Sample records for canadian medical school

  1. Community engagement in US and Canadian medical schools

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    Adam O Goldstein


    Full Text Available Adam O Goldstein, Rachel Sobel BearmanDepartment of Family Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAIntroduction: This study examines the integration of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship at all accredited US and Canadian medical schools in order to better understand and assess their current state of engagement.Methods: A 32-question data abstraction instrument measured the role of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship as represented on the Web sites of all accredited US and Canadian medical schools. The instrument targeted a medical school's mission and vision statements, institutional structure, student and faculty awards and honors, and faculty tenure and promotion guidelines.Results: Medical school Web sites demonstrate little evidence that schools incorporate community engagement in their mission or vision statements or their promotion and tenure guidelines. The majority of medical schools do not include community service terms and/or descriptive language in their mission statements, and only 8.5% of medical schools incorporate community service and engagement as a primary or major criterion in promotion and tenure guidelines.Discussion: This research highlights significant gaps in the integration of community engagement or community-engaged scholarship into medical school mission and vision statements, promotion and tenure guidelines, and service administrative structures.Keywords: medical school, education, community service, mission, tenure, engagement

  2. Community engagement in US and Canadian medical schools


    Goldstein, Adam O.; Rachel Sobel Bearman


    Adam O Goldstein, Rachel Sobel BearmanDepartment of Family Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAIntroduction: This study examines the integration of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship at all accredited US and Canadian medical schools in order to better understand and assess their current state of engagement.Methods: A 32-question data abstraction instrument measured the role of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship...

  3. Too few, too weak: conflict of interest policies at Canadian medical schools.

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    Adrienne Shnier

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The education of medical students should be based on the best clinical information available, rather than on commercial interests. Previous research looking at university-wide conflict of interest (COI policies used in Canadian medical schools has shown very poor regulation. An analysis of COI policies was undertaken to document the current policy environment in all 17 Canadian medical schools. METHODS: A web search was used to initially locate COI policies supplemented by additional information from the deans of each medical school. Strength of policies was rated on a scale of 0 to 2 in 12 categories and also on the presence of enforcement measures. For each school, we report scores for all 12 categories, enforcement measures, and summative scores. RESULTS: COI policies received summative scores that ranged from 0 to 19, with 0 the lowest possible score obtainable and 24 the maximum. The highest mean scores per category were for disclosure and ghostwriting (0.9 and for gifts and scholarships (0.8. DISCUSSION: This study provides the first comprehensive evaluation of all 17 Canadian medical school-specific COI policies. Our results suggest that the COI policy environment at Canadian medical schools is generally permissive. Policy development is a dynamic process. We therefore encourage all Canadian medical schools to develop restrictive COI policies to ensure that their medical students are educated based on the best clinical evidence available, free of industry biases and COI relationships that may influence the future medical thinking and prescribing practices of medical students in Canada once they graduate.

  4. Improving the social responsiveness of medical schools: lessons from the Canadian experience. (United States)

    Cappon, P; Watson, D


    The recent Canadian experience in promoting social accountability and social responsiveness of medical schools has been one of steady improvement in certain institutions, against a background lacking overall national policy direction. Canada has several distinct advantages in trying to devise means of enhancing social accountability of medical training and health services, including a strong national system of publicly supported and financed health care of high quality, a network of excellent academic medical centers, and well-established accreditation bodies. A review of the literature, complemented by a new survey of Canadian medical schools, confirms that some of the centers, conscious of the need to promote social responsiveness, are developing innovative programs to do so. Future progress toward the goal of social responsiveness of medical schools on a pan-Canadian basis will require a more cohesive approach involving systematic sharing of best practices among academic health centers, effective alliances with other health professionals to promote these objectives, and support by federal and provincial ministries of health. Canadian awareness of an international movement tending to similar objectives would support the efforts of Canadian health professionals engaged in practices of enhanced accountability.

  5. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

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    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y. [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Nyhof-Young, Joyce [Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)


    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  6. A Survey of Digital Rectal Examination Training in Canadian Medical Schools

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    Alysha Nensi


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The digital rectal examination (DRE is important for the diagnosis of a variety of gastrointestinal, urological and gynecological disorders. However, it appears that Canadian medical students may not be adequately taught nor provided the opportunity to practice their skills often enough. The present study was an analysis of the current practices in DRE teaching and evaluation in undergraduate medicine programs across Canada.

  7. Building a Generation of Physician Advocates: The Case for Including Mandatory Training in Advocacy in Canadian Medical School Curricula. (United States)

    Bhate, Tahara D; Loh, Lawrence C


    There is an increasing focus on the social accountability of physicians as individuals, and of medicine itself. This has led to increasing emphasis on physician advocacy from a wide variety of institutions. The physician advocacy concept is now part of the Health Advocacy competency mandated by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Despite its growing prominence, physician advocacy remains poorly integrated into current medical undergraduate curricula. The authors recommend how and why curricular reform should proceed; they focus on Canadian medical education, although they hope their views will be useful in other countries as well.The authors discuss conflicting definitions of physician advocacy, which have previously hampered curriculum development efforts, and suggest a way of reconciling the conflicts. They review current gaps in advocacy-related curricula, suggest that these can be addressed by incorporating practice-based and skills acquisition elements into current didactic teaching, and offer several strategies by which an advocacy curriculum could be implemented, ranging from small modifications to current curriculum to developing new competencies in medical education nationally.The authors present a case for making an advocacy curriculum mandatory for every Canadian medical trainee; they argue that teaching trainees how to fulfill their professional responsibility to advocate may also help them meet the social accountability mandate of medical school education. Finally, the authors explain why making the development and implementation of a mandatory, skill-based curriculum in advocacy should be a priority.

  8. The importance of being marginal: Norma Ford Walker and a Canadian school of medical genetics. (United States)

    Miller, Fiona


    This study reviews the development of a medical genetics research tradition in Toronto, Canada. This research tradition, what I call the "Ford Walker school," was forged in the 1930s in an iconoclastic mold. It was female-dominated in an era when leading-edge science was definitely not "women's work." It emerged in a leading research university, but in a country that lagged in the sciences. These social relations of gender and nation symbolized and sustained a marginality that was reinforced by the substantive concerns of members of this research school. They adopted a service orientation toward medicine, were sympathetic to heterodox approaches to genetic and medical science, and were principally reliant on a marginal research tool-dermatoglyphics. Despite this marginality, Norma Ford Walker was among the founding members of the institutions of human and medical genetics in North America in the postwar period. She forged a research tradition that served as the basis for further developments in medical genetics in Toronto and educated a generation of students, many of them women, who went on to populate and then institutionalize the growing science and practice of medical genetics in Canada. The heterodox approach of the early Ford Walker school was displaced as the field grew in the postwar period. Yet many members of the research school retained dermatoglyphic technique and used it to contribute to progress in medical cytogenetics. In this article, I explore why the history of this marginal research school is important.

  9. Academic Support Services in U.S. and Canadian Medical Schools

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    Norma S. Saks, EdD


    Full Text Available Background: Academic support services play a critical but largely undocumented role in helping medical students meet the challenges of the curriculum. Purpose: To determine the prevalence of academic support programs in medical schools, and to find out how these are conceptualized and implemented. Methods: Questionnaires were sent to medical schools in the US and Canada. Questions addressed specific services, providers, and funding. Results: The survey was returned by 86 of the 135 (67.7% schools. Almost all (95.3% provide academic support in the first two years, and a large majority in third (82.6% and fourth (79% year. Great variability exists in the infrastructure and funding of the programs, and in the training of the providers. Conclusions: Academic support is common, but has broad interpretation; services are varied. Programs are conceptualized differently, some to provide specific assistance to pass courses, and others for skill development, to enhance self-directed, life-long learning.

  10. What information is provided in transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records from Canadian Medical Schools? A retrospective cohort study

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    Jason A. Robins


    Full Text Available Background: Resident selection committees must rely on information provided by medical schools in order to evaluate candidates. However, this information varies between institutions, limiting its value in comparing individuals and fairly assessing their quality. This study investigates what is included in candidates’ documentation, the heterogeneity therein, as well as its objective data. Methods: Samples of recent transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records were anonymised prior to evaluation. Data were then extracted by two independent reviewers blinded to the submitting university, assessing for the presence of pre-selected criteria; disagreement was resolved through consensus. The data were subsequently analysed in multiple subgroups. Results: Inter-rater agreement equalled 92%. Inclusion of important criteria varied by school, ranging from 22.2% inclusion to 70.4%; the mean equalled 47.4%. The frequency of specific criteria was highly variable as well. Only 17.7% of schools provided any basis for comparison of academic performance; the majority detailed only status regarding pass or fail, without any further qualification. Conclusions: Considerable heterogeneity exists in the information provided in official medical school documentation, as well as markedly little objective data. Standardization may be necessary in order to facilitate fair comparison of graduates from different institutions. Implementation of objective data may allow more effective intra- and inter-scholastic comparison.

  11. Medication use among Canadian seniors. (United States)

    McPherson, Mark; Ji, Hong; Hunt, Jordan; Ranger, Rob; Gula, Cheryl


    As they age, many seniors develop a progressively more complex mix of health conditions. Multiple prescription medications are often required to help manage these conditions and control symptoms, with the goal of maintaining seniors' health for as long as possible. This article explores trends in the number and types of medications used by seniors on public drug programs in Canada. Our findings suggest that a high proportion of Canadian seniors are taking several medications, highlighting the need for medication management systems focusing on this population.

  12. Medical cannabis - the Canadian perspective. (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M


    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.

  13. Teaching cultural diversity: current status in U.K., U.S., and Canadian medical schools. (United States)

    Dogra, Nisha; Reitmanova, Sylvia; Carter-Pokras, Olivia


    In this paper we present the current state of cultural diversity education for undergraduate medical students in three English-speaking countries: the United Kingdom (U.K.), United States (U.S.) and Canada. We review key documents that have shaped cultural diversity education in each country and compare and contrast current issues. It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss the varied terminology that is immediately evident. Suffice it to say that there are many terms (e.g. cultural awareness, competence, sensitivity, sensibility, diversity and critical cultural diversity) used in different contexts with different meanings. The major issues that all three countries face include a lack of conceptual clarity, and fragmented and variable programs to teach cultural diversity. Faculty and staff support and development, and ambivalence from both staff and students continue to be a challenge. We suggest that greater international collaboration may help provide some solutions.

  14. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business? (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke


    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  15. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

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    Turner Leigh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Methods Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1 where in Canada these businesses are located; 2 the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3 the medical procedures they promote; 4 core marketing messages; and 5 whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Results Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism

  16. The more it changes; the more it remains the same: a Foucauldian analysis of Canadian policy documents relevant to student selection for medical school. (United States)

    Razack, Saleem; Lessard, David; Hodges, Brian D; Maguire, Mary H; Steinert, Yvonne


    Calls to increase the demographic representativeness of medical classes to better reflect the diversity of society are part of a growing international trend. Despite this, entry into medical school remains highly competitive and exclusive of marginalized groups. To address these questions, we conducted a Foucauldian discourse analysis of 15 publically available policy documents from the websites of Canadian medical education regulatory bodies, using the concepts of "excellence" (institutional or in an applicant), "diversity," and "equity" to frame the analysis. In most documents, there were appeals to broaden definitions of institutional excellence to include concerns for greater social accountability. Equity concerns tended to be represented as needing to be dealt with by people in positions of authority in order to counter a "hidden curriculum." Diversity was represented as an object of value, situated within a discontinuous history. As a rhetorical strategy, documents invoked complex societal shifts to promote change toward a more humanistic medical education system and profession. "Social accountability" was reified as an all-encompassing solution to most issues of representation. Although the policy documents proclaimed rootedness in an ethos of improving the societal responsiveness of the medical profession, our analysis takes a more critical stance towards the discourses identified. On the basis of our research findings, we question whether these calls may contribute to the maintenance of the specific power relations they seek to address. These conclusions lead us to consider the possibility that the discourses represented in the documents might be reframed to take into account issues of power distribution and its productive and reproductive features. A reframing of discourses could potentially generate greater inclusiveness in policy development processes, and afford disadvantaged and marginalized groups more participatory roles in the discussion.

  17. Medical cannabis – the Canadian perspective (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M


    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol – the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts. PMID:27757048

  18. Refugees and education in Canadian schools (United States)

    Kaprielian-Churchill, Isabel


    This article summarizes some of the findings and recommendations of a research project focusing on the nature and needs of refugee students in Canadian schools. The school performance of refugee students is examined under the following headings: immigration regulations; initial identification, assessment, placement and monitoring; unaccompanied youngsters; "at risk" students; academic needs; the conflict of cultures. In particular, the article discusses the changing role of the school in the light of recent immigration trends. Many of the findings are applicable to other national settings.

  19. School Autonomy and 21st Century Learning: The Canadian Context (United States)

    Newton, Paul; da Costa, Jose


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the policy and practice contexts for school autonomy and twenty-first century learning in Canadian provinces. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on an analysis of policies in Canadian provinces (particularly the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan). The authors review policies…

  20. Global Education in Canadian Elementary Schools: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Mundy, Karen; Manion, Caroline


    This article reports on the implementation of global education in Canadian elementary schools. Curriculum analysis and 76 interviews at school, ministry, and district levels revealed limited coordination among ministry, district and NGO efforts and little support for curriculum development and teacher training. In schools, fund-raising for…

  1. Exit competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine for graduating medical students: the Canadian approach. (United States)

    Ford, Jason; Pambrun, Chantale


    Physicians in every medical and surgical field must be able to use pathology concepts and skills in their practice: for example, they must order and interpret the correct laboratory tests, they must use their understanding of pathogenesis to diagnose and treat, and they must work with the laboratory to care for their patients. These important concepts and skills may be ignored by medical schools and even national/international organizations setting graduation expectations for medical students. There is an evolving international consensus about the importance of exit competencies for medical school graduates, which define the measurable or observable behaviors each graduate must be able to demonstrate. The Canadian Association of Pathologists (CAP) Education Group set out to establish the basic competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine which should be expected of every medical graduate: not competencies for pathologists, but for medical graduates who intend to enter any residency program. We defined 4 targets for pathology and laboratory medicine exit competencies: that they represent only measurable behaviors, that they be clinically focused, that they be generalizable to every medical graduate, and that the final competency document be user-friendly. A set of competencies was developed iteratively and underwent final revision at the 2012 CAP annual meeting. These competencies were subsequently endorsed by the CAP executive and the Canadian Leadership Council on Laboratory Medicine. This clinically focused consensus document provides the first comprehensive list of exit competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine for undergraduate medical education.

  2. Canadian Indian Children Who Had Never Attended School (United States)

    Wilson, Lolita


    This study was designed to compare the performance on selected intelligence tests of a group of Canadian Indian children who had never been to school with the performance of a similar group of children who were attending school regularly. (Author/RK)

  3. Canadian Law Schools: In Search of Excellence. (United States)

    Trakman, Leon E.


    Academically, Canadian education is at the crossroads between formalism and functionalism, with the latter prevailing in recent years. There now arises a demand for a more integrated approach, linking legal theory with legal practice. (MSE)

  4. Medical cannabis – the Canadian perspective


    Ko, Gordon D.; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M


    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol – the principal psychoactive...

  5. Stages Of Gender Education In Canadian Secondary Schools

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    Zhukovskyi Vasyl


    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of educational preconditions of gender education formation and development in Canadian secondary schools. On the basis of conducted scientific and pedagogical literature analysis it has been determined that gender education has undergone three main stages and is currently developing during its fourth, modern period.

  6. Ethical Leadership in Canadian School Organizations: Tensions and Possibilities (United States)

    Langlois, Lyse; Lapointe, Claire


    This study, which was sponsored by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, was conducted in French-language minority schools in seven Canadian provinces: British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia. Using an open-ended interview guide, 47 principals were asked about the…

  7. Canadian Content in School Texts and the Changing Goals of Education. (United States)

    Orpwood, Graham


    The lack of "Canadian content" in Canadian public school textbooks can be more easily explained by changing national educational goals than by foreign ownership of the publishing industry. Science textbooks are used to illustrate. (SB)

  8. Research Use by Leaders in Canadian School Districts

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    Amanda Cooper


    Full Text Available This paper, part of a larger study, investigates the ways research is used by leaders in Canadian schools and districts, an area in which there is relatively little empirical evidence. The paper analyzes survey results from 188 education leaders in 11 school districts across Canada about school and district practices related to the use of research. Results indicate a growing awareness in districts of the importance of research use, reported district capacity, and many kinds of support available for research-related activities; however, actual research use remains modest. Districts appear to have relatively weak processes and systems for finding, sharing, and using relevant research.

  9. Comprehensive School Mental Health: An Integrated "School-Based Pathway to Care" Model for Canadian Secondary Schools (United States)

    Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stan; Szumilas, Magdalena


    Adolescence is a critical period for the promotion of mental health and the treatment of mental disorders. Schools are well-positioned to address adolescent mental health. This paper describes a school mental health model, "School-Based Pathway to Care," for Canadian secondary schools that links schools with primary care providers and…

  10. Developing Canadian oncology education goals and objectives for medical students: a national modified Delphi study (United States)

    Tam, Vincent C.; Ingledew, Paris-Ann; Berry, Scott; Verma, Sunil; Giuliani, Meredith E.


    Background: Studies have shown that there is a deficiency in focused oncology teaching during medical school in Canada. This study aimed to develop oncology education goals and objectives for medical students through consensus of oncology educators from across Canada. Methods: In 2014 we created a comprehensive list of oncology education objectives using existing resources. Experts in oncology education and undergraduate medical education from all 17 Canadian medical schools were invited to participate in a 3-round modified Delphi process. In round 1, the participants scored the objectives on a 9-point Likert scale according to the degree to which they agreed an objective should be taught to medical students. Objectives with a mean score of 7.0 or greater were retained, those with a mean score of 1.0-3.9 were excluded, and those with a mean score of 4.0-6.9 were discussed at a round 2 Web meeting. In round 3, the participants voted on inclusion and exclusion of the round 2 objectives. Results: Thirty-four (92%) of the 37 invited oncology educators, representing 14 medical schools, participated in the study. They included oncologists, family physicians, members of undergraduate medical education curriculum committees and a psychologist. Of the 214 objectives reviewed in round 1, 146 received a mean score of 7.0 or greater, and 68 were scored 4.0-6.9; no objective received a mean score below 4.0. Nine new objectives were suggested. The main themes of participants' comments were to minimize the number of objectives and to aim objectives at the knowledge level required for family physicians. In round 2, the participants were able to combine 28 of the objectives with other existing objectives. In round 3, 7 of the 49 objectives received consensus of at least 75% for inclusion. The final Canadian Oncology Goals and Objectives for Medical Students contained 10 goals and 153 objectives. Interpretation: Through a systematic process, we created a comprehensive, consensus

  11. School Leadership and Equity: Canadian Elements (United States)

    Goddard, J. Tim; Hart, Angela C.


    There are great movements of people taking place around the world and our societies are becoming more diverse and multiethnic in nature, especially in the urban environments of the larger cities. In most countries, schools still represent the "status quo" and most principals are from the "majority culture". There is little empirical evidence…

  12. Teaching Medical Sociology in Medical Schools. (United States)

    Hunt, Gerard J.; Sobal, Jeffery


    Provides 11 teaching guidelines for presentation of sociological material to medical students and addresses the problems of dense scheduling and competition for time in a medical school curriculum. Considers career implications for sociologists in this setting as well as resources available. (NL)

  13. A survey of senior medical students’ attitudes and awareness toward teaching and participation in a formal clinical teaching elective: a Canadian perspective (United States)

    Matthew Hughes, J. D.; Azzi, Elise; Rose, Gregory Walter; Ramnanan, Christopher J.; Khamisa, Karima


    ABSTRACT Background: To prepare for careers in medicine, medical trainees must develop clinical teaching skills. It is unclear if Canadian medical students need or want to develop such skills. We sought to assess Canadian students’ perceptions of clinical teaching, and their desire to pursue clinical teaching skills development via a clinical teaching elective (CTE) in their final year of medical school. Methods: We designed a descriptive cross-sectional study of Canadian senior medical students, using an online survey to gauge teaching experience, career goals, perceived areas of confidence, and interest in a CTE. Results: Students at 13 of 17 Canadian medical schools were invited to participate in the survey (4154 students). We collected 321 responses (7.8%). Most (75%) respondents expressed confidence in giving presentations, but fewer were confident providing bedside teaching (47%), teaching sensitive issues (42%), and presenting at journal clubs (42%). A total of 240 respondents (75%) expressed interest in participating in a CTE. The majority (61%) favored a two week elective, and preferred topics included bedside teaching (85%), teaching physical examination skills (71%), moderation of small group learning (63%), and mentorship in medicine (60%). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that a large number of Canadian medical students are interested in teaching in a clinical setting, but lack confidence in skills specific to clinical teaching. Our respondents signaled interest in participating in an elective in clinical teaching, particularly if it is offered in a two-week format. PMID:28178914

  14. English Language Learners in Canadian Schools: Emerging Directions for School-Based Policies (United States)

    Cummins, Jim; Mirza, Rania; Stille, Saskia


    This article attempts to provide ESL teachers, school administrators, and policymakers with a concise overview of what matters in promoting academic success among learners of English in Canadian schools. We review research focused on bilingual and biliteracy development, the nature of academic language, and the roles of societal power relations…

  15. Creating a Culture of Innovation in Canadian Schools

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    David C. Dibbon


    Full Text Available Since its inception in 1996, the GrassRoots Program has been instrumental in facilitating the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT into the classrooms of Canadian schools. By linking the GrassRoots Program to the school curriculum and providing incentives for teachers to engage students in the process of co-creating electronic curriculum resources for the Internet, it has been influential in transforming classrooms into authentic centres of learning. There is overwhelming evidence supporting the concept that the GrassRoots Program is a powerful connector between ICT and new teaching theories. This paper provides an overview of innovation, a background to some of the challenges associated with large-scale innovation in the Canadian K-12 school system and the findings from a collection of 16 case studies conducted in innovative schools in Canada. An analysis of the data contained in the case studies indicates that the GrassRoots Program is having a positive impact on the diffusion of ICT in the classrooms of schools that are members of the Network of Innovation (NIS, and it is making a significant contribution to the development of a culture of innovation. The existence of GrassRoots projects has also increased the capacity for innovation by empowering and enabling the schools and teachers to work on multiple innovations simultaneously. Also, there is sufficient evidence to show that GrassRoots has had a major impact on: teacher professional learning; teacher technology skill development; student technology skill development, student employability skill development; access to teaching resources; leadership opportunities; and school growth and development.

