cancer, mesothelioma, bone metastases, anal carcinoma and craniospinal irradiation. (authors)

  18. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Relesed to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Part 1. Description of Tritium Dose Model (DCART) for Chronic Releases from LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S


    DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium) is a spreadsheet model developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that calculates doses from inhalation of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT), inhalation and skin absorption of tritiated water (HTO), and ingestion of HTO and organically bound tritium (OBT) to adult, child (age 10), and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) from routine atmospheric releases of HT and HTO. DCART is a deterministic model that, when coupled to the risk assessment software Crystal Ball{reg_sign}, predicts doses with a 95th percentile confidence interval. The equations used by DCART are described and all distributions on parameter values are presented. DCART has been tested against the results of other models and several sets of observations in the Tritium Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Biosphere Modeling and Assessment Programme. The version of DCART described here has been modified to include parameter values and distributions specific to conditions at LLNL. In future work, DCART will be used to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of HTO and HT from all LLNL facilities and from the Sandia National Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years.

  19. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Part 1. Description of Tritium Dose Model (DCART) for Routine Releases from LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S R


    DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium) is a spreadsheet model developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that calculates doses from inhalation of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT), inhalation and skin absorption of tritiated water (HTO), and ingestion of HTO and organically bound tritium (OBT) to adult, child (age 10), and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) from routine atmospheric releases of HT and HTO. DCART is a deterministic model that, when coupled to the risk assessment software Crystal Ball{reg_sign}, predicts doses with a 95% confidence interval. The equations used by DCART are described and all distributions on parameter values are presented. DCART has been tested against the results of other models and several sets of observations in the Tritium Working Groups of the International Atomic Energy Agency's programs, Biosphere Modeling and Assessment and Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety. The version of DCART described here has been modified to include parameter values and distributions specific to conditions at LLNL. In future work, DCART will be used to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of HTO and HT from all LLNL facilities and from the Sandia National Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years.

  20. Has Multiculturalism Really Failed? A Canadian Muslim Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljit Nagra


    Full Text Available In recent years, claims that multiculturalism has created segregated communities, encouraged terrorism, and failed to foster shared national identities in western nations have gained popularity. In this paper, we use young Canadian Muslims’ lived experience of multiculturalism to reflect on this debate. Contrary to popular rhetoric, our interviews of 50 young Muslim adults show that many maintain a dual Canadian-Muslim identity by utilizing the ideology of multiculturalism, even though they are increasingly stigmatized for their religion. These findings lead us to problematize the discourse surrounding the ‘failure’ of multiculturalism and to highlight the contradictions within it.

  1. Characterization of the neutron irradiation system for use in the Low-Dose-Rate Irradiation Facility at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Manuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The objective of this work was to characterize the neutron irradiation system consisting of americium-241 beryllium (241AmBe) neutron sources placed in a polyethylene shielding for use at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility (LDRIF). With a total activity of 0.3 TBq (9 Ci), the source consisted of three recycled 241AmBe sources of different activities that had been combined into a single source. The source in its polyethylene shielding will be used in neutron irradiation testing of components. The characterization of the source-shielding system was necessary to evaluate the radiation environment for future experiments. Characterization of the source was also necessary because the documentation for the three component sources and their relative alignment within the Special Form Capsule (SFC) was inadequate. The system consisting of the source and shielding was modeled using Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP). The model was validated by benchmarking it against measurements using multiple techniques. To characterize the radiation fields over the full spatial geometry of the irradiation system, it was necessary to use a number of instruments of varying sensitivities. First, the computed photon radiography assisted in determining orientation of the component sources. With the capsule properly oriented inside the shielding, the neutron spectra were measured using a variety of techniques. A N-probe Microspec and a neutron Bubble Dosimeter Spectrometer (BDS) set were used to characterize the neutron spectra/field in several locations. In the third technique, neutron foil activation was used to ascertain the neutron spectra. A high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used to characterize the photon spectrum. The experimentally measured spectra and the MCNP results compared well. Once the MCNP model was validated to an adequate level of confidence, parametric analyses was performed on the model to optimize for potential

  2. A comparison of dose and dose-rate conversion factors from the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, US Department of Energy, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, A.S.; Abbott, M.L.


    Several independent data sets of radiological dose and dose-rate conversion factors (DCF/DRCF) have been tabulated or developed by the international community both for fission and fusion safety purposes. This report compares sets from the US Department of Energy, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom with those calculated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program. The objectives were to identify trends and potential outlying values for specific radionuclides and contribute to a future benchmark evaluation of the CARR computer code. Fifty-year committed effective dose equivalent factors were compared for the inhalation and ingestion pathways. External effective dose equivalent rates were compared for the air immersion and ground surface exposure pathways. Comparisons were made by dividing dose factors in the different data bases by the values in the FSP data base. Differences in DCF/DRCF values less than a factor of 2 were considered to be in good agreement and are likely due to the use of slightly different decay data, variations in the number of organs considered for calculating CEDE, and rounding errors. DCF/DRCF values that differed by greater than a factor of 10 were considered to be significant. These differences are attributed primarily to the use of different radionuclide decay data, selection and nomenclature for different isomeric states, treatment of progeny radionuclides, differences in calculational methodology, and assumptions on a radionuclide`s chemical form.

  3. A comparison of dose and dose-rate conversion factors from the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, US Department of Energy, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, A.S.; Abbott, M.L.


    Several independent data sets of radiological dose and dose-rate conversion factors (DCF/DRCF) have been tabulated or developed by the international community both for fission and fusion safety purposes. This report compares sets from the US Department of Energy, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom with those calculated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program. The objectives were to identify trends and potential outlying values for specific radionuclides and contribute to a future benchmark evaluation of the CARR computer code. Fifty-year committed effective dose equivalent factors were compared for the inhalation and ingestion pathways. External effective dose equivalent rates were compared for the air immersion and ground surface exposure pathways. Comparisons were made by dividing dose factors in the different data bases by the values in the FSP data base. Differences in DCF/DRCF values less than a factor of 2 were considered to be in good agreement and are likely due to the use of slightly different decay data, variations in the number of organs considered for calculating CEDE, and rounding errors. DCF/DRCF values that differed by greater than a factor of 10 were considered to be significant. These differences are attributed primarily to the use of different radionuclide decay data, selection and nomenclature for different isomeric states, treatment of progeny radionuclides, differences in calculational methodology, and assumptions on a radionuclide's chemical form.

  4. Medical cannabis - the Canadian perspective. (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M


    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.

  5. Canadian Multiculturalism, Same as it ever Was?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hoyos


    Full Text Available After the Second World War ended, Canada was no longer mainly composed of its two dominant ethnocultural groups, French and English, but rather constituted by polyethnicity; meaning, Canadian culture was made up of many different ethnic groups. Since then, Canada has actively embraced multiculturalism and on 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, ‘An Act for the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada’. The Canadian multicultural experience has been much portrayed as a celebration of ethnicity where different cultural groups share their customs and learn from each other. However, it is recently being rumoured that the multiculturalism hype is not all it is cut out to be and segregates communities rather than integrate. According to Canadian authors Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, “in much of the world and particularly in Europe, there is a widespread perception that multiculturalism has failed” (44. In this paper, I examine some recent common issues of concern, especially, racism and discrimination, through the literary expression of Canadian playwrights and writers such as George F. Walker, Cecil Foster, and Mordecai Richler. These writers are not meant to represent any ethnic group as a whole, but rather try to project a general feeling about the nation in individual ways. I will finally explore the idea of how perhaps multiculturalism in Canada is evolving into another state since migratory patterns and the social circumstances that Canada is facing in the 21st century have changed. Today, the idea of celebrating different ethnicities and customs is no longer as important as celebrating the transcultural or “transnational” aspects of relations between individuals and groups of immigrants.

  6. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S


    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  7. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 6. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S


    Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 792,000 Ci (29,300 TBq) of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); about 75% was tritium gas (HT) primarily from the accidental releases of 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 100,000 Ci (3,700 TBq) HT and about 75,000 Ci (2,800 TBq) tritiated water vapor (HTO) to the total. A Tritium Dose Reconstruction was undertaken to estimate both the annual doses to the public for each year of LLNL operations and the doses from the few accidental releases. Some of the dose calculations were new, and the others could be compared with those calculated by LLNL. Annual doses (means and 95% confidence intervals) to the potentially most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Predicted tritium concentrations in air were compared with observed mean annual concentrations at one location from 1973 onwards. Doses predicted from annual emissions were compared with those reported in the past by LLNL. The highest annual mean dose predicted from routine emissions was 34 {micro}Sv (3.4 mrem) in 1957; its upper confidence limit, based on very conservative assumptions about the speciation of the release, was 370 {micro}Sv (37 mrem). The upper confidence limits for most annual doses were well below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv (10 mrem) for dose to the public from release to the atmosphere; the few doses that exceeded this were well below the regulatory limits of the time. Lacking the hourly meteorological data needed to calculate doses from historical accidental releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from a time-dependent accident consequence model that accounts for the complex behavior of tritium in the environment. Ratios were modified to account for only those foods growing at the time of the releases. The highest dose from an

  8. Survey of computed tomography doses and establishment of national diagnostic reference levels in the Republic of Belarus. (United States)

    Kharuzhyk, S A; Matskevich, S A; Filjustin, A E; Bogushevich, E V; Ugolkova, S A


    Computed tomography dose index (CTDI) was measured on eight CT scanners at seven public hospitals in the Republic of Belarus. The effective dose was calculated using normalised values of effective dose per dose-length product (DLP) over various body regions. Considerable variations of the dose values were observed. Mean effective doses amounted to 1.4 +/- 0.4 mSv for brain, 2.6 +/- 1.0 mSv for neck, 6.9 +/- 2.2 mSv for thorax, 7.0 +/- 2.3 mSv for abdomen and 8.8 +/- 3.2 mSv for pelvis. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were proposed by calculating the third quartiles of dose value distributions (body region/volume CTDI, mGy/DLP, mGy cm): brain/60/730, neck/55/640, thorax/20/500, abdomen/25/600 and pelvis/25/490. It is evident that the protocols need to be optimised on some of the CT scanners, in view of the fact that these are the first formulated DRLs for the Republic of Belarus.

  9. Grade 3 Students Explore the Question, "What's Canadian about Canadian Children's Literature?" (United States)

    Pantaleo, Sylvia


    Explores third graders' responses to the question "What's Canadian about Canadian Children's Literature?" Describes 6 picture books and summarizes students' responses to each. Finds students mentioned geographical aspects as characteristic of Canadian literature, and they felt Canadian children's literature should reflect Canadian "experiences."…

  10. Problems in the Study of Canadian Literature. (United States)

    Cameron, Barry


    Considers reasons for studying Canadian literature. Notes the relative infancy of Canadian literature and the need for maintaining objectivity in the study of Canadian literature. Proposes that teachers of Canadian literature focus on individual, contemporary works, examining language, form, and craftsmanship. (RL)

  11. [Canadian Literature. "Featuring: CanLit." (United States)

    Haycock, Ken, Ed.; Haycock, Carol-Ann, Ed.


    The feature articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of Canadian literature. The articles include: (1) a discussion of who's who and what's what in Canadian literature; (2) reviews of worthwhile but overlooked Canadian children's literature; (3) a list of resource guides to Canadian literature and a short quiz over famous first…

  12. Banal Nationalism in ESL Textbooks (United States)

    Gulliver, Trevor


    Despite repeating claims that Canadians are less nationalistic than members of other nations, English as a second language (ESL) textbooks often participate in banal repetitions of nation-ness and nationalism. This banal nationalism takes the form of the marking of nation through flags, maps, routine deixis, and nationalized symbols. This study…

  13. Refugees and education in Canadian schools (United States)

    Kaprielian-Churchill, Isabel


    This article summarizes some of the findings and recommendations of a research project focusing on the nature and needs of refugee students in Canadian schools. The school performance of refugee students is examined under the following headings: immigration regulations; initial identification, assessment, placement and monitoring; unaccompanied youngsters; "at risk" students; academic needs; the conflict of cultures. In particular, the article discusses the changing role of the school in the light of recent immigration trends. Many of the findings are applicable to other national settings.

  14. Knowledge Matters: Skills and Learning for Canadians. Canada's Innovation Strategy. (United States)

    Human Resources Development Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This paper outlines the skills and learning challenges that Canada faces to ensure it meets its skills and learning requirements for the 21st century. It proposes a series of national goals and milestones against which progress can be measured over time and reported on regularly to Canadians. Following an introduction, Sections 2-5 discuss the…

  15. Association of Canadian Community Colleges Annual Report, 2009-2010 (United States)

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2010


    Established in 1972, the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) is the national and international voice of Canada's colleges, institutes, cegeps, university colleges, and polytechnics. This report outlines highlights of the Association's activities over the 2009-2010 year. The auditors' report is also included. [For "Association of…

  16. Canadian Ice Service Arctic Regional Sea Ice Charts in SIGRID-3 Format (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Canadian Ice Service (CIS) produces digital Arctic regional sea ice charts for marine navigation, climate research, and input to the Global Digital Sea Ice Data...

  17. Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Szeman


    Full Text Available In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil and Canada in their respective attempts to create genuine national cultures. As in many postcolonial situations, the problem of creating an authentic culture is directly related to the sense that postcolonial culture is necessarily imitative and belated. In Misplaced Ideas, Roberto Schwarz exposes the hidden class character of the problem of cultural authenticity in Brazil, and in so doing, shows that the trauma of national-cultural identity merely reflects the contradictory structural position of Brazil’s postcolonial elite. Using Schwarz’s insights to explore the Canadian situation, the author shows that the same forces are at work in Canada. Though the crisis of a lack of an authentic Canadian culture has recently been surmounted as a result of the apparent international success of Canadian culture (especially literary fiction, that author cautions that this “success” story hides the class basis of Canadian culture in both its belated and isochronic phases (the latter being the moment when cultural belatedness is overcome. Making use of Brazilian theory to examine problems in Canadian culture allows us to see that Canadian modernity, long thought to be simply a derivative of the UK and USA, has similarities with Brazilian modernity that are essential to understanding the space and place Canada occupies in globalization. In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil

  18. Canadian Literature Is Comparative Literature. (United States)

    Blodgett, E. D.


    Argues that the way out of worn out analogies of Canadian literature is found not only by acquiring knowledge of other cultures, but also by abandoning the deceptive parallelisms that overcome differences only by hiding them. (RAE)

  19. Reference Values of Pulmonary Function Tests for Canadian Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gutierrez


    Full Text Available A multicentre, cross-sectional study was carried out in six centres across Canada to establish a national standard for pulmonary function tests using healthy, lifetime nonsmokers, with each centre aiming to test 10 men and 10 women from each decade from 20 to 80 years of age. Data from each centre were used to derive prediction equations for each centre, and pooled data from all centres (total: 327 women and 300 men were used to derive Canadian predicted equations. The predictive models were compared with three widely used published models for selected tests. It was found that, in general, the equations modelled for each centre could be replaced by the models obtained when pooling all data (Canadian model. Comparisons with the published references showed good agreement and similar slopes for most tests. The results suggest that pulmonary function test results obtained from different centres in Canada were comparable and that standards currently used remain valid for Canadian Caucasians.

  20. The legend of the Canadian horse: genetic diversity and breed origin. (United States)

    Khanshour, Anas; Juras, Rytis; Blackburn, Rick; Cothran, E Gus


    The Canadian breed of horse invokes a fascinating chapter of North American history and as such it is now a heritage breed and the national horse of Canada. The aims of this study were to determine the level of genetic diversity in the Canadian, investigate the possible foundation breeds and the role it had in the development of the US horse breeds, such as Morgan Horse. We tested a total of 981 horses by using 15 microsatellite markers. We found that Canadian horses have high values of genetic diversity indices and show no evidence of a serious loss of genetic diversity and the inbreeding coefficient was not significantly different from zero. Belgian, Percheron, Breton and Dales Pony, unlike the light French horses, may have common ancestries with the Canadian and could be important founders. However, the Shire and Clydesdale influenced the Canadian to a lesser extent than French and Belgian draft breeds. Furthermore, our finding indicated that there was no evidence of a clear relationship between Canadian and Oriental or Iberian breeds. Also, the Canadian likely contributed to the early development of the Morgan. Finally, these findings support the ancient legends of the Canadian Horse as North America’s first equine breed and the foundation bloodstock to many American breeds and may help in the management and breeding program of this outstanding breed in North America.

  1. Going down the Rabbit-Hole: Teachers' Engagements with "Dialectical Images" in Canadian Children's Literature on Social Justice (United States)

    Strong-Wilson, Teresa; Yoder, Amarou; Phipps, Heather


    This article explores the attraction of Canadian elementary teachers to children's stories that narrate trauma, particularly the trauma associated with First Nations peoples' experiences in Canadian residential schools as told by Indigenous authors. The teachers' responses to these texts are conceived of as occurring within a "contact…

  2. Newcomers and Old-Timers: The Cultural Production of "Canada" and "Canadians" in an Audio-Visual Text (United States)

    Moffatt, Lyndsay


    This paper examines the cultural production of "Canada" and "Canadians" in "The Newcomers", a 1953 film produced by the National Film Board of Canada. Using a form of discourse analysis that sees talk as social interaction and identity as socially and locally constructed, this study illuminates how "Canada" and "Canadians" are talked into being in…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald G. Haycock


    Full Text Available In early 1997, the Canadian Minister of National Defence publicly issued an excoriating report that roundly condemned the poor state of leadership, ethics discipline, professional knowledge and education in the Canadian Armed Forces particularly among officers. His public exposure stemmed from a series of traumatic events that occurred in the four previous years. The most damning one had been the appalling revelation that some soldiers of the Canadian Airborne Regiment, then on a peacekeeping mission in Somalia, had beaten to death a young Somali teenager. The trail led right back to senior officers in Canada and there was evidence of a cover-up. The embarrassed government was forced into appointing a top level Somalia Commission of Inquiry1. Then, in the next several months, followed revelations recorded on camera of grotesque initiation rites and racism in airborne units and others. The usually complacent and unmilitary Canadian public was shocked and indignant.2 The government promptly disbanded the Canadian Airborne Regiment. How, many asked, did the Canadian Forces get here from its excellent performance in past decades? It had fought well in both World Wars, in Korea and had served with great distinction in the many United Nations missions since that time. Canadians, after all prided themselves believing that their forces were the humanitarian ‘honest northern brokers’ and perhaps the world’s best peacekeepers.

  4. Harvey Cushing's Canadian connections. (United States)

    Feindel, William


    During his surgical career between 1896 and 1934, Harvey Cushing made eight visits to Canada. He had a broad impact on Canadian medicine and neurosurgery. Cushing's students Wilder Penfield and Kenneth McKenzie became outstanding leaders of the two major centers in Canada for neurosurgical treatment and training. On his first trip to Canada, shortly after completing his surgical internship in August 1896, Cushing traveled with members of his family through the Maritime Provinces and visited hospitals in Quebec and Montreal. Eight years later, in February 1904, as a successful young neurosurgeon at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, he reported to the Montreal Medico-Chirurgical Society on his surgical experience in 20 cases of removal of the trigeminal ganglion for neuralgia. In 1922, as the Charles Mickle Lecturer at the University of Toronto, Cushing assigned his honorarium of $1000 to support a neurosurgical fellowship at Harvard. This was awarded to McKenzie, then a general practitioner, for a year's training with Cushing in 1922-1923. McKenzie returned to initiate the neurosurgical services at the Toronto General Hospital, where he developed into a master surgeon and teacher. On Cushing's second visit to McGill University in October 1922, he and Sir Charles Sherrington inaugurated the new Biology Building of McGill's Medical School, marking the first stage of a Rockefeller-McGill program of modernization. In May 1929, Cushing attended the dedication of the Osler Library at McGill. In September 1934, responding to the invitation of Penfield, Cushing presented a Foundation Lecture-one of his finest addresses on the philosophy of neurosurgery-at the opening of the Montreal Neurological Institute. On that same trip, Cushing's revisit to McGill's Osler Library convinced him to turn over his own treasure of historical books to Yale University.

  5. How Should Canadian Literature Be Taught? (United States)

    Colborne, Garnet


    Discusses the rationale for and several approaches to teaching Canadian literature, including a cultural and regional approach to Canadian literature, a comparative approach, and a language study approach. (HTH)

  6. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  7. Birth of the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation


    Beck, Ivan T.


    The Canadian Digestive Disease Foundation, renamed the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation -- Fondation canadienne pour la promotion de la santé digestive -- in December 2001, is the culmination of ongoing efforts by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology to establish an independent charitable organization. In February 2001, it was officially endorsed as the Foundation for the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology. The initial efforts to establish this Foundation, led by Dr Richa...

  8. The Canadian Gravity Geoid (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A detailed gravimetric geoid has been computed on a 10' by 10' grid for Canada by the University of New Brunswick. This data base was received in April 1989....

  9. Environmental dose in the Nuclear Medicine Department of the National Institute of Cancer;Dosis ambiental en el Departamento de Medicina Nuclear del Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres U, C. L.; Avila A, O. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Medina V, L. A.; Buenfil B, A. E.; Brandan S, M. E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Trujillo Z, F. E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col. Seccion XVI, 14080 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)


    The dosimeters TLD-100 and TLD-900 were used to know the levels of environmental dose in areas of the Nuclear Medicine Department of the National Institute of Cancer. The dosimeters calibration was carried out in the Metrology Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research. The radioisotopes used in the studied areas are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs with gamma energies between 93 and 662 KeV. Dosimeters were placed during five months in the diagnostic, injection, waiting and PET rooms as well as hot room, waste room, enclosed corridors to patient rooms treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs and witness dosimeters to know the bottom. The values found vary between 0.3 and 70 major times that those of bottom. The maximum doses were measured in the waste room and in the enclosed corridor to the patient rooms with cervical uterine cancer treated with {sup 137}Cs. (Author)

  10. A Topography for Canadian Curriculum Theory. (United States)

    Chambers, Cynthia


    Presents challenges to Canadian curriculum theorists: (1) to create curriculum languages and genres that represent all of Canada; (2) to use Canadian scholars and indigenous languages to find these curriculum languages and genres; (3) to seek interpretive tools to understand what it means to be Canadian; and (4) to create curriculum theory that…

  11. Canadian Children's Literature: An Alberta Survey (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Carbonaro, Mike; Green, Nicole


    This article presents the findings of an online survey administered to Alberta elementary school teachers in 2000-2001. The survey explored the teachers' knowledge and use of Canadian children's literature and their thoughts about the role of Canadian literature in elementary school classrooms. Canadian children's trade books espouse particular…

  12. The Ideological Orientations of Canadian University Professors (United States)

    Nakhaie, M. Reza; Brym, Robert J.


    This paper analyzes the ideological orientations of Canadian university professors based on a unique 2000 study of a representative sample of Canadian academics (n=3,318). After summarizing methodological problems with extant research on this subject, and tentatively comparing the political views of Canadian and American academics, the paper…

  13. Canadian contributions studies for the WFIRST instruments (United States)

    Lavigne, J.-F.; Rowlands, N.; Grandmont, F. J.; Lafrenière, D.; Marois, C.; Daigle, O.; Thibault, S.; Schade, D.; Artigau, É.; Brousseau, D.; Maire, J.; Cretot-Richert, G.; Ducharme, M.-È.; Levesque, L. E.; Laurin, D.; Dupuis, J.


    WFIRST-AFTA is the NASA's highest ranked astrophysics mission for the next decade that was identified in the New World, New Horizon survey. The mission scientific drivers correspond to some of the deep questions identified in the Canadian LRP2010, and are also of great interest for the Canadian scientists. Given that there is also a great interest in having an international collaboration in this mission, the Canadian Space Agency awarded two contracts to study a Canadian participation in the mission, one related to each instrument. This paper presents a summary of the technical contributions that were considered for a Canadian contribution to the coronagraph and wide field instruments.

  14. The 1998 Canadian Contraception Study. (United States)

    Fisher, William A.; Boroditsky, Richard; Bridges, Martha L.


    Describes the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study, a mailed survey which asked women about contraceptive practices past, present, and future (including use of oral contraceptives, condoms, and sterilization); familiarity with and opinion about different contraception methods; and general sexual and reproductive health. The paper also examines…

  15. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy. (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti


    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  16. In their own words: describing Canadian physician leadership. (United States)

    Snell, Anita J; Dickson, Graham; Wirtzfeld, Debrah; Van Aerde, John


    Purpose This is the first study to compile statistical data to describe the functions and responsibilities of physicians in formal and informal leadership roles in the Canadian health system. This mixed-methods research study offers baseline data relative to this purpose, and also describes physician leaders' views on fundamental aspects of their leadership responsibility. Design/methodology/approach A survey with both quantitative and qualitative fields yielded 689 valid responses from physician leaders. Data from the survey were utilized in the development of a semi-structured interview guide; 15 physician leaders were interviewed. Findings A profile of Canadian physician leadership has been compiled, including demographics; an outline of roles, responsibilities, time commitments and related compensation; and personal factors that support, engage and deter physicians when considering taking on leadership roles. The role of health-care organizations in encouraging and supporting physician leadership is explicated. Practical implications The baseline data on Canadian physician leaders create the opportunity to determine potential steps for improving the state of physician leadership in Canada; and health-care organizations are provided with a wealth of information on how to encourage and support physician leaders. Using the data as a benchmark, comparisons can also be made with physician leadership as practiced in other nations. Originality/value There are no other research studies available that provide the depth and breadth of detail on Canadian physician leadership, and the embedded recommendations to health-care organizations are informed by this in-depth knowledge.

  17. Baselines for the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework. (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng


    Using a Canadian student achievement assessment database, the Science Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP), and employing the Rasch partial credit measurement model, this study estimated the difficulties of items corresponding to the learning outcomes in the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework and the latent abilities of students of grades 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 and OAC (Ontario Academic Course). The above estimates serve as baselines for validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework in terms of the learning progression of learning outcomes and expected mastery of learning outcomes by grades. It was found that there was no statistically significant progression in learning outcomes from grades 4-6 to grades 7-9, and from grades 7-9 to grades 10-12; the curriculum framework sets mastery expectation about 2 grades higher than students' potential abilities. In light of the above findings, this paper discusses theoretical issues related to deciding progression of learning outcomes and setting expectation of student mastery of learning outcomes, and highlights the importance of using national assessment data to establish baselines for the above purposes. This paper concludes with recommendations for further validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum frameworks.

  18. The War's Positive Impact on the Canadian Astronomical Community (United States)

    Broughton, Peter


    At the beginning of WWI, the Canadian astronomical community was tiny and astrophysical research was just beginning. By the end of the war, the country had established the forerunner of its National Research Council and had the world's largest fully operational telescope, thanks to the late entry of the USA into the conflict. By 1918, Canada was on the verge of making significant contributions to science.In spite of the immense loss of life in this pointless war, I am aware of only one casualty affecting Canadian professional astronomers, and that was the indirect death of James Chant, son of University of Toronto's only professor of astronomy. Other Canadian astronomers, including Tom Parker, Bert Topham, and Harry Plaskett were on active service; each of their stories is unique.Among those engaged in scientific work during the war were two Canadians temporarily in England: John McLennan whose helium research for dirigibles led him to establish a cryogenic lab in Toronto where the green line in the spectrum of the aurora was identified in 1925, and Allie Douglas who worked as a statistician in the War Office. Later work with Eddington led her to become his biographer and to her distinction as the first person in Canada to earn a PhD in astronomy (in 1926).

  19. A Canadian paradox: Tommy Douglas and eugenics. (United States)

    Shevell, Michael


    Tommy Douglas is an icon of Canadian 20th Century political history and is considered by many as the "Father" of Medicare, a key component of our national identity. Throughout his career, he was associated at both the provincial and federal levels with progressive causes concerning disadvantaged populations. In his sociology Master's thesis written in the early 1930's, Douglas endorsed eugenic oriented solutions such as segregation and sterilization to address what was perceived to be an endemic and biologically determined problem. At first glance, this endorsement of eugenics appears to be paradoxical, but careful analysis revealed that this paradox has multiple roots in religion, political belief, historical exposure and our own desire to view our collective history in a favourable light.

  20. Feminist Approaches to Journalism Studies: Canadian Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrude J. Robinson


    Full Text Available One of the orthodoxies of communication scholarship is that much of the gender-based differences between males and females with regard to experiences in newsrooms can be attributed to demographics. The discussion presented in this paper challenges this claim by comparing the findings of two national surveys that measured the professional progress of Canadian press and television journalists. The first survey was undertaken in 1975, and the second in 1995. While the historical evidence points to reductions in gender-based structural inequalities over time, it also identifies the continued presence of gender-based assumptions about how work and family obligations should be combined. Such assumptions, it is argued, help to foster and reproduce systemic biases in the newsroom culture that still resonate today in the journalism profession and which can be best understood as a manifestation of the meaning of gender at three levels: as a classifying system, as a structuring structure, and as an ideology.

  1. The Sea Stacks Project: Enhancing the Use of Regional Literature in Atlantic Canadian Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Howard


    Full Text Available Research over the past two decades has amply demonstrated the importance of literature to the formation of both regional and national cultural identity, particularly in the face of mass market globalization of children’s book publishing in the 21st century as well as the predominance of non-Canadian content from television, movies, books, magazines and internet media. However, Canadian children appear to have only very limited exposure to Canadian authors and illustrators. In Atlantic Canada, regional Atlantic Canadian authors and illustrators for children receive very limited critical attention, and resources for the study and teaching of Atlantic Canadian children’s literature are few. Print and digital information sources on regional children’s books, publishing, authors and illustrators are scattered and inconsistent in quality and currency. This research project directly addresses these key concerns by summarizing the findings of a survey of Atlantic Canadian teachers on their use of regional books. In response to survey findings, the paper concludes by describing the creation of the Sea Stacks Project an authoritative web-delivered information resource devoted to contemporary Atlantic Canadian literature for children and teens.

  2. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: Results of the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walop Wikke


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE is so rare in developed countries with measles immunization programs that national active surveillance is now needed to capture sufficient number of cases for meaningful analysis of data. Through the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program (CPSP, the SSPE study was able to document a national incidence and determine the epidemiology of affected Canadian children. Methods Between 1997 and 2000, the CPSP surveyed monthly 1978 to 2294 Canadian pediatricians and sub-specialists for SSPE cases. The response rate varied from 82–86% over those years. Results Altogether, four SSPE cases were reported to the CPSP: one case before, two during and one after the study period. The incidence of SSPE in Canadian children was 0.06/million children/year. Of the four cases, diagnosed between ages four and 17 years, three children had measles infection in infancy. All children showed a progressive course of dementia, loss of motor skills and epilepsy. Two children were treated with isoprinosine and intraventricular interferon but died in less than three years from disease onset. One child did not have any treatment and died after seven years of illness. One child received intraventricular ribavirin and remains alive, but markedly impaired, nine years following diagnosis. Conclusion The CPSP has demonstrated that Canadian paediatricians and paediatric neurologists may encounter cases of SSPE. This report highlights the clinical course of affected Canadian children and provides a review of the disease and its management.

  3. Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe


    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...... sig over hele verden. Nationalisme er blevet global....

  4. Epigenetics, eh! A meeting summary of the Canadian Conference on Epigenetics. (United States)

    Rodenhiser, David I; Bérubé, Nathalie G; Mann, Mellissa R W


    In May 2011, the Canadian Conference on Epigenetics: Epigenetics Eh! was held in London, Canada. The objectives of this conference were to showcase the breadth of epigenetic research on environment and health across Canada and to provide the catalyst to develop collaborative Canadian epigenetic research opportunities, similar to existing international epigenetic initiatives in the US and Europe. With ten platform sessions and two sessions with over 100 poster presentations, this conference featured cutting-edge epigenetic research, presented by Canadian and international principal investigators and their trainees in the field of epigenetics and chromatin dynamics. An EpigenART competition included ten artists, creating a unique opportunity for artists and scientists to interact and explore their individual interpretations of this scientific discipline. The conference provided a unique venue for a significant cross-section of Canadian epigenetic researchers from diverse disciplines to meet, interact, collaborate and strategize at the national level.

  5. Canadian Content in Video Games


    Paul, Leonard


    THEME: Internationalism: Worlds at Play Topics: Internationalism, Identity in Gaming and Learning to Play Abstract: How does Canada fit into the global cultural context of video games? This paper investigates the culture being reflected in video games being produced in Canada as Canada is one of the world's leading producers of video games. It examines the how Canadian culture is represented in current new media artistic output against the culture, or lack of culture, being represented in vid...

  6. The Canadian Astronomy Education and Public Outreach Initiative (United States)

    Percy, J. R.


    In Canada, astronomers do not have access to science and mathematics education funding such as NSF and NASA provide in the USA. Nevertheless, the Canadian astronomical community has always been very active in education and public outreach (EPO) at the local, provincial, and national level, thanks to the initiative of astronomers -- both professional and amateur -- and their institutions and associations. In 2001, the Canadian astronomical community embarked on a major EPO initiative, led by the Canadian Astronomical Society (CAS) in partnership with the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada (RASC) and other organizations. The initiative was motivated by a new long-range plan for astronomy in Canada, by the availability of modest funding for EPO, by the appearance of astronomy in the school science curriculum in several provinces, and by a heightened national interest in science education and literacy. As Chair of the CAS Education Committee, and coordinator of the EPO initiative, I shall describe its origin, funding, goals and strategies, organization, partnerships, programs, and projects. Supported by a PromoScience grant from NSERC Canada.

