Sudom, Kerry A; Lee, Jennifer E C; Zamorski, Mark A
Research on psychological resilience is important for occupations involving routine exposure to trauma or critical events. Such research can allow for the identification of factors to target in training, education and intervention programs, as well as groups that may be at higher risk for mental health problems. Although efforts have been made to determine the individual characteristics that contribute to positive outcomes under stress, little is known about whether such characteristics are stable over time or how stressful events can impact psychological resilience in high-risk occupations such as military service. Following a review of the evidence on variations in resilience over time, results of a pilot study of Canadian Armed Forces personnel are presented in which differences in resilience characteristics were examined from military recruitment to several years after enrollment. While there was little change in resilience characteristics over time on average, there was considerable individual variation, with some individuals showing marked improvement and others showing marked deterioration in resilience characteristics. At both time points, individuals who had been deployed showed greater resilience characteristics than those who had never been deployed. Implications for the promotion of psychological resilience in military populations and personnel employed in other high-risk occupations are discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
sea and air environments at five CF military bases contributed their current hearing test results and first hearing test results on record. They... NIPTS ). The magnitude of the hearing threshold elevation relative to normal hearing thresholds will depend on the level of the sound to which the...can be in excess of 100 dBA . This concern has been validated by hearing tests conducted as part of medical screening for military recruitment
Raman, S; Dulberg, C S; Spasoff, R A; Scott, T
We carried out a cohort study of mortality among 954 Canadian military personnel exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation during nuclear reactor clean-up operations at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ont., and during observation of atomic test blasts in the United States and Australia in the 1950s. Two controls matched for age, service, rank and trade were selected for each exposed subject. Mortality among the exposed and control groups was ascertained by means of record linkage with the Canadian Mortality Data Base. Survival analysis with life-table techniques did not reveal any difference in overall mortality between the exposed and control groups. Analysis of cause-specific mortality showed similar mortality patterns in the two groups; there was no elevation in the exposed group in the frequency of death from leukemia or thyroid cancer, the causes of death most often associated with radiation exposure. Analysis of survival by recorded gamma radiation dose also did not show any effect of radiation dose on mortality. The findings are in agreement with the current scientific literature on the risk of death from exposure to low-dose radiation. PMID:3567765
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent and is associated with a broad range of adverse consequences. In military organizations, IPV may have special implications, such as the potential of service-related mental disorders to trigger IPV. However, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) have limited data to guide their prevention and control efforts. Methods Self-reported IPV perpetration, victimization, and their correlates were assessed on a cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of currently-serving Canadian Regular Forces personnel (N = 2157). The four primary outcomes were perpetration or victimization of any physical and/or sexual or emotional and/or financial IPV over the lifespan of the current relationship. Results Among the 81% of the population in a current relationship, perpetration of any physical and/or sexual IPV was reported in 9%; victimization was reported in 15%. Any emotional and/or financial abuse was reported by 19% (perpetration) and 22% (victimization). Less physically injurious forms of abuse predominated. Logistic regression modelling showed that relationship dissatisfaction was independently associated with all four outcomes (OR range = 2.3 to 3.7). Probable depression was associated with all outcomes except physical and/or sexual IPV victimization (OR range = 2.5 – 2.7). PTSD symptoms were only associated with physical and/or sexual IPV perpetration (OR = 3.2, CI = 1.4 to 7.9). High-risk drinking was associated with emotional and/or financial abuse. Risk of IPV was lowest in those who had recent deployment experience; remote deployment experience (vs. never having deployed) was an independent risk factor for all IPV outcomes (OR range = 2.0 – 3.4). Conclusions IPV affects an important minority of military families; less severe cases predominate. Mental disorders, high-risk drinking, relationship dissatisfaction, and remote deployment were independently associated with abuse outcomes. The
Zamorski, Mark A; Wiens-Kinkaid, Miriam E
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent and is associated with a broad range of adverse consequences. In military organizations, IPV may have special implications, such as the potential of service-related mental disorders to trigger IPV. However, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) have limited data to guide their prevention and control efforts. Self-reported IPV perpetration, victimization, and their correlates were assessed on a cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of currently-serving Canadian Regular Forces personnel (N = 2157). The four primary outcomes were perpetration or victimization of any physical and/or sexual or emotional and/or financial IPV over the lifespan of the current relationship. Among the 81% of the population in a current relationship, perpetration of any physical and/or sexual IPV was reported in 9%; victimization was reported in 15%. Any emotional and/or financial abuse was reported by 19% (perpetration) and 22% (victimization). Less physically injurious forms of abuse predominated. Logistic regression modelling showed that relationship dissatisfaction was independently associated with all four outcomes (OR range = 2.3 to 3.7). Probable depression was associated with all outcomes except physical and/or sexual IPV victimization (OR range = 2.5 - 2.7). PTSD symptoms were only associated with physical and/or sexual IPV perpetration (OR = 3.2, CI = 1.4 to 7.9). High-risk drinking was associated with emotional and/or financial abuse. Risk of IPV was lowest in those who had recent deployment experience; remote deployment experience (vs. never having deployed) was an independent risk factor for all IPV outcomes (OR range = 2.0 - 3.4). IPV affects an important minority of military families; less severe cases predominate. Mental disorders, high-risk drinking, relationship dissatisfaction, and remote deployment were independently associated with abuse outcomes. The primary limitations of this analysis are its use of self-report data
Sareen, Jitender; Belik, Shay-Lee; Afifi, Tracie O; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Cox, Brian J; Stein, Murray B
We investigated mental disorders, suicidal ideation, self-perceived need for treatment, and mental health service utilization attributable to exposure to peacekeeping and combat operations among Canadian military personnel. With data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.2 Canadian Forces Supplement, a cross-sectional population-based survey of active Canadian military personnel (N = 8441), we estimated population attributable fractions (PAFs) of adverse mental health outcomes. Exposure to either combat or peacekeeping operations was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (men: PAF = 46.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 27.3, 62.7; women: PAF = 23.6%; 95% CI = 9.2, 40.1), 1 or more mental disorder assessed in the survey (men: PAF = 9.3%; 95% CI = 0.4, 18.1; women: PAF = 6.1%; 95% CI = 0.0, 13.4), and a perceived need for information (men: PAF = 12.3%; 95% CI = 4.1, 20.6; women: PAF = 7.9%; 95% CI = 1.3, 15.5). A substantial proportion, but not the majority, of mental health-related outcomes were attributable to combat or peacekeeping deployment. Future studies should assess traumatic events and their association with physical injury during deployment, premilitary factors, and postdeployment psychosocial factors that may influence soldiers' mental health.
following questions: In what fields are military personnel most likely to patent , and how do demographics, such as age, race, and gender , along with...e606a Jung, T., & Ejermo, O. (2014). Demographic patterns and trends in patenting : Gender , age, and education of inventors. Technological Forecasting...PERSONNEL PATENT ? by Shane A. Bladen December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Latika Hartmann Second Reader: Chad Seagren THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military personnel. 1400.213 Section 1400.213... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.213 Military personnel. If a person is called to active duty in the military before a determination is made that the person is...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military personnel. 13.21 Section 13.21... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.21 Military personnel. If a report made... civilian employee of the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10 U...
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military personnel. 1503.407 Section 1503.407... Assessment of Civil Penalties by TSA § 1503.407 Military personnel. If a report made under this part... the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10 U.S.C. chapter 47...
Greenwood, M. R. C; Oria, Maria
.... Given the importance and frequent evaluation of physical performance and health as a criteria to join and remain in the military, the use of these products by military personnel has raised concern...
AGING PUBLIC SAFETY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TERRORISM AND HOMELAND SECURITY Testimony Reforming the American Military Officer Personnel System Bernard......For a long time, I have argued and written about the need to reform the career military structure by increasing the maximum years of service an
Bak, Gwang U.; Kim, Chong-hun
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A personnel information systems is designed for the management of Korean military officer personnel. The objective of this thesis is to apply the computer-based personnel information system in the area of military officer personnel management. Personnel systems of the Korean military are defined, and input/output requirements of the system are states. A data base for the personnel system requirement is formulated. A personnel infor...
.... It is particularly concerned with issues relating to the recruitment and retention within the military of homosexuals, that is, those individuals who have a sexual propensity for persons of their own gender...
Crabtree-Nelson, Sonya; DeYoung, Lcdr Peter
A systematic, evidence-based training program to support active duty military personnel through building unit-level resiliency in preparation for anticipated individual times of crisis is needed. Mental health nurses and social workers in the military possess critical training and expertise in identifying and supporting individual and community resilience factors. Their knowledge of the protective aspects of resilience can and should be used to educate all active duty military personnel, ensure military leaders are knowledgeable in how best to support their units, and provide research on the effectiveness of pre-combat resilience training. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(2), 44-48.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
... CFR Part 112, ``Indebtedness of Military Personnel,'' and DoD Financial Management Review (FMR... Financial Management Review (FMR), Volume 7a, ``Stoppages and Collections.'' \\2\\ \\1\\ Available online at http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/134409p.pdf \\2\\ Available online at http://comptroller...
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military personnel commercial activity. 169a.14... CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.14 Military personnel commercial activity. Commercial activities performed exclusively by military personnel not subject to deployment in a...
I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S The Full Cost of Military Personnel Stanley A. Horowitz INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES...the clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 (a)(16) [Jun 2013]. Stanley Horowitz April 2016 Personnel cost includes much more than pay Direct vs. Indirect...Direct costs are clearly linked to the compensation of individuals Indirect costs cover overhead expenses not tracked to individuals Current vs
THEORY IN MILITARY PERSONNEL MANAG EMENT John R. Schmid Richard K. Hovey B—K Dynamics, Inc. Rockville, Maryland , 20850 Reviewed by T. A. Blanco AGCESSIO...1JT~~~—Ao35 590 B—K DYNAMICS INC ROCKVILLE MD F/G 5/9I UTILITY THEORY IN MILITARY PERSONNEL MANA 6EMENT. (U) JUL 76 .1 R SCHMID, R K HOVEY N0001’e—72...LNPRDc1(~6TQ_38 ~ ~~~—. ~~~~~~~ OF RI ORT S 41R100 COVERED4—~ IT L f ~_.J 9.~bUhI~~ JITILITY THEORY IN IILITARY ?ERSONNEL I - /FY ~~~ jP~ fERIM
Full Text Available Snakebites are common in people living or working in rural area. Military personnel are among the risk groups for viper envenomation. In this study, we presented seven cases of vipera snakebites in military personnel and discussed how to minimize functional loss and maximize the outcome. All of the bites were located in extremities and 5 were at hands. All patients were admitted at the day of snake bite which is an indicator of good triage. Hematological complications were the most common systemic complications. Antivenom therapy was performed according to the severity of the envenomation. Local wound care, grafts and flaps were used for wound coverage. Pit viper envenomation can cause serious morbidity in military personnel especially at hot climates. A suspicion of snake bite must be managed properly. Triage is the most important step to reduce the morbidity. Almost all snake bites occur in extremities, thus protective measurement must be taken especially for hands. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 127-130
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign military personnel. 148.90 Section 148.90... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Personnel of Foreign Governments and International Organizations and Special Treatment for Returning Individuals § 148.90 Foreign military personnel...
Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Issues Congressional Research Service Contents Introduction ...Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Issues Congressional Research Service 1 Introduction Each year, the House and Senate arrmed...coverage that improves continuity of care provided to current and former Reserve members. H.R. 4909—Sec. 733 Use of mefloquine for malaria
pulmonary nodules from Military Treatment Facilities and Veteran’s Administration Hospitals, DECAMP plans to identify 75 patients with lung cancer for...Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0161 TITLE: Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Avrum E. Spira...W81XWH-11-2-0161 Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0161 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6
Chou, Han-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chou, Yu-Ching; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Huang, San-Yuan; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng
The military is a unique occupational group and, because of this, military personnel face different kinds of stress than civilian populations. Sleep problems are an example. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep problems, depression level and coping strategies among military personnel. In this cross-sectional study, military personnel completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Jalowiec Coping Scale. An evaluation of the test scores showed that officers had better sleep quality and fewer depressive symptoms than enlisted personnel. Military personnel with higher educational levels and less physical illness also had fewer depressive symptoms. Officers and noncommissioned officers preferred problem-focused strategies. Those with higher Beck Depression Inventory and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores and those who drank alcohol frequently preferred affective-focused strategies. Our results revealed that sleep quality, physical illness and alcohol consumption were associated with the mental health of military personnel. Treating these factors may improve the mental health of military personnel and enhance effective coping strategies. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rezvantsev, M V; Kuznetsov, S M; Ivanov, V V; Zakurdaev, V V
The current article is dedicated to some features of the Russian Federation Armed Forces military personnel health monitoring such as legal and informational provision, methodological basis of functioning, historical aspect of formation and development of the social and hygienic monitoring in the Russian Federation Armed Forces. The term "military personnel health monitoring" is defined as an analytical system of constant and long-term observation, analysis, assessment, studying of factors determined the military personnel health, these factors correlations, health risk factors management in order to minimize them. The current state of the military personnel health monitoring allows coming to the conclusion that the military health system does have forces and resources for state policy of establishing the population health monitoring system implementation. The following directions of the militarily personnel health monitoring improvement are proposed: the Russian Federation Armed Forces medical service record and report system reorganization bringing it closer to the civilian one, implementation of the integrated approach to the medical service informatisation, namely, military personnel health status and medical service resources monitoring. The leading means in this direction are development and introduction of a military serviceman individual health status monitoring system on the basis of a serviceman electronic medical record card. Also it is proposed the current Russian Federation Armed Forces social and hygienic monitoring improvement at the expense of informational interaction between the two subsystems on the basis of unified military medical service space.
Thandi, G; Greenberg, N; Fear, N T; Jones, N
In the UK, little is known about the perceived effects of deployment, on military families, from military personnel in theatre. To investigate military personnel's perceptions of the impact of deployment on intimate relationships and children. Deployed service personnel who were in a relationship, and who had children, completed a survey while deployed on combat operations. Data were taken from four mental health surveys carried out in Iraq in 2009 and Afghanistan in 2010, 2011 and 2014. Among 4265 participants, after adjusting for military and social-demographic covariates, perceiving that deployment had a negative impact on intimate relationships and children was associated with psychological distress, and traumatic stress symptoms. Military personnel who reported being in danger of being injured or killed during deployment, were more likely to report a perceived negative effect of deployment on their intimate relationships. Reservists were less likely to report a perceived negative impact of deployment on their children compared with regulars. Military personnel who themselves planned to separate from their partner were more likely to report psychological distress, and stressors at home. Perceived insufficient support from the Ministry of Defence was associated with poor mental health, and holding a junior rank. Deployed UK military personnel with symptoms of psychological distress, who experienced stressors at home, were especially likely to perceive that their family were inadequately supported by the military. Those planning to separate from their partner were at increased risk of suffering with mental health problems while deployed.
Murray, Clinton K; Yun, Heather C; Markelz, Ana Elizabeth; Okulicz, Jason F; Vento, Todd J; Burgess, Timothy H; Cardile, Anthony P; Miller, R Scott
As part of the international response to control the recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the Department of Defense has deployed military personnel to train Liberians to manage the disease and build treatment units and a hospital for health care volunteers. These steps have assisted in providing a robust medical system and augment Ebola diagnostic capability within the affected nations. In order to prepare for the deployment of U.S. military personnel, the infectious disease risks of the regions must be determined. This evaluation allows for the establishment of appropriate force health protection posture for personnel while deployed, as well as management plans for illnesses presenting after redeployment. Our objective was to detail the epidemiology and infectious disease risks for military personnel in West Africa, particularly for Liberia, along with lessons learned from prior deployments. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Smith, Tracey J; Marriott, Bernadette P; Dotson, Laura; Bathalon, Gaston P; Funderburk, Leslee; White, Alan; Hadden, Louise; Young, Andrew J
In the United States, nationally representative civilian studies have shown that BMI is associated with select sociodemographic characteristics. Active-duty military personnel are not included in these surveys and the persistence of these associations in military personnel is unknown. Data from the worldwide, representative 2002 and 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Surveys of Health-Related Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel were used to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and, the association of BMI with sociodemographic characteristics. The final response bases included 12,756 (2002) and 16,146 (2005) personnel. Results indicated that the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity in military personnel increased to an all-time high in 2005 (60.5%) with higher prevalence of obesity in 2005 compared to 2002 (12.9% vs. 8.7, respectively, P ≤ 0.01). Holding other variables constant, regression analysis indicated that women were significantly less likely than men to be overweight or obese in both survey years (P ≤ 0.0001), which is contrary to civilian data. Similar to civilian data, the prevalence of obesity was significantly associated with increased age, black or Hispanic/Latino race/ethnicity, and being married (P ≤ 0.01). US military personnel are not immune to the US obesity epidemic. Demographic characteristics associated with being overweight should be considered when developing military-sponsored weight management programs.
Pasiakos, Stefan M; Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J
Protein supplements (PSs) are, after multivitamins, the most frequently consumed dietary supplement by U.S. military personnel. Warfighters believe that PSs will improve health, promote muscle strength, and enhance physical performance. The estimated prevalence of regular PS use by military personnel is nearly 20% or more in active-duty personnel, which is comparable to collegiate athletes and recreationally active adults, but higher than that for average U.S. civilians. Although the acute metabolic effects of PS ingestion are well described, little is known regarding the benefits of PS use by warfighters in response to the metabolic demands of military operations. When dietary protein intake approaches 1.5 g · kg(-1) · d(-1), and energy intake matches energy expenditure, the use of PSs by most physically active military personnel may not be necessary. However, dismounted infantry often perform operations consisting of long periods of strenuous physical activity coupled with inadequate dietary energy and protein intake. In these situations, the use of PSs may have efficacy for preserving fat-free mass. This article reviews the available literature regarding the prevalence of PS use among military personnel. Furthermore, it highlights the unique metabolic stressors affecting U.S. military personnel and discusses potential conditions during which protein supplementation might be beneficial.
Full Text Available Due to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the unmet medical and psychological needs of military personnel are creating major challenges. Increasingly, active duty military personnel are seeking physical and mental health services from civilian professionals. The Civilian Medical Resources Network attempts to address these unmet needs. Participants in the Network include primary care and mental health practitioners in all regions of the country. Network professionals provide independent assessments, clinical interventions in acute situations, and documentation that assists GIs in obtaining reassignment or discharge. Most clients who use Network services come from low-income backgrounds and manifest psychological rather than physical disorders. Qualitative themes in professional-client encounters have focused on ethical conflicts, the impact of violence without meaning (especially violence against civilians, and perceived problems in military health and mental health policies. Unmet needs of active duty military personnel deserve more concerted attention from medical professionals and policy makers.
Waitzkin, Howard; Noble, Marylou
Due to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the unmet medical and psychological needs of military personnel are creating major challenges. Increasingly, active duty military personnel are seeking physical and mental health services from civilian professionals. The Civilian Medical Resources Network attempts to address these unmet needs. Participants in the Network include primary care and mental health practitioners in all regions of the country. Network professionals provide independent assessments, clinical interventions in acute situations, and documentation that assists GIs in obtaining reassignment or discharge. Most clients who use Network services come from low-income backgrounds and manifest psychological rather than physical disorders. Qualitative themes in professional-client encounters have focused on ethical conflicts, the impact of violence without meaning (especially violence against civilians), and perceived problems in military health and mental health policies. Unmet needs of active duty military personnel deserve more concerted attention from medical professionals and policy makers.
The origins of military leadership are rooted in ancient times and its embodiment are great chieftains and commanders. However, since the moment when in organisation and management sciences the civil theories of leadership started to emerge, the military forces have incorporated their solutions to structure the assumptions of new, coherent and effective models of military leadership. A good example of such solutions is the Canadian model of military leadership, competently merging the civil t...
Full Text Available The origins of military leadership are rooted in ancient times and its embodiment are great chieftains and commanders. However, since the moment when in organisation and management sciences the civil theories of leadership started to emerge, the military forces have incorporated their solutions to structure the assumptions of new, coherent and effective models of military leadership. A good example of such solutions is the Canadian model of military leadership, competently merging the civil theories with experience and needs of the military environment. This solution may be a perfect example of effective application of leadership theory to modify the existing national model of military leadership and construct a more efficient one.
Pickett, Treven; Rothman, David; Crawford, Eric F; Brancu, Mira; Fairbank, John A; Kudler, Harold S
This commentary describes the prevalence of mental health problems affecting military service members and veterans in North Carolina and the rest of the nation, with a special emphasis on those who...
... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing... notice that it is renewing the charter for the Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing... matters pertaining to military personnel testing. The Committee shall review the calibration of personnel...
Principal Analyst, National Security Division Replacing Military Personnel in Some Support Positions With Federal Civilians This presentation contains...data from and includes other information published in CBO’s Replacing Military Personnel in Support Positions With Civilian Employees, www.cbo.gov...2CONGRESS IONAL BUDGET OFFICE Transferring to civilians certain jobs currently held by military personnel could reduce costs and increase DoD’s focus
Chong, S J; Kok, Y O; Foo, C L
The burgeoning global obesity epidemic extends to the military service, where 6-53% of military personnel are overweight. Obese military personnel who adhere to a strict training and diet regime may potentially achieve and maintain significant weight loss. They may however face physical problems such as excess skin folds causing discomfort, difficulty in uniform fitting, personal hygiene, interference with full physical activities and psychological issues such as body image dissatisfaction, low self esteem and difficulty in social acceptance. We present a case report of a highly motivated military conscript who achieved and maintained significant weight loss but had physical defects following Massive Weight Loss. Body contouring surgery was successfully utilised to correct his physical defects and allowed him to return to full physical duties.
Rahmani, Zakia; Kochanek, Aneta; Astrup, Jesper Johnsen
AIMS: External compression headache is defined as a headache caused by an external physical compression applied on the head. It affects about 4% of the general population; however, certain populations (e.g. construction workers and military personnel) with particular needs of headwear or helmet...... are at higher risk of developing this type of headache. External compression headache is poorly studied in relation to specific populations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and pattern of helmet-induced external compression headache among Danish military personnel of the Northern Jutland region...... in Denmark. METHODS: Data acquisition was based on a custom-made questionnaire delivered to volunteers who used helmets in the Danish military service and who agreed to participate in this study. The military of the Northern Jutland region of Denmark facilitated recruitment of the participants...
Wilcox, Sherrie L; Redmond, Sarah; Hassan, Anthony M
Although the military is a young and vigorous force, service members and veterans may experience sexual functioning problems (SFPs) as a result of military service. Sexual functioning can be impaired by physical, psychological, and social factors and can impact quality of life (QOL) and happiness. This study aims to estimate rates and correlates of SFPs in male military personnel across demographic and psychosocial characteristics, to examine the QOL concomitants, and to evaluate barriers for treatment seeking. This exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted using data from a larger nationwide study conducted between October 2013 and November 2013. This sample consists of 367 male active duty service members and recent veterans (military personnel) age 40 or younger. Erectile dysfunction (ED) was determined using the five-item International Index of Erectile Function, sexual dysfunction (SD) was determined using the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale, Male, and QOL was determined using the World Health Organization Quality of Life, Brief. SFPs were associated with various demographic, physical, and psychosocial risk factors. The rates of SD and ED were 8.45% and 33.24%, respectively, for male military personnel aged 21-40. Those who were 36-40, nonmarried, nonwhite, and of lower educational attainment reported the highest rates of SFPs. Male military personnel with poor physical and psychosocial health presented the greatest risk for ED and SD. SFPs were associated with reduced QOL and lower happiness, and barriers for treatment were generally related to social barriers. SFPs in young male military personnel are an important public health concern that can severely impact QOL and happiness. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Kwan, Jamie; Jones, Margaret; Somaini, Greta; Hull, Lisa; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T; MacManus, Deirdre
Research into violence among military personnel has not differentiated between stranger- and family-directed violence. While military factors (combat exposure and post-deployment mental health problems) are risk factors for general violence, there has been limited research on their impact on violence within the family environment. This study aims to compare the prevalence of family-directed and stranger-directed violence among a deployed sample of UK military personnel and to explore risk factors associated with both family- and stranger-directed violence. This study utilised data from a large cohort study which collected information by questionnaire from a representative sample of randomly selected deployed UK military personnel (n = 6711). The prevalence of family violence immediately following return from deployment was 3.6% and 7.8% for stranger violence. Family violence was significantly associated with having left service, while stranger violence was associated with younger age, male gender, being single, having a history of antisocial behaviour as well as having left service. Deployment in a combat role was significantly associated with both family and stranger violence after adjustment for confounders [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.92 (1.25-2.94), p = 0.003 and aOR = 1.77 (1.31-2.40), p military personnel. Further research using a validated measurement tool for family violence would improve comparability with other research.
person costs of military and civil - ian employees, CBO estimated the federal government’s liabilities , including current and expected future costs of...Personnel in Commercial Positions With Civilian Personnel 18 CBO’s Approach to Estimating Savings: Current and Future Liabilities 19 BOX 3. WHY THE...sector so that, in principle , those same positions could be filled by civilian employees. To cut costs, DoD could transfer some of those positions to
Sivashchenko, P P; Ivanov, V V; Grigor'ev, S G; Baranovskiĭ, A M
For the first time were suggested some indices such as the index of ratio of one unit's (higher/highest formation) hospitalization, lost worktime, discharge and mortality to the primary morbidity for one military unit and the same index of ratio to the same criteria for the group of military unit. The mentioned peculiarities are intended for impartial and comprehensive estimation of Armed Forces of the Russian Federation military personnel health status and medical units (establishments) activity. These indices include as criteria of diseases prevalence, morbidity, hospitalization, discharge and mortality characteristics. Employment of the new tools provides the possibility of the military health care system analysis by means of such health status components as military labor character peculiarities of medical support, as well as medical service forces and resources availability in the Army, Navy and Air Force.
nutbers of available youth. John haisbitt, author of Megatrends, predicts that labor short.ges are beginning to occur and will continue throughout the...available resources (e.g., personnel and material). 81. Your work group’s performance in compariscn to similar work groups is very high. ORGANIZATION CLIMA "E
Irhebhude, Martins E.; Edirisinghe, Eran A.
This paper presents an automatic, machine vision based, military personnel identification and classification system. Classification is done using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) on sets of Army, Air Force and Navy camouflage uniform personnel datasets. In the proposed system, the arm of service of personnel is recognised by the camouflage of a persons uniform, type of cap and the type of badge/logo. The detailed analysis done include; camouflage cap and plain cap differentiation using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture feature; classification on Army, Air Force and Navy camouflaged uniforms using GLCM texture and colour histogram bin features; plain cap badge classification into Army, Air Force and Navy using Speed Up Robust Feature (SURF). The proposed method recognised camouflage personnel arm of service on sets of data retrieved from google images and selected military websites. Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS) was used to improve recognition and reduce dimensionality, thereby speeding the classification process. With this method success rates recorded during the analysis include 93.8% for camouflage appearance category, 100%, 90% and 100% rates of plain cap and camouflage cap categories for Army, Air Force and Navy categories, respectively. Accurate recognition was recorded using SURF for the plain cap badge category. Substantial analysis has been carried out and results prove that the proposed method can correctly classify military personnel into various arms of service. We show that the proposed method can be integrated into a face recognition system, which will recognise personnel in addition to determining the arm of service which the personnel belong. Such a system can be used to enhance the security of a military base or facility.
Hesse, Elisabeth M.; Martinez, Luis J.; Jarman, Richard G.; Lyons, Arthur G.; Eckels, Kenneth H.; De La Barrera, Rafael A.; Thomas, Stephen J.
Dengue virus infections have adversely impacted U.S. military operations since the Spanish–American War. The erosion of mission capabilities and lost duty days are underestimated. Appreciating the incidence and prevalence of dengue infections in U.S. military personnel is important to inform disease prevention strategies. Banked pre- and post-deployment serum samples from 1,000 U.S. military personnel with a single deployment to a dengue-endemic region were tested using a screening microneutralization assay to detect anti-dengue-virus-neutralizing antibodies. A total of 76 (7.6%) post-deployment samples were positive and 15 of the pre-deployment samples were negative. These figures represent an infection incidence of 1.5% and total of 17.6 seroconversions per 10,000 deployment months. These data represent a deploying military population with a relatively high background rate of dengue seropositivity, a low level of infection during deployment compared with background infection rates in the local populations, and the potential for worsening clinical attack rates with increased frequency of deployment. Additional studies are required to more clearly elucidate the dengue infection and disease risk in U.S. military personnel. PMID:28193746
Hesse, Elisabeth M; Martinez, Luis J; Jarman, Richard G; Lyons, Arthur G; Eckels, Kenneth H; De La Barrera, Rafael A; Thomas, Stephen J
AbstractDengue virus infections have adversely impacted U.S. military operations since the Spanish-American War. The erosion of mission capabilities and lost duty days are underestimated. Appreciating the incidence and prevalence of dengue infections in U.S. military personnel is important to inform disease prevention strategies. Banked pre- and post-deployment serum samples from 1,000 U.S. military personnel with a single deployment to a dengue-endemic region were tested using a screening microneutralization assay to detect anti-dengue-virus-neutralizing antibodies. A total of 76 (7.6%) post-deployment samples were positive and 15 of the pre-deployment samples were negative. These figures represent an infection incidence of 1.5% and total of 17.6 seroconversions per 10,000 deployment months. These data represent a deploying military population with a relatively high background rate of dengue seropositivity, a low level of infection during deployment compared with background infection rates in the local populations, and the potential for worsening clinical attack rates with increased frequency of deployment. Additional studies are required to more clearly elucidate the dengue infection and disease risk in U.S. military personnel.
Testimony Reforming the American Military Officer Personnel System Addendum: Thoughts on Contractors Bernard D. Rostker CT-446/1 Document...1 Reforming the American Military Officer Personnel System Addendum: Thoughts on Contractors Testimony of Bernard D. Rostker 1 The RAND
Full Text Available The method of physical preparation of military personnel of higher soldiery educational establishments is improved. In an inspection took part 32 servicemen. Military personnel executed tests: at run on 100 and 3000 meters, undercutting on a cross-beam. Influence of employments is certain power exercises on speeding up, force and endurance of military personnel of speciality physical education. The level of influence of employments power exercises is set on physical possibilities of military personnel.
Thandi, G; Fear, N T
Research in the UK civilian population suggests that poor mental health outcomes are associated with smoking behaviour. In the UK military population, smoking cessation is associated with deployment in the reserve forces. However, little is known about the links between mental health outcomes and smoking initiation and cessation in the UK military. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine change in mental health and military factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation in a representative sample of UK military personnel. Data were collected between 2003 and 2009; 5138 regular and reserve military personnel were included in the analyses. The results showed that smoking initiation was associated with symptoms of psychological distress, symptoms of probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), relationship breakdown and deployment. These findings are consistent with existing research in civilian populations showing links between poor mental health and smoking behaviour. Furthermore, our finding that deployment is associated with smoking initiation is also in line with research from the US military and UK reserves.
Tugcu, Harun; Ozsoy, Sait; Balandiz, Huseyin
Objectives: To investigate various cases of death caused by electrical injuries among Turkish military personnel. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed fatality cases of military personnel between 1994 and 2013 at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey, the only forensic medicine center for the Turkish Armed Forces. Medical records and autopsy reports of cases of electrical fatalities were reviewed and analyzed in terms of age and gender-specific incidence, voltage, contact details, body region distribution, location, and season of incident, site, and severity of injuries sustained, and histopathological and toxicological findings. Results: Sixteen (3.5%) out of the 450 autopsy cases involved electrocution. All deaths were accidental and most frequently occurred outdoors (75%). Eight (50%) died due to high voltage while 6 (37.5%) died due to low voltage. The entry and exit lesions were determined most frequently in cases with high voltage injury. The low voltage deaths commonly occurred at the scene of the event (66.6%), while almost all high voltage deaths occurred in the hospital (87.5%, p=0.03). Electrical burns were most commonly detected in the upper extremities (32.6%, n=14). Conclusion: The present study shows that deaths due to high voltage electrocution are more frequent than low voltage electrocution among military personnel. PMID:25630009
Rahmani, Zakia; Kochanek, Aneta; Astrup, Jesper Johnsen; Poulsen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Gazerani, Parisa
External compression headache is defined as a headache caused by an external physical compression applied on the head. It affects about 4% of the general population; however, certain populations (e.g. construction workers and military personnel) with particular needs of headwear or helmet are at higher risk of developing this type of headache. External compression headache is poorly studied in relation to specific populations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and pattern of helmet-induced external compression headache among Danish military personnel of the Northern Jutland region in Denmark. Data acquisition was based on a custom-made questionnaire delivered to volunteers who used helmets in the Danish military service and who agreed to participate in this study. The military of the Northern Jutland region of Denmark facilitated recruitment of the participants. The questionnaires were delivered on paper and the collected (anonymous) answers (total 279) were used for further analysis. About 30% of the study participants reported headache in relation to wearing a military helmet. Headache was defined as a pressing pain predominantly in the front of the head with an average intensity of 4 on a visual analogue scale of 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). It was also found that helmets with different designs influenced both the occurrence of headache and its characteristics. This study is the first to demonstrate the prevalence and pattern of compression headache among military personnel in North Jutland, Denmark. The findings of this study call for further attention to helmet-induced external compression headache and strategies to minimize the burden.
Deuster, Patricia A; Lieberman, Harris R
It is legal tomarketmost naturally occurring substances as dietary supplements in the USA without manufacturers demonstrating they are safe or effective, and an endless variety of ingredients, from esoteric botanicals to unapproved pharmaceuticals, can be found in dietary supplements. Use of certain supplements can pose a risk, but since a robust reporting systemdoes not exist in the USA it is difficult to know which are problematic and the number of adverse events (AE) resulting from their use. Certain populations, includingmilitary personnel, aremore likely to use dietary supplements than the general population. Approximately 70% of military personnel take dietary supplements while about 50% of civilians do. Service members prefer supplements purported to enhance physical performance such as supposedly natural stimulants, protein and amino acids, and combination products. Since some of thesemay be problematic, Servicemembers are probably at higher risk of injury than the general population. Ten percent of military populations appear to be taking potentially risky supplements, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) has taken variousmeasures to protect uniformed personnel including education, policy changes, and restricting sales. Actions taken include launching Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS), introducing a High Risk Supplement list, educating health care professionals on reporting AE thatmight be associated with dietary supplements, recommending policy for reporting AE, and developing an online AE reporting system. OPSS is a DoD-wide effort to educate service members, leaders, health care providers, military families, and retirees on how to safely select supplements
Glazunov Sergej Ivanovich
Full Text Available The aim of research is to determine modern approaches to the physical fitness testing of service personnel. In the army with modern military experience, marked by a tendency to view the content of tests to determine the level of physical fitness of military personnel. Observed differentiation of unified systems tests to determine the general physical and military training military application. Summary of tests determined the nature of loads and motions of the structure inherent in the military during combat operations.
Maclin-Akinyemi, Courtney; Krukowski, Rebecca A; Kocak, Mehmet; Talcott, G Wayne; Beauvais, Alexis; Klesges, Robert C
Rates of overweight and obesity among Active Duty Military Personnel remain high despite fitness test requirements, negative consequences of fitness test failure, and emphasis on weight and appearance standards. Specific motivating factors for weight loss influence weight loss program interest and often differ by gender, race, ethnicity, or age. This study investigates the weight loss motivations endorsed by a diverse population of Active Duty Military Personnel initiating a behavioral weight loss study, to inform the development of future recruitment efforts and program development. Active Duty Military Personnel (n = 248) completed a 16-item questionnaire of weight loss motivations before initiating a behavioral weight loss study. We evaluated endorsement patterns by demographic characteristics (body mass index [BMI], gender, race, ethnicity, age, and military rank). Data collection for this study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center and acknowledged by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Tennessee Health Science Center. Results indicated that improved physical health, improved fitness, improved quality of life, and to live long were endorsed as "very important" motivations by at least three-fourths of the sample. "To pass the fitness test" was endorsed less frequently as a "very important" motivation, by 69% of the sample. A greater proportion of women as compared to men endorsed being very motivated by improving mood/well-being, quality of life, physical mobility, job performance, appearance, and sex life, as well as fitting into clothes. Participants categorized in the "Other" racial group and African Americans more frequently endorsed motivations to improve fitness and physical strength when compared to Caucasians. Moreover, participants in the "Other" race category were significantly more likely to rate their ability to physically defend themselves, improve physical mobility, and improve
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Sale to employees or military personnel. 644.550... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.550 Sale to employees or military personnel. The sale of Government real property will not be made to civilian employees or military members of the...
... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing Agency: Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness; DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY... Defense announces that the Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing will meet November 18...
... of the Secretary Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Under the... Military Personnel Testing will take place. DATES: Tuesday, May 22, 2012, from 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. and...
... Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing AGENCY: Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice...D announces that the Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing will meet on July 22...
... of the Secretary Meeting of the Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing AGENCY: Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Under the...: Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing. 2. Date: Thursday, May 19, 2011 and Friday, May...
... of the Secretary Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, DoD. ACTION: Meeting... advisory committee meeting of the Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing. The purpose of...
... of the Secretary Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, DoD. ACTION: Meeting... Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing will take place. DATES: Thursday, May 9, 2013...
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing; Federal Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness... advisory committee meeting of the Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing will take place...
Wilson, Nick; Clement, Christine; Summers, Jennifer A; Bannister, John; Harper, Glyn
To identify the impact of the first world war on the lifespan of participating military personnel (including in veterans who survived the war). Comparison of two cohorts of military personnel, followed to death. Military personnel leaving New Zealand to participate in the first world war. From a dataset of the New Zealand Expeditionary Forces, we randomly selected participants who embarked on troopships in 1914 and a comparison non-combat cohort who departed on troopships in late 1918 (350 in each group). Lifespan based on dates of birth and death from a range of sources (such as individual military files and an official database of birth and death records). A quarter of the 1914 cohort died during the war, with deaths from injury predominating (94%) over deaths from disease (6%). This cohort had a significantly shorter lifespan than the late 1918 "non-combat" cohort, with median ages of death being 65.9 versus 74.2, respectively (a difference of 8.3 years shown also in Kaplan-Meier survival curves, log rank Pfirst world war in 1914 from New Zealand lost around eight years of life (relative to a comparable military cohort). In the postwar period they continued to have an increased risk of premature death. © Wilson et al 2014.
Costa, Marcos; Júnior, Horácio Accioly; Oliveira, José; Maia, Eulália
To diagnose the occurrence and stage of stress among military police enlisted personnel and officers in the city of Natal (the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil), and to determine the prevalence of physical and mental symptoms. This cross-sectional descriptive study investigated a sample of 264 individuals from a population of 3,193 military personnel from the Natal police command. The data were collected between June 2004 and January 2005 using Lipp's Adult Stress Symptoms Inventory (Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp). The research assessed: (1) presence of stress, (2) the stage of stress (alert, resistance, near-burnout, and burnout), (3) the prevalence of physical and mental symptoms, and (4) the relationship between stress and police unit, rank, gender, drinking, smoking, educational level, marital status, age, years of police service, and salary. No stress symptoms were found in 52.6% of the sample; 47.4% had symptoms. Of the 47.4% of the police personnel with stress symptoms, they were distributed as: 3.4% in the alert stage, 39.8% in the resistance stage, 3.8% in the near-burnout stage, and 0.4% in the burnout stage. Psychological symptoms were recorded in 76.0% of the police personnel with stress, and physical symptoms in 24.0% of them. Of the variables investigated, only gender was related to stress (P = 0.0337), with the female police personnel being more likely to suffer from stress. The levels of stress and symptoms do not indicate a critical situation of fatigue. However, it is recommended that the police take preventive actions, including implementing an effective program for the diagnosis of, training on, and control of stress.
Kullen, Charina J; Iredale, Laura; Prvan, Tania; O'Connor, Helen T
Sound nutrition knowledge and a balanced diet are essential for operational readiness and optimal health of military personnel. Few studies have examined nutrition knowledge in this population. To assess the level of general nutrition knowledge across military occupations (ie, officers [OFFRs], physical training instructors [PTIs], cooks [CKs], and soldiers [SOLs]) compared with a civilian, community (C) sample. Cross-sectional study. Convenience sample of Australian military (M) and C participants. General nutrition knowledge measured using the validated General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ). Knowledge scores and the influence of demographic characteristics (eg, age, sex, level of education, and living arrangement) within and between M and C groups were evaluated. Analysis of variance, general linear models, independent-samples median test, t tests, χ(2) test, and Spearman's correlation. A sample of 1,295 participants were recruited with 622 (48%) from C. The M sample (n=673) consisted of SOLs 62.1%, OFFRs 9.1%, PTIs 12.8%, and CKs 16.0%. Mean age was higher for C than M (35.5±14 y vs 29.7±9.2 y; Pmilitary personnel, nutrition education programs particularly targeted at SOLs and CKs seem warranted. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kudro, Nataliya M.; Puzikova, Svetlana M.
In the Republic of Kazakhstan military service becomes attractive primarily for that category of people who have no opportunity to acquire high quality vocational or higher education, decent income by the speciality available, or those who have not yet identified themselves professionally and socially. Its a serious problem how to ensure ability of military units to execute their service duties in conditions of more and more increasing requirements for professional competences of military personnel, increased intellectualization of military service when the quality of "human material" often is not corresponding to the required standards. This problem in the national and foreign science is still being developed and has no final solutions accessible for the scientific society. This article presents an effort to offer specialists in the military administration area one of probable tools to forecast successfulness of execution of professional tasks by military units based on results of sociometric studies and algorithms of plotting Bayesian networks. Using these tools a military leader will be able to evaluate effectiveness of his managerial activity, correct mechanisms of individual and mentoring activity with regard to individual servicemen, provide an opportunity to eliminate risks of failing to fulfill professional tasks on time and failing to ensure combat readiness of entrusted military team.
This paper examines the lives of sixty-one Canadian Nursing Sisters who served during the First World War, and whose deaths were attributed, more or less equally, to three categories: general illness, Spanish Influenza, and killed in action. The response by Canadian Army Medical Corps (CAMC) physicians to the loss of these early female officers who were, in fact, Canada's first female war casualties, suggests a gendered construction of illness at work in the CAMC. While nurses tried to prove themselves good soldiers, military physicians were quick to attribute their illnesses and deaths to horrific war conditions deemed unsuitable for women. This gendered response is particularly evident in how CAMC physicians invoked a causal role for neurasthenia or shell shock for the nurses' poor health. The health profile of these women also suggests that some of these deaths might have occurred had these women stayed in Canada, and it encourages future comparative research into death rates among physicians and orderlies.
Kanesarajah, J; Waller, M; Zheng, W Y; Dobson, A J
The benefit of military unit cohesion to morale and psychological resilience is well established. But it remains unclear whether unit cohesion modifies the association between deployment-related traumatic exposure and mental health problems. To examine the association between unit cohesion, traumatic exposure and poor mental health [symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress and alcohol dependency] and assess whether the relationship between traumatic exposure and poor mental health differs by level of unit cohesion. A self-reported cross-sectional survey of Australian military personnel deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan between 2001 and 2009. Among 11411 participants, those with low levels of unit cohesion had higher odds of PTSD symptoms [aOR (95% CI): 2.54 (1.88, 3.42)], very high psychological distress [aOR (95% CI): 4.28 (3.04, 6.02)] and a high level of alcohol problems [aOR (95% CI): 1.71 (1.32, 2.22)] compared with those reporting high unit cohesion on deployment. Higher exposure to traumatic events on deployment was associated with greater risk of PTSD symptoms, very high levels of psychological distress and high levels of alcohol problems in this cohort. However, there was no evidence of a statistically significant interaction between unit cohesion and traumatic exposures in influencing poor mental health. Our findings suggest that both unit cohesion and traumatic exposure are independently associated with poor mental health. Efforts to improve military unit cohesion may help to improve the mental health resilience of military personnel, regardless of their level of traumatic exposure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Mmari, Kristin N.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Sudhinaraset, May; Blum, Robert
The increased stress on military families during wartime can be particularly difficult for adolescents. The current study employed 11 focus groups with military youth, parents, and school personnel working with military youth to better understand how youth and their families cope with stressors faced as result of living in a military family. An…
The objective of this thesis was to examine the demographic characteristics and the drink-related determinants of alcohol use among U.S. military personnel. The data were obtained from The 1985 Worldwide Survey of Alcohol and Nonmedical Drug Use among Military Personnel which included 17,328 active duty military personnel. Analysis of Variance and Pearson r were used to examine the zero-order relationships among all independent and dependent variables in the study. Multiple Reg...
SMITH, ELIZABETH A.; Malone, Ruth E.
Smoking rates among military personnel are high, damaging health, decreasing short- and long-term troop readiness, and costing the Department of Defense (DOD). The military is an important market for the tobacco industry, which long targeted the military with cigarette promotions. Internal tobacco industry documents were examined to explore tobacco sponsorship of events targeted to military personnel. Evidence was found of more than 1,400 events held between 1980 and 1997. In 1986, the DOD is...
Petilon, Julio; Roth, Jonathan; Hardenbrook, Mitchell
Evaluation of lumbar total disc arthroplasty (TDA) in military patients. To evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of US military personnel who have undergone TDA for degenerative disc disease and to assess the retention versus discharge rate after undergoing this procedure. TDA was developed as an alternative to arthrodesis for the surgical management of degenerative disc disease with the goal of preserving motion and reducing adjacent segment disease. However, the indications and optimal candidates for this procedure are uncertain. Military members must maintain a certain level of physical fitness and be capable of meeting the demands of hazardous environments. This study reviews results of TDA performed on active duty military members. The surgery schedules from 2005 to 2008 were reviewed to identify military members who underwent single-level or 2-level TDA for degenerative disc disease after failing at least 6 months of conservative management. All patients had a minimum of 2-year follow-up. Preoperative and postoperative clinical assessments were completed using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire and the numeric rating scale (NRS). Radiographs were evaluated to determine range of motion, height, and disc position at the operated levels. The retention rate of the patients in the military was also recorded. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out with significance assumed at the P TDA. Mean age was 35 (23 to 56 y) years. Mean follow-up was 28 months. The overall mean preoperative ODI and NRS of 53.6 and 7.3, significantly improved postoperatively to 27.7 and 3.3, respectively (P TDA. Clinical success was achieved in 79% of patients. Mean range of motion was 6.5 degrees and the mean disc height increased by 69%. Sixty-eight percent of patients returned to full active duty. This study showed clinical success approaching 80% in military patients who underwent lumbar TDA. Furthermore, close to 70% were able to return to their
Donelan, Karen; Romano, Carol; Buerhaus, Peter; DesRoches, Catherine; Applebaum, Sandra; Ward, Johanna Rm; Schoneboom, Bruce A; Hinshaw, Ada Sue
The U.S. health care system is facing a projected nursing shortage of unprecedented magnitude. Although military nursing services recently have been able to meet their nursing recruitment quotas, national studies have predicted a long-term nursing shortage that may affect future recruitment for the Nurse Corps of the three military services. Data are needed to plan for recruitment incentives and the impact of those incentives on targeted populations of likely future nurses. Data are drawn from three online surveys conducted in 2011-2012, including surveys of 1,302 Army, Navy, and Air Force personnel serving on major military bases, 914 nursing students at colleges with entry Bachelor of Science in Nursing programs located nearby major military bases, and a qualitative survey of 1,200 young adults, age 18-39, in the general public. The three populations are different in several demographic characteristics. We explored perceptions of military careers, nursing careers and barriers, and incentives to pursue military nursing careers in all populations. Perceptions differ among the groups. The results of this study may help to inform strategies for reaching out to specific populations with targeted messages that focus on barriers and facilitators relevant to each to successfully recruit a diverse Nurse Corps for the future. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Bramoweth, Adam D.
Insomnia is a prevalent disorder that greatly impacts military personnel, especially those deployed in support of combat efforts. Deployment-related stressors like combat exposure, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) irregular sleep-wake schedules, and adjustment to the return home all contribute to insomnia. However, insomnia can also exacerbate the deployment experience and is a risk factor for traumatic stress reactions such as PTSD, depression, and suicide. Military personnel with mTBI are significantly impacted by insomnia; the majority experience sleep disruption and this can impede recovery and rehabilitation. As more service members return home from deployment, treatment is vital to reduce the impact of insomnia. Preliminary outcome data, showing positive results for reduction of sleep disruption, has been found with treatments such as combined cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia (CBTI) and imagery rehearsal therapy (IRT), preference-based interventions, as well as efforts to broadly disseminate CBTI. The recent literature on the impact and treatment of deployment-related insomnia is reviewed. PMID:24005883
... Aviation Regulation No. 100- 2] RIN 2120-AJ54 Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are... from U.S. military and civilian personnel (U.S. personnel) who are assigned outside the United States... for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are Assigned Outside the United States in Support of U.S...
... Aviation Regulation No. 100-2] RIN 2120-AJ54 Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are... renewals from U.S. military and civilian personnel (U.S. personnel) who are assigned outside the United... activities that have resulted in overseas assignments for both military and civilian personnel. Because of...
During a nationwide campaign to promote safety belt use among military personnel, a field study was conducted at 12 different military bases in the netherlands. Amount of enforcement, type of publicity, and incentive strategies were varied among military bases. Observations of safety belt use among
Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.
Smoking rates among military personnel are high, damaging health, decreasing short- and long-term troop readiness, and costing the Department of Defense (DOD). The military is an important market for the tobacco industry, which long targeted the military with cigarette promotions. Internal tobacco industry documents were examined to explore tobacco sponsorship of events targeted to military personnel. Evidence was found of more than 1,400 events held between 1980 and 1997. In 1986, the DOD issued a directive forbidding such special promotions; however, with the frequently eager cooperation of military personnel, they continued for more than a decade, apparently ceasing only because of the restrictions of the Master Settlement Agreement. The U.S. military collaborated with the tobacco industry for decades, creating a military culture of smoking. Reversing that process will require strong policy establishing tobacco use as unmilitary. PMID:19743733
Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E
Smoking rates among military personnel are high, damaging health, decreasing short- and long-term troop readiness, and costing the Department of Defense (DOD). The military is an important market for the tobacco industry, which long targeted the military with cigarette promotions. Internal tobacco industry documents were examined to explore tobacco sponsorship of events targeted to military personnel. Evidence was found of more than 1,400 events held between 1980 and 1997. In 1986, the DOD issued a directive forbidding such special promotions; however, with the frequently eager cooperation of military personnel, they continued for more than a decade, apparently ceasing only because of the restrictions of the Master Settlement Agreement. The U.S. military collaborated with the tobacco industry for decades, creating a military culture of smoking. Reversing that process will require strong policy establishing tobacco use as unmilitary.
Harris, E Clare; Palmer, Keith T; Cox, Vanessa; Darnton, Andrew; Osman, John; Coggon, David
While analysing trends in occupational mortality in England and Wales, we noticed an unexpectedly elevated proportion of deaths from multiple sclerosis (MS) among men in the armed forces. To document and explore possible explanations for the observed excess. We analysed data on underlying cause of death and last full-time occupation for 3,688,916 deaths among men aged 20-74 years in England and Wales during 1979-2010, calculating proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) standardised for age. We compared PMRs for MS in the armed forces with those for each main social class, and in selected other occupations. We also compared PMRs for MS with those for motor neurone disease (MND). The overall PMR for MS in the armed forces during 1979-2010 was 243 (95%CI 203-288). The excess was apparent in each of three separate decades of study (PMRs, ranging from 220 to 259), and across the entire age range. PMRs for MS were not elevated to the same extent in comparator occupations, nor in any of the main social classes. There was no parallel increase in PMRs for MND. These findings suggest that the high proportional mortality from MS in British military personnel is unlikely to have occurred by chance, or as an artefact of the method of investigation. However, the only military cohort study with published results on MS does not support an increased risk. It would be useful to analyse data on MS from other established military cohorts, to check for evidence of a hazard.
Porter, Chad K; Sorrell, Tia; Mitra, Indrani; Riddle, Mark S
Vaccination against Salmonella Typhi is one of the leading public health interventions reducing the risk of typhoid fever. There are two available licensed vaccines, Vivotif, oral live-attenuated, and Typhim Vi, intramuscular Vi capsular polysaccharide. The US military is a high risk travel population commonly vaccinated for S. Typhi. We describe the use of S. Typhi vaccination in this population and the acute reactogenicity profile of these vaccines. Data were obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System and vaccination identified between 1998 and 2011 from vaccination codes. Clinical outcomes were assessed for four weeks post vaccination. Adverse event rates and odds ratios were estimated across the two vaccine types. A total of 1.9million predominately male military personnel received 3.6 million S. Typhi vaccinations with 94.3% of vaccinees receiving the Vi capsule vaccine though variability in the vaccine administered was observed. Receipt of other vaccinations in the 6months surrounding the S. Typhi vaccine was common. Rates of nausea (195 per 100,000 vaccinations), headache (13 per 100,000 vaccinations) and fever (40 per 100,000 vaccinations) were significantly higher following Vi capsule vaccination compared to receipt of Vivotif (130, 2, 10 per 100,000 vaccinations, respectively). In contrast the rates of rash and non-infectious diarrhea (186 and 426 per 100,000 vaccinations, respectively) were increased in those receiving Vivotif compared to the Vi capsule vaccine. The US military is a major consumer of S. Typhi vaccines. The parenterally administered vaccine appears to be more amenable, though we were limited in our ability to assess the reasons for its higher usage. While we observed a higher rate of several adverse events in subjects receiving the intramuscular vaccination, the overall rate of these events was low. Future studies assessing more long-term health outcomes are warranted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Jouzdani, Saeid Rezaei; Ebrahimi, Ali; Rezaee, Maryam; Shishegar, Mehdi; Tavallaii, Abbas; Kaka, Gholamreza
The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of posttraumatic headache attributed to mild brain injury in military personnel in Iran within a prospective and observational study design. A prospective observational descriptive study was conducted with a cohort of military personnel under military education during a 6-month period at the Military Education Center in Isfahan, Iran. 322 military personnel under education were selected randomly and were given a 13-item mild brain injury questionnaire accompanied with affective disorders and headache questionnaires and were reevaluated after a 3-month interval. A total of 30 (9.3 %) of the 322 military personnel met criteria for a mild brain injury. Among them, 18 personnel (60 %) reported having headaches during the 3-month reevaluation. PTHs defined as headaches beginning within 1 week after a head trauma were present in 5.6 % of military personnel under study during 6 months. In total, 67 % of posttraumatic headaches (PTH) were classified as migrainous or possible migrainous features. Patients with affective disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression were at a higher risk for developing PTH following mild brain injury (p military personnel. Migrainous features are predominant among them in comparison with the general population. PTH is not related to a type of trauma, but has association with affective disorders.
