Rowan, M S; Carter, A O; Walker, V J
OBJECTIVE: To determine the policies of Canadian medical schools concerning immunization of students and the methods used to promote these policies. DESIGN: Mail survey with the use of a 12-item, self-administered questionnaire; telephone follow-up to ensure response. SETTING: All 16 medical schools in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Deans of Canada's 16 medical schools or their designates. All of them responded to the questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Policies on vaccination of students against di...
Ng, M. L.; Hargreaves, J. A.
To investigate the present status of nutrition education for dentists and physicians in Canada, we conducted a survey of the nutrition education programs in 10 Canadian dental and 16 medical schools in the academic year 1982-83. Seven of the dental schools and seven of the medical schools had a separate course in nutrition. The average duration of these courses was 22 hours for the dental schools and 26 hours for the medical schools. Nutrition education was integrated with another discipline ...
Adam O Goldstein, Rachel Sobel BearmanDepartment of Family Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAIntroduction: This study examines the integration of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship at all accredited US and Canadian medical schools in order to better understand and assess their current state of engagement.Methods: A 32-question data abstraction instrument measured the role of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The education of medical students should be based on the best clinical information available, rather than on commercial interests. Previous research looking at university-wide conflict of interest (COI policies used in Canadian medical schools has shown very poor regulation. An analysis of COI policies was undertaken to document the current policy environment in all 17 Canadian medical schools. METHODS: A web search was used to initially locate COI policies supplemented by additional information from the deans of each medical school. Strength of policies was rated on a scale of 0 to 2 in 12 categories and also on the presence of enforcement measures. For each school, we report scores for all 12 categories, enforcement measures, and summative scores. RESULTS: COI policies received summative scores that ranged from 0 to 19, with 0 the lowest possible score obtainable and 24 the maximum. The highest mean scores per category were for disclosure and ghostwriting (0.9 and for gifts and scholarships (0.8. DISCUSSION: This study provides the first comprehensive evaluation of all 17 Canadian medical school-specific COI policies. Our results suggest that the COI policy environment at Canadian medical schools is generally permissive. Policy development is a dynamic process. We therefore encourage all Canadian medical schools to develop restrictive COI policies to ensure that their medical students are educated based on the best clinical evidence available, free of industry biases and COI relationships that may influence the future medical thinking and prescribing practices of medical students in Canada once they graduate.
Steinmetz, Peter; Dobrescu, Octavian; Oleskevich, Sharon; Lewis, John
Background This study was carried out to determine the extent and characteristics of bedside ultrasound teaching in medical schools across Canada. Methods A cross-sectional, survey-based study was used to assess undergraduate bedside ultrasound education in the 17 accredited medical schools in Canada. The survey, consisting of 19 questions was pilot-tested, web-based, and completed over a period of seven months in 2014. Results Approximately half of the 13 responding medical schools had integrated bedside ultrasound teaching into their undergraduate curriculum. The most common trends in undergraduate ultrasound teaching related to duration (1–5 hours/year in 50% of schools), format (practical and theoretical in 67% of schools), and logistics (1:4 instructor to student ratio in 67% of schools). The majority of responding vice-deans indicated that bedside ultrasound education should be integrated into the medical school curriculum (77%), and cited a lack of ultrasound machines and infrastructure as barriers to integration. Conclusions This study documents the current characteristics of undergraduate ultrasound education in Canada. PMID:27103956
Springer, James R.; Baer, Lawrence J.
A questionnaire developed and mailed to administrators of all accredited U.S., Canadian, and Puerto Rican medical schools, asked for information on courses offered in epidemiology, statistics, evaluation of medical literature, and research design. Future research should evaluate the effectiveness of such courses. (Author/MLW)
Cappon, P; Watson, D
The recent Canadian experience in promoting social accountability and social responsiveness of medical schools has been one of steady improvement in certain institutions, against a background lacking overall national policy direction. Canada has several distinct advantages in trying to devise means of enhancing social accountability of medical training and health services, including a strong national system of publicly supported and financed health care of high quality, a network of excellent academic medical centers, and well-established accreditation bodies. A review of the literature, complemented by a new survey of Canadian medical schools, confirms that some of the centers, conscious of the need to promote social responsiveness, are developing innovative programs to do so. Future progress toward the goal of social responsiveness of medical schools on a pan-Canadian basis will require a more cohesive approach involving systematic sharing of best practices among academic health centers, effective alliances with other health professionals to promote these objectives, and support by federal and provincial ministries of health. Canadian awareness of an international movement tending to similar objectives would support the efforts of Canadian health professionals engaged in practices of enhanced accountability. PMID:10495748
Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y. [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Nyhof-Young, Joyce [Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)
Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health
Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health
After 50 years of accelerated development, universities and medical schools have entered a period of uncertainty and instability. The Flexnerian paradigm of medical education, rooted in biomedical science and conducted under the aegis of a university, reached its apotheosis by the late 1960s and the early 1970s. Fuelled by the introduction of comprehensive, government-sponsored health care insurance and advances in technology, the demand for health care professionals and for access to facilit...
Full Text Available Launched in 2007, the American Medical Students Association (AMSA PharmFree Scorecard is an annual ranking of conflict of interest (COI policies at American medical centres; it focuses on COIs that may occur when medical education seems likely to be influenced by university-industry relationships, especially those with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. The PharmFree Scorecard has proven influential in stimulating changes in policy regarding the management of COI at American medical institutions, thus it provides a useful jumping off point for reflection on how and why medical education institutions in other countries – and for our purposes, Canada – should pay more attention to the appropriate identification and management of COI. The PharmFree Scorecard methodology examines a diversity of factors and interests that could influence medical education; as such, it is an interesting approach to analysing the COI policies of medical schools. To test its utility or applicability outside the US, we decided to apply the PharmFree Scorecard to the COI policies of the 16 Canadian universities hosting medical schools. Overall, Canadian institutions rank very poorly, especially in ensuring that education and training tools are provided to staff, students and faculty members to enable the identification and management of COI. However, differences between the US and Canadian medical education contexts, e.g., with regards to the governance and funding of universities, limit to some extent the direct applicability of the AMSA ranking. Canadian medical schools – and their host universities – nonetheless have much to learn from insights provided by the AMSA PharmFree Scorecard ranking, although they can and should go further in developing their own COI policies and procedures.
Bhate, Tahara D; Loh, Lawrence C
There is an increasing focus on the social accountability of physicians as individuals, and of medicine itself. This has led to increasing emphasis on physician advocacy from a wide variety of institutions. The physician advocacy concept is now part of the Health Advocacy competency mandated by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Despite its growing prominence, physician advocacy remains poorly integrated into current medical undergraduate curricula. The authors recommend how and why curricular reform should proceed; they focus on Canadian medical education, although they hope their views will be useful in other countries as well.The authors discuss conflicting definitions of physician advocacy, which have previously hampered curriculum development efforts, and suggest a way of reconciling the conflicts. They review current gaps in advocacy-related curricula, suggest that these can be addressed by incorporating practice-based and skills acquisition elements into current didactic teaching, and offer several strategies by which an advocacy curriculum could be implemented, ranging from small modifications to current curriculum to developing new competencies in medical education nationally.The authors present a case for making an advocacy curriculum mandatory for every Canadian medical trainee; they argue that teaching trainees how to fulfill their professional responsibility to advocate may also help them meet the social accountability mandate of medical school education. Finally, the authors explain why making the development and implementation of a mandatory, skill-based curriculum in advocacy should be a priority. PMID:26200573
Jason A. Robins
Full Text Available Background: Resident selection committees must rely on information provided by medical schools in order to evaluate candidates. However, this information varies between institutions, limiting its value in comparing individuals and fairly assessing their quality. This study investigates what is included in candidates’ documentation, the heterogeneity therein, as well as its objective data. Methods: Samples of recent transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records were anonymised prior to evaluation. Data were then extracted by two independent reviewers blinded to the submitting university, assessing for the presence of pre-selected criteria; disagreement was resolved through consensus. The data were subsequently analysed in multiple subgroups. Results: Inter-rater agreement equalled 92%. Inclusion of important criteria varied by school, ranging from 22.2% inclusion to 70.4%; the mean equalled 47.4%. The frequency of specific criteria was highly variable as well. Only 17.7% of schools provided any basis for comparison of academic performance; the majority detailed only status regarding pass or fail, without any further qualification. Conclusions: Considerable heterogeneity exists in the information provided in official medical school documentation, as well as markedly little objective data. Standardization may be necessary in order to facilitate fair comparison of graduates from different institutions. Implementation of objective data may allow more effective intra- and inter-scholastic comparison.
Abstract Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to publi...
Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke
Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Methods Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1 where in Canada these businesses are located; 2 the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3 the medical procedures they promote; 4 core marketing messages; and 5 whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Results Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism
Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Methods Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1) where in Canada these businesses are located; 2) the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3) the medical procedures they promote; 4) core marketing messages; and 5) whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Results Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism companies. Seven other
Rahimi, Behruz; Baetz, Marilyn; Bowen, Rudy; Balbuena, Lloyd
Background Numerous studies have established that medical school is a stressful place but coping styles and resilience have not been adequately addressed as protective factors. Method Using a cross-sectional design, 155 students were surveyed using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and the Canadian Community Health Survey Coping Scale. Mean scores were compared by gender and between our sample and normative scores using t-tests. Multivariate linear regression was p...
Razack, Saleem; Lessard, David; Hodges, Brian D; Maguire, Mary H; Steinert, Yvonne
Calls to increase the demographic representativeness of medical classes to better reflect the diversity of society are part of a growing international trend. Despite this, entry into medical school remains highly competitive and exclusive of marginalized groups. To address these questions, we conducted a Foucauldian discourse analysis of 15 publically available policy documents from the websites of Canadian medical education regulatory bodies, using the concepts of "excellence" (institutional or in an applicant), "diversity," and "equity" to frame the analysis. In most documents, there were appeals to broaden definitions of institutional excellence to include concerns for greater social accountability. Equity concerns tended to be represented as needing to be dealt with by people in positions of authority in order to counter a "hidden curriculum." Diversity was represented as an object of value, situated within a discontinuous history. As a rhetorical strategy, documents invoked complex societal shifts to promote change toward a more humanistic medical education system and profession. "Social accountability" was reified as an all-encompassing solution to most issues of representation. Although the policy documents proclaimed rootedness in an ethos of improving the societal responsiveness of the medical profession, our analysis takes a more critical stance towards the discourses identified. On the basis of our research findings, we question whether these calls may contribute to the maintenance of the specific power relations they seek to address. These conclusions lead us to consider the possibility that the discourses represented in the documents might be reframed to take into account issues of power distribution and its productive and reproductive features. A reframing of discourses could potentially generate greater inclusiveness in policy development processes, and afford disadvantaged and marginalized groups more participatory roles in the discussion. PMID
Crighton, Lyla Eileen
Most public sector and non-profit entities do not undergo standard business analysis that is typically found in their private sector counterparts, however such approaches may provide administrators with information to better understand their industry. A high-level industry analysis of Canadian medical-doctoral universities, based on Porter's five forces and value chain analysis, combined with an analysis of pertinent issues indicated that universities are greatly affected by strategic decisio...
Caldwell, J. Paul; Kain, Brian F.; Robert C. McDonald
In February 1985, a Canadian medical relief team was established in a northern Ethiopia refugee camp. Volunteer physicians, nurses, and support staff have worked in the camp since February 1985. Their activities range from supervising intensive feeding programs, to controlling infections, to educating patients. About 300-400 patients visit the outpatient clinics daily. Malnutrition, vitamin A and B deficiencies, scurvy, rickets, gastroenteritis, malaria, leprosy, tuberculosis, pneumonia, trac...
Moscarello, R; Margittai, K J; Rossi, M
OBJECTIVE: To assess differences between male and female medical students concerning their experiences of abuse during training in a large Canadian medical school. DESIGN: Voluntary, anonymous cross-sectional survey of first- and fourth-year medical students during February 1991. SETTING: University of Toronto School of Medicine. PARTICIPANTS: Of 396 first- and fourth-year students surveyed after one of their regular classes, 347 (117 women, 230 men) completed the questionnaire. INTERVENTION:...
Razack, Saleem; Lessard, David; Hodges, Brian D.; Maguire, Mary H.; Steinert, Yvonne
Calls to increase the demographic representativeness of medical classes to better reflect the diversity of society are part of a growing international trend. Despite this, entry into medical school remains highly competitive and exclusive of marginalized groups. To address these questions, we conducted a Foucauldian discourse analysis of 15…
This article summarizes some of the findings and recommendations of a research project focusing on the nature and needs of refugee students in Canadian schools. The school performance of refugee students is examined under the following headings: immigration regulations; initial identification, assessment, placement and monitoring; unaccompanied youngsters; "at risk" students; academic needs; the conflict of cultures. In particular, the article discusses the changing role of the school in the light of recent immigration trends. Many of the findings are applicable to other national settings.
During the 1997 annual scientific meeting of the Canadian Society of Addiction Medicine, a medical student complained that medical schools do not provide enough education on addiction-related issues. April Boyd said most students want the information because they think they will face these issues when they enter practice.
Callaghan, Tonya D.
Little is known about the experiences of non-heterosexual educators in Canadian Catholic schools. This article reveals previously unreported data from a qualitative study that compares the treatment of and attitudes towards lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (lgbtq) teachers in publicly-funded Catholic school systems in the Canadian…
Trakman, Leon E.
Academically, Canadian education is at the crossroads between formalism and functionalism, with the latter prevailing in recent years. There now arises a demand for a more integrated approach, linking legal theory with legal practice. (MSE)
Kang, Helen Hyunji
In this dissertation I consider the emergence of and the shifts in the scientific and moral standards in the Canadian medical profession, or what I call medical disinterestedness. I examine editorial content from medical journals as a discursive space in which professional norms are constituted. I draw on the works of Pierre Bourdieu in order to argue that doctors are enmeshed in a unique system of rewards that cannot be explained by an economic model based on profit. I investigate three c...
Dibbon, David C.
Since its inception in 1996, the GrassRoots Program has been instrumental in facilitating the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) into the classrooms of Canadian schools. By linking the GrassRoots Program to the school curriculum and providing incentives for teachers to engage students in the process of co-creating electronic curriculum resources for the Internet, it has been influential in transforming classrooms into authentic centres of learning. There is overwh...
Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stan; Szumilas, Magdalena
Adolescence is a critical period for the promotion of mental health and the treatment of mental disorders. Schools are well-positioned to address adolescent mental health. This paper describes a school mental health model, "School-Based Pathway to Care," for Canadian secondary schools that links schools with primary care providers and mental…
Abstract Background Medical tourism companies play an important role in promoting transnational medical travel for elective, out-of-pocket medical procedures. Though researchers are paying increasing attention to the global phenomenon of medical tourism, to date websites of medical tourism companies have received limited scrutiny. This article analyzes websites of Canadian medical tourism companies that advertised international healthcare but ultimately exited the marketplace. Using content a...
This presentation discusses establishment of the Canadian Neutron Source (CNS) that could be utilized for production of medical isotopes and neutron science in Canada. The Canadian Neutron Source would be 20 MWth research reactor optimized for delivery of medical isotopes and neutron beams for neutron science to serve both industry and the public sector. Employing existing reactor and isotope technology minimizes the risk and schedule. Neutron beams could be used in materials science research, biomedical research as well as imaging.
David C. Dibbon
Full Text Available Since its inception in 1996, the GrassRoots Program has been instrumental in facilitating the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT into the classrooms of Canadian schools. By linking the GrassRoots Program to the school curriculum and providing incentives for teachers to engage students in the process of co-creating electronic curriculum resources for the Internet, it has been influential in transforming classrooms into authentic centres of learning. There is overwhelming evidence supporting the concept that the GrassRoots Program is a powerful connector between ICT and new teaching theories. This paper provides an overview of innovation, a background to some of the challenges associated with large-scale innovation in the Canadian K-12 school system and the findings from a collection of 16 case studies conducted in innovative schools in Canada. An analysis of the data contained in the case studies indicates that the GrassRoots Program is having a positive impact on the diffusion of ICT in the classrooms of schools that are members of the Network of Innovation (NIS, and it is making a significant contribution to the development of a culture of innovation. The existence of GrassRoots projects has also increased the capacity for innovation by empowering and enabling the schools and teachers to work on multiple innovations simultaneously. Also, there is sufficient evidence to show that GrassRoots has had a major impact on: teacher professional learning; teacher technology skill development; student technology skill development, student employability skill development; access to teaching resources; leadership opportunities; and school growth and development.
Petersdorf, Robert G.
Issues in the relationship between the Veterans' Administration (VA) and medical schools are discussed, including VA faculty recruitment and retention, ambulatory care in VA teaching hospitals, governance and growth of research within VA medical centers, and effects of cost containment and competition on teaching and training in VA hospitals. (MSE)
Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical tourism industry, which assists patients with accessing non-emergency medical care abroad, has grown rapidly in recent years. A lack of reliable data about medical tourism makes it difficult to create policy, health system, and public health responses to address the associated risks and shortcomings, such as spread of infectious diseases, associated with this industry. This article addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing interviews conducted with Canadian medical tourism facilitators in order to understand Canadian patients' involvement in medical tourism and the implications of this involvement for public health. Methods Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with 12 medical facilitators from 10 companies in 2010. An exhaustive recruitment strategy was used to identify interviewees. Questions focused on business dimensions, information exchange, medical tourists' decision-making, and facilitators' roles in medical tourism. Thematic analysis was undertaken following data collection. Results Facilitators helped their Canadian clients travel to 11 different countries. Estimates of the number of clients sent abroad annually varied due to demand factors. Facilitators commonly worked with medical tourists aged between 40 and 60 from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds who faced a number of potential barriers including affordability, fear of the unfamiliar, and lack of confidence. Medical tourists who chose not to use facilitators' services were thought to be interested in saving money or have cultural/familial connections to the destination country. Canadian doctors were commonly identified as barriers to securing clients. Conclusions No effective Canadian public health response to medical tourism can treat medical tourists as a unified group with similar motivations for engaging in medical tourism and choosing similar mechanisms for doing so. This situation may be echoed in other countries with patients
O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg
the predictive validity of admission testing versus grade-based admission on dropout. METHOD This prospective cohort study followed 6 cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at University of Southern Denmark (USD) in 2002-2007 (N=1544). Half the students were admitted based on...
Snyder, J.; Crooks, Valorie; Johnston, R.; Kingsbury, R.
Background: Medical tourism, the intentional pursuit of elective medical treatments in foreign countries, is a rapidly growing global industry. Canadians are among those crossing international borders to seek out privately purchased medical care. Given Canada’s universally accessible, single-payer domestic health care system, important implications emerge from Canadians’ private engagement in medical tourism. Methods: A scoping review was conducted of the popular, academic, and business li...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, graduating medical students consider many factors, including geographic, social, and academic, when ranking residency programs through the Canadian Residency Matching Service (CaRMS. The relative significance of these factors is poorly studied in Canada. It is also unknown how students differentiate between their top program choices. This survey study addresses the influence of various factors on applicant decision making. Methods Graduating medical students from all six Ontario medical schools were invited to participate in an online survey available for three weeks prior to the CaRMS match day in 2010. Max-Diff discrete choice scaling, multiple choice, and drop-list style questions were employed. The Max-Diff data was analyzed using a scaled simple count method. Data for how students distinguish between top programs was analyzed as percentages. Comparisons were made between male and female applicants as well as between family medicine and specialist applicants; statistical significance was determined by the Mann-Whitney test. Results In total, 339 of 819 (41.4% eligible students responded. The variety of clinical experiences and resident morale were weighed heavily in choosing a residency program; whereas financial incentives and parental leave attitudes had low influence. Major reasons that applicants selected their first choice program over their second choice included the distance to relatives and desirability of the city. Both genders had similar priorities when selecting programs. Family medicine applicants rated the variety of clinical experiences more importantly; whereas specialty applicants emphasized academic factors more. Conclusions Graduating medical students consider program characteristics such as the variety of clinical experiences and resident morale heavily in terms of overall priority. However, differentiation between their top two choice programs is often dependent on social/geographic factors
Zhu, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Cheng-Lie; Hu, Bin; Bao, Xiao-Dong; Zhu, De-Ming
Qiantang medical school came into being during the late Ming Dynasty and the early Qing Dynasty, and lasted for 200 years until Guang Xu Reign in the late Qing Dynasty. Lu Zhiyi and Zhang Suichen were the early representative figures; Zhang Zhicong, Zhang Xiju and Gao Shizong were the mid-period representative figures; and Zhong Xuelu was the late representative figure. They respected consistently the classics and the ancients, cultivated new talents, studied medical literature with a trinity of teaching, studying the classics and practising medicine as its characteristic. Eventually, it developed under the specific background of time and geographical environment as the only academic medical school enbodying teaching, studying the classics, and medical practice as a whole with distinguished achievements. PMID:15555234
Heyward, Candace B.
Examines the 15-year transformation in gender values at a Canadian independent school for girls and their effect on the students and the school structures. Gender-stereotyped, outside-world realities are still influencing the school environment and students' thinking. The author believes single-sex schools for girls are an important antidote to…
Drefs, Michelle A.; Schroeder, Meadow; Hiebert, Bryan; Panayotidis, E. Lisa; Winters, Katherine; Kerr, Jamie
This article presents a brief historical review and survey of the current landscape of online graduate psychology programs within the Canadian context. Specific focus is given to outlining the establishment and evolution of the first Canadian online professional specialization program in school psychology. The article argues that given the virtual…
Levine-Rasky, Cynthia; Ringrose, Jessica
This paper presents a psychosocial analysis of interview data of three Canadian, middle-class, Jewish mothers engaged in processes and practices of "school choice". We consider how middle-class, white identity intersects with Jewish ethnicity. We also examine how commitments to Canadian ideals of multiculturalism sit in contradiction with…
Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.
Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…
Greig, Paul D; Rotstein, Ori D
Dr. Bernard Langer's induction into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame acknowledges his profound effect on medicine and surgery in Canada and an impact that has been truly international. In this brief biography, we highlight the major accomplishments that have made Dr. Langer a pre-eminent leader, innovator, teacher and exemplary surgeon. PMID:25799243
Greig, Paul D.; Rotstein, Ori D.
Summary Dr. Bernard Langer’s induction into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame acknowledges his profound effect on medicine and surgery in Canada and an impact that has been truly international. In this brief biography, we highlight the major accomplishments that have made Dr. Langer a pre-eminent leader, innovator, teacher and exemplary surgeon. PMID:25799243
Ficca, Michelle; Welk, Dorette
As a result of various health concerns, children are receiving an increased number of medications while at school. In Pennsylvania, the School Code mandates a ratio of 1 certified school nurse to 1,500 students, which may mean that 1 school nurse is covering 3-5 buildings. This implies that unlicensed personnel are administering medications, a…
Joyce, D P; McIvor, R. A.
OBJECTIVE: To determine asthma patients' patterns of disease and knowledge of asthma. DESIGN: Telephone survey of patients with diagnosed asthma. SETTING: Residences in 10 Canadian provinces. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with asthma diagnosed by a doctor: 829 men and women with a mean age of 38 +/- 7 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Classes of asthma medications, patterns of use, frequency and severity of asthma symptoms use of emergency departments and urgent medical services, participation in asthma...
Full Text Available Findings that detail the social organization of day-to-day practices associated with the Canadian government policy of mandatory HIV testing of permanent residence applicants to Canada are reported. Institutional ethnography was used to investigate interactions between HIV-positive applicants and immigration physicians during the immigration medical examination. A composite narrative recounts details of a woman applicant's discovery through immigration testing that she was living with HIV. Mandatory HIV testing gives rise to serious difficulties for applicants to Canada living with HIV. Applicant, physician and federal state employee work practices associated with mandatory HIV testing are analysed. These practices contribute to the ideological work of the Canadian state, where interest bounds up in the examination serve the state and not the applicant. Findings should be useful for Canadian immigration policy makers who wish to develop constructive and functional strategies to address issues that matter in people's lives
Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' percep...
Crooks, Valorie; Snyder, Jeremy
Broadly speaking, medical tourism involves patients intentionally going abroad to pursue medical services outside of formal cross-border care arrangements that are typically paid for out-of-pocket. Orthopedic, dental, cosmetic, transplant, and other surgeries are offered by hospitals around the world looking to attract international patients, with such procedures often available for purchase as part of “package deals” that include recovery stays at affiliated tourist resorts or hotels. In thi...
Leatherbury, M C; Lyders, R A
Ten years of statistics from over 140 U.S. and Canadian medical school libraries are analyzed to determine trends in library collections, staffing, services, and expenditures. In addition, ratios of use patterns and personnel utilization are shown. Costs over the ten-year period are examined in both actual and constant dollar amounts. The trends in costs show continuous rises in absolute and constant dollars both for materials and personnel. The number of serials subscriptions remained fairly constant while the number of monographs added declined slowly. Collection use grew, although traditional external circulation declined. Interlibrary lending and borrowing increased throughout the decade. Reference service workload increased, while the use of external databases decreased. The longitudinal data indicate trends in medical school libraries that may assist administrators and staff to shape future services, staffing patterns, and budget requests. PMID:1537018
Does the medical school library in the United States operate more commonly under the university library or the medical school administration? University-connected medical school libraries were asked to indicate (a) the source of their budgets, whether from the central library or the medical school, and (b) the responsibility for their acquisitions and cataloging. Returns received from sixtyeight of the seventy eligible institutions showed decentralization to be much the most common: 71 percent of the libraries are funded by their medical schools; 79 percent are responsible for their own acquisitions and processing. The factor most often associated with centralization of both budget and operation is public ownership. Decentralization is associated with service to one or two rather than three or more professional schools. Location of the medical school in a different city from the university is highly favorable to autonomy. Other factors associated with these trends are discussed. PMID:5945568
Palmer, Heather M.; Dobson, Keith S.
Investigated predictive value of three aspects of memory potentially related to success or failure in self-medication program. Results showed that combination of memory measures successfully discriminated between those subjects who advanced in program and those who did not. Results provide information that will aid in improving selection process…
Kosik, Russell Oliver; Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Xu, Guo-Tong; Zhao, Xudong; Guo, Li; Tang, Wen; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen
Today's doctor is as much a humanist as a scientist. Medical schools have responded to this change by introducing a variety of courses, most notably those concerning the humanities and ethics. Thus far, no one has examined the extent of use of these subjects in Chinese medical schools. The goal of this study is to determine how many and in…
The practice of veiling has made Muslim women subject to dual oppressions--racism and Islamophobia--in society at large and patriarchal oppression and sexism from within their communities. Based on a narrative analysis of the politics of veiling in schools and society, the voices of young Muslim women attending a Canadian Islamic school speak to…
This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…
Canadian data from the 1998 Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children were analyzed to examine the effects of school experiences on personal health (physical health, mental health, self-esteem, helplessness, and body image) and interpersonal relationships (number of close friends and making friends) among adolescents.…
William Dean Watson
Full Text Available This article provides a sociological analysis of the discursive interpretations of the criminal law mitigation frameworks underpinning infanticide law in England and Canada. The passage of infanticide legislation by the Canadian Parliament in 1948 and 1955 is described. The account is contrasted with Tony Ward's analysis of the passage of English legislation in 1922 and 1938. The Canadian legislation of 1948 was based on the English Infanticide Act of 1922. Ward claims that his account shows that, despite obvious appearances and the views of socio-legal commentators writing during the 1980s and 1990s, infanticide law is not an example of the medicalization of women's deviance but, if anything, more closely exemplifies law as an autopoietic system of communication which "enslaves" medical concepts, adapting them for its own strictly legal purposes. We argue that, while Ward's critique of the medicalization interpretation of infanticide law is broadly apposite, autopoiesis theory provides an overwrought alternative. This is especially true for the Canadian legislation.
Full Text Available This paper considers the influence of academic restructuring associated with neo-liberal postsecondary policies on the culture of law schools and legal scholarship in Canada. It offers empirical data from a case study of the Faculty of Law at the University of British Columbia. This paper examines the impact of the changing Canadian political economy on the scholarship and culture at the law school and explores the implications for professional autonomy and academic freedom. The findings suggest that, at the time of data collection (2002-2004, the changing political economy had not (yet affected the law school at the University of British Columbia in the same manner as other jurisdictions and disciplines described in the literature. The data shows that law professors who participated in the study experienced increasing pressures associated with corporatization, commodification and marketization in the larger university, however they consistently described high levels of academic freedom and professional autonomy over their work and scholarship. While there is some evidence of the transformation of academic culture associated with economic restructuring there is also evidence that law professors at this school have maintained control over the direction of their intellectual scholarship. Cet article se penche sur l’influence de la restructuration académique associée aux politiques postsecondaires néo-libérales sur la culture au sein des écoles de droit et sur les études juridiques au Canada. Il présente des données empiriques à partir d’une étude de cas de la Faculté de droit à l’Université de Colombie- Britannique. L’article examine l’impact de l’économie politique canadienne changeante sur l’érudition et la culture à l’école de droit et explore ce que cela implique pour l’autonomie professionnelle et la liberté de l’enseignement. Les résultats suggèrent qu’au moment de la collecte des données (2002
Full Text Available The Medical Council of Canada has set new eligibility criteria for examinations that are required in order to apply to postgraduate training. This is to facilitate the establishment of the National Assessment Collaboration Objective Structured Clinical Examination. These changes result in increased hardships on Canadians studying abroad who are wishing to apply for postgraduate training in Canada. While these exams are crucial to protect medical standards and the quality of healthcare in Canada, slight modifications of the examination timelines may alleviate some of the burdens caused by these exams.
In the medical field, ionizing radiation is very widely in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, Around 60% of environmental radiation, including natural background and man-made sources of radiation, is caused from medical exposure in Japan. Education of radiation in medical ad co-medical schools are mainly aimed to how effectively use the radiation, and the time shared to fundamental physics, biology and safety or protection of radiation is not so much. (author)
Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan
This study compares Polish post-secondary vocational institutions with Canadian community colleges using an information technology conceptual framework. The research concentrated upon programs in information technology delivered by one Polish school Cracow School of Information Technology and two Canadian community colleges Durham (Oshawa,…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads in Canadian cities. Methods Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances Results Addresses were obtained for 1,556 public elementary schools, 95% of which were successfully geocoded. Across all 10 cities, 16.3% of schools were located within 75 m of a major road, with wide variability between cities. Schools in neighborhoods with higher median income were less likely to be near major roads (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00, while schools in densely populated neighborhoods were more frequently close to major roads (OR per 1,000 dwellings/km2: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16. Over 22% of schools in the lowest neighborhood income quintile were close to major roads, compared to 13% of schools in the highest income quintile. Conclusions A substantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of schools may negatively impact the healthy development and academic performance of a large number of Canadian children.
The state of ESL in Canada has been a looming, mishandled entity. Canadians espouse the benefits of diversity and have politically correct policies concerning racism and equity for the linguistically disadvantaged, but in reality something has gone terribly wrong. This article outlines specific myths and delusions that plague educational…
Kelly, Michael W.; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Mordhorst, Matthew J.
This article reports school nurses' experiences with medication administration through qualitative analyses of a written survey and focus groups. From a random sample of 1,000 members of the National Association of School Nurses, 649 (64.9%) school nurses completed the survey. The quantitative data from the survey were presented previously.…
Libbrecht, Nele; Lievens, Filip; Carette, Bernd; Côté, Stéphane
Accumulating evidence suggests that effective communication and interpersonal sensitivity during interactions between doctors and patients impact therapeutic outcomes. There is an important need to identify predictors of these behaviors, because traditional tests used in medical admissions offer limited predictions of "bedside manners" in medical practice. This study examined whether emotional intelligence would predict the performance of 367 medical students in medical school courses on communication and interpersonal sensitivity. One of the dimensions of emotional intelligence, the ability to regulate emotions, predicted performance in courses on communication and interpersonal sensitivity over the next 3 years of medical school, over and above cognitive ability and conscientiousness. Emotional intelligence did not predict performance on courses on medical subject domains. The results suggest that medical schools may better predict who will communicate effectively and show interpersonal sensitivity if they include measures of emotional intelligence in their admission systems. PMID:24219393
ALBashtawy, Mohammed; Batiha, Abdul-Monim; Tawalbeh, Loai; Tubaishat, Ahmad; AlAzzam, Manar
Self-medication, usually with over-the-counter (OTC) medication, is reported as a community health problem that affects many people worldwide. Most self-medication practice usually begins with the onset of adolescence. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan, using a simple random sampling method to select…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to explore the structures for managing student fitness to practise hearings in medical schools in the UK. We surveyed by email the named fitness to practise leads of all full members of the UK Medical Schools Council with a medical undergraduate programme. We asked whether student fitness to practise cases were considered by a committee/panel dedicated to medicine, or by one which also considered other undergraduate health and social care students. Findings All 31 medical schools responded. 19 medical schools had a fitness to practise committee dealing with medical students only. Three had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and dentistry. One had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and veterinary medicine. Eight had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and two or more other programmes, such as dentistry, nursing, midwifery, physiotherapy, dietetics, social work, pharmacy, psychology, audiology, speech therapy, operating department practice, veterinary medicine and education. Conclusion All 31 UK medical schools with undergraduate programmes have a fitness to practise committee to deal with students whose behaviour has given rise to concern about their fitness to practise. The variation in governance structures for student fitness to practise committees/panels can in part be explained by variations in University structures and the extent to which Universities co-manage undergraduate medicine with other courses.
Beran, Tanya N.; Lupart, Judy
The relationship between school achievement and peer harassment was examined using individual and peer characteristics as mediating factors. The sample consisted of adolescents age 12-15 years (n = 4,111) drawn from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, which is a stratified random sample of 22,831 households in Canada.…
This paper offers an examination of gay-straight alliance (GSA) members' engagement with sex education, sexual health, and prejudice and discrimination in Canadian public high schools. It explores how five students' (four straight and one gay-identifying) participation in GSAs served as a springboard for learning about and challenging…
Lillico, Heather G; Hammond, David; Manske, Steve; Murnaghan, Donna
Background Obesity is a growing public health concern in Canada. Excess weight is particularly a concern among youth given that obesity in youth predicts obesity in adulthood. Eating behaviors, both inside and outside the home have been associated with increased risk of obesity; however, there is little data among Canadian youth to monitor trends. Methods The School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation Surveys (SHAPES) were administered in schools. Our study examined 20, 923 students (grade...
Giubilini, Alberto; Milnes, Sharyn; Savulescu, Julian
In this review article we describe the current scope, methods, and contents of medical ethics education in medical schools in Western English speaking countries (mainly the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia). We assess the strengths and weaknesses of current medical ethics curricula, and students' levels of satisfaction with different teaching approaches and their reported difficulties in learning medical ethics concepts and applying them in clinical practice. We identify three main challenges for medical ethics education: counteracting the bad effects of the "hidden curriculum," teaching students how to apply ethical knowledge and critical thinking to real cases in clinical practice, and shaping future doctors' right character through ethics education. We suggest ways in which these challenges could be addressed. On the basis of this analysis, we propose practical guidelines for designing, implementing, teaching, and assessing a medical ethics program within a four-year medical course. PMID:27333063
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical tourism companies play an important role in promoting transnational medical travel for elective, out-of-pocket medical procedures. Though researchers are paying increasing attention to the global phenomenon of medical tourism, to date websites of medical tourism companies have received limited scrutiny. This article analyzes websites of Canadian medical tourism companies that advertised international healthcare but ultimately exited the marketplace. Using content analysis of company websites as an investigative tool, the article provides a detailed account of medical tourism companies that were based in Canada but no longer send clients to international health care facilities. Methods Internet searches, Google Alerts, searches on Google News Canada and ProQuest Newsstand, and searches of an Industry Canada database were used to locate medical tourism companies located in Canada. Once medical tourism companies were identified, the social science research method of content analysis was used to extract relevant information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to determine: 1 where these businesses were based; 2 the destination countries and medical facilities that they promoted; 3 the health services they advertised; 4 core marketing messages; and 5 whether businesses marketed air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday excursions in addition to medical procedures. Results In total, 25 medical tourism companies that were based in Canada are now defunct. Given that an estimated 18 medical tourism companies and 7 regional, cross-border medical travel facilitators now operate in Canada, it appears that approximately half of all identifiable medical tourism companies in Canada are no longer in business. 13 of the previously operational companies were based in Ontario, 7 were located in British Columbia, 4 were situated in Quebec, and 1 was based in Alberta. 14 companies marketed medical procedures within a
Rappaport, Nancy; Kulick, Deborah; Phelps, LeAdelle
This article provides an overview of medications used frequently in the treatment of pediatric depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. The need for a collaborative relationship between the prescribing physician, school personnel, and the family is outlined. School psychologists can play crucial roles by providing the physician with information…
Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sayeeda Rahman2, Urban JA D’Souza3, Gad Elbeheri4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, M Muzaherul Huq61,2Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 3School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; 4Centre for Child Evaluation and Teaching, Kuwait; 5College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Centre for Medical Education (CME), Mohakhali, Dhaka, Ba...
Budakoğlu, İrem; COŞKUN, ÖZLEM; Uluoğlu, Canan; Ayhan, Sühan; Özkan, Seçil; Çağlar, Kayhan; Kalkancı, Ayşe; Gözil, Rabet; Çakır, Nuri
Configuring a part of the medical curricula as an elective, supports the students planning their careers in the future by providing in-depth study in the particular area and also working environment. In this study it is aimed to share the steps that we followed to develop elective clerkship and internship program in a medical school, and the lessons we obtained. This study was carried out between November 2010- May 2011. The members of Program Development and Evaluation Board of t...
Marja GH Nieuwhof
Full Text Available Purpose. Students vary in their strength of motivation to start and pursue medical training. This study was conducted to investigate the psychometric properties of a Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS questionnaire. Method. The questionnaire was designed using an iterative method. The instrument was applied to medical students (N= 296 at the start of medical school and to potential applicants (N= 147. The stability of the concept over a six months time and associations with other motivation measures were studied. A separate group of potential applicants and their parents (N= 169 were asked to validate the items of the questionnaire. Results. Cronbachs alpha reliability of .79 was found. Test-retest reliability of SMMS-scores with a six months interval was .71. Little to no association with specific dimensions of motivation was found, except for a negative correlation with ambivalence towards studying. SMMS-scores were associated with potential applicants plans to apply for medical school (Spearmans rho .65 and differentially with potential applicants and their parents judgements of item validities (.13 to .57. Conclusions. The SMMS-questionnaire appears to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure strength of motivation for medical training in students who have just entered medical school. It may be used to evaluate the validity of selection procedures and to identify associated variables that could be used in selection procedures.
Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Resch, Franz; Duelli, Roman; Möltner, Andreas; Jünger, Jana
[english] The 2002 licensing regulation for doctors significantly increased the importance of school-specific assessment during the clinical phase of medical education. School-specific assessment should strengthen the practical element of medical training; due to the licensing reform, students now obtain individual grades for each clinical subject, which then count toward the final degree. In order to gain an overview of how the assessment procedure has evolved in light of this reform, a sur...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0% of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.
Crooks Valorie A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical tourism, thought of as patients seeking non-emergency medical care outside of their home countries, is a growing industry worldwide. Canadians are amongst those engaging in medical tourism, and many are helped in the process of accessing care abroad by medical tourism brokers - agents who specialize in making international medical care arrangements for patients. As a key source of information for these patients, brokers are likely to play an important role in communicating the risks and benefits of undergoing surgery or other procedures abroad to their clientele. This raises important ethical concerns regarding processes such as informed consent and the liability of brokers in the event that complications arise from procedures. The purpose of this article is to examine the language, information, and online marketing of Canadian medical tourism brokers' websites in light of such ethical concerns. Methods An exhaustive online search using multiple search engines and keywords was performed to compile a comprehensive directory of English-language Canadian medical tourism brokerage websites. These websites were examined using thematic content analysis, which included identifying informational themes, generating frequency counts of these themes, and comparing trends in these counts to the established literature. Results Seventeen websites were identified for inclusion in this study. It was found that Canadian medical tourism broker websites varied widely in scope, content, professionalism and depth of information. Three themes emerged from the thematic content analysis: training and accreditation, risk communication, and business dimensions. Third party accreditation bodies of debatable regulatory value were regularly mentioned on the reviewed websites, and discussion of surgical risk was absent on 47% of the websites reviewed, with limited discussion of risk on the remaining ones. Terminology describing brokers' roles was
Lisa A. Hark
Full Text Available Deficiencies in medical school nutrition education have been noted since the 1960s. Nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, and obesity, are now the most common, costly, and preventable health problems in the US. Training medical students to assess diet and nutritional status and advise patients about a healthy diet, exercise, body weight, smoking, and alcohol consumption are critical to reducing chronic disease risk. Barriers to improving medical school nutrition content include lack of faculty preparation, limited curricular time, and the absence of funding. Several new LCME standards provide important impetus for incorporating nutrition into existing medical school curriculum as self-directed material. Fortunately, with advances in technology, electronic learning platforms, and web-based modules, nutrition can be integrated and assessed across all four years of medical school at minimal costs to medical schools. Medical educators have access to a self-study nutrition textbook, Medical Nutrition and Disease, Nutrition in Medicine© online modules, and the NHLBI Nutrition Curriculum Guide for Training Physicians. This paper outlines how learner-directed nutrition content can be used to meet several US and Canadian LCME accreditation standards. The health of the nation depends upon future physicians’ ability to help their patients make diet and lifestyle changes.