  7. Contexts for Ethnic Identity of Japanese Canadians


    浦田, 葉子; Yoko, URATA


    In this paper I reviewed the literature in order to gain a broad understanding of the contexts for ethnic identity of Japanese Canadians guided by the premise that ethnic identity is a situational as well as a primordial phenomenon. Two main areas were reviewed - the pattern of distribution of resources in Canadian society and the particular situation in which Japanese Canadians are placed. In the distribution of material resources, individual meritocracy for mass and social closure for elite...

  8. Current issues in occupational health nursing. A Canadian perspective. (United States)

    Hunter, C


    The National Association of Occupational Health Nurses is still in its infancy and is striving to become an interest group under the umbrella of the Canadian Nurses Association. This will bring together the provincial associations in a common goal of promoting worker health and safety. The diversity of the country and the sheer magnitude of the various occupations of Canadians reflect the need for the occupational health nurse to be well educated and kept abreast of new developments. Changes in the worksite echo changes in health and safety legislation that will help to improve conditions in the workplace. Future challenges arise from changes in the work force and the nature of work and include: ergonomic issues, job stress, older workers, EAPs, and increased competition.

  9. Comparison between Radiology Science Laboratory, Brazil (LCR) and National Research Council, Canada (NRC) of the absorbed dose in water using Fricke dosimetry; Comparacao entre o LCR/Brasil e o NRC/Canada da dose absorvida na agua usando a dosimetria Fricke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salata, Camila; David, Mariano Gazineu; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ/LCR), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; El Gamal, Islam; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McEwen, Malcom, E-mail: [National Research Council, Ottawa (Canada)


    The absorbed dose to water standards for HDR brachytherapy dosimetry developed by the Radiology Science Laboratory, Brazil (LCR) and the National Research Council, Canada (NRC), were compared. The two institutions have developed absorbed dose standards based on the Fricke dosimetry system. There are significant differences between the two standards as far as the preparation and readout of the Fricke solution and irradiation geometry of the holder. Measurements were done at the NRC laboratory using a single Ir-192 source. The comparison of absorbed dose measurements was expressed as the ratio Dw(NRC)/Dw(LCR), which was found to be 1.026. (author)

  10. 加拿大法裔少数民族心理形成的阶段性特征--以魁北克分离主义为视角%Formation of Canadian Francophone National Minority’s Psychology In Different Phases--On the Perspective of Quebec Separatism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      加拿大法裔少数民族心理是在十八世纪中期至十九世纪中期加拿大的历史演进、政治变革和社会变迁中形成的,它具有被异族征服的屈辱和对其统治的敌对、文化生存的焦虑、社会经济地位导致的自卑和弱势的敏感等特征.20世纪60年代得到矫枉过正的自我修复,进入90年代,法裔民族心态渐趋平和,但是少数心理仍十分敏感,弱势心理定势没有得到克服.这种心理成为魁北克分离主义至今不息的心理基础.%  From the mid-eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century Canadian Francophone National Minority’s Psychology took shape,with the evolution of Canadian history,politics and society. It includes the following characteristics,humiliation from alien subjugation,hostile to its rule,anxiety of cultural survival,inferiority of socio-economic status and sensitivity of weakness,etc. The psychology have self-repaired in 1960s,time to the 1990s,it is gradually peace,but a small number of psychological still very sensitive and the weakness of mental set does not get to overcome. Today,this psychology still became the psychological basis of Quebee separatism.

  11. Report of the joint review panel : EnCana shallow gas infill development project : Canadian Forces Base Suffield National Wildlife area[Report of the Joint Review Panel established by the Federal Minister of the Environment and the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board : Decision 2009-008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    EnCana Corporation has proposed to drill up to 1275 shallow gas wells in the Canadian Forces Base Suffield National Wildlife Area (NWA), approximately 50 kilometres northwest of Medicine Hat, Alberta over a three year period. The project would also include pipelines, access trails and other associated infrastructure. Approval to proceed requires a permit under the authority of the Canada Wildlife Act. Before such a permit may be issued, the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act requires an environmental assessment to be completed. EnCana also filed Application No. 1435831 with the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board pursuant to the Oil and Gas Conservation Act for licences to drill three wells in the NWA. A joint review panel was established to undertake an environmental assessment review of EnCana's proposal and to reach a decision on the application to drill three wells. This report presented the panel's findings, conclusions and recommendations on the overall project and its decision with respect to the application to drill three wells. Specifically, the report described the project setting including components and phases, and regulatory framework. It outlined the involvement of interested parties, creation of the Suffield NWA as well as the need for the project and alternatives considered. Last, the report identified environmental effects on wildlife; vegetation, soils, and reclamation; wetlands; water resources; historical and paleontological resources; effects of potential accidents and malfunctions; cumulative environmental effects; biodiversity; and sustainability of renewable resources. The discussion regarding environmental effects included the views of EnCana, views and concerns of interveners, and panel conclusions and recommendations. The panel's overall conclusion was that EnCana should not proceed with the proposed project at this time. 4 tabs., 6 figs., 6 appendices.

  12. Do the Rights Thing?: The Canadian Museum for Human Rights and the MA in Cultural Studies at the University of Winnipeg (United States)

    Ready, Kathryn; Keshavjee, Serena


    Education is the self-declared "heart" of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR), already generating partnership projects and programs with such organizations as the Canadian Teachers' Federation, the Assembly of First Nations, the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, and the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights. The CMHR has…

  13. Medical cannabis – the Canadian perspective (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M


    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol – the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts. PMID:27757048

  14. Air pollution information needs and the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of Canadians : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In the fall of 2001, the Environics Research Group conducted a national survey of 1,213 Canadians in order to provide Health Canada with public opinion on clean air issues. The topic areas included: concerns regarding air pollution; level of concern regarding air pollution; willingness for personal action; roles and responsibilities of government, industry and individuals; determinants of health; perceived effects of air pollution on health; personal health conditions; receipt of advice on the relationship between air pollution and health; information needs and preferred channels of information; familiarity with the air quality index; and, perceived sources of air pollution. According to survey results, Canadians think air pollution, pollution in general, and water quality are the most important environmental problems. They are most concerned about the manufacture, use and disposal of toxic chemicals, water quality and air quality, and less concerned about the depletion of the ozone layer and the use of biotechnology in agriculture and food products. Results suggest that most Canadians believe that air pollution significantly affects the health of Canadians. Approximately 25 per cent of Canadians feel they suffer from respiratory problems resulting from air pollution. In general, they think indoor and outdoor air pollution have equal effect on their health. The survey also indicated that Canadians think government regulations and enforcement are more effective in combating air pollution than voluntary action by individuals or companies. tabs., figs.

  15. A Cross-Sectional Study to Compare Caregiver Distress Among Korean Canadian, Chinese Canadian, and Other Canadian Home Care Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Wook Chang


    Full Text Available This study examines the health of elderly Korean Canadians in home care and investigates the risk factors for caregiver distress of families caring for their elderly relatives. Korean Canadians, Chinese Canadians, and other Canadian home care clients were compared using the Resident Assessment Instrument–Home Care (RAI-HC. The assessments were done as a part of normal clinical practice between January 2002 and December 2010 within Ontario. A sample of 58,557 home care clients was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis at the bivariate level and multiple logistic regression models. The major finding of the present study is that Korean clients had higher physical impairments and higher prevalence of major chronic diseases, but they were less likely to receive personal support or nursing services. Moreover, the results provide clear evidence of the importance of language barriers for all linguistic minorities, including Korean Canadians.

  16. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 2. LLNL Annual Site-specific Data, 1953 - 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S R


    It is planned to use the tritium dose model, DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium), to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) from all Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities and from the Sandia National (SNL) Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years. DCART has been described in Part 1 of ''Historical Doses From Tritiated Water And Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released To The Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)'' (UCRL-TR-205083). This report (Part 2) summarizes information about annual routine releases of tritium from LLNL (and SNL) since 1953. Historical records were used to derive facility-specific annual data (e.g., source terms, dilution factors, ambient air concentrations, meteorological data, including absolute humidity and rainfall, etc.) and their associated uncertainty distributions. These data will be used as input to DCART to calculate annual dose for each year of LLNL operations. Sources of information are carefully referenced, and assumptions are documented. Confidence on all data post-1974 is quite high. Prior to that, further adjustment to the estimated uncertainty may have to be made if more information comes to light.

  17. Incomplete data on the Canadian cohort may have affected the results of the study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer on the radiogenic cancer risk among nuclear industry workers in 15 countries. (United States)

    Ashmore, J Patrick; Gentner, Norman E; Osborne, Richard V


    In 1995 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) completed a study that involved nuclear workers from facilities in the USA, UK and Canada. The only significant, though weak, dose-related associations found were for leukaemia and multiple myeloma. The results for the Canadian cohort, which comprised workers from the facilities of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), were compatible with those for the other national cohorts. In 2005, IARC completed a further study, involving nuclear workers from 15 countries, including Canada. In these results, the dose-related risk for leukaemia was not significant but the prominent finding was a statistically significant excess relative risk per sievert (ERR Sv(-1)) for 'all cancers excluding leukaemia'. Surprisingly, the risk ascribed to the Canadian cohort for all cancers excluding leukaemia, driven by the AECL sub-cohort, was significantly higher than the risk estimate for the 15-country cohort as a whole. We have attempted to identify why the results for the AECL cohort were so discrepant and had such a remarkable influence on the 15-country risk estimate. When considering the issues associated with data on the AECL cohorts and their handling, we noted a striking feature: a major change in outcome of studies that involved Canadian nuclear workers occurred concomitantly with the shift to when data from the National Dose Registry (NDR) of Canada were used directly rather than data from records at AECL. We concluded that an important contributor to the considerable upward shift in apparent risk in the 15-country and other Canadian studies that have been based on the NDR probably relates to pre-1971 data and, in particular, the absence from the NDR of the person-years of workers who had zero doses in the calendar years 1956 to 1970. Our recommendation was for there to be a comprehensive evaluation of the risks from radiation in nuclear industry workers in Canada, organisation by organisation, in which some of the

  18. 1985 CSEG/CGU National Convention (United States)

    Peirce, John W.; Millington, Graham

    The Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists (CSEG) and the Canadian Geophysical Union (CGU) held their first joint national meeting in Calgary, Canada, May 7-10, 1985. As the CSEG represents primarily the oil exploration side of geophysics and the CGU represents mainly the academic side, both groups felt that a joint convention would broaden their perspectives. Some 1750 delegates and over 100 students registered for the meeting. The Convention Committee was chaired by Ian Baker (Atlantis Resources Ltd.), and CGU was represented by Peter Savage (Pan Canadian Petroleum Ltd.). The Technical Committee was chaired by John Peirce (Petro-Canada Inc.) for CGU and Graham Millington (Canadian Superior Oil Ltd.) for CSEG

  19. Medication use among Canadian seniors. (United States)

    McPherson, Mark; Ji, Hong; Hunt, Jordan; Ranger, Rob; Gula, Cheryl


    As they age, many seniors develop a progressively more complex mix of health conditions. Multiple prescription medications are often required to help manage these conditions and control symptoms, with the goal of maintaining seniors' health for as long as possible. This article explores trends in the number and types of medications used by seniors on public drug programs in Canada. Our findings suggest that a high proportion of Canadian seniors are taking several medications, highlighting the need for medication management systems focusing on this population.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Modern English is an international language inthe world.Besides Great Britain,English is spokenas first language in 39 countries.These countries arelocated in different regions with different naturalfeatures,history development and cultural character-istics.Thus,English used in these different regionscarries its own regional character—forming Englishregional varieties.The main English regional varieties are:BritishEnglish,American English,Canadian English andSouth African English.Canada is a rich country inNorth America with its own characteristics,which of

  1. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.


    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper sums up the applications of Statistical model such as ARIMA family timeseries models in Canadian lynx data time series analysis and introduces the method of datamining combined with Statistical knowledge to analysis Canadian lynx data series.

  3. A Boost for Sino-Canadian Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ If Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper's visit to China last December led to a thaw in the frozen Sino-Canadian relations in recent years, Chinese President Hu Jintao's latest trip to Ottawa appeared to usher in yet another warm period for these deep-rooted relations.

  4. Canadian Library Integrated Systems: Second Annual Survey. (United States)

    Merilees, Bobbie


    Reports the results of a survey of the Canadian integrated library systems market. The analysis includes comparisons of large versus microcomputer-based installations by type of library and across all libraries, foreign sales by Canadian vendors, and trends in the library systems market. (CLB)

  5. National evaluation of helical tomo-therapy: description of guidelines, dose constraints and positioning thresholds; Evaluation nationale de la tomotherapie helicoidale: description des indications, des contraintes de dose et des seuils de repositionnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantor, G. [Institut Bergonie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Mahe, M.A. [Centre Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes (France); Giraud, P.; Alapetite, C.; Fourquet, A. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Durdux, C. [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, 75 - Paris (France); Gardner, M. [Centre Rene-Huguenin, 92 -Saint-Cloud (France); Maire, J.P.; Vendrely, V. [Hopital Saint-Andre, 33 - Bordeaux (France)


    The implementation of a national common document of evaluation must allow to make easy and to homogenize a national evaluation and to integrate the new centers that will equip themselves with a helical tomography equipment. (N.C.)

  6. Cree, Canadian and American: Negotiating Sovereignties with Jeff Lemire's Equinox and "Justic League Canada"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Smith


    Full Text Available Canadian and Torontonian Joe Shuster co-created Superman in 1938, drawing on his experiences at the Toronto Daily Star to define Clark Kent’s everyday life as a reporter. Despite Shuster’s Canadian co-authorship of the definitive American comic book superhero, John Bell suggests “Canadians are probably too wary of the uncritical portrayal of unrestrained heroism and power for the superhero genre ever to become a mainstay of the country's indigenous comic art” (84. Bell’s comments express national scepticism towards American myths of heroism, perhaps best summed up in the equally iconic Canadian trope of the ‘beautiful loser’. Whilst comic books may heighten these distinct senses of a national narrative, they are also the potential sites of encounter for intersecting national cultural narratives. Onesuch encounter can be seen in the recent “Justice League Canada” storyline of American publisher DC Comics’ Justice League United. Echoing its past connections with Canada, DC Comics’ Canadian cartoonist Jeff Lemire has created a superhero team storyline set explicitly in Northern Ontario, Canada, also introducing an Indigenous female superhero named Equinox to the DC comic book universe. Cree, and from Moose Factory, Ontario, the hero Equinox is in everyday life the teenager Miiyahbin Marten. Whilst the ‘DC universe’ is firmly a realm of the fantastic, Lemire’s storyline underscores how its characters provide real-life negotiations of American, Canadian and Indigenous identity. National boundaries, identities and sovereignties are potentially re-enforced and challenged through “Justice League Canada,” and particularly in the visualisation of Equinox. The mainstream storyworlds of American comic books are complicated by this negotiation of plural sovereignties.

  7. Improving the social responsiveness of medical schools: lessons from the Canadian experience. (United States)

    Cappon, P; Watson, D


    The recent Canadian experience in promoting social accountability and social responsiveness of medical schools has been one of steady improvement in certain institutions, against a background lacking overall national policy direction. Canada has several distinct advantages in trying to devise means of enhancing social accountability of medical training and health services, including a strong national system of publicly supported and financed health care of high quality, a network of excellent academic medical centers, and well-established accreditation bodies. A review of the literature, complemented by a new survey of Canadian medical schools, confirms that some of the centers, conscious of the need to promote social responsiveness, are developing innovative programs to do so. Future progress toward the goal of social responsiveness of medical schools on a pan-Canadian basis will require a more cohesive approach involving systematic sharing of best practices among academic health centers, effective alliances with other health professionals to promote these objectives, and support by federal and provincial ministries of health. Canadian awareness of an international movement tending to similar objectives would support the efforts of Canadian health professionals engaged in practices of enhanced accountability.

  8. Approximating dose and risk for contaminants in groundwater from the underground nuclear test areas of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Jeffrey I. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Pohlmann, Karl F. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    As part of the Environmental Management Program at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity investigates the potential impacts of radionuclides that were introduced into groundwater from the underground nuclear tests conducted near or below the NNSS water table between 1951 and 1992. Groundwater models are being used to simulate contaminant transport and forecast contaminant boundaries that encompass areas where the groundwater has a five percent or greater probability of containing contaminants above the Safe Drinking Water Act Maximum Contaminant Levels (SDWA MCLs) at any time during the next 1,000 years. Transport modeling conducted for the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) at the NNSS identified the beta/photon-emitting radionuclides tritium (3H), carbon-14 (14C), chlorine-36 (36Cl), technetium-99 (99Tc), and iodine-129 (129I) as having the greatest influence in defining the farthest extent of the modeled CAU contaminant boundary. These same radionuclides are assumed here as the contaminants of concern (COCs) for all underground nuclear tests at the NNSS because models are not yet complete for the other CAUs.Potential public exposure to the COCs will only occur and be of concern if the COCs migrate into the groundwater beneath public or private lands at levels that exceed either individual SDWA MCLs or dose and risk limits. Groundwater flow directions strongly suggest that any contaminant boundary predicted by contaminant fate and transport modeling to overlap public or private lands is more likely to occur to the west and/or southwest of the NNSS and the adjacent Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Well-established, rural communities exist in these directions. Estimates of representative activity concentrations at the applicable SDWA MCL were developed for the five COCs. It is assumed that these COC concentrations may collectively occur at some public or private location in the future, but that situation

  9. Approximating dose and risk for contaminants in groundwater from the underground nuclear test areas of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Jeffrey I. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Pohlmann, Karl F. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    As part of the Environmental Management Program at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity investigates the potential impacts of radionuclides that were introduced into groundwater from the underground nuclear tests conducted near or below the NNSS water table between 1951 and 1992. Groundwater models are being used to simulate contaminant transport and forecast contaminant boundaries that encompass areas where the groundwater has a five percent or greater probability of containing contaminants above the Safe Drinking Water Act Maximum Contaminant Levels (SDWA MCLs) at any time during the next 1,000 years. Transport modeling conducted for the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) at the NNSS identified the beta/photon-emitting radionuclides tritium (3H), carbon-14 (14C), chlorine-36 (36Cl), technetium-99 (99Tc), and iodine-129 (129I) as having the greatest influence in defining the farthest extent of the modeled CAU contaminant boundary. These same radionuclides are assumed here as the contaminants of concern (COCs) for all underground nuclear tests at the NNSS because models are not yet complete for the other CAUs.Potential public exposure to the COCs will only occur and be of concern if the COCs migrate into the groundwater beneath public or private lands at levels that exceed either individual SDWA MCLs or dose and risk limits. Groundwater flow directions strongly suggest that any contaminant boundary predicted by contaminant fate and transport modeling to overlap public or private lands is more likely to occur to the west and/or southwest of the NNSS and the adjacent Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Well-established, rural communities exist in these directions. Estimates of representative activity concentrations at the applicable SDWA MCL were developed for the five COCs. It is assumed that these COC concentrations may collectively occur at some public or private location in the future, but that situation

  10. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System (United States)

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen


    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  11. Canadian survey on pandemic flu preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy CS


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of pandemic influenza creates public health challenges. An ethical framework, 'Stand on Guard for Thee: ethical considerations in pandemic influenza preparedness' that served as a template for the World Health Organization's global consultation on pandemic planning, was transformed into a survey administered to a random sample of 500 Canadians to obtain opinions on key ethical issues in pandemic preparedness planning. Methods All framework authors and additional investigators created items that were pilot-tested with volunteers of both sexes and all socioeconomic strata. Surveys were telephone administered with random sampling achieved via random digit dialing (RDD. Eligible participants were adults, 18 years or older, with per province stratification equaling provincial percent of national population. Descriptive results were tabulated and logistic regression analyses were used to assess whether demographic factors were significantly associated with outcomes. Results 5464 calls identified 559 eligible participants of whom 88.5% completed surveys. Over 90% of subjects agreed the most important goal of pandemic influenza preparations was saving lives, with 41% endorsing saving lives solely in Canada and 50% endorsing saving lives globally as the highest priority. Older age (OR = 8.51, p Conclusions Results suggest trust in public health officials to make difficult decisions, providing emphasis on reciprocity and respect for individual rights.

  12. Performance of municipal waste stabilization ponds in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragush, Colin M.; Schmidt, Jordan J.; Krkosek, Wendy H.


    The majority of small remote communities in the Canadian arctic territory of Nunavut utilize waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) for municipal wastewater treatment because of their relatively low capital and operational costs, and minimal complexity. New national effluent quality regulations have been...... implemented in Canada, but not yet applied to Canada’s Arctic due to uncertainty related to the performance of current wastewater treatment systems. Waste stabilization pond (WSP) treatment performance is impacted by community water use, pond design, and climate. The greatest challenge arctic communities...

  13. Occupational Stress, Mental Health and Satisfaction in the Canadian Multicultural Workplace (United States)

    Pasca, Romana; Wagner, Shannon L.


    Workplaces are becoming increasingly multicultural and therefore, include a large variety of employees from more than one ethnicity, nationality, religious and/or cultural background. In the context of this new global economy, Canadian workplace structure and composition has also permanently changed. Consequently, the primary purpose of this…

  14. Canadian and United States Students' Performances on the OECD's PISA 2012 Problem-Solving Assessment (United States)

    Dossey, John A.; Funke, Joachim


    This article presents an overview of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 Problem-Solving assessment. The assessment examined the capabilities of 15-year-olds in 40 nations and four large international cities, as well as the Canadian Provinces, to solve a set…

  15. Race, Gender, and Affirmative Action Attitudes in American and Canadian Universities (United States)

    Katchanovski, Ivan; Nevitte, Neil; Rothman, Stanley


    Direct comparisons of American and Canadian faculty and students' views concerning issues of race, gender, and affirmative action in higher education are rare. The 1999 North American Academic Study Survey provides a unique opportunity to analyze the role of national and positional factors in faculty and student attitudes towards race, gender, and…

  16. Virtual Reference Canada (VRC): A Canadian Service in a Multicultural Environment. (United States)

    Gaudet, Franceen; Savard, Nicolas

    Virtual Reference Canada (VRC) is a digital reference service using World Wide Web technology. It was initiated by the National Library of Canada (NLC) in spring 2001 and went into test mode at the start of 2002. It draws on the contribution of a wide range of Canadian libraries and allied institutions. The development of VRC owes a great deal to…

  17. Too Much French? Not Enough French?: The Vancouver Olympics and a Very Canadian Language Ideological Debate (United States)

    Vessey, Rachelle


    This paper discusses a language ideological debate that took place in Canadian national newspapers following the opening ceremonies for the 2011 Vancouver Olympics. Reports on the insufficient use of French during the opening ceremonies sparked protest from politicians, official commentators, citizens and online newsreaders alike. Previous…

  18. The Ostracized Self: The Saga of the Japanese Canadians in Joy Kogaea's "Obasan." (United States)

    St. Andrews, B. A.


    There is a revivification of national literature in Canada. Writers from Canada's varied cultures are producing works. One such work is "Obasan," which concerns the ostracism of Japanese Canadians after World War II. This vivid novel reveals the fate of those "outsiders" as a social commentary on injustice. (VM)

  19. School Experiences Influence Personal Health and Interpersonal Relationships of Adolescents: The Canadian Case (United States)

    Ma, Xin


    Canadian data from the 1998 Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children were analyzed to examine the effects of school experiences on personal health (physical health, mental health, self-esteem, helplessness, and body image) and interpersonal relationships (number of close friends and making friends) among adolescents.…

  20. Assessing School Effects on Dental Hygiene and Nutrition Behaviors of Canadian Adolescents (United States)

    Ma, Xin


    This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…

  1. Parents and Communities as Partners in Teaching Writing in Canadian Middle Grades Classrooms (United States)

    McClay, Jill Kedersha; Peterson, Shelley Stagg; Nixon, Rhonda


    Educators have long recognized that parental and community supports are important underpinnings for children's success in school. With respect to the teaching of writing, however, little research has been conducted to provide evidence of effective practices teachers use to involve parents and communities. As part of a national Canadian study of…

  2. Oceanographic station data from bottle casts from the CANADIAN NO. 1 and Other Platforms from 01 January 1966 to 01 December 1967 (NODC Accession 7500997) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station data were collected from the CANADIAN NO. 1 and Other Platforms. Data were collected by Fisheries Research Board of Canada; Pacific...

  3. Canadian plans for participation in GSETT 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. North


    Full Text Available The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC is making preparations for Canadian participation in GSETT 3 but will be unable to make a formal commitment until the necessary resources have been secured. As Canada is expected to provide at least four alpha stations, and a significant number of beta stations, the financial resources that will be needed are substantial, even though in many respccts the GSC is, with the recent modernization of the Yellowknife array and the ongoing installation of the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN, well positioned to make a significant contribution to GSETT 3. The CNSN currently (October 1993 consists of 17 broad band stations and will grow to 23 and 33 such stations by December 1993 and December 1994 respectively. Some 40 50 short period stations will complete the network. Data from all sites are continuously telemetered in real time to network acquisition centres in Ottawa and Sidney, British Columbia, archived to optical disk, and kept on line in a 72 h ring buffer. Most of the broadband sites could serve as either alpha or beta stations once the necessary software for continuous data transfer, or on request provision, of data from the selected sites has been completed. This software wili be configured so that changes in station selection are easy to implement, and this will provide considerable flexibility to the GSETT 3 planning and operations working groups in selecting the optimum network. Backup stations can be designated in the case of station failures, and the network centre in British Columbia will serve, at least for beta stations, as a backup NDC to that in Ottawa. Data from. the Yellowknife array are collected in Yellowknife and forwarded in ten minute files to Ottawa, where processing is completed and the results archived. This arrangement would not meet the deadlines for receipt of alpha station data at the IDC and new hardware and software will be needed to forward the data more immediately from

  4. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul


    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  5. Chinese Feelings Cherished By Canadians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>On March 30, "The Chinese Feelings Across the Pacific-The Century Exhibition of the Old Photos Treasured by the Canadians" was open in the Lu Xun Museum in Beijing. The exhibition lasted for one week. At the exhibition some old photos taken in the early 20th century were on display, showing James G. Endicott, envoy of world peace, together with Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai; the family of O. L. Kilborn, one of the founders of West China Union University, together with Chinese women with bound feet: O. L. Kilborn treating the wounded soldiers during the Revolution of 1911; Leslie Earl Willmott in Chinese tunic suit and his wife reluctant to bid farewell to China, as well as photos of Ashley Woodward Lindesay, founder of China’s modern


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Libby


    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the existence of a Canadian Political Business Cycle (PBC during the period 1946-1989. Logit analysis was used to determine if changes in the unemployment rate, growth of real GNE and the rate of inflation are significantly different in the period before an election than during the rest of the electoral term. It was found that the rate of growth in the unemployment rate declines and the rate of growth of real GNP increases in the four quarters before an election. The behavior of these variables reverses in the period after an election. These findings are consistent with a political business cycle. Policy variables, under a majority government, also behave in a manner associated with a PBC, with the government stimulating the economy approximately two years into its term so that good economic news will occur before it has to call an election. Minority governments tend to simulate the economy immediately after taking office.



    Chen, Kevin Z.; Duan, Yufeng


    Asia is the second largest market for the Canadian agri-food exports after the United States market. The competition in Asia has become more intensive in recent years as the agri-food sector in developed nations such as Australia, Canada, Europe, and the United States has increasingly relied on exports for growth because of their own slow-growing domestic food consumption. How did the performance of Canadian agri-food exports to Asia measure up to the performances of its main competitors? Thi...

  8. Trans-Canada Slimeways: Slime mould imitates the Canadian transport network

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew


    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum builds up sophisticated networks to transport nutrients between distant part of its extended body. The slime mould's protoplasmic network is optimised for maximum coverage of nutrients yet minimum energy spent on transportation of the intra-cellular material. In laboratory experiments with P. polycephalum we represent Canadian major urban areas with rolled oats and inoculated slime mould in the Toronto area. The plasmodium spans the urban areas with its network of protoplasmic tubes. We uncover similarities and differences between the protoplasmic network and the Canadian national highway network, analyse the networks in terms of proximity graphs and evaluate slime mould's network response to contamination.

  9. Canadian Law Schools: In Search of Excellence. (United States)

    Trakman, Leon E.


    Academically, Canadian education is at the crossroads between formalism and functionalism, with the latter prevailing in recent years. There now arises a demand for a more integrated approach, linking legal theory with legal practice. (MSE)

  10. Facts about Canadian musk-oxen (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the historical and current status of the Canadian musk-oxen. The musk-oxen's distribution, social structure, food and range, and breeding...

  11. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business? (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke


    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  12. Chinese Students' Constructive Nationalism (United States)

    Bell, Daniel A.


    Last June the author, a teacher of political theory at Tsinghua University, was asked by a Canadian television crew to get hold of some students for a special on modern China. During the discussion, the author observed that his Chinese students express a thoughtful and informed nationalism, and a distrust of Western-style democracy. Some of the…

  13. An independent review and prioritization of past radionuclide and chemical releases from the Los Alamos National Laboratory--implications for future dose reconstruction studies. (United States)

    Le, Matthew H; Buddenbaum, John E; Burns, Robert E; Shonka, Joseph J; Gaffney, Shannon H; Donovan, Ellen P; Flack, Susan M; Widner, Thomas E


    From 1999 through 2010, a team of scientists and engineers systematically reviewed approximately eight million classified and unclassified documents at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that describe historical off-site releases of radionuclides and chemicals in order to determine the extent to which a full-scale dose reconstruction for releases is warranted and/or feasible. As a part of this effort, a relative ranking of historical airborne and waterborne radionuclide releases from LANL was established using priority index (PI) values that were calculated from estimated annual quantities released and the maximum allowable effluent concentrations according to The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Chemical releases were ranked based on annual usage estimates and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) toxicity values. PI results for airborne radionuclides indicate that early plutonium operations were of most concern between 1948 and 1961, in 1967, and again from 1970 through 1973. Airborne releases of uranium were found to be of most interest for 1968, from 1974 through 1978, and again in 1996. Mixed fission products yielded the highest PI value for 1969. Mixed activation product releases yielded the highest PI values from 1979 to 1995. For waterborne releases, results indicate that plutonium is of most concern for all years evaluated with the exception of 1956 when (90)Sr yielded the highest PI value. The prioritization of chemical releases indicate that four of the top five ranked chemicals were organic solvents that were commonly used in chemical processing and for cleaning. Trichloroethylene ranked highest, indicating highest relative potential for health effects, for both cancer and non-cancer effects. Documents also indicate that beryllium was used in significant quantities, which could have lead to residential exposures exceeding established environmental and occupational exposure limits, and warrants further consideration. In part because

  14. Clinical treatment outcomes of tuberculosis treated with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health using fixed-dose combination tablets in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil *


    Ferreira, Anna Carolina Galvão; da Silva, José Laerte Rodrigues; Conde, Marcus Barreto; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad


    OBJECTIVE: To describe the rates of cure, treatment failure, and treatment abandonment obtained with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health-rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for two months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for four months-involving the use of fixed-dose combination tablets (self-administered treatment), as well as to describe adverse events and their potential impact on treatment outcomes. METHODS: This was a descriptive s...

  15. Canadian suppliers of mining goods and services: Links between Canadian mining companies and selected sectors of the Canadian economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    Economic links between Canada's minerals and metals industry and Canadian suppliers of mining goods and services are examined to provide an insight into the interdependencies of these two key resource-related components of Canada's economy. The impact of globalization of the mining industry, estimates of its economic potential and the potential for exporting goods and services in conjunction with Canadian mining projects abroad are also assessed. The study concludes that the links between Canadian mining companies and the rest of the economy are difficult to quantify, due to the absence of statistical data that would differentiate supplier transactions with mining companies from those with other areas of the economy. At best, the approaches used in this study give but an imperfect understanding of the complex relationships between mining companies and their suppliers. It is clear, however, that as much of the demand for mining products is global, so is the supply, therefore, globalization of the mining industry, while creating unprecedented opportunities for Canadian suppliers to provide expertise, goods and services to Canadian and other customers offshore, the fact remains that mining multinationals buy a lot of their supplies locally. As a result, only some of the opportunities created by mining companies based in Canada and elsewhere will translate into sales for Canadian suppliers. Nevertheless, Canadian suppliers appear to have considerable depth in products related to underground mining, environment protection, exploration, feasibility studies, mineral processing, and mine automation. There appear to be considerable opportunities to derive further benefits from these areas of expertise. Appendices contain information about methodological aspects of the survey. 8 tabs., 32 figs., 6 appendices.

  16. Theorizing Gender in Contemporary Canadian Citizenship: Lessons Learned from the CBC's "Greatest Canadian" Contest (United States)

    Jubas, Kaela


    In this article, I have used the 2004 Greatest Canadian contest as an example of media's educational function. Contrary to mainstream discourse of gender-neutral citizenship, this contest reiterates a notion of Canadian citizenship as masculinized, classed, and raced. Gramsci's concepts of "hegemony," "ideology", and…

  17. 2010 Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Society of Echocardiography Guidelines for Training and Maintenance of Competency in Adult Echocardiography. (United States)

    Burwash, Ian G; Basmadjian, Arsene; Bewick, David; Choy, Jonathan B; Cujec, Bibiana; Jassal, Davinder S; MacKenzie, Scott; Nair, Parvathy; Rudski, Lawrence G; Yu, Eric; Tam, James W


    Guidelines for the provision of echocardiography in Canada were jointly developed and published by the Canadian Cardiovascular Society and the Canadian Society of Echocardiography in 2005. Since their publication, recognition of the importance of echocardiography to patient care has increased, along with the use of focused, point-of-care echocardiography by physicians of diverse clinical backgrounds and variable training. New guidelines for physician training and maintenance of competence in adult echocardiography were required to ensure that physicians providing either focused, point-of-care echocardiography or comprehensive echocardiography are appropriately trained and proficient in their use of echocardiography. In addition, revision of the guidelines was required to address technological advances and the desire to standardize echocardiography training across the country to facilitate the national recognition of a physician's expertise in echocardiography. This paper summarizes the new Guidelines for Physician Training and Maintenance of Competency in Adult Echocardiography, which are considerably more comprehensive than earlier guidelines and address many important issues not previously covered. These guidelines provide a blueprint for physician training despite different clinical backgrounds and help standardize physician training and training programs across the country. Adherence to the guidelines will ensure that physicians providing echocardiography have acquired sufficient expertise required for their specific practice. The document will also provide a framework for other national societies to standardize their training programs in echocardiography and will provide a benchmark by which competency in adult echocardiography may be measured.