  16. Physics in canadian secondary schools: Intentions, perceptions, and achievement (United States)

    Finegold, Menahem; Raphael, Dennis

    This article examines secondary-school physics teaching with respect to three levels of curriculum. These are the curriculum as designed by educational authorities and intended for school guidance, as perceived by teachers and translated into classroom practice, and as internalized by students and expressed by achievement on physics tests. In keeping with international usage we refer to these levels of curriculum as the intended, the translated and the achieved. The article is based upon the analysis of curriculum documents and guidelines, teacher assessments of opportunity provided students to learn, and student achievement on a comprehensive physics test. The context for analysis is provided by an ongoing international study of science education in which some 30 participating countries analyze the three curriculum levels and attempt to draw conclusions concerning possible relationships among them. The article reports limited but nevertheless significant relationships found among intentions, translations, and achievement in the teaching of physics in Canadian secondary schools.

  17. Multilingualism in Canadian schools: Myths, realities and possibilities

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    Patricia A. Duff


    Full Text Available Abstract Bilingualism and multiculturalism have for four decades been official ideologies and policies in Canada but, as is often the case, the implementation and outcomes of such government policies nationally are less impressive than the rhetoric would suggest. This article reviews the political, theoretical and demographic contexts justifying support for the learning and use of additional languages in contemporary Canadian society and schools, and summarizes research demonstrating that bilingualism and multilingualism are indeed cognitively, socially, and linguistically advantageous for children (and adults, as well as for society. The five studies in this special issue are then previewed with respect to the following themes that run across them: (1 the potential for bilingual synergies and transformations in language awareness activities and crosslinguistic knowledge construction; (2 the role of multiliteracies and multimodality in mediated learning; and (3 the interplay of positioning, identity, and agency in language learning by immigrant youth. The article concludes that more Canadian schools and educators must, like the researchers in this volume, find ways to embrace and build upon students’ prior knowledge, their creativity, their collaborative problem-solving skills, their potential for mastering and manipulating multiple, multilingual semiotic tools, and their desire for inclusion and integration in productive, engaging learning communities.

  18. An industry perspective on Canadian patients' involvement in Medical Tourism: implications for public health

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    Snyder Jeremy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical tourism industry, which assists patients with accessing non-emergency medical care abroad, has grown rapidly in recent years. A lack of reliable data about medical tourism makes it difficult to create policy, health system, and public health responses to address the associated risks and shortcomings, such as spread of infectious diseases, associated with this industry. This article addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing interviews conducted with Canadian medical tourism facilitators in order to understand Canadian patients' involvement in medical tourism and the implications of this involvement for public health. Methods Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with 12 medical facilitators from 10 companies in 2010. An exhaustive recruitment strategy was used to identify interviewees. Questions focused on business dimensions, information exchange, medical tourists' decision-making, and facilitators' roles in medical tourism. Thematic analysis was undertaken following data collection. Results Facilitators helped their Canadian clients travel to 11 different countries. Estimates of the number of clients sent abroad annually varied due to demand factors. Facilitators commonly worked with medical tourists aged between 40 and 60 from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds who faced a number of potential barriers including affordability, fear of the unfamiliar, and lack of confidence. Medical tourists who chose not to use facilitators' services were thought to be interested in saving money or have cultural/familial connections to the destination country. Canadian doctors were commonly identified as barriers to securing clients. Conclusions No effective Canadian public health response to medical tourism can treat medical tourists as a unified group with similar motivations for engaging in medical tourism and choosing similar mechanisms for doing so. This situation may be echoed in other countries with patients

  19. Appealing to the crowd: ethical justifications in Canadian medical crowdfunding campaigns. (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Mathers, Annalise; Chow-White, Peter


    Medical crowdfunding is growing in terms of the number of active campaigns, amount of funding raised and public visibility. Little is known about how campaigners appeal to potential donors outside of anecdotal evidence collected in news reports on specific medical crowdfunding campaigns. This paper offers a first step towards addressing this knowledge gap by examining medical crowdfunding campaigns for Canadian recipients. Using 80 medical crowdfunding campaigns for Canadian recipients, we analyse how Canadians justify to others that they ought to contribute to funding their health needs. We find the justifications campaigners tend to fall into three themes: personal connections, depth of need and giving back. We further discuss how these appeals can understood in terms of ethical justifications for giving and how these justifications should be assessed in light of the academic literature on ethical concerns raised by medical crowdfunding.

  20. Medical cannabis ‒ the Canadian perspective 

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    Ko GD


    Full Text Available Gordon D Ko,1,2 Sara L Bober,1 Sean Mindra,3 Jason M Moreau1 1Apollo Applied Research Inc., 2Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, 3University of Ottawa Medical School, Ottawa, ON, Canada Abstract: Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol – the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges. This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts. Keywords: randomized controlled trials

  1. The Medical School Tuition Crunch (United States)

    Craig, John


    New federal policies on student aid favor guaranteed loans rather than direct government aid. Private medical schools may find themselves at a growing competitive disadvantage, and better financial-aid staffing will be needed by all schools. Trustees and administrators should encourage banks to participate in loan programs. (Author/LBH)

  2. Canadian Innovation: A Brief History of Canada's First Online School Psychology Graduate Program (United States)

    Drefs, Michelle A.; Schroeder, Meadow; Hiebert, Bryan; Panayotidis, E. Lisa; Winters, Katherine; Kerr, Jamie


    This article presents a brief historical review and survey of the current landscape of online graduate psychology programs within the Canadian context. Specific focus is given to outlining the establishment and evolution of the first Canadian online professional specialization program in school psychology. The article argues that given the virtual…

  3. Factors affecting residency rank-listing: A Maxdiff survey of graduating Canadian medical students

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    Forgie Melissa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, graduating medical students consider many factors, including geographic, social, and academic, when ranking residency programs through the Canadian Residency Matching Service (CaRMS. The relative significance of these factors is poorly studied in Canada. It is also unknown how students differentiate between their top program choices. This survey study addresses the influence of various factors on applicant decision making. Methods Graduating medical students from all six Ontario medical schools were invited to participate in an online survey available for three weeks prior to the CaRMS match day in 2010. Max-Diff discrete choice scaling, multiple choice, and drop-list style questions were employed. The Max-Diff data was analyzed using a scaled simple count method. Data for how students distinguish between top programs was analyzed as percentages. Comparisons were made between male and female applicants as well as between family medicine and specialist applicants; statistical significance was determined by the Mann-Whitney test. Results In total, 339 of 819 (41.4% eligible students responded. The variety of clinical experiences and resident morale were weighed heavily in choosing a residency program; whereas financial incentives and parental leave attitudes had low influence. Major reasons that applicants selected their first choice program over their second choice included the distance to relatives and desirability of the city. Both genders had similar priorities when selecting programs. Family medicine applicants rated the variety of clinical experiences more importantly; whereas specialty applicants emphasized academic factors more. Conclusions Graduating medical students consider program characteristics such as the variety of clinical experiences and resident morale heavily in terms of overall priority. However, differentiation between their top two choice programs is often dependent on social/geographic factors

  4. Ethical orientation, functional linguistics, and the codes of ethics of the Canadian Nurses Association and the Canadian Medical Association. (United States)

    Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Malloy, David C; Douaud, Patrick; Smythe, William E


    The literature on codes of ethics suggests that grammatical and linguistic structures as well as the theoretical ethical orientation conveyed in codes of ethics have implications for the manner in which such codes are received by those bound by them. Certain grammatical and linguistic structures, for example, tend to have an authoritarian and disempowering impact while others can be empowering. The authors analyze and compare the codes of ethics of the Canadian Nurses Association (CNA) and the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) in terms of their ethical orientation and grammatical/linguistic structures. The results suggest that the two codes differ substantially along these two dimensions. The CNA code contains proportionally more statements that provide a rationale for ethical behaviour; the statements of the CMA code tend to be more dogmatic. Functional grammar analysis suggests that both codes convey a strong deontological tone that does not enhance the addressee's ability to engage in discretionary decision-making. The nurses' code nonetheless implies a collaborative relationship with the client, whereas the medical code implies that the patient is the recipient of medical wisdom. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Should the MCAT exam be used for medical school admissions in Canada? (United States)

    Eskander, Antoine; Shandling, Maureen; Hanson, Mark D


    In light of the structural and content changes to the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) to be implemented in 2015 and the recent diversity- and social-accountability-based recommendations of the Future of Medical Education in Canada (FMEC) project, the authors review and reexamine the use of the MCAT exam in Canadian medical school admissions decisions.This Perspective article uses a point-counterpoint format to discuss three main advantages and disadvantages of using the MCAT exam in the medical school admissions process, from a Canadian perspective. The authors examine three questions regarding the FMEC recommendations and the revised MCAT exam: (1) Is the MCAT exam equal and useful in Canadian admissions? (2) Does the MCAT exam affect matriculant diversity? and (3) Is the MCAT exam a strong predictor of future performance? They present the most recent arguments and evidence for and against use of the MCAT exam, with the purpose of summarizing these different perspectives for readers.

  6. Joining the Canadian Tribe: Building a Pluralistic Community in a B.C. School. (United States)

    Carrigan, Tony; Kibblewhite, John


    Immigrants often comprise most of the student body in urban Canadian schools. An elementary school in suburban Vancouver (British Columbia) provides sheltered classes and bilingual student partners for beginning English language learners. A school-based friendship club fosters intercultural understanding and a welcoming atmosphere for students and…

  7. The Medical School Retention Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta


    INTRODUCTION Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout.1 Recently Urlings-Strop et al. found the relative risk of dropout to be 2.6 times lower for ‘selected students’ than for ‘lottery admitted controls’.2 The main aim of our study was to evaluate...... scores and dropout. REFERENCES 1.O’Neill L, Wallstedt B, Eika B, Hartvigsen J. Factors associated with dropout in medical education: a literature review. Med Educ (In press). 2.Urlings-Strop LC, Stijnen T, Themmen APN, Splinter TAW. Selection of medical students: a controlled experiment. Med Educ 2009...

  8. Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools vs. Canadian Community Colleges: A Comparison of Information Accessibility and Accountability (United States)

    Butler, Norman L.; Smith, Catherine; Davidson, Barry S.; Tanner, Tyrone; Kritsonis, William Allan


    Recent reforms in Polish education, Canadian interest in cooperative education, and differences in government involvement in Polish vs. Canadian education motivate the current comparative study of Polish post-secondary vocational schools (PVSs) and Canadian community colleges (CCs). While PVSs and CCs may initially appear equivalent (e.g., both…

  9. National Medical School Matching Program: optimizing outcomes (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam EM; Daniels, Alan H


    The medical school admissions process is inefficient and costly to both applicants and medical schools. For the many rejected applicants, this process represents a costly, unproductive use of time. For medical schools, numerous applications are reviewed that ultimately do not yield matriculants, representing a substantial inefficiency. In order to streamline the process and reduce costs, we propose the development of a national medical school matching program. PMID:27445512

  10. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.


    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  11. Beyond the Dialectics and Polemics: Canadian Catholic Schools Addressing LGBT Youth Issues (United States)

    Liboro, Renato M.; Travers, Robb; St. John, Alex


    In 2012, Canadian media coverage on Bill 13--an Ontario legislative proposal to require all publicly funded schools to support Gay-Straight Alliances as a means of addressing issues concerning bullied lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students--instigated a divisive exchange among representatives of the Ontario Catholic school sector.…

  12. School Experiences Influence Personal Health and Interpersonal Relationships of Adolescents: The Canadian Case (United States)

    Ma, Xin


    Canadian data from the 1998 Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children were analyzed to examine the effects of school experiences on personal health (physical health, mental health, self-esteem, helplessness, and body image) and interpersonal relationships (number of close friends and making friends) among adolescents.…

  13. Assessing School Effects on Dental Hygiene and Nutrition Behaviors of Canadian Adolescents (United States)

    Ma, Xin


    This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…

  14. Unveiled Sentiments: Gendered Islamophobia and Experiences of Veiling among Muslim Girls in a Canadian Islamic School (United States)

    Zine, Jasmin


    The practice of veiling has made Muslim women subject to dual oppressions--racism and Islamophobia--in society at large and patriarchal oppression and sexism from within their communities. Based on a narrative analysis of the politics of veiling in schools and society, the voices of young Muslim women attending a Canadian Islamic school speak to…

  15. Providing a Safe Learning Environment for Queer Students in Canadian Schools: A Legal Analysis of Homophobic Bullying (United States)

    Anderson, James


    This article reviews Canadian administrative law regarding homophobic bullying and school board decision making. Depending on the provincial legislation, school boards either have a mandatory or a discretionary duty to provide queer students with a safe learning environment. However, Canadian case law has arguably limited that discretion. Recent…

  16. Canadian Infanticide Legislation, 1948 and 1955: Reflections on the Medicalization/Autopoiesis Debate

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    William Dean Watson


    Full Text Available This article provides a sociological analysis of the discursive interpretations of the criminal law mitigation frameworks underpinning infanticide law in England and Canada. The passage of infanticide legislation by the Canadian Parliament in 1948 and 1955 is described. The account is contrasted with Tony Ward's analysis of the passage of English legislation in 1922 and 1938. The Canadian legislation of 1948 was based on the English Infanticide Act of 1922. Ward claims that his account shows that, despite obvious appearances and the views of socio-legal commentators writing during the 1980s and 1990s, infanticide law is not an example of the medicalization of women's deviance but, if anything, more closely exemplifies law as an autopoietic system of communication which "enslaves" medical concepts, adapting them for its own strictly legal purposes. We argue that, while Ward's critique of the medicalization interpretation of infanticide law is broadly apposite, autopoiesis theory provides an overwrought alternative. This is especially true for the Canadian legislation.

  17. Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas

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    Amram Ofer


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads in Canadian cities. Methods Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances Results Addresses were obtained for 1,556 public elementary schools, 95% of which were successfully geocoded. Across all 10 cities, 16.3% of schools were located within 75 m of a major road, with wide variability between cities. Schools in neighborhoods with higher median income were less likely to be near major roads (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00, while schools in densely populated neighborhoods were more frequently close to major roads (OR per 1,000 dwellings/km2: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16. Over 22% of schools in the lowest neighborhood income quintile were close to major roads, compared to 13% of schools in the highest income quintile. Conclusions A substantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of schools may negatively impact the healthy development and academic performance of a large number of Canadian children.

  18. Medication Administration Practices of School Nurses. (United States)

    McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W.; Reed, David


    Assessed medication administration practices among school nurses, surveying members of the National Association of School Nurses. Respondents were extremely concerned about medication administration. Errors in administering medications were reported by 48.5 percent of respondents, with missed doses the most common error. Most nurses followed…

  19. Challenges Faced by International Medical Students Due to Changes in Canadian Entrance Exam Policy

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    Pishoy Gouda


    Full Text Available The Medical Council of Canada has set new eligibility criteria for examinations that are required in order to apply to postgraduate training. This is to facilitate the establishment of the National Assessment Collaboration Objective Structured Clinical Examination. These changes result in increased hardships on Canadians studying abroad who are wishing to apply for postgraduate training in Canada. While these exams are crucial to protect medical standards and the quality of healthcare in Canada, slight modifications of the examination timelines may alleviate some of the burdens caused by these exams.

  20. The Current State of Medical Education in Chinese Medical Schools (United States)

    Kosik, Russell Oliver; Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Xu, Guo-Tong; Zhao, Xudong; Guo, Li; Tang, Wen; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen


    Today's doctor is as much a humanist as a scientist. Medical schools have responded to this change by introducing a variety of courses, most notably those concerning the humanities and ethics. Thus far, no one has examined the extent of use of these subjects in Chinese medical schools. The goal of this study is to determine how many and in…

  1. The Role and Status of Food and Nutrition Literacy in Canadian School Curricula (United States)

    Anderson, Heather; Falkenberg, Thomas


    The obesity epidemic in North America has given greater attention to food and nutrition literacy in Canadian schools. However, the review of relevant literature on food and nutrition literacy reveals quite a range of understandings of what such literacy means. This raises the question of what understanding of food and nutrition literacy is…

  2. Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) Members' Engagement with Sex Education in Canadian High Schools (United States)

    Lapointe, Alicia


    This paper offers an examination of gay-straight alliance (GSA) members' engagement with sex education, sexual health, and prejudice and discrimination in Canadian public high schools. It explores how five students' (four straight and one gay-identifying) participation in GSAs served as a springboard for learning about and challenging…

  3. Pre-Service Teachers and Muslim Parents: Exploring Religious Diversity in Canadian Public Schools (United States)

    Guo, Yan


    This study explores how a group of Caucasian pre-service teachers responded to Muslim immigrant parents' accounts of the marginalization of their faith practices in Canadian public schools. Data were collected through interviews with parents, dialogues between parents and pre-service teachers, online reflections, and focus groups among pre-service…

  4. From Command to Constructivism: Canadian Secondary School Physical Education Curriculum and "Teaching Games for Understanding" (United States)

    Singleton, Ellen


    Canadian physical educators have fought long and hard to be recognized as legitimate contributors to school curricula. In claiming alliances with discourses of medicine and morality, science and psychology, proponents of physical education have sought to be recognized and validated within the educational milieu. These claims have fundamentally…

  5. "Nutritional Wastelands": Vending Machines, Fast Food Outlets, and the Fight over Junk Food in Canadian Schools. (United States)

    Gidney, Catherine


    In light of a growing obesity crisis among children and concern about junk food in schools, this article investigates the attempt by food and beverage companies to gain entry into Canadian schools. Focusing in particular on the introduction of fast-food franchises in cafeterias and on school boards' secret exclusivity deals with soft drink manufacturers in the 1990s, it examines how and why this process occurred, public reactions to it, and government responses. Placing this phenomenon within a larger pattern of commercialization in North American schools, it argues that long-lasting reforms require government intervention and enforcement.

  6. Exploring Canadian Identity through Canadian Children's Literature. (United States)

    Pantaleo, Sylvia


    Considers what commonplaces of culture and identity are being, could be, transmitted through the use of children's literature in classrooms. Explores what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Describes a study which involved Canadian elementary school children who read Canadian children's books. Concludes that literature plays a…

  7. Medical Schools, Clinical Research, and Ethical Leadership (United States)

    Makarushka, Julia L.; Lally, John J.


    Recent discussion of the ethical problems of biomedical human experimentation has drawn attention to the responsibility of the medical schools for training new clinical investigators and for safeguarding the rights and welfare of the subjects of clinical research conducted in the medical schools and their affiliated hospitals. (Author)

  8. Student Achievement Outcomes Comprehensive School Reform: A Canadian Case Study (United States)

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Sibbald, Timothy M.


    The authors conducted a third-party study of the student achievement effects of Struggling Schools, a user-generated approach to Comprehensive School Reform (CSR). The design was a quasiexperimental, pre-post matched sample (N = 180) with school as unit of analysis, drawing on 3 years of achievement data from standardized external assessments.…

  9. Emotional intelligence predicts success in medical school. (United States)

    Libbrecht, Nele; Lievens, Filip; Carette, Bernd; Côté, Stéphane


    Accumulating evidence suggests that effective communication and interpersonal sensitivity during interactions between doctors and patients impact therapeutic outcomes. There is an important need to identify predictors of these behaviors, because traditional tests used in medical admissions offer limited predictions of "bedside manners" in medical practice. This study examined whether emotional intelligence would predict the performance of 367 medical students in medical school courses on communication and interpersonal sensitivity. One of the dimensions of emotional intelligence, the ability to regulate emotions, predicted performance in courses on communication and interpersonal sensitivity over the next 3 years of medical school, over and above cognitive ability and conscientiousness. Emotional intelligence did not predict performance on courses on medical subject domains. The results suggest that medical schools may better predict who will communicate effectively and show interpersonal sensitivity if they include measures of emotional intelligence in their admission systems.