Razali, S M
This study investigates the reasons for entry to medicine and the career perspectives of phase III medical students of the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The majority of the students were Malays from low socio-economic backgrounds who entered medical school after completing a 2-year matriculation course. An interest in medicine and helping people were the two main stated reasons for entry to medical school. A group of students wishing to work in private practice was identified. In comparison to the rest of the study body, students in the group were: not well prepared to enter medical school; dissatisfied with the course; and subject to family influences. A desire for monetary gain motivated their choice of medicine as a career. Overall, 13% of the students wished to change career because they were dissatisfied with their experience of medicine as undergraduates. The study did not find a significant difference in career intentions between female and male medical students. However, women were less likely to seek entrance into private practice or pursue formal postgraduate education. The choice of surgery as a career was confined to men. About 90% of the students had already decided on their future specialty. Four well-established specialties were their most popular choices. The gender of the students had no significant influences of the decision to continue into postgraduate education. The proportion of female students who wished to marry doctors was significantly higher than for male students. PMID:9217903
In contrast to conventional bremsstrahlung photon beam sources, laser backscatter photon sources at electron synchrotrons provide the capability to selectively tune photons to energies of interest. This feature, coupled with the ubiquitous giant dipole resonance excitations of atomic nuclei, promises a fertile method of nuclear isotope production. In this article, we present the results of simulations of production of the medical/industrial isotopes 196Au, 192Ir and 99Mo by (γ,n) reactions. We employ FLUKA Monte Carlo code along with the simulated photon flux for a beamline at the Canadian Light Source in conjunction with a CO2 laser system. -- Highlights: •We estimate production of medical isotopes by photo-neutron reaction. •Recently developed simulation code for generating laser backscattering photons at the CLS storage ring is described and used. •We describe the preliminary Monte Carlo simulations (using FLUKA code) for the production of 99Mo, 196Au and 192Ir isotopes. •The simulations demonstrate that the medical isotopes 99Mo, 192Ir and 196Au are the main products of photonuclear reaction on 100Mo, 193Ir and 197Au targets. •The present results agree with the evaluated and observed radioactive isotope production rates in RPIT experiment
Gropp, Kathleen; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William
Active transportation to school provides a means for youth to incorporate physical activity into their daily routines, and this has obvious benefits for child health. Studies of active transportation have rarely focused on the negative health effects in terms of injury. This cross-sectional study is based on the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. A sample of children aged 11–15 years (n=20 076) was studied. Multi-level logistic regression was used to examine ass...
Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder
Full Text Available Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sayeeda Rahman2, Urban JA D’Souza3, Gad Elbeheri4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, M Muzaherul Huq61,2Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 3School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; 4Centre for Child Evaluation and Teaching, Kuwait; 5College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Centre for Medical Education (CME, Mohakhali, Dhaka, BangladeshAbstract: Learning disabilities (LDs represent the largest group of disabilities in higher education (HE institutes, including medical schools, and the numbers are continuing to rise. The worrying concern is that two-thirds to half of these students with LDs remain undiagnosed when they start their undergraduate education and may even graduate without having their disabilities diagnosed. These students struggle with their academic abilities, receive poor grades and, as a result, develop lower perceptions of their intellectual abilities than do those students without LDs. All these ultimately hamper their professional practice, employment, and career progression. Appropriate and adequate educational policies, provisions, and practices help students to progress satisfactorily. In Asian countries, public and professional awareness about LDs is low, supportive provisions are limited, legislations are inadequate, data are scarce, and equal-opportunity/widening-participation policies are not implemented effectively in the HE sector. This article discusses the issues related to LDs in medical education and draws policy, provision, and practice implications to identify, assess, and support students with LDs in medical schools, particularly in an Asian context.Keywords: medical education, learning disabilities, dyslexia, Asia
Annane, Djillali; Annane, Frédérique
The plagiarism has become very common in universities and medical school. Undoubtedly, the easy access to a huge amount of electronic documents is one explanation for the increasing prevalence of plagiarism among students. While most of universities and medical school have clear statements and rules about plagiarism, available tools for the detection of plagiarism remain inefficient and dedicate training program for students and teachers too scarce. As lack of time is one reason for students to choose plagiarism, it should be one main target for educational programs. PMID:22739066
Chances are that many high school students would not know how to use drafting instruments, but some might want to gain competence in computer-assisted design (CAD) and possibly computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM). These students are often attracted to tech courses by the availability of CAD/CAM instructions, and many go on to impress employers…
Kaser, Linda; Halbert, Judy
Observations in many intermediate and secondary classrooms and interviews with learners indicate that many young people are under-engaged or disengaged with the learning opportunities in their schools. This disengagement of adolescent learners underlines the need for a shift from systems focused on sorting to systems passionate about deep…
Kablukov, А. А.; Strakhova, O. Р.
Legal training of medical workers is an urgent problem that must be solved in order to improve the comprehensive process of teaching students at the Ukrainian medical schools. An example of implementation the initial stage of legal training for medical students based on existing training programs, within existing departments is described in this article. The acquisition of the primary skills for students in fi nding and selecting the legal documents and the ability to navigate skillfully in t...
O'Neill, Lotte; Vonsild, Maria; Wallstedt, Birgitta;
students admitted via the two tracks between the years 2002-2007. Method: This prospective cohort study included 1074 medical students admitted between the years 2002-2007 to the University of Southern Denmark (USD) medical school. Of these, 454 were admitted by grade-based selection and 620 were selected...... (grade-based or attribute-based) had no statistically significant effect on the social diversity of medical students admitted to USD. Discussion: It may be a myth that attribute-based admission widens access and increases social diversity. To the contrary, there is evidence that combining grade...
Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A; Larouche, Richard
Previous research has found a link between active school transportation and bullying victimization among school-aged children. However, the link with other school travel modes (such as car, school bus, and public transportation) and bullying victimization is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between school travel mode and report of bullying victimization among Canadian middle and high school students. The sample consisted of 5065 students aged 11-20 years (mean age: 15.2±1.9 years; 56% females) who participated in the 2013 Ontario Students Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). Overall, 24.7% of students reported school bullying victimization in the past year. Females (27.2%) were more likely than males (22.3%) to be victims of school bullying (pbullying victimization among males, but not females. However, the use of public transportation to get to school was associated with lower odds of bullying victimization compared to active transportation among females only (OR=0.59; 95% CI=0.36-0.97). These findings suggest that school travel mode should be considered when considering risks for bullying victimization. Bullying prevention efforts should target school buses to make children's commute a safe and enjoyable experience. PMID:27376652
Elizabeth M. Altmaier
Full Text Available Introduction. Prospective medical school applicants use Internet websites to gain information about medical school interviews as well as to offer their experience in such interviews. This study examined applicants reported experiences of interviews and compared them to the purposes of the interview as purported by medical schools. Method. Content analysis of student feedback regarding medical school interviews at 161 medical schools was conducted for entries of over 4600 students applying to medical school who anonymously and voluntarily completed an online questionnaire. Results. Across all medical schools, nearly one half of all cited interview questions addressed non-cognitive characteristics of the applicants. Top ranked medical schools were reported to ask significantly more interpersonal and illegal questions and fewer academic/general knowledge questions than other medical schools. Lower ranked schools did not differ significantly in the types of questions reportedly asked applicants compared to other medical schools. Discussion. Medical school interviews are generally gathering types of information about applicants that admissions personnel identify as important in the admission decision. In addition to measuring interpersonal characteristics, medical school admissions interviews are assessing cognitive abilities and ethical decision-making. Sources on the Internet provide actual medical school interview questions to prospective students. This practice can help them gain an undue advantage in interviewing. Admissions committees and faculty who interview students may want to consider how best to obtain accurate and valid responses from applicants.
Zacharski, Susan; Kain, Carole A.; Fleming, Robin; Pontius, Deborah
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that school districts develop written medication administration policies and procedures that focus on safe and efficient medication administration at school by a registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse). Policies should include prescription…
The study of veterinary medicine is becoming increasingly important in the progress of human medicine, and as a consequence the literature of veterinary medicine is assuming increased importance in the libraries of schools of human medicine. In the past decade programs in comparative medicine have been initiated in many centers, reestablishing the linkage between veterinary and human medicine. Since 1966 the National Library of Medicine has assumed extra responsibilities in the collection and control of veterinary medical literature. increased indexing has thus far been the major result, with a resultant increase in the need to consult veterinary journals. Advances in the veterinary curriculum and continued veterinary education have also increased demand for veterinary publications. Such demand must be foreseen and met by medical school libraries if they are to fulfill their obligations to the scholarly medical community. PMID:5789821
Full Text Available Purpose: Mentoring is considered a valuable component of undergraduate medical education with a variety of programs at established medical schools. This study presents how new medical schools have set up mentoring programs as they have developed their curricula. Methods: Administrators from 14 US medical schools established since 2006 were surveyed regarding the structure and implementation of their mentoring programs. Results: The majority of new medical schools had mentoring programs that varied in structure and implementation. Although the programs were viewed as valuable at each institution, challenges when creating and implementing mentoring programs in new medical schools included time constraints for faculty and students, and lack of financial and professional incentives for faculty. Conclusions: Similar to established medical schools, there was little uniformity among mentoring programs at new medical schools, likely reflecting differences in curriculum and program goals. Outcome measures are needed to determine whether a best practice for mentoring can be established.
Dee, Cheryl R
An increasing number of medical school libraries offer chat service to provide immediate, high quality information at the time and point of need to students, faculty, staff, and health care professionals. Part 2 of Chat Reference Service in Medical Libraries presents a snapshot of the current trends in chat reference service in medical school libraries. In late 2002, 25 (21%) medical school libraries provided chat reference. Trends in chat reference services in medical school libraries were compiled from an exploration of medical school library Web sites and informal correspondence from medical school library personnel. Many medical libraries are actively investigating and planning new chat reference services, while others have decided not to pursue chat reference at this time. Anecdotal comments from medical school library staff provide insights into chat reference service. PMID:12723811
Jelley, R. Blake; Parkes, Michael A.; Rothstein, Mitchell G.
Purpose To examine the extent to which medical school interviewers consider perceptions of applicant personality traits during a semi-structured panel interview, the interrater reliability of assessments, and the impact of such perceptions on individual admission decisions. Method Semi-structured panel interviews were conducted with applicants to the Doctor of Medicine Program at the University of Western Ontario in London, Canada. Interviewers also provided voluntary, ?research only? ratings...
Purpose To examine the extent to which medical school interviewers consider perceptions of applicant personality traits during a semi-structured panel interview, the interrater reliability of assessments, and the impact of such perceptions on individual admission decisions. Method Semi-structured panel interviews were conducted with applicants to the Doctor of Medicine Program at the University of Western Ontario in London, Canada. Interviewers also provided voluntary, research only ratings o...
Howe, A.; Campion, P; J Searle; H. Smith
With the expansion in UK medical student numbers, four new medical schools have been established. The authors, all senior faculty members at these new schools at the time of writing, discuss how much the schools have in common in their approaches to medical education
Cole, Adam G; Leatherdale, Scott T
Background The use of alternative tobacco products (ATPs) has grown in popularity among Canadian youth. This study examined the association between a school-level characteristic (the senior student tobacco use rate) and the current use of manufactured cigarettes, little cigars or cigarillos, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT), and a hookah among junior students. Methods This study used nationally representative Canadian data from 29,495 students in grades 9 to 12 as par...
Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, Wiilliam Allan
The aim of this study is to compare Polish post-secondary vocational institutions with Canadian community colleges. The research concentrates upon programs in tourism and information technology delivered by the two following Polish schools: "Policealne Studium Zawodowe" (Cracow, Poland), Cracow School of Information Technology; and three Canadian…
Ghotra, Satvinder; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D.; Kirk, Sara F.L.
Background. School is an integral component of the life of a child, and thus quality of school life is an important part of the overall quality of life experienced by a child. There are a few instruments available to measure the quality of school life but they are often not available in English, or they are not appropriate for use alongside other instruments in a survey of young children. The Quality of Life in School (QoLS) instrument is a short, self-report measure to assess elementary school students’ perception of their quality of school life in four domains. The instrument was developed in Israel and has been validated among Hebrew-speaking children. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the QoLS measure in Canadian elementary school children. Methods. A total of 629 children attending grades 4–6 were recruited in a population-based cross-sectional study. The QoLS measure was administered to participating children by trained research assistants. In addition, their socio-demographic details and academic data were also obtained. The psychometric testing included exploratory factor analysis and reliability estimation using internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha). Construct validity was investigated using the known groups comparisons for discriminative validity and via convergent validity. Results. A four-factor structure was generated explaining 39% of the total variance in the model. The results showed good internal consistency and acceptable floor and ceiling effects. Cronbach’s Alpha ranged from 0.75 to 0.93. Known groups comparisons showed that the QoLS measure discriminated well between subgroups on the basis of gender, grade, and academic achievement, thus providing evidence of construct validity. The convergent validity was also appropriate with all the four domains demonstrating moderate to strong correlations to each other and to the total QoLS score. Conclusions. QoLS appears to be a valid and reliable
William Dean Watson; Kirsten Johnson Kramar
This article provides a sociological analysis of the discursive interpretations of the criminal law mitigation frameworks underpinning infanticide law in England and Canada. The passage of infanticide legislation by the Canadian Parliament in 1948 and 1955 is described. The account is contrasted with Tony Ward's analysis of the passage of English legislation in 1922 and 1938. The Canadian legislation of 1948 was based on the English Infanticide Act of 1922. Ward claims that his account shows ...
Manning, Phil R.; And Others
A group of community hospitals has been linked to the University of Southern California School of Medicine in a continuing medical education network. An educational development team based at the school helps community hospital physicians identify educational needs and develop responses using local and medical school experts as faculty. (Author/JMD)
Nair P; Barai I; Prasad S; Gadhvi K
Pooja Nair, Ishani Barai, Sunila Prasad, Karishma Gadhvi Department of Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: Guidelines in the UK require all doctors to actively take part in quality improvement. To ease future doctors into the process, formal quality improvement teaching can be delivered during medical school. Keywords: quality improvement, medical school, patient safety, patient satisfaction, medical student, clinical audit
Smith, G. C.; Powell, A.; Reynolds, K.; Campbell, C. A.
School medical records of 1000 children born in 1981 were studied retrospectively. They showed that once known medical problems and those screened for by the school nurse (hearing, vision, growth) were excluded, only 17 problems requiring treatment were discovered: speech (n = 10), development (n = 3), undescended testes (n = 3), and phimosis (n = 1). This indicates that routine screening by a nurse, backed up by selective medical examination by the school doctor, is efficient and effective.
Adams, Kelly M.; W. Scott Butsch; Martin Kohlmeier
Purpose. To assess the state of nutrition education at US medical schools and compare it with recommended instructional targets. Method. We surveyed all 133 US medical schools with a four-year curriculum about the extent and type of required nutrition education during the 2012/13 academic year. Results. Responses came from 121 institutions (91% response rate). Most US medical schools (86/121, 71%) fail to provide the recommended minimum 25 hours of nutrition education; 43 (36%) provide less t...
In contrast to the conventional bremsstrahlung photon beam sources, the laser back scatter photon sources at electron synchrotrons provide the selective tuning capability of photons of energies of interest. This feature coupled with the ubiquitous giant dipole resonance excitations of atomic nuclei promise a fertile ground of nuclear isotope productions. In this article, we present the results of simulations of production of medical/industrial isotopes 196Au, 192Ir and 99Mo by (γ,n) reactions. We employed FLUKA Monte Carlo code along with the simulated photon flux for a beamline at the Canadian Light Source in conjunction with a CO2 laser system. (author)
Ramey, David M.
In this article, the author examines how school- and district-level racial/ethnic and socioeconomic compositions influence schools' use of different types of criminalized and medicalized school discipline. Using a large data set containing information on over 60,000 schools in over 6,000 districts, the authors uses multilevel modeling and a…
Castillo, Manuel; Hawes, Gustavo; Castillo, Silvana; Romero, Luis; Rojas, Ana María; Espinoza, Mónica; Oyarzo, Sandra
This paper reports the reflections of a group of members of the University of Chile Faculty of Medicine, about the changes in teaching methods that medical schools should incorporate. In a complex scenario, not only new and better knowledge should be transmitted to students but also values, principles, critical reasoning and leadership, among others. In the first part, a proposal to understand this educational development in the context of complex universities, incorporating pedagogical skills and reviewing institutional leadership, is carried out. In the second part, the training of teaching physicians, as part of the changes, is extensively discussed. Physicians hired as academics in the University should have the opportunity to work mainly as teachers and be relieved of research obligations. For them, teaching should become a legitimate area of academic development. PMID:25424678
Farooq, Kitty; Lydall, Gregory J; Bhugra, Dinesh
Potential psychiatrists decide on their careers before, during or after medical school. This article summarises the literature focusing on the first two groups. Pre-medical school factors associated with choosing psychiatry include gender, academic aptitude, ethnicity and migration, exposure to mental illness, economic considerations and medical school route and selection. Factors involved in influencing career choice at medical school level include attitudes towards psychiatry, teaching methods, quality and length of clinical exposure, electives and enrichment activities, and personality factors. Considering these factors may improve recruitment to psychiatry and address shortages in the speciality. PMID:24032490
Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep
Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21; problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10, e-learning at 3% (n = 1, and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4. In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions are favoured (89%, n = 31, partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11. Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10 or oral examinations (17%, n = 6. Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard
Leonard A Cole
Full Text Available Terror medicine, a field related to emergency and disaster medicine, focuses on medical issues ranging from preparedness to psychological manifestations specifically associated with terrorist attacks. Calls to teach aspects of the subject in American medical schools surged after the 2001 jetliner and anthrax attacks. Although the threat of terrorism persists, terror medicine is still addressed erratically if at all in most medical schools. This paper suggests a template for incorporating the subject throughout a 4-year medical curriculum. The instructional framework culminates in a short course for fourth year students, such as one recently introduced at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ. The proposed 4-year Rutgers curriculum serves as a model that could assist other medical schools contemplating the inclusion of terror medicine in pre-clerkship and clerkship training.
Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Slappendel, G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Borleffs, J.C.C.
CONTEXT: Sexual harassment of medical students has been the focus of many international studies. Prevalence rates from 18% to over 60% have been reported. However, a Dutch study at Nijmegen Medical School found the prevalence rate to be lower (13.3% in the total group; 20% among female students only). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify whether Nijmegen constitutes a positive sample of Dutch medical schools or whether incidents of sexual harassment are less prevalent in the Netherlands than else...
de Oliveira Vidal, Edison Iglesias; Silva, Vanessa dos Santos; dos Santos, Maria Fernanda; Jacinto, Alessandro Ferrari; Boas, Paulo José Fortes Villas; Fukushima, Fernanda Bono
The exposure to unethical and unprofessional behavior is thought to play a major role in the declining empathy experienced by medical students during their training. We reflect on the reasons why medical schools are tolerant of unethical behavior of faculty. First, there are barriers to reporting unprofessional behavior within medical schools including fear of retaliation and lack of mechanisms to ensure anonymity. Second, deans and directors do not want to look for unethical behavior in thei...
Adams, Krystyna Aleksandra
Medical tourists, persons traveling across international borders with the intention of accessing medical care, are often unaware of safety and ethical concerns related to the practice of medical tourism. Accessing medical care as a medical tourist may result in risks to the health of the patient, as well as negative impacts to both destination and departure country health care systems and global health equity. These ethical considerations are not provided in sources of information commonly ac...
Diekema, Daniel J.; And Others
A survey of student affairs deans at 108 medical schools found most schools required hepatitis vaccination, evidence of immunity, or waiver refusing vaccination. Nearly all required health insurance, and usually offered a plan, but fewer offered disability insurance. Schools often held students responsible for costs of vaccination, serologic…
Brennen, P W; Blackwelder, M B; Kirkali, M
This paper gives a brief overview of medical education in Turkey and shows the impact of established social, educational, and economic patterns upon current medical library services. Current statistical information is given on the twenty-two medical school libraries in Turkey. Principal problems and chief accomplishments with library services are highlighted and discussed. PMID:3676535
Stegers-Jager, Karen M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P. N.
Medical Education 2012: 46:678688 Context Medical schools wish to better understand why some students excel academically and others have difficulty in passing medical courses. Components of self-regulated learning (SRL), such as motivational beliefs and learning strategies, as well as participation
Brennen, P W; Blackwelder, M B; Kirkali, M
This paper gives a brief overview of medical education in Turkey and shows the impact of established social, educational, and economic patterns upon current medical library services. Current statistical information is given on the twenty-two medical school libraries in Turkey. Principal problems and chief accomplishments with library services are highlighted and discussed.
The purpose of this study was to clarify actual conditions and problems in medical information education and to propose the educational concept to be adopted in medical information. A questionnaire survey was carried out by the anonymous method in June 2008. The survey was intended for 40 radiological technology schools. The questionnaire items were as follows: educational environment in medical information education, content of a lecture in medical information, problems in medical information education. The response rate was 55.0% (22 schools). Half of the responding schools had a laboratory on medical information. Seventeen schools had a medical information education facility, and out of them, approximately 50% had an educational medical information system. The main problems of the medical information education were as follows: motivation of the students is low, the educational coverage and level for medical information are uncertain, there are not an appropriate textbook and educational guidance. In conclusion, these findings suggest that it is necessary to have a vision of medical information education in the education of radiological technologists. (author)
Miller, Lynn E; Weiss, Richard M
Abraham Flexner's 1910 exposé on medical education recommended that only two of the seven extant medical schools for blacks be preserved and that they should train their students to "serve their people humbly" as "sanitarians." Addressing charges of racism, this article traces the roots of the recommendation that blacks serve a limited professional role to the schools themselves and presents evidence that, in endorsing the continuance of Howard's and Meharry's medical programs, Flexner exhibited greater leniency than he had toward comparable schools for white students. Whether his recommendations to eliminate the other five schools were key factors in their extinction is addressed here by examining 1901-30 enrollment patterns. Those patterns suggest that actions of the American Medical Association and state licensing boards, combined with the broader problem of limited premedical educational opportunities for blacks, were more consequential than was the Flexner report both for the extinction of the schools and for the curtailed production of black doctors. PMID:21296769
BRANDON, A N
Factors to consider in determining the type of new medical school library include geographical location, proximity of general library facilities, and financial support. The librarian should be directly responsible to the dean of the medical school, have faculty status, and be a member of the administrative council. Five professional librarians and five clerical workers plus part-time help are necessary to initiate a well-organized library. The basic collection for a medical research library will cost approximately $500,000, and an annual operating budget should be about $103,000. Selection of journal titles for subscription is the first major consideration; the second is the selection of basic, standard monographs. Immediate public service functions include meeting the needs of the new incoming faculty, aiding in the recruitment of faculty, and establishing good rapport with the local medical community. The librarian of a new medical school library must be a leader in every respect of medical librarianship. PMID:14119291
Alfayez, S F; Strand, D A; Carline, J D
Studies of medical student performance have focused on various factors, including premedical academics, maturity, familial background and support, and personal experiences with illness. Most studies have been conducted in countries with highly developed educational systems and similar cultural and social systems. It is not clear that these findings can be applied to developing countries, where the educational and cultural experiences may be very different, and where medical instruction is carried out in a non-native language. Information was obtained from a survey of 153 fifth- and sixth-year medical students at King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia. The survey measured premedical educational, social and cultural experiences that might affect medical school performance. Men performed as well as women in the medical school despite heavy familial and social commitments. Women's performance seems to be more influenced by changes in living environment. Achievement in premedical years was correlated positively with grade performance in medical school. Competence in the high-school English courses was related to medical school performance. Interest in the study of medicine prior to medical school was not related to performance. Other motivations, such as social gains, financial benefits or family wish, were related to lower performance. Current interest in clinical medicine correlated negatively with performance. Students motivated by the presence of chronic ill health in their families performed significantly lower. Factors influencing medical school performance in developed countries had similar impact on medical students in a developing country. Social factors, unique to the country, also play a role in medical student performance. PMID:2355866
Bell, Alan D; Gross, Peter; Heffernan, Michael; Deschaintre, Yan; Roux, Jean-Francois; Purdham, Daniel M; Shuaib, Ashfaq
This national chart audit of 7,019 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) from 735 primary care physician practices sought to examine the management of Canadian patients with AF through an evidence-based, guideline-recommended approach. The appropriate use of oral anticoagulants (OACs) in this patient population and the potential factors guiding OAC choice were examined. Suboptimal dosing was seen. In patients on warfarin, 30.9% had not achieved a time in therapeutic range (TTR) in excess of 65% and, despite current Canadian guideline recommendations, were continued on warfarin rather than one of the novel OACs. In patients who received no antithrombotic therapy, 65.5% met criteria for treatment with an OAC. In addition, 62.8% of patients who were treated with acetylsalicylic acid monotherapy met guideline criteria for the use of an OAC. In those patients treated with an OAC, 24.8% were not on the recommended dose based on the product monograph or, if on warfarin, had a TTR compliance concerns, and lack of provincial reimbursement. In conclusion, significant correctable gaps remain in optimal treatment for stroke prevention in AF. PMID:26879070
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa suffers a disproportionate share of the world's burden of disease while having some of the world's greatest health care workforce shortages. Doctors are an important component of any high functioning health care system. However, efforts to strengthen the doctor workforce in the region have been limited by a small number of medical schools with limited enrolments, international migration of graduates, poor geographic distribution of doctors, and insufficient data on medical schools. The goal of the Sub-Saharan African Medical Schools Study (SAMSS is to increase the level of understanding and expand the baseline data on medical schools in the region. Methods The SAMSS survey is a descriptive survey study of Sub-Saharan African medical schools. The survey instrument included quantitative and qualitative questions focused on institutional characteristics, student profiles, curricula, post-graduate medical education, teaching staff, resources, barriers to capacity expansion, educational innovations, and external relationships with government and non-governmental organizations. Surveys were sent via e-mail to medical school deans or officials designated by the dean. Analysis is both descriptive and multivariable. Results Surveys were distributed to 146 medical schools in 40 of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. One hundred and five responses were received (72% response rate. An additional 23 schools were identified after the close of the survey period. Fifty-eight respondents have been founded since 1990, including 22 private schools. Enrolments for medical schools range from 2 to 1800 and graduates range from 4 to 384. Seventy-three percent of respondents (n = 64 increased first year enrolments in the past five years. On average, 26% of respondents' graduates were reported to migrate out of the country within five years of graduation (n = 68. The most significant reported barriers to increasing the number of
Full Text Available The voice of youth is crucial to advancing solutions that contribute to effective strategies to improve youth health outcomes. The problem, however, is that youth/student voices are often overlooked, and stakeholders typically engage in decision-making without involving youth. The burden of chronic disease is increasing worldwide, and in Canada chronic disease accounts for 89 per cent of deaths. However, currently, youth spend less time being physically active while engaging in more unhealthy eating behaviours than ever before. High rates of unhealthy behaviours such as physical inactivity, unhealthy eating and tobacco use are putting Canadian youth at risk of health problems such as increased levels of overweight and obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Focus group methodology was utilised to conduct 7 focus groups with 50 students in grades 7–12 from schools in Prince Edward Island, Canada. The key themes that emerged included: (1 youth health issues such as lack of opportunities to be physically active, cost and quality of healthy food options, and bullying; (2 facilitators and barriers to health promotion, including positive peer and adult role models, positive relationships with adults and competitiveness of school sports; and (3 lack of student voice. Our findings suggest that actively engaging youth provides opportunities to understand youth perspectives on how to encourage them to make healthy choices and engage in healthy behaviours. Attention needs to be paid to inclusive knowledge exchange practices that value and integrate youth perspectives and ideas as a basis for building health promotion actions and interventions. Keywords: knowledge exchange, youth health, youth engagement
Malik Samina; Hasan Shahid; Shah Mohsin; Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T
Abstract Background Recently there is a growing concern about stress during undergraduate medical training. However, studies about the same are lacking from Pakistani medical schools. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress, sources of stress and their severity and to assess the determinants of stressed cases. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among undergraduate medical students of CMH Lahore Medical College, Pakistan during January to ...
Batistatou, A; Doulis, E A; Tiniakos, D.; Anogiannaki, A; Charalabopoulos, K
Background and Aim: Medical humanities is a multidisciplinary field, consisting of humanities (theory of literature and arts, philosophy, ethics, history and theology), social sciences (anthropology, psychology and sociology) and arts (literature, theater, cinema, music and visual arts), integrated in the undergraduate curriculum of Medical schools. The aim of the present study is to discuss medical humanities and support the necessity of introduction of a medical humanities course in the cur...
Full Text Available Research over the past two decades has amply demonstrated the importance of literature to the formation of both regional and national cultural identity, particularly in the face of mass market globalization of children’s book publishing in the 21st century as well as the predominance of non-Canadian content from television, movies, books, magazines and internet media. However, Canadian children appear to have only very limited exposure to Canadian authors and illustrators. In Atlantic Canada, regional Atlantic Canadian authors and illustrators for children receive very limited critical attention, and resources for the study and teaching of Atlantic Canadian children’s literature are few. Print and digital information sources on regional children’s books, publishing, authors and illustrators are scattered and inconsistent in quality and currency. This research project directly addresses these key concerns by summarizing the findings of a survey of Atlantic Canadian teachers on their use of regional books. In response to survey findings, the paper concludes by describing the creation of the Sea Stacks Project an authoritative web-delivered information resource devoted to contemporary Atlantic Canadian literature for children and teens.
This presentation describes a dual purpose research facility at the University of Saskatchewan for Canada for the production of medical isotopes and neutrons for scientific research. The proposed research reactor is intended to supply most of Canada's medical isotope requirements and provide a neutron source for Canada's research community. Scientific research would include materials research, biomedical research and imaging.
Erhan Yengil; Cengiz Çevik2; Gökhan Demirkıran1; et al.
Objective: The aim of this study was to observe smoking and nicotine addiction status and of medical school students and to establish relating factors. Methods: A questionnaire was applied to students who were in Mustafa Kemal University Medical School in 2013-2014 semesters about smoking behavior, age of onset, thought of quitting, attitudes against, nicotine addiction, use of alcohol and other drugs. Results: Of the 712 students 54.5% (388) were male, while 45.5% (324) were female a...
O’Brien, Bridget C.; Brian Niehaus; Arianne Teherani; Young, John Q
Objectives: To characterize junior residents' perspectives on the purpose, value, and potential improvement of the final year of medical school. Methods: Eighteen interviews were conducted with junior residents who graduated from nine different medical schools and who were in internal medicine, surgery, and psychiatry programs at one institution in the United States. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed inductively for themes. Results: Participants' descriptions of the purpose of the...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical tourism describes the private purchase and arrangement of medical care by patients across international borders. Increasing numbers of medical facilities in countries around the world are marketing their services to a receptive audience of international patients, a phenomenon that has largely been made possible by the growth of the Internet. The growth of the medical tourism industry has raised numerous concerns around patient safety and global health equity. In spite of these concerns, there is a lack of empirical research amongst medical tourism stakeholders. One such gap is a lack of engagement with medical tourists themselves, where there is currently little known about how medical tourists decide to access care abroad. We address this gap through examining aspects of Canadian medical tourists’ decision-making processes. Methods Semi-structured phone interviews were administered to 32 Canadians who had gone abroad as medical tourists. Interviews touched on motivations, assessment of risks, information seeking processes, and experiences at home and abroad. A thematic analysis of the interview transcripts followed. Results Three overarching themes emerged from the interviews: (1 information sources consulted; (2 motivations, considerations, and timing; and (3 personal and professional supports drawn upon. Patient testimonials and word of mouth connections amongst former medical tourists were accessed and relied upon more readily than the advice of family physicians. Neutral, third-party information sources were limited, which resulted in participants also relying on medical tourism facilitators and industry websites. Conclusions While Canadian medical tourists are often thought to be motivated by wait times for surgery, cost and availability of procedures were common primary and secondary motivations for participants, demonstrating that motivations are layered and dynamic. The findings of this analysis offer a
Kelly M. Adams
Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the state of nutrition education at US medical schools and compare it with recommended instructional targets. Method. We surveyed all 133 US medical schools with a four-year curriculum about the extent and type of required nutrition education during the 2012/13 academic year. Results. Responses came from 121 institutions (91% response rate. Most US medical schools (86/121, 71% fail to provide the recommended minimum 25 hours of nutrition education; 43 (36% provide less than half that much. Nutrition instruction is still largely confined to preclinical courses, with an average of 14.3 hours occurring in this context. Less than half of all schools report teaching any nutrition in clinical practice; practice accounts for an average of only 4.7 hours overall. Seven of the 8 schools reporting at least 40 hours of nutrition instruction provided integrated courses together with clinical practice sessions. Conclusions. Many US medical schools still fail to prepare future physicians for everyday nutrition challenges in clinical practice. It cannot be a realistic expectation for physicians to effectively address obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hospital malnutrition, and many other conditions as long as they are not taught during medical school and residency training how to recognize and treat the nutritional root causes.
Grace, Andre P.; Wells, Kristopher
This paper considers how three Canadian high-school students--Ryan, Jeremy, and Bruce--engaged in queer critical praxis intended to free lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans-identified, and queer (LGBTQ) students from the silence, exclusion, and symbolic and physical violence that heterosexism and homophobia provoke in schools. We, the authors, construct…
Evans, Leonard,; And Others
Presents the history and background for the use of computers in medical education at the Norris Medical School at the University of Southern California. Describes the current computer facilities and how computer-based learning is incorporated into the curriculum. (PR)
Eastaugh, Steven R.
The value of a uniform program of financial assistance to medical education and research is questioned. Medical schools have an uneven ability to compensate for declining federal capitation and research grants. Financial-ratio analysis and cluster analysis are utilized to suggest four adaptive responses to future financial pressures. (Author/MLW)
Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Slappendel, G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Borleffs, J.C.C.
CONTEXT: Sexual harassment of medical students has been the focus of many international studies. Prevalence rates from 18% to over 60% have been reported. However, a Dutch study at Nijmegen Medical School found the prevalence rate to be lower (13.3% in the total group; 20% among female students only
Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Slappendel, G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Borleffs, J.C.C.
Context Sexual harassment of medical students has been the focus of many international studies. Prevalence rates from 18% to over 60% have been reported. However, a Dutch study at Nijmegen Medical School found the prevalence rate to be lower (13.3% in the total group; 20% among female students only)
Csaky, T. Z.
Rudolf Buchheim's thesis on why and how to teach pharmacology to medical students is reexamined in view of the so-called identity crisis. It is suggested that the crisis is not one of identity but one of acceptance of medical school pharmacology by clinical colleagues and professional educators. (LBH)
Smith, Stephen R.
A study of 406 Brown University (Rhode Island) medical students found slightly over half had undergraduate majors in science or mathematics, a third majored in the humanities or social sciences, and a tenth had double majors or independent concentrations. No statistically significant difference was found between medical school performances of the…
Lehoux, P; Hivon, M; Williams-Jones, B; Miller, F A; Urbach, D R
While every health care system stakeholder would seem to be concerned with obtaining the greatest value from a given technology, there is often a disconnect in the perception of value between a technology's promoters and those responsible for the ultimate decision as to whether or not to pay for it. Adopting an empirical ethics approach, this paper examines how five Canadian medical device manufacturers, via their websites, frame the corporate "value proposition" of their innovation and seek to respond to what they consider the key expectations of their customers. Our analysis shows that the manufacturers' framing strategies combine claims that relate to valuable socio-technical goals and features such as prevention, efficiency, sense of security, real-time feedback, ease of use and flexibility, all elements that likely resonate with a large spectrum of health care system stakeholders. The websites do not describe, however, how the innovations may impact health care delivery and tend to obfuscate the decisional trade-offs these innovations represent from a health care system perspective. Such framing strategies, we argue, tend to bolster physicians' and patients' expectations and provide a large set of stakeholders with powerful rhetorical tools that may influence the health policy arena. Because these strategies are difficult to counter given the paucity of evidence and its limited use in policymaking, establishing sound collective health care priorities will require solid critiques of how certain kinds of medical devices may provide a better (i.e., more valuable) response to health care needs when compared to others. PMID:21290189
de Oliveira Vidal, Edison Iglesias; Silva, Vanessa Dos Santos; Santos, Maria Fernanda Dos; Jacinto, Alessandro Ferrari; Boas, Paulo José Fortes Villas; Fukushima, Fernanda Bono
The exposure to unethical and unprofessional behavior is thought to play a major role in the declining empathy experienced by medical students during their training. We reflect on the reasons why medical schools are tolerant of unethical behavior of faculty. First, there are barriers to reporting unprofessional behavior within medical schools including fear of retaliation and lack of mechanisms to ensure anonymity. Second, deans and directors do not want to look for unethical behavior in their colleagues. Third, most of us have learned to take disrespectful circumstances in health care institutions for granted. Fourth, the accreditation of medical schools around the world does not usually cover the processes or outcomes associated with fostering ethical behavior in students. Several initiatives promise to change that picture. PMID:25755040
Full Text Available Background: Matriculation of international students to United States’ (US medical schools has not mirrored the remarkable influx of these students to other US institutions of higher education. Methods: While these students’ numbers are on the rise, the visibility for their unique issues remains largely ignored in the medical literature. Results: These students are disadvantaged in the medical school admissions process due to financial and immigration-related concerns, and academic standards for admittance also continue to be significantly higher compared with their US-citizen peers. Furthermore, it is simply beyond the mission of many medical schools – both public and private – to support international students’ education, especially since federal, state-allocated or institutional funds are limited and these institutions have a commitment to fulfill the healthcare education needs of qualified domestic candidates. In spite of these obstacles, a select group of international students do gain admission to US medical schools and, upon graduation, are credentialed equally as their US-citizen counterparts by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME. However, owing to their foreign citizenship, these students have visa requirements for post-graduate training that may adversely impact their candidacy for residency placement. Conclusion: By raising such issues, this article aims to increase the awareness of considerations pertinent to this unique population of medical students. The argument is also made to support continued recruitment of international students to US medical schools in spite of these impediments. In our experience, these students are not only qualified to tackle the rigors of a US medical education, but also enrich the cultural diversity of the medical student body. Moreover, these graduates could effectively complement the efforts to augment US physician workforce diversity while contributing to
Jacque, Berri; Malanson, Katherine; Bateman, Kathleen; Akeson, Bob; Cail, Amanda; Doss, Chris; Dugan, Matt; Finegold, Brandon; Gauthier, Aimee; Galego, Mike; Roundtree, Eugene; Spezzano, Lawrence; Meiri, Karina F
Medical schools, although the gatekeepers of much biomedical education and research, rarely engage formally with K-12 educators to influence curriculum content or professional development. This segregation of content experts from teachers creates a knowledge gap that limits inclusion of current biomedical science into high school curricula, impacting both public health literacy and the biomedical pipeline. The authors describe how, in 2009, scientists from Tufts Medical School and Boston publ...
Durkin, Shane R.; Bascomb, Angela; Turnbull, Deborah; Marley, John
A survey of 163 senior medical students attending a South Australian medical school found that rural students were more likely than urban students to experience stress; be concerned about getting a provider number (license); feel that consultants had little time for them; have made the decision to study medicine without pressure from others; and…
Background Physicians treating patients in the vegetative state (VS) must deal with uncertainty in diagnosis and prognosis, as well as ethical issues. We examined whether physicians’ attitudes toward medical and ethical challenges vary across two national medical practice settings. Methods A comparative survey was conducted among German and Canadian specialty physicians, based on a case vignette about the VS. Similarities and differences of participants’ attitudes toward medical and ethical challenges between the two samples were analyzed with non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney-U-Test). Results The overall response rate was 13.4%. Eighty percent of all participants correctly applied the diagnostic category of VS with no significant differences between countries. Many of the participants who chose the correct diagnosis of VS attributed capabilities to the patient, particularly the ability to feel pain (70%), touch (51%) and to experience hunger and thirst (35%). A large majority of participants (94%) considered the limitation of life-sustaining treatment (LST) under certain circumstances, but more Canadian participants were in favor of always limiting LST (32% vs. 12%; Chi-square: p < 0.001). Finding long-term care placement was considered more challenging by Canadian participants whereas discontinuing LST was much more challenging for German participants. Conclusions Differences were found between two national medical practice settings with respect to physicians’ experiences and attitudes about treatment limitation about VS in spite of comparable diagnostic knowledge. PMID:24898329
Objective: This study aimed to determine the differences in medical students’ perceptions on the organizational culture at a Military Medical School and to reveal possible explanations of them. Method: A total of 205 1st, 2nd, and 6th grade military medical students were invited and 185 of them (coverage rate 90%) participated in the study in 2008. The organizational culture measurement tool previously developed by Turkish researchers was used to determine the perceptions of the students. Rel...