Abel, Sharon M
.... They also completed a 56-item questionnaire relating to demographics, occupational and non occupational noise exposure history, training in and utilization of personal hearing protection, and risk...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overseas Military Personnel Charter... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS OVERSEAS MILITARY PERSONNEL CHARTERS Pt. 372, App. A Appendix A to Part 372—Overseas Military Personnel Charter Operator's Surety Bond Under Part 372 of the...
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to conceptualize, contextualize, and critically analyze the Canadian Armed Forces’ (CAF use of YouTube to promote itself, recruit soldiers, and frame its role in the post-9/11 U.S.-led NATO war in Afghanistan. The first section of this paper engages with scholarship on war and the media, the military-industrial-communications complex (MICC, and YouTube War to conceptualize YouTube as a tool and contested battle-space of 21st century new media wars. The second section contextualizes the rise of the CAF’s YouTube channels—Canadian Forces and Canadian Army—with regard to post-9/11 Canadian foreign policy, the growth of the Canadian military publicity state, the creeping militarization of culture, and the CAF’s “social media policy”. The third section conceptualizes the CAF’s two YouTube channels as tools and spaces of its publicity front; then, through a synoptic critical overview of numerous CAF-generated YouTube videos, it shows how the CAF uses YouTube to recruit personnel and frame its role in the war in Afghanistan. The conclusion discusses the characteristics of this cross-border military-social media complex and its contradictions, namely, the spread of pacifist and veteran-generated videos that contest the war in Afghanistan. Overall, the paper offers an initial political-economy of communication of the CAF’s foray into the global battle-space of the Internet and its use of YouTube for publicity.
de Burgh, H Thomas; White, Claire J; Fear, Nicola T; Iversen, Amy C
Deployment has well documented psychological consequences for military personnel. To fully understand the human cost of war, the psychosocial impact of separation and homecoming of military personnel on their families must also be considered. Recent arduous conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan make understanding the impact of war on spouses topical and pertinent. Widespread psychological morbidity and social dysfunction have been reported in spouses of military personnel who have been deployed to combat zones such as Vietnam, with difficulties most acute for spouses of military personnel with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A review of the literature published between 2001 and 2010 assessing the impact of deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan on spouses of military personnel was conducted. A total of 14 US-based studies were identified which examined psychological morbidity, help seeking, marital dysfunction and stress in spouses. Longer deployments, deployment extensions and PTSD in military personnel were found to be associated with psychological problems for the spouse. Methodological differences in the studies limit direct comparisons. Recommendations for future research are outlined. The needs of spouses of military personnel remain an important issue with implications for service provision and occupational capability of both partners.
Ramchand, Rajeev; Miles, Jeremy; Schell, Terry; Jaycox, Lisa; Marshall, Grant N.; Tanielian, Terri
We examined drinking behaviors (frequency of use, quantity of use, and frequency of binge drinking) and correlates of frequency of use and binge drinking in a representative sample of previously deployed personnel from the US military (n = 1887). Drinking behaviors were compared with a matched sample of adults in U.S. households (n = 17,533). Comparable patterns of alcohol consumption were reported in both samples: 70% of previously deployed personnel and 69% of US adults reported drinking alcohol in the past 30 days though, civilians drank on average more drinks on the days that they drank than did previously deployed military personnel. Regression analyses indicated that among previously deployed military personnel, deployment-related experiences (e.g., combat-related traumas) and psychological distress (e.g., symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder) were associated with frequency of drinking behaviors. We discuss the implication of our findings for developing interventions to modify drinking behaviors for military personnel. PMID:25324594
Sareen, Jitender; Belik, Shay-Lee; Stein, Murray B; Asmundson, Gordon J G
There is increasing concern about mental health problems and need for mental health care among soldiers after deployment. This study examined correlates of self-perceived need for mental health care among active military personnel. Data were from a 2002 cross-sectional population-based survey of 8,441 active Canadian military personnel (2,592 women) aged 16 to 54 (response rate 81%). A fully structured lay-administered interview for past-year DSM-IV mental disorders and perceived need for mental health care was conducted. Five domains of self-perceived need were assessed: information, medication, counseling, social intervention, and skills training. Several deployment factors were assessed (length of deployment, number of deployments, and exposure to deployment-related traumatic events), as were long-term restriction in activities because of disability and suicidal ideation. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine correlates of perceived need. After adjustment for mental disorders, the strongest and most consistent correlates of perceived need were long-term restriction in activities, suicidal ideation, female gender, and regular service status (versus reserve status) (adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.28 to 4.37). Deployment and exposure to combat and witnessing atrocities were moderately associated with an increase in self-perceived need for mental health care. The findings suggest that a range of issues beyond the presence of common mental disorders need to be considered in understanding the factors that contribute to a sense of need for mental health treatment. Postdeployment screening programs should consider systematically assessing self-perceived need for mental health treatment.
Sareen, J; Henriksen, C A; Bolton, S L; Afifi, T O; Stein, M B; Asmundson, G J G
Although it has been posited that exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increases vulnerability to deployment stress, previous literature in this area has demonstrated conflicting results. Using a cross-sectional population-based sample of active military personnel, the present study examined the relationship between ACEs, deployment related stressors and mood and anxiety disorders. Data were analyzed from the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey-Canadian Forces Supplement (CCHS-CFS; n = 8340, age 18-54 years, response rate 81%). The following ACEs were self-reported retrospectively: childhood physical abuse, childhood sexual abuse, economic deprivation, exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce/separation, parental substance abuse problems, hospitalization as a child, and apprehension by a child protection service. DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders [major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic attacks/disorder and social phobia] were assessed using the composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI). Even after adjusting for the effects of deployment-related traumatic exposures (DRTEs), exposure to ACEs was significantly associated with past-year mood or anxiety disorder among men [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.34, 99% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.73, p military personnel. Intervention strategies to prevent mental health problems should consider the utility of targeting soldiers with exposure to ACEs.
Kamimori, G. H.; Reilly, L. A.; LaValle, C. R.; Olaghere Da Silva, U. B.
Military and law enforcement personnel may be routinely and repetitively exposed to low-level blast (LLB) overpressure during training and in operations. This repeated exposure has been associated with symptoms similar to that reported for sports concussion. This study reports LLB exposure for various military and law enforcement sources in operational training environments. Peak overpressure and impulse data are presented from indoor breaching, outdoor breaching, shotgun door breaching, small arms discharge, and mortar and artillery fire missions. Data were collected using the Black Box Biometrics (B3) Blast Gauge sensors. In all cases, sensors were attached to the operators and, where possible, also statically mounted to walls or other fixed structures. Peak overpressures from below 1 psi (7 kPa) to over 12 psi (83 kPa) were recorded; all values reported are uncorrected for incidence angle to the blast exposure source. The results of these studies indicate that the current minimum safe distance calculations are often inaccurate for both indoor and outdoor breaching scenarios as true environmental exposure can consistently exceed the 4 psi (28 kPa) incident safe threshold prescribed by U.S. Army doctrine. While ballistic (shotgun) door breaching and small arms firing only expose the operator to low peak exposure levels, the sheer number of rounds fired during training may result in an excessive cumulative exposure. Mortar and artillery crew members received significantly different overpressure and impulse exposures based on their position (job) relative to the weapon. As both the artillery and mortar crews commonly fire hundreds of rounds during a single training session they are also likely to receive high cumulative exposures. These studies serve to provide the research community with estimates for typical operator exposure across a range of operational scenarios or in the discharge of various weapons systems.
Kamimori, G. H.; Reilly, L. A.; LaValle, C. R.; Olaghere Da Silva, U. B.
Military and law enforcement personnel may be routinely and repetitively exposed to low-level blast (LLB) overpressure during training and in operations. This repeated exposure has been associated with symptoms similar to that reported for sports concussion. This study reports LLB exposure for various military and law enforcement sources in operational training environments. Peak overpressure and impulse data are presented from indoor breaching, outdoor breaching, shotgun door breaching, small arms discharge, and mortar and artillery fire missions. Data were collected using the Black Box Biometrics (B3) Blast Gauge sensors. In all cases, sensors were attached to the operators and, where possible, also statically mounted to walls or other fixed structures. Peak overpressures from below 1 psi (7 kPa) to over 12 psi (83 kPa) were recorded; all values reported are uncorrected for incidence angle to the blast exposure source. The results of these studies indicate that the current minimum safe distance calculations are often inaccurate for both indoor and outdoor breaching scenarios as true environmental exposure can consistently exceed the 4 psi (28 kPa) incident safe threshold prescribed by U.S. Army doctrine. While ballistic (shotgun) door breaching and small arms firing only expose the operator to low peak exposure levels, the sheer number of rounds fired during training may result in an excessive cumulative exposure. Mortar and artillery crew members received significantly different overpressure and impulse exposures based on their position (job) relative to the weapon. As both the artillery and mortar crews commonly fire hundreds of rounds during a single training session they are also likely to receive high cumulative exposures. These studies serve to provide the research community with estimates for typical operator exposure across a range of operational scenarios or in the discharge of various weapons systems.
Sundin, Josefin; Herrell, Richard K; Hoge, Charles W; Fear, Nicola T; Adler, Amy B; Greenberg, Neil; Riviere, Lyndon A; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Wessely, Simon; Bliese, Paul D
.... To compare the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), hazardous alcohol consumption, aggressive behaviour and multiple physical symptoms in US and UK military personnel deployed to Iraq...
Jian-he XIAO; Zhang, Mao-Nian; Cai-hui JIANG; Zhang, Ying; QIU Huai-yu
【Abstract】Objective: To investigate the relation-ship between eye injury and laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery in military personnel. Methods: This retrospective study collected the data from 27 evacuation hospitals of Chinese army. All medical records of eye injuries in military personnel admitted to the 27 hospitals between January 2006 and December 2010 were reviewed. Patients’ detailed information was analyzed, in-cluding the injury time, place, type, ca...
dos al personal militar de esta región deben incorporar como temas esenciales la coacción sexual y la salud mental. Conducta sexual ; personal militar...Rev Panam Salud Publica 28(5), 2010 361 Sexual risk behavior among military personnel stationed at border-crossing zones in the Dominican Republic...Michael P. Anastario,1 Maria Isabel Tavarez,2 and Helen Chun3 Objective. To estimate the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors among military personnel
Thandi, Gursimran; Oram, S; Verey, A; Greenberg, N; Fear, N T
Currently, there is no research available on the experiences of spouses providing informal care to wounded, injured or sick (WIS) UK military personnel. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by investigating the relationship experiences of non-military partners caring for WIS UK military personnel. Spouses of WIS military personnel (n=25) completed telephone interviews with the research team. The data were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The transcripts were cross-coded and checked for inter-rater reliability. Six major themes were identified: (1) communication between couples, (2) adverse family environment, (3) reintegration, (4) intimacy, (5) financial uncertainty and (6) transition from partner to caregiver. Partners caring for injured/ill military personnel appear to be at risk of experiencing personal distress caused by impaired relationship functioning, which may lead to diminished physical and mental well-being. Partners of WIS military personnel experience significant levels of distress and burden associated with caregiving in the form of arguments with the military partner, problems in reintegration and a lack of physical and emotional intimacy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Porter, Ben; Bonanno, George A; Frasco, Melissa A; Dursa, Erin K; Boyko, Edward J
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious mental illness that affects current and former military service members at a disproportionately higher rate than the civilian population. Prior studies have shown that PTSD symptoms follow multiple trajectories in civilians and military personnel. The current study examines whether the trajectories of PTSD symptoms of veterans separated from the military are similar to continuously serving military personnel. The Millennium Cohort Study is a population-based study of military service members that commenced in 2001 with follow-up assessments occurring approximately every 3 years thereafter. PTSD symptoms were assessed at each time point using the PTSD Checklist. Latent growth mixture modeling was used to compare PTSD symptom trajectories between personnel who separated (veterans; n = 5292) and personnel who remained in military service (active duty; n = 16,788). Four distinct classes (resilient, delayed-onset, improving, and elevated-recovering) described PTSD symptoms trajectories in both veterans and active duty personnel. Trajectory shapes were qualitatively similar between active duty and veterans. However, within the resilient, improving, and elevated recovering classes, the shapes were statistically different. Although the low-symptom class was the most common in both groups (veterans: 82%; active duty: 87%), veterans were more likely to be classified in the other three classes (in all cases, p military and civilian life. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Background: The peculiar characteristics of a military career, such as the specific professional military aims or tasks, working environment, strict subordination typical to military structures and formal and informal relationships, influence the type of coping strategies employed by individuals. The authors present the first study ...
Hourani, Laurel L.; Williams, Jason; Forman-Hoffman, Valerie; Lane, Marian E.; Weimer, Belinda; Bray, Robert M.
Understanding the role of spirituality as a potential coping mechanism for military personnel is important given growing concern about the mental health issues of personnel returning from war. This study seeks to determine the extent to which spirituality is associated with selected mental health problems among active duty military personnel and whether it moderates the relationship between combat exposure/deployment and (a) depression, (b) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and (c) suicidality in active duty military personnel. Data were drawn from the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel. Over 24,000 randomly selected active duty personnel worldwide completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire. High spirituality had a significant protective effect only for depression symptoms. Medium, as opposed to high or low, levels of spirituality buffered each of the mental health outcomes to some degree. Medium and low spirituality levels predicted depression symptoms but only among those with moderate combat exposure. Medium spirituality levels also predicted PTSD symptoms among those with moderate levels of combat exposure and predicted self-reported suicidal ideation/attempt among those never deployed. These results point to the complex relationship between spirituality and mental health, particularly among military personnel and the need for further research. PMID:22778931
Laurel L. Hourani
Full Text Available Understanding the role of spirituality as a potential coping mechanism for military personnel is important given growing concern about the mental health issues of personnel returning from war. This study seeks to determine the extent to which spirituality is associated with selected mental health problems among active duty military personnel and whether it moderates the relationship between combat exposure/deployment and (a depression, (b posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and (c suicidality in active duty military personnel. Data were drawn from the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel. Over 24,000 randomly selected active duty personnel worldwide completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire. High spirituality had a significant protective effect only for depression symptoms. Medium, as opposed to high or low, levels of spirituality buffered each of the mental health outcomes to some degree. Medium and low spirituality levels predicted depression symptoms but only among those with moderate combat exposure. Medium spirituality levels also predicted PTSD symptoms among those with moderate levels of combat exposure and predicted self-reported suicidal ideation/attempt among those never deployed. These results point to the complex relationship between spirituality and mental health, particularly among military personnel and the need for further research.
Full Text Available Certain occupational and geographical exposures have been associated with an increased risk of lung disease. As a baseline for future studies, we sought to characterize the upper respiratory microbiomes of healthy military personnel in a garrison environment. Nasal, oropharyngeal, and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 50 healthy active duty volunteers eight times over the course of one year (1107 swabs, completion rate = 92.25% and subjected to pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rDNA. Respiratory bacterial taxa were characterized at the genus level, using QIIME 1.8 and the Ribosomal Database Project classifier. High levels of Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, and Propionibacterium were observed among both nasal and nasopharyngeal microbiota, comprising more than 75% of all operational taxonomical units (OTUs. In contrast, Streptococcus was the sole dominant bacterial genus (approximately 50% of all OTUs in the oropharynx. The average bacterial diversity was greater in the oropharynx than in the nasal or nasopharyngeal region at all time points. Diversity analysis indicated a significant overlap between nasal and nasopharyngeal samples, whereas oropharyngeal samples formed a cluster distinct from these two regions. The study produced a large set of pyrosequencing data on the V1-V3 region of bacterial 16S rDNA for the respiratory microbiomes of healthy active duty Service Members. Pre-processing of sequencing reads showed good data quality. The derived microbiome profiles were consistent both internally and with previous reports, suggesting their utility for further analyses and association studies based on sequence and demographic data.
Mansfield, Alyssa J.; Bender, Randall H.; Hourani, Laurel L.; Larson, Gerald E.
Suicides have markedly increased among military personnel in recent years. We used path analysis to examine factors associated with suicidal/self-harming ideation among male Navy and Marine Corps personnel transitioning to civilian life. Roughly 7% of men (Sailors = 5.3%, Marines = 9.0%) reported ideation during the previous 30 days. Results…
Murtazina, Elmira I.; Minullina, Aida F.
An urgent demand of society to conduct effective work with the family substantiates the relevance of the research. The article provides the investigation of role sets and emotional relationships in marriage through the study of military personnel and nonmilitary personnel families. Practical implementation of psychological ideas represents one of…
component military personnel, military retired members, DOD civilian personnel (including foreign -national direct and indirect hires, as well as...1) limited awareness of some food assistance programs (2) stigma associated with receiving food assistance; and (3) misconceptions about military...that they believe a societal stigma exists generally for those who use food assistance. Officials at one installation added that the self- sufficient
Villar,Livia M.; Kycia Maria R. do Ó; Scalioni, Leticia P.; Cruz, Helena M.; Moyra M. Portilho; Mendonça, Ana Carolina F.; Miguel,Juliana C.; Figueiredo, Andreza S.; de Almeida, Adilson J; Lampe, Elisabeth
Background: Data regarding Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) prevalence among military personnel in Brazil are lacking, but the work-related risk of exposure can be high. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV and the risk factors associated to HBV exposure among Brazilian military personnel.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted and included 433 male military adults aged 18-25 years old working in Rio de Janeiro during October 2013. All in...
importance of ethics and professionalism to departmental personnel. A timeline of key ethics and professionalism events and communications since 2007 is...MILITARY PERSONNEL Additional Steps Are Needed to Strengthen DOD’s Oversight of Ethics and Professionalism Issues...MILITARY PERSONNEL Additional Steps Are Needed to Strengthen DOD’s Oversight of Ethics and Professionalism Issues Why GAO Did This Study
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests by Federal authorities for military personnel stationed within the United States and its possessions. 884.6 Section 884.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO...
Mysliwiec, Vincent; McGraw, Leigh; Pierce, Roslyn; Smith, Patrick; Trapp, Brandon; Roth, Bernard J.
Study Objectives: Describe the prevalence of sleep disorders in military personnel referred for polysomnography and identify relationships between demographic characteristics, comorbid diagnoses, and specific sleep disorders. Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting: Military medical treatment facility. Participants: Active duty military personnel with diagnostic polysomnogram in 2010. Measurements: Primary sleep disorder rendered by review of polysomnogram and medical record by a board certified sleep medicine physician. Demographic characteristics and conditions of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), anxiety, depression, and pain syndromes determined by medical record review. Results: Primary sleep diagnoses (n = 725) included: mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 207 (27.2%); insomnia, 188 (24.7%); moderate-to-severe OSA, 183 (24.0 %); and paradoxical insomnia,39 (5.1%); behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome, 68 (8.9%) and snoring, 40 (5.3%) comprised our control group. Short sleep duration (military personnel who undergo polysomnography with significant associations between PTSD, pain syndromes, and insomnia. Despite having sleep disorders, almost half reported short sleep duration. Multidisciplinary assessment and treatment of military personnel with sleep disorders and service-related illnesses are required. Citation: Mysliwiec V; McGraw L; Pierce R; Smith P; Trapp B; Roth BJ. Sleep disorders and associated medical comorbidities in active duty military personnel. SLEEP 2013;36(2):167-174. PMID:23372263
Newman, Edmund N C; Johnstone, Penelope; Bridge, Hannah; Wright, Deborah; Jameson, Lisa; Bosworth, Andrew; Hatch, Rebecca; Hayward-Karlsson, Jenny; Osborne, Jane; Bailey, Mark S; Green, Andrew; Ross, David; Brooks, Tim; Hewson, Roger
Military personnel are at high risk of contracting vector-borne and zoonotic infections, particularly during overseas deployments, when they may be exposed to endemic or emerging infections not prevalent in their native countries. We conducted seroprevalence testing of 467 UK military personnel deployed to Helmand Province, Afghanistan, during 2008-2011 and found that up to 3.1% showed seroconversion for infection with Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, sandfly fever virus, or hantavirus; none showed seroconversion for infection with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Most seroconversions occurred in personnel who did not report illness, except for those with hantavirus (70% symptomatic). These results indicate that many exposures to infectious pathogens, and potentially infections resulting from those exposures, may go unreported. Our findings reinforce the need for continued surveillance of military personnel and for education of health care providers to help recognize and prevent illnesses and transmission of pathogens during and after overseas deployments.
Proctor, Susan P; Nieto, Kenneth; Heaton, Kristin J; Dillon, Caitlin C; Schlegel, Robert E; Russell, Michael L; Vincent, Andrea S
This study examined the neurocognitive performance of U.S. military personnel completing the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (version 4) TBI Military (ANAM4 TBI-MIL) battery as part of the Department of Defense Neurocognitive Functional Assessment Program. Descriptive analyses utilizing the ANAM4TBI Military Performance Database were performed. We examined ANAM Composite Score (ACS) differences between five injury subgroups (no injury, brain injury with current symptoms, brain injury without current symptoms, nonbrain injury with current symptoms, and nonbrain injury without current symptoms) using general linear mixed modeling. Almost 11% (70,472/641,285) reported brain injury in the 4 years before assessment. The ACS differed significantly by injury group (p military personnel, neurocognitive performance was significantly associated with reported injury within the past 4 years among those experiencing current symptoms. Occupational programs focusing on prospective brain health of injured population groups are warranted. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Mun, Y.; Hulst, A.H. van der; Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Jetten, A.M.; Bosch, K. van den; Schraagen, J.M.C.
As the world in the 21st century has become more dynamic and unpredictable, the need for adaptive behavior in the military is of increasing importance. A serious game (SG) seems to be a suitable intervention for improving adaptability to prepare the military to deal with unpredictability. The
Haddock, Christopher K.; Poston, Walker S.C.; Heinrich, Katie M.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Jitnarin, Nattinee
High intensity functional training (HIFT) programs are designed to address multiple fitness domains, potentially providing improved physical and mental readiness in a changing operational environment. Programs consistent with HIFT principals such as CrossFit, SEALFIT and the US Marine Corps’ High Intensity Tactical Training (HITT) program are increasingly popular among military personnel. This article reviews the practical, health, body composition, and military fitness implications of HIFT exercise programs. We conclude that, given the unique benefits of HIFT, the military should consider evaluating whether these programs should be the standard for military fitness training. PMID:27849484
Wise, Jimmie I.
MBA Professional Report Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This project compared risk, insurance benefits and motivation factors for contractors and U.S. Military personnel serving in Iraq and Afghanistan from 2009 to 2011. More contractors were killed than military personnel from January to June 2010 (Schooner and Swan, 2010). Findings revealed the following (1) contractors' medical insurance benefits were equitable to the U.S. Military personnel, (2) real inequity e...
Mysliwiec, Vincent; Matsangas, Panagiotis; Baxter, Tristin; McGraw, Leigh; Bothwell, Nici E; Roth, Bernard J
Military personnel undergoing polysomnography are typically diagnosed only with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Comorbid insomnia with OSA is a well-established, underappreciated diagnosis. We sought to determine if military personnel with mild OSA met clinical criteria for insomnia and if there was a pattern of polysomnogram (PSG) variables that identified insomnia in these patients. Retrospective chart review of military personnel with mild OSA; cluster analysis to describe PSG variables. 206 personnel assessed, predominately male (96.6%), mean age 36.5 ± 8.14 years, body mass index 30.2 ± 3.66 kg/m(2) and apnea hypopnea index of 8.44 ± 2.92 per hour; 167 (81.1%) met criteria for insomnia. Cluster analysis identified a group of patients (N = 52) with PSG variables of increased wakefulness after sleep onset 77.3 minutes (27.7) (p military personnel with mild OSA meet criteria for insomnia. Roughly one-third of these patients can be identified by a pattern of PSG variables. Recognizing and treating both comorbid insomnia and OSA could improve clinical outcomes. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Bolekhan, V N; Zagorodnikov, G G; Gorichnyĭ, V A; Orlova, E S; Nikolaev, P G
An analysis of regulatory documents of the Ministry of Healthcare and the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation related to HIV/AIDS prevention was carried out. The current system of HIV/AIDS detection and registration among military and civil personnel was assessed. Problems and prospects of scientific-and-research laboratory (the register of infectious disease pathology and HIV-infected military personnel) of Scientific-and-research centre at the Kirov Military medical academy were discussed. It is proposed that the main direction of the laboratory activity will be the restoration of up-to-date records of military personnel with HIV/AIDS. This activity will provide the necessary information to responsible specialists of the Main state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance centre and the Main military medical department of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation for the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance for purposeful and economically feasible management decisions in the field of military personnel infection diseases prevention.
Full Text Available Objective To develop Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scaleand verify its reliability and validity. Methods The Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scalewas initiated, organized and compiled based upon open-ended questionnaire survey done in a systematic manner, and previous researches were taken as references. A total of 630 military personnel were chosen by random cluster sampling and tested with the Scale, among them 50 were tested with Social Support Rating Scale(SSRS and Chinese Military Psychosomatic Health Scale(CMPHS simultaneously, and the test was done solely a second time with CMPHS 2 weeks later. The reliability and validity were assessed and verified by exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and correlation analysis. Results The Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scalecomprised three factors, namely subjective support, objective support and utility of social support. Eighteen items were left in official scale after amendment by factor analysis, and one lying subscale was added. The correlation coefficients between the public factors ranged from 0.477 to 0.589 (P<0.01, and the correlation coefficients between factors and total scale ranged from 0.721 to 0.823 (P<0.01. The test-retest correlation coefficients of total scale and subscales ranged from 0.622 to 0.803 (P<0.01, the Cronbach α coefficients ranged from 0.624 to 0.874, and the split-half correlation coefficients ranged from 0.551 to 0.828. Significant correlation existed between this Scale and two criterion scales, namely SSRS and CMPHS. Conclusion It is verified that the Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scalehas excellent reliability and validity, and complying with psychometric standards, it may be used to evaluate the social support level of Chinese military personnel.
Ayala, Elizabeth; Carnero, Andrés M
Evidence on the prevalence and determinants of burnout among military acute and critical care nursing personnel from developing countries is minimal, precluding the development of effective preventive...
Sundin, Josefin; Herrell, Richard K; Hoge, Charles W; Fear, Nicola T; Adler, Amy B; Greenberg, Neil; Riviere, Lyndon A; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Wessely, Simon; Bliese, Paul D
Research of military personnel who deployed to the conflicts in Iraq or Afghanistan has suggested that there are differences in mental health outcomes between UK and US military personnel. To compare the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), hazardous alcohol consumption, aggressive behaviour and multiple physical symptoms in US and UK military personnel deployed to Iraq. Data were from one US (n = 1560) and one UK (n = 313) study of post-deployment military health of army personnel who had deployed to Iraq during 2007-2008. Analyses were stratified by high- and low-combat exposure. Significant differences in combat exposure and sociodemographics were observed between US and UK personnel; controlling for these variables accounted for the difference in prevalence of PTSD, but not in the total symptom level scores. Levels of hazardous alcohol consumption (low-combat exposure: odds ratio (OR) = 0.13, 95% CI 0.07-0.21; high-combat exposure: OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.14-0.39) and aggression (low-combat exposure: OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.19-0.68) were significantly lower in US compared with UK personnel. There was no difference in multiple physical symptoms. Differences in self-reported combat exposures explain most of the differences in reported prevalence of PTSD. Adjusting for self-reported combat exposures and sociodemographics did not explain differences in hazardous alcohol consumption or aggression.
Kristy N. Kamarck. CRS Report RL34397, Traditional and Roth Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs): A Primer, by John J. Topoleski. Previously discussed...either civilian or military providers. Non-formulary medicines generally are not available at military pharmacies. It is DOD policy to use generic...requires most males between the ages of 18 and 26 who are citizens or residents of the United States to register with Selective Service. Women in the
dental care),7 other families may find the multiple challenges involved in military life too much to endure. If all the negative factors taken together...enjoy an opportunity of serving in the military along with other benefits (e.g., education, housing, medical and dental care),5 other families may...activities outside home are both 31 psychologically and physically healthier ( Barnett and Hyde, 2001). In addition, the income that spouses earn enhances
In the wake of recent wars, some military personnel face considerable physical and mental health problems. In this article I explore the effects of an adapted sport and inclusive adventurous training course for military personnel who have experienced physical injury and/or psychological trauma. Using a dialogical narrative approach, I analyzed stories shared by six soldiers during the course to explore the effects of involvement. Participation in the course seemed to facilitate a narrative transformation or opening corresponding to a broadening identity and sense of self. Story plots progressed from a failing monological narrative, through a chaos narrative, toward a dialogical quest narrative prioritizing immersion in an intense present, a developing self, and a relational orientation. On the basis of narrative theory, I suggest this transformation holds positive consequences for the health and well-being of military personnel who have experienced injury and/or trauma. © The Author(s) 2014.
Chun, Helen; Tavarez, Maria I; Dann, Grace E; Anastario, Michael P
To determine whether self-reported sexual behavior and mental health varied by interviewer gender in a population of male military personnel. Eight male and six female data collectors verbally administered structured interviews to 474 male Dominican military personnel stationed at border crossing zones in the Dominican Republic. Measurements included sexual behaviors and mental health. Respondents were less likely to report oral and vaginal sex to male interviewers, and were more likely to report sexual coercion and alcohol abuse to male interviewers. Respondents were more likely to report depression and post-traumatic stress disorder to female interviewers. Interviewer gender influenced the prevalence of sexual behaviors and mental health, which carries implications for future research in military personnel.
The accuracy of reported personnel strength and training participation rates has a direct impact on the reliability of the Army National Guard's budget and the allocation of funds to individual states...
Ovchinnikov, Iu V; Azarov, I I; Kuvshinov, K É; Ogarkov, P I; Zhdanov, K V; Zaĭtsev, A A; Afonaskov, O V
Respiratory diseases for many years in the Armed Forces of the Russian occupy the leading position in the structure of the pathology of internal organs. Preventive measures to prevention of the emergence and spread of acute respiratory infections among soldiers can help to reduce the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia in the armed forces. Particular attention is drawn to the control of the conditions of accommodation, food and combat training of military personnel, as well as the implementation of the commanders of their duties. Shows typical action plans for the prevention of outbreaks of infectious diseases of the respiratory tract in military units and algorithms for the treatment of respiratory infections in military personnel in military units and hospitals.
Gates, Margaret A; Holowka, Darren W; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Keane, Terence M; Marx, Brian P; Rosen, Raymond C
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that affects 7-8% of the general U.S. population at some point during their lifetime; however, the prevalence is much higher among certain subgroups, including active duty military personnel and veterans. In this article, we review the empirical literature on the epidemiology and screening of PTSD in military and veteran populations, including the availability of sensitive and reliable screening tools. Although estimates vary across studies, evidence suggests that the prevalence of PTSD in deployed U.S. military personnel may be as high as 14-16%. Prior studies have identified trauma characteristics and pre- and posttrauma factors that increase risk of PTSD among veterans and military personnel. This information may help to inform prevention and screening efforts, as screening programs could be targeted to high-risk populations. Large-scale screening efforts have recently been implemented by the U.S. Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs. Given the prevalence and potential consequences of PTSD among veterans and active duty military personnel, development and continued evaluation of effective screening methods is an important public health need.
Bryan, Craig J; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie; Morrow, Chad E; Etienne, Neysa
Suicide rates in the U.S. military have been rising rapidly in the past decade. Research suggests guilt is a significant predictor of suicidal ideation among military personnel, and may be especially pronounced among those who have been exposure to combat-related traumas. The current study explored the interactive effect of direct combat exposure and guilt on suicidal ideation in a clinical sample of military personnel. Ninety-seven active duty U.S. Air Force personnel receiving outpatient mental health treatment at two military clinics completed self-report symptom measures of guilt, depression, hopelessness, perceived burdensomeness, posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicidal ideation. Generalized multiple regression analyses indicated a significant interaction of guilt and direct combat exposure (B=.124, SE=.053, p=.020), suggesting a stronger relationship of guilt with suicidal ideation among participants who had direct combat exposure as compared to those who had not. The interactions of direct combat exposure with depression (B=.004, SE=.040, p=.926), PTSD symptoms (B=.016, SE=.018, p=.382), perceived burdensomeness (B=.159, SE=.152, p=.300) and hopelessness (B=.069, SE=.036, p=.057) were nonsignificant. Although guilt is associated with more severe suicidal ideation in general among military personnel, it is especially pronounced among those who have had direct combat exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Holloway, Julie; Everly, George S
Mental health services for veterans of humanitarian assistance (HA) missions is a critical and growing need within the United States military. The mental health impacts of such missions are both similar to and different from those experienced on combat missions, and may have an equally significant impact on the health and wellness of our troops. As the US military increasingly deploys humanitarian teams on both peacetime and contingency missions, this need can be expected to grow and must be addressed with more research and more attention to prevention, screening, and treatment. In this paper we will present a brief summary of the possible mental health effects of military HA missions, and propose remedies to address the adverse conditions that may arise in the pre-deployment, deployment, and redeployment settings.
DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE 59TH MEDICAL WING (AETC) JOINT BASE SAN ANTONIO - LACKLAND TEXAS MEMORANDUM FOR SGOM5E ATTN: LT COL IRENE FOLARON...on Diabetes Mellitus in Air Force Personnel presented at/published to American Diabetes Association, Orlando, FL, 1 April 2017 & San Antonio...Military Deployment on Diabetes Mellitus in Active Duty Air Force Personnel 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Diabetes in Combat: E
Trautmann, S; Goodwin, L; Höfler, M; Jacobi, F; Strehle, J; Zimmermann, P; Wittchen, H-U
Provision and need for mental health services among military personnel are a major concern across nations. Two recent comparisons suggest higher rates of mental disorders in US and UK military personnel compared with civilians. However, these findings may not apply to other nations. Previous studies have focused on the overall effects of military service rather than the separate effects of military service and deployment. This study compared German military personnel with and without a history of deployment to sociodemographically matched civilians regarding prevalence and severity of 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. 1439 deployed soldiers (DS), 779 never deployed soldiers (NS) and 1023 civilians were assessed with an adapted version of the Munich Composite International Diagnostic interview across the same timeframe. Data were weighted using propensity score methodology to assure comparability of the three samples. Compared with adjusted civilians, the prevalence of any 12-month disorder was lower in NS (OR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5-0.99) and did not differ in DS. Significant differences between military personnel and civilians regarding prevalence and severity of individual diagnoses were only apparent for alcohol (DS: OR: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.6; NS: OR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1-0.6) and nicotine dependence (DS: OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.6; NS: OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.7) with lower values in both military samples. Elevated rates of panic/agoraphobia (OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.3) and posttraumatic stress disorder (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.3-8.0) were observed in DS with high combat exposure compared with civilians. Rates and severity of mental disorders in the German military are comparable with civilians for internalising and lower for substance use disorders. A higher risk of some disorders is reduced to DS with high combat exposure. This finding has implications for mental health service provision and the need for targeted interventions. Differences to previous US and UK studies that
answered ’No’, please SKIP to question 7. 6. If you have children, how old are they (e.g., 2, 3 and 5)? We are interested in what you do in the military... breakfast daily? CJ CJ C) C) C) - - 17. How would you rate your overall health at the present time? Poor Somewhat Poor Decent Good Excellent C) C) C) C...relationship CJ CJ Ifyou answered ’Married’, please SKIP to question 30. Married CJ We are interested in military members’ experiences with and views
Osório, Carlos; Jones, Norman; Fertout, Mohammed; Greenberg, Neil
Perceived stigma and organizational barriers to care (stigma/BTC) can influence the decision to seek help for military personnel when they are suffering from mental health problems. We examined the relationship between stigmatizing beliefs, perceived BTC, and probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 23,101 UK military personnel deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq both during and after deployment; and in a smaller group some six months later. Overall, our results suggest that stigma/BTC perceptions were significantly, and substantially higher during deployment than when personnel are returning home; however, within the smaller follow-up group, the rates climbed significantly over the first six-months post-deployment although they still remained lower than during-deployment levels. Male personnel, those who reported higher levels of PTSD symptoms and/or greater combat exposure were significantly more likely to endorse more stigma/BTC at both sampling points. Rates of stigma/BTC on deployment are substantially higher than rates measured when personnel are in less threatening environments. We suggest that the considerable efforts that military forces make to encourage effective help seeking should take account of the fluctuating levels of stigma/BTC. Commanders should be aware that encouraging help seeking may be more difficult in operational environments than when personnel have returned home.
Heesink, Lieke; Rademaker, Arthur; Vermetten, Eric; Geuze, Elbert; Kleber, Rolf|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069316929
Increases in anger and hostility are commonly found after military deployment. However, it is unknown how anger and hostility develop over time, and which veterans are more at risk for developing these complaints. Data of 745 veterans one month before deployment to Afghanistan and one, six, twelve
Since 1942, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has examined over 30,000 repellents and insecticides for the U.S. military. The repellent research has focused on discovery of repellents that work on clothing, skin, and at a distance (spatial repellents). Borne out of this research is...
placed on strenuous and continuous physical training , as well as the demands of deployment. The military is an ideal population to study...Injuries among Recreational Cyclists . International journal of sports medicine [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. 1995 Apr;16(3):201-6. 20. Wearing
The military provides a unique social environment given the organization and culture of the institution. Understanding substance use by those inside this institution provides insight into both the population as well as substance use in general. Using data collected from in-depth interviews, this article explores the nature and extent of substance…
..., Naval Military Personnel Command. 724.405 Section 724.405 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Principal Elements of the Navy Department Discharge Review System § 724.405 Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval Military...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of records by public charter operators and overseas military personnel charter operators. 249.21 Section 249.21 Aeronautics and Space... public charter operators and overseas military personnel charter operators. Each operator authorized...
Macmanus, Deirdre; Dean, Kimberlie; Iversen, Amy C; Hull, Lisa; Jones, Norman; Fahy, Tom; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T
Concern has been raised over alleged increases in antisocial behaviour by military personnel returning from the deployment in Iraq and Afghanistan. U.S.-based research has shown that post-deployment violence is related not only to combat experience, but also to pre-enlistment antisocial behaviour (ASB). This study aimed to examine the association between pre-enlistment ASB and later behavioural outcomes, including aggression, in a large randomly selected U.K. military cohort. Baseline data from a cohort study of 10,272 U.K. military personnel in service at the time of the Iraq war in 2003 were analysed. The associations between pre-enlistment ASB and a range of socio-demographic and military variables were examined as potential confounders. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between pre-enlistment ASB and military behavioural outcomes such as severe alcohol use, violence/aggression and risk-taking behaviour, controlling for confounders. 18.1% were defined as having displayed pre-enlistment ASB. Pre-enlistment ASB was significantly associated with factors such as younger age, low educational achievement, male gender, non-officer rank, Army personnel, being a regular, increasing time spent on the deployment and having a combat role. Pre-enlistment ASB was associated with increased risk of negative behavioural outcomes (severe alcohol misuse, outbursts of anger or irritability, fighting or assaultative behaviour and risk-taking behaviour), after controlling for confounders, suggesting that such background information may identify individuals who are more vulnerable to subsequent behavioural disturbance. The results of this study suggest that those already demonstrating ASB prior to joining the military are more likely to continue on this trajectory, thus emphasising the importance of considering pre-enlistment behaviour when exploring the aetiology of aggression in military personnel.
Jones, Norman; Thandi, Gursimran; Fear, Nicola T; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil
To explore the psychological consequences of improvised explosive device (IED) exposure as IEDs have been the greatest threat to UK military personnel in Afghanistan though the mental health consequences of IED exposure are largely unknown. Deployed UK military personnel completed a survey while deployed in Afghanistan. Combat personnel and those dealing specifically with the IED threat were compared with all other deployed personnel; the relationship between IED exposure, general combat experiences, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and General Health Questionnaire scores were evaluated. The response rate was 98% (n=2794). Half reported IED-related concerns, a third experienced exploding IEDs and a quarter gave medical aid to IED casualties. Combat and counter-IED threat personnel had higher levels of IED exposure than other deployed personnel. 18.8% of personnel who witnessed exploding IEDs scored positive for common mental disorder (General Health Questionnaire-12 scores ≥4) and 7.6% scored positive for probable PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version scores ≥44). After adjusting for general combat exposure and other observed confounders, PTSD symptoms were associated with IED exposure whereas common mental disorder symptoms were not. IED exposure, IED-related concerns and functional impairment accumulated during deployment but functional impairment was related to factors other than IED exposure alone. In Afghanistan, a substantial proportion of personnel were exposed to exploding IEDs however, the majority of exposed personnel were psychologically healthy. Psychological effects were similar for combat personnel and those dealing specifically with the IED threat but both groups were at greater psychological risk than other deployed personnel. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Davis, Margot T; Mulvaney-Day, Norah; Larson, Mary Jo; Hoover, Ronald; Mauch, Danna
Recent reports reinforce the widespread interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), not only among military personnel with combat-related disorders, but also among providers who are pressed to respond to patient demand for these therapies. However, an understanding of utilization of CAM therapies in this population is lacking. The goals of this study are to synthesize the content of self-report population surveys with information on use of CAM in military and veteran populations, assess gaps in knowledge, and suggest ways to address current limitations. The research team conducted a literature review of population surveys to identify CAM definitions, whether military status was queried, the medical and psychological conditions queried, and each specific CAM question. Utilization estimates specific to military/veterans were summarized and limitations to knowledge was classified. Seven surveys of CAM utilization were conducted with military/veteran groups. In addition, 7 household surveys queried military status, although there was no military/veteran subgroup analysis. Definition of CAM varied widely limiting cross-survey analysis. Among active duty and Reserve military, CAM use ranged between 37% and 46%. Survey estimates do not specify CAM use that is associated with a medical or behavioral health condition. Comparisons between surveys are hampered due to variation in methodologies. Too little is known about reasons for using CAM and conditions for which it is used. Additional information could be drawn from current surveys with additional subgroup analysis, and future surveys of CAM should include military status variable.
Schreiber, Michael; McEnany, Geoffry Phillips
Since 2001, more than 2.5 million United States military personnel have been deployed for combat. Over one million have served multiple deployments. Combat generally involved repeated exposure to highly traumatic events. Personnel were also victims of military sexual trauma (MST), a major risk factor for psychiatric illness. Most survivors do not seek or receive mental health care. Stigma is one of the main barriers to that care. To explore the impact of stigma on personnel with psychiatric illness, and suggest some innovative ways to potentially reduce stigma and improve care. Cinahl and PubMed databases were searched from 2001 to 2014. Anonymity, the use of non-stigmatizing language, peer-to-peer, and stigma-reduction programs help military personnel receive mental health care. Technology offers the opportunity for effective and appropriate education and treatment. Although stigma is formidable, several innovative services are available or being developed for military victims of trauma. Commitment of resources for program development and further research to explore which interventions offer the best clinical outcomes are needed to increase efforts to combat stigma and ensure quality care.
Wijnker, J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/154314986; de Man, H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341752231
Norovirus (NoV) infection outbreaks are known to occur when people occupy limited space, often under poor hygienic conditions. These situations have been described for both civilians (e.g. cruise ships) or military personnel in operational situations. However, little is known regarding the NoV
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gauge the effects of parental separation on the academic achievement and social/emotional behavior of children of military personnel. The research design was descriptive-exploratory in nature, utilizing both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The Teacher's Perception of Social Attributes (TPSA)…
Kullen, Charina J; Farrugia, Jamie-Lee; Prvan, Tania; O'Connor, Helen T
A balanced diet informed by sound nutrition knowledge is key for operational readiness and the health of military personnel. Unfortunately, research suggests that military personnel have inadequate dietary intakes. This study assessed general nutrition knowledge, diet quality and their association in Australian military personnel. A convenience sample of male military personnel (n 211) including Army soldiers and officers completed a validated general nutrition knowledge questionnaire (GNKQ) and FFQ. The GNKQ assessed knowledge of dietary guidelines (Section A), sources of nutrients (Section B), choosing everyday foods (Section C) and diet-disease relationships (Section D). The Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) was used to assess diet quality from FFQ data. Statistical analyses included the χ 2 test, Spearman's correlation test, t test, median test, ANCOVA and ordinal logistic regression. The mean total GNKQ score was 52·7 %. Participants performed best on Section A (58·5 %) followed by Sections B (57·3 %) and C (57·0 %) and worst on Section D (31·0 %). Overall, officers scored significantly higher than soldiers (58·7 v. 51·9 %, P=0·001). Age was weakly but positively correlated with GNKQ total scores (r 0·307; Ppersonnel health and operational readiness, initiatives to improve nutrition knowledge and diet quality are recommended in this population, especially in soldiers.
NATIONAL ANALYSES OF ATTRITION 13 H. Wallace Sinaiko and Kenneth C. Scheflen AIR FORCE ATTRITION RESEARCH: ANALISIS OF PRE- AND POST- 15 ENLISTMENT FACTORS...expected satisfaction, lower attraction to the military role, lower percep- tions of work group attraction and expected leader structure ,.lower internal...extensive costs-benefit analyses. It is hrped that’ this research outline will aid in the structuring of retention research efforts. Wtis important to
LF, Lopez-Guzman A, Hodges JS. The association of periodontal disease parameters with systemic medical conditions and tobacco use. J Clin...reproductions will be in black and white. 14. ABSTRACT While smoking cessation has received considerable attention within the military, the use of...smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco and snuff) has not been a focus of medical services or research. Epidemiological data suggest that while smoking
support, role modeling, and creative work- family management (Hammer, et al., 2007) and have been linked to employee outcomes such as turnover...military. Sample quotes from respondent included:“I really hate to say this but, I have a horrible chain of command, horrible, like they have not...liaison between branch managers or other supervisors of the spouses in order to better negotiate arrangements that would result in a more timely and less
Military Testing Association, Edinburgh, UK. Huffman, A. H., Adler, A. B., Calhoun, M., & Castro, C. A. (2000). Measuring sleep and work demands in U.S...Army senior leaders. Journal of Sleep Research, 9, Supplement 1, 87. Martinez, J. F., Huffman, A. H., Castro, C. A., & Adler, A. B. (2000, September...2009, August). Forgiving and helping a transgressor: Gender, perceived similarity, and empathy . Poster presented at the annual meeting of the
Vargas Pecino, Cristina; Castellano, Enrique; Trujillo, Humberto
The use of both legal and illegal drugs has rarely been investigated among the Spanish military population involved in multinational military operations. The aim of the current study was to examine the consumption of drugs by Spanish military personnel in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and the variables associated with such substance use. A total of 605 military personnel participated in the cross-sectional study. The participants' mean age was 25.9 years (SD = 5.9), and 93.9% of the sample was male. The majority of the participants were enlisted personnel (83.5%). The most widely used drugs were tobacco (54.2%), and alcohol (39.9%). With respect to illegal drugs, the results showed that the drug with the highest prevalence of "use at some point during a lifetime" was cannabis (36.2%), followed by cocaine (14.9%) and amphetamines (12.1%). The most important variable associated with a decrease in the consumption of illegal drugs was social support. Conversely, participants with friends who have used illegal drugs had an increased likelihood of drug consumption. Given that the use of drugs can adversely affect soldiers' performance, preventive measures should be applied in multinational military operations.
Wilcox, Sherrie L; Redmond, Sarah; Davis, Teaniese L
More than a third of young military personnel report experiencing some level of erectile dysfunction (ED). Preoccupation with body image, particularly genitals, is a distraction that can influence sexual anxiety (SA) and sexual functioning problems (SFPs), particularly ED. This study assessed the relationships between male genital self-image (MGSI), SA, and ED in a sample of male military personnel age 40 or younger. Data were from a larger study on SFPs in military populations. This sample consisted of 367 male military personnel age 40 or younger. Hierarchical regression analyses and process modeling using mediation analysis were performed to examine the effects of MGSI on ED with SA as an intermediate variable. We predicted that SA would mediate the relationship between MGSI and ED. ED severity was assessed with the International Index of Erectile Function. MGSI was assessed using the MGSI Scale. SA was assessed with the SA subscale of the Sexual Needs Scale. As hypothesized, greater satisfaction with MGSI was predictive of significantly lower SA (F[8, 352] = 4.07, P = 0.001) and lower ED (F[8, 352] = 13.20, P = 0.001). Lower levels of SA were predictive of lower levels of ED (F[8, 354] = 21.35, P military populations and are worth considering as complements to strategies that improve SFPs. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Brooks, Samantha K; Greenberg, Neil
Most military mental health research focuses on the impact of deployment-related stress; less is known about how everyday work-related factors affect wellbeing. This systematic narrative literature review aimed to identify non-deployment-related factors contributing to the wellbeing of military personnel. Electronic literature databases were searched and the findings of relevant studies were used to explore non-deployment-related risk and resilience factors. Fifty publications met the inclusion criteria. Determinants of non-deployment stress were identified as: relationships with others (including leadership/supervisory support; social support/cohesion; harassment/discrimination) and role-related stressors (role conflict; commitment and effort-reward imbalance; work overload/job demands; family-related issues/work-life balance; and other factors including control/autonomy, physical work environment and financial strain). Factors positively impacting wellbeing (such as exercise) were also identified. The literature suggests that non-deployment stressors present a significant occupational health hazard in routine military environments and interpersonal relationships at work are of fundamental importance. Findings suggest that in order to protect the wellbeing of personnel and improve performance, military organisations should prioritise strengthening relationships between employees and their supervisors/colleagues. Recommendations for addressing these stressors in British military personnel were developed.
Sata, Utkarsh R.; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.
Individual protection is important for warfighters, first responders and civilians to meet the current threat of toxic chemicals and chemical warfare (CW) agents. Within the realm of individual protection, decontamination of warfare agents is not only required on the battlefield but also in laboratory, pilot plants, production and agent destruction sites. It is of high importance to evaluate various decontaminants and decontamination techniques for implementing the best practices in varying scenarios such as decontamination of personnel, sites and sensitive equipment.
Full Text Available The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9 or a weighed food record (wFR (n = 9, recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR (p > 0.05. Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel.
Ahmed, Mavra; Mandic, Iva; Lou, Wendy; Goodman, Len; Jacobs, Ira; L'Abbé, Mary R
The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records) from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9) or a weighed food record (wFR) (n = 9), recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (-73 kcal/day for tablet app and -108 kcal/day for wFR) (p > 0.05). Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR) with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR) and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel.