  10. Self-Medication among School Students (United States)

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed; Batiha, Abdul-Monim; Tawalbeh, Loai; Tubaishat, Ahmad; AlAzzam, Manar


    Self-medication, usually with over-the-counter (OTC) medication, is reported as a community health problem that affects many people worldwide. Most self-medication practice usually begins with the onset of adolescence. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan, using a simple random sampling method to select…

  11. Immigrant Students Navigating Canadian Schools: A Longitudinal View (United States)

    Gunderson, Lee; D'Silva, Reginald Arthur; Odo, Dennis Murphy


    Findings are presented from studies of the academic and language achievement of 1,307 young immigrant students whose educational history was traced from their arrival in Canada and entry into primary education in the early 1990s until their graduation from secondary schools. Five major findings are reported: school mobility, disappearance and…

  12. Library links on medical school home pages. (United States)

    Thomas, Sheila L


    The purpose of this study was to assess the websites of American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC)-member medical schools for the presence of library links. Sixty-one percent (n = 92) of home pages of the 150 member schools of the AAMC contain library links. For the 58 home pages not offering such links, 50 provided a pathway of two or three clicks to a library link. The absence of library links on 39% of AAMC medical school home pages indicates that the designers of those pages did not consider the library to be a primary destination for their visitors.

  13. Cheating in medical school: the unacknowledged ailment. (United States)

    Kusnoor, Anita V; Falik, Ruth


    The reported prevalence of cheating among US medical students ranges from 0% to 58%. Cheating behaviors include copying from others, using unauthorized notes, sharing information about observed structured clinical encounters, and dishonesty about performing physical examinations on patients. Correlates of cheating in medical school include prior cheating behavior, burnout, and inadequate understanding about what constitutes cheating. Institutional responses include expulsion, reprimands, counseling, and peer review. Preventing cheating requires establishing standards for acceptable behavior, focusing on learning rather than assessment, involving medical students in peer review, and creating a culture of academic integrity. Cheating in medical school may have serious long-term consequences for future physicians. Institutions should develop environments that promote integrity.

  14. Canadian medical tourism companies that have exited the marketplace: Content analysis of websites used to market transnational medical travel

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    Turner Leigh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical tourism companies play an important role in promoting transnational medical travel for elective, out-of-pocket medical procedures. Though researchers are paying increasing attention to the global phenomenon of medical tourism, to date websites of medical tourism companies have received limited scrutiny. This article analyzes websites of Canadian medical tourism companies that advertised international healthcare but ultimately exited the marketplace. Using content analysis of company websites as an investigative tool, the article provides a detailed account of medical tourism companies that were based in Canada but no longer send clients to international health care facilities. Methods Internet searches, Google Alerts, searches on Google News Canada and ProQuest Newsstand, and searches of an Industry Canada database were used to locate medical tourism companies located in Canada. Once medical tourism companies were identified, the social science research method of content analysis was used to extract relevant information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to determine: 1 where these businesses were based; 2 the destination countries and medical facilities that they promoted; 3 the health services they advertised; 4 core marketing messages; and 5 whether businesses marketed air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday excursions in addition to medical procedures. Results In total, 25 medical tourism companies that were based in Canada are now defunct. Given that an estimated 18 medical tourism companies and 7 regional, cross-border medical travel facilitators now operate in Canada, it appears that approximately half of all identifiable medical tourism companies in Canada are no longer in business. 13 of the previously operational companies were based in Ontario, 7 were located in British Columbia, 4 were situated in Quebec, and 1 was based in Alberta. 14 companies marketed medical procedures within a

  15. The Medical Ethics Curriculum in Medical Schools: Present and Future. (United States)

    Giubilini, Alberto; Milnes, Sharyn; Savulescu, Julian


    In this review article we describe the current scope, methods, and contents of medical ethics education in medical schools in Western English speaking countries (mainly the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia). We assess the strengths and weaknesses of current medical ethics curricula, and students' levels of satisfaction with different teaching approaches and their reported difficulties in learning medical ethics concepts and applying them in clinical practice. We identify three main challenges for medical ethics education: counteracting the bad effects of the "hidden curriculum," teaching students how to apply ethical knowledge and critical thinking to real cases in clinical practice, and shaping future doctors' right character through ethics education. We suggest ways in which these challenges could be addressed. On the basis of this analysis, we propose practical guidelines for designing, implementing, teaching, and assessing a medical ethics program within a four-year medical course.

  16. Developing Social Accountability Indicators at Medical Schools

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    Jalilian hamed Hasan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical education is constantly discussed by experts due to its close relationship with the public health from the perspectives of relevance, appropriateness and responsiveness to community needs. There is no consistent general model to evaluate the social accountability of medical schools. This study was conducted to develop indicators of social accountability in medical schools. Methods: Criteria and indicators of social accountability were developed during three stages. In the first stage, after a deep review on the Global Consensus on Social Accountability of Medical Schools (GCSA and several papers we developed baseline areas, criteria and indicators. In the second stage, during the first round of the Delphi, the tables draft was sent to twenty medical education experts. Then, comments were collected and classified in the first meeting of the focus group discussions and necessary reforms were implemented in the tables. In the third stage and second round of Delphi, the set of revisions were sent the same selected experts. The suggested reforms were applied after collecting the instructors’ comments in the second focus group discussions. Five members of the focus group discussions were selected based on their relevant knowledge and experience in social accountability issues. Results: Ten areas, twenty-eight criteria and ninety-five indicators were developed after three stages of study with two rounds using the Delphi method and two focus group sessions. To clarify the criteria and indicators, we tried to make the developed indicators and criteria practical so that they could be used in the social accountability evaluation of medical schools. Conclusion: According to the importance and key role of social accountability in the medical schools mission, using comprehensive indicators can result in better accreditation and evaluation of medical schools .This study has prepared applicable and comprehensive indicators for evaluation

  17. Fasa University Medical School: a novel experience in medical education

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    Full Text Available Introduction: In early 1970`s a combination of a shortage and misdistribution of health services and growing public dissatisfaction about the health care available, along with increasing expectations, has put great strain on the mind of the staff of the Department of Medicine Shiraz University School of Medicine. The purpose of this report is to give an account of what was originally planned and what has happened since the start of Fasa Medical School in April 1978. Methods: This is a case report about an experience in medical education in Iran. At the time, two major problems were facing our country. The first was gross mal-distribution of these healthcare facilities, which were mostly concentrated in Tehran and big cities of Iran, and the second problem was continuous exodus of Iranian Medical graduates to the Western countries. Results: The main idea of creating Fasa Medical School was to create a system in which primary care in small villages are provided by VHW with the middle level health workers of “Behdar Roustaee” to be supported by local physicians who reside in small towns. Conclusion: For Fasa Medical School, education was emphasized on community based, student centered, and problem based medical education located in the community and based on teamwork and cooperation.

  18. Environmental Medicine Content in Medical School Curricula. (United States)

    Schenk, Maryjean; And Others


    A survey of 119 medical schools found that about one-quarter had no required environmental medicine (EM) content in the curriculum. Schools with EM content averaged seven hours of instruction. Sixty-eight percent had faculty with environmental and occupational medicine expertise, primarily in departments of medicine, preventive medicine, and…

  19. Res ipsa loquitur in Canadian medical malpractice cases 1975-1988. (United States)

    Neff, C; Cook, R


    There is a perception in some quarters that courts too often, in the interest of compensating victims, find the medical profession at fault for 'failed medical care' which does not amount to negligence. If this were true, judges would likely make liberal use of the evidentiary rules res ipsa loquitur. However, a study of Canadian medical malpractice cases from 1975 to 1988 indicates that this is not the case and that judges on the contrary reject such a liberal use of the rule. Res ipsa loquitur was pleaded in only 37 of 142 cases, it was applied in only 14 of these cases, and the defendant was found liable in only ten of the cases in which it was applied. Furthermore, there is little evidence in these cases that judges are as a matter of policy trying to find legal rules to justify compensating more victims of medical misadventure, regardless of fault. On the contrary, judges not infrequently express sympathy for the plaintiff but nevertheless find for the defendant.

  20. Risk communication and informed consent in the medical tourism industry: A thematic content analysis of canadian broker websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crooks Valorie A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical tourism, thought of as patients seeking non-emergency medical care outside of their home countries, is a growing industry worldwide. Canadians are amongst those engaging in medical tourism, and many are helped in the process of accessing care abroad by medical tourism brokers - agents who specialize in making international medical care arrangements for patients. As a key source of information for these patients, brokers are likely to play an important role in communicating the risks and benefits of undergoing surgery or other procedures abroad to their clientele. This raises important ethical concerns regarding processes such as informed consent and the liability of brokers in the event that complications arise from procedures. The purpose of this article is to examine the language, information, and online marketing of Canadian medical tourism brokers' websites in light of such ethical concerns. Methods An exhaustive online search using multiple search engines and keywords was performed to compile a comprehensive directory of English-language Canadian medical tourism brokerage websites. These websites were examined using thematic content analysis, which included identifying informational themes, generating frequency counts of these themes, and comparing trends in these counts to the established literature. Results Seventeen websites were identified for inclusion in this study. It was found that Canadian medical tourism broker websites varied widely in scope, content, professionalism and depth of information. Three themes emerged from the thematic content analysis: training and accreditation, risk communication, and business dimensions. Third party accreditation bodies of debatable regulatory value were regularly mentioned on the reviewed websites, and discussion of surgical risk was absent on 47% of the websites reviewed, with limited discussion of risk on the remaining ones. Terminology describing brokers' roles was

  1. CAD/CAM: Practical and Persuasive in Canadian Schools (United States)

    Willms, Ed


    Chances are that many high school students would not know how to use drafting instruments, but some might want to gain competence in computer-assisted design (CAD) and possibly computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM). These students are often attracted to tech courses by the availability of CAD/CAM instructions, and many go on to impress employers…

  2. Making Canada a destination for medical tourists: why Canadian provinces should not try to become "Mayo Clinics of the North". (United States)

    Turner, Leigh


    When Canadian researchers examine the subject of medical tourism, they typically focus on ethical, social, public health and health policy issues related to Canadians seeking health services in other countries. They emphasize study of Canada as a departure point for medical tourists rather than as a potential destination for international patients. Several influential voices have recently argued that provincial healthcare systems in Canada should market health services to international patients. Proponents of marketing Canada as a destination for medical tourists argue that attracting international patients will generate revenue for provincial healthcare systems. Responding to such proposals, I argue that there are at least seven reasons why provincial health systems in Canada should not dedicate institutional, financial and health human resources to promoting themselves as destinations for medical tourists.

  3. Learner-Directed Nutrition Content for Medical Schools to Meet LCME Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Hark


    Full Text Available Deficiencies in medical school nutrition education have been noted since the 1960s. Nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, and obesity, are now the most common, costly, and preventable health problems in the US. Training medical students to assess diet and nutritional status and advise patients about a healthy diet, exercise, body weight, smoking, and alcohol consumption are critical to reducing chronic disease risk. Barriers to improving medical school nutrition content include lack of faculty preparation, limited curricular time, and the absence of funding. Several new LCME standards provide important impetus for incorporating nutrition into existing medical school curriculum as self-directed material. Fortunately, with advances in technology, electronic learning platforms, and web-based modules, nutrition can be integrated and assessed across all four years of medical school at minimal costs to medical schools. Medical educators have access to a self-study nutrition textbook, Medical Nutrition and Disease, Nutrition in Medicine© online modules, and the NHLBI Nutrition Curriculum Guide for Training Physicians. This paper outlines how learner-directed nutrition content can be used to meet several US and Canadian LCME accreditation standards. The health of the nation depends upon future physicians’ ability to help their patients make diet and lifestyle changes.

  4. Measuring Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja GH Nieuwhof


    Full Text Available Purpose. Students vary in their strength of motivation to start and pursue medical training. This study was conducted to investigate the psychometric properties of a Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS questionnaire. Method. The questionnaire was designed using an iterative method. The instrument was applied to medical students (N= 296 at the start of medical school and to potential applicants (N= 147. The stability of the concept over a six month’s time and associations with other motivation measures were studied. A separate group of potential applicants and their parents (N= 169 were asked to validate the items of the questionnaire. Results. Cronbach’s alpha reliability of .79 was found. Test-retest reliability of SMMS-scores with a six months interval was .71. Little to no association with specific dimensions of motivation was found, except for a negative correlation with ‘ambivalence towards studying’. SMMS-scores were associated with potential applicants’ plans to apply for medical school (Spearman’s rho .65 and differentially with potential applicants’ and their parents’ judgements of item validities (.13 to .57. Conclusions. The SMMS-questionnaire appears to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure strength of motivation for medical training in students who have just entered medical school. It may be used to evaluate the validity of selection procedures and to identify associated variables that could be used in selection procedures.

  5. Teaching law in medical schools: first, reflect. (United States)

    Campbell, Amy T


    Law is now routinely included in the medical school curriculum, often incorporated into bioethics and/or practice of medicine coursework. There seems to lack, however, a systematic understanding of what works in terms of getting across an effective depth and breadth of legal knowledge for medical students - or what such would even look like. Moreover, and more critically, while some literature addresses these what, when, how, and who questions, a more fundamental question is left unanswered: why teach law in medical school? This article suggests a process to reveal a more consensual understanding of this latter question. The author highlights findings and recommendations of some of the leading literature to date related to teaching law in medical schools, and also recent U.K. projects addressing legal teaching in medical schools. Reflecting on these materials and activities, the author suggests that we take a "pause" before we argue for more or different legal topics within the medical curriculum. Before we alter the curricula for more and/or different "law," first, it is critical to have a meaningful, stakeholder-driven, consensus-seeking discussion of the goals of legal education: why do we think it matters that medical students learn about "the law"?

  6. Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Hasan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0% of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.

  7. HIV testing during the Canadian immigration medical examination: a national survey of designated medical practitioners. (United States)

    Tran, Jennifer M; Li, Alan; Owino, Maureen; English, Ken; Mascarenhas, Lyndon; Tan, Darrell H S


    HIV testing is mandatory for individuals wishing to immigrate to Canada. Since the Designated Medical Practitioners (DMPs) who perform these tests may have varying experience in HIV and time constraints in their clinical practices, there may be variability in the quality of pre- and posttest counseling provided. We surveyed DMPs regarding HIV testing, counseling, and immigration inadmissibility. A 16-item survey was mailed to all DMPs across Canada (N = 203). The survey inquired about DMP characteristics, knowledge of HIV, attitudes and practices regarding inadmissibility and counseling, and interest in continuing medical education. There were a total of 83 respondents (41%). Participants frequently rated their knowledge of HIV diagnostics, cultural competency, and HIV/AIDS service organizations as "fair" (40%, 43%, and 44%, respectively). About 25%, 46%, and 11% of the respondents agreed/strongly agreed with the statements "HIV infected individuals pose a danger to public health and safety," "HIV-positive immigrants cause excessive demand on the healthcare system," and "HIV seropositivity is a reasonable ground for denial into Canada," respectively. Language was cited as a barrier to counseling, which focused on transmission risks (46% discussed this as "always" or "often") more than coping and social support (37%). There was a high level of interest (47%) in continuing medical education in this area. There are areas for improvement regarding DMPs' knowledge, attitudes, and practices about HIV infection, counseling, and immigration criteria. Continuing medical education and support for DMPs to facilitate practice changes could benefit newcomers who test positive through the immigration process.

  8. A gendered analysis of Canadian Aboriginal individuals admitted to inpatient substance abuse detoxification: a three-year medical chart review. (United States)

    Callaghan, Russell C; Cull, Randi; Vettese, Lisa C; Taylor, Lawren


    This study examined gender differences within a sample of Canadian Aboriginal individuals admitted to an inpatient, hospital-based substance abuse detoxification program. Even though alcohol was the most frequent primary drug of detoxification for both genders, women received proportionately higher rates of cocaine or opiate detoxification diagnoses. In addition to a younger age, females reported higher rates of physical and sexual abuse. Women were also administered antidepressants, antibiotic medication protocols, and more medical evaluation tests. It appears that Canadian Aboriginal women have a diverse set of psychological and medical needs. This study demonstrates the need for detoxification programs to address the substantial rates of intravenous drug use and the associated risk of infectious disease (eg, Hepatitis C, HIV) among this treatment-seeking population.

  9. Affirmative action policy in medical school admissions. (United States)

    Frazer, Ricardo A


    Legal challenges to affirmative action are growing, a trend suggesting that a proactive stance is needed to maintain a policy that still has viability, legitimacy, and utility. Medical schools admissions offices in the United States emphasize the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT), even though many studies have found that grade point averages are better single predictors of future academic achievement, regardless of the student's socioeconomic or racial category. The current essay suggests there is an overreliance on the MCAT in medical school admissions. Medical colleges should encourage the development of additional applicant selection criteria, while continuing to use affirmative action programs, in part to address the need for increased community-oriented health care.

  10. [Plagiarism in medical schools, and its prevention]. (United States)

    Annane, Djillali; Annane, Frédérique


    The plagiarism has become very common in universities and medical school. Undoubtedly, the easy access to a huge amount of electronic documents is one explanation for the increasing prevalence of plagiarism among students. While most of universities and medical school have clear statements and rules about plagiarism, available tools for the detection of plagiarism remain inefficient and dedicate training program for students and teachers too scarce. As lack of time is one reason for students to choose plagiarism, it should be one main target for educational programs.

  11. Medical cannabis ‒ the Canadian perspective 


    Ko GD; Bober SL; Mindra S; Moreau JM


    Gordon D Ko,1,2 Sara L Bober,1 Sean Mindra,3 Jason M Moreau1 1Apollo Applied Research Inc., 2Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, 3University of Ottawa Medical School, Ottawa, ON, Canada Abstract: Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is...

  12. Medication Administration in the School Setting. Position Statement. Amended (United States)

    Zacharski, Susan; Kain, Carole A.; Fleming, Robin; Pontius, Deborah


    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that school districts develop written medication administration policies and procedures that focus on safe and efficient medication administration at school by a registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse). Policies should include prescription…

  13. Admission criteria and diversity in medical school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Vonsild, Maria; Wallstedt, Birgitta;


    of students admitted via the two tracks between the years 2002-2007. Method: This prospective cohort study included 1074 medical students admitted between the years 2002-2007 to the University of Southern Denmark (USD) medical school. Of these, 454 were admitted by grade-based selection and 620 were selected......Introduction: The underrepresentation of students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds in medical education is an important social issue. There is currently little evidence about whether changes in admission strategy could increase the diversity of medical students. Denmark introduced an “attribute......-based or attribute-based) had no statistically significant effect on the social diversity of medical students admitted to USD. Discussion: It may be a myth that attribute-based admission widens access and increases social diversity. To the contrary, there is evidence that combining grade-based with attribute...

  14. Evolutionary Biology in the Medical School Curriculum. (United States)

    Neese, Randolph M.; Schiffman, Joshua D.


    Presents a study in which a questionnaire was given to deans at North American medical schools to determine which aspects of evolutionary biology are included in the curricula and the factors that influence this. Suggests that most future physicians should learn evolutionary biology as undergraduates if they are to learn it at all. (Author/NB)

  15. Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools and Canadian Community Colleges: A Comparison Using the School as an Organization and Social Institution as a Conceptual Framework (United States)

    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, Wiilliam Allan


    The aim of this study is to compare Polish post-secondary vocational institutions with Canadian community colleges. The research concentrates upon programs in tourism and information technology delivered by the two following Polish schools: "Policealne Studium Zawodowe" (Cracow, Poland), Cracow School of Information Technology; and three Canadian…

  16. Exploring the technology readiness of nursing and medical students at a Canadian University. (United States)

    Caison, Amy L; Bulman, Donna; Pai, Shweta; Neville, Doreen


    Technology readiness is a well-established construct that refers to individuals' ability to embrace and adopt new technology. Given the increasing use of advanced technologies in the delivery of health care, this study uses the Technology Readiness Index (Parasuraman, 2000) to explore the technology readiness of nursing and medical students from the fall 2006 cohort at Memorial University of Newfoundland. The three major findings from this study are that (i) rural nursing students are more insecure with technology than their urban counterparts, (ii) male medical students score higher on innovation than their female counterparts and have a higher overall technology readiness attitude than female medical students, and (iii) medical students who are older than 25 have a negative technology readiness score whereas those under 25 had a positive score. These findings suggest health care professional schools would be well served to implement curricular changes designed to support the needs of rural students, women, and those entering school at a non-traditional age. In addition, patterns such as those observed in this study highlight areas of emphasis for current practitioners as health care organizations develop continuing education offerings for staff.