Matthies, Herbert K.
Full Text Available In the recent years various multimedia learning modules were developed at the Hannover Medical School. So, for example the web-based content management system Schoolbook is used to collect medical cases for education. It enables authors to present their specialised knowledge in the World Wide Web without the need to be familiar with internet technologies. The System provides access to several sources of medical knowledge and is used as an elearning platform for different medical departments. Furthermore it was established in combination with the learning management system ILIAS which contains web-based learning units as well as self-tests (multiple choice with direct feedback.
Peabody, J W
This article calls for medical schools to use a new set of standards to gauge how well they contribute to social welfare. Because medical schools receive public funding and are given the authority to certify that providers are sufficiently trained, they incur an obligation to be socially responsible. In addition to setting and using higher standards, medical schools should call on their credibility and use their scientific expertise to find new policies that promote social welfare. In particular, they should do research on socially oriented policies and participate more actively in debates about health sector reform. Although societies vary and have different values, most countries and peoples probably share the following social objectives: They want to use limited public and private resources rationally to produce the best possible health, they do not want individuals or groups to suffer, and they want to protect people against catastrophic illness and associated financial losses. Although new standards are needed, medical schools should be encouraged to continue producing technically sophisticated providers and conducting high-level basic and clinical research. Available evidence suggests that medical schools can further contribute to the three social objectives noted above by increasing the intensity and relevancy of primary care training, expanding the curriculum beyond its biomedical focus, encouraging research in health services, and assessing the effectiveness of social policy in improving the health of the population. PMID:10495745
Obrien, Bridget; Niehaus, Brian; Teherani, Arianne; Young, John Q.
Objectives To characterize junior residents’ perspectives on the purpose, value, and potential improvement of the final year of medical school. Methods Eighteen interviews were conducted with junior residents who graduated from nine different medical schools and who were in internal medicine, surgery, and psychiatry programs at one institution in the United States. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed inductively for themes. Results Participants’ descriptions of the purpose of their recently completed final year of medical school contained three primary themes: residency-related purposes, interest- or need-based purposes, and transitional purposes. Participants commented on the most valued aspects of the final year. Themes included opportunities to: prepare for residency; assume a higher level of responsibility in patient care; pursue experiences of interest that added breadth of knowledge, skills and perspective; develop and/or clarify career plans; and enjoy a period of respite. Suggestions for improvement included enhancing the learning value of clinical electives, augmenting specific curricular content, and making the final year more purposeful and better aligned with career goals. Conclusions The final year of medical school is a critical part of medical education for most learners, but careful attention is needed to ensure that the year is developmentally robust. Medical educators can facilitate this by creating structures to help students define personal and professional goals, identify opportunities to work toward these goals, and monitor progress so that the value of the final year is optimized and not exclusively focused on residency preparation.
Bridget C. O’Brien
Full Text Available Objectives: To characterize junior residents' perspectives on the purpose, value, and potential improvement of the final year of medical school. Methods: Eighteen interviews were conducted with junior residents who graduated from nine different medical schools and who were in internal medicine, surgery, and psychiatry programs at one institution in the United States. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed inductively for themes. Results: Participants' descriptions of the purpose of their recently completed final year of medical school contained three primary themes: residency-related purposes, interest- or need-based purposes, and transitional purposes. Participants commented on the most valued aspects of the final year. Themes included opportunities to: prepare for residency; assume a higher level of responsibility in patient care; pursue experiences of interest that added breadth of knowledge, skills and perspective; develop and/or clarify career plans; and enjoy a period of respite. Suggestions for improvement included enhancing the learning value of clinical electives, augmenting specific curricular content, and making the final year more purposeful and better aligned with career goals. Conclusions: The final year of medical school is a critical part of medical education for most learners, but careful attention is needed to ensure that the year is developmentally robust. Medical educators can facilitate this by creating structures to help students define personal and professional goals, identify opportunities to work toward these goals, and monitor progress so that the value of the final year is optimized and not exclusively focused on residency preparation.
Full Text Available Background: The Medical Council of Canada and most Canadian residency programs require international medical graduates seeking training in Canada to pass the Medical Council of Canada Entrance Examination, in addition to the newly established National Collaborative Assessment. In order to facilitate this additional examination, the Medical Council of Canada has altered the suggested examination timeline and examination eligibility criteria. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was sent via an online survey tool to members of the North American Irish Medical Student Association. The survey aimed to elicit differences in the Medical Council of Canada Entrance Examination experience between two cohorts of Canadians studying abroad in Ireland: those who completed the examination before and after the new timeline. Statistical analysis was conducted with independent t-tests and Pearson’s Chi-Square tests using SPSS version 21. Results: Of 24 respondents, 13 had completed the examination after the timeline change. Participants who attended the examination prior to the change achieved higher results (353.8 ± 56.5 than participants who attended the examination after the change (342.3 ± 35.1, although not statistically significant (p=0.56. In the cohort who took the examination after the timeline change, 61.5% of participants expressed discontent with their examination results; 84.6% ‘strongly agreed’ or ‘agreed’ to feeling disadvantaged due to the change. Conclusion: The new Medical Council of Canada examination timeline has had an impact on the examination experience of Canadians studying in Ireland. Simple modifications to the current timeline are warranted to reduce unnecessary disadvantage for this cohort of students applying to postgraduate training in Canada.
Boycott, Kym; Hartley, Taila; Adam, Shelin; Bernier, Francois; Chong, Karen; Fernandez, Bridget A.; Friedman, Jan M.; Geraghty, Michael T.; Hume, Stacey; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Laberge, Anne-Marie; Majewski, Jacek; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Meyn, M Stephen; Michaud, Jacques L.
Purpose and scope The aim of this Position Statement is to provide recommendations for Canadian medical geneticists, clinical laboratory geneticists, genetic counsellors and other physicians regarding the use of genome-wide sequencing of germline DNA in the context of clinical genetic diagnosis. This statement has been developed to facilitate the clinical translation and development of best practices for clinical genome-wide sequencing for genetic diagnosis of monogenic diseases in Canada; it...
Kelly, Jeffrey A.; And Others
An effort to teach medical students practical stress management skills is discussed. A group of students volunteered to participate in a six-session program that taught them personal stress management techniques including self-relaxation training, schedule-planning, priority-setting, leisure time-planning, and cognitive modification techniques.…
This article examines the representation of conflict, diversity, peace, and justice issues in selected mandated curriculum guidelines, grades 1-10, for three Canadian provinces. These curricula, grounded in prevailing assumptions, reflect political will and influence resource availability for teaching. Prominent among them is a neutral discourse…
Childs, B.; Huether, C A; Murphy, E.A.
Information about instruction in genetics was obtained fron 103 of the 107 U.S. four-year medical schools. Seventy-two percent of the schools provide a compulsory course in genetics, but there was great variation in duration, content, departmental responsibility for giving the course, and in the disciplines of those doing the teaching. The variability in the number of hours devoted to teaching genetics was reflected in the competence of the students in giving correct answers to questions on g...
Vinod P; Ramnarayan K; Abraham Reem; Torke Sharmila
Abstract Background Learning environment in any medical school is found to be important in determining students' academic success. This study was undertaken to compare the perceptions of first year and clinical phase students regarding the learning environment at Melaka Manipal Medical College (MMMC) (Manipal Campus) and also to identify the gender wise differences in their perceptions. Methods In the present study, the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) inventory was used. DR...
Kang, Jin Oh; Park, Seo Hyun
Objectives This research was intended to analyze the special characteristics and structure of social networks among Korean medical schools for the purpose of providing knowledge regarding medical field structure, dynamics, and potential paradigm development. Methods A collaborative 12-year data set of 35,469 published articles in the SCOPUS® database was analyzed. Among ISI subcategories, 61 having more than 20 articles were scrutinized. Following identification of correspondence and co-autho...
Dacey, Marie L.; Kennedy, Mary A.; Polak, Rani; Edward M Phillips
Background: Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA), few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools.Methods: The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for art...
The pursuit of lower costs and greater efficiency in Canada's health care sector has led some governments and health care institutions to consider multiskilled workers as an option in health care reform and organizational restructuring. Multiskilled practitioners perform more than one main function, often in more than one discipline. This article explores various aspects of multiskilling and how it could affect, or already is affecting, medical radiation technologists and other allied health professionals. It discusses key issues and implications of multiskilling for governments, employers, educational institutions, professional associations, health care professionals, and patients. The article is based on a report released to members for discussion at the 53rd CAMRT Annual General Meeting. Copies of the full report are available on request from: CAMRT, Suite 601, 294 Albert St., Ottawa, ON K1P 6E6. Or, fax your request to: (613) 234-1097. PMID:10145068
Cookson, Peter W., Jr.
Raises issues concerning boarding schools in response to Jean Barman's critique of "Boarding Schools and the Moral Community." (See JC 502 949 and JC 502 950). Discusses influences on the boarding school tradition, the liberal orientation of parents of boarding school students, boarding school purposes, and the variation that exists among boarding…
Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor’s degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures ...
The author maintains that the quality of medical education has been dropping for the last few decades as medical schools become less and less focused on their primary purpose of training physicians. Until the years immediately following World War II, the administration of the medical school was carried out by a small staff headed by a dean whose role was to provide leadership in educational matters. Academic departments managed the educational program, and the faculty were expected to be teachers and to participate in educational planning, preparation of teaching materials, advising of students, assessment of students' performances, admission, and all other tasks associated with having a teaching position. Today, the administration of a typical school includes any number of assistants to the dean and a wide variety of other staff dealing not only with educational functions but with grant management, public relations, fund-raising, personnel policy, budgeting, and an enormous and complex parallel structure designed to manage clinical practice and to respond to market pressures. The role of faculty has also changed greatly; faculty are expected to be researchers and clinicians first, and teaching is usually shortchanged. The author explains why he believes these changes have come about; for example, the strong federal support of research after World War II, which encouraged a growing dependence of medical schools on research grants and consequently raised in importance those faculty who could obtain such grants. He concludes with common-sense proposals for reform (such as having the education of medical students in the hands of a small number of faculty whose prime responsibility is teaching), but admits that there are fundamental barriers to such reforms, especially vested interests and resistance to change. In the end, change will come only when those in power recognize that medical schools must be returned to their primary role of training physicians. PMID:8645396
Journal of School Nursing, 2004
Many children who take medications require them during the school day. This policy statement is designed to guide prescribing physicians as well as school administrators and health staff on the administration of medications to children at school. The statement addresses over-the-counter products, herbal medications, experimental drugs that are…
Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi
The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351
Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi
The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351
Crooks, Valorie A.; Li, Neville; Snyder, Jeremy; Dharamsi, Shafik; Benjaminy, Shelly; Jacob, Karen J.; Illes, Judy
Background Recent trends document growth in medical tourism, the private pursuit of medical interventions abroad. Medical tourism introduces challenges to decision-making that impact and are impacted by the physician-patient trust relationship—a relationship on which the foundation of beneficent health care lies. The objective of the study is to examine the views of Canadian family physicians about the roles that trust plays in decision-making about medical tourism, and the impact of medical ...
Crooks, Valorie A.; Li, Neville; Snyder, Jeremy; Dharamsi, Shafik; Benjaminy, Shelly; Jacob, Karen J.; Illes, Judy
Background Recent trends document growth in medical tourism, the private pursuit of medical interventions abroad. Medical tourism introduces challenges to decision-making that impact and are impacted by the physician-patient trust relationship—a relationship on which the foundation of beneficent health care lies. The objective of the study is to examine the views of Canadian family physicians about the roles that trust plays in decision-making about medical tourism, and the impact of medic...
Crooks, Valorie; Li, Neville; Snyder, Jeremy; Dharamsi, Shafik; Benjaminy, Shelly; Jacob, Karen J.; Illes, Judy
Background Recent trends document growth in medical tourism, the private pursuit of medical interventions abroad. Medical tourism introduces challenges to decision-making that impact and are impacted by the physician-patient trust relationship—a relationship on which the foundation of beneficent health care lies. The objective of the study is to examine the views of Canadian family physicians about the roles that trust plays in decision-making about medical tourism, and the impact of medic...
Bland, Carole J.; Starnaman, Sandra; Wersal, Lisa; Moorhead-Rosenberg, Lenn; Zonia, Susan; Henry, Rebecca
Reviews the literature on educational curricular change and applies findings to change in medical school settings. Found a consistent set of characteristics in the following areas associated with successful curricular change; these include: organizational mission and goals, history of organizational change, politics, organizational structure, need…
Describes a program of the financial aid office at Harvard University Medical School (Massachusetts) that helps students with debt management and personal financial planning through presentations to seniors by professionals in insurance and financial planning and by offering two individual consultations with a physician financial planning…
Full Text Available Background. Faculty development is essential to provide skills not taught in typical medical training such as designing curricula or scientific writing, to help medical faculty acquire new skills valued today such as financial management, and to maintain institutional vitality. Faculty development receives relatively little attention in many medical schools and is narrowly focused upon teaching skills. Innovation. We propose a program that includes individual needs assessment and strategic planning. This strategy is consistent with Knowles’ principles of andragogy, a model of adult learning that differs in some ways from traditional pedagogy. We have included a self-assessment tool that may be useful to medical schools and an illustrative case study. Evaluation. We have introduced the self-assessment tool to a small number of faculty members who have found it clear and useful. We plan to introduce it to a large number of faculty members and to measure completion rates, perceived usefulness, and subsequent participation in faculty development activities and fulfillment of goals. Conclusions. Faculty development needs to be a higher priority in medical schools and to better reflect the current needs of faculty members. An individualized faculty development process has the potential to have a substantial impact upon acquisition of important skills, and faculty and institutional morale and vitality.
In American medical schools, the period of time between the announcement of internships and graduation is known as FYBIGMI, for "Fuck You Brother I Got My Internship." At University Medical School (pseudonym), as at most American medical schools, this period culminates in an elaborate musical comedy (attended by faculty and relatives) in which faculty are abused, patients are represented in terms of stigmatized stereotypes, and the students demonstrate a profane familiarity with cultural taboos. Using the analytic methods of cultural anthropology, this examination of the FYBIGMI performance at U.M.S. focuses primarily on the seniors' presentation of their newly acquired professional identity, which is constituted in the skits by recurring oppositions to socially stigmatized, medically self-destructive patients. In this oppositional logic, racial stereotypes play a particularly large role. In addition, the seniors establish their new social status by inverting their relationship to their (former) supervisors on a personal basis, and by confronting the audience with their professional ability to treat cultural taboos with profane familiarity. The FYBIGMI theatrical, and its representation of professional identity, is analyzed in relation to a proposed model of the underlying structure of the process of medical education, that is, an escalating dialectic of intimidation and self-congratulation. PMID:6490261
Reyes B, Humberto
In Chile, undergraduate medical education starts after High School, it lasts seven years, with the final two dedicated to a rotary internship, taking to an M.D. degree that allows the graduate to enter working activities. The country needs more M.D.s in primary care, but there is also a shortage of specialists, mainly out of the main cities. In recent decades, post graduate programs leading to specialty titles have become competitively adopted by a large proportion of medical graduates. This is the case at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, stimulating its faculties and medical students to develop a collaborative review of their teaching programs, leading to a curricular reform with a new graduate profile and a new curriculum oriented to learning objectives, that will allow to obtain the M.D. degree in six instead of seven years of undergraduate education. This new program awakened expectations in other universities in Chile, that will have to face the attraction of this shortened program for future candidates to enter medical schools. However, any shortening of medical school careers should first consider the local conditions in quality of applicants, number of accepted students, the training of teachers in integrated teaching programs, the availability of adequate campuses. Furthermore, for students with different academic backgrounds and diverse personal and familial interests, the seven years programs may still be necessary to gain the expertise required to become medical doctors. PMID:26998976
Mazur-Mosiewicz, Anna; Pierson, Eric E.; McIntosh, David E.
The use of psychoactive medications to augment behavioral and psychosocial interventions in schools has significantly increased within the last few decades. Yet, advising, administrating, and supervising the dispensation of medication (including psychostimulants and psychoactive substances) tend to be some of the most risky tasks of school…
Full Text Available Introduction: Physicians have to visit, diagnose and refer patients with genetic disorders, so they need to be familiar with the basics and indications of genetic tests. In other words, they should have effective theoretical and practical knowledge about medical genetics before they do their job. Medical genetics courses at Medical Universities of Iran are generally presented as a theoretical subject in the first period of medical education. Methods: In this descriptive research, the results of interviews with teachers of medical genetics in 30 medical schools in Islamic Republic of Iran and responses to a questionnaire by 125 medical students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of medical sciences, about presentation time, curricula and also efficacy of medical genetics courses were analyzed. The interviews with teachers were done on phone and the students’ comments were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. The data were analyzed, using SPSS software, version 14. Results: In two thirds of medical universities, medical genetics is taught in the third or fourth semester and in 5 universities in the fifth semester. 86% of the students believed that the quality of genetics courses is moderate and such courses are same as clinical manifestation of genetic disorders are benefitial to medical students. Conclusion: This article suggests that medical genetics be offered in the second or third period of medical education (physiopathology or stagger period. Furthermore, in teaching such courses advanced educational methods (animation presentation, case-based learning, problem-based learning, etc. should be used, together with simple genetic tests in laboratories, the visit of genetic patients in hospitals, and the genetics consult.
Reichgott, M J
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 requires that access to education not be denied simply on the basis of disability. The law requires definition of "basic qualifications" required of all applicants, "essential elements" of the curriculum, and whether accommodation would alter the "fundamental nature" of the learning experience or impose "undue burden." Medical schools have a very low proportion of physically disabled students, which the author argues is largely a result of schools' conception of the "undifferentiated graduate" as being capable of performing the history, physical examination, and any medical procedure without an intermediary. But the author maintains that medical students need not be unblemished physically; medical educators' obligation is to educate those students who are qualified to become physicians by virtue of intelligence, professional attitude, and ability to effectively interact and communicate. With respect to clinical training, it is important to consider whether personal, hands-on experience is required for adequate learning to occur. Because most physicians limit the scopes of their practices and do not perform all procedures, because those physicians who develop physical disabilities are not precluded from continuing in some forms of medical practice, and because technologic advances allow for the substitution of imaging and diagnostic testing for the more conventional approach to the physical examination, the requirement for hands-on capability becomes less compelling. Yet not every physically disabled applicant should be admitted to medical school, and those admitted require coaching, guidance, and career advice in order to succeed with their physical limitations. The author suggests that one of the seminal concepts of medical education, "without handicap," should be seen not as referring to the pre-existing physical status of students but instead as the obligation of educators to provide all their students with the
Kidd, M; Modlin, I M
The period until 1745 found the Viennese medical system languishing far behind advances made in other major European centers. This chaotic situation was reversed by the foresight and breadth of vision of the Empress Maria Theresa, who initiated considerable reform in Austria by actively recruiting the best minds of the time to reduce the intellectual and technologic differences. Her ability to entice one of Boerhaave's most eminent pupils, Gerard van Swieten, to leave Leiden for Vienna, particularly benefited the Vienna Medical School. In 1745 van Swieten assumed responsibility for reconfiguration of the patronage and nepotism-ridden medical system of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. As a first task, he swiftly expunged the influence of the Jesuits and other religious orders from medicine and established formal training and examinations, transforming the medical discipline into a meritocracy. Excelling as a physician and an innovative teacher, he also established a close personal relationship with the Empress and became her medical confidante. To a large part, the success of this first great Viennese medical school was owed to de Haen, who left Leiden to implement Boerhaave's method of clinical teaching. As a result of these innovations and with considerable support from the Empress, the University of Vienna, particularly its medical school, within a few decades achieved recognition throughout Europe as a seat of learning and scholarship. Van Swieten would not be remembered today if his contribution had been only scholarly or scientific achievements. He propelled Austrian medicine to a level commensurate with that of other European states of the day by 27 years of dedicated and industrious service. PMID:11344396
Cameron, Keri; Crooks, Valorie A; Chouinard, Vera; Snyder, Jeremy; Johnston, Rory; Casey, Victoria
Contributing to health geography scholarship on the topic, the objective of this paper is to reveal Canadian medical tourists' perspectives regarding their choices to seek knee replacement or hip replacement or resurfacing (KRHRR) at medical tourism facilities abroad rather than domestically. We address this objective by examining the 'talk strategies' used by these patients in discussing their choices and the ways in which such talk is co-constructed by others. Fourteen interviews were conducted with Canadians aged 42-77 who had gone abroad for KRHRR. Three types of talk strategies emerged through thematic analysis of their narratives: motivation, justification, and normalization talk. Motivation talk referenced participants' desires to maintain or resume physical activity, employment, and participation in daily life. Justification talk emerged when participants described how limitations in the domestic system drove them abroad. Finally, being a medical tourist was talked about as being normal on several bases. Among other findings, the use of these three talk strategies in patients' narratives surrounding medical tourism for KRHRR offers new insight into the language-health-place interconnection. Specifically, they reveal the complex ways in which medical tourists use talk strategies to assert the soundness of their choice to shift the site of their own medical care on a global scale while also anticipating, if not even guarding against, criticism of what ultimately is their own patient mobility. These talk strategies provide valuable insight into why international patients are opting to engage in the spatially explicit practice of medical tourism and who and what are informing their choices. PMID:24556288
Crooks Valorie A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical tourism is the term that describes patients’ international travel with the intention of seeking medical treatment. Some medical tourists go abroad for orthopaedic surgeries, including hip and knee resurfacing and replacement. In this article we examine the findings of interviews with Canadian medical tourists who went abroad for such surgeries to determine what is distinctive about their attitudes when compared to existing qualitative research findings about patients’ decision-making in and experiences of these same procedures in their home countries. Methods Fourteen Canadian medical tourists participated in semi-structured phone interviews, all of whom had gone abroad for hip or knee surgery to treat osteoarthritis. Transcripts were coded and thematically analysed, which involved comparing emerging findings to those in the existing qualitative literature on hip and knee surgery. Results Three distinctive attitudinal characteristics among participants were identified when interview themes were compared to findings in the existing qualitative research on hip and knee surgery in osteoarthritis. These attitudinal characteristics were that the medical tourists we spoke with were: (1 comfortable health-related decision-makers; (2 unwavering in their views about procedure necessity and urgency; and (3 firm in their desires to maintain active lives. Conclusions Compared to other patients reported on in the existing qualitative hip and knee surgery literature, medical tourists are less likely to question their need for surgery and are particularly active in their pursuit of surgical intervention. They are also comfortable with taking control of health-related decisions. Future research is needed to identify motivators behind patients’ pursuit of care abroad, determine if the attitudinal characteristics identified here hold true for other patient groups, and ascertain the impact of these attitudinal characteristics on
Background Medical tourism is the term that describes patients’ international travel with the intention of seeking medical treatment. Some medical tourists go abroad for orthopaedic surgeries, including hip and knee resurfacing and replacement. In this article we examine the findings of interviews with Canadian medical tourists who went abroad for such surgeries to determine what is distinctive about their attitudes when compared to existing qualitative research findings about patients’ decision-making in and experiences of these same procedures in their home countries. Methods Fourteen Canadian medical tourists participated in semi-structured phone interviews, all of whom had gone abroad for hip or knee surgery to treat osteoarthritis. Transcripts were coded and thematically analysed, which involved comparing emerging findings to those in the existing qualitative literature on hip and knee surgery. Results Three distinctive attitudinal characteristics among participants were identified when interview themes were compared to findings in the existing qualitative research on hip and knee surgery in osteoarthritis. These attitudinal characteristics were that the medical tourists we spoke with were: (1) comfortable health-related decision-makers; (2) unwavering in their views about procedure necessity and urgency; and (3) firm in their desires to maintain active lives. Conclusions Compared to other patients reported on in the existing qualitative hip and knee surgery literature, medical tourists are less likely to question their need for surgery and are particularly active in their pursuit of surgical intervention. They are also comfortable with taking control of health-related decisions. Future research is needed to identify motivators behind patients’ pursuit of care abroad, determine if the attitudinal characteristics identified here hold true for other patient groups, and ascertain the impact of these attitudinal characteristics on surgical outcomes
Adam Jane; Dowell Jon; Greatrix Rachel
Abstract Background The United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) is a set of cognitive tests introduced in 2006, taken annually before application to medical school. The UKCAT is a test of aptitude and not acquired knowledge and as such the results give medical schools a standardised and objective tool that all schools could use to assist their decision making in selection, and so provide a fairer means of choosing future medical students. Selection of students for UK medical schools is ...
Steven H. Zeisel, MD, PhD
Background: Recent reports on the state of nutrition in U.S. medical schools suggest that these schools are challenged to incorporate nutrition into an already full curriculum. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the current state of nutrition education in US medical schools based on information reported by individuals responsible for teaching nutrition to medical students. Design: Between July 1999 and May 2000, we surveyed 122 U.S. medical and osteopathic schools. The survey w...
Torti, Frank M; Adams, Kelly M.; Edwards, Lloyd J.; Lindell, Karen C.; Zeisel, Steven H
Background: Recent reports on the state of nutrition in U.S. medical schools suggest that these schools are challenged to incorporate nutrition into an already full curriculum. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the current state of nutrition education in US medical schools based on information reported by individuals responsible for teaching nutrition to medical students. Design: Between July 1999 and May 2000, we surveyed 122 U.S. medical and osteopathic schools. The survey w...
Daugherty, R M
The magnitude and pace of change in the health care environment demand that medical schools change. Leading in a time of great change is difficult, and it is ironic that just when stability in leadership is most needed, the average tenure of deans is dropping. Indeed, the path to leadership in academic medicine is strewn with inherent ironies, paradoxes, and idiosyncrasies. For example, few people who become leaders in academic medicine aspire to, plan for, or seek training for leadership, yet leadership skills are essential to meet today's complex institutional demands. Also, most medical school deans were once medical students, and were selected and trained to be assertive, independent physicians, not to collaborate. For faculty, the medical school environment traditionally values individual autonomy and rewards individual achievement, not behavior that supports a larger community interest. Yet today's deans must be skilled at collaborative behavior, since they must have a vision for their schools and find ways to offer direction to the faculty and others to realize that vision. The author offers ideas about leadership and its development, and stresses that good leaders must above all curtail their egos in order to do what is best for their institutions. What a dean does as an individual is not nearly as important as what a dean enables others to do. The author also provides a checklist of dean's characteristics and responsibilities to help deans-to-be understand the job and current deans to think about how to succeed and thrive. He concluded by reiterating that the culture of individual faculty success based on individual entrepreneurism is passé. To operate in the new collaborative culture, today's successful dean must meld persuasion with educational statesmanship, always informed by a vision of how the school can prosper and serve. PMID:9653402
Mâsse, Louise C.; de Niet-Fitzgerald, Judith Evelyn; Watts, Allison W.; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.
Background Increasing attention has been paid to the school food environment as a strategy to reduce childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between the school food environment, students’ dietary intake, and obesity in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods In 2007/08, principal responses about the school environment (N = 174) were linked to grades 7-12 students (N = 11,385) from corresponding schools, who participated in the BC Adolescent Health Survey. Hiera...
Gangata, Hope; Ntaba, Phatheka; Akol, Princess; Louw, Graham
The study of gross Anatomy through the use of cadaveric dissections in medical schools is an essential part of the comprehensive learning of human Anatomy, and unsurprisingly, 90% of the surveyed medical schools in Africa used cadaveric dissections. Donated cadavers now make up 80% of the total cadavers in North American medical schools and all…
Meo, Sultan Ayoub
This study aimed to assess knowledge and skills in a respiratory physiology course in traditional versus problem-based learning (PBL) groups in two different medical schools. Two different undergraduate medical schools were selected for this study. The first medical school followed the traditional [lecture-based learning (LBL)] curriculum, and the…
The Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia, is one of only four predominantly Black medical schools in the United States. Among its illustrious alumni are surgeons general of the United States, medical school presidents, and numerous other highly regarded medical professionals. This book tells the engrossing history of this venerable…
Full Text Available The article deals with the issues on improving the efficiency of vertebrology teaching in specialist training at pre-and postgraduate stages. Modern epidemiologic trends for spine traumas and diseases form the increasing interest to the problems of care and prevention of the considered pathology and define the necessity of single-skilled specialists training. Developing vertebrology into a separate discipline that is studied at medical universities at both pre- and postgraduate stages is one of the topic issues for higher medical schools where the search of effective ways of its realization is stressed.
Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo
In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan. PMID:18364287
Boycott, Kym; Hartley, Taila; Adam, Shelin; Bernier, Francois; Chong, Karen; Fernandez, Bridget A; Friedman, Jan M; Geraghty, Michael T; Hume, Stacey; Knoppers, Bartha M; Laberge, Anne-Marie; Majewski, Jacek; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Meyn, M Stephen; Michaud, Jacques L; Nelson, Tanya N; Richer, Julie; Sadikovic, Bekim; Skidmore, David L; Stockley, Tracy; Taylor, Sherry; van Karnebeek, Clara; Zawati, Ma'n H; Lauzon, Julie; Armour, Christine M
Purpose and scope The aim of this Position Statement is to provide recommendations for Canadian medical geneticists, clinical laboratory geneticists, genetic counsellors and other physicians regarding the use of genome-wide sequencing of germline DNA in the context of clinical genetic diagnosis. This statement has been developed to facilitate the clinical translation and development of best practices for clinical genome-wide sequencing for genetic diagnosis of monogenic diseases in Canada; it does not address the clinical application of this technology in other fields such as molecular investigation of cancer or for population screening of healthy individuals. Methods of statement development Two multidisciplinary groups consisting of medical geneticists, clinical laboratory geneticists, genetic counsellors, ethicists, lawyers and genetic researchers were assembled to review existing literature and guidelines on genome-wide sequencing for clinical genetic diagnosis in the context of monogenic diseases, and to make recommendations relevant to the Canadian context. The statement was circulated for comment to the Canadian College of Medical Geneticists (CCMG) membership-at-large and, following incorporation of feedback, approved by the CCMG Board of Directors. The CCMG is a Canadian organisation responsible for certifying medical geneticists and clinical laboratory geneticists, and for establishing professional and ethical standards for clinical genetics services in Canada. Results and conclusions Recommendations include (1) clinical genome-wide sequencing is an appropriate approach in the diagnostic assessment of a patient for whom there is suspicion of a significant monogenic disease that is associated with a high degree of genetic heterogeneity, or where specific genetic tests have failed to provide a diagnosis; (2) until the benefits of reporting incidental findings are established, we do not endorse the intentional clinical analysis of disease-associated genes
Obadia, Sharon J
Role modeling opportunities for osteopathic physician teachers during a student's first 2 years of medical school are emerging as more colleges of osteopathic medicine strive to connect basic science didactics with clinically based learning activities. Examples of positive modeling by physician teachers during the first years of medical school are illustrated by 10 vignettes that can be incorporated into faculty development programs to increase awareness of such opportunities. The physician teacher in each vignette interacts with the student demonstrating desired professional behaviors. These vignettes also illustrate the effect of a positive "hidden curriculum" on a student's professional development. By recognizing these valuable teachable moments, teachers can incorporate role modeling into their daily practice. PMID:26214824
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to observe smoking and nicotine addiction status and of medical school students and to establish relating factors. Methods: A questionnaire was applied to students who were in Mustafa Kemal University Medical School in 2013-2014 semesters about smoking behavior, age of onset, thought of quitting, attitudes against, nicotine addiction, use of alcohol and other drugs. Results: Of the 712 students 54.5% (388 were male, while 45.5% (324 were female and overall smoking rate was 25.6%. The average age of smoking initiation was 17.7 ± 2.8 years. The overall smoking rates are increasing every year of school. 40.1% (73 of smokers reported the smoke in the hospital, while 33.5% (61 of them smoke only in the separated area. Almost half of the smokers (51.6%, 94 had very low, 19.2% (35 low, 8.8% (16 moderate, 14.3% (26 high, and 6% (11 very high level of nicotine dependency. Of the participants 46.3% (330 reported no special anti-tobacco efforts against in the society, whether only 2.4% (17 of them stated regular counseling. Non smokers showed more effort than smokers (p=0.0001. 40.1% of the smokers reported that medical education didn’t affect their attitude against smoking, while 19.8% stated that it affected negatively. Conclusion: In conclusion the study found a higher smoking prevalence compared to developed countries Medical school curricula need to be reframed in the context of smoking cessation counseling in order to win the war against tobacco use and addiction.
Villavicencio, J Leonel; Merrill, Daniel M; Rich, Norman M
It is a historical fact that warfare and surgery have been linked together as far back as military history has been recorded. In the 18th century, the tendency of most armies to dismiss their medical services at the end of every major conflict resulted in higher mortality at the beginning of the next war. This became evident in the French and British Armies during the Battle of Waterloo. These countries went to great efforts to mobilize their civilian reserve physicians, only to discover that more than half of the medical personnel declined to serve. The scarcity of physicians and the inexperience of those caring for the wounded resulted in a high casualty rate. The current armed conflicts throughout the world with their high number of victims are living evidence of the need for preparedness of the military medical personnel. In this article, we review the systems of military medical education in several countries, and offer the example of the Escuela Medico Militar (Military Medical School) of Mexico, a prestigious source of military medical physicians for the Mexican armed forces. PMID:15815819
Full Text Available Abstract Background Learning environment in any medical school is found to be important in determining students' academic success. This study was undertaken to compare the perceptions of first year and clinical phase students regarding the learning environment at Melaka Manipal Medical College (MMMC (Manipal Campus and also to identify the gender wise differences in their perceptions. Methods In the present study, the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM inventory was used. DREEM was originally developed at Dundee and has been validated as a universal diagnostic inventory for assessing the quality of educational environment. In the present study, DREEM was administered to undergraduate medical students of first year (n = 118 and clinical phase (n = 108 and the scores were compared using a nonparametric test. Results Among the two batches, first year students were found to be more satisfied with the learning environment at MMMC (as indicated by their higher DREEM score compared to the clinical batch students. Gender wise, there was not much difference in the students' perceptions. Conclusion The present study revealed that both groups of students perceived the learning environment positively. Nevertheless, the study also revealed problematic areas of learning environment in our medical school which enabled us to adopt some remedial measures.
Cleland, Jennifer A.; Johnston, Peter W; Anthony, Micheal; Khan, Nadir; Scott, Neil W
Background Workforce planning is a central issue for service provision and has consequences for medical education. Much work has been examined the career intentions, career preferences and career destinations of UK medical graduates but there is little published about medical students career intentions. How soon do medical students formulate careers intentions? How much do these intentions and preferences change during medical school? If they do change, what are the determining factors? Our a...
This article reports that Canadian medical students, inspired by an online community and an obscure heart condition, have ditched their books and transformed their class notes into a pulsating, hip-hop music video. "Diagnosis Wenckebach"--the name comes from a type of abnormal heart rhythm--was created as just one of many innovative study tools by…
Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Cohen, I Glenn; Bristeir, Janet; Snyder, Jeremy; Casey, Victoria; Whitmore, Rebecca
Objectives Medical tourism involves patients’ intentional travel to privately obtain medical care in another country. Empirical evidence regarding health and safety risks facing medical tourists is limited. Consideration of this issue is dominated by speculation and lacks meaningful input from people with specific expertise in patient health and safety. We consulted with patient health and safety experts in the Canadian province of British Columbia to explore their views concerning risks that medical tourists may be exposed to. Herein, we report on the findings, linking them to existing ethical and legal issues associated with medical tourism. Design We held a focus group in September 2011 in Vancouver, British Columbia with professionals representing different domains of patient health and safety expertise. The focus group was transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Participants Seven professionals representing the domains of tissue banking, blood safety, health records, organ transplantation, dental care, clinical ethics and infection control participated. Results Five dominant health and safety risks for outbound medical tourists were identified by participants: (1) complications; (2) specific concerns regarding organ transplantation; (3) transmission of antibiotic-resistant organisms; (4) (dis)continuity of medical documentation and (5) (un)informed decision-making. Conclusions Concern was expressed that medical tourism might have unintended and undesired effects upon patients’ home healthcare systems. The individual choices of medical tourists could have significant public consequences if healthcare facilities in their home countries must expend resources treating postoperative complications. Participants also expressed concern that medical tourists returning home with infections, particularly antibiotic-resistant infections, could place others at risk of exposure to infections that are refractory to standard treatment regimens and thereby pose
Full Text Available Audrey Menezes,1,2 Annette Burgess,1 Antonia J Clarke,1,3 Craig Mellis1 1Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney; 2Hornsby Ku-ring-gai Hospital; 3Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: Peer tutoring offers a valuable method of enhancing students’ learning experience in medical school. Junior students learn from senior peers to reinforce curriculum content in an engaging community environment. The aim of our study was to assess tutees’ perceptions of a formal peer tutoring program at the Central Clinical School of Sydney Medical School. We used the learning theory of the community of practice in order to understand tutees’ perspectives. Patients and methods: All Year 1 and Year 2 students within the Central Clinical School were invited to be tutored by Year 3 and Year 4 students, respectively. Tutor pairs taught a group of three to four tutees fortnightly, and the tutorials were largely clinically based. A questionnaire containing 13 closed items and four open-ended questions regarding their experiences in the program was distributed to the tutees. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 66 of 101 (65% Year 1 and Year 2 students took part as tutees and 42 of 106 (40% students as tutors. The tutees' response rate was 53% (35/66. Results were largely positive, with 97% of the tutees enjoying the program, 90% showing interest in tutorial topics, 91% feeling a sense of community, 100% wanting to take part next year, 97% finding small groups effective, and 97% and 91% feeling an improved understanding of medical concepts and clinical skills, respectively. Tutees perceived the most useful aspects to be learning and revision and advice from experienced peers. The most frequent suggestion for improvement was to resolve scheduling conflicts. Conclusion: Tutees found the peer tutoring program to be valuable in learning and revision, establishing a community, and
Beaubier, Dean M.; Gadbois, Shannon A.; Stick, Sheldon L.
In 2004 twin sisters Amy and Jesse Pasternak competed for the prospect of playing high school hockey, vying for the boys' team rather than the girls'. The sisters' opportunities were negated by the Manitoba High School Athletic Association (MHSAA). This paper examines the 2006 decision by the Manitoba Human Rights Commission and a 2008 judgment by…
Johnson, Joy L.; Moffat, Barbara; Bottorff, Joan; Shoveller, Jean; Fischer, Benedikt; Haines, Rebecca J.
This ethnographic study aimed at developing a richer understanding of how youth, their schools, and the communities in which they are emplaced coincide to generate a set of local social processes that affect marijuana use. We trace the interplay between high school staff and students with regards to marijuana use in the proximity of a local high…
Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Gladstone, Emilie J; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena
Substantial research illuminates many factors effecting the implementation of evidence-based mental health promotion programs in schools; however, research on how schools plan for sustaining their investments in these programs is limited. In this qualitative study, we elicited descriptions of opportunities and challenges for sustainability. We interviewed 24 individuals from schools involved in a longitudinal, qualitative research project that followed uptake and implementation of the evidence-based WITS Programs across 2 years (Leadbeater et al. 2012). WITS stands for Walk away, Ignore, Talk it out and Seek help and the online WITS Programs focus on preventing peer victimization ( www.witsprograms.ca ). Our findings suggest that sustainability planning in schools is not merely a next step following high quality implementation, but rather involves multiple ongoing processes that need to be anticipated and supported by school leadership and program champions and developers in order to realize investments in evidence-based programs. PMID:26148980
Baldwin, D. C.; Daugherty, S. R.; Eckenfels, E. J.
Senior students at 10 medical schools in the United States responded to a questionnaire that asked how often, if ever, they perceived themselves being mistreated or harassed during the course of their medical education. Results show that perceived mistreatment most often took the form of public humiliation (86.7%), although someone else taking credit for one's work (53.5%), being threatened with unfair grades (34.8%), and threatened with physical harm (26.4%) were also reported. Students also...
Full Text Available The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression.Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean ± SD age: 14.3 ± 1.8 years.Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval = 3.31, 2.16-5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48-4.89, plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63-4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20-3.45 and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26-2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18-2.27 compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans.These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours.