Reyes-Guzman, Carolyn M; Bray, Robert M; Forman-Hoffman, Valerie L; Williams, Jason
The U.S. population has shown increasing rates of overweight and obesity in recent years, but similar analyses do not exist for U.S. military personnel. It is important to understand these patterns in the military because of their impact on fitness and readiness. To assess prevalence and trends in overweight/obesity among U.S. service members and to examine the associations of sociodemographic characteristics, exercise, depression, and substance use with these patterns. Analyses performed in 2013 used five large population-based health-related behavior surveys conducted from 1995 to 2008. Main outcome measures were overweight and obesity among active duty military personnel based on BMI. Combined overweight and obesity (BMI≥25) increased from 50.6% in 1995 to 60.8% in 2008, primarily driven by the rise in obesity (BMI≥30) from 5.0% to 12.7%. For overweight, military women showed the largest increase. For obesity, all sociodemographic groups showed significant increases, with the largest among warrant officers, senior enlisted personnel, and people aged 36-45 years. Adjusted multinomial logit analyses found that service members aged 26 years and older, men, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, enlisted personnel, married personnel, and heavy drinkers had the highest risk both for overweight and obesity. Combined overweight and obesity in active duty personnel rose to more than 60% between 1995 and 2008, primarily because of increased obesity. The high prevalence of overweight and obesity needs attention and has implications for Department of Defense efforts to improve the health, fitness, readiness, and quality of life of the Active Forces. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Perejil incident, the Iraq War and the 3/11 terrorist attacks in Madrid made this perception rise − 31 percent of the population think so now...Nevertheless, 54 percent believe that no military threat exists from any country. 1 Perejil
Transportation 42nd Military 18th Engineer 26th Support Command Police Brigade Group Page.s GAO (.)SIA)-94)4 Militao I’ri-eeii in NATO Eurobpe Chapter 2...575 4th Transportation Command 3 585 0 3,585 7th Army Training Command 1 942 4 772 6,714 Other 0 9 551 9,551 Total 199,398 88,408 287,806 %ote Totals...p)ersolinel in Eiurope to siiI)l)01t Air Logistica SupportFor-ce op~erat ions. ’Ihel thr-ee largest commnands-the Air For-ce Commow- nications
Balazs, George C; Hanley, M G; Pavey, G J; Rue, J-Ph
Lisfranc injuries are relatively uncommon midfoot injuries disproportionately affecting young, active males. Previous studies in civilian populations have reported relatively good results with operative treatment. However, treatment results have not been specifically examined in military personnel, who may have higher physical demands than the general population. The purpose of this study was to examine rates of return to military duty following surgical treatment of isolated Lisfranc injuries. Surgical records and radiographic images from all active duty US military personnel treated for an isolated Lisfranc injury between January 2005 and July 2014 were examined. Demographic information, injury data, surgical details and subsequent return to duty information were recorded. The primary outcome was ability to return to unrestricted military duty following treatment. The secondary outcome was secondary conversion to a midfoot arthrodesis following initial open reduction internal fixation. Twenty-one patients meeting inclusion criteria were identified. Median patient age was 23 years, and mean follow-up was 43 months. Within this cohort, 14 patients were able to return to military service, while seven required a disability separation from the armed forces. Of the 18 patients who underwent initial fixation, eight were subsequently revised to midfoot arthrodesis for persistent pain. Military personnel sustaining Lisfranc injuries have high rates of persistent pain and disability, even after optimal initial surgical treatment. Military surgeons should counsel patients on the career-threatening nature of this condition and high rates of secondary procedures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Albuquerque Maria Carolina Maciel de
Full Text Available Adenovirus are important pathogen primarily associated to respiratory infections of children and military personnel, even though it is also associated to cases of conjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis. We analyzed respiratory secretion collected from subjects with and without respiratory infection symptoms, being 181 civilians and 221 military subjects. The samples were inoculated in HEp-2 and/or A549 tissue cultures for viral isolation. Samples presenting cytopathogenic effect (CPE in any tissue culture were tested by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay to confirm adenovirus isolation. The isolates confirmed as adenovirus were further analyzed by restriction endonuclease assay for determination of viral species. Three isolates were identified as specie A (two from civilian and one from military, one isolate from military was identified as specie C, and one isolate from civilian was identified as specie D. For two isolates the specie could not be identified.
sorority rush Barron and Várdy (2004) Recommended use of two-sided matching for International Monetary Fund Economist Program Teo et al. (2001...placement of personnel into articling positions in Canadian law firms and sororities (Mongell & Roth, 1991). There have also been a number of cases... Sorority rush as a two-sided matching mechanism. American Economic Review, 81(3), 441–464. Murphy, J. A., Samaranayake, H., Honig, J. A., Lawson, T. J
Stratton, Kelcey J; Hawn, Sage E; Amstadter, Ananda B; Cifu, David X; Walker, William C
Pain complaints are highly prevalent among military servicemembers and Veterans of the recent combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The high comorbidity of pain with conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) underscores the importance of a greater understanding of factors associated with complex polytraumatic injuries among military personnel. The present study aimed to identify correlates of current pain among 201 U.S. military personnel who reported at least one blast experience during combat deployment (age [mean +/– standard deviation]: 27.20 +/– 7.58 yr). Theoretically derived subsets of variables were analyzed in successive hierarchical regression models to determine correlates of self-reported pain symptoms. Preliminary models evaluated demographic features, medical and injury characteristics (e.g., TBI classification), psychosocial history (e.g., trauma exposure), and psychiatric variables. A final model was then derived, in which older age, possible or probable mild TBI, depression symptoms, and PTSD re-experiencing symptoms emerged as significant correlates of pain. The findings further the understanding of polytrauma symptoms among military personnel by identifying specific patient characteristics and comorbidity patterns related to pain complaints. Increased awareness of demographic, psychiatric, or medical factors implicated in pain will enhance comprehensive clinical assessment and intervention efforts.
Janssen, D G A; Vermetten, E; Egberts, T C G; Heerdink, E R
Use of ED medication can be seen as a marker for ED. ED is associated with increasing age, exposure to traumatic events and physical injuries in military veterans. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of use of ED medication in Dutch military personnel in the period 2003-2012 and to assess its association with age and psychotropic medication use. Data on dispensing of ED medication, age and co-medication with psychotropic medication of all Dutch military personnel between 2003 and 2012 were collected. The prevalence of ED medication use in each year was estimated, stratified for age and use of psychotropic medication. The number of ED medication users increased a hundredfold from 0.09 to 9.29 per 1000 per year between 2003 and 2012. ED medication was more often used by men over 40 than under 40 (prevalence in 2012: 2.4% vs 0.2%, OR (2003-2012, adjusted for calendar year) 15.6, 95% CI 13.5-17.9) and by men using psychotropic medication (prevalence in 2012: 3.8% vs 0.9%, OR (2003-2012, adjusted for calendar year) 3.13, 95% CI 2.66-3.67). This study shows a strong increase between 2003 and 2012 in a number of ED medication users in male Dutch military personnel. ED medication use increases with age and with psychotropic medication use.
Villar, Livia M; Ó, Kycia Maria R do; Scalioni, Leticia P; Cruz, Helena M; Portilho, Moyra M; Mendonça, Ana Carolina F; Miguel, Juliana C; Figueiredo, Andreza S; Almeida, Adilson J de; Lampe, Elisabeth
Data regarding Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) prevalence among military personnel in Brazil are lacking, but the work-related risk of exposure can be high. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV and the risk factors associated to HBV exposure among Brazilian military personnel. A cross-sectional study was conducted and included 433 male military adults aged 18-25 years old working in Rio de Janeiro during October 2013. All individuals completed a questionnaire to assess their risk of exposure and provided a blood sample to HBV and HCV testing. None of the participants presented HBsAg or anti-HBc IgM, 18 (4.1%) were positive for total anti-HBc, 247 (57.0%) were positive for anti-HBs, and 3 (0.7%) were anti-HCV reactive. The majority of military personnel with past HBV infection (anti-HBc reactive) and HBV immunity (anti-HBs reactive) had a history of prior dental procedures (88.9% and 77.3%), consumption of alcohol at least once a week (50% and 55.9%), and practiced oral sex (61.1% and 58.3%, respectively). In addition, anti-HBc positivity was common among individuals with a history of surgery (44.4%) and practice of anal sex (50%). At univariate analysis, age group was associated to anti-HBc and anti-HBs positivity. Low rates of HBV and HCV infection were observed among Brazilian military personnel in comparison to the general Brazilian population. HBV immunity rates were relatively low indicating the need for vaccination campaigns in this group. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.
Livia M. Villar
Full Text Available Background: Data regarding Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV prevalence among military personnel in Brazil are lacking, but the work-related risk of exposure can be high. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV and the risk factors associated to HBV exposure among Brazilian military personnel.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted and included 433 male military adults aged 18-25 years old working in Rio de Janeiro during October 2013. All individuals completed a questionnaire to assess their risk of exposure and provided a blood sample to HBV and HCV testing.Results: None of the participants presented HBsAg or anti-HBc IgM, 18 (4.1% were positive for total anti-HBc, 247 (57.0% were positive for anti-HBs, and 3 (0.7% were anti-HCV reactive. The majority of military personnel with past HBV infection (anti-HBc reactive and HBV immunity (anti-HBs reactive had a history of prior dental procedures (88.9% and 77.3%, consumption of alcohol at least once a week (50% and 55.9%, and practiced oral sex (61.1% and 58.3%, respectively. In addition, anti-HBc positivity was common among individuals with a history of surgery (44.4% and practice of anal sex (50%. At univariate analysis, age group was associated to anti-HBc and anti-HBs positivity.Conclusions: Low rates of HBV and HCV infection were observed among Brazilian military personnel in comparison to the general Brazilian population. HBV immunity rates were relatively low indicating the need for vaccination campaigns in this group.
Ghaffarzadegan, Navid; Ebrahimvandi, Alireza; Jalali, Mohammad S.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) stands out as a major mental illness; however, little is known about effective policies for mitigating the problem. The importance and complexity of PTSD raise critical questions: What are the trends in the population of PTSD patients among military personnel and veterans in the postwar era? What policies can help mitigate PTSD? To address these questions, we developed a system dynamics simulation model of the population of military personnel and veterans affected by PTSD. The model includes both military personnel and veterans in a “system of systems.” This is a novel aspect of our model, since many policies implemented at the military level will potentially influence (and may have side effects on) veterans and the Department of Veterans Affairs. The model is first validated by replicating the historical data on PTSD prevalence among military personnel and veterans from 2000 to 2014 (datasets from the Department of Defense, the Institute of Medicine, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and other sources). The model is then used for health policy analysis. Our results show that, in an optimistic scenario based on the status quo of deployment to intense/combat zones, estimated PTSD prevalence among veterans will be at least 10% during the next decade. The model postulates that during wars, resiliency-related policies are the most effective for decreasing PTSD. In a postwar period, current health policy interventions (e.g., screening and treatment) have marginal effects on mitigating the problem of PTSD, that is, the current screening and treatment policies must be revolutionized to have any noticeable effect. Furthermore, the simulation results show that it takes a long time, on the order of 40 years, to mitigate the psychiatric consequences of a war. Policy and financial implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:27716776
Macgregor, Andrew J; Tang, Janet J; Dougherty, Amber L; Galarneau, Michael R
The current military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have resulted in the most US casualties since the Vietnam War. Previous research on the association between deployment-related injury and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has yielded mixed results. To examine the effect of battle injury (BI) relative to non-battle injury (NBI) on the manifestation of PTSD symptoms in military personnel and to assess the demographic, injury-specific, and pre-injury factors associated with PTSD following a BI. A total of 3403 personnel with deployment-related injury (1777 BI and 1626 NBI) were identified from the Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database. Records were electronically matched to Post-Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA) data completed 1-6 months post-injury. The PTSD screening outcome was identified using a four-item screening tool on the PDHA. Compared to those with NBI, personnel with BI had more severe injuries, reported higher levels of combat exposure, and had higher rates of positive PTSD screen. After adjusting for covariates, personnel with BI were twice as likely to screen positive for PTSD compared to those with NBI (odds ratio [OR], 2.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-2.75). In multivariable analysis among battle-injured personnel only, moderate and serious-severe injury (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.12-2.00 and OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.01-2.68, respectively), previous mental health diagnosis within 1 year of deployment (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.50-4.81), and previous BI (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.22-3.16) predicted a positive PTSD screen. Military personnel with BI have increased odds of positive PTSD screen following combat deployment compared to those with NBI. Post-deployment health questionnaires may benefit from questions that specifically address whether service members experienced an injury during combat. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; De La Rosa, Gabriel M; Schmitz, Kimberly J; Vishnyak, Elizabeth J; Raducha, Stephanie C; Roesch, Scott C; Johnston, Scott L
Military personnel deployed to Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay (JTF-GTMO) faced numerous occupational stressors. As part of a program evaluation, personnel working at JTF-GTMO completed several validated self-report measures. Personnel were at the beginning, middle, or end of their deployment phase. This study presents data regarding symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse, depression, and resilience among 498 U.S. military personnel deployed to JTF-GTMO in 2009. We also investigated individual and organizational correlates of mental health among these personnel. Findings indicated that tenure at JTF-GTMO was positively related to adverse mental health outcomes. Regression models including these variables had R2 values ranging from .02 to .11. Occupation at JTF-GTMO also related to mental health such that guards reported poorer mental health than medical staff. Reluctance to seek out mental health care was also related to mental health outcomes. Those who reported being most reluctant to seek out care tended to report poorer mental health than those who were more willing to seek out care. Results suggested that the JTF-GTMO deployment was associated with significant psychological stress, and that both job-related and attitude-related variables were important to understanding mental health symptoms in this sample. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Rini, Elizabeth A.; Weintrob, Amy C.; Tribble, David R.; Lloyd, Bradley A.; Warkentien, Tyler E.; Shaikh, Faraz; Li, Ping; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M. Leigh; Murray, Clinton K.
Malaria chemoprophylaxis is used as a preventive measure in military personnel deployed to malaria-endemic countries. However, limited information is available on compliance with chemoprophylaxis among trauma patients during hospitalization and after discharge. Therefore, we assessed antimalarial primary chemoprophylaxis and presumptive antirelapse therapy (primaquine) compliance among wounded United States military personnel after medical evacuation from Afghanistan (June 2009–August 2011) to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in Landstuhl, Germany, and then to three U.S. military hospitals. Among admissions at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, 74% of 2,540 patients were prescribed primary chemoprophylaxis and < 1% were prescribed primaquine. After transfer of 1,331 patients to U.S. hospitals, 93% received primary chemoprophylaxis and 33% received primaquine. Of 751 trauma patients with available post-admission data, 42% received primary chemoprophylaxis for four weeks, 33% received primaquine for 14 days, and 17% received both. These antimalarial chemoprophylaxis prescription rates suggest that improved protocols to continue malaria chemoprophylaxis in accordance with force protection guidelines are needed. PMID:24732457
Azad Aminjan, Maboud; Moaddab, Seyyed Reza; Hosseini Ravandi, Mohammad; Kazemi Haki, Behzad
Nowadays in the world, tuberculosis is the second largest killer of adults after HIV. Due to the location of presidios that is mostly located in hazardous zones soldiers and army personnel are considered high risk, therefore we decided to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis status in this group of people. This was a cross-sectional descriptive research that studied the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in soldiers and military personnel in the last 15 years in tuberculosis and lung disease research center at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The statistical population consisted of all the soldiers and military personnel. The detection method in this study was based on microscopic examination following Ziehl-Neelsen Stain and in Leuven Stein Johnson culturing. Descriptive statistics was used for statistical analysis and statistical values less than 0.05 were considered significant. By review information in this center since the 1988-2013 with 72 military personnel suffering from tuberculosis, it was revealed that among them 30 women, 42 men, 14 soldiers, 29 family members, and 29 military personnel are pointed. A significant correlation was found between TB rates among military personnel and their families. Although in recent years, the national statistics indicate a decline of tuberculosis, but the results of our study showed that TB is still a serious disease that must comply with the first symptoms of tuberculosis in military personnel and their families that should be diagnosed as soon as possible.
Maboud Azad Aminjan
Full Text Available Nowadays in the world, tuberculosis is the second largest killer of adults after HIV. Due to the location of presidios that is mostly located in hazardous zones soldiers and army personnel are considered high risk, therefore we decided to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis status in this group of people. This was a cross-sectional descriptive research that studied the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in soldiers and military personnel in the last 15 years in tuberculosis and lung disease research center at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The statistical population consisted of all the soldiers and military personnel. The detection method in this study was based on microscopic examination following Ziehl-Neelsen Stain and in Leuven Stein Johnson culturing. Descriptive statistics was used for statistical analysis and statistical values less than 0.05 were considered significant. By review information in this center since the 1988-2013 with 72 military personnel suffering from tuberculosis, it was revealed that among them 30 women, 42 men, 14 soldiers, 29 family members, and 29 military personnel are pointed. A significant correlation was found between TB rates among military personnel and their families. Although in recent years, the national statistics indicate a decline of tuberculosis, but the results of our study showed that TB is still a serious disease that must comply with the first symptoms of tuberculosis in military personnel and their families that should be diagnosed as soon as possible.
Yoon, Hee; Jhun, Byung Woo; Kim, Hojoong; Yoo, Hongseok; Park, Sung Bum
Adenovirus (AdV) can cause severe pneumonia in non-immunocompromised host, but limited data exist on the distinctive characteristics of AdV pneumonia in non-immunocompromised patients. We evaluated distinctive clinico-laboratory and radiological characteristics and outcomes of AdV pneumonia (n = 179), compared with non-AdV pneumonia (n = 188) in Korean military personnel between 2012 and 2016. AdV pneumonia patients had a higher rate of consolidation with ground-glass opacity (101/152) in lobar distribution (89/152) on computed tomography (CT) (P time to clinical stabilization from admission was longer in the AdV pneumonia patients compared with the non-AdV pneumonia patients (3.8 vs. 2.6 days, P military personnel.
Roberts, Darren C; Power, D M; Stapley, S A
Scapula fractures are relatively uncommon injuries, mostly occurring due to the effects of high-energy trauma. Rates of scapula fractures are unknown in the military setting. The aim of this study is to analyse the incidence, aetiology, associated injuries, treatment and complications of these fractures occurring in deployed military personnel. All UK military personnel returning with upper limb injuries from Afghanistan and Iraq were retrospectively reviewed using the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine database and case notes (2004-2014). Forty-four scapula fractures out of 572 upper limb fractures (7.7%) were sustained over 10 years. Blast and gunshot wounds (GSW) were leading causative factors in 85%. Over half were open fractures (54%), with open blast fractures often having significant bone and soft tissue loss requiring extensive reconstruction. Multiple injuries were noted including lung, head, vascular and nerve injuries. Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were significantly higher than the average upper limb injury without a scapula fracture (pmilitary personnel with GSW have a favourable chance of nerve recovery, 75% of brachial plexus injuries that are associated with blast have poorer outcomes. Fixation occurred with either glenoid fractures or floating shoulders (10%); these were as a result of high velocity GSW or mounted blast ejections. There were no cases of deep soft tissue infection or osteomyelitis and all scapula fractures united. Scapula fractures have a 20 times higher incidence in military personnel compared with the civilian population, occurring predominantly as a result of blast and GSW, and a higher than average ISS. These fractures are often associated with multiple injuries, including brachial plexus injuries, where those sustained from blast have less favourable outcome. High rates of union following fixation and low rates of infection are expected despite significant contamination and soft tissue loss. © Article author(s) (or their
currently as cigarette non- smokers . Table 4.11 provides additional information on comparisons, in percentages, between military and civilian personnel...encouraging current smokers to stop their ha:it. In separate critiques, one respondent stated "it [t.,e sale of tax -free, reduced price tobacco products...would you be interested in attending a program that would help you quit smoking?" Of the 88 reported cigarette smokers (survey question 15) and 27
Saffari, Mohsen; Koenig, Harold G; Pakpour, Amir H; Sanaeinasab, Hormoz; Jahan, Hojat Rshidi; Sehlo, Mohammad Gamal
Good personal hygiene (PH) behavior is recommended to prevent contagious diseases, and members of military forces may be at high risk for contracting contagious diseases. The aim of this study was to develop and test a new questionnaire on PH for soldiers. Participants were all male and from different military settings throughout Iran. Using a five-stage guideline, a panel of experts in the Persian language (Farsi) developed a 21-item self-administered questionnaire. Face and content validity of the first-draft items were assessed. The questionnaire was then translated and subsequently back-translated into English, and both the Farsi and English versions were tested in pilot studies. The consistency and stability of the questionnaire were tested using Cronbach's alpha and the test-retest strategy. The final scale was administered to a sample of 502 military personnel. Explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses evaluated the structure of the scale. Both the convergent and discriminative validity of the scale were also determined. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were >0.85. Principal component analysis demonstrated a uni-dimensional structure that explained 59 % of the variance in PH behaviors. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit (goodness-of-fit index = 0.902; comparative fitness index = 0.923; root mean square error of approximation = 0.0085). The results show that this new PH scale has solid psychometric properties for testing PH behaviors among an Iranian sample of military personnel. We conclude that this scale can be a useful tool for assessing PH behaviors in military personnel. Further research is needed to determine the scale's value in other countries and cultures.
Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To investigate the relation-ship between eye injury and laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK surgery in military personnel. Methods: This retrospective study collected the data from 27 evacuation hospitals of Chinese army. All medical records of eye injuries in military personnel admitted to the 27 hospitals between January 2006 and December 2010 were reviewed. Patients’ detailed information was analyzed, in-cluding the injury time, place, type, cause, as well as examination, treatment and outcome. Results: There were 72 eye-injured patients who had been treated by LASIK before. The incidence was rising year by year. Among them, 69 patients were diagnosed with mechanical ocular injury and 3 with non-mechanical ocular injury; 29 patients had traumatic flap-related complications and 21 patients need surgery. There was statistical differ-ence when compared with those having no refractive sur-gery history. Visual acuity recovered well at discharge. Conclusion: There is a high risk of potential traumatic flap problems after LASIK and it is not recommended in army service. Key words: Eye injuries; Military personnel; Keratomileusis, laser in situ
Full Text Available Background: In most armies, clothes, equipment and weapons are designed according to the physical characteristics and anthropometric data of soldiers. Objective: To study the anthropometric characteristics of Iranian army force and their changes over recent years. Methods: 12 635 Iranian military personnel aged between 18 and 30 years with tenure of <10 years who were normally engaged in educational military activities and soldiers were enrolled in this study, which was conducted in 2010. Results: The military personnel had a mean±SD stature of 174.1±6.3 cm and sitting height of 89.7±3.8 cm. They had a mean weight of 70.0 kg, and body mass index of 23.3 kg/m2. Conclusion: The stature of Iranian army has increased by 14 mm during the last 15 years. The stature was less than those of the western countries and 3–4 cm more than those of East Asian personnel. The body mass index has had an increasing trend.
.... The evaluation was undertaken using Military Personnel (User Jury). Data was collected using focus group methods on positive and negative aspects of five delivered neck down combat uniform concepts, and three headgear concepts...
MacManus, Deirdre; Rona, Roberto; Dickson, Hannah; Somaini, Greta; Fear, Nicola; Wessely, Simon
A systematic review and meta-analyses were conducted on studies of the prevalence of aggressive and violent behavior, as well as of violent offenses and convictions, among military personnel following...
outside of their Military Occupational Specialty including as lifeguards, grounds maintenance personnel, and gym attendants because the Army did not...Request for Expansion of Authority and Flexibility Regarding the Use of Borrowed Military Manpower (Nov. 14, 2013); Department of the Army, Secretary of...Request for Expansion of Authority and Flexibility Regarding the Use of Borrowed Military Manpower (Sept. 30, 2013). 18Secretary of the Army
van der Snoek, Eric Martin; Couwenberg, S M; Stijnis, C; Kortbeek, L M; Schadd, E M
In the Netherlands, cutaneous leishmaniasis is most commonly seen in military personnel deployed on a mission or training abroad. The treatment of two Dutch soldiers who acquired cutaneous leishmaniasis with oral miltefosine was evaluated. Adverse effects were monitored and the improvement of skin lesions was assessed. A military nurse with a painless Chiclero's ulcer due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis acquired in Belize and a military physical training instructor with itchy swelling and small ulcer of the back of his left elbow due to L. donovani/infantum complex acquired in Ibiza were treated with oral miltefosine 50 mg three times a day for 28 days. Both patients responded well to oral miltefosine. Adverse effects were mild. Increase of creatinine levels was seen while liver transaminase levels were unremarkable. Miltefosine proved to be a convenient, effective and well-tolerated treatment option in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Dutch military personnel. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Roberts, S A G; Toman, E; Belli, A; Midwinter, M J
In recent conflicts, many UK personnel sustained head injuries requiring damage-control surgery and aeromedical transfer to the UK. This study aims to examine indications, complications and outcomes of UK military casualties undergoing craniectomy and cranioplasty from conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. The UK military Joint Theatre Trauma Registry (JTTR) was searched for all UK survivors in Afghanistan and Iraq between 2004 and 2014 requiring craniectomy and cranioplasty resulting from trauma. Fourteen decompressive craniectomies and cranioplasties were performed with blast and gunshot wounds equally responsible for head injury. Ten survivors (71%) had an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 75, normally designated as 'unsurvivable'. Most were operated on the day of injury. Seventy-one percent received a reverse question mark incision and 7% received a bicoronal incision. Seventy-nine percent had bone flaps discarded. Overall infection rate was 43%. Acinetobacter spp was the causative organism in 50% of cases. Median Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at final follow-up was 4. All casualties had a GOS score greater than 3. Timely neurosurgical intervention is imperative for military personnel given high survival rates in those sustaining what are designated 'un-survivable' injuries. Early decompression facilitates safe aeromedical evacuation of casualties. Excellent outcomes validate the UK military trauma system and the stepwise performance gains throughout recent conflicts however trauma registers most evolving to have specific relevance to military casualties. In high-energy trauma with contamination and soft-tissue destruction, surgery should be conducted with regard for future soft tissue reconstruction. Bone flaps should be discarded and cranioplasty performed according to local preference. Facilities receiving military casualties should have specialist microbiological input mindful of the difficulties treating unusual microbes.
Walker, Anthony; McKune, Andrew; Ferguson, Sally; Pyne, David B.; Rattray, Ben
Background First responders and military personnel experience rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) far in excess of the general population. Although exposure to acute traumatic events plays a role in the genesis of these disorders, in this review, we present an argument that the occupational and environmental conditions where these workers operate are also likely contributors. Presentation of the hypothesis First responders and military personnel face occupational exposures that hav...
Ulanday, Kathleene T; Jeffery, Diana D; Nebeling, Linda; Srinivasan, Shobha
Tobacco use in the military adversely affects fitness, readiness and performance levels, and increases health care costs. In 2011, cigarette use in the military was higher than in the civilian population (24.0% vs. 21.2%). We examined the perceptions of active duty service members with respect to supervisory and military installation determent of cigarette smoking. Using the Department of Defense's 2011 Health-Related Behaviors Survey (HRBS) of active duty military personnel (N = 39,877) data, a multivariate logistic regression estimated the association of personnel's perception of leadership discouraging cigarette use with smoking status, controlling for covariates (n = 23,354). Those who perceived their supervisor as "Somewhat" (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.29, 1.54]) or "Strongly" (AOR 1.22, 95% CI [1.09, 1.37]) discouraging of cigarette use had higher odds of smoking compared to those who perceived supervisors "Not at all" discouraging use. Odds of currently smoking increased with perceptions of increasing discouragement by installation, from "Somewhat" (AOR 1.64, 95% CI [1.49, 1.80]) to "Strongly discourages" cigarette use (AOR 1.71, 95% CI [1.50, 1.95]). As expected, the strongest correlate of current smoking was having friends who smoke (AOR 13.62, 95% CI [11.53, 16.07]). Other significant covariates in the model focused on current smokers included high risk for alcohol problems, specifically hazardous drinking (AOR 2.57, 95% CI [2.25, 2.93]), harmful drinking (AOR 5.46, 95% CI [3.57, 8.35]), and possible alcohol dependence (AOR 1.43, 95% CI [1.07, 1.91]); being underweight (AOR 1.72, 95% CI [1.19, 2.53]); high anxiety (AOR 1.31, 95% CI [1.18, 1.46]); high anger (AOR 1.20, 95% CI [1.03, 1.39]); and high overall stress (AOR 1.17, 95% CI [1.07, 1.27]). Among the demographic covariates, higher rates of smoking were found in all levels of enlisted military rank, most notably among E1-E4 (AOR 7.22, 95% CI [5.64, 9.21]) and E4-E
Sareen, Jitender; Cox, Brian J; Afifi, Tracie O; Stein, Murray B; Belik, Shay-Lee; Meadows, Graham; Asmundson, Gordon J G
Although military personnel are trained for combat and peacekeeping operations, accumulating evidence indicates that deployment-related exposure to traumatic events is associated with mental health problems and mental health service use. To examine the relationships between combat and peacekeeping operations and the prevalence of mental disorders, self-perceived need for mental health care, mental health service use, and suicidality. Cross-sectional, population-based survey. Canadian military. A total of 8441 currently active military personnel (aged 16-54 years). The DSM-IV mental disorders (major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, and alcohol dependence) were assessed using the World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a fully structured lay-administered psychiatric interview. The survey included validated measures of self-perceived need for mental health treatment, mental health service use, and suicidal ideation. Lifetime exposure to peacekeeping and combat operations and witnessing atrocities or massacres (ie, mutilated bodies or mass killings) were assessed. The prevalences of any past-year mental disorder assessed in the survey and self-perceived need for care were 14.9% and 23.2%, respectively. Most individuals meeting the criteria for a mental disorder diagnosis did not use any mental health services. Deployment to combat operations and witnessing atrocities were associated with increased prevalence of mental disorders and perceived need for care. After adjusting for the effects of exposure to combat and witnessing atrocities, deployment to peacekeeping operations was not associated with increased prevalence of mental disorders. This is the first study to use a representative sample of active military personnel to examine the relationship between deployment-related experiences and mental health problems. It provides
Macmanus, D; Dean, K; Al Bakir, M; Iversen, A C; Hull, L; Fahy, T; Wessely, S; Fear, N T
There is growing concern about an alleged rise in violent behaviour amongst military personnel returning from deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of violence in a sample of U.K. military personnel following homecoming from deployment in Iraq and to examine the impact of deployment-related experiences, such as combat trauma, on violence, and the role of sociodemographics and pre-enlistment antisocial behaviour. This study used baseline data from a cohort study of a large randomly selected sample of U.K. Armed Forces personnel in service at the time of the Iraq war (2003). Regular personnel (n=4928) who had been deployed to Iraq were included. Data, collected by questionnaire, included information on deployment experiences, sociodemographic and military characteristics, pre-enlistment antisocial behaviour, post-deployment health outcomes and a self-report measure of physical violence in the weeks following return from deployment. Prevalence of violence was 12.6%. This was strongly associated with pre-enlistment antisocial behaviour [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9-4.4]. After controlling for pre-enlistment antisocial behaviour, sociodemographics and military factors, violence was still strongly associated with holding a combat role (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.6-2.5) and having experienced multiple traumatic events on deployment (aOR for four or more traumatic events 3.7, 95% CI 2.5-5.5). Violence on homecoming was also associated with mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder (aOR 4.8, 95% CI 3.2-7.2) and alcohol misuse (aOR 3.1, 95% CI 2.5-3.9). Experiences of combat and trauma during deployment were significantly associated with violent behaviour following homecoming in U.K. military personnel. Post-deployment mental health problems and alcohol misuse are also associated with increased violence.
Full Text Available For the purpose of improvement of the Ukrainian nutritional standards this Article provides comparative analysis of field rations of different countries worldwide to make a proposal on improvement of food-stuff assortment in food ration for military personnel in the Armed Forces of Ukraine, Army of USA, the British Army, Army of Germany, Army of Italy, Army of Canada, Army of France, Army of Belarus, Army of Armenia. In accordance with the comparative analysis it was established that ration composition used for the Armed Forces of Ukraine military personnel lags behind developed countries of the world both in nutrition arrangement and in nutrient composition, especially in relation to assortment and variety of ration food-stuff. Moreover, a field ration is strictly unified and doesn’t consider individual needs of military personnel in calories, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, food fibers. Selection of individual field ration takes to account only age of military personnel, i. e. individual needs related to nutrition composition such as physical abilities, level of physical activity, gender, type of occupation before military conscription and etc. are not consideredThe obtained results confirms practicability of assortment products assortment included to field rations for the purpose to correct nutrition rations towards optimal balance for military efficiency of army, adaptation of military personnel to physical and psychological loads.
This article traces the changing methodological principles in the process of the institutionalization of German military psychology. The paper argues that during the development of selection procedures for officer cadets, military psychologists shaped their tests along the general lines of personnel
Armstead, Stanley K.
In today's dynamic military environment, information technology plays a crucial role in the support of mission preparedness and operational readiness. This research examined the effectiveness of information technology security simulation and awareness training on U.S. military personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan. Also, the study analyzed whether…
Ross, Elliot M; Darracq, Michael A
Limited published literature is available on Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use and attitudes toward CAM in the military community. We sought to evaluate past experiences with CAM, common conditions for which CAM is used, and willingness to use acupuncture for acute conditions in an Emergency Department (ED) setting by patients and family members presenting to a tertiary military treatment facility (MTF). After institutional review board approval, an 18-item questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of ED patients presenting to a Navy MTF. A response was obtained from 1,005 respondents with 45% describing previous or current CAM use. Massage, chiropractic, herbal, and acupuncture were most frequently employed. The most common reasons for use of CAM therapies are described. The majority (88%) of surveyed participants reported that CAM therapies should be offered by the MTF and 80% reported a willingness to use acupuncture in the ED setting. CAM therapies are used by the military community for a wide variety of conditions. The use of acupuncture in the ED for treatment of presenting complaints was met with interest by respondents. Further studies are necessary to determine indications, efficacy, and patient satisfaction with such therapy in an emergent setting. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Diffenauer, Deborah A.
This study examined the relationship between demographic characteristics, level of job satisfaction, and current/preferred organizational culture in a sample of 139 off-campus military degree program participants. Responses were received from undergraduate students in the fields of engineering, applied sciences and arts, and education. "The Job…
LeardMann, Cynthia A; Powell, Teresa M; Smith, Tyler C; Bell, Michael R; Smith, Besa; Boyko, Edward J; Hooper, Tomoko I; Gackstetter, Gary D; Ghamsary, Mark; Hoge, Charles W
Beginning in 2005, the incidence of suicide deaths in the US military began to sharply increase. Unique stressors, such as combat deployments, have been assumed to underlie the increasing incidence. Previous military suicide studies, however, have relied on case series and cross-sectional investigations and have not linked data during service with postservice periods. To prospectively identify and quantify risk factors associated with suicide in current and former US military personnel including demographic, military, mental health, behavioral, and deployment characteristics. Prospective longitudinal study with accrual and assessment of participants in 2001, 2004, and 2007. Questionnaire data were linked with the National Death Index and the Department of Defense Medical Mortality Registry through December 31, 2008. Participants were current and former US military personnel from all service branches, including active and Reserve/National Guard, who were included in the Millennium Cohort Study (N = 151,560). Death by suicide captured by the National Death Index and the Department of Defense Medical Mortality Registry. Through the end of 2008, findings were 83 suicides in 707,493 person-years of follow-up (11.73/100,000 person-years [95% CI, 9.21-14.26]). In Cox models adjusted for age and sex, factors significantly associated with increased risk of suicide included male sex, depression, manic-depressive disorder, heavy or binge drinking, and alcohol-related problems. None of the deployment-related factors (combat experience, cumulative days deployed, or number of deployments) were associated with increased suicide risk in any of the models. In multivariable Cox models, individuals with increased risk for suicide were men (hazard ratio [HR], 2.14; 95% CI, 1.17-3.92; P = .01; attributable risk [AR], 3.5 cases/10,000 persons), and those with depression (HR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.05-3.64; P = .03; AR, 6.9/10,000 persons), manic-depressive disorder (HR, 4.35; 95% CI, 1
Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C; Heinrich, Katie M; Jahnke, Sara A; Jitnarin, Nattinee
High intensity functional training (HIFT) programs are designed to address multiple fitness domains, potentially providing improved physical and mental readiness in a changing operational environment. Programs consistent with HIFT principals such as CrossFit, SEALFIT and the US Marine Corps' High Intensity Tactical Training (HITT) are increasingly popular among military personnel. The goal of HIFT programs is to produce high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, endurance and strength that exceed those achieved by following current physical activity recommendations. Given the investment in and popularity of HIFT in the military, it is important to consider the potential impact of this approach to fitness training for the health of military personnel and their risk of training injury. In a previous report in this journal, we addressed the question of whether HIFT was associated with higher injury rates compared to other exercise programs. We argued that concerns about the injury potential of HIFT exercise programs were not supported by the scientific literature to date, although additional research was needed to directly compare injury rates in approaches such as CrossFit to traditional military fitness programs. In this article we will review the scientific data on the practical, health and fitness benefits of HIFT exercise programs for military populations. Practical benefits to HIFT exercise programs include shorter training times and volumes, exercises which simulate combat tasks, lower equipment costs, reduced potential for boredom and adaptation as a result of constant variation, less injury potential compared to high volume endurance training, and scalability to all fitness levels and rehabilitation needs. For instance, HIFT training volumes are typically between 25% to nearly 80% less than traditional military fitness programs without reductions in fitness outcomes. HIFT program also provide an impressive range of health benefits such as the promotion of
Lavon, Ophir; Bentur, Yedidia
To characterize poison exposures in young Israeli military personnel as reported to the national poison center. Retrospective poison center chart review over a 14-year period. Cases included were Israeli soldiers aged 18-21 years, the compulsory military service age required by the Israeli law. 1770 records of poison exposures in young military personnel were identified. Most exposed individuals involved males (n = 1268, 71.6%). Main routes of exposure were ingestion (n = 854, 48.3%), inhalation (n = 328, 18.6%) and ocular (n = 211, 11.9%). Accidents or misuse (n = 712, 40.2%) were the most frequently reported circumstances, followed by suicide attempts (370, 20.9%), and bites and stings (161, 9.1%). More than half of the cases involved chemicals (n = 939, 53.1%); hydrocarbons, gases and corrosives were the main causative agents. Pharmaceuticals (mainly analgesics) were involved in 519 (29.3%) cases, venomous animals (mainly scorpions, centipedes, and snakes) in 79 (4.5%). Clinical manifestations were reported in 666 (37.6%) cases, mostly gastrointestinal, neurologic, and respiratory. The vast majority of cases (1634, 92.3%) were asymptomatic or mildly affected; no fatalities were recorded. In 831 (46.9%) cases the clinical toxicologist recommended referral to an emergency department; ambulatory observation was recommended in 563 (31.8%) cases, and hospitalization in 86 (4.9%). Our data show that poison exposures among young soldiers involve mainly males, accidents, misuse and suicides, oral route and chemicals; most exposures were asymptomatic or with mild severity. Repeated evaluations of poison center data pertaining to military personnel is advised for identifying trends in poison exposure and characteristics in this particular population.
Skabelund, Andrew J; Rawlins, Frederic A; McCann, Edward T; Lospinoso, Joshua A; Burroughs, Lorraine; Gallup, Roger A; Morris, Michael J
Significant concern exists regarding the respiratory health of military personnel deployed to Southwest Asia, given their exposures to numerous environmental hazards. Although the deployed military force is generally assumed to be fit, the pre-deployment respiratory health of these individuals is largely unknown. Soldiers deploying to Southwest Asia were recruited from the pre-deployment processing center at Fort Hood, Texas. Participants completed a general and respiratory health questionnaire and performed baseline spirometry. One thousand six hundred ninety-three pre-deployment evaluations were completed. The average age of the participants was 32.2 y, and 83.1% were male. More than one third of surveyed solders had a smoking history, 73% were overweight or obese, and 6.2% reported a history of asthma. Abnormal spirometry was found in 22.3% of participants. Soldiers with abnormal spirometry reported more asthma (10.1% vs 5.1%, P military personnel that delineates factors potentially associated with the development of pulmonary symptoms and/or disease. This study suggests that deploying soldiers are older, heavier, frequently smoke, and may have undiagnosed pre-deployment lung disease. Abnormal spirometry is common but may not represent underlying disease. Self-reported asthma, wheezing, and slower 2-mile run times were predictive of abnormal spirometry. Pre-deployment evaluation of military personnel identified numerous soldiers with active pulmonary symptoms and abnormal spirometry. When combined with questions regarding asthma history, wheezing and exercise intolerance, spirometry may identify individuals at risk for deployment-related respiratory complaints. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.
Vento, Todd J; Cole, David W; Mende, Katrin; Calvano, Tatjana P; Rini, Elizabeth A; Tully, Charla C; Zera, Wendy C; Guymon, Charles H; Yu, Xin; Cheatle, Kristelle A; Akers, Kevin S; Beckius, Miriam L; Landrum, Michael L; Murray, Clinton K
The US military has seen steady increases in multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections in casualties from Iraq and Afghanistan. This study evaluates the prevalence of MDR GNB colonization in US military personnel. GNB colonization surveillance of healthy, asymptomatic military personnel (101 in the US and 100 in Afghanistan) was performed by swabbing 7 anatomical sites. US-based personnel had received no antibiotics within 30 days of specimen collection, and Afghanistan-based personnel were receiving doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis at time of specimen collection. Isolates underwent genotypic and phenotypic characterization. The only colonizing MDR GNB recovered in both populations was Escherichia coli (p=0.01), which was seen in 2% of US-based personnel (all perirectal) and 11% of Afghanistan-based personnel (10 perirectal, 1 foot+groin). Individuals with higher off-base exposures in Afghanistan did not show a difference in overall GNB colonization or MDR E. coli colonization, compared with those with limited off-base exposures. Healthy US- and Afghanistan-based military personnel have community onset-MDR E. coli colonization, with Afghanistan-based personnel showing a 5.5-fold higher prevalence. The association of doxycycline prophylaxis or other exposures with antimicrobial resistance and increased rates of MDR E. coli colonization needs further evaluation.
Plat, M. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.
Some occupations have tasks and activities that require monitoring safety and health aspects of the job; examples of such occupations are emergency services personnel and military personnel. The two objectives of this systematic review were to describe (1) the existing job-specific workers' health
Pan, Yu; Cai, Wenpeng; Dong, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Yan, Jin; Cheng, Qi
Converging evidence reveals significant increase in both state anxiety and trait anxiety during the past 2 decades among military servicemen and servicewomen in China. In the present study, we employed the Chinese version of the State-trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to examine trait and state anxiety in Chinese military servicemen and servicewomen. We further evaluated orienting, alerting and execution inhibition using the attention network test.Healthy military servicemen and servicewomen were recruited for the present study. The STAI was used to measure both state and trait anxiety and the attention network test was done to determine reaction time and accuracy rate.Fifty-seven subjects were eligible for the study. Their mean STAI score was 3.2 ± 2.8 (range, 1-17) and 29 (50.9%) subjects were categorized into the high trait anxiety group and 28 (49.1%) subjects into the low trait anxiety group. The reaction time of the high trait anxiety group to incongruent, congruent, and neutral target was significantly longer than that of the low trait anxiety group (P trait anxiety group for incongruent, congruent, and neutral target was significantly higher than that of the low trait anxiety group (P trait anxiety, cue types, and target types on reaction time. There was significant interaction among trait anxiety, target types, and cue types. Trait anxiety and target types also had marked effect on the accurate rate. Multivariate analysis showed no marked effect of trait anxiety on the alerting, orienting, and execution inhibition subnetwork.The present study has demonstrated that military service personnel with high trait anxiety requires more time for cognitive processing of external information but exhibits enhanced reaction accuracy rate compared to those with low trait anxiety. Our findings indicate that interventional strategies to improve the psychological wellbeing of military service personnel should be implemented to improve combat mission performance.
Zamorski, Mark A; Rusu, Corneliu; Garber, Bryan G
Objective: An important minority of military personnel will experience mental health problems after overseas deployments. Our study sought to describe the prevalence and correlates of postdeployment mental health problems in Canadian Forces personnel. Method: Subjects were 16 193 personnel who completed postdeployment screening after return from deployment in support of the mission in Afghanistan. Screening involved a detailed questionnaire and a 40-minute, semi-structured interview with a mental health clinician. Mental health problems were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist—Civilian Version. Logistic regression was used to explore independent risk factors for 1 or more of 6 postdeployment mental health problems. Results: Symptoms of 1 or more of 6 mental health problems were seen in 10.2% of people screened; the most prevalent symptoms were those of major depressive disorder (3.2%), minor depression (3.3%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (2.8%). The strongest risk factors for postdeployment mental health problems were past mental health care (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.89) and heavy combat exposure (AOR 2.57 for third tertile, compared with first tertile). These risk groups might be targeted in prevention and control efforts. In contrast to findings from elsewhere, Reservist status, deployment duration, and number of previous deployments had no relation with mental health problems. Conclusions: An important minority of personnel will disclose symptoms of mental health problems during postdeployment screening. Differences in risk factors seen in different nations highlight the need for caution in applying the results of research in one population to another. PMID:25007406
Zamorski, Mark A; Rusu, Corneliu; Garber, Bryan G
An important minority of military personnel will experience mental health problems after overseas deployments. Our study sought to describe the prevalence and correlates of postdeployment mental health problems in Canadian Forces personnel. Subjects were 16 193 personnel who completed postdeployment screening after return from deployment in support of the mission in Afghanistan. Screening involved a detailed questionnaire and a 40-minute, semi-structured interview with a mental health clinician. Mental health problems were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version. Logistic regression was used to explore independent risk factors for 1 or more of 6 postdeployment mental health problems. Symptoms of 1 or more of 6 mental health problems were seen in 10.2% of people screened; the most prevalent symptoms were those of major depressive disorder (3.2%), minor depression (3.3%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (2.8%). The strongest risk factors for postdeployment mental health problems were past mental health care (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.89) and heavy combat exposure (AOR 2.57 for third tertile, compared with first tertile). These risk groups might be targeted in prevention and control efforts. In contrast to findings from elsewhere, Reservist status, deployment duration, and number of previous deployments had no relation with mental health problems. An important minority of personnel will disclose symptoms of mental health problems during postdeployment screening. Differences in risk factors seen in different nations highlight the need for caution in applying the results of research in one population to another.
Campagna, John D A; Bowsher, Barbara
To determine the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and muscle dysmorphia (MD) in enlisted U.S. military personnel; and secondarily, to determine supplement use and relationship with BDD and MD. A survey of advanced individual training of tri-service personnel at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, was performed combining the dysmorphia concern questionnaire, the MD symptom questionnaire, a supplement questionnaire, and demographic factors. Of the 1,320 service members approached, 1,150 (87.1%) completed the survey. The majority of participants were male, 62.8% (n = 722) and Army soldiers 59.0% (n = 679). The prevalence rate of BDD was 13.0% in males and 21.7% in females. The prevalence of MD was 12.7% in males and 4.2% in females. There was a strong correlation between having BDD and using supplements to get thinner (odds ratio 5.1; 95% confidence interval 3.4-7.8; p dysmorphias in mental health providers, primary care providers, and commanders and justifies further military specific BDD and MD research. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Lumsden, Joanne; Villasante, Eileen
Malaria remains an important health threat to non-immune travelers with the explosive growth of global travel. Populations at high risk of acquiring malaria infections include once semi-immune travelers who visit friends and relatives, military forces, business travelers and international tourists with destinations to sub-Saharan Africa, where malaria transmission intensity is high. Most malaria cases have been associated with poor compliance with existing preventive measures, including chemoprophylaxis. High risk groups would benefit immensely from an efficacious vaccine to protect them against malaria infection and together make up a sizable market for such a vaccine. The attributes of an ideal malaria vaccine for non-immune travelers and military personnel include a protective efficacy of 80% or greater, durability for at least 6 months, an acceptable safety profile and compatibility with existing preventive measures. It is very likely that a malaria vaccine designed to effectively prevent infection and clinical disease in the non-immune traveler and military personnel will also protect semi-immune residents of malaria-endemic areas and contribute to malaria elimination by reducing or blocking malaria transmission. The RTS,S vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline) and the PfSPZ Vaccine (Sanaria Inc) are the leading products that would make excellent vaccine candidates for these vulnerable populations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Jones, Norman; Campion, Ben; Keeling, Mary; Greenberg, Neil
Military research suggests a significant association between leadership, cohesion, mental health stigmatisation and perceived barriers to care (stigma/BTC). Most studies are cross sectional, therefore longitudinal data were used to examine the association of leadership and cohesion with stigma/BTC. Military personnel provided measures of leadership, cohesion, stigma/BTC, mental health awareness and willingness to discuss mental health following deployment (n = 2510) and 4-6 months later (n = 1636). At follow-up, baseline leadership and cohesion were significantly associated with stigma/BTC; baseline cohesion alone was significantly associated with awareness of and willingness to discuss mental health at follow-up. Over time, changes in perceived leadership and cohesion were significantly associated with corresponding changes in stigma/BTC levels. Stigma/BTC content was similar in both surveys; fear of being viewed as weak and being treated differently by leaders was most frequently endorsed while thinking less of a help-seeking team member and unawareness of potential help sources were least common. Effective leadership and cohesion building may help to reduce stigma/BTC in military personnel. Mental health awareness and promoting the discussion of mental health matters may represent core elements of supportive leader behaviour. Perceptions of weakness and fears of being treated differently represent a focus for stigma/BTC reduction.
Karch, Stephanie J; Capó-Aponte, José E; McIlwain, D Scott; Lo, Michael; Krishnamurti, Sridhar; Staton, Roger N; Jorgensen-Wagers, Kendra
The objective of this study was to analyze differences in incidence and epidemiologic risk factors for significant threshold shift (STS) and tinnitus in deployed military personnel diagnosed with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) due to either a blast exposure or nonblast head injury. A retrospective longitudinal cohort study of electronic health records of 500 military personnel (456 met inclusion criteria) diagnosed with deployment-related mTBI was completed. Chi-square tests and STS incidence rates were calculated to assess differences between blast-exposed and nonblast groups; relative risks and adjusted odds ratios of developing STS or tinnitus were calculated for risk factors. Risk factors included such characteristics as mechanism of injury, age, race, military occupational specialty, concurrent diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and nicotine use. Among blast-exposed and nonblast patients, 67% and 58%, respectively, developed STS, (P=.06); 59% and 40%, respectively, developed tinnitus (Ptinnitus. Unprotected noise exposure was associated with both STS and tinnitus. This study highlights potential risk factors for STS and tinnitus among blast-exposed and nonblast mTBI patient groups.
Paljanos, Annamaria; Miclaus, Simona; Munteanu, Calin
Technical literature provides numerous studies concerning radiofrequency exposure measurements for various radio communication devices, but there are few studies related to exposure of personnel operating military radio equipment. In order to evaluate exposure and identify cases when safety requirements are not entirely met, both measurements and simulations are needed for accurate results. Moreover, given the technical characteristics of the radio devices used in the military, personnel mainly operate in the near-field region so both measurements and simulation becomes more complex. Measurements were made in situ using a broadband personal exposimeter equipped with two isotropic probes for both electric and magnetic components of the field. The experiment was designed for three different operating frequencies of the same radio equipment, while simulations were made in FEKO software using hybrid numerical methods to solve complex electromagnetic field problems. The paper aims to discuss the comparative results of the measurements and simulation, as well as comparing them to reference levels specified in military or civilian radiofrequency exposure standards.
Rha, Brian; Lopman, Benjamin A; Alcala, Ashley N; Riddle, Mark S; Porter, Chad K
Norovirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis episodes and outbreaks in US military deployments, but estimates of endemic disease burden among military personnel in garrison are lacking. Diagnostic codes from gastroenteritis-associated medical encounters of active duty military personnel and their beneficiaries from July 1998-June 2011 were obtained from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Using time-series regression models, cause-unspecified encounters were modeled as a function of encounters for specific enteropathogens. Model residuals (representing unexplained encounters) were used to estimate norovirus-attributable medical encounters. Incidence rates were calculated using population data for both active duty and beneficiary populations. The estimated annual mean rate of norovirus-associated medically-attended visits among active duty personnel and their beneficiaries was 292 (95% CI: 258 to 326) and 93 (95% CI: 80 to 105) encounters per 10,000 persons, respectively. Rates were highest among beneficiaries military active duty members as well as in their beneficiaries.
Bryan, Craig J; Clemans, Tracy A
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is believed to be one factor contributing to rising suicide rates among military personnel and veterans. This study investigated the association of cumulative TBIs with suicide risk in a clinical sample of deployed military personnel referred for a TBI evaluation. To determine whether suicide risk is more frequent and heightened among military personnel with multiple lifetime TBIs than among those with no TBIs or a single TBI. Patients completed standardized self-report measures of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal thoughts and behaviors; clinical interview; and physical examination. Group comparisons of symptom scores according to number of lifetime TBIs were made, and generalized regression analyses were used to determine the association of cumulative TBIs with suicide risk. Patients included 161 military personnel referred for evaluation and treatment of suspected head injury at a military hospital's TBI clinic in Iraq. Behavioral Health Measure depression subscale, PTSD Checklist-Military Version, concussion symptoms, and Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised. Depression, PTSD, and TBI symptom severity significantly increased with the number of TBIs. An increased incidence of lifetime suicidal thoughts or behaviors was associated with the number of TBIs (no TBIs, 0%; single TBI, 6.9%; and multiple TBIs, 21.7%; P = .009), as was suicidal ideation within the past year (0%, 3.4%, and 12.0%, respectively; P = .04). The number of TBIs was associated with greater suicide risk (β [SE] = .214 [.098]; P = .03) when the effects of depression, PTSD, and TBI symptom severity were controlled for. A significant interaction between depression and cumulative TBIs was also found (β = .580 [.283]; P = .04). Suicide risk is higher among military personnel with more lifetime TBIs, even after controlling for clinical symptom severity. Results suggest that multiple TBIs, which are common among
Juszczak, Dariusz; Talarowska, Monika
The structure of armed forces undergoes dynamic changes. The expectations regarding psychophysical performance of military personnel--both professional and drafted members are constantly rising. To answer the question: which psychosocial and psychopathological factors are characteristic to offenders from professional military personnel and drafted military personnel in the years 1990-2000. The research material consisted of 71 forensic-psychiatric assessments issued by experts from Psychiatric Ward of 107 Military Hospital in Walcz between 1990 and 2000. The assessments were issued in ambulatory setting. The cohort of persons with military background had 71 assessments (military personnel included both professional--30, and drafted--41 servicemen). A specially designed questionnaire titled "Charter of Diagnosis of Factors Determining Criminal Activity" has been used. Relevant statistical differences were observed. (1) The main category of offences committed by professional military personnel in mentioned period were the offences against property whereas in the drafted military personnel cohort the offences related to violations of obligatory military service. (2) Offences under the influence of alcohol were significantly more likely to be committed by professional drafted military personnel. (3) Personality disorders were predominant among the diagnoses in both groups. (4) The diagnosis of alcohol dependence were characteristic for professional military personnel.
Fernandez, William G; Hartman, Roger; Olshaker, Jonathan
Unhealthy alcohol use is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Among military personnel, service members between the ages 18 and 25 had a 27.3% prevalence of heavy drinking in the previous 30 days, compared to 15.3% among civilians in the same age group. In the civilian world, > 100 million patients are treated in U.S. emergency departments (ED) annually; 7.9% of these visits are alcohol related. Alcohol is associated with a broad range of health consequences that may ultimately present in the ED setting: traumatic injuries (e.g., motor vehicle crashes, intentional violence, falls); environmental injuries (e.g., frostbite); cardiovascular problems (e.g., hypertension, dilated cardiomyopathy); gastrointestinal disorders (e.g., hepatitis, pancreatitis, gastrointestinal bleeding); neurological problems (e.g., encephalopathy, alcohol withdrawal, withdrawal seizures), as well as psychological problems (e.g., depression, suicide). Seminal work has been done to create behavioral interventions for at-risk drinkers. These motivational interventions have been found to be successful in encouraging clients to change their risky behaviors. We present such a technique, called the Brief Negotiated Interview as performed in a civilian ED setting, in hopes of adapting it for use in the military context. Military health care providers could easily adapt this technique to help reduce risky levels of alcohol consumption among service members, retirees, or military dependents.