  17. Reporting of financial conflicts of interest in clinical practice guidelines: a case study analysis of guidelines from the Canadian Medical Association Infobase


    Shnier, Adrienne; Lexchin, Joel; Romero, Mirna; Brown, Kevin


    Background Clinical practice guidelines are widely distributed by medical associations and relied upon by physicians for the best available clinical evidence. International findings report that financial conflicts of interest (FCOI) with drug companies may influence drug recommendations and are common among guideline authors. There is no comparable study on exclusively Canadian guidelines; therefore, we provide a case study of authors’ FCOI declarations in guidelines from the Canadian Medical...

  18. Active transportation to school in Canadian youth: should injury be a concern? (United States)

    Gropp, Kathleen; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William


    Active transportation to school provides a means for youth to incorporate physical activity into their daily routines, and this has obvious benefits for child health. Studies of active transportation have rarely focused on the negative health effects in terms of injury. This cross-sectional study is based on the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. A sample of children aged 11-15 years (n=20 076) was studied. Multi-level logistic regression was used to examine associations between walking or bicycling to school and related injury. Regular active transportation to school at larger distances (approximately >1.6 km; 1.0 miles) was associated with higher relative odds of active transportation injury (OR: 1.52; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.15), with a suggestion of a dose-response relationship between longer travel distances and injury (p=0.02). Physical activity interventions for youth should encourage participation in active transportation to school, while also recognising the potential for unintentional injury.

  19. Ethics committees in Japanese medical schools. (United States)

    Saito, T


    The present features and functions of ethics committees in 80 Japanese medical schools were surveyed by employing questionnaires. Seventy-nine schools had already established committees on each campus (however, the ethics committee at Kitasato Medical University was formally established after the completion of this survey). The major role of Japanese ethics committees may be said roughly to correspond to that of Institutional Review Boards (IRB) in the U.S., although ethics committees have other functions as well. Among the ethics committees' many problems, two significant weaknesses should be underscored. The first is the inappropriate composition of the membership of the committees: more non-campus members, younger professionals, and women should be invited to participate. The second concern is the committees' essentially closed review process: this process has not been adequately open to the public even in cases in which the issue of the patient's confidentiality does not arise. However, several schools are now preparing to open their meetings to non-members and this policy should improve the present situation. It is fortunate, however, that the ethics committees in Japan's medical schools were established by members from each campus and not as a response to national directives or legislation.

  20. The human sexuality education of physicians in North American medical schools. (United States)

    Solursh, D S; Ernst, J L; Lewis, R W; Prisant, L Michael; Mills, T M; Solursh, L P; Jarvis, R G; Salazar, W H


    Individuals seeking treatment for sexual problems frequently would like to turn to a source they consider knowledgeable and worthy of respect, their doctor. The objective was to assess how well the 125 schools of medicine in the United States and the 16 in Canada prepare physicians to diagnose and treat sexual problems. A prospective cohort study was carried out. The main outcome results were description of the medical educational experiences, teaching time, specific subject areas, clinical programs, clerkships, continuing education programs in the domain of human sexuality in North American medical schools. The results were as follows. There were 101 survey responses (71.6%) of a potential of 141 medical schools (74% of United States and 50% of Canadian medical schools). A total of 84 respondents (83.2%) for sexuality education used a lecture format. A single discipline was responsible for this teaching in 32 (31.7%) schools, but a multidisciplinary team was responsible in 64 (63.4%) schools (five schools failed to respond to the question). The majority (54.1%) of the schools provided 3-10 h of education. Causes of sexual dysfunction (94.1%), its treatment (85.2%) altered sexual identification (79.2%) and issues of sexuality in illness or disability (69.3%) were included in the curriculum of 96 respondents. Only 43 (42.6%) schools offered clinical programs, which included a focus on treating patients with sexual problems and dysfunctions, and 56 (55.5%) provided the students in their clerkships with supervision in dealing with sexual issues. In conclusion, expansion of human sexuality education in medical schools may be necessary to meet the public demand of an informed health provider.

  1. Assessment and accreditation of Mexican medical schools. (United States)

    Cordova, J A; Aguirre, E; Hernández, A; Hidalgo, V; Domínguez, F; Durante, I; Jesús, R; Castillo, O


    With the objective of evaluating and accrediting the quality of medical education in the country, the Mexican Association of Medical Schools initiated the National Programme for the Strengthening of the Quality of Medical Education (PNFCE). This programme led to the establishment of the National System of Accreditation. Medical school deans in Mexico determined the criteria for the evaluation of quality and its subsequent standards through a consensus process. The following 10 criteria resulted: general basis and educational objectives; government and institutional orientation; educational programme and academic structure; educational process assessment; students; teaching staff; institutional coherence; resources; clinical sites; and administration. Eighty-eight standards were developed in the instrument designed for the self-evaluation phase. The information resulting from the self-evaluation will be verified by a group of experts during a survey visit, which will be finalized with a report to serve as the basis for the decision to be made by the Accreditation Commission. The self-evaluation phase started in 1994. In 1996 four schools submitted their request for accreditation. As of July 1996, one survey visit has been completed and three more are programmed for the second half of the year.

  2. Mentoring program design and implementation in new medical schools (United States)

    Fornari, Alice; Murray, Thomas S.; Menzin, Andrew W.; Woo, Vivian A.; Clifton, Maurice; Lombardi, Marion; Shelov, Steven


    Purpose Mentoring is considered a valuable component of undergraduate medical education with a variety of programs at established medical schools. This study presents how new medical schools have set up mentoring programs as they have developed their curricula. Methods Administrators from 14 US medical schools established since 2006 were surveyed regarding the structure and implementation of their mentoring programs. Results The majority of new medical schools had mentoring programs that varied in structure and implementation. Although the programs were viewed as valuable at each institution, challenges when creating and implementing mentoring programs in new medical schools included time constraints for faculty and students, and lack of financial and professional incentives for faculty. Conclusions Similar to established medical schools, there was little uniformity among mentoring programs at new medical schools, likely reflecting differences in curriculum and program goals. Outcome measures are needed to determine whether a best practice for mentoring can be established. PMID:24962112

  3. Mentoring program design and implementation in new medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Fornari


    Full Text Available Purpose: Mentoring is considered a valuable component of undergraduate medical education with a variety of programs at established medical schools. This study presents how new medical schools have set up mentoring programs as they have developed their curricula. Methods: Administrators from 14 US medical schools established since 2006 were surveyed regarding the structure and implementation of their mentoring programs. Results: The majority of new medical schools had mentoring programs that varied in structure and implementation. Although the programs were viewed as valuable at each institution, challenges when creating and implementing mentoring programs in new medical schools included time constraints for faculty and students, and lack of financial and professional incentives for faculty. Conclusions: Similar to established medical schools, there was little uniformity among mentoring programs at new medical schools, likely reflecting differences in curriculum and program goals. Outcome measures are needed to determine whether a best practice for mentoring can be established.

  4. [Teaching evaluation at Medical School, UNAM]. (United States)

    Salas-Gómez, Luz Elena; Ortiz-Montalvo, Armando; Alaminos-Sager, Isabel Luisa


    The purpose of this article is to offer a synthesis of what has been done in the Teaching Evaluation Program at the Medical School of the Autonomous National University of Mexico (UNAM). The Program involves three questionnaires of the students' opinion that evaluate professors of the basic and sociomedical areas, microbiology and parasitology laboratory and surgery. Between 1994 and 2003, 134,811 questionnaires were answered to evaluate the teaching performance of 6262 professors of pregraduate students. Although the evaluation of teaching through a single way is insufficient, the results obtained allow us to affirm that the Medical School at UNAM has a good professor staff, as well as they are useful for the design of programs dedicated to the acknowledgment of excellence and the needs for teaching education.

  5. Chat reference service in medical libraries: part 2--Trends in medical school libraries. (United States)

    Dee, Cheryl R


    An increasing number of medical school libraries offer chat service to provide immediate, high quality information at the time and point of need to students, faculty, staff, and health care professionals. Part 2 of Chat Reference Service in Medical Libraries presents a snapshot of the current trends in chat reference service in medical school libraries. In late 2002, 25 (21%) medical school libraries provided chat reference. Trends in chat reference services in medical school libraries were compiled from an exploration of medical school library Web sites and informal correspondence from medical school library personnel. Many medical libraries are actively investigating and planning new chat reference services, while others have decided not to pursue chat reference at this time. Anecdotal comments from medical school library staff provide insights into chat reference service.

  6. Implementing TQM in a medical school department. (United States)

    Fried, R A


    In a modest way, our medical school department has succeeded in applying continuous quality improvement and TQM methods to its ambulatory practice. We are close enough to our experience not to have forgotten what Rosabeth Moss Kanter calls the "messy, mistake-ridden, muddling stage." This article is a narrative of some of our stumbling attempts to change the way our practice works. The lessons we have learned are relevant to other ambulatory practices, both inside and outside the academic world.

  7. Physics teaching in the medical schools of Taiwan. (United States)

    Hsu, Jiann-wien; Hsu, Roy


    We describe and analyze the statistics of general physics and laboratory courses in the medical schools of Taiwan. We explore the development of the general physics curriculum for medical students of Taiwan. Also, an approach to designing a general physics course in combination with its application to medical sciences is proposed. We hope this preliminary study can provide a useful reference for physics colleagues in the medical schools of Taiwan to revolutionize the dynamics of teaching physics to the medical students of Taiwan.

  8. Medication error prevention in the school setting: a closer look. (United States)

    Richmond, Sandra L


    Empirical evidence has identified that medication errors occur in the school setting; however, there is little research that identifies medication error prevention strategies specific to the school environment. This article reviews common medication errors that occur in the school setting and presents potential medication prevention strategies, such as developing medication error reporting systems, using technology, reviewing systems and processes that support current medication administration practices, and limiting distractions. The Standards of Professional Performance developed by the National Association of School Nurses identifies the need for school nurses to enhance the quality and effectiveness of their practice. Improving the safety of medication administration and preventing medication errors are examples of how nurses can demonstrate meeting this standard.

  9. A qualitative exploration of how Canadian informal caregivers in medical tourism use experiential resources to cope with providing transnational care. (United States)

    Whitmore, Rebecca; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy


    Canadians travelling abroad for privately arranged surgeries paid for out-of-pocket are engaging in what has come to be known as medical tourism. They are often accompanied by friends or family members, who we call caregiver-companions. Caregiver-companions provide care in and across a variety of formal and informal settings, such as in hotels, airplanes and at home. This qualitative study examines the experiences of informal caregivers in medical tourism to learn more about the lived experiences or 'experiential resources' they draw upon to cope with providing care and avoiding caregiver burden. The care-giving literature has demonstrated that such burden can negatively impact caregivers' well-being. The unique, transnational context of care-giving in medical tourism and recent growth in popularity of this practice means that there are few supports or resources currently in place to assist informal caregivers. In this article, we report on an analysis that sought to detail how caregiver-companions draw upon their previous lived experiences to cope with providing transnational care and to minimise or avoid the onset of caregiver burden. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 20 Canadians who had accompanied their friends or family members abroad for surgery between September 2013 and January 2014. Thematic analysis revealed the ways that participants had developed practical strategies to deal with the challenges they faced in medical tourism. The interviews revealed three important experiential resources drawn upon by participants: (i) previous experiences of international travel; (ii) previous experiences of informal care-giving; and (iii) dimensions of the existing relationship with the care recipient. Differences in access to and use of these experiential resources related to participants' perspectives on medical tourism and the outcomes of the trip. By identifying the experiential resources drawn upon by informal caregivers in medical tourism

  10. Perfectionism in schools raising medical manpower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Abuhanoglu


    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, it was aimed to examine the perfectionist traits of the students studying at faculty of medicine, school of nursing and vocational school of health services within a university in Ankara which raises medical manpower. Method: To measure the students' perfectionist traits, and ldquo;Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and rdquo; was put account. In the scope of the research, perfectionist traits of 436 students (175 students from faculty of medicine, 122 students from school of nursing and 129 students from vocational school of health services were evaluated. This study was realized between from 25 st April to 31st May 2013. Results: Significant differences in statistical terms were found between variables regarded as dependent variables (self-perfectionism, perfectionism towards others and perfectionism determined by others and independent variables such as school type, gender, family income, educational background of father, number of siblings and residence of family. Additionally, in consequence of the covariation analysis, the results proved that school type affects the sub-dimensions of perfectionism which are self-perfectionism, perfectionism towards others and perfectionism determined by others in a substantive way, statistically (respectively; F=8,307 p <001; F=3,783 p=,024; F=5,713 p=,004 . Conclusion: All in all, the interpretation can be made that bringing about required changes in the curriculum may be useful in order to have an optimal teamwork eliminating the negative effects of perfectionism in health services [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 421-431

  11. Predicting minority students' success in medical school. (United States)

    Sedlacek, W E; Prieto, D O


    Despite recent attention to minority student recruitment and retention, data on predicting the success of minority medical students are scarce. Traditional predictors (college grades and scores on the Medical College Admission Test) have modest correlations with medical school grades and scores on the National Board of Medical Examiners examination for minority students. Nonetheless, admission committees also consider nontraditional variables when selecting minority students. Measures of nontraditional variables seem to assess types of intelligence not covered by traditional means. A system of organizing nontraditional or noncognitive variables into eight dimensions is proposed. The dimensions are self-concept, realistic, self-appraisal, understanding and dealing with racism, long-range goals, having a strong support person, showing leadership, having community involvement, and nontraditional knowledge acquired. Further, assessment should place more emphasis on recognizing and defining problems and on performance rather than knowledge. Combining traditional and nontraditional methods is best in selecting minority students, and sufficiently well developed measures exist in each area to make this a practical recommendation for any admission program.

  12. "We are not aliens, we're people, and we have rights." Canadian human rights discourse and high school climate for LGBTQ students. (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine; Peter, Tracey


    Canadian law protects people from discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, but our public schools do not fulfill their ethical and legal obligations where sexual and gender minority youth are concerned. This article reports on a national survey study on homophobia and transphobia in Canadian high schools. Participants (n = 3,607) were questioned about school climate, harassment, school attachment, and institutional interventions. We found that schools were neither safe nor respectful for sexual and gender minority students, and we argue that ongoing exposure to this situation undermines students' respect for the Charter of Rights and their faith in adults.

  13. CANLIT (Canadian Literature) Teachers' Crash Course. (United States)

    CANLIT, Toronto (Ontario).

    As a result of a study of the situation of Canadian literature in Canadian high schools and universities, this course was developed to provide teachers with useful information about Canadian literature. Included in this kit are sections on Canadian literature (the great debate about the importance of Canadian content), history and sources…

  14. Principles of Pedagogy in Teaching in a Diverse Medical School: The University of Capetown South Africa Medical School. (United States)

    Rothenberg, Julia Johnson; Holland, Errol

    This paper describes a 2-month project developed by the Sage Colleges (New York) and the University of Capetown Medical School in South Africa to help the medical faculty at the Capetown Medical School teach its newly diverse student body. The program is intended to improve student retention and it emphasizes the need for faculty to assure…

  15. Quality improvement teaching at medical school: a student perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair P


    Full Text Available Pooja Nair, Ishani Barai, Sunila Prasad, Karishma Gadhvi Department of Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: Guidelines in the UK require all doctors to actively take part in quality improvement. To ease future doctors into the process, formal quality improvement teaching can be delivered during medical school. Keywords: quality improvement, medical school, patient safety, patient satisfaction, medical student, clinical audit

  16. The Social Structure of Criminalized and Medicalized School Discipline (United States)

    Ramey, David M.


    In this article, the author examines how school- and district-level racial/ethnic and socioeconomic compositions influence schools' use of different types of criminalized and medicalized school discipline. Using a large data set containing information on over 60,000 schools in over 6,000 districts, the authors uses multilevel modeling and a…

  17. Medical School Can Be an Emotional Pressure-Cooker (United States)

    ... page: Medical School Can Be an Emotional Pressure-Cooker Yet ... 2016 TUESDAY, Dec. 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many medical students from around the world struggle with depression, ...

  18. A queer day in Canada: examining Canadian high school students' experiences with school-based homophobia in two large-scale studies. (United States)

    Peter, Tracey; Taylor, Catherine; Chamberland, Line


    The goal of the study is to examine how location (nationally, compared to Canadian regions) is related to indicators of a hostile school environment for sexual minority youth, particularly when physical abuse is used as the outcome variable. Data representing 5,766 Canadian students were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate techniques. Results from the multivariate analyses showed that non-physical abuse was the most significant predictor of homophobically based physical abuse, for both LGBQ and non-LGBQ students. Findings reiterate the importance of considering the progression of harmful events as an escalation of violence as well as the need to view homophobic bullying as having a significant impact on all students. Finally, while the presence of homophobia is prevalent across all Canadian regions, there are, nevertheless, many regional differences, which could be used to inform region-specific action plans.

  19. A remembrance of Victoria and the Canadian Army Medical Corps in the Great War. (United States)

    Carter, Preston L


    The North Pacific Surgical Association first met in Victoria in December, 1917, in the midst of World War I, or as it was known then, the Great War. On all sides, the toll in human life was staggering. Canada alone lost more than 60,000 men in the war. Our Association now returns to Victoria as the very last survivors of that generation pass into history. We honor the great sacrifice of the Canadian Army, recall the horrific conditions they endured, and honor the doctors and nurses who attended the countless wounded through the experiences of a Canadian surgeon from Calgary, Dr. Harold McGill, who served for 3 years in the thick of action on the Western Front.

  20. Performance Appraisals of School Administrators in One Canadian School District: A Contemporary Model (United States)

    Normore, Anthony H.


    Research indicates that a sound performance appraisal process for school administrators contains key mechanisms that manifest themselves through dimensions of effective planning, assessment, and evaluation; effective use of resources; and communicating clear expectations. This article documents the development of a contemporary model of…

  1. Engaging Canadian youth in conversations: Using knowledge exchange in school-based health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Murnaghan


    Full Text Available The voice of youth is crucial to advancing solutions that contribute to effective strategies to improve youth health outcomes. The problem, however, is that youth/student voices are often overlooked, and stakeholders typically engage in decision-making without involving youth. The burden of chronic disease is increasing worldwide, and in Canada chronic disease accounts for 89 per cent of deaths. However, currently, youth spend less time being physically active while engaging in more unhealthy eating behaviours than ever before. High rates of unhealthy behaviours such as physical inactivity, unhealthy eating and tobacco use are putting Canadian youth at risk of health problems such as increased levels of overweight and obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Focus group methodology was utilised to conduct 7 focus groups with 50 students in grades 7–12 from schools in Prince Edward Island, Canada. The key themes that emerged included: (1 youth health issues such as lack of opportunities to be physically active, cost and quality of healthy food options, and bullying; (2 facilitators and barriers to health promotion, including positive peer and adult role models, positive relationships with adults and competitiveness of school sports; and (3 lack of student voice. Our findings suggest that actively engaging youth provides opportunities to understand youth perspectives on how to encourage them to make healthy choices and engage in healthy behaviours. Attention needs to be paid to inclusive knowledge exchange practices that value and integrate youth perspectives and ideas as a basis for building health promotion actions and interventions. Keywords: knowledge exchange, youth health, youth engagement

  2. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: A nationwide survey at German medical schools

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    Timmermann Arnd


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21; problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10, e-learning at 3% (n = 1, and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4. In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions are favoured (89%, n = 31, partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11. Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10 or oral examinations (17%, n = 6. Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard

  3. Longitudinal trajectories of non-medical use of prescription medication among middle and high school students (United States)

    Boyd, Carol J.; Cranford, James A.; McCabe, Sean Esteban


    The non-medical use of prescription medications has been identified as a major public health problem among youth, although few longitudinal studies have examined non-medical use of prescription medications in the context of other drug use. Previous cross-sectional studies have shown gender and race differences in non-medical use of prescription medications. It was hypothesized that (1) non-medical use of prescription medications increases with age, and (2) these increases will be stronger in magnitude among female and Caucasian adolescents. Changes in non-medical use of prescription medications across 4 years were examined and compared with changes in other drug use (e.g., alcohol and marijuana). Middle and high school students enrolled in 5 schools in southeastern Michigan completed web-based surveys at 4 annual time points. The cumulative sample size was 5,217. The sample ranged from 12 to 18 years, 61% were Caucasian, 34% were African American, and 50% were female. Using a series of repeated measures latent class analyses, the trajectories of non-medical use of prescription medications were examined, demonstrating a 2-class solution: (1) the no/low non-medical use of prescription medications group had low probabilities of any non-medical use of prescription medications across all grades, and (2) the any non-medical use of prescription medications group showed a roughly linear increase in the probability of non-medical use of prescription medications over time. The probability of any non-medical use of prescription medications increased during the transition from middle school to high school. Results from this longitudinal study yielded several noteworthy findings: Participants who were classified in the any/high non-medical use of prescription medications group showed a discontinuous pattern of non-medical use of prescription medications over time, indicating that non-medical use of prescription medications is a relatively sporadic behavior that does not persist

  4. Psychology departments in medical schools: there's one in Canada, eh? (United States)

    McIlwraith, Robert D


    Comments on the original article by Robiner et al. (see record 2014-07939-001) regarding psychologists in medical schools and academic medical center settings. Robiner et al. reported that their extensive review "revealed no independent departments of psychology in U.S. medical schools." The current authors note north of the border in Canada there is one department of psychology in a medical school. The Department of Clinical Health Psychology has been a department within the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Manitoba since 1995. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The Sea Stacks Project: Enhancing the Use of Regional Literature in Atlantic Canadian Schools

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    Vivian Howard


    Full Text Available Research over the past two decades has amply demonstrated the importance of literature to the formation of both regional and national cultural identity, particularly in the face of mass market globalization of children’s book publishing in the 21st century as well as the predominance of non-Canadian content from television, movies, books, magazines and internet media. However, Canadian children appear to have only very limited exposure to Canadian authors and illustrators. In Atlantic Canada, regional Atlantic Canadian authors and illustrators for children receive very limited critical attention, and resources for the study and teaching of Atlantic Canadian children’s literature are few. Print and digital information sources on regional children’s books, publishing, authors and illustrators are scattered and inconsistent in quality and currency. This research project directly addresses these key concerns by summarizing the findings of a survey of Atlantic Canadian teachers on their use of regional books. In response to survey findings, the paper concludes by describing the creation of the Sea Stacks Project an authoritative web-delivered information resource devoted to contemporary Atlantic Canadian literature for children and teens.