Full Text Available Abstract Background According to recent surveys, 59% of British medical schools and 90% of US medical schools have courses or content on spirituality and health (S/H. There is little research, however, on the teaching of S/H in medical schools in other countries, such as those in Latin America, Asia, Australia and Africa. The present study seeks to investigate the current status of teaching on S/H in Brazilian medical schools. Methods All medical schools in Brazil (private and public were selected for evaluation, were contacted by email and phone, and were administered a questionnaire. The questionnaire, sent by e-mail, asked medical school directors/deans about any S/H courses that were taught, details about those courses, S/H lectures or seminars, importance of teaching this subject for medical school directors, and medical schools characteristics. Results A total of 86 out of 180 (47.7% medical schools responded. Results indicated that 10.4% of Brazilian Medical Schools have a dedicated S/H courses and 40.5% have courses or content on spirituality and health. Only two medical schools have S/H courses that involve hands-on training and three schools have S/H courses that teach how to conduct a spiritual history. The majority of medical directors (54% believe that S/H is important to teach in their schools. Conclusion Few Brazilian medical schools have courses dealing specifically with S/H and less than half provide some form of teaching on the subject. Unfortunately, there is no standard curriculum on S/H. Nevertheless, the majority of medical directors believe this issue is an important subject that should be taught.
MACKENZIE, R C; BLOOMQUIST, H
The scope of medical science has broadened to embrace subject areas in the behavioral and social sciences. Medical school curricula have responded to this trend, and the response is inevitably making itself felt in the medical school library. One medical school library's efforts to identify significant library materials in this area are presented as an example of a technique and as an indication of an order of magnitude. A master list of appropriate journal titles is appended. PMID:14119295
Adam EM Eltorai Brown University, Warren Alpert Medical School, Providence, RI, USA Medical education innovation is a field of active investigation.1,2 Whether it is problem-based learning, lectures, discussion groups, systems-based blocks, integrated courses, video-captured, pass-fail, or iPad-requiring, every medical school approaches preclinical education differently. Which combination of these methods is most effective?To answer this, I propose that medical schools ought to be required to...
Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga; Paul Roumeliotis; Hao Xu
Purpose The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression. Methods Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regi...
McIntosh, Kent; Bennett, Joanna L.; Price, Kathy
This article discusses School-wide Positive Behaviour Support (SWPBS), an evidence-based approach to teaching social competencies and enhancing the school social environment. The focus of this article is on the value of evaluation and evaluation plans at a district level for maintaining and increasing the effectiveness of SWPBS in a district. We…
Kusurkar, R.A.; Croiset, G.; Kruitwagen, C.; Cate, O. ten
The Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire is designed to determine the strength of motivation of students particularly for medical study. This research was performed to establish the validity evidence for measuring strength of motivation for medical school. Internal structure and relations to other variables were used as the sources of validity evidence. The SMMS questionnaire was filled out by 1,494 medical students in different years of medical curriculum. The valid...
Park, Hyeran; Nielsen, Wendy; Woodruff, Earl
This study examined and compared students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) with 521 Grade 8 Canadian and Korean students using a mixed methods approach. The concepts of NOS were measured using a survey that had both quantitative and qualitative elements. Descriptive statistics and one-way multivariate analysis of variances examined the quantitative data while a conceptually clustered matrix classified the open-ended responses. The country effect could explain 3-12 % of the variances of subjectivity, empirical testability and diverse methods, but it was not significant for the concepts of tentativeness and socio-cultural embeddedness of science. The open-ended responses showed that students believed scientific theories change due to errors or discoveries. Students regarded empirical evidence as undeniable and objective although they acknowledged experiments depend on theories or scientists' knowledge. The open responses revealed that national situations and curriculum content affected their views. For our future democratic citizens to gain scientific literacy, science curricula should include currently acknowledged NOS concepts and should be situated within societal and cultural perspectives.
McHugh, S M
Obtaining a place in an Irish medical school is extremely competitive, a situation mirrored in many other countries. We aimed to determine the factors influencing school students in deciding to study medicine in university. We further determined what level of interest exists in pursuing a surgical career after completion of medical school.
This study uses the admission scores of Taiwan's Joint College Entrance Examination (JCEE) and occupational wage data to estimate the reputation values of engineering and medical schools in Taiwan. It is found that the reputation values of medical schools are more than twice those of engineering schools. It takes about 7 and 19 years of work for…
Canham, Daryl L.; Bauer, Laurie; Concepcion, Michelle; Luong, June; Peters, Jill; Wilde, Claudia
Many students require prescription and nonprescription medication to be administered during the school day for chronic and acute illnesses. School office staff members are typically delegated this task, yet these individuals are unlicensed assistive personnel without medical training. Five school nurses developed and participated in a medication…
Azila, N M A; Tan, C P L
Accreditation is a process by which official accrediting bodies evaluate institutions using a set of criteria and standards, following established procedures, to ensure a high quality of education needed to produce highly competent graduates. Additional objectives include (1) ensuring quality institutional functioning, (2) strengthening capabilities of educational institutions for service to the nation and (3) improving public confidence in medical schools. The accreditation process provides an opportunity for the institution to critically reflect upon all the aspects of its programme and the level of compliance or attainment of the requirements. The self-evaluation exercise, which identifies strengths and weaknesses, is perceived as formative. It is envisaged that eventually institutions will adopt a learning culture for curriculum development, implementation, monitoring and matching the outcomes. In conclusion, periodic accreditation activities can act as a "monitoring" system to ensure that the quality of medical education is maintained according to established standards. PMID:16315622
Kusurkar, Rashmi; Croiset, Gerda; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle
The Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire is designed to determine the strength of motivation of students particularly for medical study. This research was performed to establish the validity evidence for measuring strength of motivation for medical school. Internal structure and relations to other variables were used as…
Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…
Mathews, Michael B.; Stagnaro-Green, Alex
Biochemistry and molecular biology occupy a unique place in the medical school curriculum. They are frequently studied prior to medical school and are fundamental to the teaching of biomedical sciences in undergraduate medical education. These two circumstances, and the trend toward increased integration among the disciplines, have led to…
Clay, Daniel; Farris, Karen; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W.; Howarth, Robyn
Medications are administered every day in schools across the country. Researchers and clinicians have studied school nurses' and educators' experiences with medication administration, but not the experiences of children or their parents. This study examined medication administration from the child and parent perspectives to (a) determine problems…
Brown, C R
The creation of a library for the new Medical School of the University of Massachusetts presents an interesting opportunity to see how the principles of administrative technique, which have been found so effective in other areas of business and management, can be applied to the library profession. The solution of the logistical problem of having a base in Amherst and a field in Worcester lends itself to the prescribed pattern of progression from consultation to decision, decision to policy, and policy to action. The same pattern also emerges in the relationship of the librarian to the architect. PMID:5778725
Kassebaum, D G; Szenas, P L
The authors characterize the demographic changes that transpired with the decline and rise of the medical school applicant pool over the past decade, and describe the variations in academic antecedents, attrition, and graduation rates of students matriculated during that time. Data over the ten-year cycle, derived from the AAMC's Student and Applicant Information Management System (SAIMS), were examined in the context of published education and employment statistics. The contraction and expansion of the applicant pool were related to changes in the number and pattern of undergraduate majors and to changes in the employment conditions for college-educated youth. Furthermore, a significant part of the variations in size of the applicant pool is an artifact of changes in the number of repeat applications. Matriculants' pre-medical grades and MCAT scores dropped slightly during the period of applicant decline, and rebounded as admission committees were able to exercise greater selection when the pool expanded. The attrition of medical students rose and fell during this time, but the changes were small and of little discrete influence on graduation rates during the period. The downturn and rebound in applications over the past decade appear to be more related to cycles in the employment market for college graduates than to applicants' perceptions of unfavorable/favorable conditions in medical education and practice. PMID:7718069
Full Text Available Mainul Haque,1 Zainal Zulkifli,2 Seraj Zohurul Haque,3 Zubair M Kamal,4 Abdus Salam,5 Vidya Bhagat,2 Ahmed Ghazi Alattraqchi,2 Nor Iza A Rahman2 1Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Defense Health, National Defense University of Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Jalan Sultan Mahmud, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 3School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee, UK; 4Sleep Research Unit, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Defining professionalism in this constantly evolving world is not easy. How do you measure degrees of benevolence and compassion? If it is so obvious to our profession, what professionalism is, then why is it so difficult to teach it to medical students and residents? Today’s definition of medical professionalism is evolving – from autonomy to accountability, from expert opinion to evidence-based medicine, and from self-interest to teamwork and shared responsibility. However, medical professionalism is defined as the basis for the trust in the patient–physician relationship, caring and compassion, insight, openness, respect for patient dignity, confidentiality, autonomy, presence, altruism, and those qualities that lead to trust-competence, integrity, honesty, morality, and ethical conduct. The purpose of this study is to explore professionalism in terms of its fundamental elements among medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA. This was a cross-sectional study carried out on medical students of UniSZA. The study population included preclinical and clinical medical students of UniSZA from Year I to Year V of academic session 2014/2015. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Data were
Krzic, Maja; Wilson, Julie; Basiliko, Nathan; Bedard-Haughn, Angela; Humphreys, Elyn; Dyanatkar, Saeed; Hazlett, Paul; Strivelli, Rachel; Crowley, Chris; Dampier, Lesley
As global issues continue to place increasing demands on soil resources, the need to provide soil science education to the next generation of soil scientists and the general public is becoming more imminent. In many countries around the world, including Canada, soil is either not included in the high school curriculum or it is not covered in…
Mady, Callie J.
As the number of Allophone students attending public schools in Canada continues to increase (Statistics Canada, 2008), it is clear that a need exists in English-dominant areas to purposefully address the integration of these students into core French. I report the findings of a mixed-method study that was conducted to assess and compare the…
Tomini, Brenda A.
First-year university students (n=200) evaluated their career counseling experiences during senior year in high school. Women generally reported experiences as more favorable than did men, although women showed lower levels of confidence regarding chosen careers. Student responses did not appear to reflect major problems in terms of gender bias…
Drawing from a 2.4-year ethnography with Korean Early Study Abroad (ESA, pre-college-aged study abroad) students in Toronto high schools, I examine the intersections among race, class, language, culture and citizenship (including immigrant status) in the identity construction and language learning of these students. Conceptualising race as a…
This article examines how two institutions (Ontario's provincial Ministry of Education and Training, as represented by the Minister of Education, and administrators and principals in multiethnic school boards) have chosen paths that have led directly to the current problems with language provision, and concomitantly, to a high percentage of…
This qualitative study examined eleven Vietnamese refugees' self-reported experiences of discrimination in urban schools in British Columbia, Canada. The students reported experiencing or witnessing racial conflict, harassment, and unfair treatment. The boys reported experiencing more racism than did the girls. However, most of the students felt confident that racism would not present insurmountable obstacles for them in the future. PMID:14768997
Full Text Available Tzu-Chieh Yu¹, Nichola C Wilson², Primal P Singh¹, Daniel P Lemanu¹, Susan J Hawken³, Andrew G Hill¹¹South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ²Department of Surgery, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ³Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandIntroduction: International interest in peer-teaching and peer-assisted learning (PAL during undergraduate medical programs has grown in recent years, reflected both in literature and in practice. There, remains however, a distinct lack of objective clarity and consensus on the true effectiveness of peer-teaching and its short- and long-term impacts on learning outcomes and clinical practice.Objective: To summarize and critically appraise evidence presented on peer-teaching effectiveness and its impact on objective learning outcomes of medical students.Method: A literature search was conducted in four electronic databases. Titles and abstracts were screened and selection was based on strict eligibility criteria after examining full-texts. Two reviewers used a standard review and analysis framework to independently extract data from each study. Discrepancies in opinions were resolved by discussion in consultation with other reviewers. Adapted models of “Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Learning” were used to grade the impact size of study outcomes.Results: From 127 potential titles, 41 were obtained as full-texts, and 19 selected after close examination and group deliberation. Fifteen studies focused on student-learner outcomes and four on student-teacher learning outcomes. Ten studies utilized randomized allocation and the majority of study participants were self-selected volunteers. Written examinations and observed clinical evaluations were common study outcome assessments. Eleven studies provided student-teachers with formal teacher training. Overall, results suggest that peer-teaching, in highly selective
Seoane, Leonardo; Tompkins, Lisa M.; De Conciliis, Anthony; Boysen, Philip G.
Background: Studies have shown that medical students have high rates of burnout accompanied by a loss of empathy as they progress through their training. This article describes a course for medical students at The University of Queensland-Ochsner Clinical School in New Orleans, LA, that focuses on the development of virtues and character strengths necessary in the practice of medicine. Staff of the Ochsner Clinical School and of the Institute of Medicine, Education, and Spirituality at Ochsner, a research and consulting group of Ochsner Health System, developed the course. It is a curricular innovation designed to explicitly teach virtues and their associated prosocial behaviors as a means of promoting professional formation among medical students. Virtues are core to the development of prosocial behaviors that are essential for appropriate professional formation. Methods: Fourth-year medical students receive instruction in the virtues as part of the required Medicine in Society (MIS) course. The virtues instruction consists of five 3-hour sessions during orientation week of the MIS course and a wrapup session at the end of the 8-week rotation. Six virtues—courage, wisdom, temperance, humanity, transcendence, and justice—are taught in a clinical context, using personal narratives, experiential exercises, contemplative practices, and reflective practices. Results: As of July 2015, 30 medical students had completed and evaluated the virtues course. Ninety-seven percent of students felt the course was well structured. After completing the course, 100% of students felt they understood and could explain the character strengths that improve physician engagement and patient care, 100% of students reported understanding the importance of virtues in the practice of medicine, and 83% felt the course provided a guide to help them deal with the complexities of medical practice. Ninety-three percent of students stated they would use the character strengths for their own
Mejia, Christian R; Inga-Berrospi, Fiorella; Mayta-Tristán, Percy
We surveyed physicians who obtained their medical degree with a thesis in 2011 from the seven medical schools in Lima to know the characteristics of the degree by thesis process, as well as participants motivations and perceptions of that process. We included 98 students who did a thesis (87% of total); 99% conducted observational thesis, 30% did so in groups of three. The main motivation was that it was good for their curriculum vitae (94%). At the university where the thesis is compulsory, the process began with the choice of topic and adviser. Perceived greatest and least difficulty in the process was the completion of administrative procedures (53%) and selection of their advisor (11%), respectively. Administrative timeliness and processes should be reviewed so as not to impede the completion of thesis, since the new University Act requires the completion of a thesis to graduate. PMID:25418650
Marie L. Dacey
Full Text Available Background: Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA, few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools. Methods: The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for articles published in English from 2000 through 2012 that met PICOS inclusion criteria of medical school programs with PA counseling skill development and evaluation of outcomes. An initial search yielded 1944 citations, and 11 studies representing 10 unique programs met criteria for this review. These studies were described and analyzed for study quality. Strength of evidence for six measured outcomes shared by multiple studies was also evaluated, that is, students’ awareness of benefits of PA, change in students’ attitudes toward PA, change in personal PA behaviors, improvements in PA counseling knowledge and skills, self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling, and change in attitude toward PA counseling. Results: Considerable heterogeneity of teaching methods, duration, and placement within the curriculum was noted. Weak research designs limited an optimal evaluation of effectiveness, that is, few provided pre-/post-intervention assessments, and/or included control comparisons, or met criteria for intervention transparency and control for risk of bias. The programs with the most evidence of improvement indicated positive changes in students’ attitudes toward PA, their PA counseling knowledge and skills, and their self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling. These programs were most likely to follow previous recommendations to include experiential learning, theoretically based frameworks, and students’ personal PA behaviors. Conclusions: Current results provide
Rabinowitz, Howard K.
Discusses the medical student characteristics associated with graduates' entering generalist careers, including initial specialty preference, geographic background, gender, age, ethnicity, economic/lifestyle factors, attitudes and personal values, service orientation, and premedical academic performance. Presents strategies medical schools can use…
Anecdotal evidence indicates that more students with type 1 diabetes are enrolling in Catholic schools across the United States. Meeting the medical needs of these students appears to be a significant challenge--legally and logistically--for many Catholic schools. District officials, school leaders, and school staff need support to understand the…
Yeh, James S.; Austad, Kirsten E.; Franklin, Jessica M; Susan Chimonas; Eric G Campbell; Jerry Avorn; Kesselheim, Aaron S.
Editors' Summary Background Making and selling prescription drugs and medical devices is big business. To promote their products, pharmaceutical and medical device companies build relationships with physicians by providing information on new drugs, by organizing educational meetings and sponsored events, and by giving gifts. Financial relationships begin early in physicians' careers, with companies providing textbooks and other gifts to first-year medical students. In medical school settings,...
Owen, Samantha Jayne; Wong, Kenneth
Background A decline in clinical skills of medical students and junior doctors is well documented. We aim to determine how the 32 UK medical schools utilise simulated heart sounds to develop medical students’ cardiac auscultation skills. Methods Representatives of all 32 UK medical schools were contacted with a survey questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS. Continuous variables e.g. teaching group size were described using median and interquartile range (IQR). Results 27 Medi...
Gary, Nancy E., Ed.; Boelen, Charles, Ed.; Gastel, Barbara, Ed.; Ayers, William, Ed.
Proceedings of the conference on improving the social responsiveness of medical schools include papers on the role of medical schools in relation to societal needs, the missions of medical schools (from North American, European, African, and Asian perspectives), measuring social responsiveness (perspective of the United Kingdom, standard-setting,…
Cederberg, Robert A; Bentley, Dan A; Halpin, Richard; Valenza, John A
The use of virtual patients in dental education is gaining acceptance as an adjunctive method to live patient interactions for training dental students. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which virtual patients are being utilized in dental education by conducting a survey that was sent to sixty-seven dental schools in the United States and Canada. A total of thirty dental schools responded to the web-based survey. Sixty-three percent of the responding dental schools use virtual patients for preclinical or clinical exercises. Of this group, 31.3 percent have used virtual patients in their curricula for more than ten years, and approximately one-third of those who do use virtual patients expose their students to more than ten virtual patient experiences over the entirety of their programs. Of the schools that responded, 90.5 percent rated the use of virtual patients in dental education as important or very important. An additional question addressed the utilization of interactive elements for the virtual patient. Use of virtual patients can provide an excellent method for learning and honing patient interviewing skills, medical history taking, recordkeeping, and patient treatment planning. Through the use of virtual patient interactive audio/video elements, the student can experience interaction with his or her virtual patients during a more realistic simulation encounter. PMID:23066135
Students from state schools are underrepresented in UK medical schools. Discussions often focus on deficient academic and motivational traits of state school students, rather than considering the effects of student support during the admissions process. This qualitative study explored student experiences of support from schools and families during the medical school admissions process with particular focus on the personal statement. Interviews were conducted with thirteen medical students at a British medical school who had each attended a different secondary school (classified as private or state funded). A thematic analysis was performed. Bourdieu's concepts of capital and field were used as a theoretical lens through which to view the results. Interviews revealed substantial differences in support provided by private and state funded schools. Private schools had much more experience in the field of medical school admissions and had a vested interest in providing students with support. State schools were lacking by comparison, offering limited support that was often reactive rather than proactive. Students from private schools were also more likely to have social contacts who were knowledgeable about medical school admissions and who could help them gain access to work experience opportunities that would be recognised as legitimate by selectors. While medical schools endeavour to make fair admissions policies, there is an unintended link between a student's access to capital and ability to demonstrate commitment and motivation on personal statements. This helps explain why academically capable but financially or socially challenged students are less likely to be recognised as having potential during the admissions process. Medical schools need to be challenged to review their admissions policies to ensure that the do not inadvertently favour cultural privilege rather than student potential. PMID:25201752
Guo, Yan; Sippola, Emily; Feng, Xinglin; Dong, Zhe; Wang, Debing; Moyer, Cheryl A.; Stern, David T.
To explore the need for faculty development among Chinese medical educators. Leaders at each medical school in China were asked to complete a 123-item survey to identify interest in various topics and barriers and perceived benefits of participating in faculty development programs. Interest levels were high for all topics. Experience with Hospital…
Cushing Herbert E
Full Text Available Abstract Background A Family Day program was implemented at Indiana University School of Medicine to educate the families and friends of in-coming medical students about the rigors of medical school and the factors that contribute to stress. Methods Surveys that assessed knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about medical school were administered to participants before and after the program. Results After the program, participants showed a significant improvement in their understanding of medical school culture and the importance of support systems for medical students. Post-test scores improved by an average of 29% (P Conclusions The inclusion of family members and other loved ones in pre-matriculation educational programs may serve to mitigate the stress associated with medical school by enhancing the students' social support systems.
Wakida EK; Ruzaaza GN; Muggaga K; Akera P; Oria H; Kiguli S
Edith K Wakida,1 Gad Ruzaaza,1 Kintu Muggaga,2 Peter Akera,3 Hussein Oria,4 Sarah Kiguli4 1Medical School, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, 2Medical School, Kampala International University, Kampala, 3Medical School, Gulu University, Gulu, 4Medical School, Makerere University Kampala, Kampala, Uganda Purpose: The benefits of community-based medical education for both students and teachers are becoming increasingly clear. However, there is paucity of information about th...
Hickey, Jason; Gagnon, Anita J; Merry, Lisa
Worldwide immigration to many high-income countries suggests that these countries' health care systems must become responsive to a more diverse population. Experiences working with newly arrived populations can provide healthcare students, professionals, and teachers, with valuable insight into the health and social conditions these newcomers face in both source and receiving countries. One way to gain this experience may be by developing partnerships between schools of nursing in receiving countries and international health organizations working in areas that are major migrant source regions for these countries. In this paper, we use a case example to describe, the process of identifying international, migrant-focused organizations, and the steps involved in developing partnerships with these organizations, for the implementation of a migrant health component in health professional curricula. After creating a set of criteria to evaluate partnership potential, we identified a list of international health organizations with whom we thought a partnership might be possible. Following application of our criteria, future work is being pursued with two organizations. Potential implications of this partnership include benefits to all parties involved that may help us move towards increased population and public health capacity. PMID:19581028
Background Selection into medical school is highly competitive with more applicants than places. Little is known about the preparation that applicants undertake for this high stakes process. The study aims to determine what preparatory activities applicants undertake and what difficulties they encounter for each stage of the application process to medical school and in particular what impact these have on the outcome. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1097 applicants who applied for a place in the University of Adelaide Medical School in 2007 and participated in the UMAT (Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test) and oral assessment components of the selection process. The main outcome measures were an offer of an interview and offer of a place in the medical school and were analysed using logistic regression. Results The odds of a successful outcome increased with each additional preparatory activity undertaken for the UMAT (odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.33; P students most appropriate for medical school and the course they provide. Our results indicate that performance in the selection processes can be improved by training. However, if these preparatory activities may be limited to those who can access them, the playing field is not even and increasing equity of access to medical schools will not be achieved. PMID:24289521
Binder, Renee; Friedli, Amy; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena
Professionalism is a required competency for medical students, residents, practicing physicians, and academic faculty. Faculty members must adhere to codes of conduct or risk discipline. The authors describe issues of unprofessionalism that culminate in allegations of faculty misconduct or filing of grievances in academic medicine and outline strategies for early intervention and prevention. The authors, vice and associate deans and executive director of the office of faculty affairs at a large U.S. medical school, have handled many allegations of unprofessional conduct over the past decade. They present case examples based on behaviors such as lack of respect, inappropriate language and behavior, failure to cooperate with members of the health care team, and sexual harassment/discrimination. They discuss factors complicating evaluation of these behaviors, including variable definitions of respect, different cultural norms, and false allegations. The authors make recommendations for prevention and intervention, including early identification, performance management, education about sexual harassment, and referrals to professional coaches, anger management classes, and faculty-staff assistance programs. PMID:25470311
Ozer, Mustafa; Bakir, Bilal; Teke, Abdulkadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Bas, Turker; Atac, Adnan
Organizational culture is the term used to describe the shared beliefs, perceptions, and expectations of individuals in organizations. In the healthcare environment, organizational culture has been associated with several elements of organizational experience that contribute to quality, such as nursing care, job satisfaction, and patient safety. A range of tools have been designed to measure organizational culture and applied in industrial, educational, and health care settings. This study has been conducted to investigate the perceptions of military medical graduates on organizational culture at Gülhane Military Medical School. A measurement of organizational culture, which was developed by the researchers from Akdeniz University, was applied to all military medical graduates in 2004. This was a Likert type scale that included 31 items. Designers of the measurement grouped all these items into five main dimensions in their previous study. The items were scored on a five-point scale anchored by 1: strongly agree and 5: strongly disagree. Study participants included all military physicians who were in clerkship training period at Gulhane Military Medical Academy in 2004. A total of 106 graduates were accepted to response the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 25.2 +/- 1.1. At the time of study only 8 (7.5%) graduates were married. The study results have showed that the measurement tool with 31 items had a sufficient reliability with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.91. Factor analysis has resulted a final measurement tool of 24 items with five factors. Total score and the scores of five subdimensions have been estimated and compared between groups based on living city and marital status. The study has shown the dimension of symbol received positive perceptions while the dimension of organizational structure and efficiency received the most negative perceptions. GMMS has a unique organizational culture with its weak and strong aspects. Conducting this kind
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently there is a growing concern about stress during undergraduate medical training. However, studies about the same are lacking from Pakistani medical schools. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress, sources of stress and their severity and to assess the determinants of stressed cases. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among undergraduate medical students of CMH Lahore Medical College, Pakistan during January to March 2009. Perceived stress was assessed using the perceived stress scale. A 33-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Results The overall response rate was 80.5% (161 out of 200 students. The overall mean perceived stress was 30.84 (SD = 7.01 and was significantly higher among female students. By logistic regression analysis, stressed cases were associated with occurrence of psychosocial (OR 5.01, 95% CI 2.44-10.29 and academic related stressors (OR 3.17 95% CI 1.52-6.68. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. 'High parental expectations', 'frequency of examinations', 'vastness of academic curriculum', 'sleeping difficulties', 'worrying about the future', 'loneliness', 'becoming a doctor', 'performance in periodic examinations' were the most frequently and severely occurring sources of stress. There was a negative but insignificant correlation between perceived stress and academic performance (r = -0.099, p > 0.05. Conclusion A higher level of perceived stress was reported by the students. The main stressors were related to academic and psychosocial domains. Further studies are required to test the association between stressed cases and gender, academic stressors and psychosocial stressors.
Calvin L. Chou
Full Text Available Purpose: When medical students move from the classroom into clinical practice environments, their roles and learning challenges shift dramatically from a formal curricular approach to a workplace learning model. Continuity among peers during clinical clerkships may play an important role in this different mode of learning. We explored students’ perceptions about how they achieved workplace learning in the context of intentionally formed or ad hoc peer groups. Method: We invited students in clerkship program models with continuity (CMCs and in traditional block clerkships (BCs to complete a survey about peer relationships with open-ended questions based on a workplace learning framework, including themes of workplace-based relationships, the nature of work practices, and selection of tasks and activities. We conducted qualitative content analysis to characterize students’ experiences. Results: In both BCs and CMCs, peer groups provided rich resources, including anticipatory guidance about clinical expectations of students, best practices in interacting with patients and supervisors, helpful advice in transitioning between rotations, and information about implicit rules of clerkships. Students also used each other as benchmarks for gauging strengths and deficits in their own knowledge and skills. Conclusions: Students achieve many aspects of workplace learning in clerkships through formal or informal workplace-based peer groups. In these groups, peers provide accessible, real-time, and relevant resources to help each other navigate transitions, clarify roles and tasks, manage interpersonal challenges, and decrease isolation. Medical schools can support effective workplace learning for medical students by incorporating continuity with peers in the main clinical clerkship year.
Thiele, Tamara; Pope, Daniel; Singleton, A; Stanistreet, D.
Objectives This study examines associations between medical students’ background characteristics (postcode-based measures of disadvantage, high school attended, sociodemographic characteristics), and academic achievement at a Russell Group University. Design Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting Applicants accepted at the University of Liverpool medical school between 2004 and 2006, finalising their studies between 2010 and 2011. Participants 571 students (with an English home postcode) regi...
Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi
The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…
Shield, Renee R.; Farrell, Timothy W.; Nanda, Aman; Campbell, Susan E.; Wetle, Terrie
Purpose of the study: The Alpert Medical School of Brown University began to integrate geriatrics content into all preclerkship courses and key clerkship cases as part of a major medical school curriculum redesign in 2006. This study evaluates students' responses to geriatrics integration within the curriculum using journals kept by volunteer…
Lieu, Tracy A.; And Others
A study investigated the proportions of medical school graduates of the University of California at San Francisco entering personal care and technology-oriented specialties from 1982-1988. For the 1988 cohort, the importance of demographic, medical school, and postgraduate factors were also evaluated as predictors. (Author/MSE)
McManus, I.; Woolf, K.; DACRE, J; Paice, E; Dewberry, C.
Background: Selection of medical students in the UK is still largely based on prior academic achievement, although doubts have been expressed as to whether performance in earlier life is predictive of outcomes later in medical school or post-graduate education. This study analyses data from five longitudinal studies of UK medical students and doctors from the early 1970s until the early 2000s. Two of the studies used the AH5, a group test of general intelligence (that is, intellectual aptitud...
Stordal Kirsten I; Tyssen Reidar; Holm Mari; Haver Brit
Background High stress levels and mental health problems are common among medical students and there is a lack of studies on group interventions that aim to reduce such distress during medical school. Methods A full class of students (n = 129) participated in group sessions during their third year of medical school in Bergen, Norway. The subsequent third-year class (n = 152) acted as control group, in...
Chris N. Gu; McElroy, Jane A; Corcoran, Blake C.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a student-run clinic on the diversification of a medical student class. We distributed a two-page, 20-item, paper survey to students of the University of Missouri School of Medicine (MU SOM) class of 2015 in July of 2011. The survey gathered information on general demographics, opinions on the importance of medical education opportunities, and opinions on the importance of medical school characteristics in applying to and attending MU...
Ferguson, Benjamin D.; Bister, Mary K.; Krapec, Joni N.
Podcasting in medical education is becoming more widely used and may be a useful tool for communicating with applicants to medical school. Given recent trends in the popularity of podcasting and mobile media, we created a podcast to communicate more effectively with applicants to our medical school as well as with the broader premedical community. The purpose of this study was to characterize the listening habits and motivations of our audience and compare the podcast’s benefits to those of o...
Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Agrawal, Mridul; Wahlster, Lara
[english] The final year of medical school has a unique role for introducing students to their future responsibilities and challenges. At many medical schools, electives at an accredited institution abroad are a common part of the student’s final year experience. International electives provide an opportunity for a personal and academic experience that will often create new perspectives on clinical medicine and research, medical education and healthcare policy. In this article the authors ref...
The first relationship of a new medical school library with local and regional medical libraries is one of dependence. This must change, as the new library grows, to a continuing state of interdependence. To accomplish this, the new library must thoughtfully design its collections and services, and must prepare for an extramural as well as an intramural clientele. Relationships with Regional Medical Library services and with Regional Medical Programs must be carefully planned. So too must be the adoption of EDP and related procedures where future compatability is important. Any new medical school library must have strength, but must never forget the need for true cooperation to give it viability. PMID:5582095
Abdalla, Mohamed Elhassan
The social accountability of medical schools is an emerging concept in medical education. This issue calls for the consideration of societal needs in all aspects of medical programmes, including the values of relevance, quality, cost-effectiveness and equity. Most importantly, these needs must be defined collaboratively with people themselves.…
Sherman, Charles R.
In 1976, the Association of American Medical Colleges developed a map-like model to describe the global picture of the U.S. medical school similarities with respect to two loosely defined concepts: an institutional emphasis on research and an emphasis on clinical and graduate medical training. This study is an attempt to replicate the results of…
Tan, E.C.T.H.; Hekkert, K.D.; Vugt, A.B. van; Biert, J.
PURPOSE: Adequate education in first aid and basic life support (BLS) should be considered as an essential aspect of the medical curriculum. The objective of this study was to investigate the current medical training in first aid and BLS at all 8 medical schools in the Netherlands. SUMMARY: An evalu
Dørup, Jens; Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simunovic, V.
traffic. On the other hand many medical students use the internet regularly from their homes and there is an increasing knowledge and understanding for the use of IT in medical education both among teachers and students [2,3]. The present project was established to try to help the medical schools in...
Goldstein, Matthew J; Lunn, Mitchell R; Peng, Lily
Since the publication of the Flexner Report in 1910, the medical education enterprise has undergone many changes to ensure that medical schools meet a minimum standard for the curricula and clinical training they offer students. Although the efforts of the licensing and accrediting bodies have raised the quality of medical education, the educational processes that produce the physicians who provide the best patient care and conduct the best biomedical research have not been identified. Comparative analyses are powerful tools to understand the differences between institutions, but they are challenging to carry out. As a result, the analysis performed by U.S. News & World Report (USN&WR) has become the default tool to compare U.S. medical schools. Medical educators must explore more rigorous and equitable approaches to analyze and understand the performance of medical schools. In particular, a better understanding and more thorough evaluation of the most successful institutions in producing academic physicians with biomedical research careers are needed. In this Perspective, the authors present a new model to evaluate medical schools' production of academic physicians who advance medicine through basic, clinical, translational, and implementation science research. This model is based on relevant and accessible objective criteria that should replace the subjective criteria used in the current USN&WR rankings system. By fostering a national discussion about the most meaningful criteria that should be measured and reported, the authors hope to increase transparency of assessment standards and ultimately improve educational quality. PMID:25607941
Williams, L S
The growth of an American organization that supports the right to die is proof that the public wants and needs physician-assisted death, says a University of Alberta alumnus who is medical director of the Hemlock Society. Dr. Richard MacDonald says he believes individual patients have the right to decide whether they want to live with a certain quality of life. Both the American Medical Association and the CMA have spoken out against physician-assisted death, but MacDonald says this oppositio...
Collin, Johanne; Otero, Marcelo
Pharmaceuticalisation is a complex phenomenon, co-constitutive of what scholars identify as a pharmaceutical regime, comprised of networks of actors, institutions and artefacts as well as cognitive structures that underlie the production, promotion and use of medications. The aim of this paper is to explore the linkages between different components of this pharmaceutical regime through the analysis of psychotropic drug advertising in Canadian medical journals between 1950 and 1990. Advertisements stand at the nexus of macro-level processes related to the development, regulation and marketing of new drug treatments and of micro-level processes related to the use of these drug treatments, both by clinicians and lay persons. We thus examine advertisements from the angle of the mental and classificatory universes to which doctors were exposed through direct-to-prescriber advertisement strategies implemented during this period. Furthermore, we explore to what extent the rationale behind advertisements was permeated by both scientific/professional and popular narratives of mind-body connections. This paper demonstrates that, although this period was marked by paradigm shifts in the classification of mental diseases, the development of modern psychopharmacology, and the questioning of the scientific legitimacy of psychiatry, advertisements unveil a remarkable continuity: that of the mass management of anxiety-depressive disorders by primary care physicians through psychotropic drugs. Also, despite the effective resistance to specificity as shown by the constant redefinitions of diagnostic categories and therapeutic indications, our analysis suggests that the language of specificity used in the promotion of new drugs and in the various narratives of mind-body connection may have been appealing to general practitioners. Finally, our study of the classes of psychoactive medications that have been in use for over half a century reveals a complex, non-linear dynamic of
For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...
Medical schools can assess their social responsiveness by gauging the degrees to which the health needs of the populations and communities they serve frame their missions and endeavors in education, service, and research. Beyond considering these traditional academic missions, medical schools can also assess how well they apply their expertise to needed reform of the health care delivery system and to the formation of health policies aimed at improving community health status. This article summarizes the means by which a medical school's social responsiveness can be judged in each of the above areas, and it presents examples of successes and failures in such responsiveness by the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. It concludes with lessons learned that can guide future innovations in social responsiveness of medical schools. PMID:10495746
Shaw, Steven R.; Glaser, Sarah E.; Ouimet, Tia
There is a reciprocal relationship between medical and educational systems; nearly all medical issues for children have educational ramifications and educational settings are ideal for implementing preventative and ameliorative medical strategies. Systemic models of collaboration between medical and educational systems are necessary but not…
In spite of the enormous progress of Western medicine during the past century there has not be a concomitant rise in the public’s satisfaction with the medical profession. Much of the discontent relates to problems in physician–patient communication. The multiple advantages of good communication have been clearly demonstrated by numerous careful studies. While the past few decades have witnessed much more attention given to teaching communication skills in medical schools, there are a number ...
David B. Duong; Sullivan, Erin E.; Myechia Minter-Jordan; Lindsay Giesen; Andrew L. Ellner
Background: In 2013, the Harvard Medical School Center for Primary Care established the Abundance Agents of Change (AoC) program to promote interprofessional learning and innovation, increase partnership between 15 academic and community health centers (CHCs) in Boston's most under-served communities, and increase medical student interest in primary care careers. Methods: The AoC is modeled in the form of a ‘grants challenge’, offering $20,000 to interprofessional student teams to develop an ...
Ismail S; Salam A; Alattraqchi AG; Annamalai L; Chockalingam A; Elena WP; Rahman NI; Abubakar AR; Haque M
Salwani Ismail,1 Abdus Salam,2 Ahmed G Alattraqchi,1 Lakshmi Annamalai,1 Annamalai Chockalingam,1 Wan Putri Elena,3 Nor Iza A Rahman,1 Abdullahi Rabiu Abubakar,1 Mainul Haque1 1Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 2Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia Background: Dida...
Haque, Mainul; Ismail, Salwani; Salam, Abdus; Ghazi Alattraqchi,Ahmed; Annamalai,Lakshmi; Chockalingam, Annamalai; Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; A Rahman,Nor Iza; Abdullahi Rabiu,Abubakar
Salwani Ismail,1 Abdus Salam,2 Ahmed G Alattraqchi,1 Lakshmi Annamalai,1 Annamalai Chockalingam,1 Wan Putri Elena,3 Nor Iza A Rahman,1 Abdullahi Rabiu Abubakar,1 Mainul Haque1 1Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 2Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia Background: Dida...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse drug events are responsible for up to 7% of all admissions to acute care hospitals. At least 58% of these are preventable, resulting from incomplete drug information, prescribing or dispensing errors, and overuse or underuse of medications. Effective implementation of medication reconciliation is considered essential to reduce preventable adverse drug events occurring at transitions between community and hospital care. An electronically enabled discharge reconciliation process represents an innovative approach to this problem. Methods/Design Participants will be recruited in Quebec and are eligible for inclusion if they are using prescription medication at admission, covered by the Quebec drug insurance plan, admitted from the community, 18 years or older, admitted to a general or intensive care medical or surgical unit, and discharged alive. A sample size of 3,714 will be required to detect a 5% reduction in adverse drug events. The intervention will comprise electronic retrieval of the community drug list, combined with an electronic discharge reconciliation module and an electronic discharge communication module. The primary outcomes will be adverse drug events occurring 30 days post-discharge, identified by a combination of patient self-report and chart abstraction. All emergency room visits and hospital readmission during this period will be measured as secondary outcomes. A cluster randomization approach will be used to allocate 16 medical and 10 surgical units to electronic discharge reconciliation and communication versus usual care. An intention-to-treat approach will be used to analyse data. Logistic regression will be undertaken within a generalized estimating equation framework to account for clustering within units. Discussion The goal of this prospective trial is to determine if electronically enabled discharge reconciliation will reduce the risk of adverse drug events, emergency room visits and
The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, have had tragic effects for history teachers and students in Canada, the United States, and abroad. Yet, despite increased educational research in historical thinking, very little is known about students' historical understanding of terrorism. This exploratory study looks at some Canadian, but…
Background: Medical education in Iran has been integrated into the health care system through a complex organizational change that included the formation of a single government division called the Ministry of Health and Medical Education. This division is responsible for both medical education and health services at the national level, whereas health care at the provincial level is provided by medical universities. Due to this restructuring, medical academic leadership in th...
O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg
of Aarhus; Jan Hartvigsen, PhD, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark. Title: Factors associated with dropping out of medical school: a literature review. Background: Considerable resources are spent on medical school selection and the...... competition for places is usually fierce. Dropping out must therefore be the worst possible performance outcome in medical education. What do we know about factors associated with dropping out of medical school? Summary of work: A systematic critical literature review of the international peer......-reviewed research literature on medical education is ongoing. Inclusion criteria are: Study population=medical students, outcome=dropout, follow up period=minimum 1 year, study designs=cohort/case-control/experimental. An experienced research librarian performed a primary search of the databases PubMed, ERIC, Psyc...