Afonaskov, O V; Davidovich, I M; Zubkov, O V; Talapov, S V
The authors researched the changes in the prevalence of hypertension and major risk factors (overweight, obesity, smoking and high cholesterol) in men of young age--officers of the Eastern Military District during the five-year dynamic observation (2009-2014). 1043 servicemen were selected for the survey. 96.5% of selected servicemen or 1011 people agreed to take part in the survey, the average age was from 25 to 45 years. It was found that among young men the prevalence of hypertension decreased to 24.4%; this result is lower than in the group of civilian population of the same age. It was also found that commitment to healthy lifestyle has increased and the prevalence of the most common risk factors (overweight and obesity, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, alcohol consumption) has decreased but in comparison with the civil population prevalence of modifiable risk factors remains high. The study showed that during the reform of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and the inherent strength of military labour remains high, which can not but affect the health officers, 95.5% identified hypertensive patients in our study, young men 35 years with 1st stage of the disease.
Payab, Moloud; Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Merati, Yaser; Esteghamati, Alireza; Qorbani, Mostafa; Hematabadi, Mahboobeh; Rashidian, Hoda; Shirzad, Nooshin
Obesity, especially when concentrated in the abdominal area, is often associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Stress, particularly occupational stress, is one of the most important factors contributing to the increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome components among different populations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as the criteria for metabolic syndrome and its risk factors and different obesity phenotype in a population of military personnel aged 20 to 65 years. This study is a retrospective cross-sectional study in which data are extracted from the database of a military hospital (2,200 participants). The records of participants contained information such as age, marital status, educational level, weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, history of drug use and smoking, as well as the results of tests including lipid profile and fasting blood glucose. The Adult Treatment Panel III criteria as well as two national criteria were used to identify metabolic syndrome among participants. Data analysis was p1erformed using SPSS version 16. The average age of participants was 33.37 (7.75) years. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to Iranian cutoff was 26.6% for the waist circumference >90 cm (585 persons) and 19.6% for the waist circumference >95 cm (432 persons). The rate of metabolic syndrome was identified as 11.1% (432 cases) according to Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results of the current study identified that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among military individuals is less than other populations, but the prevalence of the syndrome is higher than other military personnel in other countries.
Adams, Rachel Sayko; Larson, Mary Jo; Corrigan, John D.; Ritter, Grant A.; Williams, Thomas V.
This study used the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Active Duty Military Personnel to determine whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with past year drinking-related consequences. The study sample included currently-drinking personnel who had a combat deployment in the past year and were home for ≥6 months (N = 3,350). Negative binomial regression models were used to assess the incidence rate ratios of consequences, by TBI-level. Experiencing a TBI with a loss of consciousness >20 minutes was significantly associated with consequences independent of demographics, combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and binge drinking. The study’s limitations are noted. PMID:23869456
Iskhakov, E R
The article describes laws and regulations concerning the Russian army and navy, and accordingly its medical services accepted during the reign of Paul I. During this period different decrees aimed to improve medical personnel training in order to admit students to medical and surgical schools, reorganization of educational medical institutions, improving of professional skills of medical workers. Other decrees, aimed to improvement of recruitment of medical personnel of troops: the best students of had to be sent to troops instead physician assistant, medical staff increase and additional funding, countering the reduce of physicians' social welfare due to the inhumane attitude of the authorities, to regulate of the military medical service rotation order as well as assessment of their professional, moral, and psychological qualities.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2007). As a result, some people (i.e., athletes and military personnel) may have a BMI that indicates... Anorexia Nervosa (AN), 1-3% for Bulimia Nervosa (BN), and 0.7-4.0% for Binge Eating Disorder (BED; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The gender...the female to male ratio for bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa is 10:1, the female to male ratio for binge eating disorder is only 2.5:1 (Jacobi
Harbertson, Judith; Hale, Braden R; Watkins, Eren Y; Michael, Nelson L; Scott, Paul T
The burden of alcohol misuse is unknown among shipboard U.S. Navy and Marine Corps military personnel immediately prior to deployment and may be elevated. Anonymous survey data on hazardous, dependent, and binge alcohol misuse and involuntary drug consumption were collected during 2012-2014 among shipboard personnel within approximately 2 weeks of deployment. Using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption (AUDIT-C), hazardous alcohol misuse was defined using two cut-point scoring criteria: (1) ≥3 for women and ≥4 for men; and (2) ≥4 for women and ≥5 for men; binge drinking as ≥4 drinks for women and ≥5 drinks for men on a typical day in past 30 days; and dependent alcohol misuse as an AUDIT-C score of ≥8. Demographic- and sex-stratified self-reported alcohol misuse prevalence was reported for analysis conducted during 2014-2015. Among 2,351 male and female shipboard personnel, 39%-54% screened positive for hazardous, 27% for binge, and 15% for dependent alcohol use. Seven percent reported involuntary drug consumption history. A larger proportion of those aged 17-20 years screened positive for dependent alcohol use compared with the overall study population prevalence. A large proportion of shipboard personnel screened positive for hazardous and dependent alcohol use (18% among those aged studies should include more comprehensive assessment of factors associated with involuntary drug consumption. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Hamid Reza Bitaraf
Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is one of the world's most common infections in human and other warm-blooded vertebrates and has the most extensive universal spread. The purpose of this study is determining the seroprevalence of human Toxoplasma gondii infection, in the military personnel and their families referred to Baqiyatallah hospital, 2011-2015.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the serum of 3370 person contain 770 men and 2600 women attending the laboratories were selected and after completing the questionnaires and also by implementing Chemiluminescence method, these serums were examined for the presence of IgM and IgG immunoglobulins of the Toxoplasma gondii.Results: The results were analyzed using the chi-square test. They showed that there were no statistical relationships between the prevalence of IgG and gender in 2011, 2013, (P>0.05 but there were significant relationships between them in 2012, 2014 and 2015 (P<0.05, also there were no statistical relationships between the prevalence of IgM and gender in all years (P>0.05. The results showed that there were statistical relationships among IgG and age (P<0.01 but there was no statistical relationships between IgM and age in all cases (P>0.05.Conclusion: The results showed high prevalence of Toxoplasmosis in the military personnel and their families in Baqiyatallah hospital. The prevalence of IgG was somehow in the range and positive IgG titer was somewhat higher than what was reported in other studies in the North-West of the country; this could be partly due to the sensitivity and specificity of Chemiluminescence method compared to other methods of serology in diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis.
Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Zamorski, Mark A; Turner, Sarah; Cheung, Kristene; Sareen, Jitender
Recent evidence indicates a high prevalence of child abuse exposure in modern US veterans, which may explain in part their higher likelihood of suicide relative to civilians. However, the relationship between child abuse exposure and suicide-related outcomes in military personnel relative to civilians is unknown. Furthermore, the associations among deployment-related trauma, child abuse exposure, and suicide-related outcomes in military personnel have not been examined. To determine whether child abuse exposure is more prevalent in Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel compared with the Canadian general population (CGP); to compare the association between child abuse exposure and suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts among the CAF and CGP; and to determine whether child abuse exposure has an additive or interaction effect on the association of deployment-related trauma and past-year suicidal ideation and suicide plans among Regular Forces personnel. Data were collected from the following 2 nationally representative data sets: the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) for the CAF (8161 respondents; response rate, 79.8%) and the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH) for the CGP (23,395 respondents; response rate, 68.9% [of these, 15,981 age-matched participants were drawn]). Data were collected from April 15 to August 31, 2013, for the CFMHS and January 2 to December 31, 2012, for the CCHS-MH. Data were analyzed from October 2014 to October 22, 2015. Statistical weights were applied to both data sets. Child abuse exposure, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to intimate partner violence, and deployment-related trauma were assessed in relation to suicide-related outcomes. Data were analyzed from 24 142 respondents aged 18 to 60 years (Regular Forces, 86.1% male and 13.9% female; Reserve Forces, 90.6% male and 8.9% female; and CGP, 49.9% male and 50.1% female). Any child abuse exposure was higher in
Xiao, Jian-He; Zhang, Mao-Nian; Jiang, Cai-Hui; Zhang, Ying; Qiu, Huai-Yu
To investigate the relationship between eye injury and laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery in military personnel. This retrospective study collected the data from 27 evacuation hospitals of Chinese army. All medical records of eye injuries in military personnel admitted to the 27 hospitals between January 2006 and December 2010 were reviewed. Patients'detailed information was analyzed, including the injury time, place, type, cause, as well as examination, treatment and outcome. There were 72 eye-injured patients who had been treated by LASIK before. The incidence was rising year by year. Among them, 69 patients were diagnosed with mechanical ocular injury and 3 with non-mechanical ocular injury; 29 patients had traumatic flap-related complications and 21 patients need surgery. There was statistical difference when compared with those having no refractive surgery history. Visual acuity recovered well at discharge. There is a high risk of potential traumatic flap problems after LASIK and it is not recommended in army service.
Essien, E. James; Monjok, Emmanuel; Chen, Hua; Abughosh, Susan; Ekong, Ernest; Peters, Ronald J.; Holmes, Laurens; Holstad, Marcia M.; Mgbere, Osaro
Objective Uniformed services personnel are at an increased risk of HIV infection. We examined the HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual risk behaviors among female military personnel to determine the correlates of HIV risk behaviors in this population. Method The study used a cross-sectional design to examine HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 346 females drawn from two military cantonments in Southwestern Nigeria. Data was collected between 2006 and 2008. Using bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression, HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual behaviors were described in relation to socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that level of education and knowing someone with HIV/AIDS were significant (p<0.05) predictors of HIV knowledge in this sample. HIV prevention self-efficacy was significantly (P<0.05) predicted by annual income and race/ethnicity. Condom use attitudes were also significantly (P<0.05) associated with number of children, annual income, and number of sexual partners. Conclusion Data indicates the importance of incorporating these predictor variables into intervention designs. PMID:20387111
Shiraly, Ramin; Khosravi, Afra; Farahangiz, Saman
Military troops deployed to endemic areas are at risk of contracting sandfly fever, an arthropod-borne viral infection. Although typically a self-limited disease, sandfly fever can cause significant morbidity and loss of function among soldiers. We conducted this study to determine the extent of past SFV infection in a group of healthy Iranian military personnel in Ilam province on the western border of Iran. A total of 201 serum samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to detect four common sandfly fever virus serotypes. Demographic data were also collected. Overall, 37 samples (18.4%) were positive for specific IgG antibodies to sandfly viruses. Sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) and sandfly fever Naples virus (SFNV) were the most common serotypes. A positive test was inversely related to nativity (Pmilitary personnel in the western border region of Iran, a Leishmania-endemic region. Therefore, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of troops presenting with acute febrile illness in similar settings. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chase, Rachel P; Nevin, Remington L
To estimate the number of undocumented incident traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) among active component US military personnel serving in Iraq and Afghanistan prior to policy changes implemented in late 2006 and 2010 that improved TBI documentation. Negative binomial regression was used to model monthly incident TBI counts between December 2010 and June 2012 (N = 19) and then estimate expected monthly counts of incident TBIs during 2 periods: January 2003-October 2006 and November 2006-November 2010. Monthly amputation counts from Department of Defense surveillance data were used as a proxy for changing injury rates. Monthly active component deployment estimates derived from the Congressional Research Service, Brookings Institution, and Defense Manpower Data Center were used to estimate the size of the at-risk population each month. The difference between expected monthly incident TBI counts and reported counts is presented as the estimated number of undocumented incident TBIs. The full model estimates that 21 257 active component military personnel experienced undocumented incident TBIs while deployed in Iraq or Afghanistan between January 2003 and October 2006, more than 4 times the 5272 incident TBIs documented during that period. A sizeable majority of Iraq and Afghanistan combat veterans who experienced incident TBI while deployed prior to November 2006 are likely to have had their injuries undocumented, creating challenges for clinical care, disability evaluation, and future research.
Aandstad, Anders; Holme, Ingar; Berntsen, Sveinung; Anderssen, Sigmund A
is regularly monitored in military personnel, as occupational demands require a certain level of fitness. Distance run (eg, 2 mile) is typically carried out to measure aerobic fitness, but an alternative test could be the 20 meter shuttle run test (20 m SRT). The present study aimed to evaluate validity and reliability of this test in military personnel. An equation for predicting maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was developed on 38 Home Guard soldiers and cross validated in 28 Air Force cadets. Reliability of the 20 m SRT, expressed as mean difference in estimated VO2max-- 95% limits of agreement, was -0.8 +/- 3.1 mL x kg(-1) min(-1). Mean difference +/- limits of agreement between estimated and measured VO2max was -0.4 +/- 6.2 mL.kg(-1)x min-'. The 20 m SRT seems to be a reliable test, although validity is less certain, as relatively high variability was observed between measured and estimated VO2max from the 20 m SRT.
Oré, Marianela; Sáenz, Eliana; Cabrera, Rufino; Sanchez, Juan F.; De Los Santos, Maxy B.; Lucas, Carmen M.; Núñez, Jorge H.; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Sopan, Justino; Fernández, Jorge; Carnero, Andres M.; Baldeviano, G. Christian; Arrasco, Juan C.; Graf, Paul C. F.; Lescano, Andres G.
Military personnel deployed to the Amazon Basin are at high risk for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We responded to an outbreak among Peruvian Army personnel returning from short-term training in the Amazon, conducting active case detection, lesion sample collection, and risk factor assessment. The attack rate was 25% (76/303); the incubation period was 2–36 weeks (median = 8). Most cases had one lesion (66%), primarily ulcerative (49%), and in the legs (57%). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (59/61 = 97%) and L. (V.) guyanensis (2/61 = 3%). Being male (risk ratio [RR] = 4.01; P = 0.034), not wearing long-sleeve clothes (RR = 1.71; P = 0.005), and sleeping in open rooms (RR = 1.80; P = 0.009) were associated with CL. Sodium stibogluconate therapy had a 41% cure rate, less than previously reported in Peru (∼ 70%; P < 0.001). After emphasizing pre-deployment education and other basic prevention measures, trainees in the following year had lower incidence (1/278 = 0.4%; P < 0.001). Basic prevention can reduce CL risk in deployed militaries. PMID:26078320
Vudhironarit, Thishnapha; Benjasuratwong, Yupin; Patarakitvanit, Supen; Temboonkiat, Supatta; Satyapan, Nisamanee
Thiazolidinediones (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone) whether administered alone or in combination with metformin, sulfonylurea, or insulin, are often accompanied by an increase in weight and/or plasma volume. Several studies have shown the adverse effect of weight gain and edema with rosiglitazone. But there was less data with pioglitazone, especially in military personnel and their families. The authors prospectively recorded the adverse events in 40 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who underwent administration with pioglitazone 15 mg once daily between June 2005 to May 2007. Weight gain was reported in 30/40 of patients (75%). The mean weight gain was 2.25 +/- 2.23 kg and the median was 2 kg. The slightly lower proportion of patients, 21/40 (52.5%) developed edema and some of them were associated with weight gain. Pioglitazone was associated with a significant increase in body weight and edema. This finding may lead to increase the risk of myocardial infarction in military personnel and their families, especially those who had underlying disease of congestive heart failure, which was not included in the present study.
Bryan, Craig J; Rudd, M David; Wertenberger, Evelyn
Suicidal behavior among U.S. military personnel persists as a significant public health issue. Previous research indicates the primary motive for suicide attempts among military personnel is the desire to reduce or alleviate emotional distress, a finding that converges with studies in nonmilitary samples. Much less is understood about the consequences of a first suicide attempt that could influence the occurrence of additional suicide attempts. In order to identify these contingencies, 134 active duty Soldiers who had attempted suicide (n=69 first-time attempters, n=65 multiple attempters) participated in structured interviews focused on their experiences immediately following their first attempt. Soldiers were more likely to have made multiple suicide attempts if they were younger at the time of their first attempt, were not admitted to a hospital or treatment program after their first attempt, or experienced emotional and psychological relief immediately afterwards. Results suggest that Soldiers who experience emotional and/or psychological relief immediately after their first suicide attempt or do not receive treatment are more likely to make additional suicide attempts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stahre, Mandy A; Brewer, Robert D; Fonseca, Vincent P; Naimi, Timothy S
Binge drinking (drinking on a single occasion >or=5 drinks for men or >or=4 drinks for women) is a common risk behavior among U.S. adults that is associated with many adverse health and social consequences. However, little is known about binge drinking among active-duty military personnel (ADMP). The objectives of this study were to quantify episodes of binge drinking, to characterize ADMP who binge-drink, and to examine the relationship between binge drinking and related harms. The prevalence of binge drinking and related harms was assessed from responses to the 2005 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Military Personnel (n=16,037), an anonymous, self-administered survey. The data were analyzed in 2007 after the release of the public-use data. In 2005, a total of 43.2% of ADMP reported past-month binge drinking, resulting in 29.7 episodes per person per year. In all, 67.1% of binge episodes were reported by personnel aged 17-25 years (46.7% of ADMP), and 25.1% of these episodes were reported by underage youth (aged 17-20 years). Heavy drinkers (19.8% of ADMP) were responsible for 71.5% of the binge-drinking episodes and had the highest number of annual per-capita episodes of binge drinking (112.6 episodes). Compared to nonbinge drinkers, binge drinkers were more likely to report alcohol-related harms, including job performance problems (AOR=6.5; 95% CI=4.65, 9.15); alcohol-impaired driving (AOR=4.9; 95% CI=3.68, 6.49); and criminal justice problems (AOR=6.2; 95% CI=4.00, 9.72). Binge drinking is common among ADMP and is strongly associated with adverse health and social consequences. Effective interventions (e.g., the enforcement and retainment of the minimum legal drinking age) to prevent binge drinking should be implemented across the military and in conjunction with military communities to discourage binge drinking.
Mulligan, Kathleen; Jones, Norman; Woodhead, Charlotte; Davies, Mark; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil
Most research on the mental health of UK armed forces personnel has been conducted either before or after deployment; there is scant evidence concerning personnel while they are on deployment. To assess the mental health of UK armed forces personnel deployed in Iraq and identify gaps in the provision of support on operations. Personnel completed a questionnaire about their deployment experiences and health status. Primary outcomes were psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-12, GHQ-12), symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-rating of overall health. Of 611 participants, 20.5% scored above the cut-off on the GHQ-12 and 3.4% scored as having probable PTSD. Higher risk of psychological distress was associated with younger age, female gender, weaker unit cohesion, poorer perceived leadership and non-receipt of a pre-deployment stress brief. Perceived threat to life, poorer perceived leadership and non-receipt of a stress brief were risk factors for symptoms of PTSD. Better self-rated overall health was associated with being a commissioned officer, stronger unit cohesion and having taken a period of rest and recuperation. Personnel who reported sick for any reason during deployment were more likely to report psychological symptoms. Around 11% reported currently being interested in receiving help for a psychological problem. In an established operational theatre the prevalence of common psychopathology was similar to rates found in non-deployed military samples. However, there remains scope for further improving in-theatre support mechanisms, raising awareness of the link between reporting sick and mental health and ensuring implementation of current policy to deliver pre-deployment stress briefs.
MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS...TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS.
Background Physical fitness is one of the most important qualities in armed forces personnel. However, little is known about the association between the military environment and the occupational and leisure-time dimensions of the physical activity practiced there. This study assessed the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity levels (overall and by dimensions). Methods This a cross-sectional study among 506 military service personnel of the Brazilian Army examined the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity through multiple linear regression using a generalized linear model. Results The adjusted models showed that the rank of lieutenant was associated with most occupational physical activity (β = 0.324; CI 95% 0.167; 0.481); “high effort and low reward” was associated with more occupational physical activity (β = 0.224; CI 95% 0.098; 0.351) and with less physical activity in sports/physical exercise in leisure (β = −0.198; CI 95% −0.384; −0.011); and psychological distress was associated with less physical activity in sports/exercise in leisure (β = −0.184; CI 95% −0.321; −0.046). Conclusions The results of this study show that job stress and rank were associated with higher levels of occupational physical activity. Moreover job stress and psychological distress were associated with lower levels of physical activity in sports/exercises. In the military context, given the importance of physical activity and the psychosocial environment, both of which are related to health, these findings may offer input to institutional policies directed to identifying psychological distress early and improving work relationships, and to creating an environment more favorable to increasing the practice of leisure-time physical activity. PMID:23914802
Murtha, Andrew S; Johnson, Anthony E; Buckwalter, Joseph A; Rivera, Jessica C
United States military personnel frequently suffer knee injuries. The resulting progressive posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) causes significant disability in these young high-demand patients for which total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the only effective treatment of their pain and impairment. Yet the use of this option for treatment of PTOA has not been studied. This retrospective review identified 74 knees in 64 U.S. military personnel who underwent TKA at ≤50 years of age during an 8-year period at a tertiary-care, academic, military medical center. Fifty-five knees (74.3%) experienced one or more prior ligamentous, meniscal, or chondral injuries prior to arthroplasty. Only one subject had a history of osteochondral intra-articular fracture. The average at injury was 29.2 years (95%CI of ±2.50) with an average age at arthroplasty of 44.3 years (±1.11). The most common injury was anterior cruciate ligament rupture (n = 19) with a mean time to TKA of 23.1 (±10.54) and 18.8 years (±7.01) when concomitant meniscal pathology was noted. Nineteen patients were noted to have radiographic and symptomatic end-stage osteoarthritis without a specified etiology at 41.4 years (±1.47) and underwent subsequent TKA. This is the first study to evaluate treatment of end-stage PT OA in young people treated with TKA, finding that the incidence of PTOA as an indication for arthroplasty is significantly higher than among civilians. In this otherwise healthy, high-demand patient population, the rate of OA progression following knee injury is accelerated and the long term implications can be career and life altering. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:677-681, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy; Wong, Elizabeth; Shier, Victoria
The majority of existing studies use observed, rather than experimental or quasi-experimental, variation in individuals' neighborhood environments to study their influence on body weight and related behaviors. This study leverages the periodic relocation of military personnel to examine the relationship between neighborhood environment and children's physical activity (PA) and BMI in military families. This study utilizes data on 12- and 13-year-old children from the Military Teenagers Environments, Exercise, and Nutrition Study (N=903). Multivariate regression models are estimated, separately for families living on- and off-post, to examine the relationship between parents' perceptions of the neighborhood environment, measured using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale-Youth Version (NEWS-Y), and children's self-reported PA and BMI. Different features of the neighborhood environment were significant for off- versus on-post families. For children living off-post, a 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in the proximity-to-recreational-facilities subscale was associated with 16.5 additional minutes per week (pmilitary families should take into account that different aspects of the neighborhood environment matter for children living on- versus off-post.
Stevelink, S A M; Malcolm, E M; Mason, C; Jenkins, S; Sundin, J; Fear, N T
Having a visual, hearing or physical impairment (defined as problems in body function or structure) may adversely influence the mental well-being of military personnel. This paper reviews the existing literature regarding the prevalence of mental health problems among (ex-)military personnel who have a permanent, predominantly, physical impairment. Multiple electronic literature databases were searched for relevant studies (EMBASE (1980-January 2014), MEDLINE (1946-January 2014), PsycINFO (2002-January 2014), Web of Science (1975-January 2014)). 25 papers were included in the review, representing 17 studies. Studies conducted among US military personnel (n=8) were most represented. A range of mental health disorders were investigated; predominately post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but also depression, anxiety disorder (excluding PTSD), psychological distress and alcohol misuse. The findings indicate that mental health disorders including PTSD (range 2-59%), anxiety (range 16.1-35.5%), depression (range 9.7-46.4%) and psychological distress (range 13.4-36%) are frequently found whereby alcohol misuse was least common (range 2.2-26.2%). Common mental health disorders were frequently identified among (ex-)military personnel with a physical impairment. Adequate care and support is necessary during the impairment adaptation process to facilitate the psychosocial challenges (ex-)military personnel with an impairment face. Future research should be directed into factors impacting on the mental well-being of (ex-)military personnel with an impairment, how prevalence rates vary across impairment types and to identify and act on specific needs for care and support. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Olivera, Anlys; Lejbman, Natasha; Jeromin, Andreas; French, Louis M; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Cashion, Ann; Mysliwiec, Vincent; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Gill, Jessica
Approximately one-third of military personnel who deploy for combat operations sustain 1 or more traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), which increases the risk for chronic symptoms of postconcussive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression and for the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Elevated concentrations of tau are observed in blood shortly following a TBI, but, to our knowledge, the role of tau elevations in blood in the onset and maintenance of chronic symptoms after TBI has not been investigated. To assess peripheral tau levels in military personnel exposed to TBI and to examine the relationship between chronic neurological symptoms and tau elevations. Observational assessment from September 2012 to August 2014 of US military personnel at the Madigan Army Medical Center who had been deployed within the previous 18 months. Plasma total tau concentrations were measured using a novel ultrasensitive single-molecule enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Classification of participants with and without self-reported TBI was made using the Warrior Administered Retrospective Casualty Assessment Tool. Self-reported symptoms of postconcussive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression were determined by the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Military Version, and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, respectively. Group differences in tau concentrations were determined through analysis of variance models, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve determined the sensitivity and specificity of tau concentrations in predicting TBI and chronic symptoms. Seventy participants with self-reported TBI on the Warrior Administered Retrospective Casualty Assessment Tool and 28 control participants with no TBI exposure were included. Concentration of total tau in peripheral blood. Concentrations of plasma tau were significantly elevated in the 70 participants with self
Hakre, Shilpa; Mydlarz, Dariusz G.; Dawson, Peter; Danaher, Patrick J.; Gould, Philip L.; Witkop, Catherine T.; Michael, Nelson L.; Peel, Sheila A.; Scott, Paul T.; Okulicz, Jason F.
Objective The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemiology of HIV in the United States Air Force (USAF) from 1996 through 2011 and to assess whether socio-demographic characteristics and service-related mobility, including military deployments, were associated with HIV infection. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of USAF personnel who were HIV-infected during the study period January 1, 1996 through December 31, 2011 and a matched case-control study. Cases were USAF personnel newly-diagnosed with HIV during the study period. Five randomly-selected HIV-uninfected controls were matched to each case by age, length of service, sex, race, service, component, and HIV test collection date. Socio-demographic and service-related mobility factors and HIV diagnosis were assessed using conditional logistic regression. Results During the study period, the USAF had 541 newly diagnosed HIV-infected cases. HIV incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years) among 473 active duty members was highest in 2007 (16.78), among black/ African-American USAF members (26.60) and those aged 25 to 29 years (10.84). In unadjusted analysis restricted to personnel on active duty, 10 characteristics were identified and considered for final multivariate analysis. Of these single (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 8.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.71–11.6) or other marital status (aOR 4.60, 95% CI 2.72–7.75), communications/ intelligence (aOR 2.57, 95% CI 1.84–3.60) or healthcare (aOR 2.07, 95% CI 1.28–3.35) occupations, and having no deployment in the past 2 years before diagnosis (aOR 2.02, 95% CI 1.47–2.78) conferred higher odds of HIV infection in adjusted analysis. Conclusion The highest risk of HIV infection in the USAF was among young unmarried deployment-naïve males, especially those in higher risk occupation groups. In an era when worldwide military operations have increased, these analyses identified potential areas where targeted HIV prevention efforts
Hakre, Shilpa; Mydlarz, Dariusz G; Dawson, Peter; Danaher, Patrick J; Gould, Philip L; Witkop, Catherine T; Michael, Nelson L; Peel, Sheila A; Scott, Paul T; Okulicz, Jason F
The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemiology of HIV in the United States Air Force (USAF) from 1996 through 2011 and to assess whether socio-demographic characteristics and service-related mobility, including military deployments, were associated with HIV infection. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of USAF personnel who were HIV-infected during the study period January 1, 1996 through December 31, 2011 and a matched case-control study. Cases were USAF personnel newly-diagnosed with HIV during the study period. Five randomly-selected HIV-uninfected controls were matched to each case by age, length of service, sex, race, service, component, and HIV test collection date. Socio-demographic and service-related mobility factors and HIV diagnosis were assessed using conditional logistic regression. During the study period, the USAF had 541 newly diagnosed HIV-infected cases. HIV incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years) among 473 active duty members was highest in 2007 (16.78), among black/ African-American USAF members (26.60) and those aged 25 to 29 years (10.84). In unadjusted analysis restricted to personnel on active duty, 10 characteristics were identified and considered for final multivariate analysis. Of these single (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 8.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.71-11.6) or other marital status (aOR 4.60, 95% CI 2.72-7.75), communications/ intelligence (aOR 2.57, 95% CI 1.84-3.60) or healthcare (aOR 2.07, 95% CI 1.28-3.35) occupations, and having no deployment in the past 2 years before diagnosis (aOR 2.02, 95% CI 1.47-2.78) conferred higher odds of HIV infection in adjusted analysis. The highest risk of HIV infection in the USAF was among young unmarried deployment-naïve males, especially those in higher risk occupation groups. In an era when worldwide military operations have increased, these analyses identified potential areas where targeted HIV prevention efforts may be beneficial in reducing HIV incidence in
E James Essien
Full Text Available E James Essien1, Osaro Mgbere2, Emmanuel Monjok1, Ernest Ekong3, Susan Abughosh1, Marcia M Holstad41Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA; 2Houston Department of Health and Human Services, Houston, TX, USA; 3Institute for Health Research and Development, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria; 4Nell Hodgson School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USABackground: Despite awareness of condom efficacy, in protecting against both human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted diseases (HIV/STDs and unintended pregnancy; some females find it difficult to use or permit condom use consistently because of the power imbalances or other dynamics operating in their relationships with males. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that predict the frequency of condom use and attitudes among sexually active female military personnel in Nigeria.Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design in which a total of 346 responses were obtained from consenting female military personnel in two cantonments in Southwestern Nigeria between 2006 and 2008. The study instrument was designed to assess HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS knowledge (HAK, HIV risk behaviors (HRB, alcohol and drug use, condom attitudes and barriers (CAS condom use self-efficacy (CUS and social support to condom use (SSC. The sociodemographic characteristics of participants were also captured. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used for modeling the predictors of condom use.Results: The results showed that 63% of the respondents reported using condoms always, 26% sometimes used condoms and 11% never used condoms during a sexual encounter in the past three months. Univariate analysis revealed that significant associations existed between CAB (P < 0.05, HRB (P < 0.01 and SSC (P < 0.01 with the frequency of condom use. The following sociodemographic variables: age, marital status, number of
Hotopf, Matthew; Hull, Lisa; Fear, Nicola T; Browne, Tess; Horn, Oded; Iversen, Amy; Jones, Margaret; Murphy, Dominic; Bland, Duncan; Earnshaw, Mark; Greenberg, Neil; Hughes, Jamie Hacker; Tate, A Rosemary; Dandeker, Christopher; Rona, Roberto; Wessely, Simon
Concerns have been raised about the mental and physical health of UK military personnel who deployed to the 2003 war in Iraq and subsequent tours of duty in the country. We compared health outcomes in a random sample of UK armed forces personnel who were deployed to the 2003 Iraq war with those in personnel who were not deployed. Participants completed a questionnaire covering the nature of the deployment and health outcomes, which included symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, common mental disorders, general wellbeing, alcohol consumption, physical symptoms, and fatigue. The participation rate was 62.3% (n=4722) in the deployed sample, and 56.3% (n=5550) in the non-deployed sample. Differences in health outcomes between groups were slight. There was a modest increase in the number of individuals with multiple physical symptoms (odds ratio 1.33; 95% CI 1.15-1.54). No other differences between groups were noted. The effect of deployment was different for reservists compared with regulars. In regulars, only presence of multiple physical symptoms was weakly associated with deployment (1.32; 1.14-1.53), whereas for reservists deployment was associated with common mental disorders (2.47, 1.35-4.52) and fatigue (1.78; 1.09-2.91). There was no evidence that later deployments, which were associated with escalating insurgency and UK casualties, were associated with poorer mental health outcomes. For regular personnel in the UK armed forces, deployment to the Iraq war has not, so far, been associated with significantly worse health outcomes, apart from a modest effect on multiple physical symptoms. There is evidence of a clinically and statistically significant effect on health in reservists.
Psychopathology Course Lecture on Professional Burnout & Suicide – Medical Psychology Course Lecture on Suicide Risk Assessment & Management...TITLE: Pilot Trial of Inpatient Cognitive Therapy for the Prevention of Suicide in Military Personnel with Acute Stress Disorder or Post-Traumatic...Pilot Trial of Inpatient Cognitive Therapy for the Prevention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER of Suicide in Military Personnel with Acute Stress Disorder or
Tavarez, Maria I; Chun, Helen; Anastario, Michael P
A survey was conducted of sexually active male military personnel stationed along major border-crossing zones between the Dominican Republic (DR) and Haiti, taking an applied scientific approach, to better inform prevention programming with military personnel in the region. A subsample of 470 sexually active male military personnel was drawn from a stratified systematic sample of military personnel stationed along the three largest border-crossing zones on the western border of the Dominican Republic. Using a verbally administered questionnaire, an examination of how foci of current HIV prevention programming with military personnel correlated with key sexual risk behavioral outcomes was conducted. Mental health factors such as probable alcohol abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder showed consistent associations with sexual risk behaviors. Participants showed a relatively high level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, a moderate level of negative attitudes toward condoms, and a moderate level of stigma toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Psychosocial factors, which are typically preventive in nature, were not associated with decreased sexual risk behaviors. Gaps were identified in HIV prevention programming that need to be addressed in this population of sexually active male military personnel. Although knowledge, attitudes, and psychosocial factors are important foci of HIV prevention programming, they were not associated with sexual risk behaviors, particularly after controlling for mental health factors. The authors suggest that prevalent psychiatric disorders in military personnel, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, should be factored in to the development of HIV prevention programs for military personnel.
0106 TITLE: Post Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT) for the Inpatient Treatment of Military Personnel with Suicidal Behaviors : A Multi- Site...evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive behavioral intervention, titled, Post Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT), for military personnel psychiatrically...EUC) or (2) EUC. The PACT+EUC condition will consist of six 60-90 minute individual cognitive behavioral therapy sessions administered over
Janssen, Debbie G A; Vermetten, Eric; Egberts, Toine C G; Heerdink, Eibert R
The armed forces work under high pressure and in stressful environments and it is well known that being in the military is a risk factor for psychiatric problems. However, it remains unknown how prevalent psychotropic medication use is in military personnel. To assess prevalence of psychotropic medication use in Dutch military personnel and compare to the Dutch general population. Data were obtained from the military pharmacy. From 2003 to 2012, the year-prevalence of psychotropic medication use was calculated from the number of distributed psychotropic medications and the number of Dutch military personnel. For the year 2011, the year-prevalence of psychotropic medication use in the military was compared to that of the Dutch general population. The year-prevalence of psychotropic medication use increased by 55%, from 1.64% in 2003 to 2.54% in 2012 in Dutch military personnel. An increase is seen in the number of users of psychotropic medication. Also the use of antidepressants and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication increased. Over the last decade, there has been a 1.5-fold increase in psychotropic medication dispensed to Dutch military personnel. However, Dutch military personnel were significantly less likely to use psychotropic medications compared to the Dutch general population. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Corwin, A; Ryan, A; Bloys, W; Thomas, R; Deniega, B; Watts, D
A waterborne outbreak of leptospirosis occurred among US military personnel during September 1987, on the island of Okinawa, Japan. Micro-agglutination titres for leptospiral antigen of greater than or equal to 200 were detected in hospitalized adult males averaging 22.5 years of age with symptoms compatible with leptospirosis. Epidemiological findings revealed two case clusters distinguished by time and place of exposure. The overall attack rates among recreational swimmers and combat skills training participants were 467/1000 (7/15) and 183/1000 (15/82), respectively. Swallowing of water differentiated individuals with laboratory-confirmed infection from those with no infection, while water immersion alone did not appear to result in leptospiral infection. Additionally, subnormal rainfall may have contributed to the risk of exposure associated with this outbreak.
Macmanus, Deirdre; Dean, Kimberlie; Jones, Margaret; Rona, Roberto J; Greenberg, Neil; Hull, Lisa; Fahy, Tom; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T
Violent offending by veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts is a cause for concern and there is much public debate about the proportion of ex-military personnel in the criminal justice system for violent offences. Although the psychological effects of conflict are well documented, the potential legacy of violent offending has yet to be ascertained. We describe our use of criminal records to investigate the effect of deployment, combat, and post-deployment mental health problems on violent offending among military personnel relative to pre-existing risk factors. In this cohort study, we linked data from 13,856 randomly selected, serving and ex-serving UK military personnel with national criminal records stored on the Ministry of Justice Police National Computer database. We describe offending during the lifetime of the participants and assess the risk factors for violent offending. 2,139 (weighted 17.0%) of 12,359 male UK military personnel had a criminal record for any offence during their lifetime. Violent offenders (1,369 [11.0%]) were the most prevalent offender types; prevalence was highest in men aged 30 years or younger (521 [20.6%] of 2,728) and fell with age (164 [4.7%] of 3027 at age >45 years). Deployment was not independently associated with increased risk of violent offending, but serving in a combat role conferred an additional risk, even after adjustment for confounders (violent offending in 137 [6.3%] of 2178 men deployed in a combat role vs 140 (2.4%) of 5,797 deployed in a non-combat role; adjusted hazard ratio 1.53, 95% CI 1.15-2.03; p=0.003). Increased exposure to traumatic events during deployment also increased risk of violent offending (violent offending in 104 [4.1%] of 2753 men with exposure to two to four traumatic events vs 56 [1.6%] of 2944 with zero to one traumatic event, 1.77, 1.21-2.58, p=0.003; and violent offending in 122 [5.1%] of 2582 men with exposure to five to 16 traumatic events, 1.65, 1.12-2.40, p=0.01; test for trend
Carless, David; Peacock, Suzanne; McKenna, Jim; Cooke, Carlton
To explore the psychosocial outcomes of an inclusive adapted sport and adventurous training course that aims to support the rehabilitation and personal development of military personnel who have sustained physical and/or psychological disability. Narrative life story interviews were conducted with 11 men aged 20-43 taking part in one of the 5-day courses. A thematic narrative analysis was conducted, focusing on accounts that provided insights into personally meaningful psychosocial outcomes of the course. We identified six themes, falling into two distinct clusters. "Bringing me back to myself" was achieved through the themes of (1) returning to activity, (2) rediscovering a sense of purpose, and (3) reconnecting to others. "New rooms to explore" was realised through (4) experiencing new activities, (5) being valued/respected/cared for and (6) being inspired by other people. Involvement in the course stimulated a balance of present- and future-oriented psychosocial outcomes through which participants both recreated aspects of themselves that had been lost through injury/trauma and moved forward with their lives as a result of new horizons of possibility. This 5-day inclusive adapted sport and adventurous training course offered meaningful psychosocial outcomes among military personnel who had experienced physical and/or psychological disability. The course helped participants recover aspects of their previous life and self through becoming physically active again, rediscovering a sense of purpose and reconnecting to others. Participants describe a broadening of life horizons as a result of the course, through new activities, being valued/respected/cared for, and being inspired by other people.
Zeber, John E; Noel, Polly H; Pugh, Mary Jo; Copeland, Laurel A; Parchman, Michael L
Nearly 40 000 service members returning from Iraq and Afghanistan have suffered traumatic injuries, with over 300 000 at risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or other psychiatric problems. These veterans face numerous post-deployment health concerns, sharing substantial burdens with their families. Although many rely upon community-based health care, little is known about how these individuals present at family medicine clinics for perceived medical and psychological issues. We surveyed 347 patients during visits at six clinics, and respondents reported whether they,a family member or a close acquaintance had been deployed since 2001. Patients identified traumatic military experiences, plus any attributable health or social problems. The mean patient age was 47.5 years, with 71% women and 55% Hispanic individuals. Nearly one-quarter reported family members serving overseas while 52% knew someone deployed. Significant events included nearby explosion (21%) or combat injury (9%), along with a variety of other incidents. Among the half of individuals perceiving significant health or social ramifications, the most prevalent consequences were PTSD, depression and alcohol abuse. Divorce or marital problems were noted by13%, while many reported employment, legal or other difficulties. This study offers insights into post-deployment needs of military personnel and subsequent problems reported by family members. A high prevalence of traumatic combat events translated into serious health needs, plus social disruptions for veterans and their loved ones. As the long-term problems disclosed by returning service personnel continue to ripple across community clinics and other health systems, effective treatment planning mandates coordinated attention from multiple providers and service organisations.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...
Rishel, Carrie W.; Hartnett, Helen P.
The prevalence of mental health disorders constitutes a nationwide public health crisis. Estimates suggest that more than 90 million people live in areas designated mental health professional shortage areas, with almost 6,000 additional practitioners needed to meet the service needs in these areas. Military personnel and veterans have greater…
Bleda, Paul R.; And Others
This study assessed the relative degree of association between quality of army life and perceived attributes of different types of leaders. Interviews with one hundred thirty lower ranking enlisted personnel provided information about soldiers' satisfaction with various facets of military experience and their perceptions of the behavior of…
Christine Mac Donald
Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of blast exposure on the human brain in the absence of head impact. Clinical reports, experimental animal studies, and computational modeling of blast exposure have suggested effects on the cerebellum and brainstem. In US military personnel with isolated, primary blast-related 'mild' traumatic brain injury and no other known insult, we found diffusion tensor MRI abnormalities consistent with cerebellar white matter injury in 3 of 4 subjects. No abnormalities in other brain regions were detected. These findings add to the evidence supporting the hypothesis that primary blast exposure contributes to brain injury in the absence of head impact and that the cerebellum may be particularly vulnerable. However, the clinical effects of these abnormalities cannot be determined with certainty; none of the subjects had ataxia or other detected evidence of cerebellar dysfunction. The details of the blast events themselves cannot be disclosed at this time, thus additional animal and computational modeling will be required to dissect the mechanisms underlying primary blast-related traumatic brain injury. Furthermore, the effects of possible subconcussive impacts and other military-related exposures cannot be determined from the data presented. Thus many aspects of topic will require further investigation.
MacGregor, Andrew J; Han, Peggy P; Dougherty, Amber L; Galarneau, Michael R
We investigated the association of the length of time spent at home between deployments, or dwell time, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health disorders. We included US Marine Corps personnel identified from military deployment records who deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom once (n = 49,328) or twice (n = 16,376). New-onset mental health diagnoses from military medical databases were included. We calculated the ratio of dwell-to-deployment time (DDR) as the length of time between deployments divided by the length of the first deployment. Marines with 2 deployments had higher rates of PTSD than did those with 1 deployment (2.1% versus 1.2%; P times at home relative to first deployment length was associated with reduced odds of PTSD (odds ratio [OR] = 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.32, 0.70), PTSD with other mental health disorder (OR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.33, 0.94), and other mental health disorders (OR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.51, 0.75). Longer dwell times may reduce postdeployment risk of PTSD and other mental health disorders. Future research should focus on the role of dwell time in adverse health outcomes.
Full Text Available Sport and physical activity is important and compulsory for military staff. They determine the execution of service duties and tasks. Respondents with low level of physical activity have difficulties achieving required fitness level and pass the annual physical tests. Staff officers aged 28 to 40 years completed questionnaires in 2009 (n=22, 2010 (n=30 and 2012 (n=39. Each questionnaire included twenty one questions which were then evaluated in points. The answers allowed us to collect information regarding their physical activity during service hours as well as after the working day. Questionnaires included also issues on harmful habits – sleep duration, smoking and use of alcohol; self-esteem of body mass as well. The respondents were divided into four groups according to the level of physical activity: low, moderate, good, high. The percentage of respondents with a high and good level of physical activity has increased from 22.7% to 68.9% during the analysed time period. Morning exercises and hardening (fitness procedures were not popular for military personnel. However, physical activities during the working hours have slightly increased: 31.8%, 43.3% and 48.9.3% respectively. In study years, it was found that respondents try to follow healthy eating habits and sleep regime. There is a slight decrease of respondents with obese and there is a slight increase of 22.7% to 27.6% of the respondents who are regular smokers .
Bryan, Craig J; Butner, Jonathan E; Sinclair, Sungchoon; Bryan, Anna Belle O; Hesse, Christina M; Rose, Andree E
Suicide is a leading cause of death in the United States and is the second leading cause of death in the U.S. military. Previous research suggests that data obtained from social media networks may provide important clues for identifying at-risk individuals. To test this possibility, the social media profiles from 315 military personnel who died by suicide (n = 157) or other causes (n = 158) were coded for the presence of stressful life situations (i.e., triggers), somatic complaints or health issues (i.e., physical), maladaptive or avoidant coping strategies (i.e., behaviors), negative mood states (i.e., emotion), and/or negative cognitive appraisals (cognition). Content codes were subsequently analyzed using multilevel models from a dynamical systems perspective to identify temporal change processes characteristic of suicide death. Results identified temporal sequences unique to suicide, notably social media posts about triggers followed by more posts about cognitions, posts about cognitions followed by more posts about triggers, and posts about behaviors followed by fewer posts about cognitions. Results suggest that certain sequences in social media content may predict cause of death and provide an estimate of when a social media user is likely to die by suicide. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.
Sharp, Marie-Louise; Fear, Nicola T; Rona, Roberto J; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil; Jones, Norman; Goodwin, Laura
Approximately 60% of military personnel who experience mental health problems do not seek help, yet many of them could benefit from professional treatment. Across military studies, one of the most frequently reported barriers to help-seeking for mental health problems is concerns about stigma. It is, however, less clear how stigma influences mental health service utilization. This review will synthesize existing research on stigma, focusing on those in the military with mental health problems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies between 2001 and 2014 to examine the prevalence of stigma for seeking help for a mental health problem and its association with help-seeking intentions/mental health service utilization. Twenty papers met the search criteria. Weighted prevalence estimates for the 2 most endorsed stigma concerns were 44.2% (95% confidence interval: 37.1, 51.4) for "My unit leadership might treat me differently" and 42.9% (95% confidence interval: 36.8, 49.0) for "I would be seen as weak." Nine studies found no association between anticipated stigma and help-seeking intentions/mental health service use and 4 studies found a positive association. One study found a negative association between self-stigma and intentions to seek help. Counterintuitively, those that endorsed high anticipated stigma still utilized mental health services or were interested in seeking help. We propose that these findings may be related to intention-behavior gaps or methodological issues in the measurement of stigma. Positive associations may be influenced by modified labeling theory. Additionally, other factors such as self-stigma and negative attitudes toward mental health care may be worth further attention in future investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bravo, Adrian J; Pearson, Matthew R; Kelley, Michelle L
Previous research on trait mindfulness facets using person-centered analyses (e.g., latent profile analysis [LPA]) has identified four distinct mindfulness profiles among college students: a high mindfulness group (high on all facets of the Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire [FFMQ]), a judgmentally observing group (highest on observing, but low on non-judging of inner experience and acting with awareness), a non-judgmentally aware group (high on non-judging of inner experience and acting with awareness, but very low on observing), and a low mindfulness group (low on all facets of the FFMQ). In the present study, we used LPA to identify distinct mindfulness profiles in a community based sample of U.S. military personnel (majority veterans; n = 407) and non-military college students ( n = 310) and compare these profiles on symptoms of psychological health outcomes (e.g., suicidality, PTSD, anxiety, rumination) and percentage of participants exceeding clinically significant cut-offs for depressive symptoms, substance use, and alcohol use. In the subsample of college students, we replicated previous research and found four distinct mindfulness profiles; however, in the military subsample we found three distinct mindfulness profiles (a combined low mindfulness/judgmentally observing class). In both subsamples, we found that the most adaptive profile was the "high mindfulness" profile (i.e., demonstrated the lowest scores on all psychological symptoms and the lowest probability of exceeding clinical cut-offs). Based on these findings, we purport that the comprehensive examination of an individual's mindfulness profile could help clinicians tailor interventions/treatments that capitalize on individual's specific strengths and work to address their specific deficits.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Recognition of suicide risk factors is important in taking adequate suicide preventive measures, Suicide Prevention Program for Professional Military Personnel (PMP implemented in the Army of Serbia in 2003. The aim of our study was to establish suicide risk factors in PMP of the Army of Serbia. Methods. Analysis of suicide risk factors in PMP was carried out on the basis of data obtained by psychological suicide autopsy. The controls were demographically similar psychiatric outpatients with no history of suicidal behavior. A descriptive statistics method was used for risk factors analysis. The t-test was used for testing statistical hypotheses. Results. A total of 30 PMP, aged 22-49 years (30.53 ± 6.24 on average committed suicide within the period 1998-2007. Distal suicide risk factors in PMP were considered to be not being married, psychiatric heredity, having no outpatient psychiatric treatment, gambling, regular physical practice (bodybuilding, less transfer to a different post, low motivation for military service (p < 0.001, not having children, parental loss in early childhood, alcohol abuse (p < 0.005, low salary (p < 0.01 uncompleted military school, debts in the family (p < 0.05. The commonest proximal suicide risk factors were: actual family problems (36.6%, actual mental problems (13.3%, burnout (13.3%, negative balance of accounts (13.3%, professional problems (6.7%, behavioral model while for 10.0% PMP suicide risk factors could not be established. Conclusion. According to the presence of multiple suicide risk factors, Suicide Prevention Program for PMP in the Army of Serbia is directed to the prevention of both proximal and distal suicide risk factors.
Al-Khashan, Hesham I.; Al Sabaan, Fahad S.; Al Nasser, Hifa S.; Al Buraidi, Ahmed A.; Al Awad, Ahmed D.; Horaib, Ghalib B.; Al Obaikan, AlJoharah H.; Mishriky, Adel M.
Aim: The aim was to measure the prevalence of smoking and identify its potential predictors among military personnel in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among military personnel in the five military regions of KSA between January 2009 and January 2011. The sample of 10,500 military personnel in the Saudi Armed Forces was equally divided among the five regions with a ratio 3:7 for officers and soldiers. A multistage stratified random sampling was used to recruit participants in the four services of the armed forces in the five regions. Information on sociodemographic characteristics with a detailed history of smoking was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate analysis was used to identify the factors associated with smoking, and multiple logistic regression analysis to discover its potential predictors. Results: About 35% of the sample was current smokers, with higher rates among soldiers. The eastern region had the highest rate (43.0%), and the southern region the lowest (27.5%). Navy personnel had a higher risk of being current smokers (40.6%), and the air defense the lowest risk (31.0%). Multivariate analysis identified working in the navy, and low income as positive predictors of current smoking, while residing in the southern region, older age, years of education, being married, and having an officer rank were negative (protective) factors. Conclusion: Smoking is prevalent among military personnel in KSA, with higher rates in the Navy and Air Force, among privates, younger age group, lower education and income, and divorced/widowed status. Measures should be taken to initiate programs on smoking cessation that involve changes in the environment that is likely to promote this habit. PMID:25374464
Hesham I Al-Khashan
Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to measure the prevalence of smoking and identify its potential predictors among military personnel in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among military personnel in the five military regions of KSA between January 2009 and January 2011. The sample of 10,500 military personnel in the Saudi Armed Forces was equally divided among the five regions with a ratio 3:7 for officers and soldiers. A multistage stratified random sampling was used to recruit participants in the four services of the armed forces in the five regions. Information on sociodemographic characteristics with a detailed history of smoking was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate analysis was used to identify the factors associated with smoking, and multiple logistic regression analysis to discover its potential predictors. Results: About 35% of the sample was current smokers, with higher rates among soldiers. The eastern region had the highest rate (43.0%, and the southern region the lowest (27.5%. Navy personnel had a higher risk of being current smokers (40.6%, and the air defense the lowest risk (31.0%. Multivariate analysis identified working in the navy, and low income as positive predictors of current smoking, while residing in the southern region, older age, years of education, being married, and having an officer rank were negative (protective factors. Conclusion: Smoking is prevalent among military personnel in KSA, with higher rates in the Navy and Air Force, among privates, younger age group, lower education and income, and divorced/widowed status. Measures should be taken to initiate programs on smoking cessation that involve changes in the environment that is likely to promote this habit.
Cruser, des Anges; Maurer, Douglas; Hensel, Kendi; Brown, Sarah K; White, Kathryn; Stoll, Scott T
Objective Acute low back pain (ALBP) may limit mobility and impose functional limitations in active duty military personnel. Although some manual therapies have been reported effective for ALBP in military personnel, there have been no published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) in the military. Furthermore, current military ALBP guidelines do not specifically include OMT. Methods This RCT examined the efficacy of OMT in relieving ALBP and improving functioning in military personnel at Fort Lewis, Washington. Sixty-three male and female soldiers ages 18 to 35 were randomly assigned to a group receiving OMT plus usual care or a group receiving usual care only (UCO). Results The primary outcome measures were pain on the quadruple visual analog scale, and functioning on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Outcomes were measured immediately preceding each of four treatment sessions and at four weeks post-trial. Intention to treat analysis found significantly greater post-trial improvement in ‘Pain Now’ for OMT compared to UCO (P = 0·026). Furthermore, the OMT group reported less ‘Pain Now’ and ‘Pain Typical’ at all visits (P = 0·025 and P = 0·020 respectively). Osteopathic manipulative treatment subjects also tended to achieve a clinically meaningful improvement from baseline on ‘Pain at Best’ sooner than the UCO subjects. With similar baseline expectations, OMT subjects reported significantly greater satisfaction with treatment and overall self-reported improvement (P<0·01). Conclusion This study supports the effectiveness of OMT in reducing ALBP pain in active duty military personnel. PMID:23372389
Cruser, des Anges; Maurer, Douglas; Hensel, Kendi; Brown, Sarah K; White, Kathryn; Stoll, Scott T
Acute low back pain (ALBP) may limit mobility and impose functional limitations in active duty military personnel. Although some manual therapies have been reported effective for ALBP in military personnel, there have been no published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) in the military. Furthermore, current military ALBP guidelines do not specifically include OMT. This RCT examined the efficacy of OMT in relieving ALBP and improving functioning in military personnel at Fort Lewis, Washington. Sixty-three male and female soldiers ages 18 to 35 were randomly assigned to a group receiving OMT plus usual care or a group receiving usual care only (UCO). The primary outcome measures were pain on the quadruple visual analog scale, and functioning on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Outcomes were measured immediately preceding each of four treatment sessions and at four weeks post-trial. Intention to treat analysis found significantly greater post-trial improvement in 'Pain Now' for OMT compared to UCO (P = 0·026). Furthermore, the OMT group reported less 'Pain Now' and 'Pain Typical' at all visits (P = 0·025 and P = 0·020 respectively). Osteopathic manipulative treatment subjects also tended to achieve a clinically meaningful improvement from baseline on 'Pain at Best' sooner than the UCO subjects. With similar baseline expectations, OMT subjects reported significantly greater satisfaction with treatment and overall self-reported improvement (P<0·01). This study supports the effectiveness of OMT in reducing ALBP pain in active duty military personnel.