  18. Local diagnostic reference level based on size-specific dose estimates: Assessment of pediatric abdominal/pelvic computed tomography at a Japanese national children's hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Rumi; Miyazaki, Osamu; Kurosawa, Hideo; Nosaka, Shunsuke [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Horiuchi, Tetsuya [Osaka University, Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Division of Medical Technology and Science, Course of Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)


    A child's body size is not accurately reflected by volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose-length product (DLP). Size-specific dose estimation (SSDE) was introduced recently as a new index of radiation dose. However, it has not yet been established as a diagnostic reference level (DRL). To calculate the SSDE of abdominal/pelvic CT and compare the SSDE with CTDI{sub vol}. To calculate the DRLs of CTDI{sub vol} and SSDE. Our hypotheses are: SSDE values will be greater than CTDI{sub vol}, and our DRL will be smaller than the known DRLs of other countries. The CTDI{sub vol} and DLP of 117 children who underwent abdominal/pelvic CT were collected retrospectively. The SSDE was calculated from the sum of the lateral and anteroposterior diameters. The relationships between body weight and effective diameter and between effective diameter and CTDI{sub vol}/SSDE were compared. Further, the local DRL was compared with the DRLs of other countries. Body weight and effective diameter and effective diameter and SSDE were positively correlated. In children ages 1, 5 and 10 years, the SSDE is closer to the exposure dose of CTDI{sub vol} for the 16-cm phantom, while in children ages 15 years, the SSDE falls between CTDI{sub vol} for the 16-cm phantom and that for the 32-cm phantom. The local DRL was lower than those of other countries. With SSDE, the radiation dose increased with increasing body weight. Since SSDE takes body size into account, it proved to be a useful indicator for estimating the exposure dose. (orig.)

  19. Risk stratification and stroke prevention therapy care gaps in Canadian atrial fibrillation patients (from the Co-ordinated National Network to Engage Physicians in the Care and Treatment of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation chart audit). (United States)

    Patel, Ashish D; Tan, Mary K; Angaran, Paul; Bell, Alan D; Berall, Murray; Bucci, Claudia; Demchuk, Andrew M; Essebag, Vidal; Goldin, Lianne; Green, Martin S; Gregoire, Jean C; Gross, Peter L; Heilbron, Brett; Lin, Peter J; Ramanathan, Krishnan; Skanes, Allan; Wheeler, Bruce H; Goodman, Shaun G


    The objectives of this national chart audit (January to June 2013) of 6,346 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF; ≥18 years without a significant heart valve disorder) from 647 primary care physicians were to (1) describe the frequency of stroke and bleed risk assessments in patients with nonvalvular AF by primary care physicians, including the accuracy of these assessments relative to established predictive indexes; (2) outline contemporary methods of anticoagulation used; and (3) report the time in the therapeutic range among patients prescribed warfarin. An annual stroke risk assessment was not undertaken in 15% and estimated without a formal risk tool in 33%; agreement with CHADS2 score estimation was seen in 87% of patients. Major bleeding risk assessment was not undertaken in 25% and estimated without a formal risk tool in 47%; agreement with HAS-BLED score estimation was observed in 64% with physician overestimation in 26% of patients. Antithrombotic therapy included warfarin (58%), dabigatran (22%), rivaroxaban (14%), and apixaban (risk for stroke. There is apparent overestimation of bleeding risk in many patients. Warfarin was the dominant stroke prevention treatment; however, the suggested TTR target was achieved in only 55% of these patients.

  20. Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change: Producing Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. and Bush Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. for Improved Food Security and Resilience in a Canadian Subarctic First Nations Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D. Barbeau


    Full Text Available Aboriginal people in Canada experience disproportionately high rates of diet-related illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes. Food insecurity has been identified as a contributing factor to these illnesses along with a loss of traditional lifestyle. Current food systems within northern subarctic and arctic regions of Canada rely heavily on imported foods that are expensive (when available, and are environmentally unsustainable. A warming subarctic and arctic climate present challenges, but also offers the opportunity for local agricultural production that can increase food security and promote a more sustainable food system. In this study the feasibility of sustainably growing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing agroforestry practices to enhance food security in remote subarctic communities is explored through a case study in Fort Albany First Nation in northern Ontario, Canada. Potato crops were grown over a two-year period and rotated into plots that had been planted with green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Results showed that potatoes and bush beans could be grown successfully in the subarctic without the use of greenhouses with yields comparable to more conventional high-input agricultural methods. In subarctic Canada, sustainable local food production can help to promote social capital, healthier lifestyles, and food security.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McCormick


    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, the appointment of trial judges in Canada has generally involved an arms-length committee of professionals, although the structure of these committees and their role in the process has varied from province to province, as well as evolving over time. Yet these “new” structures and “new” processes did not prevent a major judicial appointment scandal in the province of Quebec in 2010, culminating in the formation of the Bastarache Committee to recommend changes. This paper summarizes the forty-year history of Canadian judicial appointment committees, identifies the major challenges that face those committees, and suggests the basic values toward which reforms to the appointment process might be directed. Depuis les années 1970, la nomination des juges de première instance au Canada a généralement mis à contribution un comité de professionnels indépendants, bien que la structure de ce comité et son rôle dans le processus de nomination aient varié d’une province à l’autre et évolué avec le temps. Ces « nouvelles » structures et « nouveaux » processus n’ont certes pas empêché l’éclatement du scandale sur la nomination des juges au Québec en 2010. Ce scandale a donné lieu à la formation de la Commission Bastarache qui avait notamment le mandat de recommander des changements. La présent document résume les quarante ans d’histoire des comités canadiens de nomination des juges, recense les principaux défis que ces comités doivent relever, et propose les valeurs fondamentales qui devraient inspirer les réformes du processus de nomination.

  2. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 2. LLNL Annual Site-specific Data, 1953 - 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S


    Historical information about tritium released routinely and accidentally from all Livermore Site Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities and from the Tritium Research Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) between 1953 through 2005 has been compiled and summarized in this report. Facility-specific data (annual release rates and dilution factors) have been derived from the historical information. These facility-specific data are needed to calculate annual doses to a hypothetical site-wide maximally exposed individual from routine releases of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) to the atmosphere. Doses can also be calculated from observed air tritium concentrations, and mean annual values for one air tritium sampling location are presented. Other historical data relevant to a dose reconstruction (e.g., meteorological data, including absolute humidity and rainfall) are also presented. Sources of information are carefully referenced, and assumptions are documented. Uncertainty distributions have been estimated for all parameter values. Confidence in data post-1974 is high.

  3. Troubling National Discourses in Anti-Racist Curricular Planning (United States)

    Schick, Carol; St. Denis, Verna


    The narrative of the Canadian prairie context is invested in intercultural relations that privilege whiteness and marginalize Aboriginal people and other racial minorities. We maintain that anti-oppressive curriculum on the Canadian prairies must examine how racial identifications are constructed through commonplace national discourses. A…

  4. A Roadmap for Canadian Submillimetre Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Tracy; Di Francesco, James; Matthews, Brenda; Murray, Norm; Scott, Douglas; Wilson, Christine


    We survey the present landscape in submillimetre astronomy for Canada and describe a plan for continued engagement in observational facilities to ~2020. Building on Canada's decadal Long Range Plan process, we emphasize that continued involvement in a large, single-dish facility is crucial given Canada's substantial investment in ALMA and numerous PI-led submillimetre experiments. In particular, we recommend: i) an extension of Canadian participation in the JCMT until at least the unique JCMT Legacy Survey program is able to realize the full scientific potential provided by the world-leading SCUBA-2 instrument; and ii) involvement of the entire Canadian community in CCAT, with a large enough share in the partnership for Canadian astronomers to participate at all levels of the facility. We further recommend continued participation in ALMA development, involvement in many focused PI-led submillimetre experiments, and partnership in SPICA.

  5. Human resources needs in the Canadian wind energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittholz, H. [Synova International Business Development, London, ON (Canada)


    international institutes and that regional, national and international cooperation should be promoted in education, research and development. It was concluded that the industry and government should work together to ensure that Canadian jobs are maximized at a competitive cost. 11 refs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices.

  6. Canadian macromolecular crystallography facility: a suite of fully automated beamlines. (United States)

    Grochulski, Pawel; Fodje, Michel; Labiuk, Shaunivan; Gorin, James; Janzen, Kathryn; Berg, Russ


    The Canadian light source is a 2.9 GeV national synchrotron radiation facility located on the University of Saskatchewan campus in Saskatoon. The small-gap in-vacuum undulator illuminated beamline, 08ID-1, together with the bending magnet beamline, 08B1-1, constitute the Canadian Macromolecular Crystallography Facility (CMCF). The CMCF provides service to more than 50 Principal Investigators in Canada and the United States. Up to 25% of the beam time is devoted to commercial users and the general user program is guaranteed up to 55% of the useful beam time through a peer-review process. CMCF staff provides "Mail-In" crystallography service to users with the highest scored proposals. Both beamlines are equipped with very robust end-stations including on-axis visualization systems, Rayonix 300 CCD series detectors and Stanford-type robotic sample auto-mounters. MxDC, an in-house developed beamline control system, is integrated with a data processing module, AutoProcess, allowing full automation of data collection and data processing with minimal human intervention. Sample management and remote monitoring of experiments is enabled through interaction with a Laboratory Information Management System developed at the facility.

  7. Multilingualism in Canadian schools: Myths, realities and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Duff


    Full Text Available Abstract Bilingualism and multiculturalism have for four decades been official ideologies and policies in Canada but, as is often the case, the implementation and outcomes of such government policies nationally are less impressive than the rhetoric would suggest. This article reviews the political, theoretical and demographic contexts justifying support for the learning and use of additional languages in contemporary Canadian society and schools, and summarizes research demonstrating that bilingualism and multilingualism are indeed cognitively, socially, and linguistically advantageous for children (and adults, as well as for society. The five studies in this special issue are then previewed with respect to the following themes that run across them: (1 the potential for bilingual synergies and transformations in language awareness activities and crosslinguistic knowledge construction; (2 the role of multiliteracies and multimodality in mediated learning; and (3 the interplay of positioning, identity, and agency in language learning by immigrant youth. The article concludes that more Canadian schools and educators must, like the researchers in this volume, find ways to embrace and build upon students’ prior knowledge, their creativity, their collaborative problem-solving skills, their potential for mastering and manipulating multiple, multilingual semiotic tools, and their desire for inclusion and integration in productive, engaging learning communities.

  8. Factors Associated with Chronic Noncancer Pain in the Canadian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifudin Rashiq


    Full Text Available Chronic noncancer pain (CNCP is a prevalent health problem with pervasive negative effects on the individual’s quality of life. Previous epidemiological studies of CNCP have suggested a number of individual biological, psychological and societal correlates of CNCP, but it has rarely been possible to simultaneously compare the relative strengths of many such correlates in a Canadian population sample. With data provided by the 1996/1997 Canadian National Population Health Survey, ordinal logistic regression was used to examine the extent to which a number of population variables are associated with CNCP in a large (n=69,365 dataset. The analysis revealed cross-sectional correlations of varying strengths between CNCP and 27 factors. Increasing age, low income, low educational achievement, daily cigarette smoking, physical inactivity and abstention from alcohol were among the factors found to increase CNCP risk. The considerable impact of distress and depression on CNCP are also highlighted. A number of comorbid medical illnesses increased CNCP risk, including some (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, epilepsy and thyroid disease that have not hitherto been associated with pain. White race and the affirmation of an important role for spirituality or faith reduced CNCP risk. In contrast to some previous studies, female sex did not emerge as an independent CNCP risk. The present exploratory analysis describes associations between CNCP and a number of characteristics from several domains, thus suggesting many areas for further research.

  9. Birth of the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation. (United States)

    Beck, Ivan T


    The Canadian Digestive Disease Foundation, renamed the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation--Fondation canadienne pour la promotion de la santé digestive--in December 2001, is the culmination of ongoing efforts by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology to establish an independent charitable organization. In February 2001, it was officially endorsed as the Foundation for the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology. The initial efforts to establish this Foundation, led by Dr Richard McKenna in 1963, were unsuccessful. In 1991, Glaxo Canada (now GlaxoSmithKline) became a founding donor, and with the four founding physicians--Drs Ivan T Beck, Richard H Hunt, Suzanne E Lemire and Alan BR Thomson--the expenses to establish the Foundation were met. A charitable number was obtained in 1995 (0997427-11). The second founding donor was Janssen Canada (now Janssen-Ortho), and public education support came from Astra Canada (now AstraZeneca Canada). The Foundation initially relied on corporate donors, but now approaches physicians, patients and the general public. The objectives of the Foundation are to advance the science of gastroenterology and to provide knowledge of digestive diseases and nutrition to the general public, to enhance the quality of life of persons who are afflicted with these disorders. The major achievements of the Foundation are the provision of one-year operating grants to new investigators, which have allowed them to accumulate early data and subsequently obtain support from other major granting organizations. It also provides Fellowships and studentship support grants, in conjunction with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the pharmaceutical industry. The education committee found that there was little research support in this field, considering the large economic burden of digestive disease and the amount of outstanding work done by Canadian researchers. A bilingual Web site, a web-based specialist's discussion program and bilingual

  10. A Course in Canadian Film for U.S. Students (United States)

    Gutenko, Gregory


    Canadian Film will be a new course in the Communications Studies department at the University of Missouri at Kansas City particularly designed for non-Canadian Midwestern US students. It will not only introduce students to the richness and significance of Canadian film as both art and entertainment (which is virtually unrecognized around here),…

  11. 47 CFR 101.1423 - Canadian and Mexican coordination. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian and Mexican coordination. 101.1423... GHz Band § 101.1423 Canadian and Mexican coordination. Pursuant to § 2.301 of this chapter, MVDDS systems in the United States within 56 km (35 miles) of the Canadian and Mexican border will be...

  12. Management of hereditary angioedema: 2010 Canadian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Tom


    Full Text Available Abstract C1-inhibitor (C1-INH deficiency is a rare blood disorder resulting in angioedema attacks that are debilitating and may be life-threatening. Prophylaxis and therapy of events has changed since our first Canadian Consensus Conference on the diagnosis, therapy and management of HAE. We have formed the Canadian Hereditary Angioedema Network (CHAEN/Réseau Canadien d'Angioédème Héréditaire (RCAH - to advance care of patients with this disorder in Canada. We here present a review of management of HAE in Canada.

  13. Statistics in action a Canadian outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F


    Commissioned by the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC), Statistics in Action: A Canadian Outlook helps both general readers and users of statistics better appreciate the scope and importance of statistics. It presents the ways in which statistics is used while highlighting key contributions that Canadian statisticians are making to science, technology, business, government, and other areas. The book emphasizes the role and impact of computing in statistical modeling and analysis, including the issues involved with the huge amounts of data being generated by automated processes.The first two c

  14. Association Between Media Dose, Ad Tagging, and Changes in Web Traffic for a National Tobacco Education Campaign: A Market-Level Longitudinal Study



    Background In 2012, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched Tips From Former Smokers (Tips), the first federally funded national tobacco education campaign. In 2013, a follow-up Tips campaign aired on national cable television networks, radio, and other channels, with supporting digital advertising to drive traffic to the Tips campaign website. Objective The objective of this study was to use geographic and temporal variability in 2013 Tips campaign television media d...

  15. Canadian Government industrial security policy : potential value added service for the Canadian oil and natural gas private sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, R.


    Responses to the terrorist attacks of September 11 have enhanced a number of national security policy programs, standards and resources to assess, advise, and protect critical energy infrastructure in Canada. It is expected that resolutions related to energy security and interdependence will reflect private sector concerns and solutions. However, the private energy sector does not currently qualify for sponsorship in the Industrial Security Policy Program. This paper argued that the security systems and standards in place in the Canadian private energy sector should be reinforced by government policies. A joint commission model developed by government agencies with the participation of the private sector was recommended. It was suggested that academic, security and intelligence professionals within government departments that provide services for energy infrastructure protection share their expectations under the leadership of the Canadian Centre of Intelligence and Security Studies. An outline of Canada's industrial security policy and program was presented, as well as details of the role of the industrial security advisory board. 31 refs.

  16. Illicit drugs in Canadian municipal wastewater and estimates of community drug use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, Chris, E-mail: cmetcalfe@trentu.c [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Tindale, Kathryn [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Li, Hongxia, E-mail: lihongxia@trentu.c [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Rodayan, Angela [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University St., Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Yargeau, Viviane, E-mail: viviane.yargeau@mcgill.c [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University St., Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada)


    In this study of wastewater treatment plants in three Canadian cities, selected illicit drugs, including cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE), amphetamine, methamphetamine and ecstasy (i.e. MDMA) were detected in untreated wastewater. Cocaine was the most widely used illicit drug at a median level for the 3 cities of 15.7 doses per day per 1000 people. For the other drugs, the median doses per day per 1000 people were 1.8 for amphetamine, 4.5 for methamphetamine and 0.4 for ecstasy. Methamphetamine use was highest in the largest city and cocaine use was lowest in the smallest city. Removal of the illicit drugs by wastewater treatment was generally >50%, except in a WWTP that uses primary treatment. The community consumption estimate for ecstasy in the present study is far below published estimates of the prevalence of ecstasy use among the Canadian population, which may be due to only occasional use of ecstasy. - Cocaine and amphetamines were detected in untreated and treated sewage in the wastewater treatment plants of three Canadian cities, and community consumption patterns estimated from the concentrations of the drugs in untreated wastewater were consistent with estimates of the use of illicit drugs in Canada.

  17. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation: Guidelines on Colon Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Leddin


    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer affecting both men and women in Canada. Many of these cancers are preventable, and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation (CDHF strongly support the establishment of screening programs for colorectal cancer. These guidelines discuss a number of screening options, listing the advantages and disadvantages of each. Ultimately, the test that is used for screening should be determined by patient preference, current evidence and local resources.

  18. The Canadian Hypertension Education Program – a unique Canadian knowledge translation program


    Tobe, Sheldon W; Touyz, Rhian M.; Campbell, Norm RC


    The Canadian Hypertension Education Program annually appraises data from hypertension research and updates clinical practice recommendation for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Enormous effort is devoted to disseminating these recommendations to target groups throughout the country and, through the use of institutional databases, to evaluating their effectiveness in improving the health of Canadians by lowering blood pressure in people with hypertension. The mission of the Canadi...

  19. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L


    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  20. Canadian Ethnohistory: A Source for Social Studies? (United States)

    Wickwire, Wendy


    Presents an overview of ethnohistory, a relatively new area of historical investigation that draws on anthropology, geography, and linguistics, as well as history, to document the pasts of predominantly indigenous peoples. Encourages social studies teachers to take notice of a major body of work being produced by Canadian ethnohistorians. (DSK)

  1. Who Are the Players in Canadian Curriculum? (United States)

    Milburn, Geoffrey


    Labels range of persons advocating different theoretical positions of Canadian curriculum as "players." Describes players as "managers,""predictors,""transformers,""sleuths,""analysts." Values varied viewpoints for attention to language regarding curriculum, critical review of ideas/concepts, examination of current policies, awareness of history…

  2. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement (United States)

    Nesbit, Tom


    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five…

  3. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement? (United States)

    Selman, Mark


    In this journal's Fall 2009 issue, the Forum section included an article by Gordon Selman and Mark Selman arguing that although Canadian adult education had existed as a social movement in the middle part of the 20th century, it is no longer a social movement. They also speculated about the causes of this change. In the Spring 2011 issue, Tom…

  4. Canadian Children's Perceptions of Spirituality: Diverse Voices (United States)

    Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria; Bosacki, Sandra


    Few researchers have explored children's understandings of spirituality. Thus, Canadian children from different religious, spiritual and cultural backgrounds were asked open-ended questions concerning their spiritual thoughts, beliefs and experiences. Parents of participants completed a demographic questionnaire and reported children's religious…

  5. Canadian Perspectives on Equity in the Classroom. (United States)

    Bowlby, Brenda; Komlen, Mile


    Canadian school board administrators are increasingly expected to meet the needs of disabled or other students requiring specific types of accommodation. The duty to accommodate arises when otherwise legitimate school rules or policies affect the customs and observances of nonmajoritarian religions. (Contains 12 references.) (MLH)

  6. Asian and Pacific Migration: The Canadian Experience. (United States)

    Samuel, T. John


    Examines the characteristics of landed immigrants (permanent settlers) from Asia, and explores their settlement, adaptation, and integration experience in Canada. It suggests that access to Canadian land does not always translate into equal opportunity in the economy and society, but notes that Canada may be more successful at assimilating Asian…

  7. Heat exposure in the Canadian workplace. (United States)

    Jay, Ollie; Kenny, Glen P


    Exposure to excessive heat is a physical hazard that threatens Canadian workers. As patterns of global climate change suggest an increased frequency of heat waves, the potential impact of these extreme climate events on the health and well-being of the Canadian workforce is a new and growing challenge. Increasingly, industries rely on available technology and information to ensure the safety of their workers. Current Canadian labor codes in all provinces employ the guidelines recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) that are Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) based upon Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT). The TLVs are set so that core body temperature of the workers supposedly does not exceed 38.0 degrees C. Legislation in most Canadian provinces also requires employers to install engineering and administrative controls to reduce the heat stress risk of their working environment should it exceed the levels permissible under the WBGT system. There are however severe limitations using the WGBT system because it only directly evaluates the environmental parameters and merely incorporates personal factors such as clothing insulation and metabolic heat production through simple correction factors for broadly generalized groups. An improved awareness of the strengths and limitations of TLVs and the WGBT index can minimize preventable measurement errors and improve their utilization in workplaces. Work is on-going, particularly in the European Union to develop an improved individualized heat stress risk assessment tool. More work is required to improve the predictive capacity of these indices.

  8. Family Business Training: A Canadian Perspective (United States)

    Ibrahim, A. B.; Soufani, K.; Lam, Jose


    Family firms play an important role in the working of the Canadian economy; despite their importance to the economic activities and job creation it is observed that family businesses have lower survival rates than non-family firms, some argue that this can possibly be attributed (amongst other factors) to the lack of training. Most of the training…

  9. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born. (United States)

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M


    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia.

  10. Understanding the social determinants of health among Indigenous Canadians: priorities for health promotion policies and actions (United States)

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Nader, Forouz; Yi, Kyoung J.; Sharma, Sangita


    Background Indigenous Canadians have a life expectancy 12 years lower than the national average and experience higher rates of preventable chronic diseases compared with non-Indigenous Canadians. Transgenerational trauma from past assimilation policies have affected the health of Indigenous populations. Objective The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively examine the social determinants of health (SDH), in order to identify priorities for health promotion policies and actions. Design We undertook a series of systematic reviews focusing on four major SDH (i.e. income, education, employment, and housing) among Indigenous peoples in Alberta, following the protocol Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis-Equity. Results We found that the four SDH disproportionately affect the health of Indigenous peoples. Our systematic review highlighted 1) limited information regarding relationships and interactions among income, personal and social circumstances, and health outcomes; 2) limited knowledge of factors contributing to current housing status and its impacts on health outcomes; and 3) the limited number of studies involving the barriers to, and opportunities for, education. Conclusions These findings may help to inform efforts to promote health equity and improve health outcomes of Indigenous Canadians. However, there is still a great need for in-depth subgroup studies to understand SDH (e.g. age, Indigenous ethnicity, dwelling area, etc.) and intersectoral collaborations (e.g. community and various government departments) to reduce health disparities faced by Indigenous Canadians. PMID:26187697

  11. Bringing climate change down to earth : science and participation in Canadian and Australian climate change campaigns


    Padolsky, Miriam Elana


    This dissertation examines Canadian and Australian climate change campaigns as cases of science in the public sphere. I pose three interconnected research questions. What is the role of science in climate change campaigns? How is the use of science affected by the type of campaign institution: government or non-government? How does the national policy environment, particularly Canada's ratification and Australia's rejection of the Kyoto Protocol, affect the campaigns? In both Canada and Austr...

  12. Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Science Education and Its Integration in Grades 7 and 8 Canadian Science Curriculum Documents (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Ji Amy; Dionne, Liliane


    Though science education has been prominent in the Canadian educational system, researchers increasingly recognize the scientific and educational value of integrating traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) into their curriculum. Despite national strategies to integrate TEK, Canada has yet to initiate a comprehensive study of its prevalence and…

  13. Low Frequency of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Canadian Youth: Findings from the 2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey (United States)

    Minaker, Leia; Hammond, David


    Background: Frequent fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption is protective against some cancers, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. This study explores self-reported frequency of FV consumption in a nationally generalizable sample of Canadian youth in grades 6-12. Methods: Data from grades 6-12 students who participated in the…

  14. Optical Disk Technology and the Library. Part 1: The Technology and Its Applications. Part 2: The National Library Videodisc Demonstration Project. Canadian Network Papers Number 9 = Technologie du Videodisque et la Bibliotheque. Premiere partie: La Technologie et ses Applications. Deuxieme partie: Projet de Demonstration du Videodisque a la Bibliotheque Nationale. Documents sur les Reseaux Canadiens Numero 9. (United States)

    Duchesne, Roddy; Sonnemann, Sabine S.

    This report is intended to assist Canadian libraries in assessing potential library applications of optical disk technology. Part 1 provides a general outline of the technology and describes a number of library applications and projects. Descriptions are purposely general and illustrative in nature since the technology and its applications are…

  15. Allies of a Kind: Canadian Army-US Army Relations and the Korean War, 1950-1953 (United States)


    be hard on the Koreans, whom they blamed for the war . Caught in a gang rape , four Patricias killed three and wounded four men of the victim’s family...Korean War , 1950-1953 Allan R. Millett COVER IMAGE. Brigadier J.M. Rockingham meets with US Gen- eral Matthew Ridgway. (Courtesy of Canadian Department of...National Defence.) ALLIES OF A KIND Canadian Army-US Army Relations and the Korean War , 1950-1953 Allan R. Millett Combat Studies Institute Press US

  16. N-CDAD in Canada: Results of the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program 1997 N-CDAD Prevalence Surveillance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghen Hyland


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A 1996 preproject survey among Canadian Hospital Epidemiology Committee (CHEC sites revealed variations in the prevention, detection, management and surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD. Facilities wanted to establish national rates of nosocomially acquired CDAD (N-CDAD to understand the impact of control or prevention measures, and the burden of N-CDAD on health care resources. The CHEC, in collaboration with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Health Canada and under the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, undertook a prevalence surveillance project among selected hospitals throughout Canada.

  17. "Columbus Wrote":Literacy and Resistance in Contemporary Canadian First Nations Literature%“哥伦布写道”:当代加拿大土著文学中的文字书写与抵抗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper examines work by contemporary Native writers in Canada and explores the representations of literacy and orality in these texts.Like other Aboriginal peoples in North America,Canadian Native cultures are traditionally oral cultures.While many Aboriginal nations also had some forms of written expression such as beadwork,winter-count drawings and rock art,the wisdom and teachings of these nations reside primarily in oral stories.Thus the arrival of colonizing nations in North America was attended by the arrival of writing.This paper studies the ways in which Native writers today reflect upon the colonial histories that are embedded within the activity of writing itself.The paper argues that writers such as Louise Bernice Halfe,Jeannette Armstrong and Maria Campbell create literary texts that are infused with the style of oral storytelling as a way of combating the imperialism of European literary traditions.These writers work to forge a new kind of writing that is deeply expressive of Aboriginal identities despite the fact that Aboriginal traditions arise largely from oral culture.Their work is cross-cultural in intent because it takes European forms and re-creates them in a new way to give voice to Aboriginal traditions in the contemporary multicultural (and still colonized) context of North America.%本文考察了当代加拿大土著作家的作品,并探讨了文字书写与口头形态在这些文本中的体现。与北美洲其他土著居民一样,加拿大土著民文化也是传统上的口头文化。尽管许多土著民也有一些例如珠饰、冬画和岩刻等书面表达的形式,但是这些土著民的智慧和训诫主要还是存在于口头故事中,因此北美洲的文字书写是伴随殖民者到达的。本文探讨了当代土著作家如何对嵌入书写活动自身的殖民历史进行深入思考,认为路易斯·伯妮斯·海弗、珍妮特·阿姆斯特朗、玛丽亚·坎贝尔等作家在书写文本的建构中

  18. Salt Marshes of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to map all salt marshes along the coastline of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, from the Canning River to the Canadian border....

  19. Dose Assessment of Los Alamos National Laboratory-Derived Residual Radionuclides in Soils within C Tracts (C-2, C-3, and C-4) for Land Transfer Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillis, Jessica M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Whicker, Jeffrey J.


    Three separate Sampling and Analysis Plans (SAPs) were prepared for tracts C-2, C-3, and C-4. The objective of sampling was to confirm, within the stated statistical confidence limits, that the mean levels of potential radioactive residual contamination in soils in the C Tracts are documented, in appropriate units, and are below the 15 mrem/y (150 μSv/y) Screening Action Levels (SALs). Results show that radionuclide concentration upper-bound 95% confidence levels were close to background levels, with the exception of Pu-239 and Cs-137 being slightly elevated above background, and all measurements were below the ALs and meet the real property release criteria for future construction or recreational use. A follow-up ALARA analysis showed that the costs of cleanup of the soil in areas of elevated concentration and confirmatory sampling would far exceed any benefit from dose reduction.

  20. Diagnosis and management of asthma in preschoolers: A Canadian Thoracic Society and Canadian Paediatric Society position paper. (United States)

    Ducharme, Francine M; Dell, Sharon D; Radhakrishnan, Dhenduka; Grad, Roland M; Watson, Wade T A; Yang, Connie L; Zelman, Mitchell


    Asthma often starts before six years of age. However, there remains uncertainty as to when and how a preschool-age child with symptoms suggestive of asthma can be diagnosed with this condition. This delays treatment and contributes to both short- and long-term morbidity. Members of the Canadian Thoracic Society Asthma Clinical Assembly partnered with the Canadian Paediatric Society to develop a joint working group with the mandate to develop a position paper on the diagnosis and management of asthma in preschoolers. In the absence of lung function tests, the diagnosis of asthma should be considered in children one to five years of age with frequent (≥ 8 days/month) asthma-like symptoms or recurrent (≥ 2) exacerbations (episodes with asthma-like signs). The diagnosis requires the objective document of signs or convincing parent-reported symptoms of airflow obstruction (improvement in these signs or symptoms with asthma therapy), and no clinical suspicion of an alternative diagnosis. The characteristic feature of airflow obstruction is wheezing, commonly accompanied by difficulty breathing and cough. Reversibility with asthma medications is defined as direct observation of improvement with short-acting ß2-agonists (SABA) (with or without oral corticosteroids) by a trained health care practitioner during an acute exacerbation (preferred method). However, in children with no wheezing (or other signs of airflow obstruction) on presentation, reversibility may be determined by convincing parental report of a symptomatic response to a three-month therapeutic trial of a medium dose of inhaled corticosteroids with as-needed SABA (alternative method), or as-needed SABA alone (weaker alternative method). The authors provide key messages regarding in whom to consider the diagnosis, terms to be abandoned, when to refer to an asthma specialist and the initial management strategy. Finally, dissemination plans and priority areas for research are identified.

  1. Teaching Ethics in Canadian Gastroenterology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Van Rosendaal


    Full Text Available A firm foundation in medical bioethics is essential to the education of any physician. The relative importance of specific ethical principles may vary with the physician's specialty, depending on the nature of the problems dealt with or the services provided in each discipline. The working knowledge in ethics required of a gastroenterologist is different, for example, from that needed by an intensivist or a psychiatrist. It is with this context in mind that Malhotra and Ottaway, in this issue of the Journal (pages 315-317, propose the creation of a national curriculum in bioethics specific to gastroenterology.