Simulated patient encounters, in which a trained layperson role-plays a patient, have become increasingly important in medical education. One such type is the gynecological teaching associate (GTA), who teaches medical students how to perform the pelvic examination using her own body. This paper considers the role that simulation like the GTA session plays in medical students' professional socialization. Drawn from interviews and archival sources gathered from medical students, medical faculty, and GTAs, this paper explores the tensions between artificiality and authenticity in order to understand how, through pedagogical practice, medical students come to embody medical culture through simulation. This paper uses the theoretical framework of the medical habitus to understand the role of emotion in medical student socialization. It argues that simulation is an example of affective practice: any rehearsal of techniques or styles of expressing, experiencing, or managing emotion that reshape the body's capacity to feel. PMID:26022187
Full Text Available Abstract Background The United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT is a set of cognitive tests introduced in 2006, taken annually before application to medical school. The UKCAT is a test of aptitude and not acquired knowledge and as such the results give medical schools a standardised and objective tool that all schools could use to assist their decision making in selection, and so provide a fairer means of choosing future medical students. Selection of students for UK medical schools is usually in three stages: assessment of academic qualifications, assessment of further qualities from the application form submitted via UCAS (Universities and Colleges Admissions Service leading to invitation to interview, and then selection for offer of a place. Medical schools were informed of the psychometric qualities of the UKCAT subtests and given some guidance regarding the interpretation of results. Each school then decided how to use the results within its own selection system. Methods Annual retrospective key informant telephone interviews were conducted with every UKCAT Consortium medical school, using a pre-circulated structured questionnaire. The key points of the interview were transcribed, 'member checked' and a content analysis was undertaken. Results Four equally popular ways of using the test results have emerged, described as Borderline, Factor, Threshold and Rescue methods. Many schools use more than one method, at different stages in their selection process. Schools have used the scores in ways that have sought to improve the fairness of selection and support widening participation. Initially great care was taken not to exclude any applicant on the basis of low UKCAT scores alone but it has been used more as confidence has grown. Conclusions There is considerable variation in how medical schools use UKCAT, so it is important that they clearly inform applicants how the test will be used so they can make best use of their limited number of
Full Text Available Debra Nestel,1 Katherine Gray,1 Margaret Simmons,1 Shane A Pritchard,1 Rumana Islam,1 Wan Q Eng,1 Adrian Ng,1 Tim Dornan2 1Gippsland Medical School/School of Rural Health, Monash University, Clayton, Australia; 2School of Health Professions Education, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: This paper explores local community perceptions of a relatively new rural medical school. For the purposes of this paper, community engagement is conceptualized as involvement in planning, delivering, and evaluating the medical program. Although there are several reviews of patient involvement in medical curricula development, this study was designed to pilot an approach to exploring the perspectives of well members of the community in the transition of institutional policy on community engagement to one medical school. Methods: An advertisement in the local newspaper invited volunteers to participate in a telephone interview about the new medical school. An independent researcher external to the medical school conducted the interviews using a topic guide. Audio recordings were not made, but detailed notes including verbatim statements were recorded. At least two research team members analyzed interview records for emergent themes. Human research ethics approval was obtained. Results: Twelve interviews were conducted. Participants offered rich imaginings on the role of the school and expectations and opportunities for students. Most participants expressed strong and positive views, especially in addressing long-term health workforce issues. It was considered important that students live, mix, and study in the community. Some participants had very clear ideas about the need of the school to address specified needs, such as indigenous health, obesity, aging, drug and alcohol problems, teenage pregnancy, ethnic diversity, and working with people of low socioeconomic status. Conclusion: This study has initiated a dialogue with potential
Guibelalde, E.; Calzado, A.; Chevalier, M.
The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review of the contents of Medical Physics in the curricula of the new curriculum Grade in Spanish medical schools after the entry into force of that legislation.
Bohl, Michael A.; Gest, Thomas R.
In 2004, the University of Michigan Medical School reduced its gross anatomy curriculum. To determine the effect of this reduction on resident perceptions of their clinical preparedness, we surveyed alumni that included residents from the original and new shortened curricula. A Likert-scale survey was sent to four classes of alumni. Respondents…
Baweja, Raman; Mattison, Richard E; Waxmonsky, James G
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects an estimated 5-7 % of schoolchildren worldwide. School functioning and academic achievement are frequently impaired by ADHD and represent one of the main reasons children start ADHD medication. Multiple potential causal pathways exist between ADHD and impaired school performance. In this review, we decompose school performance into three components and assess the impact of ADHD and its treatments on academic performance (assessed by grade point average [GPA], time on-task, percentage of work completed as well as percent completed correctly), academic skills (as measured by achievement tests and cognitive measures), and academic enablers (such as study skills, motivation, engagement, classroom behavior and interpersonal skills). Most studies examined only the short-term effects of medication on school performance. In these, ADHD medications have been observed to improve some aspects of school performance, with the largest impact on measures of academic performance such as seatwork productivity and on-task performance. In a subset of children, these benefits may translate into detectable improvements in GPA and achievement testing. However, limited data exists to support whether these changes are sustained over years. Optimizing medication effects requires periodic reassessment of school performance, necessitating a collaborative effort involving patients, parents, school staff and prescribers. Even with systematic reassessment, behavioral-based treatments and additional school-based services may be needed to maximize academic performance for the many youth with ADHD and prominent impairments in school performance. PMID:26259966
Jippes, M.; Driessen, E.W.; Broers, N.J.; Majoor, G.D.; Gijselaers, W.H.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der
PURPOSE: Because successful change implementation depends on organizational readiness for change, the authors developed and assessed the validity of a questionnaire, based on a theoretical model of organizational readiness for change, designed to measure, specifically, a medical school's organizatio
Roddy, E; Rubin, P.; Britton, J.
Objectives: To identify current practice in teaching on smoking and smoking cessation in UK medical schools, and establish whether newly qualified UK doctors feel prepared to deliver smoking cessation interventions.
All medical doctors have an important role to play in the diagnosis, management and prevention of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Strengthening the contribution of medical doctors and medical students to HCAI prevention programmes should include measures that enhance knowledge, improve practice and develop appropriate attitudes to the safety and quality of patient care. The Hospital Infection Society (HIS) funded a review of medical education on HCAI throughout medical schools in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. A questionnaire was drafted and circulated to all medical schools and 31 of 38 (82%) responded. The prevalence and transmission of HCAI were taught by 97% and 100% of medical schools, respectively, but the importance of HCAI as a quality and safety issue was covered in only 60% of medical schools. Multiple choice questions (MCQs) and objective structure clinical examinations (OSCEs) were the most popular methods of assessment. Lectures, discussion of cases and practical demonstrations were considered useful by >90% of respondents and online material and log books by 67% and 60%, respectively. More than 80% were willing to share a common pool of educational resources. An agreed curriculum should be developed for educating medical students in HCAI prevention and control, to outline optimum methods for assessment and develop a shared pool of educational resources.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although high non-adherence to medication has been noticed for ulcerative colitis (UC, little is known about adherence to mesalamine treatments and determinants that can predict adherence. The objective of this study was to assess adherence and persistence to mesalamine treatments and their potential determinants in mild to moderate UC patients in a real-life setting in Quebec, Canada. Methods A retrospective prescription and medical claims analysis was conducted using a random sample of mesalamine users with UC. For inclusion, patients were required to initiate an oral mesalamine treatment between January 2005 and December 2009. Patients with a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease were excluded. Treatment adherence (medication possession ratio [MPR] and persistence were evaluated over a 1-year period after the index prescription using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test and stepwise regression to identify potential determinants. Results A sample of 1,681 of the new oral mesalamine users (mean age = 55.3 patients was obtained. Overall, the percentage of patients with a MPR of 80% or greater at 12 months was 27.7%, while persistence was 45.5%. Among patients treated with mesalamine delayed/extended-release tablets (Mezavant®, adherence and persistence were 40.9% and 71.9%, respectively. Predictors of high adherence included, male gender (OR=1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.1–1.6, older age (>60 years; OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.3–2.0 and current use of corticosteroids (OR=1.4; 95% CI=1.1–1.8. Predictors of high persistence included male sex (OR=1.4; 95% CI=1.1–1.7, current use of corticosteroids (OR=1.4; 95% CI=1.1–1.7 and presence of hypertension or respiratory diseases (OR=1.2; 95% CI=1.01–1.55. Conclusions The majority of patients with UC exhibited low adherence and persistence to mesalamine treatments. Various determinants of improved adherence and persistence were identified.
O'Neill, Lotte; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta;
Medical Education 2011: 45: 1111-1120 Context Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent...... dropout. Methods This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n = 1544). Half of the students were admitted based on their prior achievement of highest grades (Strategy 1) and the other half...... years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. Results Strategy 2 (admission test) students had a lower relative risk for dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80). Only the admission...
Kleshinski, James; Shriner, Constance; Sadik A. Khuder
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of professionalism scenarios on the medical school admissions process from applicant and faculty perspectives. Specifically, do completing professionalism scenarios as part of the medical school interview process have an impact on both the interviewee’s and the faculty’s perception of the process and outcome? Method: Ninety-one faculty interviewed 199 applicants from January 2007 through April 2007 at The University of Toledo Coll...
Thailand has 13 medical schools, one of which is private. Graduates of the 12 government medical schools must provide service in rural areas for three years after graduation. The Chulalongkorn University Faculty of Medicine (Chulalongkorn Medical School) pursues social responsibility in various ways. For example, it has multiple tracks for student admission, includes a curricular track designed to produce doctors for rural areas, has revised curriculum to make it more relevant to social needs, chooses clinical teaching sites with such needs in mind, and works closely with relevant institutions in the government and elsewhere. Until recently, Thai medical schools evaluated their social responsiveness informally. This evaluation has become much more systematic, however, since 1996, when the Ministry of University Affairs issued policies and guidelines for quality assurance in higher education. As a member of the International Working Party for Measuring the Social Accountability of Medical Schools, Chulalongkorn Medical School recently used the social accountability grid to help assess its performance. It found its social responsiveness to be outstanding in the educational domain, fair in the research domain, and good in the service domain. PMID:10495747
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The context in which learning takes place exerts a powerful effect on the approach learners take to their work. In some instances learners will be forced by the nature of a task to adopt a less-favoured approach. In this study, we used a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to compare the effect of context on learning at different UK medical schools. We compared schools with conventional, and problem-based curricula. Method We had collected data from 30 interviews with third year medical students in one UK medical school with a conventional, lecture-based curriculum in relation to a previous study. The interview guide had explored effects of context and approach to learning. We used the same guide to interview 6 students in another UK medical school with a problem-based curriculum. We then put together a pack of validated questionnaires, which measured the phenomena that had emerged in the interviews. In particular we selected questionnaires which measured the criteria on which students from the different schools appeared to demonstrate greatest variance. Results There were two areas where students from schools with differing curricula differed - basic learning activity and assessment. Students at the lecture-based school attended lectures where they received information while students at the Problem-based school attended tutorials where they stimulated prior knowledge and identified new learning objectives. Progress -testing at the problem-based school helped students gain a sense of accumulating a body of knowledge needed for their life in medicine while students' at the lecture-based school directed their learning towards passing the next set of exams. The findings from quantitative, questionnaire data correlated with the interview findings. They showed that students at a school with a PBL curriculum scored significantly higher for reflection in learning, self-efficacy in self-directed learning and for
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Student Research Programme is a national education and grant scheme for medical students who wish to carry out research in parallel with their studies. The purpose of the programme is to increase recruitment of people with a standard medical degree to medical research. The Research Programme was established in 2002 and underwent a thorough evaluation during the spring of 2007. The evaluation should investigate if the programme had fulfilled its objectives of increased recruitment to medical research, in addition to the students' and supervisors' satisfaction of the programme, and unwanted differences between the universities. Methods Data was collected from students, supervisors and administrative staff via web-based questionnaires. Information about admission, implementation, results achieved and satisfaction was analysed and compared between the four Norwegian medical schools. In addition, the position of the scheme in relation to the national Quality Reform of Higher Education was analysed. Results At the end of 2006, the Medical Student Research Programme had recruited 265 medical students to research. These consisted of 214 active students, 35 who had completed their studies and only 17 who had dropped out. Both students and supervisors were generally very satisfied with the scheme, including the curriculum, the results achieved and the administrative service. The majority of students wanted to continue their research towards a PhD and, of those who had completed the Medical Student Research Programme, practically all had published one or several scientific papers. The survey showed only small differences between the four medical schools, despite their choice of somewhat different solutions in terms of administration and organisation. The Medical Student Research Programme satisfies the majority of the demands of the Quality Reform, however as an integrated research programme aimed at a PhD it presupposes
Babcock, Jessica M; Babcock, Blake D; Schwartz, Marshall Z
Currently, in the United States there is a significant physician workforce shortage. This problem is likely to persist as there is no quick solution. The nature of this shortage is complex and involves factors such as an absolute physician shortage, as well as physician shortages in primary care and certain specialty care areas. In addition, there is a misdistribution of physicians to medically underserved areas and populations. The medical education system trains medical school graduates that eventually feed the physician workforce. However, several factors are in place which ultimately limits the effectiveness of this system in providing an appropriate workforce to meet the population demands. For-profit medical schools have been in existence in and around the continental US for many years and some authors have suggested that they may be a major contributor to the physician workforce shortage. There is currently one for-profit medical school in the US, however the majority exist in the Caribbean. The enrollment in and number of these schools have grown to partially meet the ever-growing demand for an increase in medical school graduates and they continue to provide a large number of graduates who return to the US for postgraduate medical training and, ultimately, increase the physician workforce. The question is whether this source will benefit the workforce quality and quantity needs of our growing and aging population. PMID:25114564
Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer; Balles, John; Gorin, Joanna
Recent research of relevance to school psychologists suggests that the cause, or etiology, of mental retardation can be established by medical diagnosticians in approximately one-half of cases. In the current study, 109 practicing school psychologists considered a hypothetical case of an elementary student with mental retardation and indicated…
Full Text Available The author substantiates the value of medical, psychological and pedagogical support of the pupils in the boarding school. The aim of the research was to investigate the psychological and pedagogical problems of upbringing and educating of adolescents in sanatorium boarding schools in order to prevent and overcome their multiple dysadaptation.
Herrmann, Thomas J.; And Others
The University of Michigan Medical School concluded that the traditional budgeting process failed to discriminate adequately among programs. The school developed a new system for managing resources utilizing the principles of zero-base budgeting. The new budget/planning system is described. (Author/MLW)
During early accreditation visits by the Australian Medical Council (AMC), staff in the School of Medicine (SoM) were asked to demonstrate how and when AMC student outcome statements were being integrated into the MBBS course. As a result, the School Executive committed to developing a curriculum mapping system (CMS) that could systematically…
Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.
Given the prevalence of school-age children and adolescents who are prescribed with and are taking psychotropic medications, a critical issue that school psychologists may likely encounter in contemporary practice is providing both quality and continuity of care to these students in the context of relevant legal and ethical parameters. With a…
Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
Objective: Lifestyle factors are thought to be associated with students' academic performance. Whether lifestyle factors were associated with medical students' school attendance was determined. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: The study group consisted of 157 healthy second-year medical students attending Osaka City University Graduate…
Bayraktar, Hatice Vatansever; Güney, Burcu
The aim of this study is to determine the job satisfaction level of Medical Vocational High School teachers and whether it differs according to different variables. The research was organized in accordance with the screening model. The population of the research was composed of vocational course teachers who worked in Medical Vocational High…
Sherer, Renslow; Wan, Yu; Dong, Hongmei; Cooper, Brian; Morgan, Ivy; Peng, Biwen; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lin; Xu, David
To modernize its stagnant, traditional curriculum and pedagogy, the Medical School of Wuhan University in China adopted (with modifications) the University of Chicago's medical curriculum model. The reform effort in basic sciences was integrating histology and physiology into one course, increasing the two subjects' connection to…
Berk, Louis J.; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L.; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A.; Gordon, James A.; Faux, Russell; Oriol, Nancy E.
The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school…
Banks, James W., III; Mainous, Arch G., III
A survey of 248 University of Kentucky medical school faculty investigated attitudes toward American Medical Association policy concerning gifts from the pharmaceutical industry. Faculty generally agreed with the guidelines but felt gifts did not influence prescribing behaviors. PhD faculty favored more prescriptive policy than did MD faculty.…
Post, Sylvia; Staunton, Ted, Ed.
One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains activities on the economic status and roles of Canadian women. The first of 4 sections presents a profile of male and female occupations. Section 2 contains statistics on females in the Canadian labor force. Section 3,…
During the early twentieth century, the medical status of Mesopotamia, later Iraq, was very bad due to the lack of sanitation and recurrent epidemics and it was rife with endemic diseases including bilharziasis, tuberculosis and malaria. Medical care was poor, with few hospitals and doctors. The condition improved slowly with the return of a few Iraqi doctors who trained outside Iraq, in Turkey, Syria and Lebanon, and with the arrival of British Medical personnel, during and after the First World War, principally Sir Harry Sinderson who was one of the most influential figures in recent Iraqi medical and political history. He had the distinctive role of being one of the founders and the Dean of the first Iraqi medical college. During his service until his retirement in 1946 he achieved, with tireless effort, exceptionally high standards and brought fame and prestige to the new medical college in record time. He attained his goal of training at least 500 local doctors. PMID:24585764
Introduction: Physicians have to visit, diagnose and refer patients with genetic disorders, so they need to be familiar with the basics and indications of genetic tests. In other words, they should have effective theoretical and practical knowledge about medical genetics before they do their job. Medical genetics courses at Medical Universities of Iran are generally presented as a theoretical subject in the first period of medical education. Methods: In this descriptive rese...
Augustine, Kurt E.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Carmichael, Stephen W.; Korinek, Mark J.; Schroeder, Kathryn K.; Segovis, Colin M.; Robb, Richard A.
As technology advances, new and innovative ways of viewing and visualizing the human body are developed. Medicine has benefited greatly from imaging modalities that provide ways for us to visualize anatomy that cannot be seen without invasive procedures. As long as medical procedures include invasive operations, students of anatomy will benefit from the cadaveric dissection experience. Teaching proper technique for dissection of human cadavers is a challenging task for anatomy educators. Traditional methods, which have not changed significantly for centuries, include the use of textbooks and pictures to show students what a particular dissection specimen should look like. The ability to properly carry out such highly visual and interactive procedures is significantly constrained by these methods. The student receives a single view and has no idea how the procedure was carried out. The Department of Anatomy at Mayo Medical School recently built a new, state-of-the-art teaching laboratory, including data ports and power sources above each dissection table. This feature allows students to access the Mayo intranet from a computer mounted on each table. The vision of the Department of Anatomy is to replace all paper-based resources in the laboratory (dissection manuals, anatomic atlases, etc.) with a more dynamic medium that will direct students in dissection and in learning human anatomy. Part of that vision includes the use of interactive 3-D visualization technology. The Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic has developed, in collaboration with the Department of Anatomy, a system for the control and capture of high resolution digital photographic sequences which can be used to create 3-D interactive visualizations of specimen dissections. The primary components of the system include a Kodak DC290 digital camera, a motorized controller rig from Kaidan, a PC, and custom software to synchronize and control the components. For each dissection procedure, the
Healthcare decision-making is mostly reliant on evidence–based medicine. Building and upgrading skills in scientific reasoning and thinking amongst medical students has now became an important part of medical education. But due to unforeseen reasons, medical students in developing countries have no or very little opportunities to develop research skills and become evidence based physician-scientist. Moreover, there is also an alarming decline in the current number of physician-sci...
Healthcare decision-making is mostly reliant on evidence–based medicine. Building and upgrading skills in scientific reasoning and thinking amongst medical students has now became an important part of medical education. But due to unforeseen reasons, medical students in developing countries have no or very little opportunities to develop research skills and become evidence based physician-scientist. Moreover, there is also an alarming decline in the current...
Patel, Nima P; Granick, Mark S.; Kanakaris, Nikolaos K.; Giannoudis, Peter V.; Werdin, Frank; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver
Objective: Millions of patients are treated annually in the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany with either acute or chronic wounds. The purpose of this study is to compare how the medical education systems in the United States, Germany, and United Kingdom have prepared their physician trainees to deal with clinical issues of wounds. Methods: A retrospective study was performed in the United States by obtaining medical school curriculum data from the American Association of Medical Col...
Babcock, Jessica M.; Babcock, Blake D.; Schwartz, Marshall Z.
Currently, in the United States there is a significant physician workforce shortage. This problem is likely to persist as there is no quick solution. The nature of this shortage is complex and involves factors such as an absolute physician shortage, as well as physician shortages in primary care and certain specialty care areas. In addition, there is a misdistribution of physicians to medically underserved areas and populations. The medical education system trains medical school graduates tha...
Michael J. Field
Full Text Available The Australian Medical Council (AMC is an independent company for quality assurance and quality improvement in medical education in Australia and New Zealand. Accreditation procedures for the 20 medical schools in these two countries are somewhat different for three different circumstances or stages of school development: existing medical schools, established courses undergoing major changes, and new schools. This paper will outline some issues involved in major changes to existing courses, and new medical school programs. Major changes have included change from a 6 year undergraduate course to a 5 year undergraduate course or 4 year graduate-entry course, introduction of a lateral graduate-entry stream, new domestic site of course delivery, offshore course delivery, joint program between two universities, and major change to curriculum. In the case of a major change assessment, accreditation of the new or revised course may be granted for a period up to two years after the full course has been implemented. In the assessment of proposals for introduction of new medical courses, six issues needing careful consideration have arisen: forward planning, academic staffing, adequate clinical experience, acceptable research program, adequacy of resources, postgraduate training program and employment.
Bahner, David P.; Eric J Adkins; Hughes, Daralee; Barrie, Michael; Boulger, Creagh T; Royall, Nelson A
Background Physician-performed focused ultrasonography is a rapidly growing field with numerous clinical applications. Focused ultrasound is a clinically useful tool with relevant applications across most specialties. Ultrasound technology has outpaced the education, necessitating an early introduction to the technology within the medical education system. There are many challenges to integrating ultrasound into medical education including identifying appropriately trained faculty, access to ...
Gough, Harrison G.; Hall, Wallace B.
A study of medical student performance showed the clinical performance factor more or less unpredictable from aptitude and premedical academic achievement indices while the academic performance factor was forecast with acceptable accuracy by equations based on the Medical College Admissions Test and premedical grade point average. (JT)
McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D.; Kirk, Sara F. L.; Stefan Kuhle
Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed throu...
Kassim, Sameer S; McGowan, Yvonne; McGee, Hannah; Whitford, David L
BACKGROUND: Graduating medical students enter the workforce with substantial medical knowledge and experience, yet little is known about how well they are prepared for the transition to medical practice in diverse settings. We set out to compare perceptions of medical school graduates' career guidance with their perceptions of preparedness to practice as interns. We also set out to compare perceptions of preparedness for hospital practice between graduates from two transnational medical schoo...
Results: Most of the participants know well about the etiology and prevention of cervical cancer but information regarding the dosage, schedule, site and route of administration was lacking in majority of them. Conclusion: The medical students know the association between Human Papilloma Virus and cervical cancer, but the awareness about HPV vaccine was low among study population. Medical schools should modify their curricula to include teaching methods aimed at improving awareness regarding HPV and its vaccine. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1607-1611
David B. Duong; Sullivan, Erin E.; Minter-Jordan, Myechia; Giesen, Lindsay; Andrew L. Ellner
Background: In 2013, the Harvard Medical School Center for Primary Care established the Abundance Agents of Change (AoC) program to promote interprofessional learning and innovation, increase partnership between 15 academic and community health centers (CHCs) in Boston’s most under-served communities, and increase medical student interest in primary care careers.Methods: The AoC is modeled in the form of a ‘grants challenge’, offering $20,000 to interprofessional student teams to develop an i...
James S Yeh
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Professional societies use metrics to evaluate medical schools' policies regarding interactions of students and faculty with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. We compared these metrics and determined which US medical schools' industry interaction policies were associated with student behaviors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using survey responses from a national sample of 1,610 US medical students, we compared their reported industry interactions with their schools' American Medical Student Association (AMSA PharmFree Scorecard and average Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP Conflicts of Interest Policy Database score. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to determine the association between policies and students' gift acceptance, interactions with marketing representatives, and perceived adequacy of faculty-industry separation. We adjusted for year in training, medical school size, and level of US National Institutes of Health (NIH funding. We used LASSO regression models to identify specific policies associated with the outcomes. We found that IMAP and AMSA scores had similar median values (1.75 [interquartile range 1.50-2.00] versus 1.77 [1.50-2.18], adjusted to compare scores on the same scale. Scores on AMSA and IMAP shared policy dimensions were not closely correlated (gift policies, r = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.44; marketing representative access policies, r = 0.51, 95% CI 0.36-0.63. Students from schools with the most stringent industry interaction policies were less likely to report receiving gifts (AMSA score, odds ratio [OR]: 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.72; IMAP score, OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.19-1.04 and less likely to interact with marketing representatives (AMSA score, OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.15-0.69; IMAP score, OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.95 than students from schools with the lowest ranked policy scores. The association became nonsignificant when fully adjusted for NIH funding level, whereas adjusting for year of
Full Text Available Salwani Ismail,1 Abdus Salam,2 Ahmed G Alattraqchi,1 Lakshmi Annamalai,1 Annamalai Chockalingam,1 Wan Putri Elena,3 Nor Iza A Rahman,1 Abdullahi Rabiu Abubakar,1 Mainul Haque1 1Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 2Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia Background: Didactic lecture is the oldest and most commonly used method of teaching. In addition, it is considered one of the most efficient ways to disseminate theories, ideas, and facts. Many critics feel that lectures are an obsolete method to use when students need to perform hands-on activities, which is an everyday need in the study of medicine. This study evaluates students' perceptions regarding lecture quality in a new medical school. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted of the medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin. The study population was 468 preclinical medical students from years 1 and 2 of academic year 2012–2013. Data were collected using a validated instrument. There were six different sections of questions using a 5-point Likert scale. The data were then compiled and analyzed, using SPSS version 20. Results: The response rate was 73%. Among 341 respondents, 30% were male and 70% were female. Eighty-five percent of respondents agree or strongly agree that the lectures had met the criteria with regard to organization of lecture materials. Similarly, 97% of students agree or strongly agree that lecturers maintained adequate voices and gestures. Conclusion: Medical students are quite satisfied with the lecture classes and the lectures. However, further research is required to identify student-centered teaching and learning methods to promote active learning. Keywords: lecture, effectiveness, evaluation, undergraduate medical
Fulfilling the need for a course in medical informatics to be taught to medical students requires an effort on the part of the teaching faculty and administration. Creators of the curriculum must take into account contemporary pedagogical trends and the direction of medical education. Producing a course of study requires a firm conviction that practicing medicine in the 21st century demands currency, accuracy, and literacy with the available information sources. PMID:21271454
Ketovuori, Mikko Mr.
This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003–2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure arts education for children in the schools. Despite the fact that Canadian learning methods appeared to be quite similar to the ones Finnish teacher...
Resources to support self-study have been provided in the Medical School of the University of Aberdeen for the past 15 years. The initial impetus to this provision was given when a project--the Postgraduate Teaching Project--was set up in 1974 to develop programmes for medical postgraduates studying the Membership Examinations of the Royal College of Physicians. The success of the project resulted in a widening of its remit to undergraduate medical education. This led, in turn, to the formation, in 1978, of the Medical Learning Resources Group and the construction of a designated Learning Resources Area in the Medical School Library. Use of resources is continuously monitored and the resources themselves are regularly revised and updated. PMID:2077063
Conclusions: Knowledge of medical school graduates is insufficient in many urologic subjects, and there is a need for more urology exposure. Social reasons and lack of knowledge about urology hinder the choice of urology specialty as a future career. Clearance of learning objectives, immediate and prompt feedback on performance and adequate emphasis of common problems and ambulatory care are some aspects that should be taken into account by curriculum planners as they consider improvements to urology rotation program.
Grand'Maison, P.; Lescop, J; Brailovsky, C. A.
The use of structured clinical examinations to improve the evaluation of medical students and graduates has become significantly more common in the past 25 years. Many Canadian medical educators have contributed to the development of this technique. The Canadian experience is reviewed from the introduction of simulated-standardized patients and objective-structured clinical examinations to more recent developments and the use of such examinations for licensure and certification.
Shershneva, Marianna B.; Slotnick, Henry B.; Mejicano, George C
Objectives: This study (1) examined the natural history of learning to use learning resources by medical students and residents and (2) considered whether that history is consistent with the ways in which physicians approach their learning tasks.
Bouri, Mohamed; Mondada, Francesco; Pisla, Doina; Rodic, Aleksandar; Helmer, Patrick
Medical and Service Robotics integrate the most recent achievements in mechanics, mechatronics, computer science, haptic and teleoperation devices together with adaptive control algorithms. The book includes topics such as surgery robotics, assist devices, rehabilitation technology, surgical instrumentation and Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) as examples for medical robotics. Autonomous cleaning, tending, logistics, surveying and rescue robots, and elderly and healthcare robots are typical examples of topics from service robotics. This is the Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Medical and Service Robots, held in Lausanne, Switzerland in 2014. It presents an overview of current research directions and fields of interest. It is divided into three sections, namely 1) assistive and rehabilitation devices; 2) surgical robotics; and 3) educational and service robotics. Most contributions are strongly anchored on collaborations between technical and medical actors, engineers, surgeons and clinicians....
Halperin, Edward C; Goldberg, Robert B
U.S. medical education faces a threat from for-profit Caribbean medical schools which purchase clinical rotation slots for their students at U.S. hospitals. These offshore schools are monetizing a system that was previously characterized as a duty-the duty of the current generation of physicians to educate their successors. Offshore schools purchase clinical rotation slots using funds largely derived from federally subsidized student loans. This leads to pressure on U.S. schools to pay for clinical clerkships and is forcing some of them to find new clinical training sites.For-profit Caribbean schools largely escape the type of scrutiny that U.S. schools face from U.S. national accreditation organizations. They also enroll large classes of students with lower undergraduate GPAs and Medical College Admission Test scores than those of students at U.S. medical schools; their students take and pass Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination at a substantially lower rate than that of U.S. medical students; and their students match for residencies at a fraction of the rate of U.S. medical school graduates.Among the potential solutions proposed by the authors are passing laws to hold for-profit Caribbean schools to standards for board passage rates, placing restrictions on federal student loans, monitoring attrition rates, and denying offshore schools access to U.S. clinical training sites unless they meet accreditation standards equivalent to those of U.S. medical schools. PMID:26910896
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety education, including error prevention strategies and management of adverse events, has become a topic of worldwide concern. The importance of the patient safety is also recognized in Japan following two serious medical accidents in 1999. Furthermore, educational curriculum guideline revisions in 2008 by relevant the Ministry of Education includes patient safety as part of the core medical curriculum. However, little is known about the patient safety education in Japanese medical schools partly because a comprehensive study has not yet been conducted in this field. Therefore, we have conducted a nationwide survey in order to clarify the current status of patient safety education at medical schools in Japan. Results Response rate was 60.0% (n = 48/80. Ninety-eight-percent of respondents (n = 47/48 reported integration of patient safety education into their curricula. Thirty-nine percent reported devoting less than five hours to the topic. All schools that teach patient safety reported use of lecture based teaching methods while few used alternative methods, such as role-playing or in-hospital training. Topics related to medical error theory and legal ramifications of error are widely taught while practical topics related to error analysis such as root cause analysis are less often covered. Conclusions Based on responses to our survey, most Japanese medical schools have incorporated the topic of patient safety into their curricula. However, the number of hours devoted to the patient safety education is far from the sufficient level with forty percent of medical schools that devote five hours or less to it. In addition, most medical schools employ only the lecture based learning, lacking diversity in teaching methods. Although most medical schools cover basic error theory, error analysis is taught at fewer schools. We still need to make improvements to our medical safety curricula. We believe that this
Dans, Peter E.
Surveys of first- and fourth-year Johns Hopkins University (Maryland) medical students found little change in attitudes about abortion over four years. Attitudes correlated most strongly with personal beliefs about when a fetus is considered human life and somewhat with student gender. Results are used in a medical ethics course to illuminate…
Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe and implement a community paediatric placement in a school setting that teaches undergraduate medical students about intellectual disability that provides benefit to the community and is acceptable to both students and teachers. Methods Twenty six 4th year undergraduate medical students of the University of Newcastle completed their Paediatric studies based in Tamworth in 2004 & 2005 including an 8 week placement at Bullimbal School for Specific Purposes. The placement involved the students being actively involved in assisting with the delivery of a variety of activities aimed at improving the motor skills of a group of disabled children. De-identified data were obtained from completed evaluation surveys from 75% (21 of 26 of the medical students and from 100% (5 of 5 of the teachers. Results All students and teachers found the placement was acceptable and enjoyed the placement and felt that it gave the medical students a greater understanding of children with disabilities. 80% (4 of 5 of the teachers involved in the program did not feel that its implementation added to their workload and all were enthusiastic to continue with the program. Conclusion Medical students can be effectively taught and have a valuable clinical experience in a school setting to learn about children with a disability. This educational innovation has provided a mutual benefit for both the medical students and the school children who participated in the program without impacting on the workloads of teachers.
"I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....
Phillips, Henry L; Dong, Ting; Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R
Recent research in medical education suggests that students' motivational beliefs, such as their beliefs about the importance of a task, and their emotions are meaningful predictors of learning and performance. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a self-report measure of "task importance" and "anxiety" in relation to several medical education competencies and to collect validity evidence for the new measures. The secondary purpose was to evaluate differences in these measures by year of medical school. Exploratory factor analysis of scores from 368 medical school students suggested two task importance factors and three anxiety factors. The task importance and anxiety subscales were weakly related to each other and exhibited consistently negative and positive correlations, respectively, with three self-efficacy subscales. The task importance subscales were positively related to "metacognition," whereas "interpersonal skills anxiety" and "health knowledge anxiety" were positively related to "procrastination." All three anxiety factors were positively related to "avoidance of help seeking," whereas "interpersonal skills and professionalism importance" was negatively related to help avoidance behaviors. Finally, comparisons across the 4 years of medical school indicated that some aspects of task importance and anxiety varied significantly. Overall, findings from this study provide validity evidence for the psychometric quality of these scales, which capture task importance and anxiety in medical students. Limitations and implications for medical education research are discussed. PMID:25850124
Walubo, Andrew; Burch, Vanessa; Parmar, Paresh; Raidoo, Deshandra; Cassimjee, Mariam; Onia, Rudy; Ofei, Francis
Introduction of more effective and standardized assessment methods for testing students' performance in Africa's medical institutions has been hampered by severe financial and personnel shortages. Nevertheless, some African institutions have recognized the problem and are now revising their medical curricula, and, therefore, their assessment methods. These institutions, and those yet to come, need guidance on selecting assessment methods so as to adopt models that can be sustained locally. The authors provide a model for selecting assessment methods for testing medical students' performance in African medical institutions. The model systematically evaluates factors that influence implementation of an assessment method. Six commonly used methods (the essay examinations, short-answer questions, multiple-choice questions, patient-based clinical examination, problem-based oral examination [POE], and objective structured clinical examination) are evaluated by scoring and weighting against performance, cost, suitability, and safety factors. In the model, the highest score identifies the most appropriate method. Selection of an assessment method is illustrated using two institutional models, one depicting an ideal situation in which the objective structured clinical examination was preferred, and a second depicting the typical African scenario in which the essay and short-answer-question examinations were best. The POE method received the highest score and could be recommended as the most appropriate for Africa's medical institutions, but POE assessments require changing the medical curricula to a problem-based learning approach. The authors' model is easy to understand and promotes change in the medical curriculum and method of student assessment. PMID:14507620
Background Corruption pervades educational and other institutions worldwide and medical schools are not exempt. Empirical evidence about levels and types of corruption in medical schools is sparse. We conducted surveys in 2000 and 2007 in the medical school of the Autonomous University of Guerrero in Mexico to document student perceptions and experience of corruption and to support the medical school to take actions to tackle corruption. Methods In both 2000 and 2007 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire in the classroom without the teacher present. The questionnaire asked about unofficial payments for admission to medical school, for passing an examination and for administrative procedures. We examined factors related to the experience of corruption in multivariate analysis. Focus groups of students discussed the quantitative findings. Results In 2000, 6% of 725 responding students had paid unofficially to obtain entry into the medical school; this proportion fell to 1.6% of the 436 respondents in 2007. In 2000, 15% of students reported having paid a bribe to pass an examination, not significantly different from the 18% who reported this in 2007. In 2007, students were significantly more likely to have bribed a teacher to pass an examination if they were in the fourth year, if they had been subjected to sexual harassment or political pressure, and if they had been in the university for five years or more. Students resented the need to make unofficial payments and suggested tackling the problem by disciplining corrupt teachers. The university administration made several changes to the system of admissions and examinations in the medical school, based on the findings of the 2000 survey. Conclusion The fall in the rate of bribery to enter the medical school was probably the result of the new admissions system instituted after the first survey. Further actions will be necessary to tackle the continuing presence of bribery to pass examinations
Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition from medical student to junior doctor in postgraduate training is a critical stage in career progression. We report junior doctors' views about the extent to which their medical school prepared them for their work in clinical practice. Methods Postal questionnaires were used to survey the medical graduates of 1999, 2000, 2002 and 2005, from all UK medical schools, one year after graduation, and graduates of 2000, 2002 and 2005 three years after graduation. Summary statistics, chi-squared tests, and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the results. The main outcome measure was the level of agreement that medical school had prepared the responder well for work. Results Response rate was 63.7% (11610/18216 in year one and 60.2% (8427/13997 in year three. One year after graduation, 36.3% (95% CI: 34.6, 38.0 of 1999/2000 graduates, 50.3% (48.5, 52.2 of 2002 graduates, and 58.2% (56.5, 59.9 of 2005 graduates agreed their medical school had prepared them well. Conversely, in year three agreement fell from 48.9% (47.1, 50.7 to 38.0% (36.0, 40.0 to 28.0% (26.2, 29.7. Combining cohorts at year one, percentages who agreed that they had been well prepared ranged from 82% (95% CI: 79-87 at the medical school with the highest level of agreement to 30% (25-35 at the lowest. At year three the range was 70% to 27%. Ethnicity and sex were partial predictors of doctors' level of agreement; following adjustment for them, substantial differences between schools remained. In years one and three, 30% and 34% of doctors specified that feeling unprepared had been a serious or medium-sized problem for them (only 3% in each year regarded it as serious. Conclusions The vast knowledge base of clinical practice makes full preparation impossible. Our statement about feeling prepared is simple yet discriminating and identified some substantial differences between medical schools. Medical schools need feedback from graduates about
Full Text Available Abstract Background Corruption pervades educational and other institutions worldwide and medical schools are not exempt. Empirical evidence about levels and types of corruption in medical schools is sparse. We conducted surveys in 2000 and 2007 in the medical school of the Autonomous University of Guerrero in Mexico to document student perceptions and experience of corruption and to support the medical school to take actions to tackle corruption. Methods In both 2000 and 2007 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire in the classroom without the teacher present. The questionnaire asked about unofficial payments for admission to medical school, for passing an examination and for administrative procedures. We examined factors related to the experience of corruption in multivariate analysis. Focus groups of students discussed the quantitative findings. Results In 2000, 6% of 725 responding students had paid unofficially to obtain entry into the medical school; this proportion fell to 1.6% of the 436 respondents in 2007. In 2000, 15% of students reported having paid a bribe to pass an examination, not significantly different from the 18% who reported this in 2007. In 2007, students were significantly more likely to have bribed a teacher to pass an examination if they were in the fourth year, if they had been subjected to sexual harassment or political pressure, and if they had been in the university for five years or more. Students resented the need to make unofficial payments and suggested tackling the problem by disciplining corrupt teachers. The university administration made several changes to the system of admissions and examinations in the medical school, based on the findings of the 2000 survey. Conclusion The fall in the rate of bribery to enter the medical school was probably the result of the new admissions system instituted after the first survey. Further actions will be necessary to tackle the continuing presence of
Shankar PR, ,
Full Text Available BackgroundKIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal conducts problem-basedpharmacology learning during small-group practical sessions.The present study was carried out to obtain student feedbackregarding the sessions and suggestions for improvement.MethodThe questionnaire-based study was carried out among firstyear medical students during July 2009. Respondents wereenrolled after explaining the aims and objectives of the studyand obtaining written, informed consent. Basic demographicinformation and student agreement with a set of 30statements using a modified Likert-type scale was noted.ResultsSixty-four of the 75 students (86% participated. The mediantotal score was 107 (maximum score 150 and was higheramong males, students from within the Kathmandu valley andself-financing students. The differences were not statisticallysignificant. The suggestions for improvement were improvingthe physical infrastructure of the lab and providing more timefor the practical exercises.ConclusionStudent opinion was favourable. The findings would be ofinterest to medical educators especially in developingcountries.