...." The fog of war impacts every aspect of military planning. During the past decade, one of the major concerns traveling through military circles is the belief that we are in the midst of a revolution in military affairs (RMA...
Kennedy-Armbruster, Carol; Evans, Ellen M; Sexauer, Lisa; Peterson, James; Wyatt, William
Identifying potential modifiable determinants of functional movement ability and fatigue may inform efforts to maintain constant physical readiness, especially in active duty military over 40 years of age, who are largely sedentary throughout their work day. The primary aim of this study was to determine the associations among conventional fitness measures (body composition, flexibility, and strength), sedentary behavior (sitting time), functional movement ability, and fatigue in military personnel. Volunteer active duty personnel 40 years of age and older (n = 569 males; n = 121 females; mean ± SD for total sample = 44.5 ± 4.1 years) were assessed for adiposity (%Fat), strength, flexibility, self-reported sitting time, perceived fatigue using the fatigue severity scale, and functional movement ability using the functional movement screening criteria. Greater flexibility was associated with better functional movement screening scores (r = 0.34, p time (p time, and weight management may be viable intervention targets to enhance functional movement ability and reduce fatigue in 40+ year old active duty military personnel. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Rha, Brian; Lopman, Benjamin A.; Alcala, Ashley N.; Riddle, Mark S.; Porter, Chad K.
Background Norovirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis episodes and outbreaks in US military deployments, but estimates of endemic disease burden among military personnel in garrison are lacking. Methods Diagnostic codes from gastroenteritis-associated medical encounters of active duty military personnel and their beneficiaries from July 1998–June 2011 were obtained from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Using time-series regression models, cause-unspecified encounters were modeled as a function of encounters for specific enteropathogens. Model residuals (representing unexplained encounters) were used to estimate norovirus-attributable medical encounters. Incidence rates were calculated using population data for both active duty and beneficiary populations. Results The estimated annual mean rate of norovirus-associated medically-attended visits among active duty personnel and their beneficiaries was 292 (95% CI: 258 to 326) and 93 (95% CI: 80 to 105) encounters per 10,000 persons, respectively. Rates were highest among beneficiaries Norovirus was estimated to cause 31% and 27% of all-cause gastroenteritis encounters in the active duty and beneficiary populations, respectively, with over 60% occurring between November and April. There was no evidence of any lag effect where norovirus disease occurred in one population before the other, or in one beneficiary age group before the others. Conclusions Norovirus is a major cause of medically-attended gastroenteritis among non-deployed US military active duty members as well as in their beneficiaries. PMID:27115602
López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Notario-Pérez, Ricardo; Del Corral, Tamara; Ramos-Díaz, Bernardo; Acuyo-Osorio, Mario; La Touche, Roy
Neck pain is one of the largest health problems in the military sector. To assess differences in the strength and endurance of the cervical muscles between military personnel with chronic nonspecific neck pain (CNSNP) with higher level of kinesiophobia (CNSNP-K) and individuals with lower levels of kinesiophobia (CNSNP-NK). We used kinesiophobia as a classification method: (1) CNSNP-K and (2) CNSNP-NK. The variables measured were endurance and strength of cervical muscles; range of motion (ROM), disability, pain intensity and psychological factors. Eighty-three military personnel (26 CNSNP-K; 20 CNSNP-NK and 37 asymptomatic). Statistically significant differences in endurance and ROM were only found between the CNSNP-K group and the control group. In strength and disability differences were revealed between both symptomatic groups and the control group [CNSNP-K vs. control (flex-ext p < 0.001); CNSNP-NK vs. control (flex p = 0.003) and (ext p < 0.001)]. For psychological variables, the CNSNP-K group showed differences compared with the CNSNP-NK (pain catastrophizing, p = 0.007; anxiety and depression, p < 0.001) and with the asymptomatic group (pain catastrophizing, p = 0.008; anxiety and depression, p < 0.001). Military personnel with CNSNP-K have functional limitations and associated psychosocial factors compared with asymptomatic subjects, and showed greater associated psychological factors than CNSNP-NK group. Military personnel with CNSNP-NK only showed decreased strength with respect to those who were asymptomatic.
Morgan, Jessica Kelley; Hourani, Laurel; Tueller, Stephen
Our previous research has highlighted the important link between coping behaviors and mental health symptoms in military personnel. This study seeks to extend these findings by examining each coping behavior and mental health issue individually. This study has four specific aims: (1) test cross-sectional relationships between coping and mental health at baseline and follow-up, (2) examine stability of each variable over time, (3) determine the predictive nature of baseline mental health and coping on subsequent mental health and coping, (4) assess the magnitude of each effect to evaluate the differential predictive value of coping behaviors and mental health symptoms. A convenience sample of U.S. Army platoons of the 82nd Airborne was surveyed. We used a two-wave, cross-lagged autoregression design with structural equation modeling to disentangle elements of temporality and to examine the predictive value of mental health status vis-à-vis coping behaviors and vice versa. Separate analyses were performed with each coping strategy and each set of mental health symptoms. This design allowed for the analysis of two synchronous associations (i.e., cross-sectional correlations between the coping strategy and mental health symptoms at each time point), two autoregressive effects (i.e., baseline mental health predicting mental health at follow-up and baseline coping predicting coping at follow-up), and two cross-lagged effects (i.e., baseline coping strategy predicting mental health at follow-up and baseline mental health predicting follow-up coping). Results of descriptive statistics revealed that the most frequently reported coping behavior was thinking of a plan to solve the problem, followed by talking to a friend, engaging in a hobby, and exercising or playing sports. The least often endorsed coping behaviors were smoking marijuana or using illicit drugs and thinking about hurting or killing oneself, followed by having a drink or lighting up a cigarette. We verified
Cederbaum, Julie A; Wilcox, Sherrie L; Sullivan, Kathrine; Lucas, Carrie; Schuyler, Ashley
Although many service members successfully cope with exposure to stress and traumatic experiences, others have symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety; contextual factors may account for the variability in outcomes from these experiences. This work sought to understand mechanisms through which social support influences the mental health of service members and whether dyadic functioning mediates this relationship. We collected cross-sectional data as part of a larger study conducted in 2013; 321 military personnel who had at least 1 deployment were included in these analyses. Surveys were completed online; we collected data on demographic characteristics, social support, mental health measures (depression, PTSD, and anxiety), and dyadic functioning. We performed process modeling through mediation analysis. The direct effects of social support on the mental health of military personnel were limited; however, across all types of support networks, greater social support was significantly associated with better dyadic functioning. Dyadic functioning mediated the relationships between social support and depression/PTSD only when social support came from nonmilitary friends or family; dyadic functioning mediated social support and anxiety only when support came from family. We found no indirect effects of support from military peers or military leaders. Findings here highlight the need to continue to explore ways in which social support, particularly from family and nonmilitary-connected peers, can bolster healthy intimate partner relationships and, in turn, improve the well-being of military service members who are deployed.
Welsh, Janet A; Olson, Jonathan; Perkins, Daniel F; Travis, Wendy J; Ormsby, LaJuana
This study examined the relations among three different types of naturally occurring social support (from romantic partners, friends and neighbors, and unit leaders) and three indices of service member well-being (self reports of depressive symptoms, satisfaction with military life, and perceptions of unit readiness) for service members who did and did not report negative experiences associated with military deployment. Data were drawn from the 2011 Community Assessment completed anonymously by more than 63,000 USAF personnel. Regression analyses revealed that higher levels of social support was associated with better outcomes regardless of negative deployment experiences. Evidence of moderation was also noted, with all forms of social support moderating the impact of negative deployment experiences on depressive symptoms and support from unit leaders moderating the impact of negative deployment experience on satisfaction with military life. No moderation was found for perceptions of unit readiness. Subgroup analyses revealed slightly different patterns for male and female service members, with support providing fewer moderation effects for women. These findings may have value for military leaders and mental health professionals working to harness the power of naturally occurring relationships to maximize the positive adjustment of service members and their families. Implications for practices related to re-integration of post-deployment military personnel are discussed.
Shier, Victoria; Nicosia, Nancy; Datar, Ashlesha
Research and policy initiatives are increasingly focused on the role of neighborhood food environment in children's diet and obesity. However, existing evidence relies on observational data that is limited by neighborhood selection bias. The Military Teenagers' Environments, Exercise, and Nutrition Study (M-TEENS) leverages the quasi-random variation in neighborhood environment generated by military personnel's assignment to installations to examine whether neighborhood food environments are associated with children's dietary behaviors and BMI. Our results suggest that neither the actual nor the perceived availability of particular food outlets in the neighborhood is associated with children's diet or BMI. The availability of supermarkets and convenience stores in the neighborhood was not associated with where families shop for food or children's dietary behaviors. Further, the type of store that families shop at was not associated with the healthiness of food available at home. Similarly, availability of fast food and restaurants was unrelated to children's dietary behaviors or how often children eat fast food or restaurant meals. However, the healthiness of food available at home was associated with healthy dietary behaviors while eating at fast food outlets and restaurants were associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors in children. Further, parental supervision, including limits on snack foods and meals eaten as a family, was associated with dietary behaviors. These findings suggest that focusing only on the neighborhood food environment may ignore important factors that influence children's outcomes. Future research should also consider how families make decisions about what foods to purchase, where to shop for foods and eating out, how closely to monitor their children's food intake, and, ultimately how these decisions collectively impact children's outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Jones, Norman; Keeling, Mary; Thandi, Gursimran; Greenberg, Neil
The relationship between mental health symptoms, stigmatising beliefs about mental health and help seeking is complex and poorly understood. 1636 UK Armed Forces personnel provided study data immediately after deployment (T1) and approximately 6 months later (T2). Stigmatising beliefs were assessed using an eight-item scale previously used in studies of UK military personnel. Symptoms of probable common mental disorder, probable post-traumatic stress disorder and subjective stressful, emotional, relationship and family problems were evaluated at T1 and T2. Help seeking during deployment was assessed at T1 and post-deployment help seeking at T2. Alcohol use and subjective alcohol problems were assessed at T2 only. Reporting a probable mental health disorder or potentially harmful alcohol use following deployment was both significantly associated with higher levels of stigmatising beliefs. The reported degree of stigma was associated with changes in mental health symptom levels; compared to those who were never classified as a probable mental health disorder case, recovered cases experienced significantly lower levels of stigmatisation, whereas new onset cases reported significantly higher levels. The way that individuals report mental health stigmatisation is not static; rather stigma fluctuates in proportion to the frequency and severity of psychological symptoms. These results suggest that public health stigma-reduction strategies which aim to promote engagement with mental health services should be focused towards people who are experiencing worsening mental health. Our results suggest that willing volunteers who have recovered from a mental-ill-health episode may be well placed to assist in the delivery of such a strategy.
O'Hara, Reginald; Vojta, Christopher; Henry, Amy; Caldwell, Lydia; Wade, Molly; Swanton, Stacie; Linderman, Jon K; Ordway, Jason
Heat-related illness is a critical factor for military personnel operating in hyperthermic environments. Heat illness can alter cognitive and physical performance during sustained operations missions. Therefore, the primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a novel cooling shirt on core body temperature in highly trained US Air Force personnel. Twelve trained (at least 80th percentile for aerobic fitness according to the American College of Sports Medicine, at least 90% on the US Air Force fitness test), male Air Force participants (mean values: age, 25 ± 2.8 years; height, 178 ± 7.9cm; body weight 78 ± 9.6kg; maximal oxygen uptake, 57 ± 1.9mL/kg/ min; and body fat, 10% ± 0.03%) completed this study. Subjects performed a 70-minute weighted treadmill walking test and 10-minute, 22.7kg sandbag shuttle test under two conditions: (1) "loaded" (shirt with cooling inserts) and (2) "unloaded" (shirt with no cooling inserts). Core body temperature, exercise heart rate, capillary blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion were recorded. Core body temperature was lower (ρ = .001) during the 70-minute treadmill walking test in the loaded condition. Peak core temperature during the 70-minute walking test was also significantly lower (ρ = .038) in the loaded condition. This lightweight (471g), passive cooling technology offers multiple hours of sustained cooling and reduced core and peak body temperature during a 70-minute, 22.7kg weighted-vest walking test. 2016.
Adler, Amy B; Adrian, Amanda L; Hemphill, Marla; Scaro, Nicole H; Sipos, Maurice L; Thomas, Jeffrey L
, researchers, and leaders can address factors that influence burnout in this, and other occupational contexts. In addition, the constructs of team care and leadership offer novel contributions to the study of burnout in medical personnel. Reprint & Copyright © of 2017 Association Military Surgeons of the U.S.
This study is a preliminary effort to both determine the impact of microcomputer use within the N4 (detailing) branch of the Naval Military Personnel command and develop a methodology for making further assessments on a wider scale. The study found three main areas of impact of microcomputer use: budgeting, nonfiscal planning, and time savings. In the budgeting area, small work groups were able to keep better track of available funds, and to make more accurate estimates of funds that would be available in the future. As a result there was better cooperation between detailing groups and those with financial oversight responsibilities. Also, work was better paced to the availability of funds. Improvements in nonfiscal planning centered on the use of more and better information for planning and decision making. The primary advantages of ''time savings'' were allowing people to do new tasks and giving people opportunities to do better analyses of problems. Overall, these impacts was highly positive, and there were no serious negative consequences.
Harbertson, Judith; Grillo, Michael; Zimulinda, Eugene; Murego, Charles; Brodine, Stephanie; May, Susanne; Sebagabo, Marcellin; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Cronan, Terry; Shaffer, Richard
A cross-sectional study was conducted among active-duty male soldiers, aged ≥21 years, in the Rwanda Defense Forces (RDF) and included an anonymous behavioral survey and HIV rapid testing to determine risk factors associated with HIV seroprevalence. Overall prevalence was 2.6 % (95 % CI: 1.84-3.66); personnel who were divorced, separated or widowed, served ≥6 years, never deployed, uncircumcised, reported STI symptoms, had ≥6 lifetime sex partners, or screened positive for harmful alcohol use (via Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) had higher HIV prevalence. Ever being divorced, separated or widowed (OR = 29.8; 95 % CI: 5.5-159.9), and STI symptoms (OR = 3.4; 95 % CI: 1.5-7.6) were significantly associated with infection, after multivariable adjustment, while circumcision was protective (OR = 0.4; 95 % CI: 0.2-0.9). Despite mobility and other factors that uniquely influence HIV transmission in militaries, RDF prevalence was similar to the general population. A reason for this finding may be conservative sexual behavior combined with effective leadership-supported prevention programs. Data suggest a concentrated rather than generalized epidemic, with targets identified for intervention.
and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Fifth Edition (2013) A. Persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior as indicated by at least...MILITARY PERSONNEL DOD and the Coast Guard Need to Screen for Gambling Disorder Addiction and Update Guidance...Need to Screen for Gambling Disorder Addiction and Update Guidance What GAO Found Department of Defense (DOD) data show 514 DOD and Coast Guard (CG
athletes using creatine (33) and college students using energy drinks Jacobson et al. AEP Vol. 22, No. 5 SUPPLEMENT USE AMONG MILITARY PERSONNEL May 2012...Although slightly lower in compar- ison with college students and young athletes , possible reasons why the prevalence of supplements examined in this... hydrate . J Ren Nutr. 2006;16:341–345. 20. Whitt KN, Ward SC, Deniz K, Liu L, Odin JA, Qin L. Cholestatic liver injury associated with whey protein and
Sobhani, Vahid; Shakibaee, Abolfazl; Khatibi Aghda, Amidoddin; Emami Meybodi, Mohammad Kazem; Delavari, Abbasali; Jahandideh, Dariush
Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS) is common among military recruits and to our knowledge; the factors that might put the military recruits at higher risk of incidence of MTSS are not well known. This study was done to investigate the association between some anthropometric and anatomical factors and the prevalence of MTSS among military recruits. One hundred and eighty one randomly selected military recruits were included in this cross sectional study. Using history taking and physical examinations they were tested for MTSS. Accordingly the subjects were assigned to the case (those with MTSS) and control groups (normal healthy subjects). Using standard guidelines, the anthropometric and anatomical criteria of the subjects were measured. The correlation between the measurements and the prevalence of MTSS was tested using statistical analysis. Data of all the 181 subjects with the mean age of 30.7 ± 4.68 years were Included in the final analysis. The prevalence of MTSS was found to be 16.6% (30 people). Internal and external rotation range of motion, iliospinale height, the score of navicular drop test, and the trochanteric tibial lateral length were significantly different between healthy subjects and patients with MTSS (P < 0.05). The prevalence of MTSS was relatively lower in this study comparing to other studies on military personnel. It was not probably due to type of military shoes or exercise area surface (none of them were standardized); it could be due to low intensity trainings and the long intervals between training sessions.
Reijnen, A; Rademaker, A R; Vermetten, E; Geuze, E
Recent studies in troops deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan have shown that combat exposure and exposure to deployment-related stressors increase the risk for the development of mental health symptoms. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of mental health symptoms in a cohort of Dutch military personnel prior to and at multiple time-points after deployment. Military personnel (n=994) completed various questionnaires at 5 time-points; starting prior to deployment and following the same cohort at 1 and 6 months and 1 and 2 years after their return from Afghanistan. The prevalence of symptoms of fatigue, PTSD, hostility, depression and anxiety was found to significantly increase after deployment compared with pre-deployment rates. As opposed to depressive symptoms and fatigue, the prevalence of PTSD was found to decrease after the 6-month assessment. The prevalence of sleeping problems and hostility remained relatively stable. The prevalence of mental health symptoms in military personnel increases after deployment, however, symptoms progression over time appears to be specific for various mental health symptoms. Comprehensive screening and monitoring for a wide range of mental health symptoms at multiple time-points after deployment is essential for early detection and to provide opportunities for intervention. This project was funded by the Dutch Ministry of Defence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Diop, Moustapha; Diouf, Assane; Seck, Said Malaobé; Lo, Gora; Ka, Daye; Massaly, Aminata; Dieye, Alassane; Fall, Ndeye Maguette; Cisse-Diallo, Viviane Marie Pierre; Diallo-Mbaye, Khardiata; Lakhe, Ndèye Aissatou; Fortes-Déguénonvo, Louise; Ndour, Cheikh Tidiane; Soumaré, Maserigne; Seydi, Moussa
In Senegal, 85% of the adult population have been exposed to the hepatitis B virus and about 11% of them are chronic surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers. This infection is poorly documented among Senegalese Armed Forces. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HBsAg in Senegalese military personnel on mission to Darfur (Sudan) and to identify its associated factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study among Senegalese military personnel stationed in Darfur from 1 July 2014 to 31 July 2014. HBsAg test was performed on serum of participants using immunochromatographic method. The search for associated factors was carried out using multivariate logistic regression. Our study included 169 male military personnel. The average age was 36.6 ± 9.5 years. A history of familial chronic liver disease, blood exposure and sexual exposure were found in 12.4%, 24.9% and 45.6% of the study population respectively. HBsAg was found in 24 participants [14.2% (CI 95% = 8.9-19.5)]. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, age (OR = 0.9 CI 95% = 0.9-1.0), university level (OR = 9.5 CI 95% = 1.3 - 67 , 1>) and sexual exposure (OR = 3.3 <; CI 95% = 1.0 - 10.3) were independently associated with hepatitis B. Our study shows high prevalence of HBsAg and underlines the need for further evaluation of hepatitis B in this population.
Ayala, Elizabeth; Carnero, Andrés M
Evidence on the prevalence and determinants of burnout among military acute and critical care nursing personnel from developing countries is minimal, precluding the development of effective preventive measures for this high-risk occupational group. In this context, we aimed to examine the association between the dimensions of burnout and selected socio-demographic and occupational factors in military acute/critical care nursing personnel from Lima, Peru. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 93 nurses/nurse assistants from the acute and critical care departments of a large, national reference, military hospital in Lima, Peru, using a socio-demographic/occupational questionnaire and a validated Spanish translation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Total scores for each of the burnout dimensions were calculated for each participant. Higher emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation scores, and lower personal achievement scores, implied a higher degree of burnout. We used linear regression to evaluate the association between each of the burnout dimensions and selected socio-demographic and occupational characteristics, after adjusting for potential confounders. The associations of the burnout dimensions were heterogeneous for the different socio-demographic and occupational factors. Higher emotional exhaustion scores were independently associated with having children (pintensive care unit compared with the recovery room (pcare nursing personnel, potential screening and preventive interventions should focus on younger/less experienced nurses/nurse assistants, who are single, have children, or work in the most acute critical care areas (e.g. the emergency room/intensive care unit).
Raĭkova, S V; Zav'ialov, A I
The article is concerned to the materials about epidemiologic situation of typhus fever in the regions around Volga river (Saratovsky, Samarsky and others) during World War I (1914-1918) among the military personnel of the Russian army and among the civilians. The main reasons for spread of infection, ways of the transmission, and also measures for decreasing of level of morbidity on the different stages of evacuation of patients with typhus fever in the safer hospitals are shown. The most important methods of fighting against epidemic of typhus fever were: isolation of patients in separate special hospitals, desincection and disinfection measures in the foci of infection and organization appropriate sanitary conditions for military man in the army and among civilians. Acquired valuable experience of territorial and military doctors during the period of epidemic of typhus fever allowed receiving complex effective antiepidemic measures of fighting and prevention from this disease.
Tolmachev, I A
The educational sphere is becoming a major priority in the state policy. The Concept of national security for the Russian Federation regards intellectual impairment as a most serious internal threat to the military security. It declares that the operational efficiency of the armed forces should be based on high-quality education of specialists. The current reform of the military forces in the Russian Federation envisages the modification of the forensic medical expertise and the system of training relevant personnel. The post-diploma education of forensic medical experts encounters difficulties at all levels. In all probability, such education will be performed in the near future through the primary retraining mechanism. In the course of the ongoing reform, the Department of Forensic Medicine at the Military Medical Academy remains the sole facility for the post-diploma education of military forensic medical experts. The teaching staff of the department have sufficient qualification and experience for training highly skilled specialists as stipulated by the reform of the military forces in the Russian Federation.
Laukkala, T; Parkkola, K; Henriksson, M; Pirkola, S.; Kaikkonen, N; Pukkala, E; Jousilahti, P
Objectives To estimate total and cause-specific mortality after international peacekeeping deployments among the Finnish military peacekeeping personnel in comparison to the general population of similar age and sex. Design A register-based study of a cohort of military peacekeeping personnel in 1990?2010 followed for mortality until the end of 2013. Causes of death were obtained from the national Causes of Death Register. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) for total and cause-specific mo...
Lea, C Suzanne; Efird, Jimmy T; Toland, Amanda E; Lewis, Denise R; Phillips, Christopher J
This study was conducted to investigate whether incidence rates of malignant cutaneous melanoma in U.S. Department of Defense active duty military personnel differed from rates in the U.S. general population between 2000 and 2007. The study population included active duty military personnel and the general population aged 18 to 56 years. Data were obtained from the U.S. Department of Defense medical data systems and from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results program. Melanoma risk was estimated by incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Melanoma risk was higher among active duty personnel than the general population (IRR = 1.62, 95% confidence interval = 1.40-1.86). Incidence rates were higher for white military personnel than for white rates in general population (36.89 and 23.05 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). Rates were also increased for military men and women compared with SEER (men, 25.32 and 16.53 per 100,000; women, 30.00 and 17.55 per 100,000). Air Force service personnel had the highest rates and Army had the lowest. Melanoma rates were marginally higher among active duty military personnel than the general population between 2000 and 2007. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Adult civilian dependents of active duty military personnel (ADMP) may play a central role in influencing the home food environment and the risk of overweight and obesity in American Warfighters and military families. However, there is no information on whether this group would be receptive to weigh...
Yoon, Chang-gyo; Kim, Se Jin; Kim, Kang; Lee, Ji Eun; Jhun, Byung Woo
Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is an uncommon inflammatory lung disease, and limited data exist concerning the clinical characteristics and factors that influence its occurrence. We retrospectively reviewed the records of AEP patients treated at Korean military hospitals between January 2007 and December 2013. In total, 333 patients were identified; their median age was 22 years, and all were men. All patients presented with acute respiratory symptoms (cough, sputum, dyspnea, or fever) and had elevated levels of inflammatory markers including median values of 13,185/µL for white blood cell count and 9.51 mg/dL for C-reactive protein. All patients showed diffuse ground glass opacity/consolidation, and most had pleural effusion (n = 265; 80%) or interlobular septal thickening (n = 265; 85%) on chest computed tomography. Most patients had normal body mass index (n = 255; 77%), and only 30 (9%) patients had underlying diseases including rhinitis, asthma, or atopic dermatitis. Most patients had recently changed smoking habits (n = 288; 87%) and were Army personnel (n = 297; 89%).The AEP incidence was higher in the Army group compared to the Navy or Air Force group for every year (P = 0.002). Both the number of patients and patients with high illness severity (oxygen requirement, intensive care unit admission, and pneumonia severity score class ≥ III) tended to increase as seasonal temperatures rose. We describe the clinical characteristics of AEP and demonstrate that AEP patients have recently changed smoking habits and work for the Army. There is an increasing tendency in the numbers of patients and those with higher AEP severity with rising seasonal temperatures.
Glad, David; Skillgate, Eva; Holm, Lena W
Not much is known about musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in peacekeeping missions and to what extent such conditions are disabling. The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence and severity of MSD in Swedish military personnel on 6 months duty in Afghanistan. When returning from Afghanistan 440 individuals received a questionnaire including questions about pain conditions during their mission abroad. A manikin was used to mark the area(s) in pain and which body area had bothered them the most. A modified version of chronic pain questionnaire was used to assess pain and disability. The response rate was 78% (n = 344). Any MSD during the 6 months was reported by 70% (95% CI 65-75). The three most bothersome areas were lumbar spine [17% (95% CI 13-20)], shoulders [17% (95% CI 13-21)] and lower extremities [14% (95% CI 11-18)]. 57% (95% CI 49-65) had grade I pain (low pain/low disability), 36% (95% CI 28-45) had grade II pain (high pain/low disability) and 5% (95% CI 3-10) had grade III pain (any pain/high disability). Of all MSD, more than half were new episodes since arrival and gradual onset was common. Musculoskeletal pain was common during peacekeeping mission and gradual onset was dominating. Most often, it did not affect the daily activities. Nevertheless, it may be of important to consider broadening the medical disciplines onsite to provide preventive measures and treatment at an early stage, and thereby reducing the risk of chronicity.
Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, a complex and chronic disorder caused by exposure to a traumatic event, is a common psychological result of current military operations. It causes substantial distress and interferes with personal and social functioning. Consequently, identifying the risk factors that make military personnel and veterans more likely to experience PTSD is of academic, clinical, and social importance. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO were used to search for observational studies (cross-sectional, retrospective, and cohort studies about PTSD after deployment to combat areas. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted by two of the authors independently. Thirty-two articles were included in this study. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias tests were performed. The prevalence of combat-related PTSD ranged from 1.09% to 34.84%. A total of 18 significant predictors of PTSD among military personnel and veterans were found. Risk factors stemming from before the trauma include female gender, ethnic minority status, low education, non-officer ranks, army service, combat specialization, high numbers of deployments, longer cumulative length of deployments, more adverse life events, prior trauma exposure, and prior psychological problems. Various aspects of the trauma period also constituted risk factors. These include increased combat exposure, discharging a weapon, witnessing someone being wounded or killed, severe trauma, and deployment-related stressors. Lastly, lack of post-deployment support during the post-trauma period also increased the risk of PTSD. The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for combat-related PTSD in military personnel and veterans. More research is needed to determine how these variables interact and how to best protect against susceptibility
Liu, Yuan; Kang, Peng; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Lulu
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a complex and chronic disorder caused by exposure to a traumatic event, is a common psychological result of current military operations. It causes substantial distress and interferes with personal and social functioning. Consequently, identifying the risk factors that make military personnel and veterans more likely to experience PTSD is of academic, clinical, and social importance. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO) were used to search for observational studies (cross-sectional, retrospective, and cohort studies) about PTSD after deployment to combat areas. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted by two of the authors independently. Thirty-two articles were included in this study. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias tests were performed. The prevalence of combat-related PTSD ranged from 1.09% to 34.84%. A total of 18 significant predictors of PTSD among military personnel and veterans were found. Risk factors stemming from before the trauma include female gender, ethnic minority status, low education, non-officer ranks, army service, combat specialization, high numbers of deployments, longer cumulative length of deployments, more adverse life events, prior trauma exposure, and prior psychological problems. Various aspects of the trauma period also constituted risk factors. These include increased combat exposure, discharging a weapon, witnessing someone being wounded or killed, severe trauma, and deployment-related stressors. Lastly, lack of post-deployment support during the post-trauma period also increased the risk of PTSD. The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for combat-related PTSD in military personnel and veterans. More research is needed to determine how these variables interact and how to best protect against susceptibility to PTSD. PMID
Ayala, Elizabeth; Carnero, Andrés M.
Background Evidence on the prevalence and determinants of burnout among military acute and critical care nursing personnel from developing countries is minimal, precluding the development of effective preventive measures for this high-risk occupational group. In this context, we aimed to examine the association between the dimensions of burnout and selected socio-demographic and occupational factors in military acute/critical care nursing personnel from Lima, Peru. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional study in 93 nurses/nurse assistants from the acute and critical care departments of a large, national reference, military hospital in Lima, Peru, using a socio-demographic/occupational questionnaire and a validated Spanish translation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Total scores for each of the burnout dimensions were calculated for each participant. Higher emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation scores, and lower personal achievement scores, implied a higher degree of burnout. We used linear regression to evaluate the association between each of the burnout dimensions and selected socio-demographic and occupational characteristics, after adjusting for potential confounders. The associations of the burnout dimensions were heterogeneous for the different socio-demographic and occupational factors. Higher emotional exhaustion scores were independently associated with having children (pdepersonalization scores were independently associated with being single compared with being divorced, separated or widowed (p<0.01), working in the emergency room/intensive care unit compared with the recovery room (p<0.01), and inversely associated with age (p<0.05). Finally, higher personal achievement scores were independently associated with having children (p<0.05). Conclusion Among Peruvian military acute and critical care nursing personnel, potential screening and preventive interventions should focus on younger/less experienced nurses/nurse assistants, who are
De Leo, Gianluca; Bonacina, Stefano; Brivio, Eleonora; Cuper, Taryn
International travel to underdeveloped areas where both hygienic conditions and sufficient medical care are often in short supply can pose severe health risks. Infectious disease is one of the most common health risks for military forces deployed overseas. Careful personal hygiene and early symptom recognition serve as important steps in averting potential illness. With the ubiquitous deployment threat of chemical and biological warfare agents, the benefit of early detection and action can ultimately be critical for survival. Nowadays game-based learning models, made available on mobile devices in the form of apps, can provide relevant medical knowledge, and they can effectively reach a young military population. The aims of this preliminary research project are twofold: (1) We want to investigate whether young U.S. Army personnel would be open to the use of mobile apps while deployed abroad, and (2) we want to share the research design adopted with the intent of providing a baseline methodology that can be used in future larger studies. We recruited and interviewed Reserve Officers' Training Corps cadets at a university in the United States. Focus groups have been adopted as a research tool for collecting data. Open and close-ended questions were used during the focus group. Four domains were investigated: Cell phone usage, game console perceptions, game genre preferences, and gaming habits and perceptions. The analysis of the focus group data reported that young military personnel often play with videogames and that they prefer first person Action/Combat genre. The data also showed that they do not consider playing videogames to be a leisure activity but a part of their lives. The preliminary results of this study suggest that games on cell phones could be considered as a platform for teaching young military personnel medical-related concepts and health safety procedures.
Xue, Chen; Ge, Yang; Tang, Bihan; Liu, Yuan; Kang, Peng; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Lulu
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a complex and chronic disorder caused by exposure to a traumatic event, is a common psychological result of current military operations. It causes substantial distress and interferes with personal and social functioning. Consequently, identifying the risk factors that make military personnel and veterans more likely to experience PTSD is of academic, clinical, and social importance. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO) were used to search for observational studies (cross-sectional, retrospective, and cohort studies) about PTSD after deployment to combat areas. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted by two of the authors independently. Thirty-two articles were included in this study. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias tests were performed. The prevalence of combat-related PTSD ranged from 1.09% to 34.84%. A total of 18 significant predictors of PTSD among military personnel and veterans were found. Risk factors stemming from before the trauma include female gender, ethnic minority status, low education, non-officer ranks, army service, combat specialization, high numbers of deployments, longer cumulative length of deployments, more adverse life events, prior trauma exposure, and prior psychological problems. Various aspects of the trauma period also constituted risk factors. These include increased combat exposure, discharging a weapon, witnessing someone being wounded or killed, severe trauma, and deployment-related stressors. Lastly, lack of post-deployment support during the post-trauma period also increased the risk of PTSD. The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for combat-related PTSD in military personnel and veterans. More research is needed to determine how these variables interact and how to best protect against susceptibility to PTSD.
Gail V. MacDonell
Full Text Available Partners of Australian combat veterans are at an increased risk of experiencing mental health problems. The present study provides a comparative analysis of the mental health of partners of veterans with that of the Australian normative data. To compare different types of groups of partners, the study samples comprised: (a partners of Australian combat veterans (Sample 1: n = 282, age M = 60.79, SD = 5.05, (b a sub-sample of partners of Australian combat veterans from the previous sample (Sample 2: n = 50; M = 60.06, SD = 4.80, (c partners of Special Air Services Regiment (SASR personnel (Sample 3: n = 40, age M = 34.39SD = 7.01, and (d partners of current serving military (non-SASR personnel (Sample 4: n = 38, age M = 32.37, SD = 6.20. Respondents completed measures assessing their reported levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Samples 1 and 2 comprised partners of Australian military veterans who reported significantly greater symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress than the comparative population norms. The sample of SASR personnel partners (Sample 3 reported significantly lower levels of depression and anxiety, whereas the sample with non-SASR personnel partners (Sample 4 reported a significantly greater stress symptomatology than the comparative norms. Number of deployments was found to be associated with depression, anxiety, and stress in partners of non-SASR veterans (Sample 4. Lessons and protective factors can be learnt from groups within the current military as to what may assist partners and families to maintain a better level of psychosocial health.
Skomorovsky, Alla; LeBlanc, Manon Mireille
Unique military demands can have a significant impact upon family life. Although most Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) families are able to cope effectively with the stressors of military life, some may experience marital conflicts, contributing to spousal violence. Moreover, there is evidence that certain personal resources can buffer the impact of spousal violence on psychological distress. The present study examined the roles of spousal violence and personal resources, including coping, mastery, and social support, in the psychological distress of CAF members' spouses (N = 1,892). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that violence significantly predicted psychological distress among spouses of CAF members; although physical violence was no longer significant, emotional violence remained a unique predictor. Coping, mastery, and perceived social support, entered together, significantly predicted psychological distress among spouses, over and above the role of violence. Specifically, emotion-focused coping, mastery, and social support remained unique predictors of distress. Furthermore, perceived social support buffered the negative impact of emotional violence on psychological distress. The study has important organizational implications, illuminating the risks related to the spousal violence in the military and the psychological consequences of such violence. These results can be used to improve treatment and prevention programs, enhancing the well-being of military families. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Holt, Megan; Reed, Mark; Woodruff, Susan I; DeMers, Gerard; Matteucci, Michael; Hurtado, Suzanne L
The transient nature of military life coupled with environmental and psychosocial stressors increase the risk for alcohol misuse and abuse among active duty (AD) military service members and recent epidemiological studies demonstrate high rates of heavy drinking among AD personnel. Over the past decade, Department of Defense health care systems have observed increases in the utilization of substance use services among military personnel demobilizing from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. Given the high rates of heavy drinking and increased use of substance use services in this population of AD personnel, the purpose of this study was to investigate how to best translate and implement an effective alcohol abuse prevention intervention tool (screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment [SBIRT]) used in civilian populations to a military emergency department (ED) setting. We conducted focus groups with ED staff as well as short interviews with AD personnel at a Naval Medical Center in the southwestern United States to determine the suitability of SBIRT with military populations as well as how to best translate SBIRT to a military hospital setting. Participants expressed support for utilizing civilian health educators to conduct the SBIRT intervention; however, many were concerned with issues of confidentiality and were skeptical of whether AD would speak truthfully about alcohol consumption. Results of this formative research study clearly indicate the implementation and translation of SBIRT into a military medical setting require attention to issues related to confidentiality, the veracity of alcohol reporting, as well as use of civilians over AD military personnel to deliver the SBIRT intervention. Furthermore, most participants expressed support for the SBIRT model and felt it could be implemented, with caveats, into a military health care setting such as an ED. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Lane, Marian E.; Hourani, Laurel L.; Bray, Robert M.; Williams, Jason
Objectives. We examined stress levels and other indicators of mental health in reservists and active-duty military personnel by deployment status. Methods. We used data from the Department of Defense Health-Related Behaviors surveys, which collect comprehensive, population-based data for reserve and active-duty forces. Data were collected from 18 342 reservists and 16 146 active-duty personnel. Results. Overall, with adjustment for sociodemographic and service differences, reservists reported similar or less work and family stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms than did active-duty personnel. However, reservists who had been deployed reported higher rates of suicidal ideation and attempts than did active-duty personnel who had been deployed and higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology than did any active-duty personnel and reservists who had not been deployed. The highest rates of suicidal ideation and attempts were among reservists who had served in theaters other than Iraq and Afghanistan. Conclusions. Our results suggest that deployment has a greater impact on reservists than on active-duty members, thus highlighting the urgent need for services addressing reservists’ unique postdeployment mental health issues. Also, deployment to any theater, not only Iraq or Afghanistan, represents unique threats to all service members’ mental well-being. PMID:22571709
Kim, Tae Kyung; Lee, H-C; Lee, S G; Han, K-T; Park, E-C
Reports of sexual harassment are becoming more frequent in Republic of Korea (ROK) Armed Forces. This study aimed to analyse the impact of sexual harassment on mental health among female military personnel of the ROK Armed Forces. Data from the 2014 Military Health Survey were used. Instances of sexual harassment were recorded as 'yes' or 'no'. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to compare Kessler Psychological Distress Scale 10 (K-10) scores. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify associations between sexual harassment and K-10 scores. Among 228 female military personnel, 13 (5.7%) individuals experienced sexual harassment. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that sexual harassment had a significantly negative impact on K-10 scores (3.486, psexual harassment were identified in the unmarried (including never-married) group (6.761, pSexual harassment has a negative impact on mental health. Factors associated with worse mental health scores included service classification and length of service. The results provide helpful information with which to develop measures for minimising the negative psychological effects from sexual harassment and promoting sexual harassment prevention policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Curry, Jennifer A; Maguire, Jason D; Fraser, Jamie; Tribble, David R; Deiss, Robert G; Bryan, Coleman; Tisdale, Michele D; Crawford, Katrina; Ellis, Michael; Lalani, Tahaniyat
Staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), especially those due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are an important public health issue for the military. Limited data exist regarding the prevalence of S. aureus colonization in the shipboard setting. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study to determine the point prevalence of S. aureus colonization among military personnel onboard a naval vessel. Asymptomatic active duty personnel completed a survey for risk factors associated with colonization and SSTIs. Culture specimens were obtained from the anterior nares, pharynx, groin, and perirectal regions. MRSA isolates underwent testing for antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and pulsed-field type. 400 individuals were enrolled, 198 (49.5%) of whom were colonized with S. aureus, with MRSA identified in 14 participants (3.5%). No significant risk factors were associated with MRSA colonization. USA800 was the most common colonizing MRSA strain in the cohort and was detected in 10 participants (71%). Two participants (14%) were colonized with USA300 MRSA. In this first report of S. aureus epidemiology in a shipboard setting, we observed high rates of S. aureus and MRSA colonization. Longitudinal studies are needed to document the incident rates of S. aureus colonization during shipboard deployment and its impact on SSTI risk. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Mysliwiec, Vincent; Capaldi, Vincent F; Gill, Jessica; Baxter, Tristin; O'Reilly, Brian M; Matsangas, Panagiotis; Roth, Bernard J
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is frequently diagnosed in U.S. military personnel. OSA is associated with sleepiness, poor sleep quality, and service-related illnesses of insomnia, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and traumatic brain injury. Observational study of active duty military personnel with OSA and adherence to positive airway pressure (PAP) assessed with smart chip technology. 58 men with mean age 36.2 ± 7.7 years, mean body mass index 31.4 ± 3.7 with mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) 19.1 ± 19.0 are reported. 23 (39.7%) participants were adherent to PAP, and 35 (60.3%) were nonadherent. No significant differences in baseline demographics, apnea-hypopnea index, service-related illnesses, or clinical instrument scores. Military personnel adherent to PAP had significantly improved sleepiness (p = 0.007), sleep quality (p = 0.013), depressive symptoms (p = 0.01), energy/fatigue (p = 0.027), and emotional well-being (p = 0.024). Participants with moderate-severe OSA were more likely to be in the adherent group when compared with participants diagnosed with mild OSA. Military personnel with OSA have low adherence to PAP. Adherence is associated with improved depressive symptoms, sleepiness, sleep quality, energy/fatigue, emotional well-being, and social functioning. Future research should focus on interventions to improve the management of OSA in military personnel. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Gleeson, Todd D; Hemmer, Paul A
Providing medical care to members of the military and their families remains a societal duty carried out not only by military physicians but also, and in large part, by civilian providers. As many military families are geographically dispersed, it is probable that all physicians at some point in their training or careers will care for this unique patient population. Understanding the military culture can help physicians provide the best care possible to our military families, and inclusion of military cultural competency curricula in all medical schools is a first step in advancing this understanding. The authors review the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that all health professionals should acquire to be able to care for those who serve and offer recommendations for developing these among all students and trainees.
.... The literature review covered the topics of Community, Military Families and Social Support. The emerging questions dealt with matters of meaning and perception of community for the female military partners...
The goal of this paper is to conceptualize, contextualize, and critically analyze the Canadian Armed Forces’ (CAF) use of YouTube to promote itself, recruit soldiers, and frame its role in the post-9/11 U.S.-led NATO war in Afghanistan. The first section of this paper engages with scholarship on war and the media, the military-industrial-communications complex (MICC), and YouTube War to conceptualize YouTube as a tool and contested battle-space of 21st century new media wars. The second secti...
Charles, B G; Blomgren, A; Nasveld, P E; Kitchener, S J; Jensen, A; Gregory, R M; Robertson, B; Harris, I E; Reid, M P; Edstein, M D
The purpose of this study was to determine the population pharmacokinetics of mefloquine in healthy military personnel during prophylaxis for malaria infections. The subjects were 1,111 Australian soldiers participating in two studies: a randomised double-blinded study (group A, 161 subjects) and an open-label study (group B, 950 subjects). Following a loading dose (250 mg mefloquine base daily, 3 days), subjects received an oral weekly maintenance dose of 250 mg over 6 months. Blood was collected after the last split loading dose then at weeks 4, 8 and 16 for group A, and at weeks 13 and 26 for group B. Plasma mefloquine concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Pharmacokinetic modelling was performed using NONMEM. A two-compartment model with inter-occasion variability (IOV) for clearance satisfactorily described the pharmacokinetics. Typical values were clearance (CL/F, 2.09 l/h), central volume of distribution (V1/F, 528 l), absorption rate constant (KA, 0.24 h(-1)), inter-compartmental clearance (Q/F, 12.5 l/h), peripheral volume of distribution (V2/F, 483 l) and elimination half-life (t (1/2), 14.0 days). Weight had a positive influence on central volume but was insufficient to warrant dosage adjustments. The inter-individual variability (coefficient of variation, CV%) for CL/F and V1/F was 24.4% and 29.6%, respectively. The IOV for CL/F was 17.8%. The proportional residual error (CV%) for groups A and B was 11.5% and 19.5%, respectively, and the additive error standard deviation (SD) was 57 ng/ml and 149 ng/ml, respectively. The typical parameter values were comparable with those estimated in much smaller cohorts of healthy subjects and in malaria patients treated with single-dose mefloquine. The lower unexplained variability in the blinded study suggested these subjects may have been more compliant in taking their medication than soldiers in the open-label study.
Khazem, Lauren R; Law, Keyne C; Green, Bradley A; Anestis, Michael D
Suicidal desire in the military has been previously examined through the lens of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS). However, no research has examined the impact of specific coping strategies on perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicidal ideation in a large population of individuals serving in the US military. Furthermore, the factor structure of previously utilized coping clusters did not apply to our sample of military personnel. Therefore, we found a three-factor solution to be tested in this sample. We hypothesized that specific types of coping behavior clusters (Adaptive and Maladaptive) would predict both IPTS constructs and suicidal ideation. Results indicated that Adaptive and Maladaptive coping clusters predicted the IPTS constructs in the hypothesized directions. However, only the Maladaptive cluster predicted suicidal ideation. These findings implicate the need for further research and suicide prevention efforts focusing on coping strategies, specifically those that are maladaptive in nature, in relation to suicidal ideation in military members. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rafferty, Michael; Bennett Britton, Thomas M; Drew, Benjamin T; Phillip, Rhodri D
While phantom limb pain is a well-recognized phenomenon, clinical experience has suggested that the augmentation of phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation is an issue for many military personnel with amputation (visceral stimulation being the sensation of the bowel or bladder either filling or evacuating). However, the prevalence of this phenomenon is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the alteration in phantom limb pain and the effect that visceral stimulation has on phantom limb pain intensity. A cross-sectional study of 75 military personnel who have lost one or both lower limbs completed a questionnaire to assess the prevalence of the alteration of phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation. Included in the questionnaire was a pain visual analog scale (VAS) graded from 0 to 10. Patients recorded the presence and intensity of phantom limb pain. They also recorded whether and how this pain altered with a need to micturate or micturition, and/or a need to defecate or defecation, again using a pain VAS. Time since amputation, level of amputation, and medications were also recorded. Patients reported a phantom limb pain prevalence of 85% with a mean VAS of 3.6. In all, 56% of patients reported a change in the severity of phantom limb pain with visceral stimuli. The mean increase in VAS for visceral stimulation was 2.5 +/- 1.6 for bladder stimulation and 2.9 +/- 2.0 for bowel stimulation. Of the patients questioned, 65% reported an improvement in symptoms over time. VAS scores were highest in the subgroup less than 6 mo postamputation. An increase in phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation is a common problem for military personnel with amputation.
Walker, Anthony; McKune, Andrew; Ferguson, Sally; Pyne, David B; Rattray, Ben
First responders and military personnel experience rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) far in excess of the general population. Although exposure to acute traumatic events plays a role in the genesis of these disorders, in this review, we present an argument that the occupational and environmental conditions where these workers operate are also likely contributors. First responders and military personnel face occupational exposures that have been associated with altered immune and inflammatory activity. In turn, these physiological responses are linked to altered moods and feelings of well-being which may provide priming conditions that compromise individual resilience, and increase the risk of PTSD and depression when subsequently exposed to acute traumatic events. These exposures include heat, smoke, and sleep restriction, and physical injury often alongside heavy physical exertion. Provided the stimulus is sufficient, these exposures have been linked to inflammatory activity and modification of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA), offering a mechanism for the high rates of PTSD and depressive disorders in these occupations. To test this hypothesis in the future, a case-control approach is suggested that compares individuals with PTSD or depressive disorders with healthy colleagues in a retrospective framework. This approach should characterise the relationships between altered immune and inflammatory activity and health outcomes. Wearable technology, surveys, and formal experimentation in the field will add useful data to these investigations. Inflammatory changes, linked with occupational exposures in first responders and military personnel, would highlight the need for a risk management approach to work places. Risk management strategies could focus on reducing exposure, ensuring recovery, and increasing resilience to these risk contributors to minimise the rates of PTSD and depressive disorders in vulnerable occupations.
The objective of this randomized comparative study was to provide preliminary data of comparative effectiveness of Thai traditional massage (TTM) and Chinese acupuncture for the treatment of myofascial back pain in young military personnel. Eighteen Thai military personnel, aged ranging from 20-40 years were randomly divided into TTM and acupuncture groups. Each group received 5 sessions of massage or acupuncture during a 10-day period. The Thai version McGill Pain Questionnaire, 100-mm, visual analog scale (VAS) and summation of pain threshold in each trigger point measured by pressure algometer were assessed at day 0, 3, 8 and 10. At the end of treatment protocols, McGill scores decreased significantly in TTM and acupuncture groups (p = 0.024 and 0.002, respectively). VAS also decreased significantly (p = 0.029 and 0.003, respectively). However, the pain pressure threshold increased significantly in the acupuncture group but not in the TTM group (p = 0.006 and 0.08, respectively). When outcomes were compared between the two groups, no significant difference was found in the VAS (p = 0.115) and pain pressure threshold (p = 0.116), whereas the acupuncture group showed significantly lower McGill scores than the TTM group (p = 0.039). In conclusion, five sessions of Thai traditional massage and Chinese acupuncture were effective for the treatment of myofascial back pain in young Thai military personnel. Significant effects in both groups begin after the first session. Acupuncture is more effective than Thai traditional massage when affective aspect is also evaluated.
... to remain in the military than do the race, gender, or racial climate variables. Satisfaction with pay and benefits has a significant positive effect on the likelihood that respondents will stay in the military, but pride in service is more robust...
Ramirez, Maria Heliana; Rogers, Stephen Joseph; Johnson, Harriet Lee; Banks, Jon; Seay, Wanda Penny; Tinsley, Billy Lee; Grant, Andrew Warren
Following repeal of the Don't Ask Don't Tell Policy, nearly one million lesbian, gay, and bisexual veterans and service members may increasingly seek access to Veterans Affairs services (G. Gates, 2004; G. J. Gates, 2010). Limited data exist regarding lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) military personnel posing a unique challenge to clinicians and healthcare systems serving veterans with evidence-based and culturally relevant practice. In an effort to fill this information void, participatory program evaluation is used to inform recommendations for LGBT-affirmative health care systems change in a post-DADT world.
.... The demands and stress of military life include frequent times away from family, recurrent moves that can disrupt family and social support networks, and the threat of family members' death or injury...
Gill, Jessica M; Lee, Hyunhwa; Baxter, Tristin; Reddy, Swarnalatha Y; Barr, Taura; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Wang, Dan; Mysliwiec, Vincent
Sleep disturbance is a common and disturbing symptom in military personnel, with many individuals progressing to the development of insomnia, which is characterized by increased arousals, wakefulness after sleep onset, and distorted sleep architecture. The molecular mechanisms underlying insomnia remain elusive, limiting future therapeutic development to address this critical issue. We examined whole gene expression profiles associated with insomnia. We compared subjects with insomnia (n = 25) to controls (n = 13) without insomnia using microarray gene expression profiles obtained from peripheral samples of whole blood obtained from military personnel. Compared to controls, participants with insomnia had differential expression of 44 transcripts from 43 identified genes. Among the identified genes, urotensin 2 was downregulated by more than 6 times in insomnia participants, and the fold-change remained significant after controlling for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and medication use. Urotensin 2 is involved in regulation of orexin A and B activity and rapid eye movement during sleep. These findings suggest that differential expression of these sleep-regulating genes contributes to symptoms of insomnia and, specifically, that switching between rapid eye movement and nonrapid eye movement sleep stages underlies insomnia symptoms. Future work to identify therapeutic agents that are able to regulate these pathways may provide novel treatments for insomnia. © The Author(s) 2015.