  2. Flexing the PECs: Predicting environmental concentrations of veterinary drugs in Canadian agricultural soils. (United States)

    Kullik, Sigrun A; Belknap, Andrew M


    Veterinary drugs administered to food animals primarily enter ecosystems through the application of livestock waste to agricultural land. Although veterinary drugs are essential for protecting animal health, their entry into the environment may pose a risk for nontarget organisms. A means to predict environmental concentrations of new veterinary drug ingredients in soil is required to assess their environmental fate, distribution, and potential effects. The Canadian predicted environmental concentrations in soil (PECsoil) for new veterinary drug ingredients for use in intensively reared animals is based on the approach currently used by the European Medicines Agency for VICH Phase I environmental assessments. The calculation for the European Medicines Agency PECsoil can be adapted to account for regional animal husbandry and land use practices. Canadian agricultural practices for intensively reared cattle, pigs, and poultry differ substantially from those in the European Union. The development of PECsoil default values and livestock categories representative of typical Canadian animal production methods and nutrient management practices culminates several years of research and an extensive survey and analysis of the scientific literature, Canadian agricultural statistics, national and provincial management recommendations, veterinary product databases, and producers. A PECsoil can be used to rapidly identify new veterinary drugs intended for intensive livestock production that should undergo targeted ecotoxicity and fate testing. The Canadian PECsoil model is readily available, transparent, and requires minimal inputs to generate a screening level environmental assessment for veterinary drugs that can be refined if additional data are available. PECsoil values for a hypothetical veterinary drug dosage regimen are presented and discussed in an international context. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:331-341. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

  3. Seeing Oneself in a Book: The Changing Face of Canadian Children's Literature. (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Fayjean, Janet


    Takes a look at children's literature over time, and its recent emergence as a respected body of literary work. Discusses what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Annotates six picture books. Notes that Canadian literature reflects the diversity of the Canadian population, the vast differences in the Canadian landscape, and the…

  4. Transnational Class Formation? Globalization and the Canadian Corporate Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Klassen


    Full Text Available The issue of transnational class formation has figured centrally in recent debates on globalization. These debates revolve around the question of whether or not new patterns of cross-border trade and investment have established global circuits of capital out of which a transnational capitalist class has emerged. This paper takes up the notion of transnational class formation at the point of corporate directorship interlocks. Using Canada as a case study, it maps the changing network of directorship interlocks between leading firms in Canada and the world economy. In particular, the paper examines the role of transnational corporations (TNCs in the Canadian corporate network; the resilience of a national corporate community; and new patterns of cross-border interlocking amongst transnational firms. Through this empirical mapping, the paper finds a definite link between investment and interlocking shaping the social space of the global corporate elite. Corporations with a transnational base of accumulation tend to participate in transnational interlocking. While national corporate communities have not been transcended, transnational firms increasingly predominate within them, articulating national with transnational elite segments. This new network of firms reconstitutes the corporate power bloc and forms a nascent transnational capitalist class.

  5. The Applicability of the NCLEX-RN to the Canadian Testing Population: A Review of Regulatory Body Evidence. (United States)

    Salfi, Jenn; Carbol, Barry


    The NCLEX-RN® was adopted by Canadian regulators in 2011 as the test which entry-level nurses must pass in order to be certified to practice. As part of their justification for adopting the exam, the Canadian regulators pointed to two studies conducted by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN). These studies aimed to determine the applicability of the NCLEX-RN® test plan to the Canadian testing population (NCSBN, 2014),with the NCLEX-RN® providing "a fair, valid, and psychometrically sound measurement" of nursing competencies of entry-level RNs in Ontario, Canada (NCSBN, 2012 , p. 8). The purpose of this article is to report the findings from a review of the above two NCSBN studies in order to assess whether they provide sufficient evidence to conclude that the NCLEX-RN® is applicable to the Canadian testing population. While some evidence was found of the use of best practice principles in survey and research design, both authors call into question the evidence provided by the NCSBN, and deny the claims that the NCLEX-RN®, as currently designed, is an appropriate assessment tool for Canadian entry-level nurses.

  6. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada. (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph


    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  7. Canadian petroleum history bibliography. Release update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.


    The petroleum history bibliography was created over several years as a record dedicated to preserving the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. It comprises a list of more than 5000 publications, including books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles and stories of the many companies that have come and gone. It aims to include all publications and audio visual products from the Social Sciences and Humanities on company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry and humour. An author index is included. Most government documents are excluded as they are accessible through Library and Archives Canada. This bibliography is an ongoing piece of work, and welcomes any additions relating to the study and preservation of Canadian petroleum industry history.

  8. Webpages on copyright in Canadian academic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony G Horava


    Full Text Available Academic libraries value the web as being a vital channel for communicating information and policies to their user community. Designing a webpage on copyright is a challenging task that requires a consideration of the medium and the message. This article proposes a conceptual model and proactive approach for integrating policy objective and goals into the development of a copyright webpage, based on key elements of the library’s involvement in academia. To complement this theoretical approach, an analysis of Canadian academic library websites was conducted in order to gage the effectiveness of copyright webpages, in the Canadian legal context, according to the model as well as related design issues of visibility and access.

  9. 2003 Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines Executive Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Allan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma have been published over the last 15 years; however, there has been little focus on issues relating to asthma in childhood. Since the last revision of the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report, important new studies, particularly in children, have highlighted the need to incorporate new information into the asthma guidelines. The objectives of this article are to review the literature on asthma published between January 2000 and June 2003 and to evaluate the influence of new evidence on the recommendations made in the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report and its 2001 update, with a major focus on pediatric issues. Methods The diagnosis of asthma in young children and prevention strategies, pharmacotherapy, inhalation devices, immunotherapy, and asthma education were selected for review by small expert resource groups. The reviews were discussed in June 2003 at a meeting under the auspices of the Canadian Network For Asthma Care and the Canadian Thoracic Society. Data published through December 2004 were subsequently reviewed by the individual expert resource groups. Results This report evaluates early-life prevention strategies and focuses on treatment of asthma in children, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and preventive therapy, the benefits of additional therapy, and the essential role of asthma education. Conclusion We generally support previous recommendations and focus on new issues, particularly those relevant to children and their families. This document is a guide for asthma management based on the best available published data and the opinion of health care professionals, including asthma experts and educators.

  10. Morbidity Experiences and Disability Among Canadian Women (United States)

    DesMeules, Marie; Turner, Linda; Cho, Robert


    Health Issue Women are more frequently affected by chronic conditions and disability than men. Although some of these sex differences have been in part attributed to biological susceptibility, social determinants of health and other factors, these gaps have not been fully explained in the current literature. This chapter presents comparisons of hospitalization rates, and the prevalence of chronic conditions and physical disability between Canadian women and men and between various subgroups of women, adjusting for selected risk factors. The Canadian Hospital Morbidity Database (2000–2001) and Canadian Community Health Survey (2000–2001) were used to examine inpatient hospital morbidity, prevalence of chronic conditions and disability. Key Findings Hospitalization rates were 20% higher among women than men. This was due to the large number of hospitalizations for pregnancies and childbirth. When "normal" deliveries were excluded, hospitalization rates remained higher among women. Women had slightly lower rates of hospitalizations for ambulatory-care sensitive conditions than men. Prevalence of activity limitation (mild and severe) was higher among women than men, and differences remained after adjusting for age, chronic conditions, socio-economic status, and smoking. Women who reported a disability were less likely than men to be in a partnered relationship, have less tangible social support, and have lower income and employment rates. Data Gaps and Recommendations The impact of morbidity and disability on Canadian women is substantial. These results identify areas for interventions among more vulnerable subgroups, and point to the need for further research in the area of risk factors for the prevention of morbidity and disability in the population. PMID:15345073

  11. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagreen, L.A.; Lourie, B.A. [Summerhill Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada).

  12. The Canadian Assessment of Physical literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Claire E; Longmuir, Patricia E; Boyer, Charles


    Background: The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) was conceptualized as a tool to monitor children's physical literacy. The original model (fitness, activity behavior, knowledge, motor skill) required revision and relative weights for calculating/interpreting scores were required....... Methods: Nineteen childhood physical activity/fitness experts completed a 3-round Delphi process. Round 1 was open-ended questions. Subsequent rounds rated statements using a 5-point Likert scale. Recommendations were sought regarding protocol inclusion, relative importance within composite scores...

  13. Canadian Light Infantry in Adaptive Dispersed Operations (United States)


    Sources Bercuson, David . Significant Incident: Canada’s Army, the Airborne and the murder in Somalia. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1996. Bernier...36 David Bercuson, Significant Incident: Canada’s Army, the Airborne and the Murder in Somalia...Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1996), 54-58. 37 Bernd Horn and M. Wyczynski, Hook-up! The Canadian Airborne Compendium (St.Catharines: Vanwell

  14. A Historical Look at the Roles of First Nations Women in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Since the 1980s,the historical knowledge about the lives of First Nations women in Canadian history has increased,slowly but consistently.Suchs cholarly passion over the lives of First Nations women in Canada could be seen as an indicator of the significance of this topic.This paper explores the roles of First Nations women in Canadian history through four perspectives-"portrait of strength","social position","specific role in the fur trade",and "decreased traditional roles",so as to presenta dynamic view of the roles of First Nations women in Canadian history.

  15. Science Traverses in the Canadian High Arctic (United States)

    Williamson, Marie-Claude


    The presentation is divided into three parts. Part I is an overview of early expeditions to the High Arctic, and their political consequences at the time. The focus then shifts to the Geological Survey of Canada s mapping program in the North (Operation Franklin), and to the Polar Continental Shelf Project (PCSP), a unique organization that resides within the Government of Canada s Department of Natural Resources, and supports mapping projects and science investigations. PCSP is highlighted throughout the presentation so a description of mandate, budgets, and support infrastructure is warranted. In Part II, the presenter describes the planning required in advance of scientific deployments carried out in the Canadian High Arctic from the perspective of government and university investigators. Field operations and challenges encountered while leading arctic field teams in fly camps are also described in this part of the presentation, with particular emphasis on the 2008 field season. Part III is a summary of preliminary results obtained from a Polar Survey questionnaire sent out to members of the Arctic research community in anticipation of the workshop. The last part of the talk is an update on the analog program at the Canadian Space Agency, specifically, the Canadian Analog Research Network (CARN) and current activities related to Analog missions, 2009-2010.

  16. Canadian oil and gas survey 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberge, R.B. [ed.


    The year 1997 brought record levels of financing for the Canadian oil and gas industry which led to record levels of capital spending and unprecedented merger and acquisition activity. Production records were achieved, but soft commodity prices in the fourth quarter resulted in a significant downturn in the equity markets. El Nino reduced demand for natural gas and heating oil, resulting in increased storage levels for both commodities. Record drilling and capital spending fueled the Canadian oilfield service industry as total market capitalization rose to $10 billion. As for the 1998 outlook, the industry has turned to natural gas as the favoured commodity, as indicated by the conclusion of the Alliance pipeline hearings and the Nova/TCPL merger. This survey presents a review of crude oil and natural gas production, prices, and capital spending for development and exploratory wells, and the financial and operating results for fiscal year 1997 of selected oil and gas companies and income trusts. All listed companies are Canadian public companies, or publicly traded income trusts, traded on one of the country`s four major stock exchanges. They are ranked according to gross oil and gas production revenue only (before royalties). Syncrude and oil sands production is also included. The remaining data in the financial statistics tables includes all business segments of each company included. The survey excluded companies that were wholly-owned subsidiaries, divisions or U.S. subsidiaries and private companies. tabs., figs.

  17. Canadian Environments: Essays in Culture, Politics and History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , tourism, nature preservation or aboriginal rights, these essays put the capaciousness and cohesiveness of the nation to the test by illustrating the pressures enforced upon it by multiculturalism, the claims for self-determination, anti-confederate agitation and globalisation. The environments scrutinised...... are many and various, but within each the linchpin remains the quest for identity on the part of the individual, the group or the nation at large. Individually as well as collectively, the essays in this volume constitute an important contribution to the ongoing debate on Canadianness....

  18. Lung cancer incidence and mortality in National Lung Screening Trial participants who underwent low-dose CT prevalence screening: a retrospective cohort analysis of a randomised, multicentre, diagnostic screening trial (United States)

    Patz, Edward F; Greco, Erin; Gatsonis, Constantine; Pinsky, Paul; Kramer, Barnett S; Aberle, Denise R


    Summary Background Annual low-dose CT screening for lung cancer has been recommended for high-risk individuals, but the necessity of yearly low-dose CT in all eligible individuals is uncertain. This study examined rates of lung cancer in National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) participants who had a negative prevalence (initial) low-dose CT screen to explore whether less frequent screening could be justified in some lower-risk subpopulations. Methods We did a retrospective cohort analysis of data from the NLST, a randomised, multicentre screening trial comparing three annual low-dose CT assessments with three annual chest radiographs for the early detection of lung cancer in high-risk, eligible individuals (aged 55–74 years with at least a 30 pack-year history of cigarette smoking, and, if a former smoker, had quit within the past 15 years), recruited from US medical centres between Aug 5, 2002, and April 26, 2004. Participants were followed up for up to 5 years after their last annual screen. For the purposes of this analysis, our cohort consisted of all NLST participants who had received a low-dose CT prevalence (T0) screen. We determined the frequency, stage, histology, study year of diagnosis, and incidence of lung cancer, as well as overall and lung cancer-specific mortality, and whether lung cancers were detected as a result of screening or within 1 year of a negative screen. We also estimated the effect on mortality if the first annual (T1) screen in participants with a negative T0 screen had not been done. The NLST is registered with, number NCT00047385. Findings Our cohort consisted of 26 231 participants assigned to the low-dose CT screening group who had undergone their T0 screen. The 19 066 participants with a negative T0 screen had a lower incidence of lung cancer than did all 26 231 T0-screened participants (371·88 [95% CI 337·97–408·26] per 100 000 person-years vs 661·23 [622·07–702·21]) and had lower lung cancer

  19. Publication outcomes for research presented at a Canadian surgical conference (United States)

    Crawford, Sean A.; Roche-Nagle, Graham


    Background The failure of investigators to publish research in peer-reviewed journals following acceptance at a national or international meeting can lead to significant publication biases in the literature. Our objective was to evaluate the abstract to manuscript conversion rate for abstracts presented at the Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery (CSVS) annual meeting and to evaluate the conversion rate for CSVS-awarded research grants. Methods We searched for authors of abstracts accepted at the CSVS Annual Meeting (2007–2013) and recipients of CSVS research awards (2005–2013) on Scopus and PubMed databases to identify related publications. Results We identified 84 publications from 188 research abstracts (45%) and 17 publications from 39 research grants (44%). The mean time to publication was 1.8 years and the mean impact factor was 2.7. Studies related to endovascular therapies demonstrated a trend toward a higher rate of publication relative to open surgical therapies (64 [56%] v. 37 [27%]). Additionally, we observed a similar trend in research grant topics related to endovascular therapies relative to open surgical therapies (9 [67%] v. 8 [38%]). Finally, CSVS research grant recipients who subsequently published had a significantly higher h-index at the time of receipt than those who had not published. Conclusion The CSVS annual meeting’s abstract to publication conversion rate is comparable to that of its Canadian peers as well as to other medical specialties; however, a substantial publication gap remains. We identified several potential areas that may help to improve the effectiveness of CSVS research grants. PMID:28234220

  20. Cumulative Alendronate Dose and the Long-Term Absolute Risk of Subtrochanteric and Diaphyseal Femur Fractures: A Register-Based National Cohort Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia Agnete; Eastell, Richard


    are currently the subject of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration review. Objective: Our objective was to examine the risk of subtrochanteric/diaphyseal femur fractures in long term users of alendronate. Design: We conducted an age- and gender-matched cohort study using national healthcare data. Patients...... fractures occurred at a rate of 13 per 10,000 patient-years in untreated women and 31 per 10,000 patient-years in women receiving alendronate [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.62-2.17]. Rates for men were six and 31 per 10,000 patient-years, respectively (HR = 3.98; 95% CI...

  1. Organ Doses and Effective Doses in Pediatric Radiography: Patient-Dose Survey in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiljunen, T.; Tietaevaeinen, A.; Parviainen, T.; Viitala, A.; Kortesniemi, M. (Radiation Practices Regulation, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))


    Background: Use of the effective dose in diagnostic radiology permits the radiation exposure of diverse diagnostic procedures to be quantified. Fundamental knowledge of patient doses enhances the implementation of the 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) principle. Purpose: To provide comparative information on pediatric examination protocols and patient doses in skull, sinus, chest, abdominal, and pelvic radiography examinations. Material and Methods: 24 Finnish hospitals were asked to register pediatric examination data, including patient information and examination parameters and specifications. The total number of examinations in the study was 1916 (1426 chest, 228 sinus, 96 abdominal, 94 skull, and 72 pelvic examinations). Entrance surface dose (ESD) and dose-area products (DAP) were calculated retrospectively or DAP meters were used. Organ doses and effective doses were determined using a Monte Carlo program (PCXMC). Results: There was considerable variation in examination protocols between different hospitals, indicating large variations in patient doses. Mean effective doses of different age groups ranged from 5 muSv to 14 muSv in skull and sinus examinations, from 25 muSv to 483 muSv in abdominal examinations, and from 6 muSv to 48 muSv in chest examinations. Conclusion: In chest and sinus examinations, the amount of data was extensive, allowing national pediatric diagnostic reference levels to be defined. Parameter selection in pediatric examination protocols should be harmonized in order to reduce patient doses and improve optimization

  2. Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL (United States)


    Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Prepared by: Guy Jonkmans Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River ON...INSTALLATION OF THE CANADIAN MUON CARGO INSPECTION SYSTEM AT CRL 153-30100-REPT-001 Revision 0 2013/02/19 UNRESTRICTED 2013/02/19 ILLIMITÉ 153...30100-REPT-001 2013/02/19 Report, General Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Research and Development 153-30100

  3. Should investors prefer Canadian hedge funds or stocks?


    Ma, Xiao Yan; Zhou, Weihui


    This paper updates Brulhart and Klein (2006) by comparing the magnitude of extreme returns from Tremont, HFRI hedge fund indices with stock indices. It also compares the magnitude of extreme returns from Canadian hedge fund indices with stock indices. We found that the results from Brulhart and Klein hold for the updated US data. However, the results do not hold for the Canadian hedge fund indices. The magnitude of extreme returns from Canadian hedge fund indices is lower than the magnitude o...

  4. Nationalism consciousness dilemma colonial ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Hugh MacLennan is a famous Canadian novelist and essayist. In his long literary career, he wrote a great number of works and gained many literary honors. But above all he is a writer, focusing on national issues of Canada, which is well demonstrated by his first nov- el-Barometer l~ing, in which nationalism abounds. This paper covers three parts. Chapter one is mainly about Hugh MacLennan, his first work Barometer Rising as well as the introduction to nationalism and MacLennan's contribution in fiction in this respect. Chapter two fo- crees on nationalism in his first novel. The last chapter is the conclusion part in which we know that well awakened, the Canadians are striving to pursue their real independence and status on the international stage.

  5. Health Human Resources Guidelines: Minimum Staffing Standards and Role Descriptions for Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Healthcare Teams. (United States)

    McIntosh, Ian D


    In cystic fibrosis clinics across Canada, the most common barrier that healthcare workers face when providing care to their patients is having too little time. The Health Human Resources Guidelines were developed to define specifically what amounts of time should be allocated for each discipline of cystic fibrosis clinical care and to provide a description of all the roles involved, reinforcing how these work together to provide comprehensive multidisciplinary care. With involvement from all cystic fibrosis clinics in Canada, through the use of a tailored survey, the Health Human Resources Guidelines are an exclusively Canadian document that has been developed for implementation across the country. The guidelines have been incorporated into a national Accreditation Site Visit program for use in evaluating and improving care across the country and have been distributed to all Canadian cystic fibrosis clinics. The guidelines provide hospital administrators with clear benchmarks for allocating personnel resources to the cystic fibrosis clinics hosted within their institutions.

  6. Health behaviour changes after diagnosis of chronic illness among Canadians aged 50 or older. (United States)

    Newson, Jason T; Huguet, Nathalie; Ramage-Morin, Pamela L; McCarthy, Michael J; Bernier, Julie; Kaplan, Mark S; McFarland, Bentson H


    Changes in health behaviours (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and fruit and vegetable consumption) after diagnosis of chronic health conditions (heart disease, cancer, stroke, respiratory disease, and diabetes) were examined among Canadians aged 50 or older. Results from 12 years of longitudinal data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey indicated relatively modest changes in behaviour. Although significant decreases in smoking were observed among all groups except those with respiratory disease, at least 75% of smokers did not quit. No significant changes emerged in the percentage meeting physical activity recommendations, except those with diabetes, or in excessive alcohol consumption, except those with diabetes and respiratory disease. The percentage reporting the recommended minimum fruit and vegetable intake did not increase significantly among any group.

  7. Cross-language acoustic similarity predicts perceptual assimilation of Canadian English and Canadian French vowels. (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Vasiliev, Polina


    Monolingual Peruvian Spanish listeners identified natural tokens of the Canadian French (CF) and Canadian English (CE) /ɛ/ and /æ/, produced in five consonantal contexts. The results demonstrate that while the CF vowels were mapped to two different native vowels, /e/ and /a/, in all consonantal contexts, the CE contrast was mapped to the single native vowel /a/ in four out of five contexts. Linear discriminant analysis revealed that acoustic similarity between native and target language vowels was a very good predictor of context-specific perceptual mappings. Predictions are made for Spanish learners of the /ɛ/-/æ/ contrast in CF and CE.

  8. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Driving: A Canadian Thoracic Society and Canadian Sleep Society Position Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Ayas


    Full Text Available Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA experience sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality that results in daytime sleepiness, which impairs performance during driving and leads to an increased risk for collisions. Not surprisingly, observational studies have shown that patients with OSA experience a two- to 10-fold higher risk for collision compared with healthy controls. Although treatment would clearly mitigate these risks, there is no current Canadian position on driving and OSA. This article, the first Canadian position statement addressing the issue, provides an overview of provincial regulations and proposes recommendations with regard to driving in patients with OSA.

  9. Evolution of radon dose evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto Kenzo


    Full Text Available The historical change of radon dose evaluation is reviewed based on the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR reports. Since 1955, radon has been recognized as one of the important sources of exposure of the general public. However, it was not really understood that radon is the largest dose contributor until 1977 when a new concept of effective dose equivalent was introduced by International Commission on Radiological Protection. In 1982, the dose concept was also adapted by UNSCEAR and evaluated per caput dose from natural radiation. Many researches have been carried out since then. However, lots of questions have remained open in radon problems, such as the radiation weighting factor of 20 for alpha rays and the large discrepancy of risk estimation among dosimetric and epidemiological approaches.

  10. Canadian cities in transition: new sources of urban difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry S. Bourne


    Full Text Available Cities, increasingly, are the principal arenas in which global, national and local forces intersect.Canadian cities are no exception. Those cities are currently undergoing a series ofprofound and irreversible transitions as a result of external forces originating from differentsources and operating at different spatial scales. Specifically, this paper argues that Canadiancities are being transformed in a markedly uneven fashion through the intersection ofchanges in national and regional economies, the continued demographic transition, andshifts in government policy on the one hand, and through increased levels and new sourcesof immigration, and the globalization of capital and trade flows, on the other hand. Theseshifts, in turn, are producing new patterns of external dependence, a more fragmented urbansystem, and continued metropolitan concentration. They are also leading to increased socioculturaldifferences, with intense cultural diversity in some cities juxtaposed with homogeneityin other cities, and to new sets of urban winners and losers. In effect, these transitionsare creating new sources of difference - new divides - among and within the country=surban centres, augmenting or replacing the traditional divides based on city-size, location inthe heartland or periphery, and local economic base.

  11. Estimated economic benefit of increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of Canadians to or above 100 nmol/L (United States)

    Kimball, Samantha M.


    ABSTRACT Mounting evidence from observational and clinical trials indicates that optimal vitamin D reduces the risk of many diseases. We used observational studies and recent data on 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations of Canadians from Cycle 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey to estimate the reduction in disease incidence, mortality rates, and the total economic burden (direct plus indirect) of disease if 25(OH)D concentrations of all Canadians were raised to or above 100 nmol/L. Recently, the mean 25(OH)D concentration of Canadians varied depending on age and season (51–69 nmol/L), with an overall mean of 61 nmol/L. The diseases affected by 25(OH)D concentration included cancer, cardiovascular disease, dementia, diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, respiratory infections, and musculoskeletal disorders. We used 25(OH)D concentration–health outcome relations for breast cancer and cardiovascular disease and results of clinical trials with vitamin D for respiratory infections and musculoskeletal disorders to estimate the reductions in disease burden for increased 25(OH)D concentrations. If all Canadians attained 25(OH)D concentrations>100 nmol/L, the calculated reduction in annual economic burden of disease was $12.5 ± 6 billion on the basis of economic burdens for 2016 and a reduction in annual premature deaths by 23,000 (11,000–34,000) on the basis of rates for 2011. However, the effects on disease incidence, economic burden, and mortality rate would be phased in gradually over several years primarily because once a chronic disease is established, vitamin D affects its progression only modestly. Nevertheless, national policy changes are justified to improve vitamin D status of Canadians through promotion of safe sun exposure messages, vitamin D supplement use, and/or facilitation of food fortification. PMID:27942348

  12. The Canadian Niagara Power Company story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, N.R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering


    This book chronicles the history and contributions of the Canadian Niagara Power Company and its employees toward the establishment of electricity generation and distribution in Niagara Falls and Fort Erie, Ontario, dating back to its founding in 1892. Through historical photographs, maps and drawings, the book demonstrates the impact of electricity on the Niagara region. It emphasizes the many skills and jobs required to run the company that generated electricity and maintained a complete system to deliver power, metering, and billing services through the depression, wars, and postwar booms, even during lightning, snow and ice storms. The company began producing power in 1905 with what had been the world's largest-capacity turbines and generators that supplied power to both sides of the Niagara River. Initially, most of the electricity was exported to New York State. The company eventually expanded its Canadian customer service area from Niagara Falls, Ontario, to Fort Erie, Bridgeburg, Amigari, Ridgeway, Stevensville, Crystal Beach and Point Abino. Throughout its history, the Canadian Niagara Power Company provided power at a lower cost than its neighbouring competitors. The William Birch Rankine Generating Station became an important tourist attraction, showcasing the latest electrical appliances of the time in an effort to promote the use of electricity in homes and offices. Today, the station remains a tribute to the fact that natural beauty can coincide with industry. The book also chronicles the difficult business challenges caused by restructuring in the electric power industry in the 1990s, repairing aging equipment and applying the latest in automation and remote sensing technology. Today, the company as FortisOntario is expanding to other communities around Ontario. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin


    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  14. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin


    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  15. Reinventing an industry at Western Canadian Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.


    Western Canadian Coal is applying lessons learned from past disruptions to coal production operations in British Columbia in order to build a low cost, long term production operation. Northeast British Columbia has huge coal deposits and an established infrastructure that includes the town of Tumbler Ridge, rail facilities, and access to Port Rupert. The company is developing 50,000 hectares of coal-bearing property. Production commenced in 2004, and it is planned to produce four million tonnes of coal per year by the end of 2007, increasing to 10 million tonnes by 2012. Equipment, staffing, and activities at the Dillon, Wolverine, and Brule mines are described. 2 photos.

  16. 47 CFR 101.1527 - Canadian and Mexican coordination. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian and Mexican coordination. 101.1527 Section 101.1527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Canadian and Mexican coordination. (a) A licensee of bands 71.0-76.0, 81.0-86.0, 92-94 GHz and 94.1-95...

  17. International Disputes and Cultural Ideas in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    of the Canadian-Arctic relationship. Using Canada as the focus for the analysis, the purpose of this project is to contribute to the existing Arctic studies and international relations literature by examining how interests and disputes in the Canadian Arctic region have been affected by domestic cultural...

  18. The Canadian Context: Monolingual Education in an "Officially" Multilingual Country (United States)

    Kiernan, Julia E.


    This article will examine the sociopolitical language contexts that exist in institutions of Canadian post-secondary education, through investigating how government policies affect the consumption and teaching of language in writing classrooms. A survey of Canadian multiculturalist policy, multilingualism, and post-secondary education in terms of…

  19. Attitudes Toward Oral Contraception Among Canadian University Students. (United States)

    Bardis, Panos D.

    The author conducted a cross-cultural survey of attitudes toward the pill among university students, part of this international sample being a group of young Canadians. The subjects were students from a southwestern Canadian university and were stratified as to sex and amount of education. The author employed his Pill Scale, a 25-item Likert type…

  20. Characters with Exceptionalities Portrayed in Contemporary Canadian Children's Books (United States)

    Emmerson, Jean; Brenna, Beverley


    This article examines the ways in which exceptionality is addressed in Canadian children's literature, offering critical literacy as an avenue toward social justice. A content analysis (Berg, 2009) of 134 Canadian children's books offers a wide scope of contemporary titles to include in classrooms. We developed conceptual categories to explore…

  1. Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Child Health:A Canadian Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stuart Macleod


    @@ Introduction Canadian academic centres and children's hospitals have had a longstanding interest in the improvement of drug therapy for children through research conducted across the four pillars of activity identified as being of critical importance by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research(viz,basic research,clinical research,population health research,applied health and policy research)[1].

  2. Indigenous knowledge in Canadian science curricula: cases from Western Canada (United States)

    Kim, Mijung


    To enhance Aboriginal students' educational opportunities in sciences, culturally relevant science curriculum has been examined and practiced in Western Canadian science classrooms. This article shares some examples of inclusion of indigenous knowledge in science curricula and discusses the improvement and challenges of culturally relevant science curricula in Canadian contexts.

  3. Seeking Internationalization: The State of Canadian Higher Education (United States)

    Anderson, Tim


    This article explores the internationalization of Canadian universities, with a focus on the rise of foreign postsecondary students in Canada, the economic impacts, and the various benefits, challenges, and adjustments that have been influenced by the continuing demographic shifts on Canadian campuses since 2000. Rooted in recent global and…

  4. How Canadian Universities Use Social Media to Brand Themselves (United States)

    Bélanger, Charles H.; Bali, Suchita; Longden, Bernard


    This paper explores social media marketing strategies applied by Canadian universities as a tool for institutional branding, recruitment and engagement of home and international students. The target sample involves the total population of Canadian university-status institutions ("N" = 106). Qualitative data were collected from two major…

  5. School Autonomy and 21st Century Learning: The Canadian Context (United States)

    Newton, Paul; da Costa, Jose


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the policy and practice contexts for school autonomy and twenty-first century learning in Canadian provinces. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on an analysis of policies in Canadian provinces (particularly the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan). The authors review policies…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Simeon


    Full Text Available This article analyses the capacity of Canadian federalism to articulate andaccommodate the dual and regionalist character defining Canada througha range of arguments and opinions both for and against that have been generatedboth within the Canadian Federation and abroad. From the standpointof the Quebec sovereignists, federalism is highly restrictive of the Quebecnation’s freedom to express itself, by itself, within the Canadian contextas well as within international ambits; for Quebec nationalists, the termQuebec “nation” implies—indeed, requires—a “Quebec state”. But, fromthe standpoint of the Quebec federalists (a good number of whom understandQuebec as a sociological and political nation, the future of Quebeclies with its membership of the Canadian Federation, however much this hasto recognise Quebec as a “differential society” within Canada, and howevermuch it has to ensure that Quebec will develop and promote its interests asa nation. For yet others, the decentralist character of Canadian federalism,and the extensive provisions for asymmetry built into the system, mean that Quebec is already perhaps the most powerful sub-national government inthe world, such that it already has the powers necessary to fulfil its nationaldestiny, within the federation. Opinion outside Quebec ranges from thosewho accept this view, and embrace asymmetry, to those who argue that Quebecis simply one of ten existing provinces, each of which is distinct, andwhich should all be treated as equals in accordance with the constitutionaland political framework.

  7. Collaborating across borders: an American-Canadian dialogue on interprofessional health education. (United States)

    Brandt, Barbara F; Gilbert, John


    For more than 35 years, interprofessional collaboration across the health and human service professions has been promoted as an important means to advance patient- or client-centered practice. Evidence demonstrates that collaborative care in certain circumstances can be more effective and efficient than other models. Over the past decade, in response to national calls to action, American and Canadian health and human service professionals and educators have renewed their focus on interprofessional education (IPE). As a result, recent investments have been made, and many interprofessional initiatives in higher education and health systems are underway to improve learning and health outcomes. These efforts are resulting in new evidence about student learning outcomes, team care and collaboration, lessons learned, curricular design, faculty development, and assessment and evaluation strategies. In spite of these efforts, there is a question as to whether much has really changed about the way health professionals are educated. In an effort to address the issue from an international perspective, professionals from a number of countries have been collaborating and sharing ideas on how to improve the situation. A very important effort is now being planned for an American-Canadian conference to be held October 24-26, 2007 at the University of Minnesota. Called Collaborating Across Borders: An American-Canadian Dialogue on Interprofessional Health Education, the conference will bring together leaders in the field to share best practices and chart a course to improve collaboration in health care.

  8. Canadian Asthma Consensus Conference Summary of Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ernst


    Full Text Available The Asthma Committee of the Canadian Thoracic Society invited a group of Canadian physicians with a particular interest in asthma to meet in Montebello, Quebec, March 9-12, 1995 to arrive at a consensus statement on the optimal approach to the management of asthma in the pediatric and adult ambulatory care settings. The societies and associations represented are listed in the appendix with the names of the contributors to this document. The objectives of the Montebello conference were: 1. To review the current ambulatory care management of asthma in Canada; 2. To develop guidelines with the participation of family physicians and specialists; 3. To develop guidelines which are evidence-based; 4. In creating evidence-based guidelines to focus attention on aspects of asthma management that are currently not supported by randomized controlled trials; 5. To develop strategies that allow for the implementation of rational guidelines at a local level. Recommendations were based on a critical review of the scientific literature by small groups prior to the meeting and are categorized according to the strength of the scientific evidence supporting each recommendation (Table 1.