Brunet, Pierre; Cuggia, Marc; Le Beux, Pierre
Information and communication technology (ICT) becomes an important way for the knowledge transmission, especially in the field of medicine. Podcasting (mobile broadcast content) has recently emerged as an efficient tool for distributing information towards professionals, especially for e-learning contents.The goal of this work is to implement software and hardware tools for collecting medical lectures at its source by direct recording (halls and classrooms) and provide the automatic delivery of these resources for students on different type of devices (computer, smartphone or videogames console). We describe the overall architecture and the methods used by medical students to master this technology in their daily activities. We highlight the benefits and the limits of the Podcast technologies for medical education. PMID:21893751
Full Text Available Leila BenAmor1,21Department of Psychiatry Sainte-Justine Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaBackground: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in school aged children. Functional abnormalities have been reported in brain imaging studies in ADHD populations. Psychostimulants are considered as the first line treatment for ADHD. However, little is known of the effect of stimulants on brain metabolites in ADHD patients.Objectives: To compare the brain metabolite concentrations in children with ADHD and on stimulants with those of drug naïve children with ADHD, versus typically developed children, in a homogenous genetic sample of French Canadians.Methods: Children with ADHD on stimulants (n=57 and drug naïve children with ADHD (n=45 were recruited, as well as typically developed children (n=38. The presence or absence of ADHD diagnosis (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria was based on clinical evaluation and The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV. All children (n=140 underwent a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy session to measure the ratio of N-acetyl-aspartate, choline, glutamate, and glutamate–glutamine to creatine, respectively, in the left and right prefrontal and striatal regions of the brain, as well as in the left cerebellum.Results: When compared with drug naïve children with ADHD, children with ADHD on stimulants and children typically developed were found to have higher choline ratios in the left prefrontal region (P=0.04 and lower N-acetyl-aspartate ratios in the left striatum region (P=0.01, as well as lower glutamate–glutamine ratios in the left cerebellum (P=0.05. In these three regions, there was no difference between children with ADHD on stimulants and typically developed children.Conclusion: Therapeutic psychostimulant effects in children with ADHD may be
James, David; Yates, Janet; Nicholson, Sandra
Objectives To determine whether the UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) adds value to the selection process for school leaver applicants to medical and dental school, and in particular whether UKCAT can reduce the socioeconomic bias known to affect A levels. Design Cohort study Setting Applicants to 23 UK medical and dental schools in 2006. Participants 9884 applicants who took the UKCAT in the UK and who achieved at least three passes at A level in their school leaving examinations (53% of all...
Macridis, Soultana; García Bengoechea, Enrique
Background: Declines in physical activity (PA) in children and youth have contributed to increases in childhood overweight and obesity. The Safe Routes to School (SRTS) program was developed to promote school active transportation (AT) and reverse the trend. Methods: Adopting concepts of a realist approach, this article seeks to understand…
Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Yamashita, Miu; Yee, Keolamau; Kurahara, David
The Japanese Medical Education system has been influenced by political events throughout the country's history. From long periods of isolation from the western world to the effect of world wars, Japan's training system for physicians has had to adapt in many ways and will continue to change. The Japanese medical education system was recently compared to the “Galapagos Islands” for its unusual and singular evolution, in a speech by visiting professor Dr. Gordon L. Noel at the University of Tok...
KIST Medical College follows the curriculum of the Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University. The programme aims to produce socially responsible and competent physicians who are willing and able to meet the existing and emerging challenges of the national and international healthcare system. The first cohort of undergraduate medical students (MBBS) students was admitted in November 2008 and three cohorts including the one admitted in 2008 have been admitted at the time of writing. The basic...
Murphy, James R.
Because a student is more likely to learn and retain course content perceived as relevant, an attempt was made to change medical students' perceptions of a biometrics course by introducing statistical methods as a means of solving problems in the interpretation of clinical lab data. Retrospective analysis of student course evaluations indicates a…
Sianou-Kyrgiou, Eleni; Tsiplakides, Iakovos
A growing body of literature focuses on choice of studies in the context of policies on widening participation in higher education and graduates' difficulties in the labour market. Drawing on research findings showing a relationship between social class and choice of studies, we conducted a qualitative study on first-year medical students in a…
Lee, Karen C.; Dunlop, Dorothy; Dolan, Nancy C.
A study assessed the effect of training stage, gender, and specialty interest on 493 Northwestern University (Illinois) medical students' breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and clinical breast examination skills. Results suggest knowledge and attitudes are not related to clinical breast examination proficiency, which is a practiced tactile skill.…
Chaytor Andrew T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionalism in medical students is not only difficult to define but difficult to teach and measure. As negative behaviour in medical students is associated with post-graduate disciplinary action it would be useful to have a model whereby unprofessional behaviour at the undergraduate level can easily be identified to permit appropriate intervention. We have previously developed a scalar measure of conscientiousness, the Conscientiousness Index (CI, which positively correlates to estimates of professional behaviour in undergraduate medical students. By comparing CI points awarded in year 1 and year 2 of study we were able to use the CI model to determine whether teaching and clinical exposure had any effect on students’ conscientiousness. Methods CI points were collected by administrative staff from 3 successive cohorts of students in years 1 and 2 of study. Points were awarded to students for activities such as submission of immunisation status and criminal record checks, submission of summative assignments by a specified date and attendance at compulsory teaching sessions. CI points were then converted to a percentage of maximal possible scores (CI % to permit direct comparison between years 1 and 2 of study. Results CI % scores were generally high with each year of study for each cohort showing negatively skewed normal distributions with peaks > 89%. There was a high degree of correlation of CI % scores between year 1 and year 2 of study for each cohort alone and when cohort data was combined. When the change in CI % from year 1 to year 2 for all students was compared there was no significant difference in conscientiousness observed. Conclusions We have provided evidence that use of a CI model in undergraduate medical students provides a reliable measure of conscientiousness that is easy to implement. Importantly this study shows that measurement of conscientiousness by the CI model in medical students does not change
Stressbelastung von Medizinstudierenden messen: Übersetzung des „Perceived Medical School Stress Instruments“ in die deutsche Sprache [Measurement of specific medical school stress: translation of the “Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument” to the German language
Full Text Available [english] Objective: Medical students encounter specific stressors during their studies. As a result, they develop anxiety, depression and burnout symptoms more frequently than their similarly aged, but employed counterparts. In 1984, Vitaliano et al. published a 13-item instrument for the measurement of stress specific to medical school: the “Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument“ (PMSS. Since then, it has been widely applied and validated in English-speaking countries. No German version of the PMSS exists to date. Thus, our aim was to translate the instrument into the German language in order to be able to measure medical school stress in German-speaking countries.Method: The items of the PMSS were translated into German by three separate researchers. The resulting translations were compared and combined with each other to establish a first German version of each item in the PMSS. These items were then translated back into English by two native English speakers to validate the correct primary translation. Based on a revised German version, a cognitive debriefing with 19 German medical students and a theoretical testing on 169 German medical students, the final German translations for each of the 13 items were determined.Results: The PMSS was easily translated into German and there was a high congruency between the primary translations into German and the secondary translations back into English. Incongruities between the translations were solved quickly. The assessment of the German equivalent of the PMSS showed good results regarding its reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha 0.81.Conclusion: A German version of the PMSS is now available for measuring the medical school related stress in German-speaking countries.[german] Zielsetzung: Medizinstudierende sind spezifischen Stressoren ausgesetzt. Als Folge der Stressbelastung kommt es bei Medizinstudierenden im Vergleich zu gleichaltrigen Berufstätigen häufiger zu Ängsten, Depressionen und
Full Text Available The Hannover Medical School library was initially the only source to provide literature and information for the whole of the Medical School. Literature in every form is now made available by the central location of purchase based in the library. The traditional library is the main area to provide information and learning facilities for all students and employees. The extension of electronic facilities together with a broad spectrum of services offered by the library personnel constitutes the main functions of the library.
Ram, Anita; Chisolm, Margaret S
This commentary highlights the growing demand for substance abuse prevention and treatment, summarizes the literature regarding the current insufficiencies in substance abuse training in medical schools, and suggests strategies to address this gap in physician education. The authors describe how the combination of mandated coverage for substance abuse services and expanding treatment needs means that more physicians, regardless of their patient populations, will be faced with addressing the problem of substance use. The authors review the literature on substance abuse training in medical schools, which indicates insufficient exposure to this topic. The authors describe how current substance abuse training at medical schools is focused on transmitting scientific knowledge with relatively little education or training in attitudes and skills central to effective prevention and treatment. Given the gap between clinical need and physician education, the authors suggest several strategies for medical schools to increase training in substance abuse knowledge, attitudes, and skills, which will enhance the practice of evidence-based care. The authors posit that medical curricular reform, combined with initiatives to change clinical culture around substance abuse, will translate into improved rates of screening, shorter overall length of treatment, effective referrals for continued treatment, and increased access to care for individuals who use substances and so reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with substance use. PMID:25749922
Mellanby, A. R.; Phelps, F. A.; Crichton, N J; Tripp, J H
OBJECTIVES--To develop and teach a school sex education programme that will lead to a decrease in sexual activity. DESIGN--A matched internal and external control experiment, comparing control populations which received their own sex education programmes with populations which received a novel sex education intervention that included medical and peer led teaching. SETTING--Comprehensive secondary schools; control and intervention populations within Devon, and distant controls from rural, semi...
Landwirth, T K; Wilson, M L; Dorsch, J
The allocation of reference services between primary and secondary users constantly challenges academic medical libraries. Routine statistics at a medical school branch library suggested that over 40% of its reference transactions involved persons not affiliated with the university. To investigate this finding, a survey of reference activity was conducted using measurement techniques unobtrusive to the user. Fifteen data items were recorded, including user status, type of question, intended u...
Scicluna, Helen A.; Grimm, Michael C.; Jones, Philip D.; Pilotto, Louis S; McNeil, H. Patrick
Background This study evaluates the impact of a new 'Preparation for Internship’ (PRINT) course, which was developed to facilitate the transition of University of New South Wales (UNSW) medical graduates from Medical School to Internship. Methods During a period of major curricular reform, the 2007 (old program) and 2009 (new program) cohorts of UNSW final year students completed the Clinical Capability Questionnaire (CCQ) prior to and after undertaking the PRINT course. Clinical supervisors’...
The study of disease is a significant part of the pattern of funding for medical research in North America and elsewhere. Also, the existence of disease and its importance in all branches of the healing professions is the major justification for separate professional schools of medicine. These considerations should encourage a vigorous exploration and development of concepts of disease as an important part of any medical education. Based on much of the current research activities, concepts of...
Mojtahedzadeh, Rita; Mohammadi, Aeen; Kohan, Noushin; Gharib, Mitra; Zolfaghari, Mitra
Delphi as a consensus development technique enables anonymous, systematic refinement of expert opinion with the aim of arriving at a combined or consensual position. In this study, we determined the criteria and their weights for Iranian Medical Schools' ranking through a Delphi process. An expert committee devised 13 proposed criteria with 32 indicators with their weights, which were arranged hierarchically in the form of a tree diagram. We used the Delphi technique to reach a consensus on these criteria and weights among the deans of 38 public Iranian medical schools. For this purpose, we devised and sent a questionnaire to schools and asked them to suggest or correct the criteria and their weights. We repeated this process in two rounds till all the schools reached an acceptable consensus on them. All schools reached a consensus on the set of 13 criteria and 30 indicators and their weights in three main contexts of education, research and facilities, and equipment which were used for Medical Schools' ranking. Using Delphi technique for devising the criteria and their weights in evaluation processes such as ranking makes their results more acceptable among universities. PMID:27306348
Gerber, Jonathan P; Landau, Louis I
The Medical Schools Outcomes Database (MSOD) is an ongoing longitudinal tracking project ofmedical students from all medical schools in Australia and New Zealand. It was established in 2005 to track the career trajectories of medical students and will directly help develop models of workforce flow, particularly with respect to rural and remote shortages. This paper briefly outlines the MSOD project and reports on key methodological factors in tracking medical students. Finally, the potential impact of the MSOD on understanding changes in rural practice intentions is illustrated using data from the 2005 pilot cohort (n = 112). Rural placements were associated with a shift towards rural practice intentions, while those who intended to practice rurally at both the start and end of medical school tended to be older and interested in a generalist career. Continuing work will track these and future students as they progress through the workforce, as well as exploring issues such as the career trajectories of international fee-paying students, workforce succession planning, and the evaluation of medical education initiatives. PMID:21133296
Chou, Calvin L.; Teherani, Arianne; Dylan E. Masters; Vener, Margo; Wamsley, Maria; Poncelet, Ann
Purpose: When medical students move from the classroom into clinical practice environments, their roles and learning challenges shift dramatically from a formal curricular approach to a workplace learning model. Continuity among peers during clinical clerkships may play an important role in this different mode of learning. We explored students’ perceptions about how they achieved workplace learning in the context of intentionally formed or ad hoc peer groups.Method: We invited students in cle...
Klimas, Jan; Rieb, Launette; Bury, Gerard; Muench, John; O’Toole, Thomas; Rieckman, Traci; Cullen, Walter
Background: The Affordable Care Act (2010) brings an opportunity to increase the integration of addiction treatment into the health care system. With the anticipated expansion of addiction care services in primary care, challenges, such as workforce training, can be expected. This presentation discusses challenges and opportunities for addiction medicine training of primary care professionals in Ireland, Canada and Portland, OR. Objectives: To explore ideas for integrating addiction medic...
Möller, M.; Neitzke, G.; Stöckel, S; Lohff, B; Frewer, A.
In view of the new German curriculum regulations, inaugural teachings in the integrated course "History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine" were taking place during winter semester 2003/04. The survey examines the degree of implementation of this new integrated class at all German Medical Universities. It details questions about the organisation of the class, the importance of different course contents and the type of assessment and evaluation methods. Differences and difficulties in organising t...
Norkin I.A.; Zaretskov V.V.; Levchenko K.K.; Fedonnikov A.S.; Zaretskov A.V.; Kireev S.N.
The article deals with the issues on improving the efficiency of vertebrology teaching in specialist training at pre-and postgraduate stages. Modern epidemiologic trends for spine traumas and diseases form the increasing interest to the problems of care and prevention of the considered pathology and define the necessity of single-skilled specialists training. Developing vertebrology into a separate discipline that is studied at medical universities at both pre- and postgraduate stages is one ...
McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D.; Kirk, Sara F. L.; Kuhle, Stefan
Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA). Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Results: Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students. PMID:26610537
Jessie-Lee D. McIsaac
Full Text Available Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA. Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Results: Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students.
Benson John A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Empathy is important to patient care. The prevailing view is that empathy declines during university medical education. The significance of that decline has been debated. This paper reports the findings in respect of two questions relating to university medical education: 1. Do men and women medical students differ in empathy? 2. Does empathy change amongst men and women over time? Methods The medical course at the University of Cambridge comprises two components: Core Science (Years 1-3 and Clinical (Years 4-6. Data were obtained from repeated questionnaire surveys of medical students from each component over a period of four years: 2007-2010. Participation in the study was voluntary. Empathy was measured using two subscales of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index: IRI-EC (affective empathy and IRI-PT (cognitive empathy. We analysed data separately for men and women from the Core Science and Clinical components. We undertook missing value analyses using logistic regression separately, for each measure of empathy, to examine non-response bias. We used Student's t-tests to examine gender differences and linear mixed effects regression analyses to examine changes over time. To assess the influence of outliers, we repeated the linear mixed effects regression analyses having excluded them. Results Women displayed statistically significant higher mean scores than men for affective empathy in all 6 years of medical training and for cognitive empathy in 4 out of 6 years - Years 1 and 2 (Core Science component and Years 4 and 5 (Clinical component. Amongst men, affective empathy declined slightly during both Core Science and Clinical components. Although statistically significant, both of these changes were extremely small. Cognitive empathy was unchanged during either component. Amongst women, neither affective empathy nor cognitive empathy changed during either component of the course. Analysis following removal of outliers showed a
Mee Young Kim
To determine whether a pass/fail system is more appropriate for medical education instead of a grade-based system, a survey of medical students and faculty members of Hallym University, Korea, was taken. A questionnaire was delivered to 54 junior students and 36 faculty members from a medical school in Korea and analyzed. Of these participants, 37.7% of students and 36.1% of faculty agreed to the pass/fail system, while 28.3% of students and 52.8% of faculty objected to it. The most frequent ...
Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures the willingness of the medical students to pursue medical education even in the face of difficulty and sacrifice. GE students (59.64 ± 7.30) had higher strength of motivation as compared to NGE students (55.26 ± 8.33), so did females (57.05 ± 8.28) as compared to males (54.30 ± 8.08). 7.9% of the variance in the SMMS scores could be explained with the help of a linear regression model with age, gender and educational background/selection as predictor variables. Age was the single largest predictor. Maturity, taking developmental differences between sexes into account, was used as a predictor to correct for differences in the maturation of males and females. Still, the gender differences prevailed, though they were reduced. Pre-entrance educational background and selection also predicted the strength of motivation, but the effect of the two was confounded. Strength of motivation appears to be a dynamic entity, changing primarily with age and maturity and to a small extent with gender and experience. PMID:19774476
D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S
Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents' perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed sixth- to eighth-grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in Southern California (n = 8,214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13 years) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions, and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use 1 year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure 1 year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products. PMID:26030167
Full Text Available KIST Medical College follows the curriculum of the Institute ofMedicine, Tribhuvan University. The programme aims toproduce socially responsible and competent physicians whoare willing and able to meet the existing and emergingchallenges of the national and international healthcaresystem. The first cohort of undergraduate medical students(MBBS students was admitted in November 2008 and threecohorts including the one admitted in 2008 have beenadmitted at the time of writing. The basic science subjects aretaught in an integrated, organ-system-based manner withcommunity medicine during the first two years. I wasappointed as the MBBS Phase I programme coordinator inSeptember 2008 and in this article I share my experiences ofrunning the basic sciences programme and also offersuggestions for running an efficient academic programme. Themanuscript will be of special interest to readers runningundergraduate medical programmes. The reader canunderstand our experiences in running the programme inadverse circumstances, learning to achieve greater integrationamong basic science, community medicine and clinicaldepartments, obtain information about a communitydiagnosis programme and know about running specialmodules on the medical humanities and pharmaceuticalpromotion.
Morgan, Adrienne L.
The history of African Americans seeking medical education in the United States is rooted in a legacy of racial segregation, cultural constructs, and legal doctrine that differs from other ethnic and racial groups. The disturbing results of this legacy are that while African Americans account for 12.9% of the U.S. population, they only account for…
Ogugua A Egwu
Full Text Available Ogugua A Egwu1, Godson E Anyanwu21Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Ebonyi State; 2Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Enugu State, NigeriaBackground: Student attrition represents a waste of career opportunity and, at times, results in a holistic loss of sense of self-worth for the students involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nature, causes, and impact of medical student attrition in Nigeria.Method: A pilot analysis was undertaken using the records of students who failed at medical school as a result of inability to pass the second MBBS examination at Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria, between 2002 and 2007. Some of these students were interviewed using a structured questionnaire.Results: Data analysis showed that 58 (7.8% of the students admitted into preclinical class withdrew from their study. Thirty-six (62.1% were males and the rest were females. Thirteen of those withdrawn were interviewed, and 53.8% of them believed they had poor academic ability, while 15.4% attributed their withdrawal to family pressure. No record of guidance or counseling session programs was noted for these students either at the point of withdrawal from the faculty and on the choice of a new career path.Conclusion: As a result of the high attrition rate due to low academic ability, efforts should be made to check students for evidence of this at the point of admission to medicine training. Also, more accommodating teaching programs should be encouraged in faculties to accommodate students with such challenges. Good guidance and counseling programs should be encouraged to handle these inevitable cases of attrition when they occur, to avoid the demoralizing low self-esteem that plagues these individuals for the rest of their lives.Keywords: medical students, attrition, medical education, Nigeria
Bernabeo, R A
The relations between Spanish scholars and the University of Bologna may be dated back to the time of Saint Raymond of Penafort, Saint Antonius of Lisbon and Saint Dominic of Guzmàn. These connections became tighter as, a "House of Spanish People" was set up inside Saragozza Gate in order to give hospitality to young students desiring to study canon law, theology and medicine. Students attended constantly up to 1587, greatly contributing to the development of the great Spanish school of the modern age. It was only with the statutes of 1876 that this ancient habit was restored, with the institution of the "Advanced Centre of Post-graduate". PMID:11640109
Ismail, Salwani; Salam, Abdus; Alattraqchi, Ahmed G; Annamalai, Lakshmi; Chockalingam, Annamalai; Elena, Wan Putri; Rahman, Nor Iza A; Abubakar, Abdullahi Rabiu; Haque, Mainul
Background Didactic lecture is the oldest and most commonly used method of teaching. In addition, it is considered one of the most efficient ways to disseminate theories, ideas, and facts. Many critics feel that lectures are an obsolete method to use when students need to perform hands-on activities, which is an everyday need in the study of medicine. This study evaluates students’ perceptions regarding lecture quality in a new medical school. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted of the medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin. The study population was 468 preclinical medical students from years 1 and 2 of academic year 2012–2013. Data were collected using a validated instrument. There were six different sections of questions using a 5-point Likert scale. The data were then compiled and analyzed, using SPSS version 20. Results The response rate was 73%. Among 341 respondents, 30% were male and 70% were female. Eighty-five percent of respondents agree or strongly agree that the lectures had met the criteria with regard to organization of lecture materials. Similarly, 97% of students agree or strongly agree that lecturers maintained adequate voices and gestures. Conclusion Medical students are quite satisfied with the lecture classes and the lectures. However, further research is required to identify student-centered teaching and learning methods to promote active learning. PMID:25878516
Chang, Elaine; Eddins-Folensbee, Florence; Coverdale, John
Objective: The authors determined the prevalence of stress, depression, and burnout in medical students and the resources used by students in one school to alleviate psychological distress. Methods: A survey was administered to 526 students in the first 3 years of medical school (336 responders; response rate: 70%) at one institution, using a…
Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J.; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke
In this longitudinal study, we investigated the relationship between physicians' prior achievements (before, during and after medical school) and job satisfaction, and tested the two lines of reasoning that prior achievements influence job satisfaction positively or negatively, respectively. The participants were graduates who started their…
Newell, Debra A.; Raji, Mukaila; Lieberman, Steven; Beach, Robert E.
Most medical school curricula do not equip students with adequate attitudes, knowledge and skills to care for elderly populations. We describe an effective geriatric curricular infusion model compatible with preserving the overall curricula schema. Course and clerkship directors, staff and faculty from the Office of Educational Development, Center…
Kalkhoff, Nicole L.; Collins, Dana R.
Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine if job satisfaction differs between speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working in school settings and SLPs working in medical settings. Method: The Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) by Spector (1997) was sent via electronic mail to 250 SLPs in each of the 2 settings. Job satisfaction scores were…
Decker, Jesse; Ronay, Ashley; Telfer, Megan; Becker, Craig M.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Swinker, Marian
A medical school at a Southeastern university implemented a tobacco free policy to promote a healthy environment for its employees, patients, and visitors. Eighteen months post policy implementation, undergraduate students in the Department of Health Education and Promotion evaluated the satisfaction, awareness, and perceived…
Mallon, William T.; Biebuyck, Julien F.; Jones, Robert F.
Constructed a longitudinal database to examine how basic science departments have been reorganized at U.S. medical schools. Found that there were fewer basic science departments in the traditional disciplines of anatomy, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, and physiology in 1999 than in 1980. But as biomedical science has developed in an…
Lambert, Matthew C.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Epstein, Michael H.; W. Thompson, Ronald
Background: Behavioral, social, emotional, and educational risks among children and youth with school identified disabilities served in residential care have been well documented. However, the health care needs and medical service utilization of this high-risk population are less well known. Given the risks associated with children with…
Whyte, Barry James
R. John Collier, Maude and Lillian Presley Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at Harvard Medical School, will visit the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech on May 21 and 22 to discuss his research on the function of bacterial toxins, including how this work can be used to develop countermeasures against anthrax.
Recovering from the loss of a loved one can be difficult for anyone, but it can be especially trying for individuals already dealing with elevated levels of stress. Various studies have looked at the causes of stress in medical school students, but little has been done to understand the adjustments these students undergo after experiencing the…
Drake, Richard L.; McBride, Jennifer M.; Pawlina, Wojciech
Curricular changes continue at United States medical schools and directors of gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, neuroscience/neuroanatomy, and embryology courses continue to adjust and modify their offerings. Developing and supplying data related to current trends in anatomical sciences education is important if informed decisions are going to…
Juri, H; Sipowicz, O; Avila, R; Hernández, D; Palma, A
Informatics is the discipline that process efficiently all the necessary data to obtain information. The data acquisition, processing and interpretation is realized through traditional as well as automated means. Medical Informatics is the union of all methods of informatics in medicine including the preparation of medical data required for the application of these methods. Due to the need to keep up with the increasing amount of data that modern medicine is receiving and efficiently process it to obtain meaningful information, we propose the creation of a department of Medical Informatics in our Medical School to: 1) Teach the basic principles of medical informatics to undergraduate and graduate students, including lectures in: Information technics, medical terminology, medical linguistics, international classification of diseases, Hospital informations Systems, practical application of computing in medicine as Oncocyn, Mycin, etc., as well as external data bases. 2) Help the health sciences personnel to obtain and transfer medical information through the National and International Electronic Networks of Medical Information. PMID:1843360
Full Text Available The article presents the structure of personal features of students decided to devote their life to medical profession, their personal readiness for a profession of a doctor. 241 students going to enter the Saratov Medical University in 2013 serve as an object of research. Methods of research included psychology tests on a self-assessment of a mental state, ability to empathy, a motivation orientation. Result. It was revealed that the majority of respondents low level of uneasiness, low level of frustration, the average level of aggression, the average level of a rigidity, and also high rates on an empathy scale. The types of the personality in relation to work are emotive and intuitive. Prevalence of motive of achievement of success or motive of avoiding of failures directly depends on specifics of a situation. Conclusion. Students possess qualities which are necessary in professional activity for doctors, namely high resistance to stress, absence of fear before difficulties, low level of rigidity, high level of empathy, the average level of aggression. Students are motivated on success, in situations when they are fully confident.
Lewkonia Ray M
Full Text Available Abstract Mission statements and role documents of medical schools in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia have been examined on their Internet Web sites and categorised in purpose, content and presentation. The format and content are highly variable, but there is a common vision of three integral roles, namely, education, advancement of knowledge and service to society. Other frequent themes include tradition and historical perspective, service for designated communities, and benchmarking to accreditation standards. Differences in content reflect variable interpretation of the notion of "mission", and local or national characteristics such as institutional affiliations, the types, levels and organisation of medical education, relationships with health systems, and extent of multi-professional education. Outcomes data and measures of medical school performance referenced to the institution's stated missions are rarely encountered. Mission documents placed on the Internet are in the public domain. These Web sites and documents and linked information constitute a valuable new resource for international exchange of approaches and ideas in medical education and generally in academic medicine. Routine inclusion of outcome or performance data could help to demonstrate the community roles and social accountability of medical schools This paper proposes that partial standardisation of these Web documents could enhance their value both internally and for external readers. A generic descriptive statement template is offered.
The Salernitan School of Medicine was founded in the late 10th century as a loose association of medical teachers. The period before the middle 13th century was divided into three phases. In the early phase, before the end of 11th century, "practica" books were written, utilizing extant ancient literature, Arabic medical treatises were translated into Latin, and the medical text "Articella" was compiled. In the high phase before the end of the 12th century, the "Articella" was commented upon and new pharmacopeia and practica books were written. In the late phase before the middle of the 13th century, physicians who graduated from Salerno were active in various countries in Europe. After the middle of the 13th century the school developed organizations and rules, became a university at the end of 16th century, and was closed in 1811. The Salernitan school produced "Articella", which pioneered in theoretical medical education, and produced "practica", which dealt with both local diseases from head to foot and systemic fever diseases, and it continued until the end of 18th century. The two major disciplines of medical education before the end of 18th century, theoretica and practica, were derived from Salerno. PMID:27089736
Yu TC; Wilson NC; Singh PP; Lemanu DP; Hawken SJ; Hill AG
Tzu-Chieh Yu¹, Nichola C Wilson², Primal P Singh¹, Daniel P Lemanu¹, Susan J Hawken³, Andrew G Hill¹¹South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ²Department of Surgery, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ³Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandIntroduction: International interest in peer-teaching and peer-assisted learning ...
Whitworth, Judith A
BACKGROUND: In 2002 the Australian National Competitive Grants System was opened to the Institute of Advanced Studies at the Australian National University as part of a commitment to transparency, competitiveness, and collaboration in national research funding. RESULTS: The block grant to the John Curtin School of Medical Research had progressively eroded over many years. Access to the National Competitive Grants Schemes and associated infrastructure (through an agreed 'buy-in' price of 20% of block funding) has succeeded in its aims and in reversing this progressive effective decrease in funding. CONCLUSION: Access to the National Competitive Grant Scheme has allowed the John Curtin School of Medical Research to contribute more broadly to Australia's health and medical research effort through increased collaboration, in a transparent and competitive funding environment. PMID:15771773
Butler, Barbara Marie
The focus of this study was to explore factors influencing the disparity in the acceptance rate for African American students into medical school as compared to their white counterparts. This study compared the college environment of Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Principally White Institutions, with respect to African American students' perceptions regarding their college experiences and the extent to which they perceived that their experiences enhanced or diminished their success in gaining access to medical school. The community cultural wealth framework was used to explore whether the HBCU or the PWI is the better environment for undergraduate science majors. By use of the CCW framework the study explored which college environment nurtured students to be successful as a biology major, obtain a competitive MCAT score and ultimately secure acceptance into medical school. A qualitative research design served as the best approach to explore the object of inquiry in this study: the students' perception of their college environment, and their perceptions of their college experiences. The findings suggest that both the HBCU and the PWI reveal characteristics that enhanced and diminished the potential for success in the biology pre-med program. The results of this study specifically addressed barriers to access as factors which may be contributing to the disparities in the number of African American students admitted to medical school. These barriers are related to differences in the social dynamics of the university. In this study both groups of students perceived that there were the negative faculty attitudes, but these seemed to have little impact on access to medical school. Student motivation and identification with a supportive community seemed to have more impact on the potential for career success.
Bagley, Christopher; Bolitho, Floyd; Bertrand, Lorne
Reports on instrument validity regarding self-esteem among high school students (N=2,108) in the Province of Alberta. Results indicate significant variation of mean scores across age-groups within female students even though females had significantly lower self-esteem than males. Findings support the reliability of the self-esteem instrument. (RJM)
Maher Bridget M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical school attrition is important - securing a place in medical school is difficult and a high attrition rate can affect the academic reputation of a medical school and staff morale. More important, however, are the personal consequences of dropout for the student. The aims of our study were to examine factors associated with attrition over a ten-year period (2001–2011 and to study the personal effects of dropout on individual students. Methods The study included quantitative analysis of completed cohorts and qualitative analysis of ten-year data. Data were collected from individual student files, examination and admission records, exit interviews and staff interviews. Statistical analysis was carried out on five successive completed cohorts. Qualitative data from student files was transcribed and independently analysed by three authors. Data was coded and categorized and key themes were identified. Results Overall attrition rate was 5.7% (45/779 in 6 completed cohorts when students who transferred to other medical courses were excluded. Students from Kuwait and United Arab Emirates had the highest dropout rate (RR = 5.70, 95% Confidence Intervals 2.65 to 12.27;p Absenteeism was documented in 30% of students, academic difficulty in 55.7%, social isolation in 20%, and psychological morbidity in 40% (higher than other studies. Qualitative analysis revealed recurrent themes of isolation, failure, and despair. Student Welfare services were only accessed by one-third of dropout students. Conclusions While dropout is often multifactorial, certain red flag signals may alert us to risk of dropout including non-EU origin, academic struggling, absenteeism, social isolation, depression and leave of absence. Psychological morbidity amongst dropout students is high and Student Welfare services should be actively promoted. Absenteeism should prompt early intervention. Behind every dropout statistic lies a personal story. All
Rosenblatt, M; Rabkin, M T; Tosteson, D C
The economic forces that are reshaping the practice of medicine and the funding of medical research will have great impact on clinical education and research in teaching hospitals and their associated medical schools. Changes in the setting of and approach to medical education will need to be made in order to continue to train physicians at the same high level as in the past and to maintain the productivity of our national biomedical research enterprise and its contributions to health. Academic leaders, such as department chiefs who have clinical service responsibilities, are finding it more and more difficult to manage simultaneously the demands of the clinical business, education, and research. In an effort to organize a teaching hospital and a medical school in a manner that would position them to maintain more effectively their common academic mission front and center with the clinical business, Harvard Medical School and the Beth Israel Hospital created a joint venture in 1996. The new nonprofit Institute for Education and Research has education and research as its top (and only) mission. It is designed to provide additional and specific academic leadership and to enable the joint venture to undertake strategic planning for the academic mission. In addition to the challenges it faces from changes in the external environment, the Institute for Education and Research will need to establish a new pattern of interactions internally within the parent institutions. Collaborations with department chairs and faculty are an essential ingredient for its success. It is hoped that this structure will prove to be a useful template for organizing other medical school-hospital collaborations on behalf of the academic mission. PMID:9200578
Pistiner, Michael; Devore, Cynthia DiLaura; Schoessler, Sally
Community pediatricians, working in consultation with allergists, create a medical home that is the central focus of care for the child with life-threatening food allergies. They participate in coordinating mutual and critical collaborations within schools that support families and children. They can provide leadership and guidance to both families and schools to safeguard children and adolescents, thereby extending the medical home goals into the school setting. PMID:26456441
Back, David Alexander; Behringer, Florian; Harms, Tina; Plener, Joachim; Sostmann, Kai; Peters, Harm
Background The use of electronic learning formats (e-learning) in medical education is reported mainly from individual specialty perspectives. In this study, we analyzed the implementation level of e-learning formats and the institutional support structures and strategies at an institutional level in a cluster of mid-European medical schools. Methods A 49-item online questionnaire was send to 48 medical schools in Austria, Germany and Switzerland using SurveyMonkey®. Data were collected betwe...
Loh, Alvona Zi Hui; Tan, Julia Shi Yu; Lee, Jeannette Jen-Mai; Koh, Gerald Choon Huat
Purpose: In medical school, students may participate in various community involvement projects (CIP), which serve disadvantaged communities. However, several obstacles may arise during these projects. The authors conducted a qualitative study with the primary aim of understanding the obstacles and corresponding potential solutions when medical students in Singapore participate in local CIP (LCIP) and overseas CIP (OCIP).Design: The authors recruited medical students from Yong Loo Lin School o...
Full Text Available Imran A Siddiqui,1 Khalid A Bin Abdulrahman,2 Mohammed A Alsultan3 1Department of Medical Education and Postgraduate Studies, Saudi Commission for Health Specialties, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine, Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Every year nearly 1,500 students enter into medical program after passing high school and national aptitude exams. However, many students experience frustration, failure, and psychological morbidities like stress, depression, and anxiety because they are not aware of their learning styles or do not have effective learning skills and strategies. The College of Medicine of Al-Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University has adopted the outcome based, community oriented, Spiral Curriculum. Although the curriculum is innovative, on the other hand, it is very demanding. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to share educational structure and evaluation results of the course on effective learning and study skills for the 1st year medical students. Methods: To prepare our students in order to cope with this demanding but promising curriculum, we conducted an effective and comprehensive learning skills course for 16 weeks in the first semester of year 1 in the medical program. Performance of each student was assessed and the course evaluation was done by students at the end of the course. Results: The attendance of the students throughout the course was over 90%. The average performance of students in the summative assessment was 78% and the course was generally liked by the students. Discussion: Students overall had a positive attitude toward the learning skills course. Majority of the students showed interest in attending the sessions regularly and realized the significance of this course to improve their learning skills. Keywords: medical students, learning
La Rocco, A
Historically, medical information has been provided to patients at the physician's discretion. Although this method never has been wholly satisfactory, the trend toward bureaucratic organization of medical care, characterized by impersonal patient encounters and prompted by increased emphasis on cost controls, has restricted patient information even further. Yet, at the same time, the upsurge in consumer power has created patient demand for more health information. Consumers feel they have a right to expect help in obtaining information so they can make informed decisions with respect to their medical care. This paper focuses on the medical school-based consumer health service in this context. In particular, it calls attention to the medical school library as the foundation for expanded health information resources, pointing to the tools of information retrieval, as well as the substantive information contained in the medical, nursing, and allied health literature. In this setting, the consumer health librarian is called upon to act as a mediator in providing quality-filtered information to the patron, while at the same time remaining within the confines of professional expertise as a librarian. Important sources of health information are highlighted, particularly online databases, drug indexes, therapeutic texts, and physician specialist directories. PMID:8136760
Full Text Available BackgroundA major focus of the medical school curriculum is to ensure medical students are well prepared prior to entering clinical rotations, which includes the compulsory surgical rotation.AimsThe objective of this research was to design and formally evaluate a set of real-life surgical workshops aimed at better preparing medical students for their clinical rotation in surgery. These workshops would be incorporated into the pre-clinical medical school curriculum.MethodDedicated surgical workshops were introduced into the preclinical component of the Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS program at our University in 2009. These workshops encompassed training in the clinical skills needed in the perioperative and wider hospital setting. A survey comprising of eight to nine ranked questions (utilising a five-point Likert Scale as well as three short answer questions was administered to the medical students after they completed their compulsory surgical clinical rotation.ResultsThe overall response rate to the survey evaluating the surgical workshops was 79% (123/155. The mean of the ranked questions ranged from 4.05 to 4.89 which indicated that the students found the workshops useful. When evaluating the short answer questions (via topic coding, additional information was provided that supported and explained the survey findings and also included suggestions for improvements.ConclusionThe findings of the medical student survey demonstrated the value of incorporating dedicated preparatory surgical workshops in the medical school pre-clinical curriculum. However, further research is warranted to determine if this inclusion translated into improved student performance during the clinical surgical rotation.
Holman, Michelle A.; Porter, Samuel G.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Juskewitch, Justin E.; Lachman, Nirusha
Emotional intelligence (EI) has been associated with increased academic achievement, but its impact on medical education is relatively unexplored. This study sought to evaluate change in EI, performance outcomes, and team cohesion within a team-based medical school anatomy course. Forty-two medical students completed a pre-course and post-course…
Sallin Karl; Thulesius Hans O; Lynoe Niels; Löfmark Rurik
Abstract Background The value of ethics education have been questioned. Therefore we did a student survey on attitudes about the teaching of ethics in Swedish medical schools. Methods Questionnaire survey on attitudes to ethics education with 409 Swedish medical students participating. We analyzed > 8000 words of open-ended responses and multiple-choice questions using classic grounded theory procedures. Results In this paper we suggest that medical students take a proximity morality stance t...
von Lengerke, Thomas; Kursch, Angelika; Lange, Karin; ,
In the model medical curriculum HannibaL at Hannover Medical School (MHH, Hannover, Germany), communication skills in taking case histories and disclosing diagnoses (breaking bad news) are assessed through an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). This is part of the examinations which at the MHH represent the equivalent to the First Part of the Medical Examinations. The second year doctor-patient communication course preparing for these examinations was evaluated during the 2009/1...