  6. Terror medicine as part of the medical school curriculum. (United States)

    Cole, Leonard A; Wagner, Katherine; Scott, Sandra; Connell, Nancy D; Cooper, Arthur; Kennedy, Cheryl Ann; Natal, Brenda; Lamba, Sangeeta


    Terror medicine, a field related to emergency and disaster medicine, focuses on medical issues ranging from preparedness to psychological manifestations specifically associated with terrorist attacks. Calls to teach aspects of the subject in American medical schools surged after the 2001 jetliner and anthrax attacks. Although the threat of terrorism persists, terror medicine is still addressed erratically if at all in most medical schools. This paper suggests a template for incorporating the subject throughout a 4-year medical curriculum. The instructional framework culminates in a short course for fourth year students, such as one recently introduced at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA. The proposed 4-year Rutgers curriculum serves as a model that could assist other medical schools contemplating the inclusion of terror medicine in pre-clerkship and clerkship training.

  7. Medical School Research Pipeline: Medical Student Research Experience in Psychiatry (United States)

    Balon, Richard; Heninger, George; Belitsky, Richard


    Objective: The authors discuss the importance of introducing research training in psychiatry and neurosciences to medical students. Methods: A review of existing models of research training in psychiatry with focus on those providing research training to medical students is presented. Results: Two research-training models for medical students that…

  8. Is there a place for music in medical school? (United States)

    Ortega, Rafael A; Andreoli, Michael T; Chima, Ranjit S


    Music permeates the medical literature regarding disease therapy. However, there are only few articles concerning music as a tool for development of cultural competency and interpersonal relations. We share our experience of forming a musical act of students and faculty at a medical school. We believe that this group has encouraged medical humanism and enhanced communication in the learning environment.

  9. Motivation, learning strategies, participation and medical school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegers-Jager, Karen M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P. N.


    Medical Education 2012: 46:678688 Context Medical schools wish to better understand why some students excel academically and others have difficulty in passing medical courses. Components of self-regulated learning (SRL), such as motivational beliefs and learning strategies, as well as participation

  10. Indoor air quality : Tools for schools action kits for Canadian schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Few people realize that indoor air pollution can contribute to health effects like asthma. Several agencies, notably the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have indicated that levels of indoor pollutants can be significantly higher than those found outside. As such, poor indoor air quality (IAQ) could impact the health of students and staff, as well as the educational process and costs. Many factors can influence IAQ, including building materials, furnishings, cleaning agents, pesticides, printing and copying devices, and more. Reduction in IAQ can also result from tighter buildings and reduced ventilation. This kit was developed by Health Canada in collaboration with the Indoor Air Quality Working Group of the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Environmental and Occupational Health (CEOH) to provide school officials with the tools to prevent, identify, assess, and address most indoor air problems while minimizing cost and involvement. It was suggested that trained professionals should perform the limited and well-defined set of operations and maintenance activities described in the kit.

  11. Teaching Canadian Literature: An Evaluation. (United States)

    Harker, W. John


    Suggests granting greater recognition to the artistic integrity of Canadian literature by removing it from the broader context of Canadian studies. Indicates that understanding and appreciation of Canadian literature as a representation of reality filtered through the perception of an author should be focus of literature in schools. (NEC)

  12. [A survey of medical information education in radiological technology schools]. (United States)

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Hoshino, Shuhei; Hosoba, Minoru; Okuda, Yasuo; Konishi, Yasuhiko; Ikeda, Ryuji


    The purpose of this study was to clarify actual conditions and problems in medical information education and to propose the educational concept to be adopted in medical information. A questionnaire survey was carried out by the anonymous method in June 2008. The survey was intended for 40 radiological technology schools. The questionnaire items were as follows: (1) educational environment in medical information education, (2) content of a lecture in medical information, (3) problems in medical information education. The response rate was 55.0% (22 schools). Half of the responding schools had a laboratory on medical information. Seventeen schools had a medical information education facility, and out of them, approximately 50% had an educational medical information system. The main problems of the medical information education were as follows: (a) motivation of the students is low, (b) the educational coverage and level for medical information are uncertain, (c) there are not an appropriate textbook and educational guidance. In conclusion, these findings suggest that it is necessary to have a vision of medical information education in the education of radiological technologists.

  13. Conflict of Interest Policies at French Medical Schools: Starting from the Bottom (United States)

    Scheffer, Paul; Guy-Coichard, Christian; Outh-Gauer, David; Calet-Froissart, Zoéline; Boursier, Mathilde; Mintzes, Barbara; Borde, Jean-Sébastien


    Background Medical faculties have a role in ensuring that their students are protected from undue commercial influence during their training, and are educated about professional-industry interactions. In North America, many medical faculties have introduced more stringent conflict of interest (COI) policies during the last decade. We asked whether similar steps had been taken in France. We hypothesized that such policies may have been introduced following a 2009–2010 drug safety scandal (benfluorex, Mediator) in which COIs in medicine received prominent press attention. Methods We searched the websites of all 37 French Faculties of Medicine in May 2015 for COI policies and curriculum, using standardized keyword searches. We also surveyed all deans of medicine on institutional COI policies and curriculum, based on criteria developed in similar US and Canadian surveys. Personal contacts were also consulted. We calculated a summary score per faculty based on 13 criteria. [range 0–26; higher scores denoting stronger policies] Results In total, we found that 9/37 (24%) of French medical schools had either introduced related curriculum or implemented a COI-related policy. Of these, only 1 (2.5%) had restrictive policies for any category. No official COI policies were found at any of the schools. However, at 2 (5%), informal policies were reported. The maximum score per faculty was 5/26, with 28 (76%) scoring 0. Conclusion This is the first survey in France to examine COI policies at medical faculties. We found little evidence that protection of medical students from undue commercial influence is a priority, either through institutional policies or education. This is despite national transparency legislation on industry financing of health professionals and limits on gifts. The French National Medical Students Association (ANEMF) has called for more attention to COI in medical education; our results strongly support such a call. PMID:28068362

  14. “I didn’t even know what I was looking for”: A qualitative study of the decision-making processes of Canadian medical tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Rory


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical tourism describes the private purchase and arrangement of medical care by patients across international borders. Increasing numbers of medical facilities in countries around the world are marketing their services to a receptive audience of international patients, a phenomenon that has largely been made possible by the growth of the Internet. The growth of the medical tourism industry has raised numerous concerns around patient safety and global health equity. In spite of these concerns, there is a lack of empirical research amongst medical tourism stakeholders. One such gap is a lack of engagement with medical tourists themselves, where there is currently little known about how medical tourists decide to access care abroad. We address this gap through examining aspects of Canadian medical tourists’ decision-making processes. Methods Semi-structured phone interviews were administered to 32 Canadians who had gone abroad as medical tourists. Interviews touched on motivations, assessment of risks, information seeking processes, and experiences at home and abroad. A thematic analysis of the interview transcripts followed. Results Three overarching themes emerged from the interviews: (1 information sources consulted; (2 motivations, considerations, and timing; and (3 personal and professional supports drawn upon. Patient testimonials and word of mouth connections amongst former medical tourists were accessed and relied upon more readily than the advice of family physicians. Neutral, third-party information sources were limited, which resulted in participants also relying on medical tourism facilitators and industry websites. Conclusions While Canadian medical tourists are often thought to be motivated by wait times for surgery, cost and availability of procedures were common primary and secondary motivations for participants, demonstrating that motivations are layered and dynamic. The findings of this analysis offer a

  15. Are medical schools hesitant to teach undergraduate students teaching skills? A medical student's critical view. (United States)

    Mileder, Lukas Peter


    Junior medical staff provides a large proportion of undergraduate student education. However, despite increasing numbers of resident-as-teacher training programs, junior doctors may still not be sufficiently prepared to teach medical students. Hence, medical schools should consider implementing formal teaching skills training into undergraduate curricula.

  16. Are new medical students' specialty preferences gendered? Related motivational factors at a Dutch medical school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren-Alers, M.L.G. van; Esch, M. van der; Verdonk, P.; Johansson, E.; Hamberg, K.; Lagro-Janssen, T.


    BACKGROUND: Female students currently outnumber male students in most medical schools. Some medical specialties are highly gender segregated. Therefore, it is interesting to know whether medical students have early specialization preferences based on their gender. Consequently, we like to know impor

  17. Introducing Darwinism to Toronto's post-1887 reconstituted medical school. (United States)

    Court, John P M


    Charles Darwin's scientific paradigm was largely welcomed in Canadian academic biology and medicine, while reaction among other faculty and laypeople ranged from interest to outrage. In 1874, Ramsay Wright, a Darwinian-era biologist from Edinburgh, was appointed to the University of Toronto's Chair of Natural History. Over his 38-year career Wright integrated the evolutionary perspective into medical and biology teaching without accentuating its controversial source. He also applied the emerging German experimental research model and laboratory technology. This study identifies five categories of scientific and personal influences upon Wright through archival research on biographical sources and his writings.

  18. Simulation in Medical School Education: Review for Emergency Medicine

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    Shahram Lotfipour


    Full Text Available Medical education is rapidly evolving. With the paradigm shift to small-group didactic sessions and focus on clinically oriented case-based scenarios, simulation training has provided educators a novel way to deliver medical education in the 21st century. The field continues to expand in scope and practice and is being incorporated into medical school clerkship education, and specifically in emergency medicine (EM. The use of medical simulation in graduate medical education is well documented. Our aim in this article is to perform a retrospective review of the current literature, studying simulation use in EM medical student clerkships. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of simulation in teaching basic science, clinical knowledge, procedural skills, teamwork, and communication skills. As simulation becomes increasingly prevalent in medical school curricula, more studies are needed to assess whether simulation training improves patient-related outcomes.

  19. How do medical device manufacturers' websites frame the value of health innovation? An empirical ethics analysis of five Canadian innovations. (United States)

    Lehoux, P; Hivon, M; Williams-Jones, B; Miller, F A; Urbach, D R


    While every health care system stakeholder would seem to be concerned with obtaining the greatest value from a given technology, there is often a disconnect in the perception of value between a technology's promoters and those responsible for the ultimate decision as to whether or not to pay for it. Adopting an empirical ethics approach, this paper examines how five Canadian medical device manufacturers, via their websites, frame the corporate "value proposition" of their innovation and seek to respond to what they consider the key expectations of their customers. Our analysis shows that the manufacturers' framing strategies combine claims that relate to valuable socio-technical goals and features such as prevention, efficiency, sense of security, real-time feedback, ease of use and flexibility, all elements that likely resonate with a large spectrum of health care system stakeholders. The websites do not describe, however, how the innovations may impact health care delivery and tend to obfuscate the decisional trade-offs these innovations represent from a health care system perspective. Such framing strategies, we argue, tend to bolster physicians' and patients' expectations and provide a large set of stakeholders with powerful rhetorical tools that may influence the health policy arena. Because these strategies are difficult to counter given the paucity of evidence and its limited use in policymaking, establishing sound collective health care priorities will require solid critiques of how certain kinds of medical devices may provide a better (i.e., more valuable) response to health care needs when compared to others.

  20. Development of inquiry-based planetary science resources for Canadian schools (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Gilbert, A.; Brown, P.


    abilities) outline the independent variables, and design an experiment. This is conducted in groups after the proposed experiment is approved by the teacher. (4) Students draw conclusions on their experiment, and present results in the lab hand out and to their peers. Learning outcomes based on the Ontario curriculum have been pre-identified allowing the teachers to know what portion of the curriculum is being taught. Future activities include increasing the number of activity-based learning themes and modules available, implementing more Teacher Training Courses and workshops, increasing the number of schools that participate to the programme and continuing to participate in the annual Science Teacher's Association of Ontario Conference. Acknowledgements: Funding from the Canadian Space Agency's Space Awaremess and Learning program and an Interdisciplinary Development Initiative award from Western has made this program possible. Melissa Battler, Anna Chanou, Heather Henry, Emily McCullough, Alexandra Pontefract, and Alaura Singleton are thanked for their participation in this program.

  1. On the Alert: Preparing for Medical Emergencies in Schools (United States)

    Mahoney, Dan


    Medical emergencies can happen in any school at any time. They can be the result of preexisting health problems, accidents, violence, unintentional actions, natural disasters, and toxins. Premature deaths in schools from sudden cardiac arrest, blunt trauma to the chest, firearm injuries, asthma, head injuries, drug overdose, allergic reactions,…

  2. Prescribing of psychotropic medications to the elderly population of a Canadian province: a retrospective study using administrative databases

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    Silvia Alessi-Severini


    Full Text Available Background. Psychotropic medications, in particular second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs and benzodiazepines, have been associated with harm in elderly populations. Health agencies around the world have issued warnings about the risks of prescribing such medications to frail individuals affected by dementia and current guidelines recommend their use only in cases where the benefits clearly outweigh the risks. This study documents the use of psychotropic medications in the entire elderly population of a Canadian province in the context of current clinical guidelines for the treatment of behavioural disturbances. Methods. Prevalent and incident utilization of antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and related medications (zopiclone and zaleplon were determined in the population of Manitobans over age 65 in the time period 1997/98 to 2008/09 fiscal years. Comparisons between patients living in the community and those living in personal care (nursing homes (PCH were conducted. Influence of sociodemographic characteristics on prescribing was assessed by generalized estimating equations. Non-optimal use was defined as the prescribing of high dose of antipsychotic medications and the use of combination therapy of a benzodiazepine (or zopiclone/zaleplon with an antipsychotic. A decrease in intensity of use over time and lower proportions of patients treated with antipsychotics at high dose or in combination with benzodiazepines (or zopiclone/zaleplon was considered a trend toward better prescribing. Multiple regression analysis determined predictors of non-optimal use in the elderly population. Results. A 20-fold greater prevalent utilization of SGAs was observed in PCH-dwelling elderly persons compared to those living in the community. In 2008/09, 27% of PCH-dwelling individuals received a prescription for an SGA. Patient characteristics, such as younger age, male gender, diagnoses of dementia (or use of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor or psychosis in the

  3. Sexual harassment during clinical clerkships in Dutch medical schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Slappendel, G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Borleffs, J.C.C.


    Context Sexual harassment of medical students has been the focus of many international studies. Prevalence rates from 18% to over 60% have been reported. However, a Dutch study at Nijmegen Medical School found the prevalence rate to be lower (13.3% in the total group; 20% among female students only)

  4. Sexual harassment during clinical clerkships in Dutch medical schools.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Slappendel, G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Borleffs, J.C.C.


    CONTEXT: Sexual harassment of medical students has been the focus of many international studies. Prevalence rates from 18% to over 60% have been reported. However, a Dutch study at Nijmegen Medical School found the prevalence rate to be lower (13.3% in the total group; 20% among female students only

  5. Child Psychiatry: What Are We Teaching Medical Students? (United States)

    Dingle, Arden D.


    Objective: The author describes child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) undergraduate teaching in American and Canadian medical schools. Methods: A survey asking for information on CAP teaching, student interest in CAP, and opinions about the CAP importance was sent to the medical student psychiatry director at 142 accredited medical schools in the…

  6. A survey of Canadian medical physicists: software quality assurance of in-house software. (United States)

    Salomons, Greg J; Kelly, Diane


    This paper reports on a survey of medical physicists who write and use in-house written software as part of their professional work. The goal of the survey was to assess the extent of in-house software usage and the desire or need for related software quality guidelines. The survey contained eight multiple-choice questions, a ranking question, and seven free text questions. The survey was sent to medical physicists associated with cancer centers across Canada. The respondents to the survey expressed interest in having guidelines to help them in their software-related work, but also demonstrated extensive skills in the area of testing, safety, and communication. These existing skills form a basis for medical physicists to establish a set of software quality guidelines.

  7. Democratic Social Cohesion (Assimilation)? Representations of Social Conflict in Canadian Public School Curriculum (United States)

    Bickmore, Kathy


    This article examines the representation of conflict, diversity, peace, and justice issues in selected mandated curriculum guidelines, grades 1-10, for three Canadian provinces. These curricula, grounded in prevailing assumptions, reflect political will and influence resource availability for teaching. Prominent among them is a neutral discourse…

  8. Perspectives of Immigrant Muslim Parents: Advocating for Religious Diversity in Canadian Schools (United States)

    Guo, Yan


    Immigration is now the primary source of population growth in Canada. For the year 2006, the Canadian Census reported that almost 20 percent of the population was born outside of Canada (Statistics Canada, 2007). Between the years 1991 and 2001 specifically, the number of non-Christians, such as Muslims, Buddhists, Sikhs, and Hindus, had more than…

  9. Course Offerings in the Fourth Year of Medical School: How U.S. Medical Schools Are Preparing Students for Internship. (United States)

    Elnicki, D Michael; Gallagher, Susan; Willett, Laura; Kane, Gregory; Muntz, Martin; Henry, Daniel; Cannarozzi, Maria; Stewart, Emily; Harrell, Heather; Aiyer, Meenakshy; Salvit, Cori; Chudgar, Saumil; Vu, Robert


    The fourth year of medical school remains controversial, despite efforts to reform it. A committee from the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine and the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine examined transitions from medical school to internship with the goal of better academic advising for students. In 2013 and 2014, the committee examined published literature and the Web sites of 136 Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited schools for information on current course offerings for the fourth year of medical school. The authors summarized temporal trends and outcomes when available.Subinternships were required by 122 (90%) of the 136 schools and allow students to experience the intern's role. Capstone courses are increasingly used to fill curricular gaps. Revisiting basic sciences in fourth-year rotations helps to reinforce concepts from earlier years. Many schools require rotations in specific settings, like emergency departments, intensive care units, or ambulatory clinics. A growing number of schools require participation in research, including during the fourth year. Students traditionally take fourth-year clinical electives to improve skills, both within their chosen specialties and in other disciplines. Some students work with underserved populations or seek experiences that will be henceforth unavailable, whereas others use electives to "audition" at desired residency sites. Fourth-year requirements vary considerably among medical schools, reflecting different missions and varied student needs. Few objective outcomes data exist to guide students' choices. Nevertheless, both medical students and educators value the fourth year of medical school and feel it can fill diverse functions in preparing for residency.

  10. PBL in Undergraduate Medical Education: A Qualitative Study of the Views of Canadian Residents (United States)

    Lohfeld, Lynne; Neville, Alan; Norman, Geoffrey


    Background and Objectives: At McMaster University, the birthplace of problem-based learning (PBL), administrators and curriculum planners have begun the process of renewing the undergraduate MD curriculum. One step has been to conduct an environmental scan that includes input from medical residents. Methods: Individual interviews with 17 medical…

  11. The Perceptions and Habits of Alcohol Consumption and Smoking Among Canadian Medical Students (United States)

    Thakore, Sidd; Ismail, Zahinoor; Jarvis, Scott; Payne, Eric; Keetbaas, Shayne; Payne, Rob; Rothenburg, Lana


    Objective: The authors aim to quantify the extent, and to assess student perception, of alcohol and tobacco use among medical students at the University of Calgary, and the relationship of these attitudes to problem drinking (according to the CAGE questionnaire). Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year medical…

  12. Medication Management in Schools: A Systems Approach to Reducing Risk and Strengthening Quality in School Medication Management (United States)

    Center for Health and Health Care in Schools, 2004


    This paper and the invitational meeting for which it has been prepared make certain assumptions about the challenge of strengthening the quality of medication management in school. The participants believe that recent research on improving the safety and quality of patient care has relevance for health services in school, particularly the safety…

  13. Why medical schools are tolerant of unethical behavior. (United States)

    de Oliveira Vidal, Edison Iglesias; Silva, Vanessa Dos Santos; Santos, Maria Fernanda Dos; Jacinto, Alessandro Ferrari; Boas, Paulo José Fortes Villas; Fukushima, Fernanda Bono


    The exposure to unethical and unprofessional behavior is thought to play a major role in the declining empathy experienced by medical students during their training. We reflect on the reasons why medical schools are tolerant of unethical behavior of faculty. First, there are barriers to reporting unprofessional behavior within medical schools including fear of retaliation and lack of mechanisms to ensure anonymity. Second, deans and directors do not want to look for unethical behavior in their colleagues. Third, most of us have learned to take disrespectful circumstances in health care institutions for granted. Fourth, the accreditation of medical schools around the world does not usually cover the processes or outcomes associated with fostering ethical behavior in students. Several initiatives promise to change that picture.