Wardle, Sophie L; Greeves, Julie P
To update the current injury prevention strategy evidence base for making recommendations to prevent physical training-related musculoskeletal injury. We conducted a systematic review to update the evidence base on injury prevention strategies for military personnel. Literature was systematically searched and extracted from five databases, and reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Sixty one articles meeting the inclusion criteria and published during the period 2008-2015 were selected for systematic review. The retrieved articles were broadly categorised into six injury prevention strategies; (1) conditioning, (2) footwear modifications, (3) bracing, (4) physical activity volume, (5) physical fitness, and (6) leadership/supervision/awareness. The majority of retrieved articles (n=37 (of 61) evaluated or systematically reviewed a conditioning intervention of some nature. However, the most well-supported strategies were related to reducing physical activity volume and improving leadership/supervision/awareness of injuries and injury prevention efforts. Several injury prevention strategies effectively reduce musculoskeletal injury rates in both sexes, and many show promise for utility with military personnel. However, further evaluation, ideally with prospective randomised trials, is required to establish the most effective injury prevention strategies, and to understand any sex-specific differences in the response to these strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bryan, Craig J; Gonzales, Jacqueline; Rudd, M David; Bryan, AnnaBelle O; Clemans, Tracy A; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie; Wertenberger, Evelyn; Leeson, Bruce; Heron, Elizabeth A; Morrow, Chad E; Etienne, Neysa
A growing body of empirical research suggests insomnia severity is directly related to suicide ideation, attempts, and death in nonmilitary samples, even when controlling for depression and other suicide risk factors. Few studies have explored this relationship in U.S. military personnel. The present study entailed secondary data analyses examining the associations of insomnia severity with suicide ideation and attempts in three clinical samples: Air Force psychiatric outpatients (n = 158), recently discharged Army psychiatric inpatients (n = 168), and Army psychiatric outpatients (n = 54). Participants completed the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation, the Beck Depression Inventory-II or Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Insomnia Severity Index, and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist at baseline; two samples also completed these measures during follow-up. Sleep disturbance was associated with concurrent (β's > 0.21; P's 0.39; P's suicide ideation in all three samples. When adjusting for age, gender, depression, and posttraumatic stress, insomnia severity was no longer directly associated with suicide ideation either concurrently (β's 0.200) or prospectively (β's 0.063), but depression was (β's > 0.22; P's depression mediated the relation of insomnia severity with suicide ideation. Across three clinical samples of military personnel, depression explained the relationship between insomnia severity and suicide risk. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
approval process. 4 The credential exam fee must not be bundled with non-examination-related costs (i.e. training materials, membership cards ...detailed information on credentials related to a military occupational specialty, credential requirements, potential gaps between military training and...Association. This project was designed to identify state-level professional requirements that can be met through the training received by servicemembers in
PSYCHOANALYSIS . No Date. Defines gender identity and describes how it develops, drawing heavily on the concepts of j3. Money and R. Stoller. The...ANB MILITARY SOCIOLOGY. Spring 1980. p. 71. Soloff, Paul H. "Pseudohomosexual Psychosis In Basic Military Train- ing." ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOP...pseudohornosexual psychosis defends the patient against perceiving his inability to effect separation from mother, bear the object loss, and attain
Vorona, A A; Syrkin, L D
The article is devoted to developing the principles and methods of resource assessment of mental health military contingent in terms of demographic decline and reform of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. From the standpoint of the concept of the mutual influence of the value-semantic components and the level of psychological adaptation resources demonstrates the possibility of evaluating resource capabilities of the psyche of military contingent.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence on the prevalence and determinants of burnout among military acute and critical care nursing personnel from developing countries is minimal, precluding the development of effective preventive measures for this high-risk occupational group. In this context, we aimed to examine the association between the dimensions of burnout and selected socio-demographic and occupational factors in military acute/critical care nursing personnel from Lima, Peru. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 93 nurses/nurse assistants from the acute and critical care departments of a large, national reference, military hospital in Lima, Peru, using a socio-demographic/occupational questionnaire and a validated Spanish translation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Total scores for each of the burnout dimensions were calculated for each participant. Higher emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation scores, and lower personal achievement scores, implied a higher degree of burnout. We used linear regression to evaluate the association between each of the burnout dimensions and selected socio-demographic and occupational characteristics, after adjusting for potential confounders. The associations of the burnout dimensions were heterogeneous for the different socio-demographic and occupational factors. Higher emotional exhaustion scores were independently associated with having children (p<0.05 and inversely associated with the time working in the current department (p<0.05. Higher depersonalization scores were independently associated with being single compared with being divorced, separated or widowed (p<0.01, working in the emergency room/intensive care unit compared with the recovery room (p<0.01, and inversely associated with age (p<0.05. Finally, higher personal achievement scores were independently associated with having children (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Among Peruvian military acute and critical care nursing personnel, potential
Background Although a number of studies have been conducted on the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use in military personnel, these investigations have not been previously summarized. This article provides a systematic literature review of this topic. Methods Literature databases, reference lists, and other sources were searched to find studies that quantitatively examined the prevalence of DS use in uniformed military groups. Prevalence data were summarized by gender and military service. Where there were at least two investigations, meta-analysis was performed using a random model and homogeneity of the prevalence values was assessed. Results The prevalence of any DS use for Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps men was 55%, 60%, 60%, and 61%, respectively; for women corresponding values were 65%, 71%, 76%, and 71%, respectively. Prevalence of multivitamin and/or multimineral (MVM) use for Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps men was 32%, 46%, 47%, and 41%, respectively; for women corresponding values were 40%, 55%, 63%, and 53%, respectively. Use prevalence of any individual vitamin or mineral supplement for Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps men was 18%, 27%, 25%, and 24%, respectively; for women corresponding values were 29%, 36%, 40%, and 33%, respectively. Men in elite military groups (Navy Special Operations, Army Rangers, and Army Special Forces) had a use prevalence of 76% for any DS and 37% for MVM, although individual studies were not homogenous. Among Army men, Army women, and elite military men, use prevalence of Vitamin C was 15% for all three groups; for Vitamin E, use prevalence was 8%, 7%, and 9%, respectively; for sport drinks, use prevalence was 22%, 25% and 39%, respectively. Use prevalence of herbal supplements was generally low compared to vitamins, minerals, and sport drinks, ≤5% in most investigations. Conclusions Compared to men, military women had a higher use prevalence of any DS and MVM. Army men and women tended to
Smith, Tracey J; Dotson, Laura E; Young, Andrew J; White, Alan; Hadden, Louise; Bathalon, Gaston P; Funderburk, LesLee; Marriott, Bernadette P
To assess whether active duty military personnel meet Healthy People 2010 objectives for physical activity and fruit, vegetable, and whole-grain intake; the relationship of select demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors (eg, smoking), and eating patterns (eg, frequency and location of meals) on achieving diet and exercise-related Healthy People 2010 objectives; and the relationship of eating patterns to self-reported weight gain. Secondary data from 15,747 participants in the 2005 Department of Defense Health Related Behaviors Survey was analyzed. More than 57% of respondents met the Healthy People 2010 guidelines for moderate or vigorous leisure exercise but only 3% reported eating fruit (once), vegetables (3 times), and whole grains (3 times) daily. Individuals who reported gaining weight during the previous year were more likely to skip breakfast and eat at, or from, a restaurant ≥2 times per week compared with those who did not gain weight (Pskipped breakfast ≥2 times per week (OR 0.45) or ate at a restaurant/takeout food (OR 0.54) ≥2 times per week were significantly less likely to meet Healthy People 2010 guidelines for food intake (defined as achieving a daily intake of one or more fruits, three or more vegetables, and three or more servings of whole grains) and exercise (OR 0.88 and 0.82, respectively). Although the majority of military personnel met guidelines for physical activity, their intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains was suboptimal. Skipping breakfast and eating at, or from, restaurants were risk factors for poor nutrient intake and associated with weight gain. These data suggest that skipping breakfast and eating out deter achieving Healthy People 2010 objectives and provide targets for military programs to promote achieving these objectives. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Melvin, Valerie C; Durland, Laura L; Bancroft, James R; Brown, Renee S; Brown, Robert B; Bryant, Carissa D; Gatling, Marion A; Harms, Nicole; Miller, Amanda; Newton, J. P
...) the resources DoD has provided to implement the recommendations; and (3) DoD's specific actions to ensure victim confidentiality and the education of commanding officers, senior enlisted personnel, and chaplains...
Taylor, Daniel J; Peterson, Alan L; Pruiksma, Kristi E; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Nicholson, Karin; Mintz, Jim
Compare in-person and unguided Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi) with a minimal contact control condition in military personnel. A three-arm parallel randomized clinical trial of 100 active duty US Army personnel at Fort Hood, Texas. Internet and in-person CBTi were comparable, except for the delivery format. The control condition consisted of phone call assessments. Internet and in-person CBTi performed significantly better than the control condition on diary-assessed sleep efficiency (d = 0.89 and 0.53, respectively), sleep onset latency (d = -0.68 and -0.53), number of awakenings (d = -0.42 and -0.54), wake time after sleep onset (d = -0.88 and -0.50), the Insomnia Severity Index (d = -0.98 and -0.51), and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes About Sleep Scale (d = -1.12 and -0.54). In-person treatment was better than Internet treatment on self-reported sleep quality (d = 0.80) and dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep (d = -0.58). There were no differences on self-reported daytime sleepiness or actigraphy-assessed sleep parameters (except total sleep time; d = -0.55 to -0.60). There were technical difficulties with the Internet treatment which prevented tailored sleep restriction upward titration for some participants. Despite the unique, sleep-disrupting occupational demands of military personnel, in-person and Internet CBTi are efficacious treatments for this population. The effect sizes for in-person were consistently better than Internet and both were similar to those found in civilians. Dissemination of CBTi should be considered for maximum individual and population benefits, possibly in a stepped-care model.
Gill, Jessica; Lee, Hyunhwa; Barr, Taura; Baxter, Tristin; Heinzelmann, Morgan; Rak, Hannah; Mysliwiec, Vincent
Military personnel who have combat exposures are at increased risk for the service-related disorders of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, sleep disturbances and decreased health related quality of life (HRQOL). Those with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at even greater risk. Inflammation is associated with these disorders and may underlie the risk for health declines. We evaluated 110 recently deployed, military personnel presenting with sleep disturbances for service-related disorders (TBI, PTSD, and depression) as well as HRQOL. ANOVA models were used to examine differences among military personnel with two or more service-related disorders (high comorbid group), or one or no disorders (low comorbid group). Logistic regression models were used to determine associations among interleukin-6 (IL-6) to HRQOL and service-related disorders. Approximately one-third of the sample had two or more service-related disorders. HRQOL was lower and IL-6 concentrations were higher in military personnel with PTSD or depression, with the most profound differences in those with more service-related disorders, regardless of sleep disorder. Having symptoms of depression and PTSD resulted in a 3.5-fold risk to be in the lower quartile of HRQOL and the highest quartile of IL-6. In a linear regression model, 41% of the relationship between HRQOL and IL-6 concentrations was mediated by PTSD and depression. Military personnel with PTSD and depression are at high risk for lower HRQOL, and higher IL-6 concentrations. Comprehensive treatment is required to address co-occurring service-related disorders in military personnel to promote health and well-being. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
peak strength in June 1944, the Canadian Army had enlisted 495,073 men and women, organized into two tank brigades, eight divisions, two corps and...but sceptical , foreign policy and defence analysts such as Escott Reid, National Secretary of the Canadian Institute for International Affairs (CIIA...at least 1942 but promised an armoured division and “possibly” an armoured tank brigade. He did this by cable in early January 1941.119 A
Lessa, Fernanda C; Gould, Philip L; Pascoe, Neil; Erdman, Dean D; Lu, Xiaoyan; Bunning, Michel L; Marconi, Vincent C; Lott, Lisa; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Anderson, Larry J; Srinivasan, Arjun
Adenoviruses can cause outbreaks of febrile respiratory illness in military trainees, but until 2007, adenovirus serotype 14 (Ad14) was never associated with such outbreaks. From April through June 2007, 15 trainees at one base were hospitalized for pneumonia due to Ad14. Subsequent reports of febrile respiratory illness among health care personnel suggested nosocomial transmission. Health care personnel participants completed a questionnaire and provided blood and nasal wash specimens for Ad14 diagnostic testing. We defined a confirmed case of Ad14 infection as one with titers > or = 1:80 or nasal wash specimens positive for Ad14 by polymerase chain reaction, whereas a possible case was defined by titers of 1:20 or 1:40. We also collected environmental samples. Among 218 tested health care personnel, 35 (16%) had titers > or = 1:20; of these, 7 had possible cases and 28 had confirmed cases of infection. Confirmed case patients were more likely to report febrile respiratory illness (57% vs 11%; Pinfection (82% vs 62%; P.04 ). Of the 23 confirmed case patients with direct contact with Ad14-infected patients, 52% reported that patients were not in contact and droplet precautions at the time of exposure. Ad14 was recovered from several hospital surfaces. Our findings of possible nosocomial transmission of Ad14 highlight the need to reinforce infection control guidelines.
Shmidt, A A; Alieva, M T; Ivanova, L V; Molchanov, O V
The authors presented results of the study concerning human papillomavirus infecting of military students of higher military educational institutions of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. In the Center for Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Kirov Military-Medical Academy was performed a dynamic examination of 478 female cadets aged 17-25. The high level of high-risk HPV viruses was revealed during the examination what proves the necessity of prophylaxis enhancing with the aim to prevent gynecological diseases and reproductive health promotion. The main ways of cervical cancer prophylaxis are health education, in-depth medical examination of women with the aim to reveal and treat gynecological diseases (this medical examination should be carried out twice a year), primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination.
Harrison, Joshua M; Wuerdeman, Marc F
Sickle cell trait, a trait known to be protective against falciparum malaria, is prevalent in the African American community. Unlike true sickle cell disease, sickle cell trait is currently not a disqualifying condition for military service. In the case below, we describe an occurrence, from Logar Provence, Afghanistan (2,072 m above mean sea level), of exertional acute rhabdomyolysis in an American service member known to be a sickle cell trait carrier. The case serves to educate Military Medical providers and Commanders alike, to the increased risk certain training and work environments have on sickle cell trait Service members; it raises the question of what duty limitations, if any, sickle cell carriers should have. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Luxton, David D; Pruitt, Larry D; Wagner, Amy; Smolenski, Derek J; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A; Gahm, Gregory
Evidence of feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of home-based telebehavioral health (HBTBH) needs to be established before adoption of HBTBH in the military health system can occur. The purpose of this randomized controlled noninferiority trial was to compare the safety, feasibility, and effectiveness of HBTBH to care provided in the traditional in-office setting among military personnel and veterans. One hundred and twenty-one U.S. military service members and veterans were recruited at a military treatment facility and a Veterans Health Administration hospital. Participants were randomized to receive 8 sessions of behavioral activation treatment for depression (BATD) either in the home via videoconferencing (VC) or in a traditional in-office (same room) setting. Participants were assessed at baseline, midtreatment (4 weeks), posttreatment (8 weeks), and 3 months posttreatment. Mixed-effects modeling results with Beck Hopelessness Scale and Beck Depression Inventory II scores suggested relatively strong and similar reductions in hopelessness and depressive symptoms for both groups; however, noninferiority analyses failed to reject the null hypothesis that in-home care was no worse than in-office treatment based on these measures. There were not any differences found between treatment groups in regards to treatment satisfaction. Safety procedures were successfully implemented, supporting the feasibility of home-based care. BATD can be feasibly delivered to the homes of active duty service members and veterans via VC. Small-group differences suggest a slight benefit of in-person care over in-home telehealth on some clinical outcomes. Reasons for this are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Riemenschneider, Kelsie; Liu, Jesse; Powers, Jennifer G
Occupational sun exposure is a well-studied risk factor for skin cancer development, but more work is needed to assess melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer risk among U.S. military personnel to improve education and screening efforts in this population. To conduct an extensive review of skin cancer risks for U.S. military personnel to inform preventative education, diagnosis, and treatment efforts to better protect these individuals from future skin cancer development. A systematic review of published studies on the subject of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer in military personnel was conducted. Nine studies describing skin cancer incidence in the United States military were identified, with four studies specific to melanoma. The study findings reveal an increased risk of melanoma associated with service in the military or prisoner of war status. Service in tropical environments was associated with an increased incidence of both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer among World War II soldiers. Two studies found that increased melanoma risk was also branch-dependent, with the highest rates among the United States Air Force (USAF) branch. Several of the reviewed studies implicated increased sun exposure during military service and lack of sufficient sun protection as the causes of higher rates of skin cancer among U.S. military and veteran populations as compared to the non-military population in the US. The reviewed articles have variable results; a prospective randomized controlled trial would be helpful to develop interventions that mitigate skin cancer risk in the U.S. military. This review identifies an abundance of evidence for an increased risk of skin cancer development among U.S. active duty and veteran populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
School ARC-ST Accreditation Review Committee on Education in Surgical Technology ASCAP Army Civilian Acquired Skills Program ASCP American Society...Acquired Skills Program ( ASCAP ) and the Navy’s Direct Procurement Enlistment Program (DPEP). Although the military does not use lateral entry
Involuntarily Separated Reservists ......................................................................... 29 Autism Treatment...collectively known as the “Selected Reserve”) are eligible to enroll in the TRICARE Reserve Select (TRS) program and TRICARE Dental Program (TDP). TRS is a...family members and military retirees and their dependents. TDP offers dental insurance to active duty family members and Selected Reserve members
Laukkala, T; Parkkola, K; Henriksson, M; Pirkola, S; Kaikkonen, N; Pukkala, E; Jousilahti, P
Objectives To estimate total and cause-specific mortality after international peacekeeping deployments among the Finnish military peacekeeping personnel in comparison to the general population of similar age and sex. Design A register-based study of a cohort of military peacekeeping personnel in 1990–2010 followed for mortality until the end of 2013. Causes of death were obtained from the national Causes of Death Register. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) for total and cause-specific mortality was calculated as the ratio of observed and expected number of deaths. Setting Finland (peacekeeping operations in different countries in Africa, Asia and in an area of former Yugoslavia in Europe). Participants 14 584 men and 418 women who had participated in international military peacekeeping operations ending between 1990 and 2010. Interventions Participation in military peacekeeping operations. Main outcome Total and cause-specific mortality. Results 209 men and 3 women died after their peacekeeping service. The SMR for all-cause mortality was 0.55 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.62). For the male peacekeeping personnel, the SMR for all diseases was 0.44 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.53) and for accidental and violent deaths 0.69 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.82). The SMR for suicides was 0.71 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.92). Conclusions Even though military peacekeeping personnel are working in unique and often stressful conditions, their mortality after their service is lower compared with the general population. Military peacekeeping personnel appear to be a selected population group with low general mortality and no excess risk of any cause of death after peacekeeping service. PMID:27799241
Laukkala, T; Parkkola, K; Henriksson, M; Pirkola, S; Kaikkonen, N; Pukkala, E; Jousilahti, P
To estimate total and cause-specific mortality after international peacekeeping deployments among the Finnish military peacekeeping personnel in comparison to the general population of similar age and sex. A register-based study of a cohort of military peacekeeping personnel in 1990-2010 followed for mortality until the end of 2013. Causes of death were obtained from the national Causes of Death Register. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) for total and cause-specific mortality was calculated as the ratio of observed and expected number of deaths. Finland (peacekeeping operations in different countries in Africa, Asia and in an area of former Yugoslavia in Europe). 14 584 men and 418 women who had participated in international military peacekeeping operations ending between 1990 and 2010. Participation in military peacekeeping operations. Total and cause-specific mortality. 209 men and 3 women died after their peacekeeping service. The SMR for all-cause mortality was 0.55 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.62). For the male peacekeeping personnel, the SMR for all diseases was 0.44 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.53) and for accidental and violent deaths 0.69 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.82). The SMR for suicides was 0.71 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.92). Even though military peacekeeping personnel are working in unique and often stressful conditions, their mortality after their service is lower compared with the general population. Military peacekeeping personnel appear to be a selected population group with low general mortality and no excess risk of any cause of death after peacekeeping service. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD. May 20. WHO (World Health Organization), 2005. Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident and Special Health Care...SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Nuclear Technologies Department, Attn: Dr. Paul Blake Defense Threat Reduction Agency...values contained in applicable Standard Operating Procedures for the Nuclear Test Personnel Review (NTPR) program, and in other widely available
interventions were targeted toward personnel in the lower pay grade groups. Finally, with regard to these multivariate analyses, pers( anel who served in...transmitted. HiV spreads from infected persons by intercourse, either vaginal or anal, or by the introduction of infected blood (or blood products
37 Security E ducation ......................................................................................... . . 37 T ra in...problems (14.3) - falsification of information acts (12.5) - emotional/mental/family problems (11.7) - security violation incidents (9.6) - sexual ...criminal records and sexual misconduct. Ideas frequently mentioned for encouraging employee assistance personnel to share security-related information
Enewold, Lindsey R.; Zhou, Jing; Devesa, Susan S.; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington; Anderson, William F.; Zahm, Shelia H.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Peoples, George E.; Marrogi, Aizenhawar J.; Potter, John F.; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Zhu, Kangmin
BACKGROUND Increases in thyroid papillary carcinoma incidence rates have largely been attributed to heightened medical surveillance and improved diagnostics. We examined papillary carcinoma incidence in an equal-access healthcare system by demographics, which are related to incidence. METHODS Incidence rates during 1990-2004 among white and black individuals aged 20-49 years in the military and the general U.S. population were compared using data from the Department of Defense’s Automated Central Tumor Registry and the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER-9) program. RESULTS Incidence was significantly higher in the military than in the general population among white women [incidence rate ratio (IRR)=1.42, 95% 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.25-1.61], black women (IRR=2.31, 95% CI=1.70-2.99), and black men (IRR=1.69, 95% CI=1.10-2.50). Among whites, differences between the two populations were confined to rates of localized tumors (women: IRR=1.73, 95% CI=1.47-2.00; men: IRR=1.51, 95% CI=1.30-1.75), which may partially be due to variation in staging classification. Among white women, rates were significantly higher in the military regardless of tumor size, and rates rose significantly over time both for tumors ≤2 cm (military: IRR=1.64, 95% CI=1.18-2.28; general population: IRR=1.55, 95% CI=1.45-1.66) and >2 cm (military: IRR=1.74, 95% CI=1.07-2.81; general population: IRR=1.48, 95% CI=1.27-1.72). Among white men, rates increased significantly only in the general population. Incidence also varied by military service branch. CONCLUSIONS Heightened medical surveillance does not appear to fully explain the differences between the two populations or the temporal increases in either population. IMPACT These findings suggest the importance of future research into thyroid cancer etiology. PMID:21914838
Seng, Melvin; Wee, Liang En; Zhao, Xiahong; Cook, Alex R; Chia, Sin Eng; Lee, Vernon J
This study aimed to determine if disposable filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs), with exhalation valve (EV) and a novel active venting system (AVS), provided greater perceived comfort and exertion when compared to standard N95 FFRs without these features among male military personnel performing prolonged essential outdoor duties. We used a randomised open-label controlled crossover study design to compare three FFR options: (a) standard FFR; (b) FFR with EV; and (c) FFR with EV+AVS. Male military personnel aged between 18 and 20 years completed a questionnaire at the beginning (baseline), after two hours of standardised non-strenuous outdoor duty and after 12 hours of duty divided into two-hour work-rest cycles. Participants rated the degree of discomfort, exertion and symptoms using a five-point Likert scale. The association between outcomes and the types of FFR was assessed using a multivariate ordered probit mixed-effects model. For a majority of the symptoms, study participants rated FFR with EV and FFR with EV+AVS with significantly better scores than standard FFR. Both FFR with EV and FFR with EV+AVS had significantly less discomfort (FFR with EV+AVS: 91.1%; FFR with EV: 57.6%) and exertion (FFR with EV+AVS: 83.5%; FFR with EV: 34.4%) than standard FFR. FFR with EV+AVS also had significantly better scores for exertion (53.4%) and comfort (39.4%) when compared to FFR with EV. Usage of FFR with EV+AVS resulted in significantly reduced symptoms, discomfort and exertion when compared to FFR with EV and standard FFR.
Tribble David R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS, the leading cause of acute flaccid paralysis worldwide, is an autoimmune disorder involving the loss of the myelin sheaths encasing peripheral nerve axons, leading to a loss of nerve signaling and typically ascending paralysis. A number of infectious triggers have been identified, with Campylobacter being most common. Limited data are available regarding GBS in U.S. service members at a high risk of exposure to numerous GBS-associated infectious agents. Findings Medical encounter data were obtained from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (Silver Spring, MD. Active duty personnel with an incident GBS diagnosis were matched by age, sex, and time with up to 4 controls. Demographic, antecedent infectious gastroenteritis (IGE, and deployment covariates were used to explore GBS risk in this population. The overall incidence was 2.28/100,000 persons (95% confidence interval: 2.03–2.54 with 19.1% (60/314 receiving GBS-related medical care for more than one year. The majority of cases were male, Caucasian and under 25 years of age. There was an increased risk of GBS three months following a documented episode of IGE (Odds Ratio: 5.33; p = 0.03. We also found an association with service in the Air Force and Navy (compared to Army personnel with odds ratios of 1.39 (p = 0.05 and 1.44 (p = 0.02, respectively. Conclusion GBS incidence in the U.S. military is slightly higher than the general population and is associated with an antecedent IGE. Future studies are warranted to assess whether there are GBS-associated infectious or environmental exposures inherent to military populations.
Whitney S. Livingston
Full Text Available Study Objectives: Sleep disturbances are common in military personnel and are associated with increased risk for psychiatric morbidity, including posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, as well as inflammation. Improved sleep quality is linked to reductions in inflammatory bio-markers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Methods: In this study we examine whole genome expression changes related to improved sleep in 68 military personnel diagnosed with insomnia. Subjects were classified into the following groups and then compared: improved sleep (n=46, or non-improved sleep (n=22 following three months of standard of care treatment for insomnia. Within subject differential expression was determined from microarray data using the Partek Genomics Suite analysis program and the interactive pathway analysis was used to determine key regulators of observed expression changes. Changes in symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder were also compared. Results: At baseline both groups were similar in demographics, clinical characteristics, and gene-expression profiles. The microarray data revealed that 217 coding genes were differentially expressed at the follow-up-period compared to baseline in the participants with improved sleep. Expression of inflammatory cytokines were reduced including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-13, with fold changes ranging from -3.19 to -2.1, and there were increases in the expression of inflammatory regulatory genes including toll-like receptors 1, 4, 7, and 8 in the improved sleep group. Interactive pathway analysis revealed 6 gene networks, including ubiquitin which was a major regulator in these gene-expression changes. The improved sleep group also had a significant reduction in the severity of depressive symptoms.Conclusions: Interventions that restore sleep likely reduce the expression of inflammatory genes, which relate to ubiquitin genes and relate to reductions in depressive symptoms.
Phlebotomine sand flies, including Phlebotomus papatasi, are blood feeders and vectors of significant public health importance because they transmit Leishmania spp., which cause leishmaniasis. Deployed U.S. Military personnel in the Middle East suffer from sand fly bites and are at risk of contracti...
Phlebotomine sand flies, including Phlebotomus papatasi, are important blood feeders and vectors that transmit the disease agents (Leishmania) that cause Leishmaniasis. Deployed U.S. Military Personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan suffered from sand fly bites and the disease they transmit. A USDA-DoD joi...
Cognitive Therapy (PACT), consists of six 90-minute individual cognitive behavioral therapy sessions delivered by a doctoral level... Cognitive Therapy (PACT) for the inpatient treatment of military personnel with suicidal behaviors : A multi-site randomized controlled trial. Invited...Holloway, M. (2013, March). Cognitive behavior therapy for the prevention of suicide. Invited presentation for behavioral health providers, Ft.
Divisible Retired Pay under the Uniformed Services’ Former Spouse Protection Act ( USFSPA ) . . . . . 14 Authority for Cost of Living Adjustments of Retired...8033. CRS-14 Expansion of Conditions for Direct Payment of Divisible Retired Pay under the Uniformed Services’ Former Spouse Protection Act ( USFSPA ...Background: Under the USFSPA , courts were given the authority to divide military retired pay as part of a divorce proceeding. If the marriage lasted
authorities should consider and anticipate as much as possible the potential sanitary conse- quences of such a gathering and prepare medical staff for the...Meningococcal Disease Sur- veillance is supported by the Global Emerging Infections System division of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. The...meningococcal disease surveillance in the US military pro- duces a quarterly report, which is available online: http://www. med navy mil/sites/nhrc/geis
Disease and Stroke 16. Cancer 17. Diabetes 18. Chronic Kidney Disease 19. Disability and Secondary Conditions 20. HIV Infection 21. Sexually...disease, and diabetes (Pi-Sunyer, 1993). Fortunately, behavioral measures can positively impact these types of conditions. For example, the health...attitude, reported behavior, and perceptions of their own gingival health (Tan, Ruiter, & Verhey, 1981). To encourage better oral health care, military
144 7.1 High Blood Pressure or High Cholesterol since Entering the Military, by Service, 2008...specific Healthy People 2000 objectives: cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, condom use, exercise, blood pressure screening and cholesterol ...pasta or crackers; oatmeal; corn tacos. g Examples include low- or reduced-fat milk (2%, 1%, 1/2%, or skim), yogurt , cottage cheese, low-fat cheese, f
Center, San Diego, CA, USA b The Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA c Teachers College, Columbia...National Health Survey of Gulf War Era Veterans and Their Families (Kang et al., 2000). Items assessing divorce, financial problems, sexual harassment...Materiel Command (Fort Detrick, MD). Support for this project was provided under Federal Interagency agreement #2012-FRS-0028 as a collaboration between
National Guard communities MHFA has been shown to be effective in improving participants’ knowledge of mental disorders , reducing stigma , and increasing...show: a. Decreased stress and stigma ; b. Increased coping resources and knowledge of mental health resources; and c. More positive opinions towards... mental health in the military, stigma associated with mental health issues, and use of appropriate referral and support practices for helping someone
C G Le Prell
Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a significant clinical, social, and economic issue. The development of novel therapeutic agents to reduce NIHL will potentially benefit multiple very large noise-exposed populations. Oxidative stress has been identified as a significant contributor to noise-induced sensory cell death and NIHL, and several antioxidant strategies have now been suggested for potential translation to human subjects. One such strategy is a combination of beta-carotene, vitamins C and E, and magnesium, which has shown promise for protection against NIHL in rodent models, and is being evaluated in a series of international human clinical trials using temporary (military gunfire, audio player use and permanent (stamping factory, military airbase threshold shift models (NCT00808470. The noise exposures used in the recently completed Swedish military gunfire study described in this report did not, on average, result in measurable changes in auditory function using conventional pure-tone thresholds and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE amplitudes as metrics. However, analysis of the plasma samples confirmed significant elevations in the bloodstream 2 hours after oral consumption of active clinical supplies, indicating the dose is realistic. The plasma outcomes are encouraging, but clinical acceptance of any novel therapeutic critically depends on demonstration that the agent reduces noise-induced threshold shift in randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective human clinical trials. Although this noise insult did not induce hearing loss, the trial design and study protocol can be applied to other populations exposed to different noise insults.
Jones, Norman; Fear, Nicola T; Wessely, Simon; Thandi, Gursimran; Greenberg, Neil
Fitness to undertake operational deployment is a key requirement of military service. To assess individual deployment fitness at a single point from one month to eight years following discharge from mental healthcare. Survival analyses assessed levels of deployability; the predictive effects of key covariates upon time to being classified as non-deployable were examined using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression procedures. A total of 1405 individuals provided study data. 437 individuals (31.1%) were non-deployable or discharged from service during follow-up. 17.2% were non-deployable in the first year following mental healthcare; the proportion did not rise above this level until year seven when it was 19.1% and then 30.6% in year eight. Risk factors for being classified as non-deployable were female sex, receipt of intermediate duration therapy, management by the multidisciplinary team and previous referral to mental health services. Previous deployment was significantly associated with reduced risk. Overall, the levels of non-deployability appeared to be no higher than those found among the wider military services. Non-deployable status among mental healthcare recipients was broadly similar to that found among the wider UK military; risk factors for non-deployability could be amenable to targeted relapse prevention measures.
Salwa F Ahmed
Full Text Available The present study demonstrates that multiple NoV genotypes belonging to genogroup II contributed to an acute gastroenteritis outbreak at a US military facility in Turkey that was associated with significant negative operational impact. Norovirus (NoV is an important pathogen associated with acute gastroenteritis among military populations. We describe the genotypes of NoV outbreak occurred at a United States military facility in Turkey. Stool samples were collected from 37 out of 97 patients presenting to the clinic on base with acute gastroenteritis and evaluated for bacterial and viral pathogens. NoV genogroup II (GII was identified by RT-PCR in 43% (16/37 stool samples. Phylogenetic analysis of a 260 base pair fragment of the NoV capsid gene from ten stool samples indicated the circulation of multiple and rare genotypes of GII NoV during the outbreak. We detected four GII.8 isolates, three GII.15, two GII.9 and a sole GII.10 NoV. Viral sequences could be grouped into four clusters, three of which have not been previously reported in Turkey. The fact that current NoV outbreak was caused by rare genotypes highlights the importance of norovirus strain typing. While NoV genogroup II is recognized as causative agent of outbreak, circulation of current genotypes has been rarely observed in large number of outbreaks.
Mitchener, Timothy A; Chan, Rodney; Simecek, John W
Cranial and oral-maxillofacial injuries accounted for 33% of military visits to in-theater (Level III) military treatment facilities for battle injuries during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Even after years of conflict, the size and scope of oral-maxillofacial injuries in military armed conflict is still not fully understood. This study reports U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) rates of oral-maxillofacial injuries that can be used for further surveillance and research. The populations studied were military personnel deployed to Afghanistan in OEF or Iraq in OIF and Operation New Dawn (OND), who sought care at a Level III military treatment facility for one or more oral-maxillofacial injuries. Injuries were identified in the DoD Trauma Registry (DoDTR) using diagnosis codes associated with oral-maxillofacial battle and nonbattle injuries. All oral-maxillofacial injuries incurred from October 19, 2001, to June 30, 2014, were included. The Defense Manpower Data Center provided DoD troop strength numbers to serve as the study denominators. Battle injuries accounted for 80% of oral-maxillofacial injuries in OEF. There were 2,504 oral-maxillofacial injuries in OEF. The Army accounted for 1,820 (72.7%), the Marines 535 (21.3%), the Air Force 75 (3.0%), and the Navy 74 (3.0%). The oral-maxillofacial injury rates in OEF for the Army ranged from 1.10 to 4.90/1,000 person years (PY), for the Marines from 0.57 to 9.39/1,000 PY, for the Navy from 0 to 3.29/1,000 PY, and for the Air Force from 0 to 3.38/1,000 PY. The Army tended to have the highest incidence of all services in the early and latter part of the conflict, whereas Marines tended to have the highest incidence in the middle years. The Marines, Army, and Navy all had their individual highest incidences in 2009, the first year of the 2009 to 2011 OEF troop surge. Battle injuries accounted for 75% of oral-maxillofacial injuries in OIF/OND. There were 3,676 oral-maxillofacial injuries
Nelson, Nathaniel W; Anderson, Carolyn R; Thuras, Paul; Kehle-Forbes, Shannon M; Arbisi, Paul A; Erbes, Christopher R; Polusny, Melissa A
Estimates of the prevalence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) among military personnel and combat veterans rely almost exclusively on retrospective self-reports; however, reliability of these reports has received little attention. To examine the consistency of reporting of mTBI over time and identify factors associated with inconsistent reporting. A longitudinal cohort of 948 US National Guard Soldiers deployed to Iraq completed self-report questionnaire screening for mTBI and psychological symptoms while in-theatre 1 month before returning home (time 1, T1) and 1 year later (time 2, T2). Most respondents (n = 811, 85.5%) were consistent in their reporting of mTBI across time. Among those who were inconsistent in their reports (n = 137, 14.5%), the majority denied mTBI at T1 and affirmed mTBI at T2 (n = 123, 89.8%). Respondents rarely endorsed mTBI in-theatre and later denied mTBI (n = 14, 10.2% of those with inconsistent reports). Post-deployment post-traumatic stress symptoms and non-specific physical complaints were significantly associated with inconsistent report of mTBI. Military service members' self-reports of mTBI are generally consistent over time; however, inconsistency in retrospective self-reporting of mTBI status is associated with current post-traumatic stress symptoms and non-specific physical health complaints. Royal College of Psychiatrists.
Buller, Mark; Welles, Alexander; Chadwicke Jenkins, Odest; Hoyt, Reed
Military personnel are often asked to accomplish rigorous missions in extremes of climate, terrain, and terrestrial altitude. Personal protective clothing and individual equipment such as body armor or chemical biological suits and excessive equipment loads, exacerbate the physiological strain. Health, over even short mission durations, can easily be compromised. Measuring and acting upon health information can provide a means to dynamically manage both health and mission goals. However, the measurement of health state in austere military environments is challenging; (1) body worn sensors must be of minimal weight and size, consume little power, and be comfortable and unobtrusive enough for prolonged wear; (2) health states are not directly measureable and must be estimated; (3) sensor measurements are prone to noise, artifact, and failure. Given these constraints we examine current successful ambulatory physiological status monitoring technologies, review maturing sensors that may provide key health state insights in the future, and discuss unconventional analytical techniques that optimize health, mission goals, and doctrine from the perspective of thermal work strain assessment and management.
Gadermann, Anne M.; Engel, COL Charles C.; Naifeh, James A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Petukhova, Maria; Santiago, LCDR Patcho N.; Benjamin, Wu; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.
A meta-analysis of 25 epidemiological studies estimated the prevalence of recent DSM-IV major depression among U.S. military personnel. Best estimates of recent prevalence (standard error) were 12.0 percent (1.2) among currently deployed, 13.1 percent (1.8) among previously deployed and 5.7 percent (1.2) among never deployed. Consistent correlates of prevalence were being female, enlisted, young (ages 17 to 25), unmarried and having less than a college education. Simulation of data from a national general population survey was used to estimate expected lifetime prevalence of major depression among respondents with the socio-demographic profile and none of the enlistment exclusions of Army personnel. In this simulated sample, 16.2 percent (3.1) of respondents had lifetime major depression and 69.7 percent (8.5) of first onsets occurred before expected age of enlistment. Numerous methodological problems limit the results of the meta-analysis and simulation. The paper closes with a discussion of recommendations for correcting these problems in future surveillance and operational stress studies. PMID:22953441
MacManus, Deirdre; Rona, Roberto; Dickson, Hannah; Somaini, Greta; Fear, Nicola; Wessely, Simon
A systematic review and meta-analyses were conducted on studies of the prevalence of aggressive and violent behavior, as well as of violent offenses and convictions, among military personnel following deployment to Iraq and/or Afghanistan; the relationship with deployment and combat exposure; and the role that mental health problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), have on the pathway between deployment and combat to violence. Seventeen studies published between January 1, 2001, and February 12, 2014, in the United States and the United Kingdom met the inclusion criteria. Despite methodological differences across studies, aggressive behavior was found to be prevalent among serving and formerly serving personnel, with pooled estimates of 10% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1, 20) for physical assault and 29% (95% CI: 25, 36) for all types of physical aggression in the last month, and worthy of further exploration. In both countries, rates were increased among combat-exposed, formerly serving personnel. The majority of studies suggested a small-to-moderate association between combat exposure and postdeployment physical aggression and violence, with a pooled estimate of the weighted odds ratio = 3.24 (95% CI: 2.75, 3.82), with several studies finding that violence increased with intensity and frequency of exposure to combat traumas. The review's findings support the mediating role of PTSD between combat and postdeployment violence and the importance of alcohol, especially if comorbid with PTSD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Adams, Rachel Sayko; Larson, Mary Jo; Corrigan, John D; Horgan, Constance M; Williams, Thomas V
To determine whether combat-acquired traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with postdeployment frequent binge drinking among a random sample of active duty military personnel. Active duty military personnel who returned home within the past year from deployment to a combat theater of operations and completed a survey health assessment (N = 7155). Cross-sectional observational study with multivariate analysis of responses to the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel, an anonymous, random, population-based assessment of the armed forces. Frequent binge drinking: 5 or more drinks on the same occasion, at least once per week, in the past 30 days. TBI-AC: self-reported altered consciousness only; loss of consciousness (LOC) of less than 1 minute (TBI-LOC military personnel who had a past year combat deployment, 25.6% were frequent binge drinkers and 13.9% reported experiencing a TBI on the deployment, primarily TBI-AC (7.5%). In regression models adjusting for demographics and positive screen for posttraumatic stress disorder, active duty military personnel with TBI had increased odds of frequent binge drinking compared with those with no injury exposure or without TBI: TBI-AC (adjusted odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.84); TBI-LOC 1+ (adjusted odds ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.79). Traumatic brain injury was significantly associated with past month frequent binge drinking after controlling for posttraumatic stress disorder, combat exposure, and other covariates.
The 1999 Active Duty Surveys (ADS) gather information on current location, spouse's military assignment, military life, programs and services, spouse employment, family information, economic issues, and background...
chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), aging Overall Project Summary Task 1: Screen retired military service...in individuals with TBI exists, which has relevance for future treatment. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Traumatic brain injury (TBI), dementia, chronic traumatic... encephalopathy (CTE), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), aging 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES
Katz, A R; Sasaki, D M; Mumm, A H; Escamilla, J; Middleton, C R; Romero, S E
In December 1992, a common-source waterborne outbreak of leptospirosis occurred on the island of Oahu in the state of Hawaii. Two male service persons were hospitalized with culture-confirmed leptospirosis. Eighteen others had similar histories of exposure to the same freshwater swimming site. Although six men developed signs and symptoms comparable to those of the two confirmed cases, none manifested culture or serologic evidence of leptospirosis. The increased incidence of leptospirosis in Hawaii coupled with an increased risk in young males characterize the military population in Hawaii as a high-risk population with respect to leptospirosis.
substances in water , while the Canadian Environmental Protection Act  is concerned with pollution prevention and toxic substances releases...dish, metal spatula, interior of fume hood) must be washed thoroughly using soapy hot water (Micro-90 soap is recommended), rinsed with demineralised...aluminum liner (if used) is discarded and all the other materials are washed (sieve, bowl, fume hood surface) using soapy hot water (Micro-90 soap is
Balandiz, Huseyin; Bolu, Abdullah
The definition of psychological trauma has been rephrased with the DSM-5. From now on, witnessing someone else's traumatic event is also accepted as a traumatic life event. Therefore, the psychiatric examination of forensic cases gains importance for not overlooking a psychiatric trauma. This research aims to discuss the psychiatric examinations of military personnel who had a traumatic life event and to reveal psychiatric states of soldiers after trauma. The forensic reports prepared at Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA), Forensic Medicine polyclinic between January 1, 2011 and November 30, 2014 were examined, and among them the cases sent to GMMA Psychiatry polyclinic for psychiatric examination were analyzed retrospectively. There were a total of 2408 cases who applied for the arrangement of a judicial report and 167 of them required a psychological examination. Among 167 cases, 165 were male and 2 were female, and the mean age was 25.6 years. Anxiety disorder (53.9%) was the most common diagnosis as a result of the psychiatric examination, following posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (18.6%), and 3.6% had no psychopathology. It was determined that injuries caused by firearms (38.3%) and explosive materials (26.3%) had caused psychological trauma the most. On the other hand, 11 (6.6%) cases were determined to have undergone a psychological trauma on account of being a witness to their friends' injuries during the conflict without experiencing any physical injury. There were not any statistically significant relationships between the severity of physical injury and being PTSD or anxiety disorder. Development of PTSD risk is directly correlated with the nature of trauma. The trauma types of the cases in our study were in the high-risk group because of the military population. Our study is of importance in terms of putting forward the psychiatric disorders seen in the military population with traumatic life history associated with war (combat-related). In
The 1999 Active Duty Surveys (ADS) gather information on military assignments, retention issues, personal and military background, preparedness, mobilizations and deployments, family composition, use of military programs and services...
Elnitsky, Christine A; Kilmer, Ryan P
As service members return from active duty and, in some cases, exit the military, they face a process of reintegration (also referred to as community reintegration) as they seek to resume participation in their life roles as civilians. Facilitating this dynamic process of reintegration for service members, veterans, and their families-including outlining potential strategies for supporting this return to civilian life and its demands, roles, and responsibilities-is the focus of this Special Issue. Reintegration has been framed as a national priority (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 2015) and has been a point of emphasis of efforts at federal, state, and local levels. As the articles in this issue suggest, multiple public, private, and voluntary systems and the communities to which service members, veterans, and their families return can help influence their health outcomes and, ultimately, their reintegration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Federal budget scientific institution "Nizhny Novgorod research institute for hygiene and occupational pathology", Federal service of supervision in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers and wellbeing of the person. The authors have evaluated physical development of contract military persons divided in following age groups (under 30, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, over 50 years old), according to morphofunctional indices, index of functional measurement in human organism, pathological affection. Obtained data give evidence about presence of health risk factors in all observed groups. Preventive measures are the most necessary in 1 and 2 groups. The highest health risk group is age group of 35-39 years old.
Hazlerigg, Antonia; Woods, D R; Mellor, A J
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common problem of trekkers to high altitude. The UK military train at high altitude through adventurous training (AT) or as exercising troops. The ascent of Point Lenana at 4985 m on Mount Kenya is frequently attempted on AT. This study sought to establish the incidence of AMS within this population, to aid future planning for military activities at altitude. A voluntary questionnaire was distributed to all British Army Training Unit Kenya based expeditions attempting to ascend Mount Kenya during the period from February to April 2014. The questionnaire included twice daily Lake Louise and Borg (perceived exertion scale) self-scoring. All expeditions were planned around a 5-day schedule, which included reserve time for acclimatisation, illness and inclement weather. Data were collected on 47 participants, 70% of whom reached the summit of Point Lenana. 62% (29/47) self-reported AMS (defined as Lake Louise score (LLS) ≥3) on at least one occasion during the ascent, and 34% (10/29) suffered severe AMS (LLS ≥6). Those who attempted the climb within 2 weeks of arrival in Kenya had a higher incidence of AMS (12/15 (80%) vs 17/32 (53%), p=0.077). Participants recording a high Borg score were significantly more likely to develop AMS (16/18 vs 9/21, p=0.003). This represents the first informative dataset for Mount Kenya ascents and altitude. The incidence of AMS during AT on Mount Kenya using this ascent profile is high. Adapting the current ascent profile, planning the ascent after time in country and reducing perceived exertion during the trek may reduce the incidence of AMS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Schermann, H; Eiges, N; Sabag, A; Kazum, E; Albagli, A; Salai, M; Shlaifer, A
Soldiers serving in the Israel Defense Force Military Working Dogs (MWD) Unit spend many hours taming dogs' special skills, taking them on combat missions, and performing various dogkeeping activities. During this intensive work with the aggressive military dogs, bites are common, and some of them result in permanent disability. However, this phenomenon has not been quantified or reported as an occupational hazard. This was a retrospective cohort study based on self-administered questionnaires. Information was collected about soldiers' baseline demographics, duration of the experience of working with dogs, total number of bites they had, circumstances of bite events, and complications and medical treatment of each bite. Bite risk was quantified by incidence, mean time to first bite, and a Cox proportional hazards model. Rates of complications and the medical burden of bites were compared between combat soldiers and noncombat dogkeepers. Bite locations were presented graphically. Seventy-eight soldiers participated and reported on 139 bites. Mean time of working with dogs was 16 months (standard deviation, ±9.4 months). Overall bite incidence was 11 bites per 100 person-months; the mean time to first bite event was 6.3 months. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that none of baseline characteristics significantly increased bite hazard. About 90% of bites occurred during routine activities, and 3.3% occurred on combat missions. Only in 9% of bite events did soldiers observed the safety precautions code. Bite complications included fractures, need for intravenous antibiotic treatment and surgical repair, prominent scarring, diminished sensation, and stiffness of proximal joints. Bite complications were similar between combat soldiers and dogkeepers. Most bites (57%) were located on hands and arms. MWD bites are an occupational hazard resulting in significant medical burden. Hands and arms were most common bite locations. Observance of safety precautions may be
Goertz, Christine M; Long, Cynthia R; Vining, Robert D; Pohlman, Katherine A; Kane, Bridget; Corber, Lance; Walter, Joan; Coulter, Ian
Low back pain is highly prevalent and one of the most common causes of disability in U.S. armed forces personnel. Currently, no single therapeutic method has been established as a gold standard treatment for this increasingly prevalent condition. One commonly used treatment, which has demonstrated consistent positive outcomes in terms of pain and function within a civilian population is spinal manipulative therapy provided by doctors of chiropractic. Chiropractic care, delivered within a multidisciplinary framework in military healthcare settings, has the potential to help improve clinical outcomes for military personnel with low back pain. However, its effectiveness in a military setting has not been well established. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate changes in pain and disability in active duty service members with low back pain who are allocated to receive usual medical care plus chiropractic care versus treatment with usual medical care alone. This pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial will enroll 750 active duty service members with low back pain at three military treatment facilities within the United States (250 from each site) who will be allocated to receive usual medical care plus chiropractic care or usual medical care alone for 6 weeks. Primary outcomes will include the numerical rating scale for pain intensity and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire at week 6. Patient reported outcomes of pain, disability, bothersomeness, and back pain function will be collected at 2, 4, 6, and 12 weeks from allocation. Because low back pain is one of the leading causes of disability among U.S. military personnel, it is important to find pragmatic and conservative treatments that will treat low back pain and preserve low back function so that military readiness is maintained. Thus, it is important to evaluate the effects of the addition of chiropractic care to usual medical care on low back pain and disability. The trial discussed in this
Rahmani, Jamal; Milajerdi, A; Dorosty-Motlagh, A
Psychological disorders have a major role in the incidence of chronic diseases and may result in reductions in the cost-effectiveness of the Armed Forces. Previous civilian studies have shown a protective association between healthy eating guidelines and mental disorders, but evidence to support this for a military population is limited. The aim of this study was to examine the association of Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010) with depression, stress and anxiety among Iranian military personnel. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 246 male Army soldiers. Stress, anxiety, depression and dietary intakes were assessed. The association between variables was determined using multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of depression, stress and anxiety in study participants was 15.9%, 10.6% and 27.2% respectively. Participants with the highest adherence to the AHEI-2010 had an 80% lower odds of depression than those with the lowest adherence (OR: 0.20; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.78). Such an association was also found between adherences to the AHEI-2010 and anxiety (OR: 0.28; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.95). No significant association between adherence to the AHEI-2010 and stress was found. An inverse association between adherence to the AHEI-2010 and odds of depression and anxiety was found. Further studies are required to clarify this relationship. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Dibblee, Jenna; Worthy, Portia; Farrell, Philip; Hetzler, Markus; Reid, Susan; Stevenson, Joan; Fischer, Steven
The purpose of this study was verify the design of a novel Helmet System Support Device (HSSD) that can be used by military aircrew to help intervene on and reduce the high prevalence of neck trouble. Twelve healthy participants repeated simulated helicopter aircrew tasks on 3 separate days. On each day they wore a different helmet configuration, where measures of performance, perceived demand/preference and muscular demand were recorded. The results showed that vigilance tasks were performed over 10% faster with the HSSD configuration compared to wearing the normal helmet configuration. Participants were able to maintain static (endurance) postures for 28% longer, and use of the HSSD helped to prevent neck muscle fatigue in the most demanding task. The results of this design verification study indicate that the HSSD may be a realistic, feasible near-term solution to intervene on the high prevalence of neck trouble among rotary-wing aircrew. Practitioner Summary: This paper verifies the effectiveness of the Helmet System Support Device (HSSD) as an on-body personal protective device to help control exposures associated with aircrew neck trouble. The HSSD reduced perceived demand, reduced cumulative muscle activity in select muscles and provided improved fatigue resistance, meeting its desired design objectives.
Coombs, Howard G
Universities across Canada actively supported the call to arms in 1914, and Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, was no different. Though a myriad of units composed of Queen's faculty and students were created, the university perceived the military hospital raised by the school's medical faculty to be among its most vital contributions to the First World War. This commentary describes the engagement of the No. 7 General Hospital with the Minister of Militia, Sam Hughes, which has become an almost unknown footnote to its illustrious story. This commentary has an Appendix, available at canjsurg.ca.
Williams, Emily C; Frasco, Melissa A; Jacobson, Isabel G; Maynard, Charles; Littman, Alyson J; Seelig, Amber D; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Nagel, Anna; Boyko, Edward J
Military service members may be prone to relapse to problem drinking after remission, given a culture of alcohol use as a coping mechanism for stressful or traumatic events associated with military duties or exposures. However, the prevalence and correlates of relapse are unknown. We sought to identify socio-demographic, military, behavioral, and health characteristics associated with relapse among current and former military members with remittent problem drinking. Participants in the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study who reported problem drinking at baseline (2001-2003) and were remittent at first follow-up (2004-2006) were included (n=6909). Logistic regression models identified demographic, military service, behavioral, and health characteristics that predicted relapse (report of ≥1 past-year alcohol-related problem on the validated Patient Health Questionnaire) at the second follow-up (2007-2008). Sixteen percent of those with remittent problem drinking relapsed. Reserve/National Guard members compared with active-duty members (odds ratio [OR]=1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45-2.01), members separated from the military during follow-up (OR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.16-1.83), and deployers who reported combat exposure (OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.07-1.62, relative to non-deployers) were significantly more likely to relapse. Those with multiple deployments were significantly less likely to relapse (OR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.58-0.92). Behavioral factors and mental health conditions also predicted relapse. Relapse was common and associated with military and non-military factors. Targeted intervention to prevent relapse may be indicated for military personnel in particular subgroups, such as Reservists, veterans, and those who deploy with combat exposure. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Wilkinson, David M; Blacker, Sam D; Richmond, Victoria L; Rayson, Mark P; Bilzon, James L J
In the United Kingdom, all branches of the armed forces use 2.4-km run time and/or the 20-m multistage shuttle run test (MSRT) to assess the aerobic fitness of their personnel. This study quantified the relationship between these two tests in 156 army recruits and officer cadets (100 men and 56 women) to ensure equivalence in the required aerobic fitness standards. The 2.4-km run was performed on surfaced roads and tracks around the training establishment and the MSRT in a gymnasium. Ordinary least product regression was used to describe the relationship between average 2.4-km running speed (km · h(-1)) and the total number of shuttles completed on the U.K. version of the MSRT (r = 0.91, p < 0.01), showing MSRT shuttles = (9.708×2.4-km run speed) - 52.56, with a standard error of prediction of approximately 8 shuttles or 0.8 km · h(-1). The British Army 2.4-km run biannual fitness assessment standard for young men of 10:30 min:s equates to a MSRT score of 82 shuttles (level 10 and 1 shuttle) and for young women of 13:00 min:s equates to 56 shuttles (level 7 and 6 shuttles), with a standard error of estimate of approximately 8 shuttles. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Essien, E James; Ogungbade, Gbadebo O; Ward, Doriel; Ekong, Ernest; Ross, Michael W; Meshack, Angela; Holmes, Laurens
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk perception remains an effective determinant of HIV transmission. Although higher educational attainment has been associated with increased HIV risk perception, this predictor remains to be assessed among Nigerian military personnel (NMP). In a prospective cohort of 2,213 NMP, the effects of education and other factors on HIV risk perception were assessed at baseline by using the X2 statistic and unconditional logistic regression. There was an inverse correlation between higher educational attainment and HIV risk perception in the univariate model (prevalence odds ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.79). This association persisted after adjustment for relevant covariates in the multivariate model (prevalence odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.88). Similarly, there was a direct correlation between use of alcohol and marijuana and HIV risk perception (p 0.05). This study indicates an inverse correlation between educational attainment and HIV risk perception, as well as a direct correlation between alcohol and marijuana use and HIV risk perception, among NMP. Therefore, HIV prevention interventions targeted at NMP need to include multiple factors that may affect risk perception regardless of the educational status of the participants.