  9. Exploring Canadian Echinoderm Diversity through DNA Barcodes (United States)


    DNA barcoding has proven an effective tool for species identification in varied groups of marine invertebrates including crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes and echinoderms. In this study, we further validate its utility by analyzing almost half of the 300 species of Echinodermata known from Canadian waters. COI sequences from 999 specimens were assigned to 145 BINs. In most cases, species discrimination was straightforward due to the large difference (25-fold) between mean intra- (0.48%) and inter- (12.0%) specific divergence. Six species were flagged for further taxonomic investigation because specimens assigned to them fell into two or three discrete sequence clusters. The potential influence of larval dispersal capacity and glacial events on patterns of genetic diversity is discussed for 19 trans-oceanic species. Although additional research is needed to clarify biogeographic patterns and resolve taxonomic questions, this study represents an important step in the assembly of a DNA barcode library for all Canadian echinoderms, a valuable resource for future biosurveillance programs. PMID:27870868

  10. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system. (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin


    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian prairie agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellert, B.H.; Janzen, H.H. [Agriculture and Agri-food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB, (Canada)


    There is a close relationship between soil and air quality, on the one hand, and the exchange of greenhouse gases between the earth and atmosphere, on the other. International efforts by people such as soil conservationists and climatologists to control emissions of these gases and negotiations surrounding the Kyoto Protocol have increased the debate regarding the role of agricultural activities. From evaluation of both data available before global change became important and recent research efforts, much information on greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian agriculture has been gained. A summary is included of the contribution of Canadian prairie agriculture to emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane gas. A stress is placed on the subject of the carbon cycle and on how land management practices could influence soil carbon storage capacity. The potential for increasing this carbon storage capacity is described in relation to land use, historical changes in agricultural land, and recent observations on the influence of agricultural parctices, and obstacles to estimating changes in soil carbon dioxide emissions and carbon storage, and extending the estimates to large land areas are examined. Emissions of nitrous oxide and methane gas are considered in relation to the influence of agricultural management practices. (Abstract only)

  12. Serum Magnesium Concentrations in the Canadian Population and Associations with Diabetes, Glycemic Regulation, and Insulin Resistance (United States)

    Bertinato, Jesse; Wang, Kuan Chiao; Hayward, Stephen


    Total serum magnesium (Mg) concentration (SMC) is commonly used to assess Mg status. This study reports current SMCs of Canadians and their associations with demographic factors, diabetes, and measures of glycemic control and insulin resistance using results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013). Associations were examined in adults aged 20–79 years using linear mixed models. Mean SMCs and percentile distributions for 11 sex-age groups between 3 and 79 years (n = 5561) are reported. SMCs were normally distributed and differences (p < 0.05) among sex and age groups were small. Between 9.5% and 16.6% of adult sex-age groups had a SMC below the lower cut-off of a population-based reference interval (0.75–0.955 mmol·L−1) established in the United States population as part of the NHANES I conducted in 1971–1974. Having diabetes was associated with 0.04 to 0.07 mmol·L−1 lower SMC compared to not having diabetes in the various models. Body mass index, glycated hemoglobin, serum glucose and insulin concentrations, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were negatively associated with SMC. This is the first study to report SMCs in a nationally representative sample of the Canadian population. A substantial proportion of Canadians are hypomagnesaemic in relation to a population-based reference interval, and SMC was negatively associated with diabetes and indices of glycemic control and insulin resistance. PMID:28304338

  13. Giving Boys a Shot: The HPV Vaccine's Portrayal in Canadian Newspapers. (United States)

    Perez, Samara; Fedoruk, Claire; Shapiro, Gilla K; Rosberger, Zeev


    In January 2012, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) of Canada recommended that males aged 9-26 years receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to protect against genital warts and HPV-associated cancers. Estimated HPV vaccine uptake rates for Canadian males are extremely low. Using a content analysis of Canadian newspaper articles, this study investigated what information about the HPV vaccine was relayed to the public, and how this content was portrayed following the 2012 male HPV vaccine recommendation. A search was conducted using Proquest Canadian Newsstand Complete for newspaper articles published between January 1, 2012, and September 1, 2014. Researchers coded 232 articles on several relevant dimensions: article information; epidemiological information; public policy information; article topic; article and title tone; and informant testimony. The majority of articles (93%) mentioned that girls are eligible for the HPV vaccine, whereas only half (49%) mentioned male eligibility. While most articles associated HPV with cervical cancer (85%), fewer indicated its relation to other HPV-associated cancers (59%) or genital warts (52%). Most articles (60%) were positive or neutral (22%) in tone toward the HPV vaccine, while few had mixed messages (11%) or were negative (6%). Less than 5% of articles reported on issues of morality, suggesting that fears that the HPV vaccine causes promiscuity have largely subsided. Notably, article tone toward male vaccination became progressively more positive over time. However, half of the articles did not mention the vaccine's approval for males, and articles tended to report HPV's relation to cervical cancer over other HPV-associated cancers. The Canadian public may thus be unaware of male eligibility and the importance of HPV vaccine for males. The collaboration of researchers, health care providers, and policymakers with journalists is critical in order to disseminate complete and accurate HPV and HPV

  14. The Role of W.L. Mackenzie King in the Development of the Canadian Political Culture (Dedicated to His 140th Anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokov Ilya Anatolyevich


    Full Text Available The author of the article analyses the role of Canada’s Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King in the creation of the unique Canadian political culture. The basis for this political culture was represented not only by the British political system, the adopted ideology of English classical liberalism, but also the national historical and cultural traditions connected with one and a half century existence of two nations on the North American continent. The author confirms that the Liberal Party and Mackenzie King as its leader decided upon the wide modernization of the Canadian society in the conditions of the post-war reconstruction in 1920s. This process would have been impossible without the reorganization of the political culture. The change of political practice allowed the autonomy to obtain more rights and the sovereignty. That is why M. King held two posts during almost the whole period – as Prime Minister and as Minister of Foreign Affairs. This approach helped him to have significant influence on the external political aspect in the development of the Canadian political culture. The author of the article points the main seven directions in the political activity of Mackenzie King which contributed to the creation of the unique Canadian political culture. The author concludes that the influence of Mackenzie King on the creation of the Canadian political culture was crucial in the second half of the 20th Century.

  15. United States and Canadian approaches to justice in health care: a comparative analysis of health care systems and values. (United States)

    Jecker, N S; Meslin, E M


    The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the basic ethical values underpinning national health care policies in the United States and Canada. We use the framework of ethical theory to name and elaborate ethical values and to facilitate moral reflection about health care reform. Section one describes historical and contemporary social contract theories and clarifies the ethical values associated with them. Sections two and three show that health care debates and health care systems in both countries reflect the values of this tradition; however, each nation interprets the tradition differently. In the U.S., standards of justice for health care are conceived as a voluntary agreement reached by self-interested parties. Canadians, by contrast, interpret the same justice tradition as placing greater emphasis on concern for others and for the community. The final section draws out the implications of these differences for future U.S. and Canadian health care reforms.

  16. Science on a salad plate?: Thinking about the representation of natural history in the Canadian Historic Dinner Service project. (United States)

    Cronin, Keri


    The Women's Art Association of Canada marked the 400th anniversary of John Cabot's "discovery" of Canada (celebrated in 1897) through the production of the "Canadian Historic Dinner Service." The high-profile project, which resulted in a set of hand-painted porcelain dinnerware, was a celebration not only of nation-building, but also of the natural history of the country. Visual reference material provided to the women selected to create the individual pieces included photographs, natural history texts, and illustrations that W.H. Bartlett produced for Canadian Scenery earlier in the century. This article explores this visual reinterpretation of Canada's natural history in order to raise questions about how a recontextualization of scientific material shapes narratives of nation and nature in the 'New World'.

  17. A cost-utility analysis of cervical cancer vaccination in preadolescent Canadian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merid Maraki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that approximately 70% of Canadian women undergo cervical cancer screening at least once every 3 years, approximately 1,300 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer and approximately 380 died from it in 2008. This study estimates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccinating 12-year old Canadian females with an AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine. The indirect effect of vaccination, via herd immunity, is also estimated. Methods A 12-health-state 1-year-cycle Markov model was developed to estimate lifetime HPV related events for a cohort of 12-year old females. Annual transition probabilities between health-states were derived from published literature and Canadian population statistics. The model was calibrated using Canadian cancer statistics. From a healthcare perspective, the cost-effectiveness of introducing a vaccine with efficacy against HPV-16/18 and evidence of cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types was evaluated in a population undergoing current screening practices. The base-case analysis included 70% screening coverage, 75% vaccination coverage, $135/dose for vaccine, and 3% discount rate on future costs and health effects. Conservative herd immunity effects were taken into account by estimated HPV incidence using a mathematical model parameterized by reported age-stratified sexual mixing data. Sensitivity analyses were performed to address parameter uncertainties. Results Vaccinating 12-year old females (n = 100,000 was estimated to prevent between 390-633 undiscounted cervical cancer cases (reduction of 47%-77% and 168-275 undiscounted deaths (48%-78% over their lifetime, depending on whether or not herd immunity and cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types were included. Vaccination was estimated to cost $18,672-$31,687 per QALY-gained, the lower range representing inclusion of cross-protective efficacy and herd immunity. The cost per QALY-gained was most

  18. 22 CFR 41.33 - Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC). (United States)


    ... identification card (BCC). 41.33 Section 41.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION... Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC). (a) Validity of Canadian BCC. A Canadian BCC or the BCC portion of a Canadian B-1/B-2 Visa/BCC issued to a permanent resident of...

  19. CCDST: A free Canadian climate data scraping tool (United States)

    Bonifacio, Charmaine; Barchyn, Thomas E.; Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Kienzle, Stefan W.


    In this paper we present a new software tool that automatically fetches, downloads and consolidates climate data from a Web database where the data are contained on multiple Web pages. The tool is called the Canadian Climate Data Scraping Tool (CCDST) and was developed to enhance access and simplify analysis of climate data from Canada's National Climate Data and Information Archive (NCDIA). The CCDST deconstructs a URL for a particular climate station in the NCDIA and then iteratively modifies the date parameters to download large volumes of data, remove individual file headers, and merge data files into one output file. This automated sequence enhances access to climate data by substantially reducing the time needed to manually download data from multiple Web pages. To this end, we present a case study of the temporal dynamics of blowing snow events that resulted in ~3.1 weeks time savings. Without the CCDST, the time involved in manually downloading climate data limits access and restrains researchers and students from exploring climate trends. The tool is coded as a Microsoft Excel macro and is available to researchers and students for free. The main concept and structure of the tool can be modified for other Web databases hosting geophysical data.

  20. Suicidal ideation among Canadian youth: a multivariate analysis. (United States)

    Peter, Tracey; Roberts, Lance W; Buzdugan, Raluca


    A multivariate model was developed incorporating various socio-demographic, social-environmental, and social-psychological factors in an attempt to predict suicidal ideation among Canadian youth. The main research objective sought to determine what socially based factors elevate or reduce suicidal ideation within this population. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth-Cycle 5 (2003), a cross-sectional sample of 1,032 was used to empirically identify various social determinants of suicidal ideation among youth between the ages of 12 and 15. Results reveal statistically significant correlations between suicide ideation and some lesser examined socially based measures. In particular, ability to communicate feelings, negative attachment to parents/guardians, taunting/bullying or abuse, and presence of deviant peers were significant predictors of suicidal ideation. As expected, depression/anxiety, gender, and age were also correlated with thoughts of suicide. Research findings should help foster a better understanding toward the social elements of suicide and provide insight into how suicide prevention strategies may be improved through an increased emphasis on substance use education, direct targeting of dysfunctional families and deviant peer groups, and exploring more avenues of self-expression for youth.

  1. U.S.-Canadian Border Security: Lessons Learned from Denmarks Experience with the Schengen Convention (United States)


    Customs and Border Protection, “How Long is the U.S. Border with Canada and Mexico ?,” CBP INFO Center, accessed December 24, 2013, the mortality rate between viruses and bacteria . Keeping material virile to infect with maximum results is one of the most significant...Mackenzie King match the agreement with his pledge to prevent an enemy attack of the U.S. over Canadian air , sea, or land66 The two nations grew closer

  2. Challenges Faced by International Medical Students Due to Changes in Canadian Entrance Exam Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishoy Gouda


    Full Text Available The Medical Council of Canada has set new eligibility criteria for examinations that are required in order to apply to postgraduate training. This is to facilitate the establishment of the National Assessment Collaboration Objective Structured Clinical Examination. These changes result in increased hardships on Canadians studying abroad who are wishing to apply for postgraduate training in Canada. While these exams are crucial to protect medical standards and the quality of healthcare in Canada, slight modifications of the examination timelines may alleviate some of the burdens caused by these exams.

  3. Safety and effectiveness of the herpes zoster vaccine to prevent postherpetic neuralgia: 2014 Update and consensus statement from the Canadian Pain Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canadian Pain Society Study Day participants


    Full Text Available The Canadian Pain Society (CPS hosted its first Study Day in Toronto in July 2014, attended by experts in various fields of pain management and research (listed below. The aim was to review the National Advisory Committee on Immunization guidelines and to prepare a CPS position statement concerning the use of the zoster vaccine in Canada.

  4. Knowledge Transfer or Social Competence? A Comparison of German and Canadian Adolescent Students on Their Socio-Motivational Relationships in School (United States)

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael; Bukowski, William M.


    This cross-national study investigates the perception of the impact of students' relationships towards teachers and peers on scholastic motivation in a total sample of 1477 seventh and eighth grade German (N?=?1088) and Canadian (N?=?389) secondary school students. By applying Multigroup Confirmatory Latent Class Analysis in Mplus we confirmed…

  5. "We Got Our Heads Together and Came up with a Plan": Young Children's Perceptions of Curriculum Development in One Canadian Preschool (United States)

    Rosen, Rachel


    This study investigated young children's perceptions of their role in curriculum development in one Canadian preschool. There is no consensus that children have a role to play in developing curriculum. However, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) confirms children's right to be listened to about all aspects of their…

  6. The Canadian war on drugs: structural violence and unequal treatment of Black Canadians. (United States)

    Khenti, Akwatu


    This paper examines the impact of Canada's war on drugs on segments of the Black community, specifically with respect to the impact of structural violence, over-policing, and high incarceration rates. It offers evidence of the systemic nature of these dynamics by examining the early context of the war, growing stigma against Blacks, globalizing influences, and the punitive focus of funding and policy. The paper also explores how Black men have been identified as the main enemy and how drug control efforts have served to diminish the health, well-being, and self-image of Black men via discriminatory and inequitable treatment before the law. The current high rates of imprisonment of Black men are an indicator of systematic deprivation of significant social capital, which will perpetuate socioeconomic harm and cycles of violence. This commentary calls for an immediate dissolution of policies regulating the war on drugs as the first step in remedying the injustices experienced by Black Canadians. Due to the lack of Canadian data in this important area, the paper also emphasizes the critical need for more research to shed more light on the Canadian-specific complexities.

  7. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ian D


    Full Text Available Abstract The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  8. CanWEA Pan-Canadian wind integration study paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Martin [GL Garrad Hassan Canada Inc, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gardner, Paul [GL Garrad Hassan and Partners, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Price, Doug; Le, Don [GL Garrad Hassan America, San Diego, CA (United States)


    GL Garrad Hassan has been contracted by CanWEA to undertake a scoping study for a future Pan-Canadian Wide-Scale Wind Integration Study. The scoping study provides the methodology and the rationale on which the actual wind integration study and request for proposals will be based on. Major system operators and owners of each Canadian Province along with experts involved in major US wind integration studies have been consulted and contributed to the decisional process. This paper provides a summary of the factors considered in the study and outline the actual methodology that was adopted for the future Pan-Canadian wind integration study. (orig.)

  9. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. (United States)

    Graham, Ian D


    The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  10. Pulsus Group, the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and CDDW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available At the recent Canadian Digestive Diseases Week in Banff, Alberta, the third annual Dr ABR Thomson - Dr CN Williams Award was presented to Dr Krikor Kichian. This Award was initiated in 2002 by Pulsus Group in honour of Drs Alan Thomson and Noel Williams, the founding Co- Editors-in-Chief of The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, who served from 1987 to 2000. Robert Kalina, publisher of The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, invited Dr Williams to present the award to Dr Kichian.

  11. Economic security in an aging Canadian population. (United States)

    Brown, Robert L


    Recent research indicates that today's retirees are doing very well in terms of their replacement ratios and that Canadian poverty rates among the elderly are low relative to other Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Government-sponsored plans have been strengthened either through explicit expansion - for example, the Guaranteed Income Supplement (GIS) - or through the reform of the Canada/Quebec Pension Plans (C/QPP). Also important is the maturation of employer-sponsored pension plans, although coverage rates are down. Future generations of retirees may not achieve the standard of living that exists today, however, which is a concern. The author argues that today's economic security programs are affordable and that their costs could be stabilized if the retirement age were raised.

  12. Canadian support for population stabilization. The Rome draft Plan of Action. Dr. Jean Augustine, MP (Canada). (United States)


    Canada strongly believes in the central role to be played by the civil sector in the process leading to the World Food Summit. Dr. Augustine, Member of Parliament of Canada, described how the Canadian Government involved 350 national organizations over an eight-month period in the creation of the country's official position on food security. Canada has also negotiated with several other countries and international organizations on issues such as trade, human rights, the right to food, and follow-up to the Plan of Action. Dr. Augustine summarized Canada's 18 priorities for the World Food Summit. The priorities include human rights and good governance; poverty reduction; peace, security and conflict resolution; national responsibility for food security; national and global partnerships; nutrition and health; human resource development; gender equity; population stabilization; trade liberalization; agricultural adjustment to international markets; post-harvest marketing and food marketing; the role of the private sector; capacity building; environment and sustainable production; and research and technology transfer.

  13. Developing palliative care competencies for the education of entry level baccalaureate prepared Canadian nurses. (United States)

    Jacono, Brenda; Young, Lynne; Baker, Cynthia; Richardson, Holly R L; Cable-Williams, Beryl; Jewers, Heather; Lavoie, Mireille; Librach, Larry; Bidgood, Darcee; Mitchell, Mitzi Grace


    Educational preparation of health professionals for Palliative and End of Life Care (PEOLC) is inadequate, and nurses are no exception. In 2004, the Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing struck a Task Force to develop PEOLC competencies to address this issue. The development of national PEOLC nursing competencies involved a multi-step, emergent, interactive, and iterative process. An overarching principle guiding this process was building national consensus about the essential PEOLC specific competencies for nurses among experts in this field while simultaneously generating, revising, and refining them. There have been three stages in this iterative, multi-step process: 1) Generating a preliminary set of competencies, 2) Building a national consensus among educators and experts in the field on PEOLC specific competencies for nurses, and 3) Refining the consensus based competencies for curriculum development. Ongoing follow up work for this project is focusing on the integration of these competencies into nursing curricula.

  14. Review of Canadian literature to estimate risks associated with Salmonella in broilers from retail to consumption in Canadian homes. (United States)

    Smadi, Hanan; Sargeant, Jan M


    The objective was to review the literature related to the risk of salmonellosis from chicken consumed in private homes in Canada. The pathway of concern was retail-to-consumption at private homes due to the direct link between this pathway and public health. A qualitative review was conducted by searching Canadian governmental agencies' webpages, published peer-reviewed journals, and by contacting experts in the field. Overall, with the data available, estimating risk from Salmonella in chicken breasts using only Canadian information was limited. Enumeration data for Salmonella in retail raw chicken at different regions across Canada are needed to be able to generalize the risk of salmonellosis in the Canadian population. Few Canadian surveys were found to describe consumers' food safety behaviors at Canadians' private homes. Observational designs to study food safety practices and Canadian consumers' behavior in private kitchens are needed to ensure that consumer behavior is consistent with consumer perceptions of their behavior. The results of such studies will give valuable input for designing educational programs needed to increase awareness of safe food handling practices by Canadian consumers when preparing food at their homes.

  15. Survive Bravely——Main Features of Contemporary Canadian Literature Themes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Fang


    The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada’s particular history,geograph y,climate,religion,demographic factors,generation,development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures.The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Literature:keep working hard for survival and love bravely.Meanwhile,modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic literary works.

  16. Survive Bravely——Main Features of Contemporary Canadian Literature Themes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada's particular history,geograph y,climate,religion,demographic factors,generation,development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures.The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Literature:keep working hard for survival and love bravely.Meanwhile,modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic literary works.

  17. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender


    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  18. The isotope crisis - a Canadian viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    From the fall of 2007 the summer of 2010 there were repeated cries in the media of North America and Europe of an -isotope crisis-. This concerned the on-going shortage of the isotope Molybdenum 99 and more specifically of its daughter product Technetium Mo 99. The latter is used in about 80 percent of medical imagining procedures in North America, Europe, Japan and a number of other countries. Both isotopes are short-lived and can not be stock-piled. Mo 99 is produced in only a handful of reactors around the world. The fifty-year old Nru reactor in Canada and the equally old Hfr reactor in the Netherlands have each traditionally supplied about a third of the world's supply. In late 2007 the Canadian nuclear regulator ordered the owner and operator of Nru, to shut down the reactor over a matter that was not a clear licence condition. Sensing the impending shortage of Mo 99, the nuclear medicine community raised a major concern sufficient to convince the Canadian government to overrule the regulator. Then in early 2009 a major leak was observed in the Nru reactor vessel. Although it did not present a safety concern it was decided to shut down the reactor to conduct an inspection. This proved to be extremely difficult since the leaks were near the bottom of the 10 metre tall vessel and the only access was through a 20 cm diameter hole at the top of the vessel. The reactor was finally restarted in August 2010, just as the Hfr reactor was shut down for a lengthy overhaul. The paper provides a background on Canada's pioneering involvement in the production and use of radioactive isotopes for medical purposes, a brief account of the Nru repair and an overview of Mo 99 production. (Author)

  19. "We are not aliens, we're people, and we have rights." Canadian human rights discourse and high school climate for LGBTQ students. (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine; Peter, Tracey


    Canadian law protects people from discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, but our public schools do not fulfill their ethical and legal obligations where sexual and gender minority youth are concerned. This article reports on a national survey study on homophobia and transphobia in Canadian high schools. Participants (n = 3,607) were questioned about school climate, harassment, school attachment, and institutional interventions. We found that schools were neither safe nor respectful for sexual and gender minority students, and we argue that ongoing exposure to this situation undermines students' respect for the Charter of Rights and their faith in adults.

  20. 75 FR 27544 - National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)-Disability and... (United States)


    ...- Based Practice. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 27(4), 345-359. Canadian Institutes of Health... National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)--Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program--Disability Rehabilitation Research Project (DRRP)--Center...

  1. Institutional Care for Long-Term Mechanical Ventilation in Canada: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Rose


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: No national Canadian data define resource requirements and care delivery for ventilator-assisted individuals (VAIs requiring long-term institutional care. Such data will assist in planning health care services to this population.

  2. Quarterly Narrative Report for August, September and October, 1940: Lower Souris National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  3. Synchronizing Federal Operational Planning for National Catastrophes (United States)


    63 1. Ireland: The Planning Uber -Department .............................. 63 2. Canada: Collaboration with Muscle...The Planning Uber -Department The Ireland National Government makes a clear distinction between planning and operations. The Minister of Defense (MOD...the federal planning system. The Irish model of an “ Uber -Department” for planning and the Canadian model of a department in charge of both operations

  4. Change in Corporal Punishment Over Time in a Representative Sample of Canadian Parents. (United States)

    Fréchette, Sabrina; Romano, Elisa


    Corporal punishment is a controversial form of discipline. Although its prevalence appears high, legal reforms and public education efforts to limit corporal punishment may be resulting in a decrease in its prevalence and frequency of use. This study drew on Canadian nationally representative data to understand the social change that might be happening and to characterize parents who continue to use corporal punishment. The study relied on cross-sectional data from Cycles 1 (1994) to 8 (2008) of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to examine parental reports of corporal punishment for children ages 2–11 years. Analyses were conducted separately for 2- to 5-, 6- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds, and sociodemographics associated with corporal punishment were examined. A significant decrease in the prevalence and frequency of corporal punishment use was observed across time for all age groups. Child sex, parent age, employment status, family structure, household size, immigration status, ethnicity, and religion significantly distinguished parents who use corporal punishment from those who do not, but there was variability across the age groups. Effect sizes question the relevance of the observed decrease in corporal punishment from an applied perspective. Approximately 25% of Canadian parents still use corporal punishment with children ages 2–11 years; therefore, it remains an issue that merits continued attention. Certain child, parent, and family characteristics seem to characterize parents who use corporal punishment, but other more dynamic variables may be important to consider, such as parental stress and their attitudes toward corporal punishment.

  5. English for Academic Purposes through Canadian Literature and History. (United States)

    Young, Lynne; O'Brien, Trudy


    Describes a program designed to improve English skills in university students learning English as a second language through a Canadian literature and history component. Reading lists are appended. (AM)

  6. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.


    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  7. A queer day in Canada: examining Canadian high school students' experiences with school-based homophobia in two large-scale studies. (United States)

    Peter, Tracey; Taylor, Catherine; Chamberland, Line


    The goal of the study is to examine how location (nationally, compared to Canadian regions) is related to indicators of a hostile school environment for sexual minority youth, particularly when physical abuse is used as the outcome variable. Data representing 5,766 Canadian students were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate techniques. Results from the multivariate analyses showed that non-physical abuse was the most significant predictor of homophobically based physical abuse, for both LGBQ and non-LGBQ students. Findings reiterate the importance of considering the progression of harmful events as an escalation of violence as well as the need to view homophobic bullying as having a significant impact on all students. Finally, while the presence of homophobia is prevalent across all Canadian regions, there are, nevertheless, many regional differences, which could be used to inform region-specific action plans.

  8. Antioxidant activity of selected wild Canadian prairie fruits



    Background. Canadian prairies are a habitat for unique wild plants. The main object of the present study was to investigate phytochemicals content and antioxidant activity in seven wild Canadian prairie fruits. Material and methods. The presence of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity were identified in the extracts according to standard procedure. Results. Wild rose had the highest amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids, whereas ...

  9. The evolution of PAs in the Canadian Armed Forces. (United States)

    Mertens, Jonathan; Descoteaux, Marc


    This study documents the growing role of the physician assistant (PA) in the Canadian Armed Forces. PAs have served as the backbone of the Royal Canadian Medical Services' frontline medical operations since 1984, on land, aboard ships and submarines, and domestically in garrison. Candidates begin as medical technicians and receive advanced training to become PAs at midcareer. The current rank of PAs as warrant officers is evolving and a commissioned status is under consideration.

  10. "Complicated Bearers of Cultural Difference" : Canadian Magazines and Trade Policy


    McKend, Heather


    Describes the history of Canadian policy on magazines, policy designed primarily to protect Canadian culture in a market heavily dominated by U.S. magazines. Canada's traditional strategy has been to consider magazines as a "cultural exception" to trade regulations. In 2005, Canada was the country first to ratify the UNESCO Convention supporting the protection of cultural diversity as a “sovereign responsibility.”

  11. Canadian Impressions Title: Impresiones canadienses Title: Impressions canadiennes


    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)


    Canadian Impressions pays tribute to Canada and Calgary, Alberta, home of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors of the Inter-American Development Bank. Twelve Canadian artists who were selected in an open call, present a total of 34 prints in various techniques from etching to monotype. Among the participating artists are: Briar Craig, Delio Delgado, René Derouin, Katie Fife, Joscelyn Gardner, Michel Gautier, Vanessa Hall-Patch, Miriam Rudolph, Tracy Lynn Templeton, Todd Treme, Os...

  12. Branding Canadian Higher Education. CBIE Research (United States)

    Kizilbash, Zainab


    The branding of national higher education systems is a global trend that has become increasingly common over the last decade. One of the main motives driving this trend is the view that branding a national higher education system will increase that country's market share of international students. This is evident as national higher education…

  13. Acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate. (United States)

    Duck, Francis


    Acoustic dose is defined as the energy deposited by absorption of an acoustic wave per unit mass of the medium supporting the wave. Expressions for acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate are given for plane-wave conditions, including temporal and frequency dependencies of energy deposition. The relationship between the acoustic dose-rate and the resulting temperature increase is explored, as is the relationship between acoustic dose-rate and radiation force. Energy transfer from the wave to the medium by means of acoustic cavitation is considered, and an approach is proposed in principle that could allow cavitation to be included within the proposed definitions of acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate.

  14. Word Segmentation in Monolingual Infants Acquiring Canadian English and Canadian French: Native Language, Cross-Dialect, and Cross-Language Comparisons (United States)

    Polka, Linda; Sundara, Megha


    In five experiments, we tested segmentation of word forms from natural speech materials by 8-month-old monolingual infants who are acquiring Canadian French or Canadian English. These two languages belong to different rhythm classes; Canadian French is syllable-timed and Canada English is stress-timed. Findings of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 show that…

  15. Analysis of the Science and Technology Narrative within Organ Donation and Transplantation Coverage in Canadian Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cheung


    Full Text Available Organ failure is one cause of death. Advancements in scientific research and technological development made organ transplantation possible and continue to find better ways to substitute failed organs with other organs of biological origin or artificial organs. Media, including newspapers, are one source of information for the public. The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent and how science and technology research and development are covered in the organ transplantation and organ donation (ODOT coverage of n = 300 Canadian newspapers, including the two Canadian newspapers with national reach (The Globe and Mail, National Post. The study generated qualitative and quantitative data addressing the following issues: (1 which scientific and technological developments are mentioned in the ODOT coverage; and (2 what issues are mentioned in the coverage of scientific and technological advancements linked to ODOT. We found little to no coverage of many technological and scientific advancements evident in academic and grey literature covering ODOT, and we found little engagement with social and ethical issues already raised about these advancements in the literature. The only area we found to be covered to a broader extent was xenotransplantation, although the coverage stopped after 2002. We argue that the newspaper coverage of ODOT under reports scientific and technological advancements related to ODOT and the issues these advancements might raise.

  16. Comparing Canadian and American cybersecurity awareness levels: Educational strategies to increase public awareness (United States)

    Hoggard, Amy

    Cybersecurity awareness is an important issue that affects everyone who uses a computer or a mobile device. Canada and the United States both recognize the value of mitigating cybersecurity risks in terms of national safety, economic stability and protection of their citizens. The research performed compared the levels of cybersecurity awareness in Canadian and American Internet users. Canadian and American users were equally aware of cybersecurity measures, but were not implementing best practices to keep themselves safe. The research suggested users needed to understand why a cybersecurity measure was important before being motivated to implement it. Educational strategies were reviewed in both Canada and the United States and it was determined that although there were significant resources available, they were not being utilized by both the educators and the public. In order to increase cybersecurity awareness levels, nations should focus on increasing the public's awareness by using various types of messaging, such as cartoons, in media. One possible consideration is a compulsory awareness model before accessing the Internet. Cybersecurity topics should be included in the curriculum for students at all levels of education and a focus on providing training and resources to teachers will help increase the cybersecurity knowledge of children and youth.

  17. Techno-Nationalism and the Construction of University Technology Transfer (United States)

    Sá, Creso; Kretz, Andrew; Sigurdson, Kristjan


    Our historical study of Canada's main research university illuminates the overlooked influence of national identities and interests as forces shaping the institutionalization of technology transfer. Through the use of archival sources we trace the rise and influence of Canadian technological nationalism--a response to Canada's perceived dependency…

  18. Techno-Nationalism and the Construction of University Technology Transfer (United States)

    Sá, Creso; Kretz, Andrew; Sigurdson, Kristjan


    Our historical study of Canada's main research university illuminates the overlooked influence of national identities and interests as forces shaping the institutionalization of technology transfer. Through the use of archival sources we trace the rise and influence of Canadian technological nationalism--a response to Canada's perceived…

  19. Fuel condition in Canadian CANDU 6 reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, R.H.; Macici, N [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gibb, R. [New Brunswick Power, Lepreau, NB (Canada); Purdy, P.L.; Manzer, A.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Kohn, E. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)


    The cornerstone of the CANDU concept is its natural uranium fuel, and the success of its reactor operation hinges on the fuel condition in the reactor. Neutron economy, on power refuelling, and simple fuel design are among the unique characteristics of CANDU fuel. In Canadian CANDU 6 reactors (Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau), the 37-element fuel has provided an enviable record of safe, economic and reliable plant operation for 29 reactor years to date. The fuelling cost is among the lowest in the world - a corollary of high neutron economy, simple fuel design, and judicial fuelling scheme. The reliability of fuel is high: only 21 of the 60000 bundles discharged from Gentilly 2 were confirmed defective and the five-year period from March 1992 to February 1997 saw no defect at all at Gentilly-2. Also, thanks to the inherent on-power refuelling capability and an effective defect detection and removal system, the primary coolant loops are kept extremely clean (very low activity level) - benefiting both maintenance and safety. Moreover, the inventories of fission products in the core and in the channel are maintained within the safety analysis envelope, due to on-power fuelling and sophisticated fuel management. In this paper, CANDU 6 fuel performance is reviewed against the feedback from post-irradiation examinations, and the findings from our ongoing R and D program. The results suggest that the fuel behavior m reactor are basically as originally anticipated, despite an evolutionary 3% increase in bundle uranium mass in the 1980's. For operating conditions within the CANDU 6 37-element experience, the average strains are typically 0.09%; and fission gas release, 2.7%. The UO{sub 2} fuel remains stoichiometric after irradiation. In-core measurements of pressure tube fitting are generally low. All these observations are consistent with the excellent fuel performance statistics coming out of the two Canadian CANDU 6 reactors. Additionally, this paper will briefly

  20. Identifying Canadian freshwater fishes through DNA barcodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Hubert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding aims to provide an efficient method for species-level identifications using an array of species specific molecular tags derived from the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene. The efficiency of the method hinges on the degree of sequence divergence among species and species-level identifications are relatively straightforward when the average genetic distance among individuals within a species does not exceed the average genetic distance between sister species. Fishes constitute a highly diverse group of vertebrates that exhibit deep phenotypic changes during development. In this context, the identification of fish species is challenging and DNA barcoding provide new perspectives in ecology and systematics of fishes. Here we examined the degree to which DNA barcoding discriminate freshwater fish species from the well-known Canadian fauna, which currently encompasses nearly 200 species, some which are of high economic value like salmons and sturgeons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We bi-directionally sequenced the standard 652 bp "barcode" region of COI for 1360 individuals belonging to 190 of the 203 Canadian freshwater fish species (95%. Most species were represented by multiple individuals (7.6 on average, the majority of which were retained as voucher specimens. The average genetic distance was 27 fold higher between species than within species, as K2P distance estimates averaged 8.3% among congeners and only 0.3% among concpecifics. However, shared polymorphism between sister-species was detected in 15 species (8% of the cases. The distribution of K2P distance between individuals and species overlapped and identifications were only possible to species group using DNA barcodes in these cases. Conversely, deep hidden genetic divergence was revealed within two species, suggesting the presence of cryptic species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study evidenced that freshwater fish

  1. Past Fame, Present Frames and Future Flagship? An Exploration of How Health is Positioned in Canadian Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Runnels


    Full Text Available Canada has been regarded as a model global citizen with firm commitments to multilateralism. It has also played important roles in several international health treaties and conventions in recent years. There are now concerns that its interests in health as a foreign policy goal may be diminishing. This article reports on a thematic analysis of key Canadian foreign policy statements issued over the past decade, and interviews with key informants knowledgeable of, or experienced in the interstices of Canadian health and foreign policy. It finds that health is primarily and increasingly framed in relation to national security and economic interests. Little attention has been given to human rights obligations relevant to health as a foreign policy issue, and global health is not seen as a priority of the present government. Global health is nonetheless regarded as something with which Canadian foreign policy must engage, if only because of Canada’s membership in many United Nations and other multilateral fora. Development of a single global health strategy or framework is seen as important to improve intersectoral cooperation on health issues, and foreign policy coherence. There remains a cautious optimism that health could become the base from which Canada reasserts its internationalist status.