  14. A Pilot Study of the Effect of a Change in the Scheduling of Canadian Medical Licensing Examinations on Two Cohorts of Students Studying in Ireland

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    Kate Niethammer


    Full Text Available Background: The Medical Council of Canada and most Canadian residency programs require international medical graduates seeking training in Ca­nada to pass the Medical Council of Canada Entrance Examination, in addition to the newly established National Collaborative Assessment. In order to facilitate this additional examination, the Medical Council of Canada has altered the suggested examination timeline and examination eligibility criteria. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was sent via an online survey tool to members of the North American Irish Medical Student Association. The survey aimed to elicit differences in the Medical Council of Canada Entrance Examination experience between two cohorts of Canadians studying abroad in Ireland: those who completed the examination before and after the new timeline. Statistical analysis was conducted with independent t-tests and Pearson’s Chi-Square tests using SPSS version 21. Results: Of 24 respondents, 13 had completed the examination after the timeline change. Participants who attended the examination prior to the change achieved higher results (353.8 ± 56.5 than participants who attended the examination after the change (342.3 ± 35.1, although not statistically significant (p=0.56. In the cohort who took the examination after the timeline change, 61.5% of participants expressed discontent with their examination results; 84.6% ‘strongly agreed’ or ‘agreed’ to feeling disadvantaged due to the change. Conclusion: The new Medical Council of Canada examination timeline has had an impact on the examination experience of Canadians studying in Ireland. Simple modifications to the current timeline are warranted to reduce unnecessary disadvantage for this cohort of students applying to postgraduate training in Canada.

  15. Medical Management of Glaucoma in the 21st Century from a Canadian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Harasymowycz


    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a medical term describing a group of progressive optic neuropathies characterized by degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and retinal nerve fibre layer and resulting in changes in the optic nerve head. Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible vision loss worldwide. With the aging population it is expected that the prevalence of glaucoma will continue to increase. Despite recent advances in imaging and visual field testing techniques that allow establishment of earlier diagnosis and treatment initiation, significant numbers of glaucoma patients are undiagnosed and present late in the course of their disease. This can lead to irreversible vision loss, reduced quality of life, and a higher socioeconomic burden. Selection of therapeutic approaches for glaucoma should be based on careful ocular examination, patient medical history, presence of comorbidities, and awareness of concomitant systemic therapies. Therapy should also be individualized to patients’ needs and preferences. Recent developments in this therapeutic field require revisiting treatment algorithms and integration of traditional and novel approaches in order to ensure optimal visual outcomes. This article provides an overview of recent developments and practice trends in the medical management of glaucoma in Canada. A discussion of the surgical management is beyond the scope of this paper.

  16. Medical Management of Glaucoma in the 21st Century from a Canadian Perspective (United States)

    Birt, Catherine; Gooi, Patrick; Heckler, Lisa; Hutnik, Cindy; Jinapriya, Delan; Shuba, Lesya; Yan, David; Day, Radmila


    Glaucoma is a medical term describing a group of progressive optic neuropathies characterized by degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and retinal nerve fibre layer and resulting in changes in the optic nerve head. Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible vision loss worldwide. With the aging population it is expected that the prevalence of glaucoma will continue to increase. Despite recent advances in imaging and visual field testing techniques that allow establishment of earlier diagnosis and treatment initiation, significant numbers of glaucoma patients are undiagnosed and present late in the course of their disease. This can lead to irreversible vision loss, reduced quality of life, and a higher socioeconomic burden. Selection of therapeutic approaches for glaucoma should be based on careful ocular examination, patient medical history, presence of comorbidities, and awareness of concomitant systemic therapies. Therapy should also be individualized to patients' needs and preferences. Recent developments in this therapeutic field require revisiting treatment algorithms and integration of traditional and novel approaches in order to ensure optimal visual outcomes. This article provides an overview of recent developments and practice trends in the medical management of glaucoma in Canada. A discussion of the surgical management is beyond the scope of this paper. PMID:27895937

  17. International students in United States’ medical schools: does the medical community know they exist?

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    Jashodeep Datta


    Full Text Available Background: Matriculation of international students to United States’ (US medical schools has not mirrored the remarkable influx of these students to other US institutions of higher education. Methods: While these students’ numbers are on the rise, the visibility for their unique issues remains largely ignored in the medical literature. Results: These students are disadvantaged in the medical school admissions process due to financial and immigration-related concerns, and academic standards for admittance also continue to be significantly higher compared with their US-citizen peers. Furthermore, it is simply beyond the mission of many medical schools – both public and private – to support international students’ education, especially since federal, state-allocated or institutional funds are limited and these institutions have a commitment to fulfill the healthcare education needs of qualified domestic candidates. In spite of these obstacles, a select group of international students do gain admission to US medical schools and, upon graduation, are credentialed equally as their US-citizen counterparts by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME. However, owing to their foreign citizenship, these students have visa requirements for post-graduate training that may adversely impact their candidacy for residency placement. Conclusion: By raising such issues, this article aims to increase the awareness of considerations pertinent to this unique population of medical students. The argument is also made to support continued recruitment of international students to US medical schools in spite of these impediments. In our experience, these students are not only qualified to tackle the rigors of a US medical education, but also enrich the cultural diversity of the medical student body. Moreover, these graduates could effectively complement the efforts to augment US physician workforce diversity while contributing to

  18. Knowledge Transfer or Social Competence? A Comparison of German and Canadian Adolescent Students on Their Socio-Motivational Relationships in School (United States)

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael; Bukowski, William M.


    This cross-national study investigates the perception of the impact of students' relationships towards teachers and peers on scholastic motivation in a total sample of 1477 seventh and eighth grade German (N?=?1088) and Canadian (N?=?389) secondary school students. By applying Multigroup Confirmatory Latent Class Analysis in Mplus we confirmed…

  19. Canadian Children's Literature: An Alberta Survey (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Carbonaro, Mike; Green, Nicole


    This article presents the findings of an online survey administered to Alberta elementary school teachers in 2000-2001. The survey explored the teachers' knowledge and use of Canadian children's literature and their thoughts about the role of Canadian literature in elementary school classrooms. Canadian children's trade books espouse particular…

  20. BEME systematic review : Predictive values of measurements obtained in medical schools and future performance in medical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamdy, H; Prasad, K; Anderson, MB


    Background: Effectiveness of medical education programs is most meaningfully measured as performance of its graduates. Objectives: To assess the value of measurements obtained in medical schools in predicting future performance in medical practice. Methods: Search strategy: The English literature fr

  1. eLearning at the Hannover Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthies, Herbert K.


    Full Text Available In the recent years various multimedia learning modules were developed at the Hannover Medical School. So, for example the web-based content management system Schoolbook is used to collect medical cases for education. It enables authors to present their specialised knowledge in the World Wide Web without the need to be familiar with internet technologies. The System provides access to several sources of medical knowledge and is used as an elearning platform for different medical departments. Furthermore it was established in combination with the learning management system ILIAS which contains web-based learning units as well as self-tests (multiple choice with direct feedback.

  2. [The new medical schools in Chile and their influence on the medical scenario]. (United States)

    Román A, Oscar


    There is concern about the possible consequences caused by the proliferation of private Medical Schools in Chile. Most of these schools have consolidated as health professional training centers, but its presence is changing the scenario of public health and medical profession. The most important consequence is the increase in the number of physicians that will occur, that may exceed the demand of the Chilean population and generate medical unemployment or emigration. There is also concern about the quality of the training process and the preparation and experience of teachers, that derives in the need for accreditation of medical schools. Private Universities are aware of these problems and are working on them. The struggle for clinical fields in the Public Health System has been regulated by an administrative norm of the Ministry of Health.

  3. Student characteristics, professional preferences, and admission to medical school

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    Kesternich, Iris


    Full Text Available Objectives: A potential new avenue to address the shortage of country doctors is to change the rules for admission to medical school. We therefore study the link between high-school grade point average and prospective physicians’ choice to work in rural areas. To further inform the discussion about rules for admission, we also study the effects of other predictors: a measure of students’ attitudes towards risk; whether they waited for their place of study (; whether their parents worked as medical doctors; and whether they have some practical experience in the medical sector.Methods: We conducted two internet surveys in 2012 and 2014. In the first survey, the sample comprised 701 students and in the second, 474 students. In both surveys, we asked students for their regional preferences; in the 2014 survey, we additionally asked students for their first, second, and third preferences among a comprehensive set of specializations, including becoming a general practitioner. In both surveys, we asked students for basic demographic information (age and gender, their parents’ occupation, a measure of subjective income expectations, a measure of risk attitudes, and their high-school grade point average (, and First National Boards Examination grade (. In 2014, we additionally asked for waiting periods ( as well as for prior professional experience in the health-care sector.Results: We find that three factors increase the probability of having a preference for working in a rural area significantly, holding constant all other influences: Moreover, we find that those willing to work in the countryside have significantly more experience in the medical sector before admission to medical school.Discussion: Our results suggest that a change in the selection process for medical school may increase the supply of country doctors. Instead of focusing on the high-school grade point average, universities could even more intensely screen for study motivation

  4. A study to assess the perceptions of first year medical students for choosing medical school as a career

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    Ranjana Tiwari


    Conclusions: These data showed that the maximum percentages of the Medical Students were satisfied with the medical school as 95 (91.34% but still some of them have regrets. In choosing medical school they wants to help poor, earn money and personal development, and influenced by some doctor relative. These were important factors for decision making in medical school. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2649-2655

  5. Medical lessons learnt from the US and Canadian experience of treating combat casualties from Afghanistan and Iraq. (United States)

    Dharm-Datta, Shreshth; McLenaghan, J


    The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust, established in 1965, funds Travelling Fellowships and both authors visited hospitals in Germany, Canada and the USA regarded as centres of excellence with expertise in the early care, reconstruction and rehabilitation of the combat casualties of our NATO Allies, as recipients of these Fellowships. This article presents some of the lessons learnt in the field of musculoskeletal trauma and rehabilitation from the Canadian and US military medical systems. In trauma, there were significant differences in wound debridement policy, use of external fixators for fractures, primary use of circular frames for open tibial fractures and a far more liberal use of bone morphogenetic protein in fracture treatment. Differences in soft tissue reconstruction policy regarding flaps for soft tissue cover over exposed bone, near-universal usage of topical negative pressure dressings and use of Allgöwer-Donati suture pattern to close all wounds were noted. Ertl amputation osteoplasty, a modified form of transtibial amputation, had also been reintroduced. In rehabilitation, the management of heterotopic ossification, in particular with imaging techniques and excision surgery, was identified. For the upper limb, we observed the patient training required to use a myoelectric hand and the future possibility of targeted muscle re-innervation to make controlling these myoelectric prostheses more natural using innate motor patterns. For the lower limb, we found we used identical above knee prostheses. For patients who have had limb reconstruction and have poor function, an energy-storing orthosis was demonstrated to compensate for the loss of range of motion and muscle power.

  6. Entry to medical school: an audit of traditional selection requirements. (United States)

    Collins, J P; White, G R; Kennedy, J A


    The major focus in the selection of entrants for medical school has traditionally been on academic achievement in school-leaving examinations in which certain science subjects are a requirement. A longitudinal study of 413 successful applicants was undertaken to determine the relationship of these admission criteria to subsequent performance. The findings support a correlation between overall marks in the school-leaving examination and the annual Grade Point Averages. Those students in the top quartile for marks showed a significant advantage in terms of achievement but only in the preclinical years. Despite the significant correlations no predictions could be made on the basis of overall marks. No correlation was found with levels of clinical competence during the ward clerkships or with the interdisciplinary objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the final examination. Marks in individual school-leaving examination subjects correlated with performance during different parts of the course but only those entrants in the top quartile for marks in physics and biology showed an advantage through to the clinical years. English marks were the least correlated and failed to confer an advantage in any year of the course. None of the correlations between school-leaving marks and grades in medical school exceeded 0.4. The predictive value of school-leaving examination marks therefore accounted for only 16% of the variance in subsequent examinations. Selection of medical students on the basis of academic criteria alone is inadequate and should be accompanied by assessment of personal qualities. This School no longer uses school-leaving marks as the primary selection instrument.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Exploring Emotional Intelligence in a Caribbean Medical School (United States)

    Sa, B; Baboolal, N; Williams, S; Ramsewak, S


    Objective: To explore the emotional intelligence (EI) in medical students in a Caribbean medical school and investigate its association with gender, age, year of study and ethnicity. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional design using convenient sampling of 304 years two to five undergraduate medical students at the School of Medicine, The University of the West Indies (UWI), St Augustine campus, was conducted. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-V2.0) was administered to test four branches of EI: perceiving emotions, facilitating thought, understanding emotions and managing emotions. Data were analysed using SPSS version 19. T-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and r (product moment correlation) were calculated to establish the effects of selected variables (gender, age, year of study and ethnicity) on total and sub-scales EI scores and tested against 0.05 and 0.01 significance levels. Results: The total mean score for EI fell within the average according to MSCEIT standards. Gender analysis showed significantly higher scores for males and for younger age groups (< 25 years). Year of study and ethnicity did not yield any significant effect. Conclusions: These findings of higher EI scores in males and younger students are unusual, given the well-publicized stereotype of the Caribbean male and the perception that advancing age brings maturity and emotional stability. It would be valuable to widen this study by including other UWI campuses and offshore medical schools in the Caribbean. This preliminary study examined a sample of medical students from a well-established Caribbean medical school. Since EI is considered to be important in the assessment and training of medical undergraduates, consideration should be given to introducing interventions aimed at increasing EI. PMID:25303251

  8. Investigating the Reliability of the Medical School Admissions Interview (United States)

    Kreiter, Clarence D.; Yin, Ping; Solow, Catherine; Brennan, Robert L.


    Purpose: Determining the valid and fair use of the interview for medical school admissions is contingent upon a demonstration of the reproducibility of interview scores. This study seeks to establish the generalizability of interview scores, first assessing the existing research evidence, and then analyzing data from a non-experimental independent…

  9. The electronic patient records of the Hannover Medical School. (United States)

    Porth, A J; Niehoff, C; Matthies, H K


    In this paper, the successful introduction of a commercially available electronic patient record archiving system at the Hannover Medical School is described. Since 1996, more than 11 million document sheets of 130,000 patient records have been stored electronically. Currently, 100,000 sheets are stored each week.

  10. Activity Analysis and Cost Analysis in Medical Schools. (United States)

    Koehler, John E.; Slighton, Robert L.

    There is no unique answer to the question of what an ongoing program costs in medical schools. The estimates of program costs generated by classical methods of cost accounting are unsatisfactory because such accounting cannot deal with the joint production or joint cost problem. Activity analysis models aim at calculating the impact of alternative…

  11. Preservice School Personnel's Knowledge of Stimulant Medication and ADHD (United States)

    Pindiprolu, Sekhar S.


    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders among children today. Stimulants are commonly prescribed to children with ADHD to improve attention span and decrease distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Given the increased use of stimulant medication, school personnel need to be aware of…

  12. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School. (United States)

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi


    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations.

  13. Medical students' evaluation of physiology learning environments in two Nigerian medical schools. (United States)

    Anyaehie, U S B; Nwobodo, E; Oze, G; Nwagha, U I; Orizu, I; Okeke, T; Anyanwu, G E


    The expansion of biomedical knowledge and the pursuit of more meaningful learning have led to world-wide evidence-based innovative changes in medical education and curricula. The recent emphasis on problem-based learning (PBL) and student-centred learning environments are, however, not being implemented in Nigerian medical schools. Traditional didactic lectures thus predominate, and learning is further constrained by funding gaps, poor infrastructure, and increasing class sizes. We reviewed medical students' perceptions of their exposed learning environment to determine preferences, shortcomings, and prescriptions for improvements. The results confirm declining interest in didactic lectures and practical sessions with preferences for peer-tutored discussion classes, which were considered more interactive and interesting. This study recommends more emphasis on student-centered learning with alternatives to passive lecture formats and repetitive cookbook practical sessions. The institutionalization of student feedback processes in Nigerian medical schools is also highly recommended.

  14. Use of medical tourism for hip and knee surgery in osteoarthritis: a qualitative examination of distinctive attitudinal characteristics among Canadian patients

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    Crooks Valorie A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical tourism is the term that describes patients’ international travel with the intention of seeking medical treatment. Some medical tourists go abroad for orthopaedic surgeries, including hip and knee resurfacing and replacement. In this article we examine the findings of interviews with Canadian medical tourists who went abroad for such surgeries to determine what is distinctive about their attitudes when compared to existing qualitative research findings about patients’ decision-making in and experiences of these same procedures in their home countries. Methods Fourteen Canadian medical tourists participated in semi-structured phone interviews, all of whom had gone abroad for hip or knee surgery to treat osteoarthritis. Transcripts were coded and thematically analysed, which involved comparing emerging findings to those in the existing qualitative literature on hip and knee surgery. Results Three distinctive attitudinal characteristics among participants were identified when interview themes were compared to findings in the existing qualitative research on hip and knee surgery in osteoarthritis. These attitudinal characteristics were that the medical tourists we spoke with were: (1 comfortable health-related decision-makers; (2 unwavering in their views about procedure necessity and urgency; and (3 firm in their desires to maintain active lives. Conclusions Compared to other patients reported on in the existing qualitative hip and knee surgery literature, medical tourists are less likely to question their need for surgery and are particularly active in their pursuit of surgical intervention. They are also comfortable with taking control of health-related decisions. Future research is needed to identify motivators behind patients’ pursuit of care abroad, determine if the attitudinal characteristics identified here hold true for other patient groups, and ascertain the impact of these attitudinal characteristics on

  15. Individualized strategic planning for faculty development in medical schools

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    Goutham Rao


    Full Text Available Background. Faculty development is essential to provide skills not taught in typical medical training such as designing curricula or scientific writing, to help medical faculty acquire new skills valued today such as financial management, and to maintain institutional vitality. Faculty development receives relatively little attention in many medical schools and is narrowly focused upon teaching skills. Innovation. We propose a program that includes individual needs assessment and strategic planning. This strategy is consistent with Knowles’ principles of andragogy, a model of adult learning that differs in some ways from traditional pedagogy. We have included a self-assessment tool that may be useful to medical schools and an illustrative case study. Evaluation. We have introduced the self-assessment tool to a small number of faculty members who have found it clear and useful. We plan to introduce it to a large number of faculty members and to measure completion rates, perceived usefulness, and subsequent participation in faculty development activities and fulfillment of goals. Conclusions. Faculty development needs to be a higher priority in medical schools and to better reflect the current needs of faculty members. An individualized faculty development process has the potential to have a substantial impact upon acquisition of important skills, and faculty and institutional morale and vitality.

  16. Medical genetics teaching in Iranian medical schools, especially Ahvaz, south of Iran

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    Full Text Available Introduction: Physicians have to visit, diagnose and refer patients with genetic disorders, so they need to be familiar with the basics and indications of genetic tests. In other words, they should have effective theoretical and practical knowledge about medical genetics before they do their job. Medical genetics courses at Medical Universities of Iran are generally presented as a theoretical subject in the first period of medical education. Methods: In this descriptive research, the results of interviews with teachers of medical genetics in 30 medical schools in Islamic Republic of Iran and responses to a questionnaire by 125 medical students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of medical sciences, about presentation time, curricula and also efficacy of medical genetics courses were analyzed. The interviews with teachers were done on phone and the students’ comments were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. The data were analyzed, using SPSS software, version 14. Results: In two thirds of medical universities, medical genetics is taught in the third or fourth semester and in 5 universities in the fifth semester. 86% of the students believed that the quality of genetics courses is moderate and such courses are same as clinical manifestation of genetic disorders are benefitial to medical students. Conclusion: This article suggests that medical genetics be offered in the second or third period of medical education (physiopathology or stagger period. Furthermore, in teaching such courses advanced educational methods (animation presentation, case-based learning, problem-based learning, etc. should be used, together with simple genetic tests in laboratories, the visit of genetic patients in hospitals, and the genetics consult.

  17. Junior High School Students' Career Plans for the Future: A Canadian Perspective (United States)

    Bardick, Angela D.; Bernes, Kerry B.; Magnusson, Kris C.; Witko, Kim D.