Lande, R Gregory; Wyatt, Stephen A; Przekop, Peter R
The World Health Organization has identified nicotine, alcohol, and illicit drugs as among the top 10 contributors of morbidity and mortality in the world. Substance use disorders are preventable conditions that are major contributors to poor health, family dysfunction, and various social problems in the United States-problems that have a profound economic impact. The American Osteopathic Academy of Addiction Medicine seeks to promote teaching of addiction medicine at colleges of osteopathic medicine (COMs), which-honoring the osteopathic concepts of holistic medicine and disease prevention-are well poised to develop a model addiction medicine curriculum. Educators and students at COMs can use guidelines from Project MAINSTREAM, a core addiction medicine curriculum designed to improve education of health professionals in substance abuse, for developing addiction medicine curricula and for gauging their professional growth. These guidelines should be incorporated into the first 2 years of osteopathic medical students' basic science didactics. The authors encourage the development of addiction medicine courses and curricula at all COMs. PMID:20386021
H S Kiran
Full Text Available Background: The accomplishment and contentment of students depends upon their educational environment. Very few studies in India have looked at the impact of educational environment on students, there are few such studies in our country despite having a large number of medical schools. Objective: This study was performed to assess the undergraduate students′ perceptions of medical education in general and educational environment in our medical school in particular. Materials and Methods: The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM, a validated inventory was distributed among undergraduate students in final Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS (2010-2011 and students who were undergoing internship (2010-2011 and various scores were calculated and the means were compared using Mann-Whitney test. Results: The mean total DREEM score was found to be 121.5/200 for final MBBS students (n = 115 and 118.4/200 (n = 109 for the internship batch students. There was no statistically significant difference between the scores of the two batches. The overall DREEM score for our Medical School during the academic year 2010-2011 (for the final MBBS and internship batch was 120/200 (n = 224, which showed that the students′ perceptions were more positive. Conclusion: The study showed that the students′ perception of the educational environment was positive. There was no statistically significant difference between the scores of the two batches (final MBBS and internship. This study helped us to introspect and identify remediable areas in the educational environment of our medical school and hence we could suggest some measures to modify them.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The international migration of physicians is a global public health problem. Lebanon is a source country with the highest emigration factor in the Middle East and North Africa and the 7th highest in the World. Given that residency training abroad is a critical step in the migration of physicians, the objective of this study was to survey students of Lebanese medical schools about their intentions to train abroad and their post training plans. Methods Our target population consisted of all students of Lebanese medical schools in the pre-final and final years of medical school. We developed the survey questionnaire based on the results of a qualitative study assessing the intentions and motives for students of Lebanese medical schools to train abroad. The questionnaire inquired about student's demographic and educational characteristics, intention to train abroad, the chosen country of abroad training, and post-training intention of returning to Lebanon. Results Of 576 eligible students, 425 participated (73.8% response rate. 406 (95.5% respondents intended to travel abroad either for specialty training (330 (77.6% or subspecialty training (76 (17.9%. Intention to train abroad was associated with being single compared with being married. The top 4 destination countries were the US (301(74.1%, France (49 (12.1%, the United Kingdom (31 (7.6% and Canada (17 (4.2%. One hundred and two (25.1% respondents intended to return to Lebanon directly after finishing training abroad; 259 (63.8% intended to return to Lebanon after working abroad temporarily for a varying number or years; 43 (10.6% intended to never return to Lebanon. The intention to stay indefinitely abroad was associated male sex and having a 2nd citizenship. It was inversely associated with being a student of one of the French affiliated medical schools and a plan to train in a surgical specialty. Conclusion An alarming percentage of students of Lebanese medical schools
Routine childhood immunizations against infectious diseases are an integral part of our public health infrastructure. They provide direct protection to the immunized individual and indirect protection to children and adults unable to be immunized via the effect of community immunity. All 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have regulations requiring proof of immunization for child care and school attendance as a public health strategy to protect children in these settings and to secondarily serve as a mechanism to promote timely immunization of children by their caregivers. Although all states and the District of Columbia have mechanisms to exempt school attendees from specific immunization requirements for medical reasons, the majority also have a heterogeneous collection of regulations and laws that allow nonmedical exemptions from childhood immunizations otherwise required for child care and school attendance. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) supports regulations and laws requiring certification of immunization to attend child care and school as a sound means of providing a safe environment for attendees and employees of these settings. The AAP also supports medically indicated exemptions to specific immunizations as determined for each individual child. The AAP views nonmedical exemptions to school-required immunizations as inappropriate for individual, public health, and ethical reasons and advocates for their elimination. PMID:27573087
Si Mui SIM
Traditional pharmacology teaching has focused more on drug instead of therapeutics, such that although pharmacological knowledge is acquired, practical skills in prescribing remain weak. In Malaysia many new medical schools (both public and private) have been set up in the last 12 years due to a change in government policy, resulting in a wide spectrum of medical curricula. Universiti Malaya (UM) being the oldest medical school in Malaysia was deep set in its traditional way of teaching-learning, since its inception in 1962, until a visit from the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom in 1984 triggered off a change of tide. Since then the medical curriculum in UM has undergone two major revisions. The first revised curriculum (1988) aimed to inject more clinical relevance into basic science teaching, through introducing clinical lectures and skills in the paraclinical year.Professional behaviour was also addressed. The second revised curriculum (1998) sought to improve further the integration of knowledge as well as to produce a holistic doctor, viewing the patient as a person instead of a clinical entity. The teaching-learning of pharmacology has gradually moved from factual regurgitation to more clinical reasoning, from lab-based to more patient-oriented approach. As more new medical schools are being set up in Malaysia, exchange of experience in this area of learning will hopefully help us find a happy medium between "the old is best" and "the new is better" type approach so that a pedagogically sound and yet logistically practical curriculum can be found in our local setting, to help produce doctors with good prescribing practice.
Sim, Si Mui
Traditional pharmacology teaching has focused more on drug instead of therapeutics, such that although pharmacological knowledge is acquired, practical skills in prescribing remain weak. In Malaysia many new medical schools (both public and private) have been set up in the last 12 years due to a change in government policy, resulting in a wide spectrum of medical curricula. Universiti Malaya (UM) being the oldest medical school in Malaysia was deep set in its traditional way of teaching-learning, since its inception in 1962, until a visit from the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom in 1984 triggered off a change of tide. Since then the medical curriculum in UM has undergone two major revisions. The first revised curriculum (1988) aimed to inject more clinical relevance into basic science teaching, through introducing clinical lectures and skills in the paraclinical year. Professional behaviour was also addressed. The second revised curriculum (1998) sought to improve further the integration of knowledge as well as to produce a holistic doctor, viewing the patient as a person instead of a clinical entity. The teaching-learning of pharmacology has gradually moved from factual regurgitation to more clinical reasoning, from lab-based to more patient-oriented approach. As more new medical schools are being set up in Malaysia, exchange of experience in this area of learning will hopefully help us find a happy medium between "the old is best" and "the new is better" type approach so that a pedagogically sound and yet logistically practical curriculum can be found in our local setting, to help produce doctors with good prescribing practice. PMID:15339399
Elon Lisa K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior literature has shown that physicians with healthy personal habits are more likely to encourage patients to adopt similar habits. However, despite the possibility that promoting medical student health might therefore efficiently improve patient outcomes, no one has studied whether such promotion happens in medical school. We therefore wished to describe both typical and outstanding personal health promotion environments experienced by students in U.S. medical schools. Methods We collected information through four different modalities: a literature review, written surveys of medical school deans and students, student and dean focus groups, and site visits at and interviews with medical schools with reportedly outstanding student health promotion programs. Results We found strong correlations between deans' and students' perceptions of their schools' health promotion environments, including consistent support of the idea of schools' encouraging healthy student behaviors, with less consistent follow-through by schools on this concept. Though students seemed to have thought little about the relationships between their own personal and clinical health promotion practices, deans felt strongly that faculty members should model healthy behaviors. Conclusions Deans' support of the relationship between physicians' personal and clinical health practices, and concern about their institutions' acting on this relationship augurs well for the role of student health promotion in the future of medical education. Deans seem to understand their students' health environment, and believe it could and should be improved; if this is acted on, it could create important positive changes in medical education and in disease prevention.
Guo, Lan; Xu, Yan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Gao, Xue; Li, Pengsheng; Wu,Hong; Zhou, Jinhua; Lu, Ciyong
Objectives Given the differences between general high school (GHS) and vocational high school (VHS) students, this study aimed to investigate the lifetime prevalence of non-medical use of prescription pain relievers (NMUPPR) among high school students as well as the associations between NMUPPR and individual-level factors and school category. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in GHS and VHS students in 2012 in Chongqing, and 11 906 students’ questionnaires were completed and quali...
Full Text Available Background: Interest in global health is rapidly increasing amongst US medical students. Many students aspire to incorporate global health into their future careers, while others seek international opportunities to better prepare themselves for domestic practice. US medical schools have begun responding to this burgeoning interest with varying intensity and through a number of different strategies. Conclusions: Three important themes involved include: increasing the academic rigor of programming, fostering sustainable site partnerships, and encouraging mentorship and reflection for the students involved. Finally, the growing practice of service learning might also play a helpful role in integrating these themes into expanding global health programs.
Hamdy, Hossam; Anderson, M Brownell
In the late 1970s, leaders of the Arabian [corrected] Gulf countries proposed a novel idea of a joint educational and cultural venture: establishing a new regional university based in the Kingdom of Bahrain that would be managed as a multinational consortium of Gulf countries including Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Bahrain. It was intended to promote higher education and research in the Gulf region; to serve the development needs of the region; to reflect the unique economic, social, and cultural attributes of the Gulf communities and their environments; and to respond to the health care needs of the member countries. Since its inception in 1982, the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS) at Arabian Gulf University (AGU) has adopted the educational philosophy of problem-based learning (PBL) and self-directed, student-centered education. The curriculum is integrated, with early introduction of education to foster clinical skills and professional competencies. The strategic alliance with the health care systems in Bahrain and other Gulf regions has created a successful model of efficient and effective initialization of health care resources in the community. The experience that has accumulated at the AGU-CMMS from introducing innovative medical education has allowed it to take a leadership position in medical education in the Gulf region. The original goals of this unique experiment have been realized along with unanticipated outcomes of spearheading changes in medical education in the Gulf region. Old and new medical schools have adopted several characteristics of the AGU educational program. Several elements contributed to its success: a clear vision of providing quality medical education and realizing and sustaining this vision by a supportive leadership at the university and college levels; an alliance with the regional health care systems; a dedicated faculty who have been able to work as a team while continually
Heuer, Beth; Williams, Shenoa
Pediatric nurse practitioners take a lead role in diagnosing and coordinating the care of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). School nurses offer rich insight into the child's health and social and academic functioning in the school setting. School nurses develop individualized health care plans, administer and monitor medications, provide valuable input on Individualized Education Plans and Section 504 Accommodation Plans, and serve as the point person in communicating with the medical provider. Pediatric nurse practitioners can enhance the collaboration with school nurses by establishing communication parameters, streamlining medication regimens, and facilitating development of educational curricula for school nurses regarding evidence-based ADHD management. Optimizing partnerships with school nurses will provide better surveillance of treatment efficacy and can facilitate improved health and academic and social outcomes for children with ADHD. PMID:26454689
Bifulco, M; Amato, M; Gangemi, G; Marasco, M; Caggiano, M; Amato, A; Pisanti, S
Even though dental care is sometimes erroneously considered a modern practice, written records from major ancient civilisation all around the world date back to several millennia BC. In particular, in the Middle Ages, among the tenth and thirteenth centuries, the illustrious Medical School of Salerno in Italy, the most important institution in the Western world for the diffusion of medical knowledge, disseminated through its precepts the importance of oral hygiene and practiced specific dental therapies for tooth decay, gingivitis, paradentosis and halitosis among others. Interestingly, several of the officinal plants and natural ingredients proposed for oral care by the school's most famous physicians recipes, notably those of the legendary Trotula De Ruggiero, considered the first female physician in history, are still in vogue in the twenty-first century. PMID:27444600
Safak Taner Gursoy; Isil Ergin; Zeliha Asli Ocek; Meltem Ciceklioglu
BACKGROUND: To determine The Medical Technology Vocational Training School (MTVTS) students the knowledge about the effects of GMO on human health and environment and to evaluate their attitude and behavior has been aimed. METHODS: All of the second class students of the year 2006-2007 of MTVTS were included (N=161) in the study, response rate was 92%. The survey questionare included questions on knowledge, the risk perception and attitute about GMOs. The legal framework in Turkey about...
Husbands, Adrian; Rodgerson, Mark J.; Dowell, Jon; Patterson, Fiona
Background While the construct of integrity has emerged as a front-runner amongst the desirable attributes to select for in medical school admissions, it is less clear how best to assess this characteristic. A potential solution lies in the use of Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) which have gained popularity due to robust psychometric evidence and potential for large-scale administration. This study aims to explore the psychometric properties of an SJT designed to measure the construct of i...
The University of Toronto medical school is using a multistep strategy in an attempt to prevent sexual harassment among students and faculty members. A driving force behind the program is Dr. Miriam Rossi, who was recently appointed associate dean of student affairs. As well, the dean of medicine sent a notice to faculty members explaining that there will be zero tolerance "for any behaviour that can be construed to be sexual harassment."
Wouters, Anouk; Bakker, Anneke H; van Wijk, Inge J; Croiset, Gerda; Kusurkar, Rashmi A
Background Selection committees try to ascertain that motivated students are selected for medical school. Self-determination theory stresses that the type of motivation is more important than the quantity of motivation. Autonomous motivation, compared to controlled motivation, in students leads to better learning outcomes. Applicants can express their motivation in written statements, a selection tool which has been found to elicit heterogeneous responses, hampering the comparison of applican...
This popularly written article compares Canadian attitudes to protests against nuclear power to those in the United States. Canadian protesters are more peaceful, expressing their opinions within the law. The article describes the main anti-nuclear groups in Canada and presents the results of public opinion surveys of Canadians on the use of nuclear power for generating electricity. (TI)
Lockspeiser, Tai M.; Gong, Jennifer; Guiton, Gretchen
Purpose Little is known about the purpose and value of the fourth year of medical school from the perspective of medical students. In this study, the authors systematically explored the year’s purpose and value as determined by students. Method In April 2011, the authors conducted semistructured focus groups with graduating fourth-year students at the University of Colorado School of Medicine to understand their perspectives on the purpose of the fourth year. Using results of a thematic analysis of the focus group data, the authors developed and administered a 10-item questionnaire to all graduating fourth-year medical students in May 2011. Questionnaire data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis. Results A total of 17 students participated in two focus groups. Six themes related to the purpose of the fourth year emerged from the focus group data: career development and preparation, pursuing personal interests, career identification, exploration of diverse practice settings, influence of emotion, and flexibility and individualization. The questionnaire was completed by 134 of 148 students (91% response rate). Factor analysis of the questionnaire data identified five factors: strengthening one’s residency application, developing skills, pursuing personal interests, exploring diverse practice settings, and identifying a career. Conclusions Medical students uniformly identified the fourth year of medical school as having purpose and value, but their views on the fourth year’s purpose differed. This finding underscores the importance of the individualization of the fourth year. Students’ perspectives should inform any decisions made about modifying fourth-year curricula and structure. PMID:24556778
Full Text Available Sami Shaban, Michelle McLeanDepartment of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab EmiratesBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive potential of multiple indicators (eg, preadmission scores, unit, module and clerkship grades, course and examination scores on academic performance at medical school, with a view to identifying students at risk.Methods: An analysis was undertaken of medical student grades in a 6-year medical school program at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, over the past 14 years.Results: While high school scores were significantly (P < 0.001 correlated with the final integrated examination, predictability was only 6.8%. Scores for the United Arab Emirates university placement assessment (Common Educational Proficiency Assessment were only slightly more promising as predictors with 14.9% predictability for the final integrated examination. Each unit or module in the first four years was highly correlated with the next unit or module, with 25%–60% predictability. Course examination scores (end of years 2, 4, and 6 were significantly correlated (P < 0.001 with the average scores in that 2-year period (59.3%, 64.8%, and 55.8% predictability, respectively. Final integrated examination scores were significantly correlated (P < 0.001 with National Board of Medical Examiners scores (35% predictability. Multivariate linear regression identified key grades with the greatest predictability of the final integrated examination score at three stages in the program.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that it may be possible to identify “at-risk” students relatively early in their studies through continuous data archiving and regular analysis. The data analysis techniques used in this study are not unique to this institution.Keywords: at-risk students, grade
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine student evaluation of the academic advising process in an Iranian medical school. Method: We conducted a cross sectional survey of all fourth and fifth year students who studied medicine, nursing and laboratory technology. A short version of a validated questionnaire was administrated to 85 students (23 males and 62 females at Fasa Medical School, Iran. Results: Of the students, 48 (56 were satisfied with the academic advising process. The descriptive analysis of the study showed that many students (n=72 valued the importance of feedback on student ability in the academic advising process. A further descriptive analysis showed that 34 students (40 were satisfied that advisers were aware of their records. There was a significant difference between student's main course (χ[sup]2[/sup][sub](2[/sub] = 8.9; p = 0.012 and satisfaction with academic advising. However, the observed differences between female and male students in this study were not statistically significant (χ[sup]2[/sup][sub](1[/sub] = 2.2; p= 0.107. Conclusions: The results of this study reveal a lack of systematic planning, skills and resources for the academic advising process at the Fars Medical School. The results indicate the need for academic staff development initiatives to improve the academic advising process. An ongoing evaluation program of the academic needs of students may help to advisors to provide academic advising and academic support for students in various courses.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As preventing cancer with the help of a vaccine is a comparatively new concept, awareness and education about it will have important implication in the implementation of this strategy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Present explorative questionnaire based survey included 618 MBBS students for final analysis. RESULTS: Majority of participants (89.6% were well aware of the preventable nature of cervical cancer. Most of them (89.2% knew that necessary factor responsible for cervical cancer is infection with high risk HPV. Awareness regarding the availability of vaccine against cervical cancer was 75.6%. Females had a better awareness regarding availability of vaccine, target population for vaccination and about the catch up program. Overall acceptance of HPV vaccine among the population studied was 67.8%. Medical teaching had a definitive impact on the understanding of this important public health issue. Females seemed to be more ready to accept the vaccine and recommend it to others. For our study population the most common source of information was medical school teaching. Majority of participants agreed that the most important obstacle in implementation of HPV vaccination program in our country is inadequate information and 86.2% wanted to be educated by experts in this regard. CONCLUSION: HPV vaccine for primary prevention of cervical cancer is a relatively new concept. Health professional will be able to play a pivotal role in popularizing this strategy.
Xu, Xiao-jing; Xu, Li-min; Shen, Chun-feng; Wang, Cai-hua; Shen, Chun-ti
Based on the software of traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system (TCMISS), this article aims to analyze the experience and composition rules for cough from the descendant of Meng He Medical School, Xu Di-hua. The cough cases treated by Xu Di-hua were collected, and recorded into TCMISS (V2.0). Data mining methods such as Apriori algorithm and complex system entropy cluster were used to analyze the medication principles of Xu Di-hua for cough from pathogenesis and therapeutie aspects, and dig out the frequency of the herbs in prescription, core medicine and new combinations. The experience of curing cough from Professor Xu Di-hua were well found in the research. He is good at choosing prescriptions accurately, and pays attention to simultaneous use of cold and moisture drugs with combination of tonification and purgation. He is skilled in adding or reducing materia medica flexibly, as well as regulating lung to relieve cough and eliminating phlegm by clearing heat. PMID:27071274
David B. Duong
Full Text Available Background: In 2013, the Harvard Medical School Center for Primary Care established the Abundance Agents of Change (AoC program to promote interprofessional learning and innovation, increase partnership between 15 academic and community health centers (CHCs in Boston's most under-served communities, and increase medical student interest in primary care careers. Methods: The AoC is modeled in the form of a ‘grants challenge’, offering $20,000 to interprofessional student teams to develop an innovative solution that addresses a healthcare delivery need identified by CHCs. The program's initial two years were characterized by a four-stage process which included working with CHCs and crafting a request for proposals, forming interprofessional 20 student teams comprising students from across and outside of Harvard University, training students using a systems-based innovation curriculum, and performing program evaluation. Results: Our evaluation data from cohorts 1 and 2 of the AoC program demonstrate that we succeeded in training students as innovators and members of interprofessional teams. We also learned valuable lessons regarding creating better alignment with CHC priorities, extending the program cycle from 12 to 18 months, and changing the way funding is disbursed to 25 students, which will be incorporated in later versions of the program. Conclusions: Based on our experience and evaluation data, we believe that this program is a replicable way to train students as innovators and members of interprofessional teams to address the current complex healthcare environment.
McHugh, S M
INTRODUCTION: Obtaining a place in an Irish medical school is extremely competitive, a situation mirrored in many other countries. We aimed to determine the factors influencing school students in deciding to study medicine in university. We further determined what level of interest exists in pursuing a surgical career after completion of medical school. METHODS: The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland hosts an annual "Introduction to Medicine" programme for senior school children. Attendees were surveyed using a Likert scale to examine the factors influencing the group in choosing to study medicine, and pursue surgery as their ultimate career choice. RESULTS: A total of 128 completed the survey, giving a response rate of 100%. The opportunity to help others was most the most influential factors cited by students (97%). Males were significantly more likely to have an interest in a career in surgery rather than medicine (p = 0.003), and ranked "financial reward" (p = 0.036) as a more significant factors in influencing career choice than did females. CONCLUSIONS: A clear understanding of these factors influencing our students in their career choices and a strategy of recruitment based on these is imperative in order to optimize recruitment of students most suited to working as doctors.
Yu, Ji Hye; Chae, Su Jin; Chang, Ki Hong
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among academic self-efficacy, socially-prescribed perfectionism, and academic burnout in medical school students and to determine whether academic self-efficacy had a mediating role in the relationship between perfectionism and academic burnout. Methods: A total of 244 first-year and second-year premed medical students and first- to fourth-year medical students were enrolled in this study. As study tools, socially-prescribed perfectionism, academic self-efficacy, and academic burnout scales were utilized. For data analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Results: Academic burnout had correlation with socially-prescribed perfectionism. It had negative correlation with academic self-efficacy. Socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy had 54% explanatory power for academic burnout. When socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy were simultaneously used as input, academic self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic burnout. Conclusion: Socially-prescribed perfectionism had a negative effect on academic self-efficacy, ultimately triggering academic burnout. This suggests that it is important to have educational and counseling interventions to improve academic self-efficacy by relieving academic burnout of medical school students. PMID:26838568
McGregor, Deborah M.; Mellis, Craig M.
Purpose Team-based learning (TBL), a structured form of small-group learning, has gained popularity in medical education in recent years. A growing number of medical schools have adopted TBL in a variety of combinations and permutations across a diversity of settings, learners, and content areas. The authors conducted this systematic review to establish the extent, design, and practice of TBL programs within medical schools to inform curriculum planners and education designers. Method The authors searched the MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and ERIC databases for articles on TBL in undergraduate medical education published between 2002 and 2012. They selected and reviewed articles that included original research on TBL programs and assessed the articles according to the seven core TBL design elements (team formation, readiness assurance, immediate feedback, sequencing of in-class problem solving, the four S’s [significant problem, same problem, specific choice, and simultaneous reporting], incentive structure, and peer review) described in established guidelines. Results The authors identified 20 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria. They found significant variability across the articles in terms of the application of the seven core design elements and the depth with which they were described. The majority of the articles, however, reported that TBL provided a positive learning experience for students. Conclusions In the future, faculty should adhere to a standardized TBL framework to better understand the impact and relative merits of each feature of their program. PMID:24556770
Abraham, Reem R; Kamath, Asha; Upadhya, Subramanya; Ramnarayan, Komattil
Inventories monitoring students' learning approaches are widely used in medical education research. It is important that teaching interventions adopted in medical schools aim to develop a deep approach to learning in medical students. To study the changes in medical students' approaches to learning before and after the incorporation of clinically orientated physiology teaching (COPT) in the undergraduate physiology curriculum, using the Short Inventory of Approaches to Learning (SIAL). Medical students (n = 223) at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus) undertake a 9-week learning block of endocrine, reproductive and renal physiology in Year 1. During this period, COPT was incorporated along with regular didactic lectures with the intention of enhancing the use of the deep approach and decreasing the use of the surface and strategic approaches to learning taken by the students. The SIAL, which focuses on the learning approaches of students to physiology, was distributed both before and after COPT. The implementation of COPT seemed to affect the learning approaches of students as measured by the SIAL. After the introduction of COPT, there was a significant increase in the use of the deep learning approach, while the majority of subscales for the surface approach showed decreased use. Nevertheless, use of the strategic approach was found to have increased after COPT. The SIAL was found to be a fairly reliable tool with which to determine the learning approaches of medical students. Clinically orientated physiology teaching was successful in enhancing use of the deep approach to learning and reducing use of the surface approach among undergraduate medical students. PMID:16925643
Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies have documented the value of mentoring for medical students, and research has been limited to more subjective (e.g., job satisfaction, perceived career preparation rather than objective outcomes. This study examined whether having a mentor is associated with match outcome (where a student matched based on their rank order list [ROL]. Methods: We sent a survey link to all emergency medicine (EM program coordinators to distribute to their residents. EM residents were surveyed about whether they had a mentor during medical school. Match outcome was assessed by asking residents where they matched on their ROL (e.g., first choice, fifth choice. They were also asked about rank in medical school, type of degree (MD vs. DO, and performance on standardized tests. Residents who indicated having a mentor completed the Mentorship Effectiveness Scale (MES, which evaluates behavioral characteristics of the mentor and yields a total score. We assessed correlations among these variables using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Post-hoc analysis using independent sample t-test was conducted to compare differences in the MES score between those who matched to their first or second choice vs. third or higher choice. Results: Participants were a convenience sample of 297 EM residents. Of those, 199 (67% reported having a mentor during medical school. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no significant correlation between having a mentor and match outcome (r=0.06, p=0.29. Match outcome was associated with class rank (r=0.13, p=0.03, satisfaction with match outcome (r= -0.37, p<0.001, and type of degree (r=0.12, p=0.04. Among those with mentors, a t-test revealed that the MES score was significantly higher among those who matched to their first or second choice (M=51.31, SD=10.13 compared to those who matched to their third or higher choice (M=43.59, SD=17.12, t(194=3.65, p<0.001, d=0.55. Conclusion: Simply having a mentor during medical
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little research has been conducted to investigate role stress experienced by faculty members in medical schools in developing countries. This becomes even more important when the process of reform in medical education has already taken place, such as the case of Iran. The objectives of this study were to investigate and assess the level and source of role-related stress as well as dimensions of conflict among the faculty members of Iranian medical schools. Variables like the length of academic work, academic rank, employment position, and the departments of affiliation were also taken into consideration in order to determine potentially related factors. Methods A survey was conducted at three different ranks of public medical schools. The validated Organizational Role Stress Scale was used to investigate the level of role stress and dimensions of role conflict among medical faculty members. The response rate was 66.5%. Results The findings show that role stress was experienced in high level among almost all faculty members. All three studied medical schools with different ranks are threatened with relatively the same levels of role stress. Specific differences were found among faculty members from different disciplines, and academic ranks. Also having permanent position and the length of services had significant correlation with the level of role stress. The major role- related stress and forms of conflict among faculty members were role overload, role expectation conflict, inter-role distance, resource inadequacy, role stagnation, and role isolation. Conclusion The most role-related stressors and forms of conflict among faculty members include too many tasks and everyday work load; conflicting demands from colleagues and superiors; incompatible demands from their different personal and organizational roles; inadequate resources for appropriate performance; insufficient competency to meet the demands of their role; inadequate
An Evaluation of Physician-to-Patient Communication Training in Medical Schools across the United States: A Status Report on the Nation's Efforts to Promote Health Literacy by Adding Health Literacy Courses to Medical School Curriculum
Frazier, Andrea P.
This research study employed a mixed method sequential approach and investigated the number of Schools of Medicine within the United States that offer health literacy as a component of their curriculum and a course of study within the academic setting. Data were gathered from medical school surveys and personal interviews. Curriculum content,…
Husbands, Adrian; Mathieson, Alistair; Dowell, Jonathan; Cleland, Jennifer; MacKenzie, Rhoda
Background The UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) was designed to address issues identified with traditional methods of selection. This study aims to examine the predictive validity of the UKCAT and compare this to traditional selection methods in the senior years of medical school. This was a follow-up study of two cohorts of students from two medical schools who had previously taken part in a study examining the predictive validity of the UKCAT in first year. Methods The sample consisted of ...
Sičaja, Mario; Romić, Dominik; Prka, Željko
Aim: To evaluate self-assessed level of clinical skills of graduating medical students at Zagreb University School of Medicine and compare them with clinical skill levels expected by their teachers and those defined by a criterion standard. Method: The study included all medical students (n = 252) graduating from the Zagreb University School of Medicine in the 2004-2005 academic year and faculty members (n = 129) involved in teaching clinical skills. The participants completed anonymous qu...
Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Takeuchi, Keisuke; Tanaka, Junko; Tazuma, Susumu; Inoue, Kazuo; Owaki, Tetsuhiro; Iguchi, Seitaro; Maeda, Takahiro
Introduction Given the shortage of physicians, particularly in rural areas, the Japanese government has rapidly expanded the number of medical school students by adding chiikiwaku (regional quotas) since 2008. Quota entrants now account for 17% of all medical school entrants. Quota entrants are usually local high school graduates who receive a scholarship from the prefecture government. In exchange, they temporarily practise in that prefecture, including its rural areas, after graduation. Many prefectures also have scholarship programmes for non-quota students in exchange for postgraduate in-prefecture practice. The objective of this cohort study, conducted by the Japanese Council for Community-based Medical Education, is to evaluate the outcomes of the quota admission system and prefecture scholarship programmes nationwide. Methods and analysis There are 3 groups of study participants: quota without scholarship, quota with scholarship and non-quota with scholarship. Under the support of government ministries and the Association of Japan Medical Colleges, and participation of all prefectures and medical schools, passing rate of the National Physician License Examination, scholarship buy-out rate, geographic distribution and specialties distribution of each group are analysed. Participants who voluntarily participated are followed by linking their baseline information to data in the government's biennial Physician Census. Results to date have shown that, despite medical schools' concerns about academic quality, the passing rate of the National Physician License Examination in each group was higher than that of all medical school graduates. Ethics and dissemination The Ethics Committee for Epidemiological Research of Hiroshima University and the Research Ethics Committee of Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences permitted this study. No individually identifiable results will be presented in conferences or published in journals. The aggregated
Mattern, W. D.; Wagner, J A; Brown, J.S.; Fisher-Neenan, L.
We describe the development of a computer-based representation of the medical school curriculum at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH). Over the past seven years the Medical School's Office of Academic Affairs has employed both relational database and text management software to design an integrated curriculum database system. Depending on the function selected--exploring the curriculum, searching through course outlines, retrieving elective descriptions, identifying teac...
Streyffeler, Lisa; Altmaier, Elizabeth M.; Kuperman, Samuel; Patrick, Luke E.
Background: Interest in improving medical school admissions processes led to the development of a structured admissions interview to eliminate potential bias and provide valid information for selection. This article reports on the degree to which this interview, along with other admissions variables, predicted later student performance during medical school. Methods: All applicants considered for admission participated in the new interview. Interview scores and regular admissions data were co...
Collins, Stephen,; Timm, Anja
Background and Purpose Arranging work experience prior to medical school can for many potential applicants prove extremely difficult, with access to clinical settings often considered the ideal type. Potential applicants struggle to interpret the official guidance from medical schools1, making the application process intensely unsettling. Anecdotal evidence suggests that some UK-based candidates have been responding to these perceived requirements by paying to undertake commerc...
Terry D. Stratton
Full Text Available Background: Despite medical school admission committees’ best efforts, a handful of seemingly capable students invariably struggle during their first year of study. Yet, even as entrance criteria continue to broaden beyond cognitive qualifications, attention inevitably reverts back to such factors when seeking to understand these phenomena. Using a host of applicant, admission, and post-admission variables, the purpose of this inductive study, then, was to identify a constellation of student characteristics that, taken collectively, would be predictive of students at-risk of underperforming during the first year of medical school. In it, we hypothesize that a wider range of factors than previously recognized could conceivably play roles in understanding why students experience academic problems early in the medical educational continuum. Methods: The study sample consisted of the five most recent matriculant cohorts from a large, southeastern medical school (n=537. Independent variables reflected: 1 the personal demographics of applicants (e.g., age, gender; 2 academic criteria (e.g., undergraduate grade point averages [GPA], medical college admission test; 3 selection processes (e.g., entrance track, interview scores, committee votes; and 4 other indicators of personality and professionalism (e.g., Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test™ emotional intelligence scores, NEO PI-R™ personality profiles, and appearances before the Professional Code Committee [PCC]. The dependent variable, first-year underperformance, was defined as ANY action (repeat, conditionally advance, or dismiss by the college's Student Progress and Promotions Committee (SPPC in response to predefined academic criteria. This study protocol was approved by the local medical institutional review board (IRB. Results: Of the 537 students comprising the study sample, 61 (11.4% met the specified criterion for academic underperformance. Significantly increased
During the 8th to 13th centuries, Islamic medicine went through a golden age which influenced medical education and practice in the Ottomans, who conserved fundamental features of Islamic civilization. A külliye is an Ottoman architectural concept that designates a complex with a central mosque and a series of ancillary buildings surrounding it. Sultan Bayezid II Külliyesi of Edirne, Turkey is an early characteristic example with its sections, and in particular, with the medical school and hospital. The other constructed units were built to complete the hospital service in social, cultural, religious and financial aspects. This foundation (vakif, waqf in Arabic) of health was a trust with deeds that contain notable information regarding hospital management, and the duties, responsibilities, qualities, and proficiency standards requisite for physicians. The Külliye, established in the 15th century, provided substantial contributions to medical and scientific history, and patient care. Together with the history of the Külliye, I will focus on the medical books of the period, in particular works of Serefeddin Sabuncuoğlu who used the Turkish language instead of Arabic and color illustrations and his two books which were the main medical books of the period combining knowledge of Greek, Roman, Arabic, and Turkish acquirements. PMID:19067095
Tse, M H; Chung, J T; Munro, J G
A self-completion questionnaire was used to survey self-medication among secondary school pupils in Hong Kong. Data were collected from 4793 pupils aged 10 to 23 years (55.9% female and 44.1% male). Nearly three quarters (72.1%) had taken self-medication without consulting a medical practitioner and 51.8% of the sample had done so without the knowledge of older family members. The prevalence of self-medication increased with age. More than half the pupils (50.4%) indicated that trivial illness did not warrant a consultation with a doctor. Information relating to the sources of self-administered drugs, types of drugs used and sources of information about these drugs was collected. Medicine cabinets at home and pharmacy shops were the two most common places from which the pupils obtained their drugs. Though the prevalence of taking tranquillizers and sleeping tablets was found to be low, the probability of young people, especially boys, obtaining dangerous drugs from these places should not be overlooked. The medical, nursing and teaching professions should take a more active role in health education, as the sources from which the pupils obtained their drug knowledge, in descending order of frequency, were: family members, previous illness experience, pharmacy shops, doctor or nurse, television or radio, newspapers or magazines, friends and teachers. PMID:2632309
Iyeke, Patrick; Dafe, Onoharigho Festus
This study is set out to ascertain the knowledge of hazards of self-medication among Secondary School Students. The descriptive Survey design was adopted for the work. The population of the study is 9,500 students in the public Secondary Schools, in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The sample is 300 students randomly selected…
Brandt, E N
Medical educators are an interesting group of people. They thrive on new knowledge. They get excited and enthusiastic, and readily adopt new ways when the evidence is sufficient. Yet, at the same time, they resist with great vehemence change in the way they do their business. Ask how often the curriculum structure is examined. Indeed, the function of most curriculum committees is to ensure that that does not happen. Ask how often the criteria for medical school admission are examined, especially with respect to the knowledge requirements. Ask how often the faculty discusses, or even examines, the expectations of society as they are expressed by alumni, legislators, or members of the public. Ask how often faculties try to determine strategies for dealing with all of these external forces. Are those strategies approached with the same degree of objectivity and data-gathering skills that would be used in examining new therapeutic regimens? Medical educators are talented, creative people. They have a very large appetite for information and great ambition to be as fine academicians as possible. It is those characteristics that have served them well, as students and as responsible academicians. Indeed, the great strength of medical education, in my view, is that medical schools take some very bright people called faculty and some very bright people called students, mix them together for four years, and graduate a group of very smart people who will then spend three years or more mixed up with some very bright and creative people. That is a strength that can-not lost. Will the future allow us to continue that in an equally effective manner? PMID:2734361
P Ravi Shankar
mentioned above. Graduates from Caribbean medical schools have a role in addressing rural physician shortage. Similar studies in other offshore Caribbean medical schools are required as Caribbean IMGs make an important contribution to the rural US and Canadian health workforce.
P Ravi Shankar
mentioned above. Graduates from Caribbean medical schools have a role in addressing rural physician shortage. Similar studies in other offshore Caribbean medical schools are required as Caribbean IMGs make an important contribution to the rural US and Canadian health workforce.
Thompson, Andrew R.; Braun, Mark W.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.
Curricular reform is a widespread trend among medical schools. Assessing the impact that pedagogical changes have on students is a vital step in review process. This study examined how a shift from discipline-focused instruction and assessment to integrated instruction and assessment affected student performance in a second-year medical school…
Hesser, Al; Cregler, Louis L.; Lewis, Lloyd
A study of 309 African American college students in summer academic enrichment programs at the Medical College of Georgia from 1980-89 found the most significant predictors of medical school admission were the Scholastic Assessment Test math score, summer program grade point average, college grade point average, career aspirations, college type,…
Iorio, Luigi; Avagliano, F
Due to the intense relationship between Byzantium and the Abbey of Montecassino, which lasted for about three centuries, some of the Hippocratic Medical Texts were gathered by the Roman Catholic Church during the last years of the Roman Empire. Some texts were transferred directly from the Byzantine Empire to the abbey. Some of the earliest texts which were written in Greek and Latin have been lost; afterwards they were only written in Latin and in Beneventano-Cassinese type. They constituted the basis of medical assistance that was given in the "ospitia" near the monastery to sick monks and pilgrims needing treatment on their way from Rome to Monte Sant'Angelo of Gargano. The Diuresis et pulsis secundum praecepta Dionisi is kept in Cod. Cas. No. 69 (10th century), pp 551-562, in the Montecassino archive. The author of this text tried to perform a urine examination considering the clinical signs, such as high temperature and pulse examination. The text is thought to have been written by Dionysius, a Hippocratic physician and contemporary of Herophilus, who lived around the 4th century BC. This text was read again in the Salernitan Medical School and compared with other texts from Arabic countries also influenced by Hippocrates. PMID:12097734
Korin, Tatum; Thode, Joan Brumbaugh; Kakar, Seema; Blatt, Benjamin
At the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, and the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, authors observed that problem-based learning (PBL) return sessions for first- and second-year medical students often lacked the energy and engagement of first sessions. Unlike in first sessions, where students took on the physician's role and actively problem solved, in return sessions students spent much of their time passively, listening to research reports on learning objectives. Time spent listening to reports dilutes return session impact, with the patient receding from view as the level of abstraction increases and learning issues take center stage. In this Perspective, the authors present innovations, developed separately at their respective medical schools between 2009 and 2012, designed to reenergize the return session.To frame the discussion of the return session slump and their innovations in response to it, the authors used self-determination theory (SDT) and active learning theory (ALT), both of which are supported by a considerable body of evidence. SDT provides understanding of how to maximize PBL learners' motivation, and ALT sheds light on how to promote PBL learners' incorporation of concepts into long-term memory. As motivation and memory are key factors in learning, both theories are appropriate tools to help understand and maximize the effectiveness of PBL. Finally, guided by these theories, the authors present reflections on future directions for the development of PBL. PMID:24988419
Grigsby, R Kevin; Aber, Robert C; Quillen, David A
Medical schools and teaching hospitals are experiencing more frequent turnover of department chairs. Loss of a department chair creates instability in the department and may have a negative effect on the organization at large. Interim leadership of academic departments is common, and interim chairs are expected to immediately demonstrate skills and leadership abilities. However, little is known about how persons are prepared to assume the interim chair role. Newer competencies for effective leadership include an understanding of the business of medicine, interpersonal and communication skills, the ability to deal with conflict and solve adaptive challenges, and the ability to build and work on teams. Medical schools and teaching hospitals need assistance to meet the unique training and support needs of persons serving as interim leaders. For example, the Association of American Medical Colleges and individual chair societies can develop programs to allow current chairs to reflect on their present positions and plan for the future. Formal leadership training, mentorship opportunities, and conscientious succession planning are good first steps in preparing to meet the needs of academic departments during transitions in leadership. Also, interim leadership experience may be useful as a means for "opening the door" to underrepresented persons, including women, and increasing the diversity of the leadership team. PMID:19881413
Mattick, K L; Kaufhold, K; Kelly, N; Cole, J A; Scheffler, G; Rees, C. E.; Bullock, A; Gormley, G J; Monrouxe, L V
OBJECTIVES: The Shape of Training report recommended that full registration is aligned with medical school graduation. As part of a General Medical Council-funded study about the preparedness for practice of UK medical graduates, we explored UK stakeholders' views about this proposal using qualitative interviews (30 group and 87 individual interviews) and Framework Analysis.SETTING: Four UK study sites, one in each country.SavePARTICIPANTS: 185 individuals from eight stakeholder groups: (1) f...
Gronvold Nina T
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the relationship between life satisfaction among medical students and a basic model of personality, stress and coping. Previous studies have shown relatively high levels of distress, such as symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts in medical undergraduates. However despite the increased focus on positive psychological health and well-being during the past decades, only a few studies have focused on life satisfaction and coping in medical students. This is the first longitudinal study which has identified predictors of sustained high levels of life satisfaction among medical students. Methods This longitudinal, nationwide questionnaire study examined the course of life satisfaction during medical school, compared the level of satisfaction of medical students with that of other university students, and identified resilience factors. T-tests were used to compare means of life satisfaction between and within the population groups. K-means cluster analyses were applied to identify subgroups among the medical students. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the subgroups. Results Life satisfaction decreased during medical school. Medical students were as satisfied as other students in the first year of study, but reported less satisfaction in their graduation year. Medical students who sustained high levels of life satisfaction perceived medical school as interfering less with their social and personal life, and were less likely to use emotion focused coping, such as wishful thinking, than their peers. Conclusion Medical schools should encourage students to spend adequate time on their social and personal lives and emphasise the importance of health-promoting coping strategies.
Watmough Simon D
Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been comparatively little consideration of the impact that the changes to undergraduate curricula might have on postgraduate academic performance. This study compares the performance of graduates by UK medical school and gender in the Multiple Choice Question (MCQ section of the first part of the Fellowship of the Royal College of Anaesthetists (FRCA examination. Methods Data from each sitting of the MCQ section of the primary FRCA examination from June 1999 to May 2008 were analysed for performance by medical school and gender. Results There were 4983 attempts at the MCQ part of the examination by 3303 graduates from the 19 United Kingdom medical schools. Using the standardised overall mark minus the pass mark graduates from five medical schools performed significantly better than the mean for the group and five schools performed significantly worse than the mean for the group. Males performed significantly better than females in all aspects of the MCQ – physiology, mean difference = 3.0% (95% CI 2.3, 3.7, p Conclusion Graduates from each of the medical schools in the UK do show differences in performance in the MCQ section of the primary FRCA, but significant curriculum change does not lead to deterioration in post graduate examination performance. Whilst females now outnumber males taking the MCQ, they are not performing as well as the males.