  2. National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) (United States)

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a research study sponsored by the National Cancer Institute that used low-dose helical CT scans or chest X-ray to screen men and women at risk for lung cancer.

  3. Skin decontamination of G, V, H L agents by Canadian reactive skin decontaminant lotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bide, R.W.; Sawyer, T.W.; DiNinno, V.L.; Armour, S.J.; Risk, D.J.


    The Canadian Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion (RSDL) is a reactive solution designed to be applied directly to skin for the decontamination and destruction of the classical chemical warfare agents. The solvent of the RSDL is very effective in dissolving liquid agents from the skin surface and the differential solubility of agents in the RSDL and the skin strongly favors retention of agents in the lotion. The active ingredient in the RSDL reacts rapidly and completely with G-agents, V-agents, mustard Lewisite producing relatively nontoxic products. The RSDL will dissolve and destroy agent thickened with acrylate polymers. The lotion is water soluble and readily removed from the skin. Since the RSDL is water soluble, it is active against water soluble agents even at high dilutions. For water insoluble agents, the activity is reduced as the water content rises above abrasive 50% due to insolubility of the agents. Skin and eye irritancy trials indicate that the RSDL is only a mild irritant to the eyes (equivalent to a chlorinated swimming pool) and to abraded skin. Acute toxicity trials showed that large oral and intraperitoneal doses were essentially non-toxic. The RSDL was fielded by the Canadian Forces for the Gulf Conflict. The RSDL may be used in open wounds for short periods. Wound decontamination and irrigation with RSDL diluted 1:1 with isotonic saline was recommended for the Gulf conflict.

  4. Assessment of the toxicity of a substance under Canadian environmental protection act, a case study. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadon, B.; Germain, A.; Coillie, R. van [Environment Canada, Montreal (Canada)


    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) proclaimed in 1988 requires the Canadian Ministers of the Environment and of National Health and Welfare to assess the toxicity of different substances. A Priority Substances List containing 44 substances was developed and their assessments had to determine if they were `toxic`, according to the CEPA definition. This definition states that `a substance is toxic if it is entering or may enter the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions (a) having or that may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment, (b) constituting or that may constitute a danger to the environment on which human life depends; or (c) constituting or that may constitute a danger in Canada to human life of health.` This presentation use the assessment of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as an example of this procedure. (author)

  5. From Fact to Fiction – An Introduction to the Mythology of Ice Hockey in Canadian Life and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Blake


    Full Text Available The title of Alice Munro’s Who do you think you are? could just as easily be asked of Canada, without eliciting an easy answer. In ethnic, linguistic, even geographical terms, Canada is hardly homogeneous. Because of this, we can only dream of a unified identity; we are, as Leonard Cohen writes in Beautiful Losers, condemned to “nightmares of identity.” If Canada is too complex for a uniform national identity, one derived from a convenient mythology and distilled into simple symbols, it often seems we have yet to realize it. We long for a mythology, even a modern, and blatantly constructed one. In contemporary Canadian society, ice hockey has filled that symbolic role, serving as a mythology that binds a fragmented people. This paper examines the role of ice hockey as a mythologized symbol of Canadian unity in literature, and questions the appropriateness of that usage.

  6. Index of congenital Minamata disease in Canadian areas of concern in the Great Lakes: an eco-social epidemiological approach. (United States)

    Gilbertson, Michael


    Cerebral palsy is one of the symptoms of congenital Minamata disease associated with exposure to methyl mercury. Cerebral palsy hospitalization rates for 17 Canadian Areas of Concern have been used as a health index in evaluating the effectiveness of the United States and Canadian governments in implementing their Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. Elevated rates in males in several locations was associated with historic uses of mercury and with natural sources indicating that the governments have failed to protect human health from exposures to this persistent toxic substance. Advances in epidemiological theory indicate that the reasons for this failure cannot be explained solely in scientific and technical frames but that the social, economic, and political contexts of the two nations need to be examined.

  7. Public Reporting of Nursing Home Quality of Care: Lessons from the United States Experience for Canadian Policy Discussion (United States)

    Hutchinson, Alison M.; Draper, Kellie; Sales, Anne E.


    While the demand for continuing care services in Canada grows, the quality of such services has come under increasing scrutiny. Consideration has been given to the use of public reporting of quality data as a mechanism to stimulate quality improvement and promote public accountability for and transparency in service quality. The recent adoption of the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) throughout a number of Canadian jurisdictions means that standardized quality data are available for comparisons among facilities across regions, provinces and nationally. In this paper, we explore current knowledge on public reporting in nursing homes in the United States to identify what lessons may inform policy discussion regarding potential use of public reporting in Canada. Based on these findings, we make recommendations regarding how public reporting should be progressed and managed if Canadian jurisdictions were to implement this strategy. PMID:21037828

  8. Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Bandura, Kevin; Amiri, Mandana; Bond, J Richard; Campbell-Wilson, Duncan; Connor, Liam; Cliche, Jean-Francois; Davis, Greg; Deng, Meiling; Denman, Nolan; Dobbs, Matt; Fandino, Mateus; Gibbs, Kenneth; Gilbert, Adam; Halpern, Mark; Hanna, David; Hincks, Adam D; Hinshaw, Gary; Hofer, Carolin; Klages, Peter; Landecker, Tom L; Masui, Kiyoshi; Mena, Juan; Newburgh, Laura B; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Recnik, Andre; Shaw, J Richard; Sigurdson, Kris; Sitwell, Michael; Smecher, Graeme; Smegal, Rick; Vanderlinde, Keith; Wiebe, Don


    A pathfinder version of CHIME (the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment) is currently being commissioned at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) in Penticton, BC. The instrument is a hybrid cylindrical interferometer designed to measure the large scale neutral hydrogen power spectrum across the redshift range 0.8 to 2.5. The power spectrum will be used to measure the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale across this poorly probed redshift range where dark energy becomes a significant contributor to the evolution of the Universe. The instrument revives the cylinder design in radio astronomy with a wide field survey as a primary goal. Modern low-noise amplifiers and digital processing remove the necessity for the analog beamforming that characterized previous designs. The Pathfinder consists of two cylinders 37\\,m long by 20\\,m wide oriented north-south for a total collecting area of 1,500 square meters. The cylinders are stationary with no moving parts, and form a transit instrument ...

  9. The bituminous sands : a Canadian mirage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousse, D.R. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Nasr, G.J. [Lebanese Univ., Roumieh (Lebanon). Faculty of Engineering; Turcotte, S.F. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre d' Etudes Internationales et Mondialisation; Salah, N.B. [Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques De Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia). LMMP


    This paper examined the controversy about the potential role of a significant increase in Canadian oil sands production in order to bridge the upcoming gap between the world's increasing energy demand and the total recoverable oil supply. The paper presented the actual potential of different scenarios and considered the prediction cost forecasts. A brief overview of environmental impacts and the real return on investments were also provided. Environmental impacts that were considered included land degradation; water contamination; ecosystem damage; and air pollution. Nuclear energy was also presented as a possible solution. The paper demonstrated that even in a very optimistic scenario, Canada's oil sands accelerated production has a negligible effect on the aforementioned gap, has a considerable impact on environment that has yet to be accounted for. Energy ratios that were presented included energy return on energy investment; energy available on energy used; and energy payback. It was concluded that enhanced recovery techniques are clearly needed for future sustainable exploitation of these bituminous sands. 32 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Managing occupational HIV exposures: a Canadian study. (United States)

    Reutter, L I; Northcott, H C


    The findings reported in this paper are part of a larger study that explored how nurses cope with the risk of acquiring HIV infection while caring for persons with AIDS (PWAs). The data were collected through in-depth interviews with 13 nurses who cared for PWAs in a large Western Canadian hospital. Seven of these nurses perceived that they had been exposed to HIV-infected blood or body fluids. This paper describes how these seven nurses coped with actual exposures to HIV-infected blood or body fluids. Data were analyzed using the methodology of grounded theory. Nurses' coping efforts after exposure were grouped into four categories: minimizing the effect of exposures, reducing a sense of vulnerability, selective disclosure to others, and assigning meaning. Nurses minimized the physical effects of exposure through measures such as 'bleeding' the needlestick injury and immersing the affected area in bleach solution. Nurses reduced their sense of vulnerability by assessing the possibility of harm, avoiding situations that aroused fear, and confronting the decision for HIV testing. Nurses limited their disclosures to co-workers to avoid rejection and to preserve professional self-esteem. Disclousre to significant others was influenced primarily by the support nurses perceived they would receive. Finally, nurses attempted to assign meaning to the exposure by determining why the event occurred and by evaluating the implications it has had on their lives. The article concludes with implications for nursing practice.

  11. The strongest links : the Canadian coal chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, E.


    Issues related to the transportation of coal in Canada were discussed. Coal mines in Alberta and British Columbia are often required to transport their products over 1000 km for export at Pacific ports to countries in Asia or power plants in Ontario. The effectiveness of the supply chain is dependent on the inter-relationships between mine, rail, terminals, and ship transport. Coal customers are typically required to hire shipping companies and nominate vessels for terminals that have contracts with coal suppliers. Mines typically inform railway lines of the amounts of coal that will need to be transported each month. Many railways have increased the amounts of coal they are transporting by using lighter-weight aluminum train cars. Further efficiencies have been realized due to new braking and power distribution technologies in trains. Multiple locomotives are now also being used to provide improved control over the cars that carry the coal. Despite advances in rail technologies, coal deliveries are often delayed by harsh weather conditions and rain. It was concluded that the Canadian coal industry's success relies on its ability to transport large amounts of coal across long distances. 2 figs.

  12. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example. (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria


    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.

  13. Discovery of herpesviruses in Canadian wildlife. (United States)

    Dalton, Chimoné S; van de Rakt, Karen; Fahlman, Åsa; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen; Neuhaus, Peter; Popko, Richard; Kutz, Susan; van der Meer, Frank


    Herpesviruses (HVs) have a wide range of hosts in the animal kingdom. The result of infection with HVs can vary from asymptomatic to fatal diseases depending on subtype, strain, and host. To date, little is known about HVs naturally circulating in wildlife species and the impact of these viruses on other species. In our study, we used genetic and comparative approaches to increase our understanding of circulating HVs in Canadian wildlife. Using nested polymerase chain reaction targeting a conserved region of the HV DNA polymerase gene, we analyzed material derived from wildlife of western and northern Canada collected between February 2009 and Sept 2014. For classification of new virus sequences, we compared our viral sequences with published sequences in GenBank to identify conserved residues and motifs that are unique to each subfamily, alongside phylogenetic analysis. All alphaherpesviruses shared a conserved tryptophan (W856) and tyrosine (Y880), betaherpesviruses all shared a serine (S836), and gammaherpesviruses had a conserved glutamic acid (E835). Most of our wildlife HV sequences grouped together with HVs from taxonomically related host species. From Martes americana, we detected previously uncharacterized alpha- and beta-herpesviruses.

  14. Benchmark Dose Modeling (United States)

    Finite doses are employed in experimental toxicology studies. Under the traditional methodology, the point of departure (POD) value for low dose extrapolation is identified as one of these doses. Dose spacing necessarily precludes a more accurate description of the POD value. ...

  15. Political pugilists: recuperative gender strategies in canadian electoral politics. (United States)

    Maiolino, Elise


    This paper offers the concept recuperative gender strategies to describe how political leaders work to restore their public gender identities. The author examines a charity-boxing match between two Canadian politicians, Justin Trudeau and Patrick Brazeau. Trudeau is the current leader of the Liberal Party of Canada and son of former Prime Minister, Pierre Trudeau. Brazeau was a Conservative Senator. Through a discourse analysis of 222 national newspaper articles published on the match, this paper chronicles Justin Trudeau's transition from "precariously masculine" to "sufficiently masculine" and discusses the significance of this transformation for Trudeau's suitability for Liberal Party leadership. Cet article propose le concept de stratégies de récupération des sexes pour décrire et expliquer comment des dirigeants politiques travaillent à rétablir leurs identités sexuelles publiques. J'analyse la couverture médiatique du combat de boxe caritatif datant de mars 2012 et opposant deux politiciens canadiens : Justin Trudeau, le chef du Parti libéral du Canada, et Patrick Brazeau, un sénateur conservateur. En m'appuyant sur une analyse de discours de 222 articles de journaux nationaux publiés au sujet de ce combat, je détaille la transition de Justin Trudeau d'une forme de masculinité « précaire » à une « masculinité suffisante », et je discute de l'importance de cette transformation pour l'aptitude perçue de Trudeau comme chef du Parti libéral.

  16. Implementing E-Health through CHI: A Very Canadian Solution to a Very Canadian Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Daniels


    Full Text Available Canada Health Infoway (CHI was established as an arms-length body by the federal government in 2001 to provide funding to provinces for the development of interoperable e-health systems. CHI was established in response to a number of reports calling on the government to act to make use of technological advances to improve health care quality and provide more rigorous data. In addition to these explicit goals, through establishing CHI the federal government also sought to avoid potential criticism if the implementation of e-health failed, increase its own popularity ahead of the 2000 election and subtly redistribute wealth between the provinces. The paper suggests that the major influence behind the policy to establish CHI came from Canadian institutions and the fact that the federal government was hamstrung by the Canadian Constitution and Canada Health Act. Evaluation of the reform shows that progress has been made by CHI in implementing e-health solutions, but that Canada still lags behind other comparable health systems in the use of technologies. SWOT analysis of the CHI implementation highlights the criticism that CHI could stifle provincial innovation but recognizes that it also offers the opportunity for best practice dissemination across Canada and ensures that ring-fenced funding is available for e-health implementation across the provinces. In conclusion, the paper suggests that, because of constitutional constraints, the federal government was limited in options to implement e-health and that CHI represents a fair compromise.

  17. Implementing e-Health through CHI: A Very Canadian Solution to a Very Canadian Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Daniels


    Full Text Available Canada Health Infoway (CHI was established as an arms-length body by the federal government in 2001 to provide funding to provinces for the development of interoperable e-health systems. CHI was established in response to a number of reports calling on the government to act to make use of technological advances to improve health care quality and provide more rigorous data. In addition to these explicit goals, through establishing CHI the federal government also sought to avoid potential criticism if the implementation of e-health failed, increase its own popularity ahead of the 2000 election and subtly redistribute wealth between the provinces. The paper suggests that the major influence behind the policy to establish CHI came from Canadian institutions and the fact that the federal government was hamstrung by the Canadian Constitution and Canada Health Act. Evaluation of the reform shows that progress has been made by CHI in implementing e-health solutions, but that Canada still lags behind other comparable health systems in the use of technologies. SWOT analysis of the CHI implementation highlights the criticism that CHI could stifle provincial innovation but recognizes that it also offers the opportunity for best practice dissemination across Canada and ensures that ring-fenced funding is available for e-health implementation across the provinces. In conclusion, the paper suggests that, because of constitutional constraints, the federal government was limited in options to implement e-health and that CHI represents a fair compromise.

  18. Canadian experiences with avian influenza: a look at regional disease control--past, present, and future. (United States)

    Vaillancourt, J-P


    Over the past 5 yr, the poultry industry in Canada has had a few H5 or H7 avian influenza (AI) epidemics. An analysis of these outbreaks by government officials highlighted the need to establish a better partnership between those responsible for controlling the disease and public health officials responsible for protecting the public and those participating in eradication efforts. These officials also agreed that compensations had to be reviewed, that national biosecurity standards needed to be established to better prevent AI, that a national mortality disposal plan was needed, and finally that the current emergency disease management protocols had to be reviewed. Industry representatives stressed the need for early detection and reporting; for more effective tools for decision making, including using local expertise for trace-back activities and quick interventions; for better communications within industry, but mainly between industry and governmental authorities at the federal, provincial, and municipal levels; and finally, for better planning to minimize the impact of eradication efforts on poultry production and for the recovery following the epidemic. These observations triggered a series of initiatives. A National Office of Animal Biosecurity was created by federal authorities, with the mandate to establish national biosecurity standards. A Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network was also put in place to improve the capacity of early detection of the disease and to increase the surge capacity of the Canadian laboratory system. Wildlife and commercial poultry AI surveillance programs have also been put in place. Provincial poultry grower organizations have established AI control and eradication plans that are increasing their ability to intervene early and to assist government authorities once AI is confirmed in the field. This includes the creation of industry incident command centers with emphasis on confidentiality agreements between government and

  19. Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas

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    Amram Ofer


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads in Canadian cities. Methods Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances Results Addresses were obtained for 1,556 public elementary schools, 95% of which were successfully geocoded. Across all 10 cities, 16.3% of schools were located within 75 m of a major road, with wide variability between cities. Schools in neighborhoods with higher median income were less likely to be near major roads (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00, while schools in densely populated neighborhoods were more frequently close to major roads (OR per 1,000 dwellings/km2: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16. Over 22% of schools in the lowest neighborhood income quintile were close to major roads, compared to 13% of schools in the highest income quintile. Conclusions A substantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of schools may negatively impact the healthy development and academic performance of a large number of Canadian children.

  20. Stripers, bailarinas exóticas, eróticas: identidad e inmigración en la construcción del Estado canadiense Stripers, erotic and exotic dancers: immigration and identity in the construction of the canadian nation-State

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    Gloria Patricia Díaz Barrero


    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una discusión sobre la migración de mujeres Latinoamericanas para trabajar en la industria del sexo en Canadá, como bailarinas exóticas, a través de visas temporales de trabajo. El objetivo es demostrar que esa migración se encuentra determinada en un contexto de relaciones desiguales de poder enmarcadas por las políticas migratorias canadienses, relaciones de explotación económica de Norte América hacia Latinoamérica, construcciones raciales y racistas, y relaciones patriarcales de género, en el que el trabajo sexual es una de las pocas opciones laborales que tienen las mujeres.This article discusses how the migration of Latin American women to work in the sex trade, specifically as exotic dancers, as temporary workers is framed within a specific context of Canadian immigration policies, uneven economic relationships between North America and Latin America, racial and racist constructions and sexist gender relations where sex work is one of the few working possibilities that women have.

  1. Mining Legal and Business Resources on Canadian Banking

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    Rajiv Johal


    Full Text Available Given the distinct nature of the Canadian banking system, it is important for novice researchers to know which business and legal resources to consult in order to quickly find information that is particular to Canadian banking. However, there are very few articles or monographs in the library literature that describe how to find information sources exclusively on this subject from a Canadian perspective. Most available publications tend to specialize in sources for the US banking and Federal Reserve System with little attention to Canada. The paper begins with a brief introduction to Canadian banking. From there, the authors demonstrate where researchers can find primary sources such as legislation, regulations and case law. In addition, this article identifies and discusses the different types of information found on the websites of associations and government agencies such as the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, which supervises and regulates various areas of Canada’s financial system. Also discussed are secondary sources such as industry research and reports that are available from reliable websites and subscription-based resources. This paper also explores the best business and legal databases for researchers. Based on results from searching in periodical directories and indexes, the paper additionally provides a description of the most pertinent academic, trade and general publications relevant to the Canadian banking system and where their contents are indexed.

  2. A scoping review of interprofessional education within Canadian nursing literature. (United States)

    Grant, Rachel Elizabeth; Goldman, Joanne; LeGrow, Karen; MacMillan, Kathleen M; van Soeren, Mary; Kitto, Simon


    The purpose of this scoping review is to examine the nature of the interprofessional education (IPE) discussion that the Canadian nursing profession is having within the Canadian peer-reviewed nursing literature. An electronic database search of CINAHL was conducted using a modified Arksey & O'Malley scoping review framework. Peer-reviewed, English-language articles published in Canadian nursing journals from January 1981 to February 2016 were retrieved. Articles were included if they discussed IPE, or described an educational activity that met our conceptual definition of IPE. A total of 88 articles were screened, and 11 articles were eligible for analysis. Analysis revealed that this body of literature does not seem to be purposefully engaging Canadian nurses in a critical discourse about the role of IPE. The majority of articles located were reflective or commentaries. At the time of this review, there was a paucity of theoretically informed empirical research articles on IPE in the nursing literature. While IPE may be viewed by some critical scholars as a means of shifting the control of healthcare delivery traditionally held by medicine to other professions, our results suggest that this may not be the case in the Canadian nursing profession.

  3. Quarterly Narrative Report for the Period February 1 to April 30, 1941: Lower Souris National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  4. Quarterly Narrative Report for November, December and January of 1940 and 1941: Lower Souris National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  5. Mammographic dose survey in the Czech Republic

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    Novak, Leos [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic); Rada, Jiri [National Radiation Protection Institute, Ostrava (Czech Republic)


    At present, it is generally accepted that the average dose to the glandular tissue is the most reasonable dose descriptor in mammography with regard to the risk of breast cancer induced by ionizing radiation. It is advantageous to use the quantity mean glandular dose M.G.D. for setting of diagnostic reference levels (D.R.L.) as well, although the quantity is not directly measurable as it is the case of D.R.L. quantities for other imaging modalities. The reason is that a directly measurable quantity suitable for mammography, incident air kerma Ki, depends a lot on a beam quality. The influence of the beam quality (expressed by tube voltage, half value layer and combination of anode/filter material) is already included in calculation of mean glandular dose. To assess a radiation burden of patients due to mammography at a national level a representative dose survey is needed to carry out. Such a study provides statistically significant dose data for setting of the national diagnostic reference levels. National Radiation Protection Institute is performing the study in the Czech Republic since the year 2005.On a basis of presented data, it could be concluded, that the situation in the Czech Republic with respect to patient doses in mammography is encouraging and that the requirements of European Commission are well fulfilled. However, it is obvious, that the obtained results can not be considered as statistically significant at the moment, because the data were not collected from a representative sample of centers, which should observe a distribution of X-ray unit types, type of a mammographic center (screening/non screening ones) and also a locality of a center. The dose survey still continues to cover the whole Czech Republic with the main task to determine new national diagnostic reference levels and to find out optimized standards for carrying out the examinations with respect to patient doses and image quality. (authors)

  6. From the Fur Trade to Acid Rain: A Study of Canadian Natural Resources. (United States)

    Winans, Linda


    Presents a teaching module for upper elementary students that devotes eight class periods of study to Canadian resources. Includes study of the Canadian fur trade, fishing industry, forestry, and the problems caused by acid rain. Includes the unit evaluation. (DB)

  7. The use of vitamin K in the perinatal period. Fetus and Newborn Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society. (United States)


    The incidence of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDNB) can be expected to increase in Canada as breast-feeding becomes more popular. There are three clinical patterns of hemorrhagic disease: early HDNB (usually related to maternal drug ingestion), classic HDNB (related to breast-feeding) and late hemorrhagic disease of infancy (related to the combination of breast-feeding and diseases that cause fat malabsorption). Despite the knowledge that the disease can virtually be prevented by the administration of vitamin K, not all newborns are being routinely considered for such treatment. The Canadian Paediatric Society has made several recommendations: (a) women who take drugs that interfere with vitamin K1 metabolism should receive oral doses of vitamin K1 daily for a minimum of 2 weeks before expected delivery; (b) all healthy term infants should receive a single dose of vitamin K1, orally or intramuscularly, within 6 hours after birth; (c) all other newborns, including preterm, low-birthweight and sick infants, should receive a single intramuscular dose of vitamin K1 within 6 hours after birth; and (d) infants at high risk for secondary late-onset hemorrhagic disease due to fat malabsorption should receive vitamin K1 orally every day or intramuscularly once a month.

  8. The First Nations Biomonitoring Initiative-FNBI. (United States)

    La Corte, Elsa; Wuttke, Stuart


    The First Nations Biomonitoring Initiative (FNBI) pilot study was implemented in the winter 2010/2011, sampling 252 First Nations people on reserve in Canada for a suite of chemical contaminants following Cycle 1 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Results will be sent confidentially to participants and a community report will be presented after the analysis of results, expected to be completed by fall of 2011. The national scale of the study will take place during the summer 2011/2012 and aims to sample thirteen communities with a participation of 42 First Nations people per community. Results are expected for spring 2012/2013.

  9. Worksite health and wellness programs: Canadian achievements & prospects. (United States)

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Alméras, Natalie; Gauvin, Lise


    Canada has experienced a substantial reduction in mortality related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is a general consensus that more effective and widespread health promotion interventions may lead to further reductions in CVD risk factors and actual disease states. In this paper, we briefly outline the prevalence of selected risk factors for CVD in Canada, describe characteristics of the Canadian labor market and workforce, and depict what is known about health and wellness program delivery systems in Canadian workplaces. Our review indicates that there have been numerous and diverse relevant legislative and policy initiatives to create a context conducive to improve the healthfulness of Canadian workplaces. However, there is still a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of the delivery system and the actual impact of workplace health and wellness programs in reducing CVD risk in Canada. Thus, while a promising model, more research is needed in this area.

  10. Internationalization at Canadian Universities: Where are we Now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Weber


    Full Text Available Internationalization is powerfully impacting the missions, planning documents, and learning environments of Canadian universities. Internationalization within Canadian universities is viewed from a local as well as global context. Accounts of the composition of domestic students studying abroad and international students studying in Canada, and the implications of these statistics, are related. Emphasis is given to a discussion of the contribution that economic factors play in internationalization decisions. Economic factors have undeniably shaped the face of internationalization at Canadian universities. Complexities of the relationship between global context and educational goals are outlined and educators are challenged to responsibly interpret and implement university changes resulting from internationalization while prioritizing the learning needs of students.

  11. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology: go...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ......: government and parliament ideology. The results suggest that government ideology influenced labor market reforms: market-oriented governments promoted liberalization of the labor market. Parliamentary ideology did not influence economic liberalization at all. This finding (1) identifies differences between...

  12. Residential water demand with endogenous pricing: The Canadian Case (United States)

    Reynaud, Arnaud; Renzetti, Steven; Villeneuve, Michel


    In this paper, we show that the rate structure endogeneity may result in a misspecification of the residential water demand function. We propose to solve this endogeneity problem by estimating a probabilistic model describing how water rates are chosen by local communities. This model is estimated on a sample of Canadian local communities. We first show that the pricing structure choice reflects efficiency considerations, equity concerns, and, in some cases, a strategy of price discrimination across consumers by Canadian communities. Hence estimating the residential water demand without taking into account the pricing structures' endogeneity leads to a biased estimation of price and income elasticities. We also demonstrate that the pricing structure per se plays a significant role in influencing price responsiveness of Canadian residential consumers.

  13. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Education Committee Report

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    Ronald J Bridges


    Full Text Available I am pleased to provide an update regarding the activities and future directions of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG Education Committee. The mandate of the CAG Education Committee is to facilitate, develop and promote excellence as it pertains to educational initiatives for the Canadian gastroenterology community. Professional education has long remained a priority of the CAG - a fact well recognized by the membership. The 2002 CAG Strategic Planning Survey showed that members rate Canadian Digestive Diseases Week (CDDW as the most important CAG service, on par with Digestive Diseases Week regarding its usefulness (1. CDDW 2004 offered delegates a variety of basic science and clinical symposia, the popular and well received 'Breakfast with the Expert' sessions and a comprehensive Postgraduate Course reviewing key developments in gastroenterology, nutrition and hepatology.

  14. Trends in suicidal behaviour and use of mental health services in Canadian military and civilian populations (United States)

    Sareen, Jitender; Afifi, Tracie O.; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Turner, Sarah; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Erickson, Julie; Stein, Murray B.; Fikretoglu, Deniz; Zamorski, Mark A.


    Background: In the context of the Canadian mission in Afghanistan, substantial media attention has been placed on mental health and lack of access to treatment among Canadian Forces personnel. We compared trends in the prevalence of suicidal behaviour and the use of mental health services between Canadian military personnel and the general population from 2002 to 2012/13. Methods: We obtained data for respondents aged 18–60 years who participated in 4 nationally representative surveys by Statistics Canada designed to permit comparisons between populations and trends over time. Surveys of the general population were conducted in 2002 (n = 25 643) and 2012 (n = 15 981); those of military personnel were conducted in 2002 (n = 5153) and 2013 (n = 6700). We assessed the lifetime and past-year prevalence of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts, as well as use of mental health services. Results: In 2012/13, but not in 2002, military personnel had significantly higher odds of both lifetime and past-year suicidal ideation than the civilian population (lifetime: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–1.50; past year: adjusted OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.09–1.66). The same was true for suicidal plans (lifetime: adjusted OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.35–1.99; past year: adjusted OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.18–2.33). Among respondents who reported past-year suicidal ideation, those in the military had a significantly higher past-year utilization rate of mental health services than those in the civilian population in both 2002 (adjusted OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.31–3.13) and 2012/13 (adjusted OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.86–5.28). Interpretation: Canadian Forces personnel had a higher prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans in 2012/13 and a higher use of mental health services in 2002 and 2012/13 than the civilian population. PMID:27221270

  15. Herd-level risk factors for infection with bovine leukemia virus in Canadian dairy herds. (United States)

    Nekouei, Omid; VanLeeuwen, John; Sanchez, Javier; Kelton, David; Tiwari, Ashwani; Keefe, Greg


    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important infection of dairy cattle worldwide, which is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The prevalence of infection in Canadian dairy herds is high and continues to increase; however, there has not been a national program to control BLV. This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify potentially important risk factors for BLV infection on Canadian dairy herds, which is a prerequisite to developing an effective control program. During 1998-2003, based on a stratified two-stage random sampling process, 315 dairy farms from seven provinces of Canada were selected. Within each farm, 9-45 cows were bled and tested with a commercial serum ELISA kit for BLV antibodies. A comprehensive questionnaire, targeting potentially important herd-level management indicators, was successfully administered in 272 herds. A zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression model was fit to the resulting data to assess the potential associations between BLV seropositivity and a variety of herd-level factors. Seventy-eight percent of the herds were identified as BLV-positive (had one or more test positive animals). In the negative-binomial part of the final ZINB model, herds with clinical cases of leukosis during the 12 months prior to sampling, as well as herds which purchased animals with unknown BLV infection status in the last five years, had a significantly larger proportion of BLV positive animals. Based on a significant interaction between two of the risk factors, changing gloves between cows during pregnancy examination was not statistically associated with lower proportion of infected cows compared with not changing gloves, in the western Canadian provinces. In the logistic part of the model, herds from eastern Canadian provinces and those not purchasing cows in the last five years had increased odds of being free from BLV. The high prevalence of infection across Canada should be addressed through the development and

  16. Reasons for not having received influenza vaccination and its predictors in Canadians

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    Chen Y


    Full Text Available Yue Chen,1 Jun Wu,2 Qi-long Yi,1 Julie Laroche,3 Thomas Wong21Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, 2Professional Guidelines and Public Health Practice Division, Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 3Immunization Assessment and Information, Centre for Immunization and Respiratory Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza. However, only about one-third of Canadians receive an annual seasonal influenza vaccination.Methods: The reasons for not having received influenza vaccination were examined among 131,061 Canadians ≥ 12 years of age who participated in a national survey in 2007–2008. Among them, 127,297 subjects responded to the questions concerning their flu shot history and were grouped into three categories: never (n = 51,767, 1+ year ago (n = 29,310, last year (n = 46,220. Subjects who reported not having had a flu shot during the past year were asked the reasons for not having it. The log binomial regression model was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs for the associations of various reasons for not having received influenza vaccination and their predictors.Results: When weighted to the Canadian population, 44.0% had never previously received influenza vaccine and 24.5% had received the vaccine > 12 months ago. The most common reasons for not having received influenza vaccination in the past 12 months were “Respondent did not think it necessary” (71.3% and “Have not gotten around to it” (17.6%. Log binomial regression analysis shows that females were less likely to report these two reasons compared to males with PRs of 0.98 (0.97, 0.99 and 0.84 (0.81, 0.87, respectively. Younger participants were more likely to report, “Have not gotten around to it.” For those who

  17. Predictors of Residential Mobility among Older Canadians and Impact on Analyses of Place and Health Relationships

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    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify predictors of residential mobility in 55+ Canadians, to characterise neighbourhood changes following mobility, to assess whether such changes differ according to income, and to evaluate for cross-sectional estimations of place-health relationships the extent of bias associated with residential mobility. Using longitudinal data from the Canadian National Population Health Study (NPHS, residential mobility was operationalised by a change in postal code between two consecutive waves. Individuals' sociodemographic factors and neighbourhood characteristics were analysed in relation to mobility. Bias in cross-sectional estimations of place-health associations was assessed analysing neighbourhood-level deprivation and housing quality in relation to self-assessed health. Multiple age-related events were predictive of moving. Three out of 10 individuals moved at least once. Two thirds of movers experienced a change in neighbourhood type and such changes were not associated with income. No systematic biases in estimating place effects on health using cross-sectional data were observed. Given that individual-level socioeconomic status (SES was neither a predictor of moving nor of its consequences in terms of neighbourhood type, controlling for SES could potentially lead to biased estimations of place-health associations. Results suggest that cross-sectional data can yield valid estimations of place-health associations among older adults.