    This study uses the Comprehensive Career Needs Survey to assess the career plans of junior high school students in Southern Alberta, Canada. Junior high students are asked (a) what they plan to do after they leave high school; (b) their confidence in finding an occupation they enjoy, obtaining training or education, and finding work in their…

  18. Beyond the Barriers: Marking the Place for Marijuana Use at a Canadian High School (United States)

    Johnson, Joy L.; Moffat, Barbara; Bottorff, Joan; Shoveller, Jean; Fischer, Benedikt; Haines, Rebecca J.


    This ethnographic study aimed at developing a richer understanding of how youth, their schools, and the communities in which they are emplaced coincide to generate a set of local social processes that affect marijuana use. We trace the interplay between high school staff and students with regards to marijuana use in the proximity of a local high…

  19. The Pasternak Case and American Gender Equity Policy: Implications for Canadian High School Athletics (United States)

    Beaubier, Dean M.; Gadbois, Shannon A.; Stick, Sheldon L.


    In 2004 twin sisters Amy and Jesse Pasternak competed for the prospect of playing high school hockey, vying for the boys' team rather than the girls'. The sisters' opportunities were negated by the Manitoba High School Athletic Association (MHSAA). This paper examines the 2006 decision by the Manitoba Human Rights Commission and a 2008 judgment by…

  20. The clinical application of genome-wide sequencing for monogenic diseases in Canada: Position Statement of the Canadian College of Medical Geneticists (United States)

    Boycott, Kym; Hartley, Taila; Adam, Shelin; Bernier, Francois; Chong, Karen; Fernandez, Bridget A; Friedman, Jan M; Geraghty, Michael T; Hume, Stacey; Knoppers, Bartha M; Laberge, Anne-Marie; Majewski, Jacek; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Meyn, M Stephen; Michaud, Jacques L; Nelson, Tanya N; Richer, Julie; Sadikovic, Bekim; Skidmore, David L; Stockley, Tracy; Taylor, Sherry; van Karnebeek, Clara; Zawati, Ma'n H; Lauzon, Julie; Armour, Christine M


    Purpose and scope The aim of this Position Statement is to provide recommendations for Canadian medical geneticists, clinical laboratory geneticists, genetic counsellors and other physicians regarding the use of genome-wide sequencing of germline DNA in the context of clinical genetic diagnosis. This statement has been developed to facilitate the clinical translation and development of best practices for clinical genome-wide sequencing for genetic diagnosis of monogenic diseases in Canada; it does not address the clinical application of this technology in other fields such as molecular investigation of cancer or for population screening of healthy individuals. Methods of statement development Two multidisciplinary groups consisting of medical geneticists, clinical laboratory geneticists, genetic counsellors, ethicists, lawyers and genetic researchers were assembled to review existing literature and guidelines on genome-wide sequencing for clinical genetic diagnosis in the context of monogenic diseases, and to make recommendations relevant to the Canadian context. The statement was circulated for comment to the Canadian College of Medical Geneticists (CCMG) membership-at-large and, following incorporation of feedback, approved by the CCMG Board of Directors. The CCMG is a Canadian organisation responsible for certifying medical geneticists and clinical laboratory geneticists, and for establishing professional and ethical standards for clinical genetics services in Canada. Results and conclusions Recommendations include (1) clinical genome-wide sequencing is an appropriate approach in the diagnostic assessment of a patient for whom there is suspicion of a significant monogenic disease that is associated with a high degree of genetic heterogeneity, or where specific genetic tests have failed to provide a diagnosis; (2) until the benefits of reporting incidental findings are established, we do not endorse the intentional clinical analysis of disease-associated genes

  1. Associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among Canadian schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga

    Full Text Available The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression.Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean ± SD age: 14.3 ± 1.8 years.Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16-5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48-4.89, plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63-4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20-3.45 and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26-2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18-2.27 compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans.These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  2. Associations between Cyberbullying and School Bullying Victimization and Suicidal Ideation, Plans and Attempts among Canadian Schoolchildren (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Xu, Hao


    Purpose The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression. Methods Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean±SD age: 14.3±1.8 years). Results Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16–5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48–4.89), plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63–4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20–3.45) and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26–2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18–2.27) compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans. Conclusion These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours. PMID:25076490

  3. [The Universidad Austral de Chile Medical School: a regional commitment]. (United States)

    Grob, C


    The Universidad Austral de Chile Medical School was created in 1966. Its general goal was to train a general physician with capacities to integrate biological, psychological and social issues, to deal with prevalent diseases as well as with the non referable casualties, to analyze health situations and to manage health teams. From its beginning, it incorporated anthropological and the public health contents to medical curriculum. Moreover, the formal teaching formation was reduced to 5 years, increasing the internship cycle to 2 years, with an important practice on primary health care in regional hospitals, that included a research project on health administration. A revision of the School curriculum showed the need of a better horizontal and vertical integration of medical education. Consequently, global courses were organized to gather knowledge that, until now, was delivered in a fragmented form. Our Medical School has a major impact in the southern region of the country and over 60% of its graduates have settled in this zone, improving its physician/inhabitant relationship and the number of specialists.

  4. The design of a medical school social justice curriculum. (United States)

    Coria, Alexandra; McKelvey, T Greg; Charlton, Paul; Woodworth, Michael; Lahey, Timothy


    The acquisition of skills to recognize and redress adverse social determinants of disease is an important component of undergraduate medical education. In this article, the authors justify and define "social justice curriculum" and then describe the medical school social justice curriculum designed by the multidisciplinary Social Justice Vertical Integration Group (SJVIG) at the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth. The SJVIG addressed five goals: (1) to define core competencies in social justice education, (2) to identify key topics that a social justice curriculum should cover, (3) to assess social justice curricula at other institutions, (4) to catalog institutionally affiliated community outreach sites at which teaching could be paired with hands-on service work, and (5) to provide examples of the integration of social justice teaching into the core (i.e., basic science) curriculum. The SJVIG felt a social justice curriculum should cover the scope of health disparities, reasons to address health disparities, and means of addressing these disparities. The group recommended competency-based student evaluations and advocated assessing the impact of medical students' social justice work on communities. The group identified the use of class discussion of physicians' obligation to participate in social justice work as an educational tool, and they emphasized the importance of a mandatory, longitudinal, immersive, mentored community outreach practicum. Faculty and administrators are implementing these changes as part of an overall curriculum redesign (2012-2015). A well-designed medical school social justice curriculum should improve student recognition and rectification of adverse social determinants of disease.

  5. Impact of anti-affirmative action on medical school enrollment. (United States)

    Morgan, R C


    The nation's medical, dental and health profession school admissions of African American and other under-represented minority students needs reassessment in view of recent challenges to anti-affirmative action policies. Data suggest that low-income and medically underserved communities are more likely to be cared for by minority physicians. Experts project that the U.S. will need about twice as many African-American physicians as it now has to serve future patient needs. Currently, African Americans comprise 3% of the physician workforce. Decisive actions and policies--such as the recommendations made by the National Medical Association--are needed to ensure parity and cultural diversity in the medical workforce.

  6. How do we identify and foster talent in medical schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Cristiancho, Sayra; Jensen, Rune Dall


    Background: Talent is highly regarded in high performance sports as a key feature for athletes to succeed. In medicine, talent is not a commonly held conversation, even though, medical students are usually identified as high achieving, internally motivated individuals. We suggest that bringing...... talent into the conversation of medical education research, will help us enrich how medical schools design selection processes. In this workshop we will bring awareness into the notion of talent from sports science research and invite discussion around how to embrace talent identification and development...... in medicine. The participants in this workshop will gain a better understanding of the notion of talent across different professional contexts. Furthermore, the workshop will encourage participants to share their personal experiences and practices in identifying and selecting talented medical students...

  7. Relationships between Drug Company Representatives and Medical Students: Medical School Policies and Attitudes of Student Affairs Deans and Third-Year Medical Students (United States)

    Sierles, Frederick; Brodkey, Amy; Cleary, Lynn; McCurdy, Frederick A.; Mintz, Matthew; Frank, Julia; Lynn, Deborah Joanne; Chao, Jason; Morgenstern, Bruce; Shore, William; Woodard, John


    Objectives: The authors sought to ascertain the details of medical school policies about relationships between drug companies and medical students as well as student affairs deans' attitudes about these interactions. Methods: In 2005, the authors surveyed deans and student affairs deans at all U.S. medical schools and asked whether their schools…

  8. [The early medical textbooks in Korea: medical textbooks published at Je Joong Won-Severance Hospital Medical School]. (United States)

    Park, H W


    Kwang Hye Won(Je Joong Won), the first western hospital in Korea, was founded in 1885. The first western Medical School in Korea was open in 1886 under the hospital management. Dr. O. R. Avison, who came to Korea in 1893, resumed the medical education there, which was interrupted for some time before his arrival in Korea. He inaugurated translating and publishing medical textbooks with the help of Kim Pil Soon who later became one of the first seven graduates in Severance Hospital Medical School. The first western medical textbook translated into Korean was Henry Gray's Anatomy. However, these twice-translated manuscripts were never to be published on account of being lost and burnt down. The existing early anatomy textbooks, the editions of 1906 and 1909, are not the translation of Gray's Anatomy, but that of Japanese anatomy textbook of Gonda. The remaining oldest medical textbook in Korean is Inorganic Materia Medica published in 1905. This book is unique among its kind that O. R. Avison is the only translator of the book and it contains the prefaces of O. R. Avison and Kim Pil Soon. The publication of medical textbook was animated by the participation of other medical students, such as Hong Suk Hoo and Hong Jong Eun. The list of medical textbooks published includes almost all the field of medicine. The medical textbooks in actual existence are as follows: Inorganic Materia Medica (1905), Inorganic Chemistry (1906), Anatomy I (1906), Physiology (1906), Diagnostics I (1906), Diagnostics II (1907), Obstetrics (1908), Organic Chemistry (1909), Anatomy (1909), and Surgery (1910).

  9. The Morehouse Mystique: Becoming a Doctor at the Nation's Newest African American Medical School (United States)

    Gasman, Marybeth


    The Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia, is one of only four predominantly Black medical schools in the United States. Among its illustrious alumni are surgeons general of the United States, medical school presidents, and numerous other highly regarded medical professionals. This book tells the engrossing history of this venerable…

  10. Associations between Cyberbullying and School Bullying Victimization and Suicidal Ideation, Plans and Attempts among Canadian Schoolchildren


    Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga; Paul Roumeliotis; Hao Xu


    Purpose The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression. Methods Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regi...

  11. Perspectives for vertebrology teaching development in higher medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norkin I.A.


    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues on improving the efficiency of vertebrology teaching in specialist training at pre-and postgraduate stages. Modern epidemiologic trends for spine traumas and diseases form the increasing interest to the problems of care and prevention of the considered pathology and define the necessity of single-skilled specialists training. Developing vertebrology into a separate discipline that is studied at medical universities at both pre- and postgraduate stages is one of the topic issues for higher medical schools where the search of effective ways of its realization is stressed.

  12. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olopade FE


    Full Text Available Funmilayo Eniola Olopade,1 Oluwatosin Adekunle Adaramoye,2 Yinusa Raji,3 Abiodun Olubayo Fasola,4 Emiola Oluwabunmi Olapade-Olaopa5 1Department of Anatomy, 2Department of Biochemistry, 3Department of Physiology, 4Department of Oral Pathology, 5Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Abstract: The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula

  13. Students' Conceptions of the Nature of Science: Perspectives from Canadian and Korean Middle School Students (United States)

    Park, Hyeran; Nielsen, Wendy; Woodruff, Earl


    This study examined and compared students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) with 521 Grade 8 Canadian and Korean students using a mixed methods approach. The concepts of NOS were measured using a survey that had both quantitative and qualitative elements. Descriptive statistics and one-way multivariate analysis of variances examined the quantitative data while a conceptually clustered matrix classified the open-ended responses. The country effect could explain 3-12 % of the variances of subjectivity, empirical testability and diverse methods, but it was not significant for the concepts of tentativeness and socio-cultural embeddedness of science. The open-ended responses showed that students believed scientific theories change due to errors or discoveries. Students regarded empirical evidence as undeniable and objective although they acknowledged experiments depend on theories or scientists' knowledge. The open responses revealed that national situations and curriculum content affected their views. For our future democratic citizens to gain scientific literacy, science curricula should include currently acknowledged NOS concepts and should be situated within societal and cultural perspectives.

  14. Humanities for medical students? A qualitative study of a medical humanities curriculum in a medical school program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troein Margareta


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, there is a trend towards establishing the medical humanities as a component of medical education. However, medical humanities programs that exist within the context of a medical school can be problematic. The aim of this study was to explore problems that can arise with the establishment of a medical humanities curriculum in a medical school program. Methods Our theoretical approach in this study is informed by derridean deconstruction and by post-structuralist analysis. We examined the ideology of the Humanities and Medicine program at Lund University, Sweden, the practical implementation of the program, and how ideology and practice corresponded. Examination of the ideology driving the humanities and medicine program was based on a critical reading of all available written material concerning the Humanities and Medicine project. The practice of the program was examined by means of a participatory observation study of one course, and by in-depth interviews with five students who participated in the course. Data was analysed using a hermeneutic editing approach. Results The ideological language used to describe the program calls it an interdisciplinary learning environment but at the same time shows that the conditions of the program are established by the medical faculty's agenda. In practice, the "humanities" are constructed, defined and used within a medical frame of reference. Medical students have interesting discussions, acquire concepts and enjoy the program. But they come away lacking theoretical structure to understand what they have learned. There is no place for humanities students in the program. Conclusion A challenge facing cross-disciplinary programs is creating an environment where the disciplines have equal standing and contribution.

  15. Indigenous Student Matriculation into Medical School: Policy and Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Sadler


    Full Text Available Access to health care remains suboptimal for Indigenous people in Canada. One contributing factor is the longstanding undersupply of Indigenous physicians. Despite awareness of this issue, underrepresentation in medical schools continues. In 2002, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry (SSMD policies were modified to enhance access for Indigenous students. This article describes our school’s continuing journey of policy and process revision, formative collaborations, early learner outcomes, and lessons learned towards this goal. In the first 10 years, SSMD matriculated 15 additional Indigenous students via this new stream. All candidates were successful in the undergraduate medical curriculum, licensing examinations, and residency match. The majority were attracted to primary care specialties, training programs affiliated with SSMD, and practices in southern Ontario. While the process and curriculum have revealed their potential, its capacity is not being maximized.

  16. Smoking Among Medical School Students and Attitudes against Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Yengil1


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to observe smoking and nicotine addiction status and of medical school students and to establish relating factors. Methods: A questionnaire was applied to students who were in Mustafa Kemal University Medical School in 2013-2014 semesters about smoking behavior, age of onset, thought of quitting, attitudes against, nicotine addiction, use of alcohol and other drugs. Results: Of the 712 students 54.5% (388 were male, while 45.5% (324 were female and overall smoking rate was 25.6%. The average age of smoking initiation was 17.7 ± 2.8 years. The overall smoking rates are increasing every year of school. 40.1% (73 of smokers reported the smoke in the hospital, while 33.5% (61 of them smoke only in the separated area. Almost half of the smokers (51.6%, 94 had very low, 19.2% (35 low, 8.8% (16 moderate, 14.3% (26 high, and 6% (11 very high level of nicotine dependency. Of the participants 46.3% (330 reported no special anti-tobacco efforts against in the society, whether only 2.4% (17 of them stated regular counseling. Non smokers showed more effort than smokers (p=0.0001. 40.1% of the smokers reported that medical education didn’t affect their attitude against smoking, while 19.8% stated that it affected negatively. Conclusion: In conclusion the study found a higher smoking prevalence compared to developed countries Medical school curricula need to be reframed in the context of smoking cessation counseling in order to win the war against tobacco use and addiction.

  17. Medication Management in Primary and Secondary Schools: Evaluation of Mental Health Related In-Service Education in Local Schools (United States)

    Reutzel, Thomas J.; Desai, Archana; Workman, Gloria; Atkin, John A.; Grady, Sarah; Todd, Timothy; Nguyen, Nhu; Watkins, Melissa; Tran, Kim; Liu, Nian; Rafinski, Michelle; Dang, Thanh


    An increasing number of students are taking medications while they are in school or are under the influence of medication during school hours. In a novel effort, clinical pharmacists and mental health therapists worked together to provide "mini-in-service" educational programs on psychological disorders and medications used to treat these…

  18. Medication Management in Primary and Secondary Schools: Evaluation of Mental Health Related In-Service Education in Local Schools (United States)

    Reutzel, Thomas J.; Desai, Archana; Workman, Gloria; Atkin, John A.; Grady, Sarah; Todd, Timothy; Nguyen, Nhu; Watkins, Melissa; Tran, Kim; Liu, Nian; Rafinski, Michelle; Dang, Thanh


    An increasing number of students are taking medications while they are in school or are under the influence of medication during school hours. In a novel effort, clinical pharmacists and mental health therapists worked together to provide "mini-in-service" educational programs on psychological disorders and medications used to treat…

  19. Faculty and student perceptions of academic integrity at U.S. and Canadian dental schools. (United States)

    Andrews, Kenneth G; Smith, Linda A; Henzi, David; Demps, Elaine


    The issues of cheating and plagiarism in educational settings have received a large amount of attention in recent years. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which academic integrity issues currently exist in the dental schools throughout the United States and Canada. An online survey was developed to gather data pertaining to this topic from two key groups in dental education: faculty and students. Responses were obtained from 1,153 students and 423 faculty members. The results of the survey clearly reveal that cheating is a significant problem in dental schools and that significant differences exist between students' and faculty members' perceptions of academic integrity. The challenge for dental schools is to identify effective strategies to prevent cheating opportunities and to implement and enforce effective means of dealing with specific examples of cheating.

  20. Soil 4 Youth: Charting New Territory in Canadian High School Soil Science Education (United States)

    Krzic, Maja; Wilson, Julie; Basiliko, Nathan; Bedard-Haughn, Angela; Humphreys, Elyn; Dyanatkar, Saeed; Hazlett, Paul; Strivelli, Rachel; Crowley, Chris; Dampier, Lesley


    As global issues continue to place increasing demands on soil resources, the need to provide soil science education to the next generation of soil scientists and the general public is becoming more imminent. In many countries around the world, including Canada, soil is either not included in the high school curriculum or it is not covered in…

  1. Everyday Racism in Canadian Schools: Ideologies of Language and Culture among Korean Transnational Students in Toronto (United States)

    Shin, Hyunjung


    Drawing from a 2.4-year ethnography with Korean Early Study Abroad (ESA, pre-college-aged study abroad) students in Toronto high schools, I examine the intersections among race, class, language, culture and citizenship (including immigrant status) in the identity construction and language learning of these students. Conceptualising race as a…

  2. Periodontal-systemic disease education in U.S. and Canadian dental schools. (United States)

    Wilder, Rebecca S; Iacopino, Anthony M; Feldman, Cecile A; Guthmiller, Janet; Linfante, Jeffrey; Lavigne, Salme; Paquette, David


    Research has proliferated in recent years regarding the relationship of oral disease to systemic conditions. Specifically, periodontal disease has been studied as a potential risk factor for multiple conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and adverse pregnancy outcomes, while other research focuses on exposures or behaviors associated with oral disease. However, few articles have been published reporting how this information is integrated into schools of dentistry, both in the classroom and clinical curriculum. For our study, a thirty-three-item survey and cover letter were electronically mailed to academic deans at sixty-five accredited dental schools in the United States and Canada in the fall of 2007. The response rate was 77 percent. According to the responses to this survey, the primary topics covered in the didactic curriculum regarding periodontal oral-systemic disease are aging, CVD, diabetes, and tobacco use. Eighty-eight percent of the respondents reported that their students are knowledgeable about the role of inflammation and its impact on oral-systemic conditions. Forty-eight percent of the respondents said they provide formal training for their students in how to discuss or communicate aspects of periodontal oral-systemic disease with patients. Only seven schools reported teaching didactic content to dental students intermixed with other health professions students, and only two schools reported conducting joint projects. Only 9 percent of the respondents said they think nurses and physicians are knowledgeable about oral-systemic disease. The findings indicate that dental schools are confident about the knowledge of their students regarding oral-systemic content. However, much work is needed to educate dental students to work in a collaborative fashion with other health care providers to co-manage patients at risk for oral-systemic conditions.