Leddy, John J.; Wood, Timothy J.; Puddester, Derek; Moineau, Geneviève
Purpose Medical school admissions committees are increasingly considering noncognitive measures like emotional intelligence (EI) in evaluating potential applicants. This study explored whether scores on an EI abilities test at admissions predicted future academic performance in medical school to determine whether EI could be used in making admissions decisions. Method The authors invited all University of Ottawa medical school applicants offered an interview in 2006 and 2007 to complete the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso EI Test (MSCEIT) at the time of their interview (105 and 101, respectively), then again at matriculation (120 and 106, respectively). To determine predictive validity, they correlated MSCEIT scores to scores on written examinations and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) administered during the four-year program. They also correlated MSCEIT scores to the number of nominations for excellence in clinical performance and failures recorded over the four years. Results The authors found no significant correlations between MSCEIT scores and written examination scores or number of failures. The correlations between MSCEIT scores and total OSCE scores ranged from 0.01 to 0.35; only MSCEIT scores at matriculation and OSCE year 4 scores for the 2007 cohort were significantly correlated. Correlations between MSCEIT scores and clinical nominations were low (range 0.12–0.28); only the correlation between MSCEIT scores at matriculation and number of clinical nominations for the 2007 cohort were statistically significant. Conclusions EI, as measured by an abilities test at admissions, does not appear to reliably predict future academic performance. Future studies should define the role of EI in admissions decisions. PMID:24556771
A. C. M. Urtado
Full Text Available Abstract: This study was conducted in Sinop, Mato Grosso, on two school communities. It was applied semi-structured questionnaires with questions focused on socioeconomic and the use of medicinal plants. It has as finality proved the effective use of medicinal plants on the everyday and a levy of the most used plant. The general profile of the respondents has shown that the women detain the major part of the knowledge, and that pass this uses to the future generations and friends, and find these plants on specialty stores, backyards, supermarket, root stores, bush and fairs. The plants that were found more frequently was (Ruta graveolens L., Babosa (Aloe vera L., Erva-Cidreira (Lippia alba Mill., Erva-Santa-Maria (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Boldo (Plectranthus amboinicus Spreng., Hortel(Menta x vilosa Huds. e Terramicina (Alternanthera dentata Moench..Keywords: medical plants, Sinop, school.
Full Text Available Background: Many studies have assessed perspectives of medical students toward institutional diversity, but few of them have attempted to map changes in diversity climate over time. Objective: This study aims to investigate changes in diversity climate at a Jesuit medical institution over a 12-year period. Methods: In 1999, 334 medical students completed an anonymous self-administered online survey, and 12 years later, 406 students completed a comparable survey in 2011. Chi-square tests assessed the differences in percent responses to questions of the two surveys, related to three identities: gender, race, and sexual orientation. Results: The 1999 versus 2011 samples were 46% versus 49% female, 61% versus 61% Caucasian, and 41% vs. 39% aged 25 years or older. Findings suggested improvements in medical students’ perceptions surrounding equality ‘in general’ across the three identities (p<0.001; ‘in the practice of medicine’ based on gender (p<0.001, race/ethnicity (p=0.60, and sexual orientation (p=0.43; as well as in the medical school curriculum, including course text content, professor's delivery and student–faculty interaction (p<0.001 across the three identities. There was a statistically significant decrease in experienced or witnessed events related to gender bias (p<0.001 from 1999 to 2011; however, reported events of bias based on race/ethnicity (p=0.69 and sexual orientation (p=0.58 only showed small decreases. Conclusions: It may be postulated that the improvement in students’ self-perceptions of equality and diversity over the past 12 years may have been influenced by a generational acceptance of cultural diversity and, the inclusion of diversity training courses within the medical curriculum. Diversity training related to race and sexual orientation should be expanded, including a follow-up survey to assess the effectiveness of any intervention.
Mujawar, Imran; Sabatino, Matt; Mitchell, Stephen Ray; Walker, Benjamin; Weissinger, Peggy; Plankey, Michael
Background Many studies have assessed perspectives of medical students toward institutional diversity, but few of them have attempted to map changes in diversity climate over time. Objective This study aims to investigate changes in diversity climate at a Jesuit medical institution over a 12-year period. Methods In 1999, 334 medical students completed an anonymous self-administered online survey, and 12 years later, 406 students completed a comparable survey in 2011. Chi-square tests assessed the differences in percent responses to questions of the two surveys, related to three identities: gender, race, and sexual orientation. Results The 1999 versus 2011 samples were 46% versus 49% female, 61% versus 61% Caucasian, and 41% vs. 39% aged 25 years or older. Findings suggested improvements in medical students’ perceptions surrounding equality ‘in general’ across the three identities (p<0.001); ‘in the practice of medicine’ based on gender (p<0.001), race/ethnicity (p=0.60), and sexual orientation (p=0.43); as well as in the medical school curriculum, including course text content, professor’s delivery and student–faculty interaction (p<0.001) across the three identities. There was a statistically significant decrease in experienced or witnessed events related to gender bias (p<0.001) from 1999 to 2011; however, reported events of bias based on race/ethnicity (p=0.69) and sexual orientation (p=0.58) only showed small decreases. Conclusions It may be postulated that the improvement in students’ self-perceptions of equality and diversity over the past 12 years may have been influenced by a generational acceptance of cultural diversity and, the inclusion of diversity training courses within the medical curriculum. Diversity training related to race and sexual orientation should be expanded, including a follow-up survey to assess the effectiveness of any intervention. PMID:24581334
Sloan, Tod B; Kaye, Celia I; Allen, William R; Magness, Brian E; Wartman, Steven A
Changes in the education, research, and health care environments have had a major impact on the way in which medical schools fulfill their missions, and mission-based management approaches have been suggested to link the financial information of mission costs and revenues with measures of mission activity and productivity. The authors describe a simpler system, termed Mission-Aligned Planning (MAP), and its development and implementation, during fiscal years 2002 and 2003, at the School of Medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Texas. The MAP system merges financial measures and activity measures to allow a broad understanding of the mission activities, to facilitate strategic planning at the school and departmental levels. During the two fiscal years mentioned above, faculty of the school of medicine reported their annual hours spent in the four missions of teaching, research, clinical care, and administration and service in a survey designed by the faculty. A financial profit or loss in each mission was determined for each department by allocation of all departmental expenses and revenues to each mission. Faculty expenses (and related expenses) were allocated to the missions based on the percentage of faculty effort in each mission. This information was correlated with objective measures of mission activities. The assessment of activity allowed a better understanding of the real costs of mission activities by linking salary costs, assumed to be related to faculty time, to the missions. This was a basis for strategic planning and for allocation of institutional resources. PMID:16249297
When the famous bank robber, Willie Sutton was asked why he robbed banks, he replied, ''Because that's where the money is'' The Salerno school is often described as the first European school of medicine. Many scholars have offered theories to account for its origins, including the idea that it is merely a historical "construct" and not a school at all. This paper proposes another hypothesis based on a juxtaposition of primary sources, secondary literature, and observations of religious worship in the Salerno region. An extraordinary number of sites sacred to the memory of doctor saints dot the coastal promontory near Salerno. This concentration of medical saints might be explained by the church catering to a populace aware of the secular healing tradition in nearby Salerno. But if the saints came with or even before the school, both church and medicine could be seen as responding to a preexisting local need. Sutton's Law points to another hypothesis. Famous for its climate, gardens, and natural beauty, the coast served as a health resort since at least the time of ancient Rome. As a result, sick people with resources have long traveled to the region in search of comfort and cures. Saints and doctors followed the sick (and their money). PMID:19356856
Lane, G; Dunne, C; English, A; Finucane, P; O'Connor, R; Griffin, M; O'Sullivan, B; Hanrahan, C; McGrath, D; O'Donovan, N; Cullen, W
Increased care provision and clinical activity in General Practice in Ireland will have important manpower implications. Recent developments in medical education policy including the introduction of graduate-entry medical degree programmes may help address this issue. The aim of this study was to determine GP career intentions among students on an Irish graduate-entry medical degree programme and to identify factors that influence these. An electronic cross-sectional study of students at University of Limerick Graduate-Entry Medical School (UL-GEMS) was undertaken. We received 139 replies (78% response rate). 41 (29%) reported GP was their current preferred career choice, while 29 (19%) reported it was their preferred career choice on entry to medical school. This first study to present data on GP career intentions among graduate-entry students in Ireland highlights the specialty as a popular preferred career choice among students, both on entry to, and during medical school. The study also identifies factors which are likely to be important in determining career intentions. Further research to examine this issue at other graduate-entry medical schools in Ireland and to determine whether our findings are pursued over time amongst graduates is a priority. PMID:24654489
DIVETT, R T
The organization of a new medical school library offered a unique opportunity to develop machine methods of bibliographic control and to use electronic data processing for library routines. The development of the program and an analysis of major problems is reported. The program uses IBM record unit, punched card equipment: the IBM 407 Model E8 Accounting Machine, the IBM 26 Printing Card Punch, the IBM 82 Sorter, and the IBM 85 Collator. The total machine rental. with educational discount, for the program is $506.50 per month. A specific report is given of the ordering. receiving, and processing (including cataloging) procedures. PMID:14223734
In 1989, the second-year medical school pharmacology course at New York Medical College was revised to help improve student and faculty morale, improve scores on class exams and the U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), and encourage more active student participation in the course. Rather than incorporating new and innovative teaching techniques, the course adapted a more classical presentation of material. Traditional blackboard lectures replaced lectures aided by the use of slides, overheads, and extensive handouts. Transcripts and the tape recording of lectures were prohibited. Higher standards for students were set with the implementation of a passing grade, initially set at 65% and increased to 66%. Review sessions with senior graduate students were incorporated, and the use of live animal demonstrations was continued. Despite the return toward a more traditional classroom, students' satisfaction with the course continues to be high, with an overall 80% satisfaction rating. Attendance at lectures is quite high (> or = 80%). In addition, student scores on the USMLE continue to improve, and the number of students failing pharmacology continues to decrease. Overall, these trends indicate that the changes implemented in the pharmacology course at New York Medical College in 1989 successfully improved student participation in class and performance in the course and on the USMLE. PMID:10631620
Full Text Available Jana Konicarova,1 Petr Bob,1,2 Jiri Raboch11Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry and UHSL, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Central European Institute of Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech RepublicBackground and objectives: Functional disturbances developed early in life include balance deficits which are linked to dysfunctions of higher levels of cognitive and motor integration. According to our knowledge, there are only a few studies suggesting that balance deficits are related to behavioral disturbances in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: We tested the extent to which balance deficits were related to ADHD symptoms in 35 medication-naïve boys of school age (8–11 years and compared the results with a control group of 30 boys of the same age.Results: ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve boys had specific relationships to disturbances of postural and gait balance.Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence in the medical literature for a direct relationship between ADHD symptoms and balance deficits, that cannot be attributed to medication and the presence of any neurological disease.Keywords: ADHD, balance deficits, conduct problems, developmental disorders, inhibitory deficits, impulsivity
Full Text Available Purpose: study and scientific rationale for new approaches to the organization of educational work with students of special medical group in secondary schools. Material : analyzed 15 scientific sources regarding the approaches of different authors to develop educational programs for students of special medical group. Results : focuses on the outstanding issues in a substantive, logistical and human aspects. Found that the selection of the content of educational material for special medical groups is an empirical question. Selection is carried out by copying the existing curriculum of physical culture for healthy children with an indication of the load reduction and exemption of complex elements. Established a complete absence of evaluation of educational achievements of pupils. Based on modern approaches to teaching students based on biomedical and didactic aspects: Leading defined function of each stage of training, fleshed main goals and objectives of the educational process, substantiated various kinds of sports activity, taking into account the diagnosis of diseases and the needs of students of different ages and gender. Conclusions : the main controversy in the decision of the designated problem. Substantiated leading features of each stage of training in special medical groups. A system of assessment of students' achievements.
George, Paul; Tunkel, Allan R; Dollase, Richard; Gruppuso, Philip; Dumenco, Luba; Rapoza, Brenda; Borkan, Jeffrey
The United States healthcare system has been in a period of rapid evolution over the past decade, a trend that is anticipated to continue for the foreseeable future. Physicians are increasingly responsible for the quality of care they provide, and are being held accountable not just for the patient in front of them, but also for the outcomes of their patient panels, communities, and populations. In response to these changes, as well as the projected shortage of primary care physicians, the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University (AMS) developed the Primary Care-Population Medicine (PC-PM) program, which builds upon the traditional curriculum with major integrated curricular innovations. The first is a Master of Science Degree in Population Medicine that requires students to take nine additional courses over four years, complete a thesis project focused on an area of Population Medicine, and take part in significant leadership training. Another significant innovative element is the development of a Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship (LIC) during the 3rd year of medical school in which the students complete a longitudinal outpatient experience with the same preceptors and patients. During the LIC students will follow a panel of patients wherever care is provided, while focusing on population health and healthcare delivery issues, in addition to medical topics throughout their clinical and didactic experiences. Though several of the innovative elements are being piloted, the inaugural PC-PM class of up to 24 students will only begin in August 2015. While the outcomes from this program will not be known for many years, the potential impact of the program is significant for AMS, medical education, and the future of healthcare delivery. PMID:26324970
An overview of Canadian education is provided in this book. Chapter 1 presents basic facts and figures on the educational system's general structure and diversity and the role of the federal government. The second chapter describes provincial/territorial structure, specifically: the role of the departments of education and school board, financing,…
This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003-2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure…
Duguay, Annie Laurie
A growing body of literature suggests that language proficiency in the main language of the destination country is one of the most significant factors in the integration of immigrants. This study examines the overall differences in U.S. and Canadian settlement policy, using the provision of language courses as a specific example of the ways in…
Objective To provide a clinical summary of the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) that includes relevant considerations for family physicians. Quality of evidence Guideline authors performed a systematic literature search and drafted recommendations. Recommendations received both strength of evidence and strength of recommendation ratings. Input from external content experts was sought, as was endorsement from Canadian medical societies (Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, and the Family Physicians Airways Group of Canada). Main message Diagnosis of ABRS is based on the presence of specific symptoms and their duration; imaging or culture are not needed in uncomplicated cases. Treatment is dependent on symptom severity, with intranasal corticosteroids (INCSs) recommended as monotherapy for mild and moderate cases, although the benefit might be modest. Use of INCSs plus antibiotics is reserved for patients who fail to respond to INCSs after 72 hours, and for initial treatment of patients with severe symptoms. Antibiotic selection must account for the suspected pathogen, the risk of resistance, comorbid conditions, and local antimicrobial resistance trends. Adjunct therapies such as nasal saline irrigation are recommended. Failure to respond to treatment, recurrent episodes, and signs of complications should prompt referral to an otolaryngologist. The guidelines address situations unique to the Canadian health care environment, including actions to take during prolonged wait periods for specialist referral or imaging. Conclusion The Canadian guidelines provide up-to-date recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of ABRS that reflect an evolving understanding of the disease. In addition, the guidelines offer useful tools to help
Moretti, Anna; De Angelis, Carmine; Lambertini, Matteo; Cremolini, Chiara; Imbimbo, Martina; Berardi, Rossana; Di Maio, Massimo; Cascinu, Stefano; La Verde, Nicla
Background and objectives Relevant heterogeneity exists among Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, also within the same country. In order to provide a comprehensive overview of the landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) undertook an online survey, inviting all the residents to describe their daily activities and to express their overall satisfaction about their programs. Methods A team composed of five residents and three consultants in medical oncology prepared a 38 items questionnaire that was published online in a reserved section, accessible through a link sent by e-mail. Residents were invited to anonymously fill in the questionnaire that included the following sub-sections: quality of teaching, clinical and research activity, overall satisfaction. Results Three-hundred and eleven (57%) out of 547 invited residents filled in the questionnaire. Two-hundred and twenty-three (72%) participants declared that attending lessons was frequently difficult and 153 (49%) declared they did not gain substantial improvement in their knowledge from them. Fifty-five percent stated that they did not receive lessons on palliative care. Their overall judgment about didactic activity was low in 63% of the interviewed. The satisfaction for clinical activity was in 86% of cases good: 84% recognized that, during the training period, they acquired a progressive independence on patients' management. About research activity, the majority (79%) of participants in the survey was actively engaged in managing patients included in clinical trials but the satisfaction level for the involvement in research activities was quite low (54%). Overall, 246 residents (79%) gave a positive global judgment of their Medical Oncology Schools. Conclusions The landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology is quite heterogeneous across the country. Some improvements in the organization of teaching and in the
Taylor, Jeff Gordon; Joubert, Ray
Pharmacists have a long history of helping Canadians with minor ailments. This often has involved management with over-the-counter medications. If pharmacists felt that the best care required something more robust, they would refer the patient to a physician. In hopes of improving the care of such ailments, Canadian provinces have granted pharmacists the option of selecting medications traditionally under physician control. This review examines the Canadian perspective on pharmacists prescribing for minor ailments and the evidence of value for these programs. It might provide guidance for other jurisdictions contemplating such a move. PMID:27570460
Call them intrepid trailblazers or just plain stubborn: over 200 US students, mainly from under-represented minorities and low-income families, decided they would become the doctors needed by their communities, and that Cuba's Latin American Medical School (ELAM) would prepare them for the job. In doing so, they accepted a host of challenges, not the least of which was studying in a country lauded for its population health indicators, but vilified for decades by their home government. Under President George W. Bush, even their enrollment required intercession from then Secretary of State Colin Powell and the Congressional Black Caucus, whose members represent districts with some of the poorest health indicators in the United States. Once they were accepted by ELAM, with its own hefty academic requirements, it was unclear if they could cope with living in Cuba, a poor country with limited resources. And then came the challenge of passing the US Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), required of all US medical students to secure residency placements. Added to these hurdles was another big question: would they actually serve in remote, inner-city and poor communities or just take the free medical education and abandon the social objectives cultivated by their alma mater? ELAM's concept is a simple but bold one: that providing free medical education to bright students driven to become doctors, but without the financial means to do so, will motivate them to return to serve in communities like their own. They spend six years learning basic sciences, clinical medicine and public health. Since the first graduation in 2005, ELAM has trained nearly 25,000 doctors-most women and many of them indigenous-from 84 countries, including the USA. A decade after the first US graduate received his diploma from ELAM, 113 have followed. While most (especially recent) grads are still finishing their USMLE exams, 40% of the total are already in residencies or have completed them: of these
Syed Ilyas Shehnaz; Jayadevan Sreedharan; Nelofer Khan; Khaled Jamal Issa; Mohamed Arifulla
The study aimed to assess factors associated with self-medication (SM) among expatriate high school students of United Arab Emirates using a validated questionnaire. Most common reasons for self-medication in 324 participating students were: presence of mild illness and previous experiences. High risk practices like altering the dose, discontinuation of medication and self-medication without adult guidance were observed. The likelihood of SM was 4.9 times (95%C.I.: 2.0-12.2) in students not u...
Kahn, G S; Cohen, B; Jason, H
In response to the increasing recognition of the importance of interpersonal skills (IPS) to the physician, there has recently been a rapid growth in the number and variety of medical school teaching programs in IPS. This is a report of a national survey which was part of a study designed to determine the extent and characteristics of IPS-teaching. Most medical schools have specific IPS programs, 80 percent of which are less than five years old. Most teachers in the programs are psychiatrists and psychologists. Most programs teach process (for example, listening, responding), information-gathering, and psychological intervention (for example, demonstrating empathy) skills. Less than one-third teach any specific information-giving/counseling skills. IPS programs are taught mostly in the preclinical years, with a notable lack of formal follow-through into the clinical years. Ninety percent of the programs use videotechnology in teaching or assessing IPS. Only about one-third use any kind of outcome index for evaluation. PMID:762678
Smith, S R
To determine how well premedical postbaccalaureate students performed in and adjusted to medical school, the author examined the records for all 123 matriculants to the Brown University Program in Medicine in 1987-88 and 1988-89 and sent each student a questionnaire. More than one-third of the first-year students admitted to Brown were from premedical postbaccalaureate programs (that is, they had taken the traditional premedical course requirements after graduating from college). The postbaccalaureate students were older than the rest of their classmates, on average, and were more likely to have been non-science majors in college. Academic performances over the first two years were comparable in the two groups, and there was no significant difference between the groups in their self-reports of adequacy of preparation or involvement in extracurricular activities. The author concludes that, faced with a smaller applicant pool, medical schools may wish to consider premedical postbaccalaureate students as a valuable resource. PMID:1985680
Loue, Sana; Wilson-Delfosse, Amy; Limbach, Kristen
Physicians and other health care workers are increasingly being called upon to bridge the cultural differences that may exist between themselves and their patients. Adequate cross-cultural education is essential if existing health care disparities are to be reduced. We conducted a needs assessment to identify gaps in the cultural competence/sensitivity components of the undergraduate medical school curriculum at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. The 2011 study was designed (1) to assess how first and second year medical school students perceive the adequacy of the medical school curriculum with respect to issues of diversity and (2) the extent to which first and second year medical students believe that an understanding of issues relating to patient culture are important to the provision of effective patient care. Student perspectives were assessed through a web-based anonymous survey of all first year (n = 167) and all second year (n = 166) medical school students, two focus groups (total n = 14) and a Problem-based Case Inquiry Group exercise (n = 6), both with second year students. A substantial proportion of participating first and second year medical students do not believe that self-reflection regarding one's own cultural biases is important to one's performance as a physician, do not view an understanding of diverse patient cultural beliefs as important or very important in the provision of effective patient care, and are uncomfortable with and unsure about how to approach culture-related issues arising in patient care. The inclusion of specified elements--increased contact with diverse patients, more comprehensive resources, increased opportunities to practice communication skills and engage in self-reflection--may be critical to heighten student awareness of and comfort in interacting with diverse populations. Our findings are relevant to the development of medical school curricula designed to improve physician understanding of and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Problem-based Learning (PBL has been suggested as a key educational method of knowledge acquisition to improve medical education. We sought to evaluate the differences in medical school education between graduates from PBL-based and conventional curricula and to what extent these curricula fit job requirements. Methods Graduates from all German medical schools who graduated between 1996 and 2002 were eligible for this study. Graduates self-assessed nine competencies as required at their day-to-day work and as taught in medical school on a 6-point Likert scale. Results were compared between graduates from a PBL-based curriculum (University Witten/Herdecke and conventional curricula. Results Three schools were excluded because of low response rates. Baseline demographics between graduates of the PBL-based curriculum (n = 101, 49% female and the conventional curricula (n = 4720, 49% female were similar. No major differences were observed regarding job requirements with priorities for "Independent learning/working" and "Practical medical skills". All competencies were rated to be better taught in PBL-based curriculum compared to the conventional curricula (all p Conclusion Among medical graduates in Germany, PBL demonstrated benefits with regard to competencies which were highly required in the job of physicians. Research and business competence deserve closer attention in future curricular development.
Bohl, Michael A; Gest, Thomas R
In 2004, the University of Michigan Medical School reduced its gross anatomy curriculum. To determine the effect of this reduction on resident perceptions of their clinical preparedness, we surveyed alumni that included residents from the original and new shortened curricula. A Likert-scale survey was sent to four classes of alumni. Respondents were compared in old curriculum (OC) and new curriculum (NC) groups, surgical specialty (SS) and nonsurgical specialty (NS) groups, and subgroups of SS and NS were compared for differences between OC and NC. Mean response scores were compared using independent samples T-tests. As a single population (n = 110), respondents felt their anatomy education prepared them well for residency, that a more robust anatomy curriculum would be helpful, that dissection was important to their residency preparation, and that a 4th year anatomy elective was effective in expanding their anatomy education and preparing them for residency. No significant difference existed between OC and NC groups, neither as a whole nor as SS and NS subgroups. The SS group felt dissection was more important to their residency preparation than the NS group (P = 0.001) and that a more robust anatomy curriculum would have better prepared them for residency (P = 0.001). Thirty percent of SS respondents who did not take a 4th year elective commented that they wish they had. Fourth year anatomy electives were highly valued by residents, and respondents felt that they should be offered to students as a way of revisiting anatomy following the 1st year of clinical training. PMID:21381214
César Augusto Guevara Cuéllar
Full Text Available Introduction: Different forms of abusive practices are very common in medical schools and have serious implications on vocational and professional formation. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of perception of abuse in a university in Colombia and to identify associated factors.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2008 in a private medical school. A proportional cycle-based stratified sampling technique and randomized sampling per semester was done. Socio demographic, academic, and abuse-related variables were obtained.Results: One hundred twenty-eight students participated in the study. The prevalence of perception of abuse was 40.6%. The most common type of abuse was psychological (98% and unjustified critique (10.9%, ridiculing (10.7%, shouting (10%, and discredit (9.5% were the most frequent manifestations. Professors in preclinical courses were reported as the most prevalent abusers (25.9%, followed by clinical professors (19.8%. The frequency of abusive manifestations was rare (15.8% and 11.5% in preclinical and clinical years, respectively. The abusive manifestations were most frequent in pathology and pediatrics in the preclinical and clinical years, espectively. Nineteen percent of the victims of abuse reported such to somebody. The main consequences were desire to withdraw from the career (63.2% and change of career (36.8%. Increased perception of abuse (OR: 4.74 95% IC: 1.9-11.4 p=0.001 was associated during the clinical years.Conclusions: Although abusive practices are more frequent during clinical years, they do not constitute a systematic behavior among medical students from a private university in Colombia in comparison with other tudies.
James Kleshinski, MD
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of professionalism scenarios on the medical school admissions process from applicant and faculty perspectives. Specifically, do completing professionalism scenarios as part of the medical school interview process have an impact on both the interviewee’s and the faculty’s perception of the process and outcome?Method: Ninety-one faculty interviewed 199 applicants from January 2007 through April 2007 at The University of Toledo College of Medicine. All applicants were asked one standard professionalism scenario in each of their two interviews. A total of six scenarios were used for the entire interviewing season in rotation every two months. A survey was administered by an admissions office staff member to both the interviewed applicants as well as faculty who conducted interviews about how these scenarios impacted their interview experience.Results: Asking applicants to respond to professionalism scenarios during the interview was described as having a positive influence on their interview experience. This was also associated with leaving an impression on the applicant about what our institution values in its students and contributed an element of personal reflection about what will be expected of them in the medical profession. Applicants more often reported that asking questions about professionalism was an important aspect of the interview than did faculty. Overall, there was an association between the interviewer’s perception of the applicant’s response and the interviewer’s assessment of professionalism.Conclusions: Professionalism scenarios can be a worthwhile tool for use in the admissions process. The interview process should encourage participation from faculty who value this as an important component in the evaluation of an applicant. Determinants of faculty perception of the role of assessing professionalism in the interview process should be investigated in future
M. Fatih Onsuz
Full Text Available Aim: Aim of the study was to determine medical school students’ knowledge levels and attitudes who accomplished Obstetric and Gynecology clerkship in a medical school about HPV vaccination and intention to suggest HPV vaccine to their patients. Method: This descriptive study was carried out in a medical school among 166 medical students accomplishing their internship in the Obstetrics and Gynaecological Diseases Department. Study data had been collected by questionnaire which had three part and 30 question. The data were evaluated by descriptive statistics. Results: Fifty five point four of the students stated that they felt informed about HPV vaccine, 72.9% of them stated that HPV was more serious for women. 95.8% of the participants thought they would suggest HPV vaccine to their patients and the most proposed group was adolescent girls (51.6%. 80.5% of students stated their possibility to suggest the vaccine would increase in case the vaccine would be free. The most important drawback points of the students in suggesting the vaccine to their patients were thinking high priced and not cost effectiveness of the vaccine (51.6% and inducing unprotected, risky sexual intercourses (45.9%. Conclusion: In this study we determine the professional acception of HPV vaccine between students. Also we determine the most important factor in suggesting the HPV vaccine is the cost effectiveness of it. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 557-564
Alina Esther González Hermida
Full Text Available Background: the study of children´s growth in an appropriate indicator of children health condition and should be used as one of the basis in the practice of preventive medicine. Objective: to determine the nutritional al condition of children of third and sixth grade of elementary schools of Health Area V of Cienfuegos Municipality. Methods: descriptive, observational, cross-sectional and relational study of 445 school age children from 4 elementary schools. A clinic assessment was carried out along with an anthropo-medical evaluation. A qualitative survey was developed to assess the frequency of consumption of different alimentary groups. Results: the relation weight/height in the two genders presents a prevalence of normal weight; undernourishment is more common among females, overweight is more usual among boys and obesity can be found in both genders. The variable weight/age showed one bad-nutrition (for defect among females, there was a prevalence of bad-nutrition for excess in both genders. There were no children with height under the third percentile, with prevalence of boys and girls tall and very tall. Bronchial asthma was the most common disease. Conclusions: Food consumption in general, taking into account frequency and kind of food, is not the appropriate. There is a relation between positive clinical findings and the anthropometric assessment of weight/height.
Chris N. Gu
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a student-run clinic on the diversification of a medical student class. We distributed a two-page, 20-item, paper survey to students of the University of Missouri School of Medicine (MU SOM class of 2015 in July of 2011. The survey gathered information on general demographics, opinions on the importance of medical education opportunities, and opinions on the importance of medical school characteristics in applying to and attending MU SOM. A total of 104 students responded to the survey. A majority of the students identified the MedZou Community Health Clinic, a student-run, free health clinic affiliated with MU SOM, and simulated-patient encounters as important educational experiences (81% and 94%, respectively. More than half of the self-identified non-white??students reported MedZou as an important factor in their choice to apply to (60%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32 to 88 and attend (71%; 95% CI, 44 to 98 MU SOM, over half of the females reported MedZou as important in their choice to apply (59%; 95% CI, 43 to 76 and attend (57%; 95% CI, 40 to 74, and over half of non-Missouri residents reported MedZou as important in their choice to apply (64%; 95% CI, 36 to 93 and attend (71%; 95% CI, 44 to 98. According to the above results, it can be said that students clearly value both MedZou and simulated-patient encounters as important educational experiences. Women, minorities, and non-Missouri residents value MedZou more highly than their peers who are First Year Medical Students who are Missouri residents, suggesting that MedZou may provide a promising opportunity to advance diversity within MU SOM. These results highlight the need for additional research to further explore MedZou?占퐏 potential to enhance the recruitment of a diverse medical student class.
Purpose: To gain insight into the professional characteristics of radiologists in Switzerland and to determine how to enhance the attractiveness of radiology to medical graduates as a specialty. Materials and methods: Data from 262 members of the Swiss Society of Radiology (m:f = 76:24%) obtained in a questionnaire survey were analysed regarding socio-demographic variables, working status, specialty, main fields of interest, career success, mentoring and reasons for the shortage of radiologists. Results: 35 (56.4%) female and 85 (45.5%) male radiologists were aged ≤45 years. 228 (87%) were board-certified; 44 (17.9%) had completed a sub-specialisation. Men worked part-time mostly just before retirement, while women worked part-time at a younger age. As reasons for specialty choice, the wide range of clinical work and the combination of technology and medicine were ranked highest. Women reported significantly less career success and support. To improve the attractiveness of radiology to graduates, radiology should be visible on medical school curricula. Conclusion: In Switzerland, more female radiologists work part-time than male ones, and there is less career success and support for women. In order to make radiology more attractive to medical graduates as a specialty, structured residency programmes and reliable gender-respecting career support are needed.
This conference presentation presented charts and graphs on the market for Canadian oil. Graphs included crude oil and natural gas prices and heavy oil discount differential. Graphs depicting heavy oil economics such as bitumen blending with condensate were also included along with global crude oil reserves by country. Information on oil sands projects in the Athabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lake deposits was presented along with graphs on oil sands supply costs by recovery type; Canadian production for conventional, oil sands and offshore oil; new emerging oil sands crude types; and 2003 market demand by crude type in the United States and Canada. Maps included Canada and United States crude oil pipelines; western Canadian crude oil markets; long term oil pipeline expansion projects; Canadian and United States crude oil pipeline alternatives; and potential tanker markets for Canadian oil sands production. Lastly, the presentation provided graphs on 2003 refinery crude demand and California market demand. tabs., figs
News Competition: School team launches a rocket Conference: Norway focuses on physics teaching Science on Stage: Canadian science acts take to the stage Particle Physics: Teachers get a surprise at CERN Teaching: Exploring how students learn physics University: Oxford opens doors to science teachers Lasers: Lasers shine light on meeting Science Fair: Malawi promotes science education
Competition: School team launches a rocket Conference: Norway focuses on physics teaching Science on Stage: Canadian science acts take to the stage Particle Physics: Teachers get a surprise at CERN Teaching: Exploring how students learn physics University: Oxford opens doors to science teachers Lasers: Lasers shine light on meeting Science Fair: Malawi promotes science education
Steven, Kathryn; Dowell, Jon; Jackson, Cathy; Guthrie, Bruce
Background Medical students have historically largely come from more affluent parts of society, leading many countries to seek to broaden access to medical careers on the grounds of social justice and the perceived benefits of greater workforce diversity. The aim of this study was to examine variation in socioeconomic status (SES) of applicants to study medicine and applicants with an accepted offer from a medical school, comparing the four UK countries and individual medical schools. Methods...
Schmidt, Henk; Vermeulen, Lyanda; van der Molen, Henk
textabstractBACKGROUND: Problem-based learning (PBL) as an approach to the instruction of medical students has attracted much attention in recent years. However, its effect on the performance of its graduates is the subject of considerable debate. This article presents data from a large-scale study among graduates of a problem-based medical school and those of a conventional medical school to contribute to this discussion. PURPOSE: To study the longterm effects of problem-based medical traini...
Francisco JosÃƒÂ© de Freitas
knowledge could be applicable to their future career. Conclusion: Most students aim to learn the guiding principles of homeopathy. Their aim is to know all available treatment, modalities and alternatives to allopathy in medical education. They considered that the learning of Homeopathy is a part of general medical training due to the fact that it has been a recognized medical specialty in Brazil since 1980. The studentÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s opportunity to learn homeopathy during the undergraduate course in medical schools widens the individuality concept, Ã¢â‚¬Å“the doctor-patient relationship and the holistic vision of the patientÃ¢â‚¬Â. These results demonstrate the relevance of teaching homeopathy in the medical curriculum and the need to spread the teaching of homeopathy as a compulsory course for all other medical universities.
A. A. Mustafa
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to provide some insights into the ability of the sixth year medical students and interns to recall theoretical knowledge of pharmacology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students who graduated from three different medical schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to male and female students in 3 different colleges of medicine. The questionnaire included demographic information and ten multiple choice questions (MCQs on basic pharmacology. Out of the 161 students, there were 39 females (24% and 122 males (76%. A total of 36 (22% students studied at a traditional learning school whereas 125 (78% students studied at problem based learning (PBL schools. The students were recruited from three universities: KSU, KSAU-HS, and KFMC-COM. In general, 31 students (19% of the participants scored ≥ 7 out of 10, 77 students (48% of them obtained a correct score of (4–6 out of 10, and 53 students (33% scored less than 4. The study showed no statistically significant difference in recalling pharmacology between traditional school and problem based learning school except for those who prepared for exams. Results suggest that pharmacology is a difficult subject. Reevaluations are needed in the way of teaching pharmacology.
Toupin April, Karine; Gaboury, Isabelle
Background While some effort has been made to integrate complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) information in conventional biomedical training, it is unclear whether regulated Canadian CAM schools’ students are exposed to research activities and continuing education, or whether topics such as evidence-based health care and interprofessional collaboration (IPC) are covered during their training. Since these areas are valued by the biomedical training field, this may help to bridge the at...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The motivational and other factors used by medical students in making their career choices for specific medical specialities have been looked at in a number of studies in the literature. There are however few studies that assess the generic factors which make medicine itself of interest to medical students and to potential medical students. This study describes a novel questionnaire that assesses the interests and attractions of different aspects of medical practice in a varied range of medical scenarios, and relates them to demographic, academic, personality and learning style measures in a large group of individuals considering applying to medical school. Methods A questionnaire study was conducted among those attending Medlink, a two-day conference for individuals considering applying to medical school for a career in medicine. The main outcome measure was the Medical Situations Questionnaire, in which individuals ranked the attraction of three different aspects of medical practise in each of nine detailed, realistic medical scenarios in a wide range of medical specialities. As well as requiring clear choices, the questionnaire was also designed so that all of the possible answers were attractive and positive, thereby helping to eliminate social demand characteristics. Factor analysis of the responses found four generic motivational dimensions, which we labelled Indispensability, Helping People, Respect and Science. Background factors assessed included sex, ethnicity, class, medical parents, GCSE academic achievement, the 'Big Five' personality factors, empathy, learning styles, and a social desirability scale. Results 2867 individuals, broadly representative of applicants to medical schools, completed the questionnaire. The four generic motivational factors correlated with a range of background factors. These correlations were explored by multiple regression, and by path analysis, using LISREL to assess direct and
Nienke R Schripsema
Full Text Available Research indicates that certain personality traits relate to performance in the medical profession. Yet, personality testing during selection seems ineffective. In this study, we examine the extent to which different medical school selection processes call upon desirable personality characteristics in applicants.1019 of all 1055 students who entered the Dutch Bachelor of Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands in 2009, 2010 and 2011 were included in this study. Students were admitted based on either top pre-university grades (n = 139, acceptance in a voluntary multifaceted selection process (n = 286, or lottery weighted for pre-university GPA. Within the lottery group, we distinguished between students who had not participated (n = 284 and students who were initially rejected (n = 310 in the voluntary selection process. Two months after admission, personality was assessed with the NEO-FFI, a measure of the five factor model of personality. We performed ANCOVA modelling with gender as a covariate to examine personality differences between the four groups.The multifaceted selection group scored higher on extraversion than all other groups(p<0.01, higher on conscientiousness than both lottery-admitted groups(p<0.01, and lower on neuroticism than the lottery-admitted group that had not participated in the voluntary selection process. The latter group scored lower on conscientiousness than all other groups(p<0.05 and lower on agreeableness than the multifaceted selection group and the top pre-university group(p<0.01.Differences between the four admission groups, though statistically significant, were relatively small. Personality scores in the group admitted through the voluntary multifaceted selection process seemed most fit for the medical profession. Personality scores in the lottery-admitted group that had not participated in this process seemed least fit for the medical profession. It seems that in order to select applicants with
Soueif, M I; El-Sayed, A M; Hannourah, M A; Darweesh, Z A
The paper reports on an epidemiological study of the non-medical use of psychoactive substances by secondary school male students in Greater Cairo. The main aim of the study was to provide factual answers to the questions: (1) How prevalent is drug abuse among male school students? (2) What are the psychoactive substances most commonly used? (3) What sociopsychological variables are meaningfully associated with the use of substances? PMID:7353477
Hissbach Johanna C; Klusmann Dietrich; Hampe Wolfgang
Abstract Background Knowledge in natural sciences generally predicts study performance in the first two years of the medical curriculum. In order to reduce delay and dropout in the preclinical years, Hamburg Medical School decided to develop a natural science test (HAM-Nat) for student selection. In the present study, two different approaches to scale construction are presented: a unidimensional scale and a scale composed of three subject specific dimensions. Their psychometric properties and...
Selçuk ASLAN; Bideci, Aysun; Özkan, Seçil; Türkçüoğlu, Sertaç; Çakır, Nuri; Dursun, Ayşe; Tunaoğlu, Sedef
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intern doctors’ feedback about their rotations in the last year of a medical school in Ankara. Materials and Methods: In the 2004-2005 academic year, the sixth year of the medical faculty consisted of a total of 166 interns. 155 out of 166 interns participated in the study. The participation rate in the study was 93.37%. The questionnaire consisted of four questions on the physical conditions, practical training provided, workload ...
Egwu, Ogugua A; Anyanwu, Godson E
Ogugua A Egwu1, Godson E Anyanwu21Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Ebonyi State; 2Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Enugu State, NigeriaBackground: Student attrition represents a waste of career opportunity and, at times, results in a holistic loss of sense of self-worth for the students involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nature, causes, and impact of medical studen...
How the Distinctive Cultures of Osteopathic and Allopathic Medical Schools Affect the Careers, Perceptions, and Institutional Efforts of Their Anatomy Faculties: A Qualitative Case Study of Two Schools
Brokaw, James J.; Byram, Jessica N.; Traser, Courtney J.; Arbor, Tafline C.
Anatomy faculties are integral to basic science instruction in medical schools, particularly given the preponderance of anatomic instruction in the preclinical curriculum. Recent years have witnessed major curricular restructuring and other emerging national trends that pose significant challenges to anatomists. An examination of anatomy faculty…