  18. Delayed Workforce Entry and High Emigration Rates for Recent Canadian Radiation Oncology Graduates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, Shaun K., E-mail: [CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Halperin, Ross; Lefresne, Shilo [BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Trotter, Theresa [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stuckless, Teri [Dr H. Bliss Murphy Cancer Centre, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Brundage, Michael [Cancer Centre of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, ON (Canada)


    Purpose: To determine the employment status and location of recent Canadian radiation oncology (RO) graduates and to identify current workforce entry trends. Methods and Materials: A fill-in-the-blank spreadsheet was distributed to all RO program directors in December 2013 and June 2014, requesting the employment status and location of their graduates over the last 3 years. Visa trainee graduates were excluded. Results: Response rate from program directors was 100% for both survey administrations. Of 101 graduates identified, 99 (98%) had known employment status and location. In the December survey, 5 2013 graduates (16%), 17 2012 graduates (59%), and 18 2011 graduates (75%) had permanent staff employment. Six months later, 5 2014 graduates (29%), 15 2013 graduates (48%), 24 2012 graduates (83%), and 21 2011 graduates (88%) had secured staff positions. Fellowships and temporary locums were common for those without staff employment. The proportion of graduates with staff positions abroad increased from 22% to 26% 6 months later. Conclusions: Workforce entry for most RO graduates was delayed but showed steady improvement with longer time after graduation. High emigration rates for jobs abroad signify domestic employment challenges for newly certified, Canadian-trained radiation oncologists. Coordination on a national level is required to address and regulate radiation oncologist supply and demand disequilibrium in Canada.

  19. Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Indo-Canadians with and without Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibodies

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    Hugh James Freeman


    Full Text Available A sequentially evaluated cohort of Indo-Canadians with either ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease were prospectively examined for antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA. Of 84 patients, 62 had ulcerative colitis and 22 had Crohn’s disease. About one-third were born in Canada, and two-thirds were migrants from India or other countries, particularly East African nations. There was a disease-based and geographically based male predominance. The mean age of Canadian-born patients was significantly less than that of those born in other countries. Moreover, for migrants, the mean duration of residence in Canada before developing disease was 8.9 years for Crohn’s disease patients and 13.5 years for ulcerative colitis patients. Moderate to severe disease was present; virtually all those with Crohn’s disease had colonic involvement, and most of those with ulcerative colitis had extensive colonic disease. Overall, 40 of 84 (48% were seropositive for ANCA, including a majority of those with ulcerative colitis but not Crohn’s disease. In addition, eight had cytoplasmic ANCA, a reported seromarker for extensive colitis. Seropositive and seronegative patients were similar in age, sex, birth or duration of residence in Canada, site and severity of disease, familial history and complications, including pouchitis. This study supports the view that these diseases arise in individuals with a genetic predisposition following exposure to some, as yet unknown, environmental factor.

  20. Introducing the Canadian Thoracic Society Framework for Guideline Dissemination and Implementation, with Concurrent Evaluation

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    Samir Gupta


    Full Text Available The Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS is leveraging its strengths in guideline production to enable respiratory guideline implementation in Canada. The authors describe the new CTS Framework for Guideline Dissemination and Implementation, with Concurrent Evaluation, which has three spheres of action: guideline production, implementation infrastructure and knowledge translation (KT methodological support. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research ‘Knowledge-to-Action’ process was adopted as the model of choice for conceptualizing KT interventions. Within the framework, new evidence for formatting guideline recommendations to enhance the intrinsic implementability of future guidelines were applied. Clinical assemblies will consider implementability early in the guideline production cycle when selecting clinical questions, and new practice guidelines will include a section dedicated to KT. The framework describes the development of a web-based repository and communication forum to inventory existing KT resources and to facilitate collaboration and communication among implementation stakeholders through an online discussion board. A national forum for presentation and peer-review of proposed KT projects is described. The framework outlines expert methodological support for KT planning, development and evaluation including a practical guide for implementers and a novel ‘Clinical Assembly – KT Action Team’, and in-kind logistical support and assistance in securing peer-reviewed funding.

  1. Introducing the Canadian Thoracic Society framework for guideline dissemination and implementation, with concurrent evaluation. (United States)

    Gupta, Samir; Licskai, Christopher; Van Dam, Anne; Boulet, Louis-Philippe


    The Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) is leveraging its strengths in guideline production to enable respiratory guideline implementation in Canada. The authors describe the new CTS Framework for Guideline Dissemination and Implementation, with Concurrent Evaluation, which has three spheres of action: guideline production, implementation infrastructure and knowledge translation (KT) methodological support. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research 'Knowledge-to-Action' process was adopted as the model of choice for conceptualizing KT interventions. Within the framework, new evidence for formatting guideline recommendations to enhance the intrinsic implementability of future guidelines were applied. Clinical assemblies will consider implementability early in the guideline production cycle when selecting clinical questions, and new practice guidelines will include a section dedicated to KT. The framework describes the development of a web-based repository and communication forum to inventory existing KT resources and to facilitate collaboration and communication among implementation stakeholders through an online discussion board. A national forum for presentation and peer-review of proposed KT projects is described. The framework outlines expert methodological support for KT planning, development and evaluation including a practical guide for implementers and a novel 'Clinical Assembly-KT Action Team', and in-kind logistical support and assistance in securing peer-reviewed funding.

  2. Examining Why the Canadian Federal Government Placed an Orphan Drug Strategy on Their Decision Agenda Now

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    Mark Gary Embrett


    Full Text Available The Ministry of Health’s announcement of a National Orphan Drug Framework on 3 October 2012 was the first federal public acknowledgement of orphan drugs since the 1997 Drugs Directorate (DD policy statement. The reform primarily announced an Orphan Drug Policy for Canada. This paper explains why the government decided to make this announcement now. Media and Parliamentary documents were analyzed for their use of symbols, numbers, and language in causal stories told by political actors. The initial story was that Canada’s population was too small and the cost too high for an orphan drug policy. Over the next fifteen years, a powerful interest group, the Canadian Organization for Rare Disorders (CORD, mobilized the rare disease community into a cooperative effort that generated collective action. They redefined the DD story from one of natural causes, to inadvertence, and finally to intentional causation. Their story invoked a federal response because it blamed the government directly for not acting on behalf of the 3 million Canadians with rare diseases, when patients in other countries were receiving better care.

  3. Methane production potential (B0) of swine and cattle manures--a Canadian perspective. (United States)

    Godbout, S; Verma, M; Larouche, J P; Potvin, L; Chapman, A M; Lemay, S P; Pelletier, F; Brar, S K


    Canada's agricultural emissions accounted for 60 Mt or 8% of national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2007. The estimation of CH4 emission factor (B0) from manure management systems in Canada is prone to uncertainty owing to lack of B0 values for Canadian conditions. Therefore, in this study, manure samples from six Canadian animal farms, two each of swine, beef and dairy cattle, were investigated in order to estimate their methane production potential (B0). The ultimate anaerobic biodegradability was measured with ISO standard batch fermentation. The extent of biodegradation of the manure samples with or without sodium benzoate was always greater than 60% and hence showed no inhibitory effect on methane production by the manure. The impact of use of antibiotics in the animal feed on methane production was also considered; however, no inhibitory effect on methane production could be observed. The plateau of methane production in all cases was achieved by 63 d of anaerobic digestion process and the final pH was within 6-8. The calculated B0 were in the range of 0.47-0.42, 0.21-0.19 and 0.35-0.30 for swine, beef cattle and dairy cattle, respectively. The uncertainties associated with B0 values were +/- 9% for swine, +/- 3% for beef cattle and, +/- 6 and +/- 2% for dairy cows.

  4. Trends in aerobic fitness among Canadians, 1981 to 2007-2009. (United States)

    Craig, Cora L; Shields, Margot; Leblanc, Allana G; Tremblay, Mark S


    Public health surveillance systems often monitor physical activity trends, but fitness assessment is relatively rare. This study investigated secular changes in aerobic fitness among Canadian adults and children. Participants aged 8-69 years were from 2 nationally representative surveys, conducted in-home in 1981 and in mobile examination centers in 2007-2009. In both surveys, submaximal step tests using progressive age- and sex-specific exercise stages were completed after initial screening (Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire, heart rate, blood pressure). Between surveys, the step-test protocol had been modified to reduce underestimation of fitness among fitter and older individuals. Maximal oxygen uptake was estimated for adults using validated historical and updated prediction equations, adjusted to reflect protocol differences. Because these equations are not validated for young people, maximal aerobic power was predicted at a heart rate of 200 beats·min(-1) by regressing observed heart rates on the oxygen costs of stepping for children and youth who completed at least 2 exercise stages. Overall, despite protocol differences, we found that the aerobic fitness levels of Canadians were lower in 2007-2009 than in 1981, with declines apparent in all age and both sex groups, thereby increasing the number of those at risk of adverse health outcomes. Future work is required to validate prediction equations of aerobic fitness for young people to make it possible to compare fitness levels over the lifespan and across time.

  5. Developing Educational Resources to Advance Umbilical Cord Blood Banking and Research: A Canadian Perspective. (United States)

    Pereira Beak, Carla; Chargé, Sophie B; Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha M


    In 2013 Canadian Blood Services (CBS) launched the National Public Cord Blood Bank (NPCBB), a program to collect, process, test, and store cord blood units donated for use in transplantation. A key component of the creation of the NPCBB is the establishment of a program that enables cord blood not suitable for banking or transplantation to be used for biomedical research purposes. Along with the development of processes and policies to manage the NPCBB and the cord blood research program, CBS-in collaboration with researchers from the Stem Cell Network-have also developed educational tools to provide relevant information for target audiences to aid implementation and operation. We describe here one of these tools, the REB Primer on Research and Cord Blood Donation (the Primer), which highlights key ethical and legal considerations and identifies Canadian documents that are relevant to the use of cord blood in biomedical research. The Primer also introduces the NPCBB and describes the systems CBS is implementing to address ethical issues. The Primer is intended to assist research ethics boards in evaluating the ethical acceptability of research protocols, to facilitate harmonized decision-making by providing a common reference, and to highlight the role of research ethics boards in governance frameworks. With the Primer we hope to illustrate how the development of such educational tools can facilitate the ethical implementation and governance of programs related to stem cell research in Canada and abroad.

  6. Do Recommendations for the Management of Hypertension Improve Cardiovascular Outcome? The Canadian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bolli


    Full Text Available The Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP was established in 1999 as a response to the result of a national survey that showed that a high percentage of Canadians were unaware of having hypertension with only 13% of those treated for hypertension having their blood pressure controlled. The CHEP formulates yearly recommendations based on published evidence. A repeat survey in 2006 showed that the percentage of treated hypertensive patients with the blood pressure controlled had risen to 65.7%. Over the first decade of the existence of the CHEP, the number of prescriptions for antihypertensive medications had increased by 84.4% associated with a significant greater decline in the yearly mortality from stroke, heart failure and myocardial infarction and a significant decrease in the hospitalization for stroke and heart failure. Therefore, the introduction of the CHEP and the yearly issue of updated recommendations resulted in a significant increase in the awareness, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension and in a significant reduction in stroke and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The CHEP model could serve as a template for its adoption to other regions or countries.

  7. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C


    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  8. Characteristics of martial art injuries in a defined Canadian population: a descriptive epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickett William


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The martial arts have emerged as common activities in the Canadian population, yet few studies have investigated the occurrence of associated injuries on a population basis. Methods We performed such an investigation and suggest potential opportunities for prevention. The data source was 14 years (1993 to 2006 of records from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospital Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP. Results 920 cases were identified. Incidence rates were initially estimated using census data as denominators. We then imputed annual injury rates per 10000 using a range of published estimates of martial arts participation available from a national survey. Rates of injury in males and females were 2300 and 1033 per 10000 (0.3% participation and 575 and 258 per 10000 (1.2% participation. Injuries were most frequently reported in karate (33% and taekwondo (14%. The most common mechanisms of injury were falls, throws and jumps (33%. Fractures (20% were the most frequently reported type of injury and the lower limb was the most common site of injury (41%. Conclusions Results provide a foundation for potential interventions with a focus on falls, the use of weapons, participation in tournaments, as well as head and neck trauma.

  9. Canadians with health problems: their use of specialized services and their waiting experiences. (United States)

    Ho, Thi; Morris, Kathleen


    Improving access to healthcare has been a consistent priority for Canadians. In particular, reducing patient waiting times for health services has been a prominent policy issue. Across the country, governments are using a range of strategies to reduce patient waiting times for care, with a particular focus on reducing waits for specialized services. Although information is emerging on waits for selected procedures, there is limited information on whether the utilization of services or waiting experiences of Canadians with health problems are different from those of the general population. Data from the Health Services Access Survey (2001-2005) were used to compare waiting experiences for specialized services between adults with health problems and healthier adults. The specialized services included specialist visits for a new illness or condition, non-emergency surgery and diagnostic tests. National-level estimates revealed that adults with health problems were more likely to self-report that they required specialized services. However, the median waiting times for these services were comparable to those of healthier adults.

  10. Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the Canadian diet. (United States)

    Brisbois, Tristin D; Marsden, Sandra L; Anderson, G Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L


    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of "sugars and syrups" with availability of "soft drinks" (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%-13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations.

  11. Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Spence, John C; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W


    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines were created in response to an urgent call from public health, health care, child care, and fitness practitioners for healthy active living guidance for the early years. The guideline development process was informed by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and the evidence assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between physical activity and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged benefitted from an extensive on-line consultation process with input from over 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for healthy growth and development, infants (aged develop movement skills, and progression toward at least 60 min of energetic play by 5 years of age. More daily physical activity provides greater benefits.

  12. Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristin D. Brisbois


    Full Text Available National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of “sugars and syrups” with availability of “soft drinks” (proxy for high fructose corn syrup and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%–13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations.

  13. Exit competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine for graduating medical students: the Canadian approach. (United States)

    Ford, Jason; Pambrun, Chantale


    Physicians in every medical and surgical field must be able to use pathology concepts and skills in their practice: for example, they must order and interpret the correct laboratory tests, they must use their understanding of pathogenesis to diagnose and treat, and they must work with the laboratory to care for their patients. These important concepts and skills may be ignored by medical schools and even national/international organizations setting graduation expectations for medical students. There is an evolving international consensus about the importance of exit competencies for medical school graduates, which define the measurable or observable behaviors each graduate must be able to demonstrate. The Canadian Association of Pathologists (CAP) Education Group set out to establish the basic competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine which should be expected of every medical graduate: not competencies for pathologists, but for medical graduates who intend to enter any residency program. We defined 4 targets for pathology and laboratory medicine exit competencies: that they represent only measurable behaviors, that they be clinically focused, that they be generalizable to every medical graduate, and that the final competency document be user-friendly. A set of competencies was developed iteratively and underwent final revision at the 2012 CAP annual meeting. These competencies were subsequently endorsed by the CAP executive and the Canadian Leadership Council on Laboratory Medicine. This clinically focused consensus document provides the first comprehensive list of exit competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine for undergraduate medical education.

  14. Implications and Challenges to Using Data Mining in Educational Research in the Canadian Context (United States)

    ElAtia, Samira; Ipperciel, Donald; Hammad, Ahmed


    Canadian institutions of higher education are major players on the international arena for educating future generations and producing leaders around the world in various fields. In the last decade, Canadian universities have seen an influx in their incoming international students, who contribute over $3.5 billion to the Canadian economy (Madgett…

  15. Official Portrait of STS-52 Canadian Payload Specialist Steve G. MacLean (United States)


    STS-52 Canadian Payload Specialist Steven G. MacLean, wearing a launch and entry suit (LES), poses with a launch and entry helmet (LEH) and Canadian flag for his Official portrait. MacLean representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) will fly aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, for the STS-52 mission.

  16. The Contemporary Reality of Canadian Imperialism: Settler Colonialism and the Hybrid Colonial State (United States)

    Barker, Adam J.


    The author's fundamental contention is this: Canadian society remains driven by the logic of imperialism and engages in concerted colonial action against Indigenous peoples whose claims to land and self-determination continue to undermine the legitimacy of Canadian authority and hegemony. The imperial ambitions of the Canadian state and its…

  17. Integrated Library Systems in Canadian Public, Academic and Special Libraries: Fifth Annual Survey. (United States)

    Merilees, Bobbie


    Discusses the results of the fifth annual survey of integrated library systems in Canadian public, academic, and special libraries. Highlights include systems based on personal computers; bilingual systems; the use of consultants; differences between Canadian and U.S. markets; Canadian international sales; and vendor information. (LRW)

  18. Computers behind bars : Information technology in Canadian prison libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prange, Laurie

    This report is the result of an independent study undertaken with the Faculty of Information and Media Studies (FIMS) at The University of Western Ontario (UWO) and advised by Dr. Carole Farber, Professor. The focus of this study is upon the impact the increased popularity of electronic provision...... of information can have upon Canadian prison libraries. Gathered information is compared with the results of Canadian policy regarding the provision of information to inmates. The analysis of the collected facts can provide insight to help prison librarians deal with the increasing popularity of electronic...... provision of information in relation to legal constraints....

  19. Assessing Canadian Bank Branch Operating Efficiency Using Data Envelopment Analysis (United States)

    Yang, Zijiang


    In today's economy and society, performance analyses in the services industries attract more and more attention. This paper presents an evaluation of 240 branches of one big Canadian bank in Greater Toronto Area using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Special emphasis was placed on how to present the DEA results to management so as to provide more guidance to them on what to manage and how to accomplish the changes. Finally the potential management uses of the DEA results were presented. All the findings are discussed in the context of the Canadian banking market.

  20. Social Problems in Canadian Ice Hockey: An Exploration Through Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogel Curtis A.


    Full Text Available While celebrated as a highly popular sport in Canada, there are many social problems existing within and around Canadian ice hockey. These problems are often overlooked and rarely depicted in academic and journalistic research on sport. These social problems include, but are not limited to: extreme violence resulting in injuries and death, hazing rituals, multiple types of sexual violence, drug abuse, financial corruption, as well as various forms of prejudice and discrimination. Prompted by pop-cultural depictions in films, this paper further identifies and explores social problems in Canadian ice hockey revealing the realism embedded within various seemingly fictional films.

  1. Advancing intercultural competency: Canadian engineering employers' experiences with immigrant engineers (United States)

    Friesen, Marcia; Ingram, Sandra


    This paper explores Canadian engineering employers' perceptions of and experiences with internationally educated engineers (recent immigrants to Canada) employed in their organisations for varying lengths of time. Qualitative data were collected from employers using focus group methodology. Findings reflected employers' observations of culturally different behaviours and characteristics in their internationally educated employees, employers' reactions to cultural differences ranging from negative attributions to tolerance, and the implementation of largely ad hoc intra-organisational strategies for managing cultural differences in employer-employee relationships. Findings exposed the lack of corporate intercultural competency in the Canadian engineering profession. Equity and gatekeeping implications are discussed.

  2. Writing on Boundaries: The Split Subject in Chinese Canadian Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shaobo


    This article provides a conceptual grasp of the corpus of work produced by Chinese Canadian writers and a framework for analysing its tropes and interpreting their political resonance. It defines the Chinese Canadian work as a three-phase counterhegemonic discourse: Writing back into a forbidden past; negotiating into the present; writing on boundaries. For the ambivalent, split diasporic subject to negotiate into the present from the forbidden past is to reinscribe itself as a locus of crisis, a non-identity, a doubling, a third term. Writing on boundaries can be read as a strategy of decolonization deployed by the subaltern in striving for self-vindication and self-fulfilment.

  3. Associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity, and body weight among Canadian adults. (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe


    We investigated the associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity and body weight among Canadian adults, and tested whether trouble sleeping and physical activity moderated the relationship between work/life stress and body weight, and whether work/life stress and physical activity moderated the relationship between trouble sleeping and body weight. Data on 13,926 Canadian adults aged 20years and older were derived from the nationally representative 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, household income, marital status and job insecurity, self-perceived work and life stress and trouble sleeping were associated with a higher BMI. The associations of work and life stress with higher BMI were independent of trouble sleeping and physical activity in addition to other covariates, while that of trouble sleeping and higher BMI was independent of work and life stress. Results further indicated that trouble sleeping among inactive participants was related to a higher BMI; however, this relationship was almost null for adults who self-reported being physically active for about 8h/week. These findings suggest that work and life stress are both associated with excess weight in adults, regardless of physical activity level, while the link of trouble sleeping with BMI varies by physical activity level. Future research is necessary to determine whether reducing work and life stress and improving sleep habits would benefit the prevention of weight gain and obesity.

  4. Medical cannabis – the Canadian perspective


    Ko, Gordon D.; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M


    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol – the principal psychoactive...

  5. Circulating metals and persistent organic pollutant concentrations in Canadian and non-Canadian born primiparous women from five Canadian centres: Results of a pilot biomonitoring study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Warren G., E-mail: [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Cheung, Anthony P. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Davis, Karelyn [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Graves, Gillian [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Jarrell, John [University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Leblanc, Alain [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Leech, Tara [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Walker, Mark [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Weber, Jean Philippe [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Van Oostdam, Jay [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)


    The developing foetus is thought to be at increased risk from exposure to environmental contaminants; however, developmental exposure data is notably lacking for many contaminants. Moreover, potential regional differences or effect of place of birth on residue levels measured in pregnant women is also unknown. Therefore, as part of a multinational biomonitoring study, 125 primiparous pregnant Canadian women were recruited from five Canadian centres (Vancouver, Calgary, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Halifax). Metals in whole blood and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in plasma were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), respectively. Of the 125 women recruited to this study, complete data sets were available for 123 of which 103 were Canadian born. Data were analysed by analysis of covariance and linear mixed models using age and body mass index as covariates. The metals cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and total mercury (Hg) were detected in more than 93% of the samples tested. {beta}-Hexachlorohexane ({beta}-HCH), oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p Prime -DDE), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (PBDE-153, PBDE-47), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB-138, -153, and -180), and the dioxin-like PCB congener PCB-118 were quantified in greater than 70% of the samples tested. Significant differences in the concentrations of Cd, Ni, PCB-153, and p,p Prime -DDE were found between the centres studied. Furthermore, foreign-born pregnant women had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, {beta}-HCH, PBDE-47, PCB-138, -153, -180, and p,p Prime -DDE compared to Canadian born pregnant women. Taken together, the data suggest that there are potential regional differences in contaminant body burden and place of birth may also contribute to differences in maternal residue concentrations. -- Highlights: Black

  6. Gut Microbiome of the Canadian Arctic Inuit (United States)

    Tromas, Nicolas; Amyot, Marc


    ABSTRACT Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and “traditional” diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome. We used deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to compare the gut microbiomes of Montrealers with a Western diet to those of the Inuit consuming a range of traditional and Western diets. At the overall microbial community level, the gut microbiomes of Montrealers and Inuit were indistinguishable and contained similar levels of microbial diversity. However, we observed significant differences in the relative abundances of certain microbial taxa down to the subgenus level using oligotyping. For example, Prevotella spp., which have been previously associated with high-fiber diets, were enriched in Montrealers and among the Inuit consuming a Western diet. The gut microbiomes of Inuit consuming a traditional diet also had significantly less genetic diversity within the Prevotella genus, suggesting that a low-fiber diet might not only select against Prevotella but also reduce its diversity. Other microbes, such as Akkermansia, were associated with geography as well as diet, suggesting limited dispersal to the Arctic. Our report provides a snapshot of the Inuit microbiome as Western-like in overall community structure but distinct in the relative abundances and diversity of certain genera and strains. IMPORTANCE Non-Western populations have been shown to have distinct gut microbial communities shaped by traditional diets. The hitherto-uncharacterized microbiome of the Inuit may help us to

  7. Statistical behavior of high doses in medical radiodiagnosis; Comportamento estatistico das altas doses em radiodiagnostico medico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Adriana Elisa, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This work has as main purpose statistically estimating occupational exposure in medical diagnostic radiology in cases of high doses recorded in 2011 at national level. For statistical survey of this study, doses of 372 IOE's diagnostic radiology in different Brazilian states were evaluated. Data were extracted from the work of monograph (Research Methodology Of High Doses In Medical Radiodiagnostic) that contains the database's information Sector Management doses of IRD/CNEN-RJ, Brazil. The identification of these states allows the Sanitary Surveillance (VISA) responsible, becomes aware of events and work with programs to reduce these events. (author)

  8. Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

  9. Return on Investment for Workplace Training: The Canadian Experience (United States)

    Percival, Jennifer C.; Cozzarin, Brian P.; Formaneck, Steven D.


    One of the central problems in managing technological change and maintaining a competitive advantage in business is improving the skills of the workforce through investment in human capital and a variety of training practices. This paper explores the evidence on the impact of training investment on productivity in 14 Canadian industries from 1999…

  10. Electronic Commerce: Canadian Community Colleges and Institutes of Technology. (United States)

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges.

    This paper reports on the Canadian college system's collaboration with industry and community services in the development and delivery of non-credit e-commerce courses offered through continuing education departments at community colleges and institutes of technology. The paper argues that, in today's changing economy, the accelerated need for…

  11. The Canadian Labour Market: Readings in Manpower Economics. (United States)

    Kruger, A.M., Ed.; Meltz, N.M., Ed.

    Canadian manpower problems were researched by a group of economists at the University of Toronto in areas of interest to manpower planners and students of the labor market. The dissatisfaction of policy makers with the present operation of the labor market is discussed in three areas: (1) inadequate output due to alleged labor shortages, (2)…

  12. Stages Of Gender Education In Canadian Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukovskyi Vasyl


    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of educational preconditions of gender education formation and development in Canadian secondary schools. On the basis of conducted scientific and pedagogical literature analysis it has been determined that gender education has undergone three main stages and is currently developing during its fourth, modern period.

  13. Giving Canadian Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education an Independent Voice (United States)

    Hodson, Derek


    It is noted that the "Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education" (CJSMTE) was founded with the support of a donation of $1.0 million from the Imperial Oil Charitable Foundation. Four goals were uppermost in the thinking behind the journal: first, it should be bilingual; second, it should be cross-disciplinary;…

  14. Financial Management of Canadian Universities: Adaptive Strategies to Fiscal Constraints (United States)

    Deering, Darren; Sá, Creso M.


    Decreasing government funding and regulated tuition policies have created a financially constrained environment for Canada's universities. The conventional response to such conditions is to cut programme offerings and services in an attempt to lower costs throughout the institution. However, we argue that three Canadian universities have reacted…

  15. Microplastics in aquatic environments: Implications for Canadian ecosystems. (United States)

    Anderson, Julie C; Park, Bradley J; Palace, Vince P


    Microplastics have been increasingly detected and quantified in marine and freshwater environments, and there are growing concerns about potential effects in biota. A literature review was conducted to summarize the current state of knowledge of microplastics in Canadian aquatic environments; specifically, the sources, environmental fate, behaviour, abundance, and toxicological effects in aquatic organisms. While we found that research and publications on these topics have increased dramatically since 2010, relatively few studies have assessed the presence, fate, and effects of microplastics in Canadian water bodies. We suggest that efforts to determine aquatic receptors at greatest risk of detrimental effects due to microplastic exposure, and their associated contaminants, are particularly warranted. There is also a need to address the gaps identified, with a particular focus on the species and conditions found in Canadian aquatic systems. These gaps include characterization of the presence of microplastics in Canadian freshwater ecosystems, identifying key sources of microplastics to these systems, and evaluating the presence of microplastics in Arctic waters and biota.

  16. Global Education in Canadian Elementary Schools: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Mundy, Karen; Manion, Caroline


    This article reports on the implementation of global education in Canadian elementary schools. Curriculum analysis and 76 interviews at school, ministry, and district levels revealed limited coordination among ministry, district and NGO efforts and little support for curriculum development and teacher training. In schools, fund-raising for…

  17. Enhancing Canadian Teacher Education Using a Story Framework (United States)

    Drake, Susan M.


    The "Accord on Initial Teacher Education" was created by the Canadian Deans of Education in 2006 to guide teacher educators across Canada. The "Story Model" (Drake et al., 1992) is aligned with the principles in the Accord and has proven useful in teacher education. Here it is explored as a framework for curriculum development…

  18. Intersectionality and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (United States)

    Dhamoon, Rita Kaur; Hankivsky, Olena


    In this commentary, the authors propose than an intersectionality perspective can transform understandings of the contentious content of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR). The use of an intersectionality perspective starts from the position that such discourses as racialization, gendering, capitalism, and ableism are mutually…

  19. Canadian Physicians’ Choices for Their Own Colon Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoon Raza


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compliance with colorectal cancer (CRC screening in Canada is low. The aim of the present survey was to determine whether Canadian physicians older than 50 years were pursuing colon cancer screening. Specifically, physicians were asked to identify their modality of choice and identify their barriers to screening.

  20. Canadian Indian Children Who Had Never Attended School (United States)

    Wilson, Lolita


    This study was designed to compare the performance on selected intelligence tests of a group of Canadian Indian children who had never been to school with the performance of a similar group of children who were attending school regularly. (Author/RK)

  1. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Canadian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réjeanne Gougeon


    Full Text Available The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a clinical tool designed to facilitate implementation of therapeutic lifestyle recommendations for people with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG recommendations is essential to address varied patient populations within and among diverse regions worldwide. The Canadian version of tDNA supports and targets behavioural changes to improve nutritional quality and to promote regular daily physical activity consistent with Canadian Diabetes Association CPG, as well as channelling the concomitant management of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycaemia in primary care. Assessing glycaemic index (GI (the ranking of foods by effects on postprandial blood glucose levels and glycaemic load (GL (the product of mean GI and the total carbohydrate content of a meal will be a central part of the Canadian tDNA and complement nutrition therapy by facilitating glycaemic control using specific food selections. This component can also enhance other metabolic interventions, such as reducing the need for antihyperglycaemic medication and improving the effectiveness of weight loss programs. This tDNA strategy will be adapted to the cultural specificities of the Canadian population and incorporated into the tDNA validation methodology.

  2. Assessing Patterns of Admixture and Ancestry in Canadian Honey Bees (United States)

    Canada has a large beekeeping industry comprised of 8483 beekeepers managing 672094 23 colonies. Canadian honey bees, like all honey bees in the New World, originate from centuries of importation of predominately European honey bees, but their precise ancestry remains unknown. There have been no i...

  3. Canadian Cultural Materialism: Personal Values and Television Advertising. (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.; Squire, Larry A.

    A study examined the relationship between social and material values and attitudes toward television advertising. Using the Rokeach Value Survey Form E, 157 Canadian college students ranked the 18 terminal and 18 instrumental values in order of their importance as guiding principles for life. The values were classified as either material, social,…

  4. Irreversible mass loss of Canadian Arctic Archipelago glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van Angelen, J.H.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Gardner, A.S.; Wouters, Bert; van Meijgaard, E.


    The Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) contains the largest volume of glacier ice on Earth outside of Antarctica and Greenland. In the absence of significant calving, CAA glacier mass balance is governed by the difference between surface snow accumulation and meltwater runoff—surface mass balance. He

  5. Canadian Community College Counselling Services--How Are They Staffed? (United States)

    Johnston, E. F.; Miles, F. A.


    Because little is known about counselling services in Canadian community colleges, the authors sent questionnaires to 179 post-secondary, non-university, educational institutions and received replies from 83. Data on numbers of counseling personnel, their educational level, salaries, counsellor-student ratios, support staff, and other relevant…

  6. Un vocabulaire juridique bilingue canadien (A Canadian Bilingual Legal Vocabulary). (United States)

    Lauziere, Lucie


    Describes a project called JURIVOC which sought to deal with the problem of a duality of language and a duality in legal systems in Canada. The development of a bilingual lexicon is discussed, and an example is given of the classic language/legal system duality in Canadian law. (AM)

  7. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Canadian Perspective (United States)

    Sievenpiper, John L.; Jenkins, David; Yale, Jean-François; Bell, Rhonda; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ransom, Thomas P. P.; Dupre, John; Kendall, Cyril; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Marchetti, Albert; Hamdy, Osama; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.


    The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a clinical tool designed to facilitate implementation of therapeutic lifestyle recommendations for people with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG) recommendations is essential to address varied patient populations within and among diverse regions worldwide. The Canadian version of tDNA supports and targets behavioural changes to improve nutritional quality and to promote regular daily physical activity consistent with Canadian Diabetes Association CPG, as well as channelling the concomitant management of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycaemia in primary care. Assessing glycaemic index (GI) (the ranking of foods by effects on postprandial blood glucose levels) and glycaemic load (GL) (the product of mean GI and the total carbohydrate content of a meal) will be a central part of the Canadian tDNA and complement nutrition therapy by facilitating glycaemic control using specific food selections. This component can also enhance other metabolic interventions, such as reducing the need for antihyperglycaemic medication and improving the effectiveness of weight loss programs. This tDNA strategy will be adapted to the cultural specificities of the Canadian population and incorporated into the tDNA validation methodology. PMID:24550982

  8. Culture and Parenting: Psychological Adjustment among Chinese Canadian Adolescents (United States)

    Yoo, Cynthia S. M.; Miller, Lynn D.