Kelsall, Helen Louise; Wijesinghe, Millawage Supun Dilara; Creamer, Mark Christopher; McKenzie, Dean Philip; Forbes, Andrew Benjamin; Page, Matthew James; Sim, Malcolm Ross
Although recent veterans have been found to be at increased risk of psychiatric disorders, limited research has focused on alcohol or substance use disorders. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined whether alcohol or substance use disorders were more common in Gulf War, Afghanistan, and Iraq War veterans compared with military comparison groups nondeployed to the corresponding conflict, including never deployed personnel. Literature was searched (1990-2014) in multiple electronic databases. Studies were assessed for eligibility and quality, including risk of bias. Eighteen studies (1997-2014) met inclusion criteria. Pooled analysis based on a random-effects model yielded a summary odds ratio of 1.33 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 1.46) for alcohol (7 studies) and 2.13 (95% CI: 0.96, 4.72) for substance use (3 studies) disorders among Gulf War veterans, as well as 1.36 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.66) for alcohol (7 studies) and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.25) for substance use (4 studies) disorders among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans; meta-regressions found no statistically significant association between theater of war and alcohol use or substance use disorders. Our findings indicate that Gulf and Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans are at higher alcohol use disorder risk than nondeployed veterans, but further studies with increased power are needed to assess substance use disorder risk in Gulf War veteran populations. © Commonwealth of Australia 2015.
MORTAZAVI, Seyed Mohammad Javad; TAEB, Shahram; DEHGHAN, Naser
Background Radar transmitters emit high-power radiofrequency radiation by creation of a high-voltage and high-frequency alternating electrical current. Methods: Health effects of occupational exposure to military radar were investigated. Visual reaction time was recorded with a simple blind computer-assisted-visual reaction time test. To assess the short-term memory, modified Wechsler Memory Scale test was performed. Results: The mean +/- SD reaction time in radar works (N=100) and the control group (N=57) were 238.58 +/− 23.47 milliseconds and 291.86 +/− 28.26 milliseconds (P<0.0001), respectively. The scores of forward digit span in radar works and the control group were 3.56 +/− 0.77 and 4.29 +/− 1.06 (P<0.0001), while the scores of backward digit span in radar works and the control group were 2.70 +/− 0.69 and 3.62 +/− 0.95 (P<0.0001). The scores of word recognition in radar works and the control group were 3.37 +/− 1.13 and 5.86 +/− 1.11 (P<0.0001). Finally, the scores of paired words in radar works and the control group were 13.56 +/− 1.78 and 15.21 +/− 2.20 (P<0.0001). It can be concluded that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreases reaction time, which may lead to a better response to different hazards. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation leads to decreased reaction time and the lower performance of short-term memory. Altogether, these results indicate that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiations may be linked to some non-detrimental and detrimental health effects. PMID:23785684
exposure-related postwar illnesses(1-7). Military personnel returning from the 1991 Gulf War have reported a wide range of symptoms including fatigue ...following conditions: 5 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, asthma, diabetes, fibromyalgia, malignant neoplasms, mono- neuritis, muscular dystrophy, nephritis...the first 1000 Gulf war veterans in the Ministry of Defence’s medical assessment programme. BMJ 1999;318(7179):290-4. 7. Sim M, Abramson M, Forbes
Stanley, Ian H; Joiner, Thomas E; Bryan, Craig J
Research has demonstrated a robust link between traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and suicide risk. Yet, few studies have investigated factors that account for this link. Utilizing a clinical sample of deployed military personnel, this study aimed to examine a serial meditation model of anger and depression in the association of mild TBI and suicide risk. A total of 149 military service members referred for evaluation/treatment of a suspected head injury at a military hospital participated in the present study (92.6% male; Mage = 27.9y). Self-report measures included the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R), Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) anger and depression subscales, and Behavioral Health Measure-20 depression subscale. A current mild TBI diagnosis was confirmed by a licensed clinical psychologist/physician. Overall, 84.6% (126/149) of participants met diagnostic criteria for a current mild TBI. Bootstrapped serial mediation analyses indicated that the association of mild TBI and suicide risk is serially mediated by anger and depression symptoms (bias-corrected 95% confidence interval [CI] for the indirect effect = 0.044, 0.576). An alternate serial mediation model in which depression symptoms precede anger was not statistically significant (bias-corrected 95% CI for the indirect effect = -0.405, 0.050). Among a clinical sample of military personnel, increased anger and depression statistically mediated the association of mild TBI and suicide risk, and anger appears to precede depression in this pathway. Findings suggest that therapeutically targeting anger may serve to thwart the trajectory to suicide risk among military personnel who experience a mild TBI. Future research should investigate this conjecture within a prospective design to establish temporality. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zang, Yinyin; Gallagher, Thea; McLean, Carmen P; Tannahill, Hallie S; Yarvis, Jeffrey S; Foa, Edna B
The personal resources of social support, unit cohesion, and trait resilience have been found to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity among military personnel. However, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are unclear. We hypothesized that negative posttraumatic cognitions, which are associated with PTSD, mediate the relationships between these personal resources and PTSD. The relationship between PTSD symptom severity and a latent factor comprised of social support, unit cohesion, and trait resilience was evaluated using cross-sectional data from 366 treatment-seeking active duty military personnel with PTSD following deployments to or near Iraq or Afghanistan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test whether posttraumatic cognitions mediated this relationship. The SEM model indicated that (1) a robust latent variable named personal resources (indicated by social support, unit cohesion, and trait resilience) was negatively associated with PTSD severity; (2) personal resources were negatively associated with negative posttraumatic cognitions; (3) negative posttraumatic cognitions fully mediated the association between personal resources and PTSD severity. The final SEM mediation model showed a highly satisfactory fit [χ2 (22) = 16.344, p = 0.798; χ2/df = 0.743; CFI = 1; RMSEA = 0.000]. These findings suggest that among active duty military personnel seeking treatment for PTSD, personal resources (social support, unit cohesion, and trait resilience) may mitigate PTSD severity by reducing negative posttraumatic cognitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bryan, Craig J; David Rudd, M; Wertenberger, Evelyn; Etienne, Neysa; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie N; Morrow, Chad E; Peterson, Alan L; Young-McCaughon, Stacey
Newer approaches for understanding suicidal behavior suggest the assessment of suicide-specific beliefs and cognitions may improve the detection and prediction of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The Suicide Cognitions Scale (SCS) was developed to measure suicide-specific beliefs, but it has not been tested in a military setting. Data were analyzed from two separate studies conducted at three military mental health clinics (one U.S. Army, two U.S. Air Force). Participants included 175 active duty Army personnel with acute suicidal ideation and/or a recent suicide attempt referred for a treatment study (Sample 1) and 151 active duty Air Force personnel receiving routine outpatient mental health care (Sample 2). In both samples, participants completed self-report measures and clinician-administered interviews. Follow-up suicide attempts were assessed via clinician-administered interview for Sample 1. Statistical analyses included confirmatory factor analysis, between-group comparisons by history of suicidality, and generalized regression modeling. Two latent factors were confirmed for the SCS: Unloveability and Unbearability. Each demonstrated good internal consistency, convergent validity, and divergent validity. Both scales significantly predicted current suicidal ideation (βs >0.316, ps 1.07, ps military personnel better than other well-established risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), * PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT , *SLOVAKIA, REQUIREMENTS, POLICIES, ORGANIZATIONS, DECISION MAKING, DEFENSE SYSTEMS, THEORY, PLANNING, DOCUMENTS, MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL, TRANSFORMATIONS.
Broderick, Michael P; Romero-Steiner, Sandra; Rajam, Gowrisankar; Johnson, Scott E; Milton, Andrea; Kim, Ellie; Choi, Lisa J; Radin, Jennifer M; Schmidt, Daniel S; Carlone, George M; Messonnier, Nancy; Faix, Dennis J
Immunological responses to vaccination can differ depending on whether the vaccine is given alone or with other vaccines. This study was a retrospective evaluation of the immunogenicity of a tetravalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine for serogroups A, C, W, and Y (MenACWY) administered alone (n = 41) or concomitantly with other vaccines (n = 279) to U.S. military personnel (mean age, 21.6 years) entering the military between 2006 and 2008. Concomitant vaccines included tetanus/diphtheria (Td), inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), hepatitis vaccines, and various influenza vaccines, among others; two vaccine groups excluded Tdap and IPV. Immune responses were evaluated in baseline and postvaccination sera for Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y 1 to 12 months (mean, 4.96 months) following vaccination. Functional antibodies were measured by using a serum bactericidal antibody assay with rabbit complement (rSBA) and by measurement of serogroup-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. The percentage of vaccinees reaching threshold levels (IgG concentration in serum, ≥2 μg/ml; rSBA titer, ≥8) corresponding to an immunologic response was higher postvaccination than at baseline (P military personnel. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Watkins, Kimberley; Bennett, Rachel; Zamorski, Mark A; Richer, Isabelle
Most research on military-related sexual assault is based on the United States military and has important limitations, such as low response rates. We sought to estimate the lifetime prevalence of sexual assault, assess its relation to military service and identify the circumstances, correlates and associations with mental disorders of military-related sexual assault among Canadian military personnel. We used the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional representative survey of Canadian Regular Force personnel (n = 6696). The sample was weighted to be representative of the entire Canadian Armed Forces Regular Force population in 2012 (n = 67 776), as per Statistics Canada requirements. We assessed lifetime trauma exposure and past-year mental disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We defined lifetime military-related sexual assault as forced sexual activity or unwanted sexual touching that occurred on deployment or in another military workplace, or was perpetrated by Department of National Defence or Canadian Armed Forces personnel. We defined all other sexual assault as non-military-related sexual assault. Self-reported sexual assault was more prevalent among women (non-military-related sexual assault 24.2%, military-related sexual assault 15.5%) than men (5.9% and 0.8%, respectively). About a quarter of women with military-related sexual assault reported experiencing at least 1 event on deployment. After covariates were controlled for, military-related sexual assault was independently associated with any lifetime and any past-year mental disorder (adjusted odds ratio 2.9 and 3.0, respectively) and lifetime and past-year posttraumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio 4.3 and 4.1, respectively). Canadian military women are at increased risk for sexual assault and military-related sexual assault relative to their male counterparts. Deployment may be a period of elevated risk for military-related sexual assault, and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Political conflicts in Bangkok, Thailand have caused mass casualties, especially the latest event April 10, 2010, in which many military personnel were injured. Most of them were transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital, the largest military hospital in Thailand. The current study aimed to assess factors influencing Injury Severity Score (ISS regarding Thai military personnel injured in the mass casualty incident (MCI April 10, 2010. Methods A total of 728 injured soldiers transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital were reviewed. Descriptive statistics was used to display characteristics of the injuries, relationship between mechanism of injury and injured body regions. Multiple logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR of ISS comparing injured body region categories. Results In all, 153 subjects defined as major data category were enrolled in this study. Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury (90.2%. These victims displayed 276 injured body regions. The most common injured body region was the extremities (48.5%. A total of 18 patients (11.7% had an ISS revealing more than 16 points. Three victims who died were expected to die due to high Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS. However, one with high TRISS survived. Factors influencing ISS were age (p = 0.04, abdomen injury (adjusted OR = 29.9; 95% CI, 5.8-153.5; P P P Conclusions Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury among Thai military personnel injured in the MCI April 10, 2010. Age and injured body region such as head & neck, chest and abdomen significantly influenced ISS. These factors should be investigated for effective medical treatment and preparing protective equipment to prevent such injuries in the future.
Robitaille, Nicolas; Jackson, Philip L; Hébert, Luc J; Mercier, Catherine; Bouyer, Laurent J; Fecteau, Shirley; Richards, Carol L; McFadyen, Bradford J
This proof of concept study tested the ability of a dual task walking protocol using a recently developed avatar-based virtual reality (VR) platform to detect differences between military personnel post mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and healthy controls. The VR platform coordinated motion capture, an interaction and rendering system, and a projection system to present first (participant-controlled) and third person avatars within the context of a specific military patrol scene. A divided attention task was also added. A healthy control group was compared to a group with previous mTBI (both groups comprised of six military personnel) and a repeated measures ANOVA tested for differences between conditions and groups based on recognition errors, walking speed and fluidity and obstacle clearance. The VR platform was well tolerated by both groups. Walking fluidity was degraded for the control group within the more complex navigational dual tasking involving avatars, and appeared greatest in the dual tasking with the interacting avatar. This navigational behaviour was not seen in the mTBI group. The present findings show proof of concept for using avatars, particularly more interactive avatars, to expose differences in executive functioning when applying context-specific protocols (here for the military). Implications for rehabilitation Virtual reality provides a means to control context-specific factors for assessment and intervention. Adding human interaction and agency through avatars increases the ecologic nature of the virtual environment. Avatars in the present application of the Virtual Reality avatar interaction platform appear to provide a better ability to reveal differences between trained, military personal with and without mTBI.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. In Thailand, several strains of C. jejuni have been isolated and identified as major diarrheal pathogens among adult travelers. To study the epidemiology of C. jejuni in adult travelers and U.S. military personnel with acute diarrhea in Thailand from 1998-2003, strains of C. jejuni were isolated and phenotypically identified, serotyped, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and characterized using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results A total of 312 C. jejuni isolates were obtained from travelers (n = 46 and U.S. military personnel (n = 266 in Thailand who were experiencing acute diarrhea. Nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin resistance was observed in 94.9% and 93.0% of the isolates, respectively. From 2001-2003, resistance to tetracycline (81.9%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (57.9%, ampicillin (28.9%, kanamycin (5.9%, sulfisoxazole (3.9%, neomycin (2.0%, and streptomycin (0.7% was observed. Combined PFGE analysis showed considerable genetic diversity among the C. jejuni isolates; however, four PFGE clusters included isolates from the major Lior serotypes (HL: 36, HL: 11, HL: 5, and HL: 28. The PFGE analysis linked individual C. jejuni clones that were obtained at U.S. military exercises with specific antimicrobial resistance patterns. Conclusions In summary, most human C. jejuni isolates from Thailand were multi-resistant to quinolones and tetracycline. PFGE detected spatial and temporal C. jejuni clonality responsible for the common sources of Campylobacter gastroenteritis.
PTSD, depression and STI risk factors in Rwandan militaries in the military since or before the genocide , but this vari- able was not significant in the...000 people were killed in a little over 3 months (Gourevitch 1998). Eighteen years have passed since the genocide , and while assessments for PTSD within...al. PTSD, depression and STI risk factors in Rwandan militaries difference for each independent variable by mental health outcome (screening positive
Device vs. Amusement Machine. b. Game of Chance vs. Game of Skill. Monte Carlo or Las Vegas Event jurisdiction installation. Overseas, in b. Must use... Guerra v. Scruggs, 942 F.2d 270 (4th Cir. 1991). F. Scope of review: to what extent should the federal court substitute its judgment for that of the
Shen, Yu-Chu; Cunha, Jesse M; Williams, Thomas V
US military suicides have increased substantially over the past decade and currently account for almost 20% of all military deaths. We investigated the associations of a comprehensive set of time-varying risk factors with suicides among current and former military service members. We did a retrospective multivariate analysis of all US military personnel between 2001 and 2011 (n=110 035 573 person-quarter-years, representing 3 795 823 service members). Outcome was death by suicide, either during service or post-separation. We used Cox proportional hazard models at the person-quarter level to examine associations of deployment, mental disorders, history of unlawful activity, stressful life events, and other demographic and service factors with death by suicide. The strongest predictors of death by suicide were current and past diagnoses of self-inflicted injuries, major depression, bipolar disorder, substance use disorder, and other mental health conditions (compared with service members with no history of diagnoses, the hazard ratio [HR] ranged from 1·4 [95% CI 1·14-1·72] to 8·34 [6·71-10·37]). Compared with service members who were never deployed, hazard rates of suicide (which represent the probability of death by suicide in a specific quarter given that the individual was alive in the previous quarter) were lower among the currently deployed (HR 0·50, 95% CI 0·40-0·61) but significantly higher in the quarters following first deployment (HR 1·51 [1·17-1·96] if deployed in the previous three quarters; 1·14 [1·06-1·23] if deployed four or more quarters ago). The hazard rate of suicide increased within the first year of separation from the military (HR 2·49, 95% CI 2·12-2·91), and remained high for those who had separated from the military 6 or more years ago (HR 1·63, 1·45-1·82). The increased hazard rate of death by suicide for military personnel varies by time since exposure to deployment, mental health diagnoses, and other stressful
Jeffery, Diana D; Mattiko, Mark
Numerous studies document higher substance use among military men after deployment; similar studies focused on military women are limited. This study examines alcohol use of active duty women and deployment factors, social/environmental/attitudinal factors, and psychological/intrapersonal factors. Secondary data analysis of the 2011 Survey of Health-Related Behavior of active duty military personnel was conducted using bivariate statistics and multiple regression analyses with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores as the dependent variable. Nearly 94% had low risk for alcohol use disorders. Length of combat experience and extent of combat exposure were unrelated to Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores; noncombat deployment was unrelated after controlling for marital status, age of first drink, pay grade, and branch of service. Significant motivators (p problems," and significant deterrents were "cost of alcohol" and "fear of upsetting family/friends if used alcohol." Anger propensity, risk propensity, lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, and depressed mood were significant predictors in the regression model after controlling for covariates. Findings suggest that some active duty women use alcohol to cope with adverse emotional states, whereas others use alcohol consistent with propensity for high-risk behaviors. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Heinzelmann, Morgan; Lee, Hyunhwa; Rak, Hannah; Livingston, Whitney; Barr, Taura; Baxter, Tristin; Scattergood-Keepper, Lindsay; Mysliwiec, Vincent; Gill, Jessica
Deployed military personnel are vulnerable to chronic sleep disturbance, which is highly comorbid with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, as well as declines in health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Inflammation is associated with HRQOL declines and sleep-related comorbidities; however, the impact of sleep changes on comorbid symptoms and inflammation in this population is unknown. In this observational study, we examined the relationship between reported sleep changes and concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in peripheral blood. The sample was dichotomized into two groups: (1) decrease in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI; restorative sleep) and (2) no change or increase in PSQI (no change). Mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance tests were used to determine group differences on changes of inflammation and comorbid symptoms. In our sample of 66 recently deployed military personnel with insomnia, 34 participants reported restorative sleep whereas 32 reported no sleep changes. The two groups did not differ in demographic or clinical characteristics, with the exception of PTSD diagnosis at baseline. The restorative sleep group had significant reductions in CRP concentrations and depression symptoms, as well as reduced fatigue and improvements in emotional well-being, social functioning, and physical functioning at follow-up. Military personnel who report sleep restoration after deployment have reduced CRP concentrations, decreased severity of depression, and improved HRQOL. These findings suggest that treatment for sleep disturbances may be associated with improvements in mental and physical health, thereby supporting continued study in this line of research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: Approximately one-quarter of military personnel who deployed to combat stations sustained one or more blast-related, closed-head injuries. The mechanisms associated with blast exposure that give rise to traumatic brain injury (TBI, and place military personnel at high risk for chronic symptoms of post-concussive disorder (PCD, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and depression are not elucidated.Methods: To investigate the mechanisms of persistent blast related symptoms, we examined expression profiles of transcripts across the genome to determine the role of gene activity in chronic symptoms following blast-TBI. Active duty military personnel with (1 a medical record of a blast-TBI that occurred during deployment (n=19 were compared to control participants without TBI (n=17. Controls were matched to cases on demographic factors including age, gender and race, and also in diagnoses of sleep disturbance, and symptoms of PTSD and depression. Due to the high number of PCD symptoms in the TBI+ group, we did not match on this variable. Using expression profiles of transcripts in microarray platform in peripheral samples of whole blood, significantly differentially expressed gene lists were generated. Statistical threshold is based on criteria of 1.5 magnitude fold-change (up or down and p-values with multiple test correction (false discovery rate; FDR<0.05. Results: There were 34 transcripts in 29 genes that were differentially regulated in blast-TBI participants compared to controls. Up-regulated genes included epithelial cell transforming sequence and zinc finger proteins, which are necessary for astrocyte differentiation following injury. Tensin-1, which has been implicated in neuronal recovery in preclinical TBI models, was down-regulated in blast-TBI participants. Protein ubiquitination genes, such as epidermal growth factor receptor, were also down-regulated and identified a
Wolfe, Jessica; Sharkansky, Erica J.; Read, Jennifer P.; Dawson, Ree; Ouimette, Paige Crosby; Martin, James A.
Examines sexual harassment and assault of women in a wartime military example. Explores the impacts of these stressors and combat exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Harassment and assault were higher than in civilian and peacetime military samples. The number of postwar stressful life events mediated the relationship…
Belevitin, A B; Shelepov, A M; Kul'nev, S V; Mironkin, N A
In the article are considered: the history of formation of military medicine in Russia; requirements, presented to the level of processing of military doctors and formulated in the form of competences. The disadvantages are analyzed and single out the ways of perfection in work of the troop echelon of medical service in modern conditions of reforming of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
Elena Yuryevna Bobkova
Full Text Available Results of the cliodescripting analysis of historiographic sources on problems of political education of the military personnel of the Soviet Army placed in one of actual for the Russian researchers of scientific and analytical systems now– national information and analytical system «Russian Index of Scientific Citing» are presented in article. The author finds out that the case the analyzing sources presented in this system, is of historiographic value only in aspect of research of scientific publications on the problem, published in recent years the XXI century.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-1-9
Keywords: Africa, HIV, military, sexual behaviors, Sierra Leone, syphilis. 1. INTRODUCTION Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as human...Chandramohan D. Prevalence of malaria and sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic
Mirjam van Zuiden
Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is frequently diagnosed in military personnel returning from deployment. Literature suggests that MDD is associated with a pro-inflammatory state. To the best of our knowledge, no prospective, longitudinal studies on the association between development of depressive symptomatology and cytokine production by peripheral blood leukocytes have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of depressive symptomatology six months after military deployment is associated with the capacity to produce cytokines, as assessed before and after deployment. 1023 military personnel were included before deployment. Depressive symptoms and LPS- and T-cell mitogen-induced production of 16 cytokines and chemokines in whole blood cultures were measured before (T0, 1 (T1, and 6 (T2 months after return from deployment. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM was used for data reduction into cytokine patterns. Multiple group latent growth modeling was used to investigate differences in the longitudinal course of cytokine production between individuals with (n = 68 and without (n = 665 depressive symptoms at T2. Individuals with depressive symptoms after deployment showed higher T-cell cytokine production before deployment. Moreover, pre-deployment T-cell cytokine production significantly predicted the presence of depressive symptomatology 6 months after return. There was an increase in T-cell cytokine production over time, but this increase was significantly smaller in individuals developing depressive symptoms. T-cell chemokine and LPS-induced innate cytokine production decreased over time and were not associated with depressive symptoms. These results indicate that increased T-cell mitogen-induced cytokine production before deployment may be a vulnerability factor for development of depressive symptomatology in response to deployment to a combat-zone. In addition, deployment to a combat
Bäccman, Charlotte; Hjärthag, Fredrik; Almqvist, Kjerstin
The aim of this study was to explore: (1) how the psychological health of the members of the first European Union Naval Force (ME01) was affected by international deployment off the coast of Somalia; and (2) if and how organizational and personal factors (e.g., type of personnel category, previous experiences, and resilience) affected their psychological health and well-being post-deployment. The study had an exploratory longitudinal design, where the participants were assessed both before and after deployment (i.e., T1 and T2). The participants (n = 129, 120 men, 9 women) were equally distributed between officers (n = 68; 64 men, 4 women) and sailors (n = 61; 56 men, 5 women). The members' average age was 31 years, ranging from 20 to 61. For the majority (78%) ME01 was their first international deployment and officers were, in general, more experienced than sailors. The overall results showed that the members' reported a positive experience with improved resilience and well-being (e.g., sense of coherence). However, the result also showed that type of personnel category (i.e., officer or sailor) affected their psychological health. Why and how these differences among military personnel arise is discussed, but deserves further attention. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Matarazzo, Bridget B; Barnes, Sean M; Pease, James L; Russell, Leah M; Hanson, Jetta E; Soberay, Kelly A; Gutierrez, Peter M
Research suggests that both the military and veteran and the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations may be at increased risk for suicide. A literature review was conducted to identify research related to suicide risk in the LGBT military and veteran populations. Despite the paucity of research directly addressing this issue, themes are discussed evident in the literature on LGBT identity and suicide risk as well as LGBT military service members and veterans. Factors such as social support and victimization appear to be particularly relevant. Suggestions are made with respect to future research that is needed on this very important and timely topic. © Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Barr, Taura; Livingston, Whitney; Guardado, Pedro; Baxter, Tristin; Mysliwiec, Vincent; Gill, Jessica
Up to one-third of deployed military personnel sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBIs and the stress of deployment contribute to the vulnerability for chronic sleep disturbance, resulting in high rates of insomnia diagnoses as well as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and declines in health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Inflammation is associated with insomnia; however, the impact of sleep changes on comorbid symptoms and inflammation in this population is unknown. In this study, we examined the relationship between reported sleep changes and the provision of the standard of care, which could include one or more of the following: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), medications, and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We compared the following: (a) the group with a decrease in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI; restorative sleep) and (b) the group with no change or increase in PSQI (no change). Independent t tests and chi-square tests were used to compare the groups on demographic and clinical characteristics, and mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance tests were used to determine the effect of group differences on changes in comorbid symptoms. Linear regression models were used to examine the role of inflammation in changes in symptoms and HRQOL. The sample included 70 recently deployed military personnel with TBI, seeking care for sleep disturbances. Thirty-seven participants reported restorative sleep and 33 reported no sleep changes or worse sleep. The two groups did not differ in demographic characteristics or clinical symptoms at baseline. The TBI+restored sleep group had significant reductions in PTSD and depression over the 3-month period, whereas the TBI+no change group had a slight increase in both PTSD and depression. The TBI+restored sleep group also had significant changes in HRQOL, including the following HRQOL subcomponents: physical functioning, role limitations in physical health
Trishkin, D V; Titov, I G; Nechiporuk, S A
The authors presented information about current state of organization of medical and psychological rehabilitation at sanatorium stage of military servicemen of special units of the Russian Defense Ministry, information about rehabilitation treatment techniques, and physical and psychological rehabilitation, natural and premature medicinal factors.
lower percentage of men report their sexual assaults compared to women .30...to both men and women may not have different standards on the basis of gender .33 The statute further states that for military career designators...reviewed by the services in their studies , we examined the issue of sexual assault and harassment in the integration process. This issue was raised
Adriana Betes Heupa
Full Text Available A prática de tiro é uma atividade que expõe o policial militar ao ruído de impacto, o que pode causar efeitos irreversíveis na audição. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento sobre o ruído e os efeitos do ruído de impacto entre policiais militares que fazem prática de tiro. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Caso controle retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Participaram 115 militares, sendo 65 expostos ao ruído de impacto e 50 não expostos. Foi realizada a avaliação do nível de ruído das armas de fogo, aplicado um questionário, realizada audiometria tonal limiar e teste de emissões otoacústicas transiente e produto de distorção. RESULTADOS: O nível médio de ruído foi de 125Db (C, a maioria (78% acredita que o ruído pode causar perda auditiva, 92,3% utilizam protetor auricular nas práticas de tiro, mas grande parte (32,3% nunca recebeu orientação quanto ao seu uso, o sintoma mais referido foi o zumbido (23% e 25% dos expostos apresenta perda auditiva sugestiva de induzida por ruído. Houve diferença significativa entre os grupos em relação às alterações auditivas. CONCLUSÃO: Os militares expostos ao tiro são mais suscetíveis a desenvolver perdas auditivas. Há necessidade do desenvolvimento de Programas de Preservação Auditiva nesta população.Shooting is an activity that exposes military personnel to noise impact, which may cause irreversible effects on hearing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate impact noise on the hearing of military personnel that practice shooting. STUDY DESIGN: A case-control retrospective study. METHODS: 115 military personnel were enrolled; 65 had been exposed to impact noise and 50 were non-exposed. Firearm noise levels were evaluated, subjects answered a questionnaire and underwent threshold tonal audiometry and otoacoustic emissions testing. RESULTS: The average noise level was 125dB(C. Most subjects (78% believe that noise may cause hearing loss; nearly all (92.3% used ear noise protectors while shooting, but most
Holtkamp, Matthew D; Grimes, Jamie; Ling, Geoffrey
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as an alteration in brain function caused by an external force. Mild TBI or concussion is now well recognized to be a risk of military service as well as participation in athletic sports such as football. Posttraumatic headache (PTH) is the most common symptom after mTBI in US service members. PTH most commonly presents with migraine-like headache features. The following is an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, prognosis, complications, and treatment of mTBI and associated comorbidities with a focus on PTH. There is a particular emphasis on emerging evidence-based clinical practice. One important medical consequence of the recognition that mTBI is a highly prevalent among military service members is that the Department of Defense (DoD) is dedicating significant financial and intellectual resources to better understanding and developing treatments for TBI. The identification of the importance of TBI among the US military population has had the added benefit of increasing awareness of this condition among civilian populations, particularly those engaged in both professional and youth sports. The NIH and NSF are also supporting important TBI research. President Obama's Brain Initiative is also providing additional impetus for these efforts. Unfortunately, the understanding of the acute and chronic effects of mTBI on the brain remains limited. Gratefully, there is hope that through innovative research, there will be advances in elucidating the underlying pathophysiology, which will lead to clinical and prognostic indicators, ultimately resulting in new treatment options for this very complicated set of disorders.
OEF and OIF N. N. Gronroos J. M. Zouris A. L. Wade Report No. 08-29 . Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited...Specialty and Causative Agents During OEF and OIF Noelle N. Gronroos , MA * † ; James M. Zouris, BS † ; Amber L. Wade, MPH † ABSTRACT...Military Occupational Specialty and Causative Agends During OEF and OIF 6. AUTHORS Noelle Gronroos , James M. Zouris, Amber L. Wade 5a. Contract
Steele, Marshall; Germain, Anne; Campbell, Justin S
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a major health concern among the U.S. military population, affecting up to 12% to 24% of veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Sleep disturbances, neuroticism, and childhood trauma have all been associated with the development of PTSD in military populations, especially in relation to combat experiences. The effects of disrupted sleep and post-traumatic stress can affect the physical well-being of soldier and sailors in the field and impact them for years after deployment. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between self-reported measures of combat experiences, PTSD symptoms, sleep, neuroticism, and childhood adversity in an active duty military population. 972 U.S. Navy Sailors serving in Afghanistan were given anonymous surveys that assess scales of combat stressors, PTSD symptoms, sleep problems, neuroticism, adverse child experiences (ACEs), and other covariates. Sleep disturbances were hypothesized as moderators, having an indirect effect on the relationship between combat experiences and PTSD symptoms. Neuroticism scores and ACEs were proposed as moderators of the combat-PTSD symptom relationship. Mediation and moderation models were developed and tested using logistic regressions. Increased number of combat experiences was found to be a significant predictor of PTSD, even when adjusting for all covariates (p moderating factor. These results indicate that the presence of nightmares may partially explain how traumatic combat experiences lead to the development of PTSD. The study also reaffirms neuroticism as risk factor for developing PTSD symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of sleep hygiene and operational stress models in combat situations and may help stress control professionals address risk factors associated with PTSD symptoms. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
These solutions they may be seeking could be medicinal or more alternative in health such as fish oil supplements. Finally, with regard to Navy...U.S. military, one cannot help but wonder what alternatives there are in the fight against these mental health issues. Research has been rich in...following dummy variables for BMI are: underweight , healthy weight, and overweight. The overweight variable combined the choices of overweight and
Pepper, Thomas; Konarzewski, Thomas; Grimshaw, Paul; Combes, James
We studied the dental records of British military personnel who were less than 20 years old on enlistment, and had at least five years' service with at least five recorded dental inspections, at three military dental centres in the UK. The median (IQR) period from first to last inspection in 720 subjects was 15 (10-19) years, and the median frequency of inspection was every 14 (13-16) months. A total of 288/1250 mandibular third molars were extracted (23%). There were significant increases in the proportion of extractions stating caries in the mandibular third molar or multi-episode pericoronitis as indications (n=13, 14%, p pericoronitis by 20 (9%, p =0.02). Extractions of mandibular third molars because of caries in the adjacent second molar increased by 4 (4%, p=0.045). The median age at the time of extraction before introduction of the guidelines was 23 years compared with 25 years afterwards (p<0.001). Twenty-five of 114 (22%) extractions of mandibular third molars were in patients over the age of 30 after the introduction of guidelines compared with 1/174 (<1%) before. The introduction of the NICE guidelines on the management of third molars has significantly changed our practice. Whether or not these changes have resulted in a net benefit to patients is still a matter for debate. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.
Mason, Carl J; Sornsakrin, Siriporn; Seidman, Jessica C; Srijan, Apichai; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Thongsen, Nucharee; Ellis, Michael W; Ngauy, Viseth; Swierczewski, Brett E; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn
Campylobacter continues to be an important cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and a leading cause in Southeast Asia. Studies of US soldiers and marines deployed to Thailand for a 2 to 3 week field exercise provide a unique population in which to study traveler's diarrhea. A case-control study of 217 deployed military personnel was conducted from 2002 through 2004. Of these, 155 subjects who presented to a field medical unit with acute diarrhea were enrolled as cases. These subjects referred an additional 62 diarrhea-free colleagues who served as controls. Frequencies of isolation of Campylobacter spp. and other enteric pathogens were compared in cases and controls, and antibiotic resistance of isolates was described. Of the 155 subjects with diarrhea, Campylobacter spp. was the most commonly identified pathogen, found in 54 (35%) of the subjects, followed by non-typhoidal Salmonella species found in 36 (23%) subjects. Of the 57 separate C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from these individuals, 51 (89%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin by the disc diffusion method. Nearly one-third of the Campylobacter species were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to azithromycin remained low at 2% (n = 1). The significant morbidity and marked fluoroquinolone resistance associated with Campylobacter infections in Thailand are important considerations for clinicians providing counseling on appropriate antibacterial regimens for civilian and military travelers.
Bahadur, Sardar; McRann, J; McGilloway, E
Returning to employment is a major modifiable factor affecting long-term health in brain injury which neurological and vocational rehabilitation attempts to address. In military patients, little is known about long-term employability, whether employment is sustained and how they fare in civilian roles. A telephone review was undertaken of every military patient having undergone inpatient neurorehabilitation between 2012 and 2014. This was compared to their employment outcomes one to three years post discharge. We further evaluated whether this employment was sustained over successive years in the same patients. Finally, we identify those rehabilitation interventions deemed most influential in improving employment outcomes in brain injury. During this period, an average of 57 (51-61) such patients were discharged each year. A review conducted by telephone successfully contacted 46% (43%-49% across cohorts) of all possible patients; 71.4% (64-81) returned to work increasing to 80.7% (76-85) including those training/actively seeking-work. Overall, 31.7% (24-40) returned to full-time military-in those leaving, 89.6% (85.4-90.9) were discharged for medical reasons. Severity of brain injury was unrelated to successful employment; 63.6%/78.6% had the same vocational outcome over two consecutive years while 36.3%/21.4% showed improved outcomes. Despite significant brain/neurological injury (graded by severity/Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory 4), 80.7% (76-85) were working/training 2/3 years postdischarge from neurorehabilitation with 31.7% returning to full-time military role. Inability to continue within the military was not synonymous with inability to work. Return to work was independent of severity of brain/neurological injury and follow-up over consecutive years demonstrated sustained employment. The argument against inpatient neurorehabilitation has always been cost> This 3-year analysis reinforces that patients can and most likely will return to employment with
[Therapeutic morbidity rate among female military personnel, with exposure to occupational hazards in the period of service in the Armed Forces its influence on the course of pregnancy and fetal development].
Negrusha, N A; Gordienko, A V; Shmidt, A A
The study was made into therapeutic incidence among female military personnel who had contact with various kinds of occupational hazards in the period of military service, its impact on pregnancy and fetal development. Special attention was also paid to long-term consequences of obstetric and therapeutic pathological comorbidity on the development of the child. It has been established, that in the spectrum of therapeutic morbidity among female military personnel chronic gastritis, pyelonephritis and autoimmune thyroiditis prevail and often have a chronic stress as a background for their development. Children born to mothers, who in the period of pregnancy showed the combination of chronic pyelonephritis, autoimmune thyroiditis and late gestosis are a group of high risk for the development of the intracranial hypertension in children and/or infectious diseases.
Bryan, Craig J; Wood, David S; May, Alexis; Peterson, Alan L; Wertenberger, Evelyn; Rudd, M David
Brief cognitive behavioral therapy (BCBT) is associated with significant reductions in suicide attempts among military personnel. However, the underlying mechanisms of action contributing to reductions in suicide attempts in effective psychological treatments remain largely unknown. The present study conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of BCBT versus treatment as usual (TAU) to examine the mechanisms of action hypothesized by the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPT): perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and fearlessness about death. In a sample of 152 active duty U.S. Army personnel with recent suicide ideation or attempts, there were significantly fewer suicide attempts in BCBT, but there were no differences between treatment groups from baseline to 6 months postbaseline on any of the 3 IPT constructs or their interactions. Tests of the moderated mediation failed to support an indirect effect for the IPT model, regardless of which IPT variables were specified as mediators or moderators. Results suggest that the IPT's hypothesized mechanisms of action do not account for reductions in suicide attempts in BCBT. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.
Austin, Krista G; McGraw, Susan M; Lieberman, Harris R
Approximately 60% of Armed Forces personnel regularly consume dietary supplements (DSs). We investigated the association of mood and health behaviors with multiple classes of DSs in military and Coast Guard personnel (N = 5536). Participants completed a survey of DS use and the Quick Mood Scale to assess mood domains of wakeful-drowsiness, relaxed-anxious, cheerful-depressed, friendly-aggression, clearheaded-confused, and well coordinated-clumsy. Supplements were categorized as multivitamin/minerals (MVM), individual vitamin/minerals, protein/amino acid supplements (PS), combination products (C), herbals (H), purported steroid analogs, (S) and other (O). One-way analyses of covariance assessed associations of DSs and perceived health behavior with mood controlling for age. Logistic regression determined associations between DS use and health behavior. Users of MVM and PS reported feeling significantly (P mood states, health, eating habits, and fitness, we hypothesize these associations are not causal, and DS intake does not alter these parameters per se. Preexisting differences in mood and other health-related behaviors and outcomes between users versus nonusers of DSs could be a confounding factor in studies of DSs.
sectional differences lose their power to divide the men. What effect they have is rather to lend spice to a relationship which is now based principally on...divide the men. What effect they have is rather to lend spice to a relationship which is now based principally on the need for mutual aid in the...Occupational Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure, Medical Personnel, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 1998–2007,” Medical Surveillance Monthly Report
radiation exposures in daily life (NCRP, 2009). Table 32 lists common diagnostic radiological exams and the doses that a patient receives from those...would cause any deterministic health effects (health effects caused by cell death, e.g., cataracts , skin burns, etc.). For comparison, the dose limit...personnel in all DF years are comparable to the doses that veterans would have received from medical diagnostic procedures or from other sources
Zhang, J J; Jia, J M; Tao, N; Song, Z X; Ge, H; Jiang, Y; Tian, H; Qiu, E C; Tang, J H; Liu, J W
Objective: To investigate the fatigue status of military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region, and to analyze the mediator effect of trait coping style on job stress and fatigue. Methods: In October 2010, with the method of cluster random sampling survey, 531 military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region were chosen as subject. The fatigue status were evaluated by the Chinese version multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) , job stress were evaluated by the Job Stress Survey (JSS) , and trait coping style were evaluated by the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) . Results: According to the information of different population characteristics, mean rank of physical fatigue about the urban (town) group were higher than that of rural group (Z=-2.200, Pfatigue scores about the urban (town) group were higher than that of rural group (Z=-3.026, Pfatigue about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group (Z=-4.045, Pfatigue about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group (Z=-2.879, Pfatigue scores about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group (Z=-3.647, Pfatigue scores were significant statistical difference among the military officers, sergeancy and soldier group (F=14.711, Pfatigue (r(s)=0.129) , reduced activity (r(s)=0.123) , reduced motivation (r(s)=0.149) and general fatigue (r(s)=0.174) respectively, the score of organizational support lack strength were positively correlated with the score of physical fatigue (r(s)=0.090) , reduced activity (r(s)=0.098) , reduced motivation (r(s)=0.099) and general fatigue (r(s)=0.130) respectively. The mediator effect of negative coping style on the job stress and fatigue was 0.013 (Pfatigue statuses of the urban (town) group and the up or equal 20-years old age group are poor, and the negative coping style plays mediator effect on the job
1998 as issued jointly by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Social ...canadiennes qui avaient tous été confrontés à un dilemme moral (c.-à-d. des situations ou circonstances où au moins deux valeurs fondamentales sont en...intensity dimensions were Concentration of Effect (the number of people affected by the event) and Social Consensus. The most often invoked moral
Morgan, Jessica Kelley; Hourani, Laurel; Lane, Marian E; Tueller, Stephen
Military chaplains not only conduct religious services, but also provide counseling and spiritual support to military service members, operating as liaisons between soldiers and mental health professionals. In this study, active-duty soldiers (N = 889) reported help-seeking behaviors and mental health. Using logistic regressions, we describe the issues for which soldiers reported seeking help, then outline the characteristics of those who are most likely to seek help from a chaplain. Of the soldiers who sought help from a chaplain within the previous year, 29.9% reported high levels of combat exposure, 50.8% screened positive for depression, 39.1% had probable PTSD, and 26.6% screened positive for generalized anxiety disorder. The participant's unit firing on the enemy, personally firing on the enemy, and seeing dead bodies or human remains predicted seeing a chaplain. Future research should examine ways to engage soldiers who have had more combat experiences with the chaplain community to address spiritual issues.
injury. Accordingly, AD is a brief, targeted intervention specific to “moral injury and traumatic loss and includes exposure, cognitive and gestalt ...title, abstract and indexing annotation must be entered when the document is Classified or Designated ) 1. ORIGINATOR (The name and address of the...required. Identifiers, such as equipment model designation , trade name, military project code name, geographic location may also be included. If possible
Gronroos, Noelle N; Zouris, James M; Wade, Amber L
This study investigated the risk of hospitalization among Marines deployed during Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom by military occupational specialty (MOS). Trends in risk of hospitalization as a function of injury cause (explosive munitions and small arms [EM/SA]), anatomical location, and injury type were analyzed to identify which MOSs were more likely to have open wound injuries or trauma to the extremities. The study population consisted of 163,939 Marines deployed at any time during the study period (September 11, 2001-January 31, 2007). Hospitalized Marines (n=2718) were matched to nonhospitalized Marines on rank, time deployed, and number of deployments. Noninfantry MOSs had lower risk of hospitalization compared with infantry, regardless of injury cause or location. Trends differed for EM/SA versus other injury causative agents, but did not differ by anatomical location among EM/SA. This information allows for quantitative assessment of risk by MOS in combat situations.
Foa, Edna B; McLean, Carmen P; Zang, Yinyin; Rosenfield, David; Yadin, Elna; Yarvis, Jeffrey S; Mintz, Jim; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Borah, Elisa V; Dondanville, Katherine A; Fina, Brooke A; Hall-Clark, Brittany N; Lichner, Tracey; Litz, Brett T; Roache, John; Wright, Edward C; Peterson, Alan L
Effective and efficient treatment is needed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in active duty military personnel. To examine the effects of massed prolonged exposure therapy (massed therapy), spaced prolonged exposure therapy (spaced therapy), present-centered therapy (PCT), and a minimal-contact control (MCC) on PTSD severity. Randomized clinical trial conducted at Fort Hood, Texas, from January 2011 through July 2016 and enrolling 370 military personnel with PTSD who had returned from Iraq, Afghanistan, or both. Final follow-up was July 11, 2016. Prolonged exposure therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy involving exposure to trauma memories/reminders, administered as massed therapy (n = 110; 10 sessions over 2 weeks) or spaced therapy (n = 109; 10 sessions over 8 weeks); PCT, a non-trauma-focused therapy involving identifying/discussing daily stressors (n = 107; 10 sessions over 8 weeks); or MCC, telephone calls from therapists (n = 40; once weekly for 4 weeks). Outcomes were assessed before and after treatment and at 2-week, 12-week, and 6-month follow-up. Primary outcome was interviewer-assessed PTSD symptom severity, measured by the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview (PSS-I; range, 0-51; higher scores indicate greater PTSD severity; MCID, 3.18), used to assess efficacy of massed therapy at 2 weeks posttreatment vs MCC at week 4; noninferiority of massed therapy vs spaced therapy at 2 weeks and 12 weeks posttreatment (noninferiority margin, 50% [2.3 points on PSS-I, with 1-sided α = .05]); and efficacy of spaced therapy vs PCT at posttreatment. Among 370 randomized participants, data were analyzed for 366 (mean age, 32.7 [SD, 7.3] years; 44 women [12.0%]; mean baseline PSS-I score, 25.49 [6.36]), and 216 (59.0%) completed the study. At 2 weeks posttreatment, mean PSS-I score was 17.62 (mean decrease from baseline, 7.13) for massed therapy and 21.41 (mean decrease, 3.43) for MCC (difference in decrease, 3.70 [95% CI,0.72 to 6.68]; P = .02
Unlu, Aytekin; Kaya, E; Guvenc, I; Kaymak, S; Cetinkaya, R A; Lapsekili, E O; Ozer, M T; Guler, A; Yildiz, R; Petrone, P; Harlak, A; Kilic, S
Haemorrhage from the injured extremity is a significant cause of preventable death in military settings. This study evaluated the effect of training on the efficacy of the combat application tourniquet (CAT) and to define standards for military personnel. Participants from a training tank battalion were randomised. Data collected included age, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, hand dominance, femoral artery diameter and skin thickness. The study involved tourniquet application times (AT) and application success rates in basic, after-training and eyes-closed phases. Doppler ultrasound was used to identify the presence or absence of popliteal, radial and ulnar artery pulses. A total of 102 trainees participated. In the after-training phase, the left and right upper extremity ATs were 35 ± 13.1 s, and 34.8 ± 13.5 s and the right and left lower extremity ATs were 20.6 ± 6.0 s and 20.5 ± 5.5 s, respectively. The overall tourniquet success rates in three successive study phases were 69.6%, 82.4% and 91.2%, respectively. A negative significant relationship was found between extremity circumference and tourniquet success. The results show that the efficacy of CAT application increases with training. Further studies are required to investigate the reasons underlying application failures. This single group prospective randomised study involves level of evidence 4. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Eduardo Porto Santos
Full Text Available The effects of omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA supplementation on the serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP and activity of creatine kinase (CK were investigated in military personnel. The concentrations of CRP and CK were used as inflammatory and muscle damage markers, respectively. Twenty subjects were divided into two groups and were given capsules containing either n-3 PUFA (SUP (n=10 or placebo (PLA (n=10 for four weeks. During the fourth week of supplementation, the subjects participated in a military boot camp that restricted both their calorie intake and rest, and increased their physical stress. Blood samples were taken in four instances: 1 pre-supplementation; 2 pre-camp; 3 during camp; 4 after camp. During the three weeks of supplementation and prior to boot camp, a significant reduction was observed in the serum concentration of CRP (50% only in group SUP (p=0.04. Significant increases in CK activity of 103.9% in SUP (p=0.0001 and 225.5% in PLA (p=0.004 after camp confirmed the strenuous nature of this procedure. Serum CRP increased during camp in both groups but the SUP group presented a significantly lower concentration of CRP at the end of boot camp in comparison to the PLA group (6.18 ± 2.6 U · L-1 and 8.6 ± 2.1 U · L-1 for SUP and PLA respectively, when p=0.04. These results suggest that supplementation with n-3 PUFA can exhibit a protective effect against the inflammatory process induced by a regimen of intense physical stress and food restriction.
Eick-Cost, Angelia A.; Tastad, Katie J.; Guerrero, Alicia C.; Johns, Matthew C.; Lee, Seung-eun; MacIntosh, Victor H.; Burke, Ronald L.; Blazes, David L.; Russell, Kevin L.; Sanchez, Jose L.
Introduction Following the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 (pH1N1) pandemic, both seasonal and pH1N1 viruses circulated in the US during the 2010–2011 influenza season; influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) may vary between live attenuated (LAIV) and trivalent inactivated (TIV) vaccines as well as by virus subtype. Materials and Methods Vaccine type and virus subtype-specific VE were determined for US military active component personnel for the period of September 1, 2010 through April 30, 2011. Laboratory-confirmed influenza-related medical encounters were compared to matched individuals with a non-respiratory illness (healthy controls), and unmatched individuals who experienced a non-influenza respiratory illness (test-negative controls). Odds ratios (OR) and VE estimates were calculated overall, by vaccine type and influenza subtype. Results A total of 603 influenza cases were identified. Overall VE was relatively low and similar regardless of whether healthy controls (VE = 26%, 95% CI: −1 to 45) or test-negative controls (VE = 29%, 95% CI: −6 to 53) were used as comparison groups. Using test-negative controls, vaccine type-specific VE was found to be higher for TIV (53%, 95% CI: 25 to 71) than for LAIV (VE = −13%, 95% CI: −77 to 27). Influenza subtype-specific analyses revealed moderate protection against A/H3 (VE = 58%, 95% CI: 21 to 78), but not against A/H1 (VE = −38%, 95% CI: −211 to 39) or B (VE = 34%, 95% CI: −122 to 80). Conclusion Overall, a low level of protection against clinically-apparent, laboratory-confirmed, influenza was found for the 2010–11 seasonal influenza vaccines. TIV immunization was associated with higher protection than LAIV, however, no protection against A/H1 was noted, despite inclusion of a pandemic influenza strain as a vaccine component for two consecutive years. Vaccine virus mismatch or lower immunogenicity may have contributed to these findings and deserve further examination in controlled
Hamstra-Wright, Karrie L; Bliven, Kellie C Huxel; Bay, Curt
Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common injury in runners and military personnel. There is a lack of agreement on the aetiological factors contributing to MTSS, making treatment challenging and highlighting the importance of preventive efforts. Understanding the risk factors for MTSS is critical for developing preventive measures. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess what factors put physically active individuals at risk to develop MTSS. Selected electronic databases were searched. Studies were included if they contained original research that investigated risk factors associated with MTSS, compared physically active individuals with MTSS and physically active individuals without MTSS, were in the English language and were full papers in peer-reviewed journals. Data on research design, study duration, participant selection, population, groups, MTSS diagnosis, investigated risk factors and risk factor definitions were extracted. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed. When the means and SDs of a particular risk factor were reported three or more times, that risk factor was included in the meta-analysis. There were 21 studies included in the systematic review and nine risk factors qualified for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Increased BMI (weighted mean difference (MD)=0.79, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.20, p<0.001), navicular drop (MD=1.19 mm, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.84, p<0.001), ankle plantarflexion range of motion (ROM; MD=5.94°, 95% CI 3.65 to 8.24, p<0.001) and hip external rotation ROM (MD=3.95°, 95% CI 1.78 to 6.13, p<0.001) were risk factors for MTSS. Dorsiflexion and quadriceps-angle were clearly not risk factors for MTSS. There is a need for high-quality, prospective studies using consistent methodology evaluating MTSS risk factors. Our findings suggest that interventions focused on addressing increased BMI, navicular drop, ankle plantarflexion ROM and hip external rotation ROM may be a good starting point for
Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Asnaani, Anu; Hall-Clark, Brittany; Peterson, Alan L; Yarvis, Jeffrey S; Foa, Edna B
Previous research has shown racial/ethnic differences in Vietnam veterans on symptoms related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study explored racial/ethnic differences in PTSD symptoms and clinically relevant symptoms. Resilience and social support were tested as potential moderators of racial/ethnic differences in symptoms. The sample included 303 active duty male service members seeking treatment for PTSD. After controlling for age, education, military grade, and combat exposure, Hispanic/Latino and African American service members reported greater PTSD symptoms compared to non-Hispanic White service members. Higher alcohol consumption was endorsed by Hispanic/Latino service members compared to non-Hispanic White or African American service members, even after controlling for PTSD symptom severity. No racial/ethnic differences were found with regard to other variables. These results suggest that care should be made to thoroughly assess PTSD patients, especially those belonging to minority groups, for concurrent substance use problems that may impede treatment utilization or adherence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zamorski, Mark A; Boulos, David
As Canada's mission in Afghanistan winds down, the Canadian Forces (CF) are reflecting on the psychological impact of the mission on more than 40,000 deployed personnel. All major CF studies of mental health outcomes done before and during the Afghanistan era are summarized, with an eye toward getting the most complete picture of the mental health impact of the mission. Studies on traumatic brain injury (TBI), high-risk drinking, and suicidality are included given their conceptual link to mental health. CF studies on the mental health impact of pre-Afghanistan deployments are few, and they have inadequate detail on deployment experiences. Afghanistan era findings confirm service-related mental health problems (MHPs) in an important minority. The findings of the studies cohere, both as a group and in the context of data from our Allies. Combat exposure is the most important driver of deployment-related MHPs, but meaningful rates will be found in those in low-threat areas. Reserve service and cumulative effects of multiple deployments are not major risk factors in the CF. Many deployed personnel will seek care, but further efforts to decrease the delay are needed. Only a fraction of the overall burden of mental illness is likely deployment attributable. Deployment-related mental disorders do not translate into an overall increase in in-service suicidal behavior in the CF, but there is concerning evidence of increased suicide risk after release. TBI occurred in a distinct minority on this deployment, but severe forms were rare. Most TBI cases do not have persistent "post-concussive" symptoms; such symptoms are closely associated with MHPs. The mental health impact of the mission in Afghanistan is commensurate with its difficult nature. While ongoing and planned studies will provide additional detail on its impacts, greater research attention is needed on preventive and therapeutic interventions.