    This study examined the relationships between adolescents' cultural identification, perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting, and psychological adjustment with a sample of 192 Chinese Canadian adolescents. Participants were recruited from public urban high schools and completed 4 self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed using…

  9. Religiosity and Music Copyright Theft among Canadian Baptist Youth (United States)

    Fawcett, Bruce G.; Francis, Leslie J.; Henderson, Amanda J.; Robbins, Mandy; Linkletter, Jody


    This study examines the views of 706 Canadian Baptist youth (between the ages of 14 and 18 years) on the moral issue of music copyright theft, and explores the influence on these views of age, sex, Sunday church attendance, personal prayer, personal Bible reading, and conservative Bible believing. The participants were attending Springforth 2005…

  10. The Management of Retrenchment in Canadian Academic Libraries. (United States)

    Denis, Laurent-G.; Auster, Ethel

    This exploratory study focuses on the management of decline as characterized by shrinking resources and substantial reductions in operating budgets (retrenchment) in academic research libraries in Canada. The first of four major sections of the report addresses the management of retrenchment in Canadian research libraries, including the design of…

  11. Graduate Writing Assignments across Faculties in a Canadian University (United States)

    Shi, Ling; Dong, Yanning


    This study examines 143 graduate assignments across 12 faculties or schools in a Canadian university in order to identify types of writing tasks. Based on the descriptions provided by the instructors, we identified nine types of assignments, with scholarly essay being the most common, followed by summary and response, literature review, project,…

  12. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.


    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  13. The Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors: Instructor Certification Model. (United States)

    Hanna, Glenda

    Since its formation in 1976, the Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors (CANSI) has certified over 2600 instructors across Canada. CANSI aims to provide a standard of excellence in certified nordic ski instruction by maintaining uniform and current nordic techniques, to encourage the skiing public to take advantage of the benefits of…

  14. Canadian Youth Volunteering Abroad: Rethinking Issues of Power and Privilege (United States)

    Ngo, Mai


    This paper discusses the role of institutions in the ethical engagement of Canadian youth volunteers abroad. In recent years, researchers and practitioners in the international field have questioned the ethics of volunteering as part of development, with scrutiny on who actually benefits from volunteering initiatives. Since the 1960s, over 65,000…

  15. Canadian Space Launch: Exploiting Northern Latitudes For Efficient Space Launch (United States)


    AU/ACSC/KLEMEN, J/AY15 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY CANADIAN SPACE LAUNCH: EXPLOITING NORTHERN LATITUDES FOR EFFICIENT...large provincial wildlife park, the environmental impact posed by any development would be certain to draw extensive criticism. This site is also

  16. Canadian Women's Labor Force Behavior: A Forty Year Review. (United States)

    Fast, Janet E.; Skrypnek, Berna J.


    Describes three dimensions of labor force behavior: participation, attachment, and commitment. Presents a picture of trends in Canadian women's labor force behavior over the last 40 years using existing data. Discusses the implications of these trends for family life and corporate and public policy. (JOW)

  17. Ethical Leadership in Canadian School Organizations: Tensions and Possibilities (United States)

    Langlois, Lyse; Lapointe, Claire


    This study, which was sponsored by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, was conducted in French-language minority schools in seven Canadian provinces: British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia. Using an open-ended interview guide, 47 principals were asked about the…

  18. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Norman Paterson School of International Affairs]|[Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Law


    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs.

  19. Entrepreneurship and Educational Leadership Development: Canadian and Australian Perspectives (United States)

    Webber, Charles F.; Scott, Shelleyann


    This article reports the entrepreneurial activities of two university faculties, one Canadian and the other Australian, that were designed to meet the educational needs of students and to garner the resources necessary for program delivery. A conceptual framework for educational entrepreneurship, containing six dimensions, is proposed. The…

  20. Educational Goal-Setting in a Native-Canadian Community. (United States)

    Murphy, H. Joseph

    A revitalization of Canadian Indian culture occurred as a result of the 1967 Hawthorn Report, which advocated the integration of Canada natives into white society. On the Eskasoni Indian Reserve, home of 1700 Micma Indians in Nova Scotia, the revitalization was shown in the results of two questionnaires about local education. On the first…

  1. Strategic Planning for Academic Research: A Canadian Perspective (United States)

    Sa, Creso M.; Tamtik, Merli


    This paper reports on an empirical study of research planning in Canadian universities. Drawing on data compiled during interviews with senior administrators from 27 academic units in 10 universities, the paper analyses how strategic planning has been applied to the research mission over the past decade. Findings reveal variability in processes…

  2. Financial Management of Canadian Universities: Adaptive Strategies to Fiscal Constraints (United States)

    Deering, Darren; Sá, Creso M.


    Decreasing government funding and regulated tuition policies have created a financially constrained environment for Canada's universities. The conventional response to such conditions is to cut programme offerings and services in an attempt to lower costs throughout the institution. However, we argue that three Canadian universities have…

  3. Entrepreneurialism for Canadian Principals: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow (United States)

    Scott, Shelleyann; Webber, Charles F.


    This article explores the various elements of Canadian educational entrepreneurialism as manifested yesterday, today, and tomorrow and in relation to the social and political influences of the time. This discussion is informed by the findings of the International Study of the Preparation of Principals (ISPP) and represents an expansion of the…

  4. Marginalizing Significant Others: The Canadian Contribution to Educational Technology. (United States)

    Hlynka, Denis


    Considers Canadian contributions to the philosophical basis of educational technology which have helped shape the model shifts now occurring in the field. Four individuals are highlighted: Harold Innis and his work on media; Marshall McLuhan, who built on Innis' work; Ursula Franklin and her philosophical analysis of technology; and Arthur Kroker.…

  5. Canadian Decisions in a Shifting North American Security Landscape (United States)


    who definitely piqued my interests in Canadian politics, if nothing else, just to be able to follow their satirical interpretation of the news. Now...naval exercises and operations outside of NATO. Now this planning has been transferred from JFCOM in Norfolk, Virginia , to NORTHCOM in Colorado

  6. Epidemiological and Economic Burden of Pneumococcal Disease in Canadian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Petit


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the arrival of a new conjugate pneumococcal vaccine, it is important to estimate the burden of pneumococcal diseases in Canadian children. The epidemiological data and the economic cost of these diseases are crucial elements in evaluating the relevance of a vaccination program.

  7. System architecture for the Canadian interim mobile satellite system (United States)

    Shariatmadar, M.; Gordon, K.; Skerry, B.; Eldamhougy, H.; Bossler, D.


    The system architecture for the Canadian Interim Mobile Satellite Service (IMSS) which is planned for commencement of commercial service in late 1989 is reviewed. The results of an associated field trial program which was carried out to determine the limits of coverage and the preliminary performance characteristics of the system are discussed.

  8. Research Integrity/Misconduct Policies of Canadian Universities (United States)

    Schoenherr, Jordan; Williams-Jones, Bryn


    In a context of increasing attention to issues of scientific integrity in university research, it is important to reflect on the governance mechanisms that universities use to shape the behaviour of students, researchers, and faculty. This paper presents the results of a study of 47 Canadian university research integrity/misconduct (RIM) policies:…

  9. A Glimpse of Canadian Education: 1990-1999. (United States)

    Burns, Mildred


    As for every aspect of Canadian life, duality of origins has defined and shaped education. French Catholic religious personnel created an elementary education system for fur traders, farmers, and native peoples; elites had a privately funded system. English Protestants oriented their systems toward extraction industries and trade. (Contains 41…

  10. Nomads, Pilgrims, Tourists: Women Teachers in the Canadian North (United States)

    Harper, Helen


    Drawing on notions of the modern pilgrim and postmodern tourist, this paper explores the discursive resources concerning women, travel, and transience as they apply to female teachers working in the Canadian north. In particular, it traces the discourses evident in the talk of twenty-five women teachers currently working in northern First Nations…

  11. How Well Do Canadian Distance Education Students Understand Plagiarism? (United States)

    Kier, Cheryl Ann


    This project ascertains how well students taking online, distance education courses at a Canadian university recognize plagiarised material and how well they paraphrase. It also assesses the types of errors made. Slightly more than half of 420 psychology students correctly selected plagiarised phrases from four multiple choice questions. Only a…

  12. The Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure and health mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Yi, Xiaolun


    Due to the recent outbreak of SARS and the danger of pandemic Bird Flu, the ability to strengthen health surveillance and disease control is a growing need among governments. The development of the Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (CGDI) has shown great potential in many industries...

  13. Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Society of Cardiac Surgeons/Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery Joint Position Statement on Open and Endovascular Surgery for Thoracic Aortic Disease. (United States)

    Appoo, Jehangir J; Bozinovski, John; Chu, Michael W A; El-Hamamsy, Ismail; Forbes, Thomas L; Moon, Michael; Ouzounian, Maral; Peterson, Mark D; Tittley, Jacques; Boodhwani, Munir


    In 2014, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) published a position statement on the management of thoracic aortic disease addressing size thresholds for surgery, imaging modalities, medical therapy, and genetics. It did not address issues related to surgical intervention. This joint Position Statement on behalf of the CCS, Canadian Society of Cardiac Surgeons, and the Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery provides recommendations about thoracic aortic disease interventions, including: aortic valve repair, perfusion strategies for arch repair, extended arch hybrid reconstruction for acute type A dissection, endovascular management of arch and descending aortic aneurysms, and type B dissection. The position statement is constructed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology, and has been approved by the primary panel, an international secondary panel, and the CCS Guidelines Committee. Advent of endovascular technology has improved aortic surgery safety and extended the indications of minimally invasive thoracic aortic surgery. The combination of safer open surgery with endovascular treatment has improved patient outcomes in this rapidly evolving subspecialty field of cardiovascular surgery.

  14. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Leigh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Methods Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1 where in Canada these businesses are located; 2 the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3 the medical procedures they promote; 4 core marketing messages; and 5 whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Results Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism

  15. Similarities and Differences Between Yoruba Traditional Healers (YTH) and Native American and Canadian Healers (NACH). (United States)

    Adekson, Mary Olufunmilayo


    Indigenous people of the world have used the services of medicine men and traditional healers from time immemorial. According to the World Health Organization, 80 % of the world's populations consult traditional healers. With an emerging globalization of health services in the world, there is a need for western mental health practitioners to learn and understand the practices of indigenous healers across the globe. This paper will not only highlight the similarities and differences between Yoruba traditional healers of Western Nigeria and Native American and First Nation Canadian traditional healers, but it will also allow practitioners to gain clearer perspectives of indigenous clients from Yoruba land and those from the United States of America and Canada. This ultimately will inform culturally sensitive clinical practice with these populations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessi Ring


    Full Text Available Ashley Smith, who is typically presented in the media as mentally ill, was nineteen years old when she died from self-strangulation in an Ontario women’s prison on October 19th, 2007. In this paper, I explore how Ashley Smith’s actions and death were portrayed in four mainstream Canadian newspapers (Globe and Mail, Telegraph-Journal, Toronto Star and National Post. My aims in this paper are to critically analyze depictions of mental illness presented by these news articles and connect these portrayals to labeling theories. Two variables—the timing of the news coverage and newspaper political affiliation—emerged as being influential in how newspapers depicted Ashley Smith as mentally ill, through their use of generic and/or negative terminology and vulnerability stereotypes. I also discuss ‘alternative’ stories of Ashley Smith and examine their potential to challenge typical conceptualizations of mental illness, gender and carceral environments.

  17. The ambiguities of disciplinary professionalization: The state and cultural dynamics of Canadian inter-war anthropology. (United States)

    Nurse, Andrew


    The professionalization of Canadian anthropology in the first half of the twentieth century was tied closely to the matrix of the federal state, first though the Anthropology Division of the Geological Survey of Canada and then the National Museum. State anthropologists occupied an ambiguous professional status as both civil servants and anthropologists committed to the methodological and disciplinary imperatives of modern social science but bounded and guided by the operation of the civil service. Their position within the state served to both advance disciplinary development but also compromised disciplinary autonomy. To address the boundaries the state imposed on its support for anthropology, state anthropologists cultivated cultural, intellectual, and commercially-oriented networks that served to sustain new developments in their field, particularly in folklore. This essay examines these dynamics and suggests that anthropology's disciplinary development did not create a disjuncture between professionalized scholarship and civil society.

  18. A Canadian model for building university and community partnerships: centre for research & education on violence against women and children. (United States)

    Jaffe, Peter G; Berman, Helene; MacQuarrie, Barb


    The importance of Canadian research on violence against women became a national focus after the 1989 murder of 14 women at École Polytechnique in Montreal. This tragedy led to several federal government studies that identified a need to develop centers for applied research and community-university alliances on violence against women. One such center is the Centre for Research & Education on Violence against Women and Children. The Centre was founded in London, Canada in 1992 out of a partnership of a university, a community college, and community services. The centre's history and current activities are summarized as a model for the development and sustainability of similar centers.

  19. The Terrorists are Coming! The Terrorists are Coming! (or are they?): A Critical Discourse Analysis of The Anti-Terrorism Act, Bill C-51 in Canadian Newspapers



    This paper argues that the Canadian mainstream print news media helps to legitimate the increase in security measures, government agency powers, and new legislation in Canada through the dissemination of a discourse of terrorism, as well as through legitimation of the types of questions being asked about terrorism, and Canada’s response to it. To reflect on how the mainstream print news media are using the discourse of terrorism news articles from The Globe and Mail and the National Post abou...

  20. Live And Love-Brave Theme Features In Canadian Classical Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fang


    Canadian classical works are becoming more and more popular all over the world. People began to understand and mar⁃vel at the Canadian literatures that are quite life-meaningful and full of lessons and tips for lives. The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada's particular history, geography, climate, religion, demographic factors, generation, development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures. The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Litera⁃ture:keep working hard for survival and love bravely. Meanwhile, modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic lit⁃erary works.

  1. Unravelling the mystery of reality : typical Canadian elements in the short stories of Alice Munro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kustec


    Full Text Available The contemporary Canadian short story has a specific place among literary genres in Canadian literature. It culminated in the sixties of this century, when the Canadians looked to their literature with greater interest. Canadian short story writers started to write in a different tone, and showed special interest for new themes. After 1960 authors, such as Henry Kreisel, Norman Levine, Anne Hebert, Mavis Gallant, Ethel Wilson, Joyce Marshall, Hugh Hood, Hugh Garner, Margaret Laurence, Audrey Callahan Thomas, Mordecai Richler, and Alice Munro, refused to use the traditional plot, and showed more interest for characterisation. By using a typical Canadian setting, their stories began to reflect social events of their time. A new awareness of identity stepped forward, and above all their stories became a reflection of the diversity of life in all Canadian provinces. The contemporary Canadian short story writers began to overstep the boundaries of their imagination.

  2. Computerized Library and Information Network Contracts. Proposed Guidelines and Definitions. Canadian Network Papers Number 8 = Les Contrats de Reseaux de Bibliotheques et d'Information Telematiques. Principes Directeurs et Definitions Proposes. Documents sur les Reseaux Canadiens Numero 8. (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh; Duchesne, Roddy

    Based on a directive from the National Advisory Board of Canada, this paper provides a set of definitions and guidelines which Canadian libraries may choose to use in negotiating their contracts with database suppliers, vendors, and other information and bibliographic services. The report is intended to: (1) provide a basis for understanding and…

  3. External dose-rate conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report presents a tabulation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides in the environment. This report was prepared in conjunction with criteria for limiting dose equivalents to members of the public from operations of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The dose-rate conversion factors are provided for use by the DOE and its contractors in performing calculations of external dose equivalents to members of the public. The dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons presented in this report are based on a methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. However, some adjustments of the previously documented methodology have been made in obtaining the dose-rate conversion factors in this report. 42 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  4. Cohort Working Life Tables for Older Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer, Byron G.


    Full Text Available AbstractWe construct cohort working life tables for Canadian men and women aged 50and older and, for comparison, corresponding period tables. The tables arederived using annual single-age time series of participation rates for 1976-2006from the master files of the Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey. The cohortcalculations are based on stochastic projections of mortality coupled withalternative assumptions about future participation rates. Separate tables areprovided for the years 1976, 1991, and 2006, thus spanning a period ofsubstantial gains in life expectancy and strong upward trends in femaleparticipation. Life expectancies based on the cohort tables are greater thanthose based on the period tables, for both men and women, and that is reflectedin increased retirement expectancies. For example, a male aged 50 in 1976could have expected to live three years longer and to have almost four moreyears in retirement, based on the male cohort table under medium assumptions,as compared with the corresponding period table.RésuméNous avons établis des tables de vie active par génération pour les Canadiens etCanadiennes âgés de 50 ans ou plus ainsi que des tables du momentcorrespondantes pour servir de comparaison. Les tables sont dérivées à l'aidede séries chronologiques annuelles d'un seul âge pour le taux d'activité pour lesannées 1976 à 2006 provenant des fichiers maîtres de l'Enquête sur lapopulation active de Statistique Canada. Les calculs par génération sont baséessur des projections stochastiques de mortalité et sur des suppositions quant àde futurs taux d'activité possibles. Des tables séparées ont été établies pour lesannées 1976, 1991 et 2006 ; ce qui représente une période qui a vu des gainssubstantiels en ce qui concerne l'espérance de vie et une forte hausse d'activitéchez les femmes. Les espérance de vie basées sur les tables par génération sontplus élevées que celles basées sur les tables du

  5. Nation/non-nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnichsen, André; Gad, Ulrik Pram


    Is nationality the only way of organizing political community? Given the ubiquity of the national principle, one might think so. But, in practice, the national principle is constantly challenged by what can be termed non-national identities. This article looks at manners in which such deviating...

  6. Historiografia do cinema canadense: balanço inicial * Historiography of Canadian cinema: starting survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo apresenta os principais e mais referenciados estudiosos canadenses que se dedicaram ao estudo das elaborações audiovisuais do Canadá. Narra os percursos dessa historiografia e indica os principais eixos interpretativos utilizados para a análise de uma filmografia que perpassa mais de um século de intensa produção. Esses textos indicam uma diversidade de perspectivas, porém, apresentam um fio condutor comum que aloca esses trabalhos na envergadura do pensamento acerca da identidade canadense. Inferir a respeito da possibilidade/impossibilidade do conceito de nação nesse país é um elemento constituinte desses textos. Dessa forma, este artigo perscruta os meios e métodos utilizados nessas bibliografias para responder aos intermitentes dilemas da identidade nacional no cinema produzido no Canadá.Palavras-chave: Historiografia – Cinema – Canadá. Abstract: This paper presents the leading and most referenced Canadian scholars who have devoted themselves to the study of cinema production in Canada. It lists the movements of such historiography and point out the main interpretative axes used for the analysis of a filmography that pervades more than a century of powerful production. These several texts show a variety of perspectives; however, they have a common thread that allocates these works in the current of thought on the Canadian identity. To infer about the possibility/impossibility of the concept of nation in this country is a constitutive component of these texts. Therefore, this article aims to scrutinize the proceedings and methods used in these bibliographies to answer to the intermittent dilemmas of national identity in the cinema produced in Canada.Keywords: Historiography – Cinema – Canada.

  7. Influenza immunization among Canadian health care personnel: a cross-sectional study (United States)

    Buchan, Sarah A.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.


    Background: Influenza immunization coverage among Canadian health care personnel remains below national targets. Targeting this group is of particular importance given their elevated risk of influenza infection, role in transmission and influence on patients' immunization status. We examined influenza immunization coverage in health care personnel in Canada, reasons for not being immunized and the impact of "vaccinate-or-mask" influenza prevention policies. Methods: In this national cross-sectional study, we pooled data from the 2007 to 2014 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey and restricted it to respondents who reported a health care occupation. Using bootstrapped survey weights, we examined immunization coverage by occupation and by presence of vaccinate-or-mask policies, and reasons for not being immunized. We used modified Poisson regression to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) of influenza immunization for health care occupations compared with the general working population. Results: For all survey cycles combined, 50% of 18 446 health care personnel reported receiving seasonal influenza immunization during the previous 12 months, although this varied by occupation type (range 4%-72%). Compared with the general working population, family physicians and general practitioners were most likely to be immunized (PR 3.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.76-3.59), whereas chiropractors, midwives and practitioners of natural healing were least likely (PR 0.17, 95% CI 0.10-0.30). Among those who were not immunized, the most frequently cited reason was the belief that influenza immunization is unnecessary. Introduction of vaccinate-or-mask policies was associated with increased influenza immunization among health care personnel. Interpretation: Health care personnel are more likely to be immunized against influenza than the general working population, but coverage remains suboptimal overall, and we observed wide variation by occupation type. More efforts

  8. Nationalism in Stateless Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Robert Chr.

    "Nationalism in Stateless Nations" explores national identities and nationalist movements since 1967, using the examples of Scotland and Newfoundland. Adding to the debate about globalisation and the future of the nation-state, the book argues that ethnically rooted nationalism in modern liberal...... previously independent countries, are excellent examples of this. Building on theories of national identity-formation and nationalism, it traces the development of cultural and political nationalism, and changing images of the national self. With a focus on important fomenting factors and actors...... - intellectuals, political parties and the media - the book combines historical, sociological, political and media studies analyses in an interdisciplinary investigation, providing a comprehensive account of the waxing and waning of nationalism....

  9. Practical Approaches to the Use of Lenalidomide in Multiple Myeloma: A Canadian Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Reece


    Full Text Available In Canada, lenalidomide combined with dexamethasone (Len/Dex is approved for use in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM. Our expert panel sought to provide an up-to-date practical guide on the use of lenalidomide in the managing RRMM within the Canadian clinical setting, including management of common adverse events (AEs. The panel concluded that safe, effective administration of Len/Dex treatment involves the following steps: (1 lenalidomide dose adjustment based on creatinine clearance and the extent of neutropenia or thrombocytopenia, (2 dexamethasone administered at 20–40 mg/week, and (3 continuation of treatment until disease progression or until toxicity persists despite dose reduction. Based on available evidence, the following precautions should reduce the risk of common Len/Dex AEs: (1 all patients treated with Len/Dex should receive thromboprophylaxis, (2 erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs should be used cautiously, and (3 females of child-bearing potential and males in contact with such females must use multiple contraception methods. Finally, while Len/Dex can be administered irrespective of prior therapy and in all prognostic subsets, patients with chromosomal deletion 17(p13 have less favorable outcomes with all treatments, including Len/Dex. New directions for the use of lenalidomide in RRMM are also considered.

  10. Abstracts from the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society Quebec City, April 2012


    Morin, S.; Finch, L.; Sara', A; Muir, Susan; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Kennedy, C. C.; Giangregorio, L. M.; Adachi, J. D.; Morin, S.N.; Crilly, R G; Marr, S; Josse, R G; Matta, J.; Dionne, I.; Payette, H


    The opinions expressed in the abstracts are those of the authors and are not to be construed as the opinion of the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) or the organizers of the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society. Although the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) has made every effort to accurately reproduce the abstracts, the Canadian Geriatrics Society and the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society assumes no responsibility and/...

  11. Guide to Canadian Aerospace Related Industries, (United States)


    Remote Sensing 5. 7, 9, 17, 18 STI SAR 1, 15, 18 MDA Remote Sensing 9 ULI Satellite Communications 5. 18 MCS Removable Media Mass Satellite Communications...rnltary maKets ments of National Defense and Transport Leigh was founded in 1961 and is a pubhicly held Canadia-’ owned company Approximately 50K. of sales...and value of data is of paramount importance. social services management systems, health care, videotex Their equipment is ideally suited to handle

  12. Study of the radiation levels in low dose rate brachytherapy zones of the National Institute of Neoplastic Illnesses; Estudio de los Niveles de Radiacion en Zonas de Braquiterapia de Baja Tasa de Dosis del Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa J, N.; Mora Y, B. [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Lima (Peru)]. e-mail:


    The present study has as objective to evaluate the radiation levels of the Brachytherapy work areas of low dose rate (Gammateque, nurses station and of hospitalization rooms of patients RIC of 4th, 5th Floor-East) and to estimate the effective dose of the occupationally exposed personnel and the public in general. The measurements of the dose rate in these areas, were registered with a radiations monitor Inspector trademark, during a period of 60 days, without altering the routinary work conditions. The more high levels of environmental dose equivalent rate registered in the different work areas its are of 1.41 and 47.78 {mu}Sv/h rooms 1 and 2 in the Gammateque environments, in the hospitalization rooms of the 4th and 5th floor in the point 1 are of 40.77 and 23.67, {mu}Sv/h respectively and in the point 2 are of 129.19 and 39.93, {mu}Sv/h respectively, and in the nurses station of the 4th and 5th floor its are respectively of 7.62 u Sv/h and 0.45 u Sv/h. According to the carried out measurements and the permanency in the work place is possible to estimate the effective dose involved to the occupationally exposed personnel. The personnel that works in Gammateque could be receiving respectively as maximum dose 0.61 mSv/month, and the personnel that works in the nurses station of 13.17 and 0.78 mSv/year in the 4th and 5th floor. These registered differences among the two floors are due to that the 5th floor counts with the shielding systems (screen) contrary to the 4th, another of the factors is the distribution form of the patient beds RIC. We should have present that the radiation levels although in some cases it is very high, however, they are below of the permissible limits according to standards, but it is still possible to reduce even more, the radiation levels in the critical points fulfilling with the ALARA principle. (Author)

  13. Canadian tax policy and renewable energy : are the benefits illusory : a comparison of Canadian and US approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chant, A. [Ortech International, Mississauga, ON (Canada)


    Tax policies for targeted activities such as wind energy need to be efficient and effective in promoting activities that may not otherwise take place. An efficient tax policy will not have unintended consequences that may lead to tax leakage or benefits outside the targeted activity, and will be consistent with other incentives promoting the target activity. This presentation discussed Canadian tax policies related to wind power and then compared them to tax policies in the United States directed at promoting wind energy development. Benefits and subsidies available to Canadian wind energy producers include the ecoEnergy program, the Canadian Renewable and Conservation Expense (CRCE) program; and Class 43.2 directed at high efficiency and renewable energy generation equipment. The Canadian valuation methodology considers capacity factors; capital costs; leverage; interest rates; corporate tax rates; and required equity. While the ecoEnergy program is valuable as it removes the tax risk for the recipient, the CRCE may be more valuable as it does not expire and is not subject to limitations on amounts deductible. Class 43.2 is valuable but constrained by the limitations of a project's income. The United States has a production tax credit (PTC) for wind developers based on a tax credit of $15 per MWh subject to adjustment, and is available for a 10-year period, is transferable to taxable investors, and has a current value of $20. It was concluded that while Canadian subsidies are the equivalent of $7.15, US subsidies are the equivalent of $17. tabs., figs.

  14. Modeling Dose-response at Low Dose: A Systems Biology Approach for Ionization Radiation. (United States)

    Zhao, Yuchao; Ricci, Paolo F


    For ionization radiation (IR) induced cancer, a linear non-threshold (LNT) model at very low doses is the default used by a number of national and international organizations and in regulatory law. This default denies any positive benefit from any level of exposure. However, experimental observations and theoretical biology have found that both linear and J-shaped IR dose-response curves can exist at those very low doses. We develop low dose J-shaped dose-response, based on systems biology, and thus justify its use regarding exposure to IR. This approach incorporates detailed, molecular and cellular descriptions of biological/toxicological mechanisms to develop a dose-response model through a set of nonlinear, differential equations describing the signaling pathways and biochemical mechanisms of cell cycle checkpoint, apoptosis, and tumor incidence due to IR. This approach yields a J-shaped dose response curve while showing where LNT behaviors are likely to occur. The results confirm the hypothesis of the J-shaped dose response curve: the main reason is that, at low-doses of IR, cells stimulate protective systems through a longer cell arrest time per unit of IR dose. We suggest that the policy implications of this approach are an increasingly correct way to deal with precautionary measures in public health.

  15. 研究、教学和试验中的动物保护和使用--加拿大监督系统%Animal Care and Use in Research, Teaching and Testing -- the Canadian System of Surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the 1960s, while there was a dramatic increase in animals used in research and teaching in most of the Canadian research institutions, Canada did not have a federal system pertaining specifically to the humane use of animals in science. There was a national organization, the Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Science (CALAS/ACSAL),established by veterinarians, technicians and animal care givers who recognized the need to ensure that all people caring for, or performing procedures on the animals were properly educated. However, recognition and support of this organization by institutions who employed these people, was needed to effect the changes identified.

  16. The Canadian Dollar versus the Collection: How Canadian University Libraries are Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Scott


    Full Text Available Through 2015 and into 2016, Canadian academic libraries’ collections budgets were severely strained due to the steady decline of the CAD/USD exchange rate. As most subscription fees for electronic resources (e-resources are billed in US dollars, the falling value of the Canadian dollar significantly reduced libraries’ purchasing power. This study is based on a survey of the English-speaking member institutions of the Canadian Research Knowledge Network (CRKN, a Canadian collections consortium, carried out to determine the impact of the poor exchange rate on collections development and how libraries are coping with new budgetary pressures. Librarians from 33 universities provided survey responses. Of these, 22 participated in telephone interviews to further discuss concerns and ideas regarding the current crisis. The study finds that all participant libraries have taken actions to address the budgetary shortfall, including cancelling serial and database subscriptions, negotiating lower costs with vendors, purchasing fewer monographs, and soliciting additional funding from their institutions. While the financial strain resulting from exchange rate fluctuations is indeed a significant problem for which solutions should be sought, several respondents stressed that it only exacerbates the ongoing inflation of e-resource subscriptions. This deeper and enduring issue, which is expected to outlast the present exchange rate crisis, is enabled by an inherently flawed scholarly publishing system. Thus, librarians engaged in discussions with their wider academic communities concerning collections budgets should not focus exclusively on the exchange rate but should leverage the opportunity to explore alternatives to the current scholarly communication model. If solutions exist, they will likely only be achieved through the support of faculty and university administrators, as well as cooperation among post-secondary institutions and library consortia. Au

  17. First Nations Communities and Tobacco Taxation: A Commentary (United States)

    Samji, Hasina; Wardman, Dennis


    Taxation of tobacco is a widely used strategy that promotes smoking cessation among adults and reduces cigarette consumption among continuing smokers. First Nations (FN) populations' tobacco use is estimated to be 2-3 times that of other Canadians and, in part, a reflection that tobacco products purchased on reserve by FN people are tax exempt.…

  18. Annual effective dose due to residential radon progeny in Sweden: Evaluations based on current risk projections models and on risk estimates from a nation-wide Swedish epidemiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, M. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Lagarde, F. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine; Falk, R.; Swedjemark, G.A. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)


    Effective dose per unit radon progeny exposure to Swedish population in 1992 is estimated by the risk projection model based on the Swedish epidemiological study of radon and lung cancer. The resulting values range from 1.29 - 3.00 mSv/WLM and 2.58 - 5.99 mSv/WLM, respectively. Assuming a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m{sup 3}, an equilibrium factor of 0.4 and an occupancy factor of 0.6 in Swedish houses, the annual effective dose for the Swedish population is estimated to be 0.43 - 1.98 mSv/year, which should be compared to the value of 1.9 mSv/year, according to the UNSCEAR 1993 report. 27 refs, tabs, figs.

  19. Dietary Sodium Intakes and Food Sources of Sodium in Canadian-Born and Asian-Born Individuals of Chinese Ethnicity at a Canadian University Campus (United States)

    Yu, Yan Han; Farmer, Anna; Mager, Diana; Willows, Noreen


    Objective: To document the sodium intake and food sources of sodium of Canadian-born Chinese (CBC) and Asian-born Chinese (ABC) individuals at a Canadian university campus. Participants: Healthy adults aged 18-58 years originating from Canada, China, Hong Kong, or Taiwan were recruited from the University of Alberta (n = 40 CBC, n = 41 ABC)…

  20. Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor in the first year of life: the Canadian ATRT registry experience and review of the literature. (United States)

    Fossey, Mary; Li, Haocheng; Afzal, Samina; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Eisenstat, David D; Fleming, Adam; Hukin, Juliette; Hawkins, Cynthia; Jabado, Nada; Johnston, Donna; Brown, Tania; Larouche, Valerie; Scheinemann, Katrin; Strother, Douglas; Wilson, Beverly; Zelcer, Shayna; Huang, Annie; Bouffet, Eric; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie


    While 2/3 of patients with ATRT are less than 3 years at diagnosis, the literature suggests younger children present with more aggressive disease and poorer outcome. However, little data exist on characteristics and outcome of patients diagnosed with ATRT in the first year of life. In particular, it is unclear whether they access similar treatments as do older children. We compared the cohort of patients ≤12 months from the Canadian ATRT registry to all cases extracted from the literature reported between 1996 and 2014 to describe their clinical and treatment characteristics, and potential prognostic factors. Twenty-six (33.7%) patients from the Canadian registry were ≤12 months at diagnosis as were 120 cases identified in the literature. Post-operatively, 46% of the registry's patients underwent palliation as opposed to 10.8% in the literature cohort. Palliative patients were significantly younger than those who received active therapy (3.3 vs. 6.6 months). While the use of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) was relatively similar in both cohorts (42.9 and 35.5% respectively), radiotherapy (RT) use was significantly lower in the Canadian cohort (14.3 vs 44.9%). Children ≤6 months, who received active therapy, had a worst outcome than older ones. Gross total resection, HDC and adjuvant RT were associated with better outcomes. Eighty percent of the tested patients had evidence of germline mutation of INI1. While 1/3 of ATRT occurs within the first year of life, a large proportion only received palliative therapy. Even when actively treated, children ≤6 months fare worse. Some selected patients benefit from HDC.