Mark A. Zamorski
Full Text Available Background: As Canada's mission in Afghanistan winds down, the Canadian Forces (CF are reflecting on the psychological impact of the mission on more than 40,000 deployed personnel. Methods: All major CF studies of mental health outcomes done before and during the Afghanistan era are summarized, with an eye toward getting the most complete picture of the mental health impact of the mission. Studies on traumatic brain injury (TBI, high-risk drinking, and suicidality are included given their conceptual link to mental health. Results: CF studies on the mental health impact of pre-Afghanistan deployments are few, and they have inadequate detail on deployment experiences. Afghanistan era findings confirm service-related mental health problems (MHPs in an important minority. The findings of the studies cohere, both as a group and in the context of data from our Allies. Combat exposure is the most important driver of deployment-related MHPs, but meaningful rates will be found in those in low-threat areas. Reserve service and cumulative effects of multiple deployments are not major risk factors in the CF. Many deployed personnel will seek care, but further efforts to decrease the delay are needed. Only a fraction of the overall burden of mental illness is likely deployment attributable. Deployment-related mental disorders do not translate into an overall increase in in-service suicidal behavior in the CF, but there is concerning evidence of increased suicide risk after release. TBI occurred in a distinct minority on this deployment, but severe forms were rare. Most TBI cases do not have persistent “post-concussive” symptoms; such symptoms are closely associated with MHPs. Conclusion: The mental health impact of the mission in Afghanistan is commensurate with its difficult nature. While ongoing and planned studies will provide additional detail on its impacts, greater research attention is needed on preventive and therapeutic interventions.
Ferlito, Claudia; Barnaba, Vincenzo; Abrignani, Sergio; Bombaci, Mauro; Sette, Alessandro; Sidney, John; Biselli, Roberto; Tomao, Enrico; Cattaruzza, Maria Sofia; Germano, Valentina; Biondo, Michela Ileen; Salerno, Gerardo; Lulli, Patrizia; Caporuscio, Sara; Picchianti Diamanti, Andrea; Falco, Mirella; Biselli, Valentina; Cardelli, Patrizia; Autore, Alberto; Lucertini, Elena; De Cesare, Donato Pompeo; Peragallo, Mario Stefano; Lista, Florigio; Martire, Carmela; Salemi, Simonetta; Nisini, Roberto; D'Amelio, Raffaele
Anecdotal case reports, amplified by mass media and internet-based opinion groups, have recently indicated vaccinations as possibly responsible for autoimmunity/lymphoproliferation development. Multiply vaccinated Italian military personnel (group 1, operating in Italy, group 2, operating in Lebanon) were followed-up for nine months to monitor possible post-vaccine autoimmunity/lymphoproliferation onset. No serious adverse event was noticed in both groups. Multivariate analysis of intergroup differences only showed a significant association between lymphocyte increase and tetanus/diphtheria vaccine administration. A significant post-vaccine decrease in autoantibody positivity was observed. Autoantibodies were also studied by microarray analysis of self-proteins in subjects exposed to ≥4 concurrent vaccinations, without observing significant difference among baseline and one and nine months post-vaccine. Moreover, HLA-A2 subjects have been analyzed for the possible CD8T-cell response to apoptotic self-epitopes, without observing significant difference between baseline and one month post-vaccine. Multiple vaccinations in young adults are safe and not associated to autoimmunity/lymphoproliferation onset during a nine-month-long follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guardado, Pedro; Olivera, Anlys; Rusch, Heather L; Roy, Michael; Martin, Christiana; Lejbman, Natasha; Lee, Hwyunhwa; Gill, Jessica M
Whole transcriptome analysis provides an unbiased examination of biological activity, and likely, unique insight into the mechanisms underlying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid depression and traumatic brain injury. This study compared gene-expression profiles in military personnel with PTSD (n=28) and matched controls without PTSD (n=27) using HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays (Affymetrix), which contain 54,675 probe sets representing more than 38,500 genes. Analysis of expression profiles revealed 203 differentially expressed genes in PTSD, of which 72% were upregulated. Using Partek Genomics Suite 6.6, differentially expressed transcription clusters were filtered based on a selection criterion of ≥1.5 relative fold change at a false discovery rate of ≤5%. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Qiagen) of the differentially expressed genes indicated a dysregulation of genes associated with the innate immune, neuroendocrine, and NF-κB systems. These findings provide novel insights that may lead to new pharmaceutical agents for PTSD treatments and help mitigate mental and physical comorbidity risk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in association with repetitive traumatic brain injury experienced in sport and military service. In most instances, the clinical symptoms of the disease begin after a long period of latency ranging from several years to several decades. The initial symptoms are typically insidious, consisting of irritability, impulsivity, aggression, depression, short-term memory loss and heightened suicidality. The symptoms progress slowly over decades to include cognitive deficits and dementia. The pathology of CTE is characterized by the accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein in neurons and astrocytes in a pattern that is unique from other tauopathies, including Alzheimer’s disease. The hyperphosphorylated tau abnormalities begin focally, as perivascular neurofibrillary tangles and neurites at the depths of the cerebral sulci, and then spread to involve superficial layers of adjacent cortex before becoming a widespread degeneration affecting medial temporal lobe structures, diencephalon and brainstem. Most instances of CTE (>85% of cases) show abnormal accumulations of phosphorylated 43 kDa TAR DNA binding protein that are partially colocalized with phosphorylated tau protein. As CTE is characterized pathologically by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy, by abnormal deposits of phosphorylated tau and by 43 kDa TAR DNA binding protein and is associated clinically with behavioral and personality changes, as well as cognitive impairments, CTE is increasingly categorized as an acquired frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Currently, some of the greatest challenges are that CTE cannot be diagnosed during life and the incidence and prevalence of the disorder remain uncertain. Furthermore, the contribution of age, gender, genetics, stress, alcohol and substance abuse to the development of CTE remains to be determined. PMID:24423082
Grier Tyson L
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports on a systematic review of the literature on the post-conflict injury-related mortality of service members who deployed to conflict zones. Methods Literature databases, reference lists of articles, agencies, investigators, and other sources were examined to find studies comparing injury-related mortality of military veterans who had served in conflict zones with that of contemporary veterans who had not served in conflict zones. Injury-related mortality was defined as a cause of death indicated by International Classification of Diseases E-codes E800 to E999 (external causes or subgroupings within this range of codes. Results Twenty studies met the review criteria; all involved veterans serving during either the Vietnam or Persian Gulf conflict. Meta-analysis indicated that, compared with non-conflict-zone veterans, injury-related mortality was elevated for veterans serving in Vietnam (summary mortality rate ratio (SMRR = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (95%CI = 1.08–1.46 during 9 to 18 years of follow-up. Similarly, injury-related mortality was elevated for veterans serving in the Persian Gulf War (SMRR = 1.26, 95%CI = 1.16–1.37 during 3 to 8 years of follow-up. Much of the excess mortality among conflict-zone veterans was associated with motor vehicle events. The excess mortality decreased over time. Hypotheses to account for the excess mortality in conflict-zone veterans included post-traumatic stress, coping behaviors such as substance abuse, ill-defined diseases and symptoms, lower survivability in injury events due to conflict-zone comorbidities, altered perceptions of risk, and/or selection processes leading to the deployment of individuals who were risk-takers. Conclusion Further research on the etiology of the excess mortality in conflict-zone veterans is warranted to develop appropriate interventions.
Han, Kihwan; Mac Donald, Christine L.; Johnson, Ann M.; Barnes, Yolanda; Wierzechowski, Linda; Zonies, David; Oh, John; Flaherty, Stephen; Fang, Raymond; Raichle, Marcus E.; Brody, David L.
Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been one of the “signature injuries” of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, neuroimaging studies in concussive ‘mild’ blast-related TBI have been challenging due to the absence of abnormalities in computed tomography or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the heterogeneity of the blast-related injury mechanisms. The goal of this study was to address these challenges utilizing single-subject, module-based graph theoretic analysis of resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data. We acquired 20 minutes of resting-state fMRI in 63 U.S. military personnel clinically diagnosed with concussive blast-related TBI and 21 U.S. military controls who had blast exposures but no diagnosis of TBI. All subjects underwent an initial scan within 90 days post-injury and 65 subjects underwent a follow-up scan 6 to 12 months later. A second independent cohort of 40 U.S. military personnel with concussive blast-related TBI patients served as a validation dataset. The second independent cohort underwent an initial scan within 30 days post-injury. 75% of scans were of good quality, with exclusions primarily due to excessive subject motion. Network analysis of the subset of these subjects in the first cohort with good quality scans revealed spatially localized reductions in participation coefficient, a measure of between-module connectivity, in the TBI patients relative to the controls at the time of the initial scan. These group differences were less prominent on the follow-up scans. The 15 brain areas with the most prominent reductions in participation coefficient were next used as regions of interest (ROIs) for single-subject analyses. In the first TBI cohort, more subjects than would be expected by chance (27/47 versus 2/47 expected, p single-subject, multivariate analysis by probabilistic principal component analysis of the between-module connectivity in the 15 identified ROIs, showed that 31/47 subjects in the
Han, Kihwan; Mac Donald, Christine L; Johnson, Ann M; Barnes, Yolanda; Wierzechowski, Linda; Zonies, David; Oh, John; Flaherty, Stephen; Fang, Raymond; Raichle, Marcus E; Brody, David L
Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been one of the "signature injuries" of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, neuroimaging studies in concussive 'mild' blast-related TBI have been challenging due to the absence of abnormalities in computed tomography or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the heterogeneity of the blast-related injury mechanisms. The goal of this study was to address these challenges utilizing single-subject, module-based graph theoretic analysis of resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data. We acquired 20min of resting-state fMRI in 63 U.S. military personnel clinically diagnosed with concussive blast-related TBI and 21 U.S. military controls who had blast exposures but no diagnosis of TBI. All subjects underwent an initial scan within 90days post-injury and 65 subjects underwent a follow-up scan 6 to 12months later. A second independent cohort of 40 U.S. military personnel with concussive blast-related TBI served as a validation dataset. The second independent cohort underwent an initial scan within 30days post-injury. 75% of the scans were of good quality, with exclusions primarily due to excessive subject motion. Network analysis of the subset of these subjects in the first cohort with good quality scans revealed spatially localized reductions in the participation coefficient, a measure of between-module connectivity, in the TBI patients relative to the controls at the time of the initial scan. These group differences were less prominent on the follow-up scans. The 15 brain areas with the most prominent reductions in the participation coefficient were next used as regions of interest (ROIs) for single-subject analyses. In the first TBI cohort, more subjects than would be expected by chance (27/47 versus 2/47 expected, p<0.0001) had 3 or more brain regions with abnormally low between-module connectivity relative to the controls on the initial scans. On the follow-up scans, more subjects than expected by chance (5
A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of Rifaximin for the Prevention of Travelers’ Diarrhea in US Military Personnel Deployed to lncirlik Air Base, lncirlik, Turkey
military personnel on deployment for prevention of TD with supportive future studies that consider deployment length, settings, and operational situations...populations, management of dysentery, persistent and chronic diarrhea, and other diar- rhea issues will be addressed in future articles. If the above...management-from poorly focused empiricism to fluid therapy and modem pharmacotherapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007; 25: 759~9. 38. Tribble DR, Baqar S
Matthew C Johns
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A novel A/H1N1 virus is the cause of the present influenza pandemic; vaccination is a key countermeasure, however, few data assessing prior seasonal vaccine effectiveness (VE against the pandemic strain of H1N1 (pH1N1 virus are available. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surveillance of influenza-related medical encounter data of active duty military service members stationed in the United States during the period of April-October 2009 with comparison of pH1N1-confirmed cases and location and date-matched controls. Crude odds ratios (OR and VE estimates for immunized versus non-immunized were calculated as well as adjusted OR (AOR controlling for sex, age group, and history of prior influenza vaccination. Separate stratified VE analyses by vaccine type (trivalent inactivated [TIV] or live attenuated [LAIV], age groups and hospitalization status were also performed. For the period of April 20 to October 15, 2009, a total of 1,205 cases of pH1N1-confirmed cases were reported, 966 (80% among males and over one-half (58% under 25 years of age. Overall VE for service members was found to be 45% (95% CI, 33 to 55%. Immunization with prior season's TIV (VE = 44%, 95% CI, 32 to 54% as well as LAIV (VE = 24%, 95% CI, 6 to 38% were both found to be associated with protection. Of significance, VE against a severe disease outcome was higher (VE = 62%, 95% CI, 14 to 84% than against milder outcomes (VE = 42%, 95% CI, 29 to 53%. CONCLUSION: A moderate association with protection against clinically apparent, laboratory-confirmed Pandemic (H1N1 2009-associated illness was found for immunization with either TIV or LAIV 2008-09 seasonal influenza vaccines. This association with protection was found to be especially apparent for severe disease as compared to milder outcome, as well as in the youngest and older populations. Prior vaccination with seasonal influenza vaccines in 2004-08 was also independently associated with protection.
Design of a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy and biological mechanisms of web-prolonged exposure and present-centered therapy for PTSD among active-duty military personnel and veterans.
McLean, Carmen P; Rauch, Sheila A M; Foa, Edna B; Sripada, Rebecca K; Tannahill, Hallie S; Mintz, Jim; Yarvis, Jeffrey; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Dondanville, Katherine A; Hall-Clark, Brittany N; Fina, Brooke A; Keane, Terence M; Peterson, Alan L
Improved accessibility of effective and efficient evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for military personnel suffering with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an urgent need to meet the growing demand for timely care. In addition, a better understanding of the mechanism of action of behavioral therapy can inform the delivery of care to meet accessibility demands. Effective EBTs for PTSD are available, but logistical and stigma-related barriers to accessing behavioral healthcare can deter military personnel from receiving these treatments. Web-based treatments represent an innovative way to overcome these barriers. The efficacy of previously developed web-based treatments for PTSD appears promising; however, they were not developed based on treatment protocols with strong empirical support for their efficacy. No study to date has examined web-based treatment of PTSD using a well-established evidence-based treatment, nor delineated the biological mechanisms through which a web-based treatment exerts its effects. This paper describes the rationale and methods of a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy and potential biological mediators of 10 sessions of a web-version of Prolonged Exposure (PE), "Web-PE," delivered over 8weeks compared to 10 sessions of in-person Present-Centered Therapy (PCT) delivered over 8weeks by a therapist in 120 active duty military personnel and veterans with PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Irwin, Kara C; Konnert, Candace; Wong, May; O'Neill, Thomas A
Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and pain are often comorbid among veterans. The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent symptoms of anxiety, depression, and alcohol use mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and pain among 113 treated male Canadian veterans. Measures of PTSD, pain, anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, and alcohol use were collected as part of the initial assessment. The bootstrapped resampling analyses were consistent with the hypothesis of mediation for anxiety and depression, but not alcohol use. The confidence intervals did not include zero and the indirect effect of PTSD on pain through anxiety was .04, CI [.03, .07]. The indirect effect of PTSD on pain through depression was .04, CI [.02, .07]. These findings suggest that PTSD and pain symptoms among veterans may be related through the underlying symptoms of anxiety and depression, thus emphasizing the importance of targeting anxiety and depression symptoms when treating comorbid PTSD and pain patients. © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Social Security Administration — SSA provides the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) with tax returns, Social Security benefits, and military retirement information for the purpose of correctly...
Donoho, Carrie J; Bonanno, George A; Porter, Ben; Kearney, Lauren; Powell, Teresa M
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric disorder among service members and veterans. The clinical course of PTSD varies between individuals, and patterns of symptom development have yet to be clearly delineated. Previous studies have been limited by convenience sampling, short follow-up periods, and the inability to account for combat-related trauma. To determine the trajectories of PTSD symptoms among deployed military personnel with and without combat exposure, we used data from a population-based representative sample of 8,178 US service members who participated in the Millennium Cohort Study from 2001 to 2011. Using latent growth mixture modeling, trajectories of PTSD symptoms were determined in the total sample, as well as in individuals with and without combat exposure, respectively. Overall, 4 trajectories of PTSD were characterized: resilient, pre-existing, new-onset, and moderate stable. Across all trajectories, combat-deployed service members diverged from non-combat-deployed service members, even after a single deployment. The former also generally had higher PTSD symptoms. Based on the models, nearly 90% of those without combat exposure remained resilient over the 10-year period, compared with 80% of those with combat exposure. Findings demonstrate that although the clinical course of PTSD symptoms shows heterogeneous patterns of development, combat exposure is uniformly associated with poor mental health. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Trautmann, Sebastian; Schönfeld, Sabine; Behrendt, Silke; Heinrich, Anke; Höfler, Michael; Siegel, Stefan; Zimmermann, Peter; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich
This prospective study aimed to investigate whether prior internalizing disorders (PIDs) moderate the relationship between stress exposure (SE) and the onset of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and nicotine dependence (ND) in deployed military personnel. 358 male soldiers were examined directly before and 12months after return from deployment using standardized interviews. Combat experiences, concerns about family disruptions, and difficult living and working environment were assessed as different aspects of SE. PID diagnoses (mood disorders (PMDs), anxiety disorders (PADs)) and substance use disorders were defined according to the DSM-IV-TR. PMDs were related to a stronger association between concerns about family disruptions and the risk of AUD onset (OR=7.7, 95% CI 1.8-32.8, p=0.006). The number of PID diagnoses (OR per diagnosis: 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.8, p=0.036) and PADs (OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.3, p=0.038) were further related to a stronger association between difficult living and working environment and the risk of AUD onset. With regard to ND, PMDs were related to a weaker association between difficult living and working environment and the risk of ND onset (OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8, p=0.013). PIDs might be related to an increased risk for the onset of AUDs but not ND following SE. This effect is probably restricted to specific constellations of PADs, PMDs, comorbid PIDs and specific aspects of SE. These critical constellations of PIDs and SE might be a promising target for future research and could contribute to the development of preventive measures to reduce the risk of AUDs following SE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
regard de ce que ces femmes evoluent dans un milieu d’hommes, dans lequel leur homosexuality paraitrait mieux admise et peut etre mieux toleree car ne...sexuelle particuliere ne peut etre admise . En effet, c’est remettre en cause les prineipes meme qui constituent ses fondements. Dans ce contexte on
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commission personnel. 9.4 Section 9.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.4 Commission personnel. (a) Members—(1)...
The 1999 Survey of Spouses of Active Duty Personnel gather information on current location, member's military assignment, military life, programs and services, spouse's employment, family information...
Full Text Available Currently thousands of military, diplomatic and civilian personnel are deployed under NATO, UN, and other multi-national, as well as national auspices in high-threat security environments, including active conflict zones such as Iraq and Afghanistan. Soldiers are generally well trained and prepared psychologically to face armed conflict. Civilian contractors and diplomats, on the other hand, often are not. Moreover in today’s high-threat security environments terrorists, insurgents and even child soldiers may be the opposing force, creating a more uncertain and anxiety provoking environment and more difficult to identify security threat. These facts have serious implications for the psycho-social resilience of diplomatic, civilian and military personnel deployed in such environments. This article investigates psycho-social resilience in a small exploratory sample of US embassy staff, contractors and US forces serving in Iraq during 2007, a time when Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs, roadside bombings, mortar attacks, kidnappings, murders and sniper fire were an everyday occurrence in Iraq.
... (Personnel and Readiness) to conduct a new study of military family housing. Previous studies concentrated on comparing the costs of military owned housing with housing allowances that are provided to personnel who rent or purchase civilian housing...
Greenfield, Victoria; Dunn, Richard L; Parsons, Jeffrey P
.... One chart contains a table of the numbers of civilians and military personnel who participated in various wars or conflicts over the years along with the ratio of civilians to military personnel for each conflict...
Neurologic adverse events associated with smallpox vaccination in the United States – response and comment on reporting of headaches as adverse events after smallpox vaccination among military and civilian personnel
Schumm Walter R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate reporting of adverse events occurring after vaccination is an important component of determining risk-benefit ratios for vaccinations. Controversy has developed over alleged underreporting of adverse events within U.S. military samples. This report examines the accuracy of adverse event rates recently published for headaches, and examines the issue of underreporting of headaches as a function of civilian or military sources and as a function of passive versus active surveillance. Methods A report by Sejvar et al was examined closely for accuracy with respect to the reporting of neurologic adverse events associated with smallpox vaccination in the United States. Rates for headaches were reported by several scholarly sources, in addition to Sejvar et al, permitting a comparison of reporting rates as a function of source and type of surveillance. Results Several major errors or omissions were identified in Sejvar et al. The count of civilian subjects vaccinated and the totals of both civilians and military personnel vaccinated were reported incorrectly by Sejvar et al. Counts of headaches reported in VAERS were lower (n = 95 for Sejvar et al than for Casey et al (n = 111 even though the former allegedly used 665,000 subjects while the latter used fewer than 40,000 subjects, with both using approximately the same civilian sources. Consequently, rates of nearly 20 neurologic adverse events reported by Sejvar et al were also incorrectly calculated. Underreporting of headaches after smallpox vaccination appears to increase for military samples and for passive adverse event reporting systems. Conclusion Until revised or corrected, the rates of neurologic adverse events after smallpox vaccinated reported by Sejvar et al must be deemed invalid. The concept of determining overall rates of adverse events by combining small civilian samples with large military samples appears to be invalid. Reports of headaches as adverse events
Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit hyper activity disorder (ADHD is a developmental disorder, most often diagnosed in childhood, and characterized by hyperactivity and inattention that negatively impacts one's ability to function and fulfill social and personal obligations. Individuals with past history of ADHD may enlist in the military under certain conditions, however the full impact of military training and deployment of later in life ADHD symptoms is unclear. It is of particular interest how military experience may affect ADHD in remission and if such individuals might be at elevated risk for relapse of ADHD symptoms. Method: We performed a systematic review f the available literature including the Department of Defense (DOD guidelines for both eligibility to enlist and fitness for deployment based on reported history and current symptomatology of ADHD. Results: The after care for veterans with ADHD relapse is inconsistent and presents with number of challenges. We evaluate the DOD policies regarding the implications of ADHD for fitness for military service and post-combat mental health. Conclusion: The full extend of the interaction between pre-existing ADHD and post-combat PTSD are not fully understood. The development of comprehensive and clear algorithms for diagnosing and treating ADHD in the military before and after deployment will have a strong positive impact on the quality of care delivered to soldiers and veterans.
Barnes, Rachel; Stevelink, Sharon AM; Dandeker, Christopher; Fear, Nicola T
Women’s roles, rights, and responsibilities within the United Kingdom (UK) Armed Forces have changed substantially since the First World War. The unique challenges faced by female personnel have previously been an understudied topic. As the percentage of female personnel in the military increases, the concept of motherhood in the military has acquired a higher profile. This chapter outlines the experiences of being a military mother. It begins with a brief review of the pressures faced by ser...
A major form of stress often found in today's military service is that of boredom. Military recreation centers must provide a variety of challenging activities to meet the needs of bored military personnel. The challenge lies in motivating and stimulating military personnel to participate. (JN)
... Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... INSTRUCTORS Pt. 61, SFAR 100-1 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100-1—Relief for U.S. Military and.... Expiration date. This Special Federal Aviation Regulation No.100-1 expires June 20, 2010, unless sooner...
al. 2007, Schleier et al. 2008). In this analysis of risks, we did not probabilistically assess PPMs such as permethrin -impregnated BDUs, bednets, and...exposure assessment of permethrin -impregnated BDUs in the German military showed that the con- servative risk estimates of Macedo et al. (2007) sufÞ...by the U.S. Food and DrugAdminstration for the treatment of leishmaniasis (Herwaldt 1999). The side effects of amphotericin B deoxycholate are back
19According to Department of Defense documentation and officials, “influencers” refer to the people in a person’s life, such as parents ...siblings, coaches, teachers , and community leaders, who have the power to sway them toward a specific direction, such as toward military service...spreadsheet, and a different GAO analyst reviewed the categorizations. Any initial disagreements in the categorization were discussed and reconciled by
Applications of PCR (real-time and MassTag) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in diagnosis of respiratory infections and diarrheal illness among deployed U.S. military personnel during exercise Balikatan 2009, Philippines.
Velasco, John Mark S; Yoon, In-Kyu; Mason, Carl J; Jarman, Richard G; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Klungthong, Chonticha; Silapong, Sasikorn; Valderama, Maria Theresa G; Wongstitwilairoong, Tippa; Torres, Arturo G; De Cecchis, Daniel P; Pavlin, Julie A
Laboratory-based surveillance for diarrheal and respiratory illness was conducted at the 2009 Republic of the Philippines-United States Balikatan exercise to determine the presence of specific pathogens endemic in the locations where the military exercises were conducted. Ten stool and 6 respiratory specimens were obtained from individuals meeting case definitions for diarrhea or respiratory illness. Stool specimens were frozen in dry ice and remotely tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Rotavirus, Astrovirus, Adenovirus, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium and polymerase chain reaction for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Shigella, Vibrio, Salmonella, and Norovirus. Eight (4 for Campylobacter jejuni, 2 for Campylobacter coli, 1 for Norovirus genogroup II, and 1 for both Campylobacter coli and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli) of 10 samples were positive for at least 1 enteric pathogen. MassTag polymerase chain reaction for influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus groups A and B, human coronavirus-229E and human coronavirus-OC43, human metapneumovirus, enterovirus, human parainfluenza viruses 2,3, and 4a, human adenovirus, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Legionella pneumonia, and Mycoplasma pneumonia was done on respiratory specimens. Out of 6 samples, 3 tested positive for H. influenzae; 1 tested positive for both H. influenzae and human parainfluenza virus 3; and 2 tested negative. Laboratory-based surveillance can be useful in determining etiologies of diarrheal and respiratory illness of deployed military personnel.
need for interventions that temper stigma for mili- ary personnel with remittent problem drinking (Ames et al., 2014; nstitute of Medicine, 2012...care such as stigma may be increased (Institute of Medicine, 2012; Milliken, 2011), never seek treatment. Thus, this is unlikely to substantially... childhood adversity among soldiers who returned from Iraq or Afghanistan. Addict. Behav. 39, 414–419, http://dx.doi.org/10. 1016/j.addbeh.2013.05.001. Dall
Zaĭtseva, I P; Nosolodin, V V; Zaĭtsev, O N; Gladkikh, I P; Koznienko, I V; Beliakov, R A; Arshinov, N P
Conducted with the participation of 50 students of military educational study the effect of various vitamin and mineral complexes for the provision by the body naturally iron, copper and manganese on the immune and physical status. Found that diets enriched BMV was accompanied by a significant delay in the micro-elements, mainly iron, which indicates a deficiency of these bioelements in chickens Santo during the summer. Under the influence of vitamin-mineral complexes significantly increased rates of natural and specific immunity. As the delay increases significantly increased iron medical indicators of immunological reaction efficiency and physical performance.
methods of integrating indirect and direct fires with infantry in the attack, consolidation, and withdrawal.122 Major General Frederick Oscar Warren...instituted SOPs amongst his formation to fire their rifles and Lewis guns at enemy aircraft so they could not get close enough to collect valuable...Military Forces of Canada 1917 – 1920 Loomis: Major-General Frederick Oscar Warren Loomis Commander 13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada
educational aspects in the intellectual component to show that the deficits caused by the CME’s reduction of road and bridge construction training will...capability at home to cover the local gaps in rapid bridge construction and remote road construction. The National Military Strategy needs to address...engineer expertise brings a unique ability for rapid bridge construction and road building that does not exist in any other civilian agency. To
Skomorovsky, Alla; Hujaleh, Filsan; Wolejszo, Stefan
Unique demands of military life (e.g., deployment) can have a significant impact on family life. Although most families cope effectively with military life stressors, some may have difficulty adjusting, experiencing marital conflicts, and violence. Evidence suggests that unmanaged occupational demands may create family stress by interfering with efforts to fulfill family duties. This study examined the effects of work-family conflict and marital satisfaction on intimate violence experienced by Canadian Armed Forces members, and the impact of such violence on their psychological well-being (N = 525). Regression analyses showed that both work-family conflict and marital satisfaction were unique and significant predictors of emotional and physical violence experienced by Canadian Armed Forces members. Moreover, bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that marital satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between work-family and family-work conflicts and intimate partner violence. The results point to the importance of examining the interrelationship between family stress and occupational stressors when exploring interpersonal violence and its psychological impact on military personnel. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commission personnel. 17.3 Section 17.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 17.3 Commission personnel. (a) Appointment and removal of Commission members. (1) In accordance with 32 CFR part 9, the Appointing...
Piñeyro, Diego Raúl
Full Text Available Argentine militaries who voluntarily take part in Peace Keeping Operations, have to take decisions in environments which are influenced by multicultural contexts and uncertainty (Azzollini, Torres, Depaula, Clotet & Nistal, 2010. The effectiveness of their actions requires the use of intuitive and/or analytical processing strategies according to the circumstances. The aim of this work is to analyze the relationships between the predominant decisive style and its effectiveness under different levels of cultural uncertainty. A sample of 116 voluntary servicemen was evaluated in different situations in which such variables were experimentally manipulated. Results show that the subjects with a predominantly analytical style has taken decisions much more effective (f = 17.069; gl = 1; p = .000 being more effective their strategies in situations of low uncertainty. Meanwhile those subjects, with a predominantly intuitive style but with a minor level of general effectiveness, are more effective in the decision making contexts of high uncertainty (f = 5.450; gl = 1; p = .02.
Jackonis, Michael J; Deyton, Lawrence; Hess, William J
This essay discusses the challenges faced by veterans returning to society in light of the current organization and structure of the military, veterans', and overall U.S. health care systems. It also addresses the need for an integrated health care financing and delivery system to ensure a continuum of care for service members, veterans, dependents, and other family members. The health care systems of both the Department of Defense and the Department of Veterans Affairs execute their responsibilities to active duty service members, while their families and retirees/veterans are under separate legal authorities. Although they perform their mandates with extraordinary commitment and demonstrably high quality, both systems need to explore improved communication, coordination, and sharing, as well as increased collaboration with the Department of Health and Human Services programs serving the same populations, far beyond current efforts. The health care-related missions and the locus of health care delivery of each agency are admittedly unique, but their distinctions must not be permitted to impede system integration and coordination of a continuum of care provided to the men and women who serve the nation, and their families.
PAULO DANIEL ACERO RODRÍGUEZ
Full Text Available The conflict of which is setting Colombia, has brought with himself the utilization of anti-perssonel mines which the groups use to protect their territories of influence and in the moments in which they are pursued for the public force. This paper shows the results obtained from the investigation realised by the authors with a group of the military who key in minefields thus took place amputations, the central objectives were to describe the grief process that these people by the lost one of members of their body confront and to explore on the elements that affect the facing of the traumatic event. A qualitative methodology was used, interviewing to 8 members of Colombian army affected by mines person. The results allow to observe two classes of psychological mechanisms of facing: the mechanisms of defense before the originating anguish of the hostility of external means, (negation, minimisation regression, rationalization, repression and isolation which make its appearance at the first the psychological moments of the explosive impact and mechanisms that help the amputee to adapt to their new condition, (comparison, atemporality, importance and spirituality which they appear at a second moment when the amputation is realised under surgical conditions and therefore already is perceived like a measurement for the preservation of the life.
Full Text Available Emerging antimalarial drug resistance in mobile populations remains a significant public health concern. We compared two regimens of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in military and civilians on the Thai-Cambodian border to evaluate national treatment policy.Efficacy and safety of two and three-day regimens of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine were compared as a nested open-label evaluation within a malaria cohort study in 222 otherwise healthy volunteers (18% malaria-infected at baseline. The first 80 volunteers with slide-confirmed Plasmodium falciparum or vivax malaria were randomized 1:1 to receive either regimen (total dose 360 mg dihydroartemisinin and 2880 mg piperaquine and followed weekly for up to 6 months. The primary endpoint was malaria recurrence by day 42. Volunteers with vivax infection received primaquine at study discharge with six months follow-up.Eighty patients (60 vivax, 15 falciparum, and 5 mixed were randomized to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. Intention-to-treat all-species efficacy at Day 42 was 85% for the two-day regimen (95% CI 69-94 and 90% for the three-day regimen (95% CI 75-97. PCR-adjusted falciparum efficacy was 75% in both groups with nearly half (45% still parasitemic at Day 3. Plasma piperaquine levels were comparable to prior published reports, but on the day of recrudescence were below measurable in vitro piperaquine IC50 levels in all falciparum treatment failures.In the brief period since introduction of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, there is early evidence suggesting declining efficacy relative to previous reports. Parasite IC50 levels in excess of plasma piperaquine levels seen only in treatment failures raises concern for clinically significant piperaquine resistance in Cambodia. These findings warrant improved monitoring of clinical outcomes and follow-up, given few available alternative drugs.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01280162.
Filipe Ferreira da Costa
personnel of the Brazilian Navy and to identify variables associated with the presence of MS in that population. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 1,383 men (18-62 years assigned to military organizations in the city of Natal, state of Rio Grande do Norte. The criterion proposed by the International Diabetes Association was used for the diagnosis of MS. The ratio between observed and expected prevalence and the respective confidence intervals were used to identify the combinations of risk factors that exceeded that expected for the population. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with MS. RESULTS: The prevalence of MS was 17.6%. Approximately one third of the military personnel studied had two or more risk factors for MS. All specific combinations of risk factors for MS that exceeded the expected prevalence had abdominal obesity as one of its components. In the adjusted analyses, age, smoking and physical activity level remained associated with MS. CONCLUSION: Our findings reinforce the constant presence of abdominal obesity in the phenotype of MS. In addition, our data also support the idea that age, smoking and low level of physical activity are independent variables for the occurrence of MS.
... disability retirement, who is receiving a Veterans Administration pension or compensation in lieu of military... Administration pension or compensation and have the military service added to civilian service for annuity... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military service. 831.301 Section 831.301...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military service. 842.306 Section 842.306... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Credit for Service § 842.306 Military service. (a) Except as...' Retirement System Act of 1986, an employee's or Member's military service is creditable if it was performed...
Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Laughlin, Matthew D; McCriskin, Brendan J; Bader, Julia O; Waterman, Brian R; Belmont, Philip J
Retrospective analysis of a prospective data set. Determine the incidence and epidemiology of combat-related spinal injuries for the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Recent studies have identified a marked increase in the rate of combat-related spine trauma among casualties in Afghanistan and Iraq. Limitations in these previous works, however, limit their capacity for generalization. A manual search of casualty records stored in the Department of Defense Trauma Registry was performed for the years 2005 to 2009. Demographic information, nature of spinal wounding, injury mechanism, concomitant injuries, year, and location of injury were recorded for all soldiers identified as having sustained combat-related spine trauma. Incidence rates were constructed by comparing the frequencies of spine casualties against defense manpower deployment data. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to identify statistically significant factors associated with spinal injury. In the years 2005 to 2009, 872 (11.1%) casualties with spine injuries were identified among a total of 7877 combat wounded. The mean age of spine casualties was 26.6 years. Spine fractures were the most common injury morphology, comprising 83% of all spinal wounds. The incidence of combat-related spinal trauma was 4.4 per 10,000, whereas that of spine fractures was 4.0 per 10,000. Spinal cord injuries occurred at a rate of 4.0 per 100,000. Spinal cord injuries were most likely to occur in Afghanistan (incident rate ratio: 1.96; 95% confidence interval: 1.68-2.28), among Army personnel (incident rate ratio: 16.85; 95% confidence interval: 8.39-33.84), and in the year 2007 (incident rate ratio: 1.90; 95% confidence interval: 1.55-2.32). Spinal injuries from gunshot were significantly more likely to occur in Iraq (17%) than in Afghanistan (10%, P = 0.02). The incidence of spine trauma in modern warfare exceeds reported rates from earlier conflicts. The study design and population size may enhance the capacity for
Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: No Brasil, doenças provocadas por picadas de insetos são frequentes, o que torna extremamente importante a execução de medidas profiláticas de forma adequada, sobretudo, em áreas endêmicas como a Amazônia, que recebe um grande contingente de visitantes, a trabalho ou turismo. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o uso dos repelentes de insetos disponíveis no mercado por militares que costumam realizar missões em ambiente de selva, na região amazônica. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados cinquenta e um militares da região amazônica que responderam um questionário em junho/2008. RESULTADOS: 63,7% dos militares usaram produtos contendo Deet na concentração máxima de apenas 15%, que possui mínima ação de repelência; 36% relataram usar protetor solar associado, o que levou a um risco maior de intoxicação; 36,4% fizeram uso de um repelente natural em suas missões; dois militares usaram vitamina B e consideraram a sua ação de repelência ineficaz. CONCLUSÕES: Os repelentes à base de Deet utilizados pelo grupo estudado apresentam concentrações inferiores às consideradas seguras para uso em ambiente de selva. Foi frequente a associação do Deet com protetor solar, que é uma combinação potencialmente tóxica. Os repelentes naturais à base de andiroba e copaíba apresentaram o maior grau de percepção de proteção.BACKGROUND: In Brazil, diseases caused by insect bites are frequent. Therefore, it is extremely important that prophylatic measures are adequately carried out, especially in endemic areas such as the Amazon which receives a great number of visitors, for both business and tourism purposes.. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of insect repellents available in the market by military personnel who often go in missions in the middle of the jungle, in the Amazon region. METHODOLOGY: Fifty - one militaries in the Amazon region were selected and they answered a questionnaire in June/2008. RESULTS: 63,7% of the militaries used
Gillies, J. A; Etyemezian, V; Kuhns, H; Moosmueller, H; Engelbrecht, J; King, J; Uppapalli, S; Nikolich, G; McAlpine, J. D; Gillette, D. A; Allwine, K. J
...). PM emitted during DoD testing and training activities threatens the safety and respiratory health of military personnel and can impact the health of urban populations encroaching on military installations...
including treatment manual for therapists, session-by- session PowerPoints, study scripts, homework assignments, and patient/therapist handouts) 36...Afghanistan supported policy banning openly gay or lesbian military personnel was because the veterans feared that this group would face harassment and bullying
Indoor Firing Ranges (IFR) within DND are typically used by Canadian Forces (CF) personnel, Cadets, RCMP, and civilian organizations for firing small bore weapons in support of both operational/ occupational and recreational requirements...
incidents of harassment must be dealt with according to the Canadian military’s discrimination and harassment policy. Finally, if the trans- gender ...transgender personnel were allowed to serve openly following a national policy revision that ended discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender ...memorandum, October 7, 2013. Office of Personnel Management, Addressing Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Discrimination in Federal Civilian
Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Guldager, Bernadette; Gyntelberg, Finn
PURPOSE: To compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders of personnel in the main battle tank (MBT) units in the Danish army with those of personnel in other types of army units, and to investigate associations between job function in the tank, military rank, and musculoskeletal problems....... METHOD: An epidemiologic cross-sectional questionnaire-based examination of an exposed group (MBT personnel) and a reference group (army personnel from other units than MBT units) was conducted. Outcome measures were 1-year prevalence of pain in the anatomical locations of neck, shoulder, low back, knee......, and ankle. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There were only 4 women in the MBT group; as a consequence, female personnel were excluded from the study. The participation rate was 58.0% (n = 184) in the MBT group and 56.3% (n = 333) in the reference group. The pattern of musculoskeletal disorders among personnel...
The key to deciphering China’s military strategy and intent is to analyze the patterns and trends in military expenditures. It is important to fathom whether the Chinese plan is to develop a military that is personnel centric or whether they will build a military that is technology centric and expect to see significant reductions or reduced accelerations in the number of personnel that are employed. Understanding changes in personnel expenditures is one element in understanding th...
Dominick, Jeff (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO); Merrigan, Tim (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO); Boudra, Will (Forest City Military Communities, Honolulu, HI); Miller, Ryan (CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO); Cisneros, Gabriela (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Rosenthal, Andrew L. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Gupta, Vipin P.
In May 2007, Forest City Military Communities won a US Department of Energy Solar America Showcase Award. As part of this award, executives and staff from Forest City Military Communities worked side-by-side with a DOE technical assistance team to overcome technical obstacles encountered by this large-scale real estate developer and manager. This paper describes the solar technical assistance that was provided and the key solar experiences acquired by Forest City Military Communities over an 18 month period.
Thompson, Megan M; McCreary, Donald R
.... More specifically, in selected training situations, instructors would note physiological and cognitive responses to stress, how these responses may affect soldiers reactions, and the decisions made...
on July 24, 1943, 4 men collected 4,086 adult lone star ticks beneath a small juniper tree (can you imagine taking a 10-min nap under that tree ...natural enemies (Bartlett, 1938). Many favorite deer foods are also four I in the low trees of an ecotone. According to Dalke (1941) these trees include...It occurs in Mexico in the states of Baja California, Chiapas, Guerrero, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla , Sinaloa, Sonora, Veracruz, and Yucatan. This species
Full Text Available Although there have been studies that focus on the experiences of the gay and lesbian population serving in the United States military, few have focused on the experience of active duty transgender service members. Transgender individuals transgress the binary conception of gender by deviating from societal gender norms associated with assigned sex at birth. The Department of Defense has set policies and standards that reflect a binary conception of gender, with a focus on conformity. We argue that able-bodied gender variant service personnel are just as capable of serving their country as anyone else. Because of the repercussions associated with active duty transgender military personnel, our sample is small and involves nine clandestine service members and two international service members who wanted to share their stories from a different perspective. Snowball sampling was aimed at finding current active duty and reserve transgender service members. Using a combination of telephone interviews and questionnaires, data were collected from active duty transgender service personnel throughout the United States and two from international militaries that allow transgender people to serve. Data collection focused on the overall experiences of the participants along with questions regarding workplace discrimination, suggestions for policy changes, and their views about the overturn of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell. Our findings add to a growing source of information about the transgender military experience in the U.S. armed forces and the importance of overturning discriminatory workplace policies that negatively impact transgender service members.
Radu Adrian MANDACHE; Brânduºa Oana NICULESCU; Mircea COSMA
Nowadays armies have modern means of fighting - weapons and military equipment, but the humans continue to be one of their most important components. To be followed by our subordinates, to inspire them into higher levels of military teamwork, to lead them in fight and to be effectively and efficient on the modern battlefield there are crucial things for military organization, but these all don’t come easy and naturally for military personnel. Therefore, military that is in charge must be, kno...
Raju, Nambury S.; And Others
A two-parameter logistic regression model for personnel selection is proposed. The model was tested with a database of 84,808 military enlistees. The probability of job success was related directly to trait levels, addressing such topics as selection, validity generalization, employee classification, selection bias, and utility-based fair…
"I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Military Personnel and Veterans: What Does the Literature Tell Us? Suicide & Life- Threatening Behavior...ABSTRACT: Research suggests that both the military/Veteran and the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) populations may be at increased...in Individuals with a History of Traumatic Brain Injury. To be submitted to Brain Injury. As of September 2013, the MSRC responded to 44 media
A.W.K. Gaillard; prof. dr. J.M.L.M. Soeters; R. Delahaij
The new environment in which current military operations take place is often characterized by unpredictable and ambiguous situations. This places new demands on military personnel. In combination with high levels of violence and threat, these situations will elicit acute stress reactions, which
Delahaij, R.; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Soeters, J.M.L.M.
The new environment in which current military operations take place is often characterized by unpredictable and ambiguous situations. This places new demands on military personnel. In combination with high levels of violence and threat, these situations will elicit acute stress reactions, which can
Muller, T.J.; Visschedijk, G.C.
Military personnel of all ranks and on all levels will encounter ethicaldilemmas during their career. Ethical dilemmas may occur in day-to-day business and, more importantly, during military operations, in which certain decisions may mean a difference between life and death. In order to prepare
Clever, Molly; Segal, David R.
Since the advent of the all-volunteer force in the 1970s, marriage, parenthood, and family life have become commonplace in the U.S. military among enlisted personnel and officers alike, and military spouses and children now outnumber service members by a ratio of 1.4 to 1. Reviewing data from the government and from academic and nonacademic…
they capable of making military affairs interesting to a young men in Adidas jackets with dyed- hackle hairdos, of getting them to love military...of an emergency situation from its origins to the end result, hone the personnel’s interaction in the course of a specific modeled emergency, and
Wolfrom, Brent; Hodgetts, Geoff; Kotecha, Jyoti; Pollock, Emily; Martin, Mary; Han, Han; Morissette, Pierre
To evaluate satisfaction with civilian residency training programs among serving general duty medical officers within the Canadian Armed Forces. A 23-item, cross-sectional survey face-validated by the office of the Surgeon General of the Canadian Armed Forces. Canada. General duty medical officers serving in the Canadian Armed Forces as of February 2014 identified through the Directorate of Health Services Personnel of the Canadian Forces Health Services Group Headquarters. Satisfaction with and time spent in 7 domains of training: trauma, critical care, emergency medicine, psychiatry, occupational health, sports medicine, and base clinic training. Overall preparedness for leading a health care team, caring for a military population, working in isolated and challenging environments, and being deployed were evaluated on a 5-point Likert scale. Among the survey respondents (n = 135, response rate 54%), 77% agreed or strongly agreed that their family medicine residency training was relevant to their role as a general duty medical officer. Most respondents were either satisfied or very satisfied with their emergency medicine training (77%) and psychiatry training (63%), while fewer were satisfied or very satisfied with their sports medicine (47%), base clinic (41%), and critical care (43%) training. Even fewer respondents were satisfied or very satisfied with their trauma (26%) and occupational health (12%) training. Regarding overall preparedness, 57% believed that they were adequately prepared to care for a military patient population, and 52% of respondents believed they were prepared for their first posting. Fewer respondents (38%) believed they were prepared to work in isolated, austere, or challenging environments, and even fewer (32%) believed that residency training prepared them to lead a health care team. General duty medical officers were satisfied with many aspects of their family medicine residency training; however, military-specific areas for improvement
History is replete with examples of arthropod-borne illnesses affecting the outcome of military conflicts. Therefore, protection of our U.S. military is paramount when they are deployed on missions throughout the world. A part of the system to protect military personnel consists of wearing permeth...
Harrison, Terry L., Sr.
Serving in the military today is a very specialized and intense experience, with the use of technology requiring dedicated training and education. The military provides much of this specialized training, but also recognizes the value of higher education for its personnel. Our military personnel are supporting our country daily and their increased…
Rentz, E. Danielle; Marshall, Stephen W; Loomis, Dana; Casteel, Carri; Martin, Sandra L; Gibbs, Deborah A
War has a profound emotional impact on military personnel and their families, but little is known about how deployment-related stress impacts the occurrence of child maltreatment in military families...
14-1-0145 4 INTRODUCTION: Military personnel are at a higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer , which is the most lethal common malignancy...Accordingly, our proposed work will first address the focus areas concerning the susceptibility of military personnel to pancreatic cancer following...exhaust and cigarette smoke contribute to the higher rates of pancreatic cancer in military personnel. This heightened risk is due in part to the
34Building Barrage Ballons ," Coast Artillery Journal. 85:20, 21, Nov. 1942. Chandler, Charles DeF. "Military Observation Balloons," Field Artillery...34Captive Balloon Training," Marine Corps Gazette, 27:19,20, Mar. 1943. Hawthorneb Harry L. "Balloons and Dirigibles in War," Coast Artillery Journal...Airship Return," Canadian Army Journal, 3:5-7, Sep. 1949. "Japan: Dirigibles ," Review of Current Military Writings, 7:378, Jan-Mar, 1928. "Japanese
Haddock, Christopher K.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Poston, Walker S.C.; Williams, Larry N.
Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States (US) and has been demonstrated to significantly harm the combat readiness of military personnel. Unfortunately, recent research demonstrated that cigarettes are sold at substantial discounts in military retail outlets. In fact, the military is the only retailer which consistently loses money on tobacco. Cheap tobacco prices have been identified by enlisted personnel and Department of Defense health policy experts as promoting a culture of tobacco use in the US Military. This paper provides an analysis of why current military tobacco pricing policy has failed to eliminate cheap tobacco prices as an incentive for use. A rationale for increasing tobacco prices also is presented along with recommendations for improved military tobacco control policy. PMID:23756017
.... military virtual reality research facilites. The articles lists key research personnel, current research projects, a selection of literature by affiliated researchers, and laboratory facilities available...
Bonar, Ted C.; Domenici, Paula L.
The majority of military undergraduates at universities are National Guard and Reserve personnel and prior-service military veterans, all difficult to identify on campus. These students face unique cultural challenges. Though the academic literature primarily addresses disability services and administrative programs often focus on "wounded…
Military surveillance offers a crucial entry point into the study of surveillance. Historically, the importance of military organizations in state formation meant that many techniques of surveillance that would later migrate into the civilian sphere would bear the imprint of military origins. Moreover, military campaigns were instrumental in developing forms of discipline, communication and surveillance that were to have far-reaching implications for whole societies. Thus, both technologicall...
... Globe and Mail said, an enterprising publication. Despite the existence of the Winston dictionary, some Canadians were still, at the end of the 1950s, prepared to dismiss Canadian lexicography as pointless. When the idea of a Canadian dictionary was introduced to the Dean of Arts and Science at Dalhousie University in ...
McFee, John E.; Russell, Kevin L.; Chesney, Robert H.; Faust, Anthony A.; Das, Yogadhish
The Improved Landmine Detection System (ILDS) is intended to meet Canadian military mine clearance requirements in rear area combat situations and peacekeeping on roads and tracks. The system consists of two teleoperated vehicles and a command vehicle. The teleoperated protection vehicle precedes, clearing antipersonnel mines and magnetic and tilt rod-fuzed antitank mines. It consists of an armoured personnel carrier with a forward looking infrared imager, a finger plow or roller and a magnetic signature duplicator. The teleoperated detection vehicle follows to detect antitank mines. The purpose-built vehicle carries forward looking infrared and visible imagers, a 3 m wide, down-looking sensitive electromagnetic induction detector array and a 3 m wide down-looking ground probing radar, which scan the ground in front of the vehicle. Sensor information is combined using navigation sensors and custom navigation, registration, spatial correspondence and data fusion algorithms. Suspicious targets are then confirmed by a thermal neutron activation detector. The prototype, designed and built by Defence R&D Canada, was completed in October 1997. General Dynamics Canada delivered four production units, based on the prototype concept and technologies, to the Canadian Forces (CF) in 2002. ILDS was deployed in Afghanistan in 2003, making the system the first militarily fielded, teleoperated, multi-sensor vehicle-mounted mine detector and the first with a fielded confirmation sensor. Performance of the prototype in Canadian and independent US trials is summarized and recent results from the production version of the confirmation sensor are discussed. CF operations with ILDS in Afghanistan are described.
Klimov, A S; Bulka, A P
Percent of graduates from civil medical universities among military physicians is 22%. Due to reforming of a system of military-medical education, percent of female soldiers in medical service has increased. Psychophysiological peculiarities of this military personnel class have an impact on a military service quality. It has been established that professional success of military physician is governed by mentality, social and psychological adaptation and military-professional motivation. For this reason, medical service recruiting should be realized on the basis of scientifically grounded series of measures of professionally psychological selection. It is shown that it is necessary to elaborate measures for selection and evaluation of professionally important qualities for female military physicians recruiting. Authors suggested the system of ranking of professional activity success, which can be a methodological basis for acceptance of scientifically grounded solutions about the administration of current medical personnel.
Knox, Rodney F.
This paper provides an overview of the development of the school-personnel administrator role. It first describes the influence of the science-management and human-relations movements and the behavioral sciences on personnel administration and human resource management. It next discusses the role of the personnel-performance-appraisal system and…
Bryan, Craig J; Bryan, AnnaBelle O; Clemans, Tracy A
Military sexual trauma is a strong predictor of psychiatric disorders and negative health outcomes among military personnel and veterans, but little is known about its relationship with suicide risk. The current study investigates the association of military sexual trauma with suicide risk among 464 U.S. military personnel and veterans enrolled in college classes. Results indicate that premilitary sexual assault was associated with significantly increased risk for later suicide ideation, plans, and attempts during military service. Unwanted sexual experiences occurring during military service was associated with significantly increased risk for suicide ideation and suicide plans for male participants. When considered simultaneously, premilitary sexual trauma showed relatively stronger associations with suicide risk among women whereas military sexual trauma showed relatively stronger associations with suicide risk among men. Results suggest differences in the relation of sexual trauma to suicide risk among male and female military personnel and veterans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.