  3. Peer-assisted learning in medical school: tutees’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes A


    Full Text Available Audrey Menezes,1,2 Annette Burgess,1 Antonia J Clarke,1,3 Craig Mellis1 1Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney; 2Hornsby Ku-ring-gai Hospital; 3Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: Peer tutoring offers a valuable method of enhancing students’ learning experience in medical school. Junior students learn from senior peers to reinforce curriculum content in an engaging community environment. The aim of our study was to assess tutees’ perceptions of a formal peer tutoring program at the Central Clinical School of Sydney Medical School. We used the learning theory of the community of practice in order to understand tutees’ perspectives. Patients and methods: All Year 1 and Year 2 students within the Central Clinical School were invited to be tutored by Year 3 and Year 4 students, respectively. Tutor pairs taught a group of three to four tutees fortnightly, and the tutorials were largely clinically based. A questionnaire containing 13 closed items and four open-ended questions regarding their experiences in the program was distributed to the tutees. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 66 of 101 (65% Year 1 and Year 2 students took part as tutees and 42 of 106 (40% students as tutors. The tutees' response rate was 53% (35/66. Results were largely positive, with 97% of the tutees enjoying the program, 90% showing interest in tutorial topics, 91% feeling a sense of community, 100% wanting to take part next year, 97% finding small groups effective, and 97% and 91% feeling an improved understanding of medical concepts and clinical skills, respectively. Tutees perceived the most useful aspects to be learning and revision and advice from experienced peers. The most frequent suggestion for improvement was to resolve scheduling conflicts. Conclusion: Tutees found the peer tutoring program to be valuable in learning and revision, establishing a community, and

  4. A Master of Science course at the Cardiff School of Medical Photography. (United States)

    Marshall, R J; Evans, R W; Young, S


    Formal teaching and training in medical photography at Cardiff started in 1969 when a School of Medical Photography was established, as part of the Department of Medical Illustration, at the Cardiff Royal Infirmary. In the early 1970s the school was transferred with the Medical Illustration Department to the newly built University Hospital of Wales, and housed in planned accommodation at what is now the Institute of Health Care Studies. The school offered courses in medical photography at the level of the qualifying examinations of the Professional Institutes, to suitably qualified in-service students appointed to the Medical Illustration Department as Trainee Medical Photographers. In 1990, the University of Wales approved a Master of Science course in Medical Illustration (Photography and Video) offered by the school. The course is available both to in-service students of the school and to practising medical photographers as mature students on a distance learning programme. Details of the new course and its delivery are given.

  5. Publishing medical schools’ USMLE Step 1 scores: increase preclinical education accountability and national standards


    Eltorai AE


    Adam EM Eltorai Brown University, Warren Alpert Medical School, Providence, RI, USA Medical education innovation is a field of active investigation.1,2 Whether it is problem-based learning, lectures, discussion groups, systems-based blocks, integrated courses, video-captured, pass-fail, or iPad-requiring, every medical school approaches preclinical education differently. Which combination of these methods is most effective?To answer this, I propose that medical schools ought to be required to...

  6. Contemporary Issues in Medicine--Medical Informatics and Population Health: Report II of the Medical School Objectives Project. (United States)

    Academic Medicine, 1999


    The report of the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical School Objectives Program presents the work of two expert panels. One, on medical informatics, identified five important physician roles: lifelong learner, clinician, educator, researcher, and manager. Another panel established a definition for "population health perspective"…

  7. Learning about medical student mistreatment from responses to the medical school graduation questionnaire. (United States)

    Mavis, Brian; Sousa, Aron; Lipscomb, Wanda; Rappley, Marsha D


    Although evidence of medical student mistreatment has accumulated for more than 20 years, only recently have professional organizations like the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and the American Medical Association truly acknowledged it as an issue. Since 1991, the AAMC's annual Medical School Graduation Questionnaire (GQ) has included questions about mistreatment. Responses to the GQ have become the major source of evidence of the prevalence and types of mistreatment. This article reviews national mistreatment data, using responses to the GQ from 2000 through 2012; examines how students' experiences have changed over time; and highlights the implications of this information for the broader medical education system. The authors discuss what mistreatment is, including the changing definitions from the GQ; the prevalence, types, and sources of mistreatment; and evidence of students reporting incidents. In addition, they discuss next steps, including better defining mistreatment, specifically public humiliation and belittling, taking into account students' subjective evaluations; understanding and addressing the influence of institutional culture and what institutions can learn from current approaches at other institutions; and developing better systems to report and respond to reports of mistreatment. They conclude with a discussion of how mistreatment currently is conceptualized within the medical education system and the implications of that conceptualization for eradicating mistreatment in the future.

  8. Influences on adolescent self-esteem in multicultural Canadian secondary schools. (United States)

    Khanlou, Nazilla


    Abstract This study examined the global and current self-esteem levels of adolescents in a community sample of 550 secondary school students in Canada. A cross-sectional design and the survey method were used. Respondents' individual (age and gender) and environmental (cultural background, acculturating group, family circumstances, and perception of support) attributes were considered. Influences that promoted or challenged their current self-esteem were examined. Eighteen percent of respondents and 43.4% of respondents' parents were immigrants. When the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale was used, 27.6% of respondents had the highest global self-esteem level; when the Current Self-Esteem scale was used, 12.7% had the highest current self-esteem level. A significant gender difference was found, with male adolescents having higher self-esteem. The results indicate that, although self-esteem promotion can benefit from lifestyle-oriented activities, its growth takes place in the larger context of adolescents' relationships, school-related experiences, achievements, and attitudes toward themselves. The study findings can contribute to mental health promotion strategies in multicultural and immigrant-receiving community settings.

  9. A study of the factors influencing school-going students considering medical careers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M


    Obtaining a place in an Irish medical school is extremely competitive, a situation mirrored in many other countries. We aimed to determine the factors influencing school students in deciding to study medicine in university. We further determined what level of interest exists in pursuing a surgical career after completion of medical school.

  10. Monetizing College Reputation: The Case of Taiwan's Engineering and Medical Schools (United States)

    Tao, Hung-Lin


    This study uses the admission scores of Taiwan's Joint College Entrance Examination (JCEE) and occupational wage data to estimate the reputation values of engineering and medical schools in Taiwan. It is found that the reputation values of medical schools are more than twice those of engineering schools. It takes about 7 and 19 years of work for…

  11. Teaching of Biochemistry in Medical School: A Well-Trodden Pathway? (United States)

    Mathews, Michael B.; Stagnaro-Green, Alex


    Biochemistry and molecular biology occupy a unique place in the medical school curriculum. They are frequently studied prior to medical school and are fundamental to the teaching of biomedical sciences in undergraduate medical education. These two circumstances, and the trend toward increased integration among the disciplines, have led to…

  12. Validity Evidence for the Measurement of the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Croiset, Gerda; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle


    The Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire is designed to determine the strength of motivation of students particularly for medical study. This research was performed to establish the validity evidence for measuring strength of motivation for medical school. Internal structure and relations to other variables were used as…

  13. Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda


    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

  14. Family Perceptions of Medication Administration at School: Errors, Risk Factors, and Consequences (United States)

    Clay, Daniel; Farris, Karen; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W.; Howarth, Robyn


    Medications are administered every day in schools across the country. Researchers and clinicians have studied school nurses' and educators' experiences with medication administration, but not the experiences of children or their parents. This study examined medication administration from the child and parent perspectives to (a) determine problems…

  15. Nutrition education in Japanese medical schools: a follow-up survey. (United States)

    Orimo, Hideo; Ueno, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sone, Hirohito; Tanaka, Akira; Itakura, Hiroshige


    A questionnaire survey was used to determine the status of nutrition education in Japanese medical schools in 2009. A similar survey was conducted in 2004, at which time nutritional education was determined to be inadequate in Japanese medical schools. The current questionnaire was sent to the directors of Centers for Medical Education of 80 medical schools, who represented all medical schools in Japan. Sixty-seven medical schools (83.8%) responded, of which 25 schools (37.3%) offered dedicated nutrition courses and 36 schools (53.7%) did not offer dedicated nutrition courses but offered something related to nutrition in other courses; six schools (9.0%) did not offer any nutrition education. Overall, 61 schools (91.0%) offered at least some nutritional topics in their undergraduate education. Nevertheless, only 11 schools (16.4%) seem to dedicate more than 5 hours to substantial nutrition education as judged by their syllabi. Although the mean length of the course was 11 hours, substantial nutrition education accounted for only 4.2 hours. Of the 25 medical schools that offered dedicated nutrition courses, seven schools offered the nutrition course as a stand-alone course and 18 schools offered it as an integrated course. In conclusion, the status of nutrition education in Japan has improved slightly but is still inadequate.

  16. Professionalism perspectives among medical students of a novel medical graduate school in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque M


    Full Text Available Mainul Haque,1 Zainal Zulkifli,2 Seraj Zohurul Haque,3 Zubair M Kamal,4 Abdus Salam,5 Vidya Bhagat,2 Ahmed Ghazi Alattraqchi,2 Nor Iza A Rahman2 1Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Defense Health, National Defense University of Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Jalan Sultan Mahmud, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 3School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee, UK; 4Sleep Research Unit, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Defining professionalism in this constantly evolving world is not easy. How do you measure degrees of benevolence and compassion? If it is so obvious to our profession, what professionalism is, then why is it so difficult to teach it to medical students and residents? Today’s definition of medical professionalism is evolving – from autonomy to accountability, from expert opinion to evidence-based medicine, and from self-interest to teamwork and shared responsibility. However, medical professionalism is defined as the basis for the trust in the patient–physician relationship, caring and compassion, insight, openness, respect for patient dignity, confidentiality, autonomy, presence, altruism, and those qualities that lead to trust-competence, integrity, honesty, morality, and ethical conduct. The purpose of this study is to explore professionalism in terms of its fundamental elements among medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA. This was a cross-sectional study carried out on medical students of UniSZA. The study population included preclinical and clinical medical students of UniSZA from Year I to Year V of academic session 2014/2015. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Data were

  17. Perspective: follow the money: the implications of medical schools' funds flow models. (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey C; Andersson, George E; Cohen, Marcia; Cohen, Stephen M; Gibson, Scott; Hindery, Michael A; Hooven, Martha; Krakower, Jack; Browdy, David H


    Medical schools conduct research, provide clinical care, and educate future physicians and scientists. Each school has its own unique mix of revenue sources and expense sharing among the medical school, faculty practice plan(s), parent university, and affiliated hospital(s). Despite these differences, revenues from clinical care subsidize the money-losing research and education missions at every medical school.In this perspective, the authors discuss the flow of funds among a medical school, its faculty practice plan(s), parent university, and affiliated hospital(s). They summarize where medical school revenues come from, how revenues and expenses flow within a medical school and between a medical school and its partners, and why understanding this process is crucial to leading and managing such an enterprise. They conclude with recommendations for medical schools to consider in developing funds flow models that meet their individual needs and circumstances: (1) understand economic drivers, (2) reward desired behaviors, (3) enable every unit to generate a positive margin, (4) communicate budget priorities, financial performance, and the use of institutional resources, and (5) establish principles for sharing resources and allocating expenses among entities within the institution.Medical schools should develop funds flow models that are transparent, aligned with their strategic priorities, and reward the behaviors necessary to produce effective collaboration within and across mission areas.

  18. The business side of healthcare practice: retooling graduate medical students through medical school curriculum enhancements. (United States)

    Iezzoni, Mario A; El-Badri, Nagwa


    Practicing physicians often complain that medical schools failed to provide them with any substantive business training. And with the financial stress placed on today's medical practices, doctors feel unprepared for the rigors of managing a business and shortchanged when it comes to cashing-in on the fair value of their education. The University of South Florida piloted a three-credit course for nonbusiness-minded graduate students, aptly named "The Business Side of Medicine." The intent was to imprint aspiring, time-constrained graduate students, early in their biomedical education, with the need to develop a sound business acumen. Students, if made aware that the structure of healthcare practice is changing into a value-based and consumer-driven marketplace, will process in tandem with their graduate and medical schooling the notion that wellness and compensation are interdependent. The Business Side of Medicine addresses four core concepts that will logically germinate within the students' minds the desire to make practical, profitable career choices.

  19. Pathology in the new pathway of medical education at Harvard Medical School. (United States)

    Colvin, R B; Wetzel, M S


    In 1985 Harvard Medical School initiated an experimental curriculum that incorporated many of the recommendations of the report on the General Professional Education of the Physician (GPEP). Key features are problem-based small group tutorials that emphasize active learning, with increased independent study time and a decreased number of lectures. Tutors serve as guides to their students and are not necessarily experts in the discipline of the cases studied. Learning skills are taught, including information acquisition and criticism and computer literacy. Knowledge is integrated from the beginning by interdisciplinary basic science courses, by earlier introduction of the clinical sciences, and by juxtaposition of the scientific and humanistic aspects of medicine. Preventive medicine, health maintenance, and ambulatory care are given more attention. The students are organized into societies that provide vertical integration and promote cooperation among students and closer contact with faculty. Pathology has proved to be a popular and key bridge in the new curriculum. The success of the early efforts at Harvard and several pioneering medical schools should encourage others to move toward more problem-solving, student-centered, integrative medical education.

  20. Medical students-as-teachers: a systematic review of peer-assisted teaching during medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TC


    Full Text Available Tzu-Chieh Yu¹, Nichola C Wilson², Primal P Singh¹, Daniel P Lemanu¹, Susan J Hawken³, Andrew G Hill¹¹South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ²Department of Surgery, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ³Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandIntroduction: International interest in peer-teaching and peer-assisted learning (PAL during undergraduate medical programs has grown in recent years, reflected both in literature and in practice. There, remains however, a distinct lack of objective clarity and consensus on the true effectiveness of peer-teaching and its short- and long-term impacts on learning outcomes and clinical practice.Objective: To summarize and critically appraise evidence presented on peer-teaching effectiveness and its impact on objective learning outcomes of medical students.Method: A literature search was conducted in four electronic databases. Titles and abstracts were screened and selection was based on strict eligibility criteria after examining full-texts. Two reviewers used a standard review and analysis framework to independently extract data from each study. Discrepancies in opinions were resolved by discussion in consultation with other reviewers. Adapted models of “Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Learning” were used to grade the impact size of study outcomes.Results: From 127 potential titles, 41 were obtained as full-texts, and 19 selected after close examination and group deliberation. Fifteen studies focused on student-learner outcomes and four on student-teacher learning outcomes. Ten studies utilized randomized allocation and the majority of study participants were self-selected volunteers. Written examinations and observed clinical evaluations were common study outcome assessments. Eleven studies provided student-teachers with formal teacher training. Overall, results suggest that peer-teaching, in highly selective

  1. The medical school curriculum at University Malaysia Sabah. (United States)

    Ramasamy, P; Osman, A


    The integrated curriculum at the newly established medical school at University Malaysia Sabah is examined from aspects of the objectives of the medical training in achieving development of the required skills and knowledge as well as personal and professional development. The teaching is spread over five years with an emphasis on basic medical sciences in the first two years although the students are exposed to clinical skills right from the onset. A gradual transition to emphasis on the acquisition of clinical skills occurs from the third year onwards. However, community medicine and professional development are incorporated into the programme from the first year and are carried over to the final year. Although there are examinations to be passed in all the courses taught every semester, with a Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) of 3.0 (65 percentile score) and the candidate has to pass all the examinations in that year to clear a particular year, two professional examinations are administered, one at the end of the Third Year (end of the Phase I of the Medical Programme) and another at the end of the Fifth or Final year (end of the Phase II of the Medical Programme). Programmes for Postings, Shadow House Officers (SHOP) and Population Health are also incorporated into the curriculum. Delivery of the courses involve Lectures, Self-Learning Packages (SLP), Small Group Discussions (SGD), Seminars, Debates, Dramas, Video clips, Special Study Modules (SSM), Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI), Problem-based Learning (PBL), Problem-solving Sessions (PSS) and Clinical Skills Learning (CSL). The examination involves elements of continuous assessment and final end of semester or end of phases I and II Professional Examinations. Practical may involve Objective Structured Practical Examinations (OSPE) and/or Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE). They may also involve viva voce and/or short and long case presentations and assessment of log book entries.

  2. [Physical anthropology studies at Keijo Imperial University Medical School]. (United States)

    Kim, Ock-Joo


    Medical research during the Japanese Colonial Period became systematic and active after the Keijo Imperial University Medical School was established in 1926. Various kinds of research were conducted there including pharmacological, physiological, pathological and parasitological research. The Keijo Imperial University was give a mission to study about Korea. Urgent topics for medical research included control of infectious diseases, hygiene and environmental health that might have affected colonizing bodies of the Japanese as well as the colonized. The bodies of Koreans had been studied by Japanese even before the establishment of the University. The Keijo Imperial University research team, however, organized several field studies for physical anthropology and blood typing research at the national scale to get representative sampling of the people from its north to its south of the Korean peninsula. In the filed, they relied upon the local police and administrative power to gather reluctant women and men to measure them in a great detail. The physical anthropology and blood typing research by the Japanese researchers was related to their eagerness to place Korean people in the geography of the races in the world. Using racial index R.I.(= (A%+AB%)/(B%+AB%)), the Japanese researchers put Koreans as a race between the Mongolian and the Japanese. The preoccupation with constitution and race also pervasively affected the medical practice: race (Japanese, Korean, or Japanese living in Korea) must be written in every kind of medical chart as a default. After the breakout of Chinese-Japanese War in 1937, the Keijo Imperial University researchers extended its physical anthropology field study to Manchuria and China to get data on physics of the people in 1940. The Japanese government and research foundations financially well supported the Keijo Imperial University researchers and the field studies for physical anthropology in Korea, Manchuria and China. The physical

  3. Does Emotional Intelligence at Medical School Admission Predict Future Academic Performance?


    Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Leddy, John J.; Wood, Timothy J.; Puddester, Derek; Moineau, Geneviève


    Purpose Medical school admissions committees are increasingly considering noncognitive measures like emotional intelligence (EI) in evaluating potential applicants. This study explored whether scores on an EI abilities test at admissions predicted future academic performance in medical school to determine whether EI could be used in making admissions decisions. Method The authors invited all University of Ottawa medical school applicants offered an interview in 2006 and 2007 to complete the M...

  4. Insulin Administration in Catholic Schools: A New Look at Legal and Medical Issues (United States)

    Huggins, Mike


    Anecdotal evidence indicates that more students with type 1 diabetes are enrolling in Catholic schools across the United States. Meeting the medical needs of these students appears to be a significant challenge--legally and logistically--for many Catholic schools. District officials, school leaders, and school staff need support to understand the…

  5. Exploring the use of lesson study with six Canadian middle-school science teachers (United States)

    Bridges, Terry James

    This qualitative case study explores the use of lesson study over a ten-week period with six Ontario middle school science teachers. The research questions guiding this study were: (1) How does participation in science-based lesson study influence these teachers': (a) science subject matter knowledge (science SMK), (b) science pedagogical content knowledge (science PCK), and (c) confidence in teaching science?, and (2) What benefits and challenges do they associate with lesson study? Data sources for this study were: teacher questionnaires, surveys, reflections, pre- and post- interviews, and follow-up emails; researcher field notes and reflections; pre- and post- administration of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument; and audio recordings of group meetings. The teachers demonstrated limited gains in science SMK. There was evidence for an overall improvement in teacher knowledge of forces and simple machines, and two teachers demonstrated improvement in over half of the five scenarios assessing teacher science SMK. Modest gains in teacher science PCK were found. One teacher expressed more accurate understanding of students' knowledge of forces and a better knowledge of effective science teaching strategies. The majority of teachers reported that they would be using three-part lessons and hands-on activities more in their science teaching. Gains in teacher pedagogical knowledge (PK) were found in four areas: greater emphasis on anticipation of student thinking and responses, recognition of the importance of observing students, more intentional teaching, and anticipated future use of student video data. Most teachers reported feeling more confident in teaching structures and mechanisms, and attributed this increase in confidence to collaboration and seeing evidence of student learning and engagement during the lesson teachings. Teacher benefits included: learning how to increase student engagement and collaboration, observing students, including video data

  6. Physical activity counseling in medical school education: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie L. Dacey


    Full Text Available Background: Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA, few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools. Methods: The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for articles published in English from 2000 through 2012 that met PICOS inclusion criteria of medical school programs with PA counseling skill development and evaluation of outcomes. An initial search yielded 1944 citations, and 11 studies representing 10 unique programs met criteria for this review. These studies were described and analyzed for study quality. Strength of evidence for six measured outcomes shared by multiple studies was also evaluated, that is, students’ awareness of benefits of PA, change in students’ attitudes toward PA, change in personal PA behaviors, improvements in PA counseling knowledge and skills, self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling, and change in attitude toward PA counseling. Results: Considerable heterogeneity of teaching methods, duration, and placement within the curriculum was noted. Weak research designs limited an optimal evaluation of effectiveness, that is, few provided pre-/post-intervention assessments, and/or included control comparisons, or met criteria for intervention transparency and control for risk of bias. The programs with the most evidence of improvement indicated positive changes in students’ attitudes toward PA, their PA counseling knowledge and skills, and their self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling. These programs were most likely to follow previous recommendations to include experiential learning, theoretically based frameworks, and students’ personal PA behaviors. Conclusions: Current results provide

  7. How Different Medical School Selection Processes Call upon Different Personality Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; van der Wal, Martha A; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke


    BACKGROUND: Research indicates that certain personality traits relate to performance in the medical profession. Yet, personality testing during selection seems ineffective. In this study, we examine the extent to which different medical school selection processes call upon desirable personality char

  8. The basis of the modern medical hygiene in the medieval Medical School of Salerno. (United States)

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Capunzo, Mario; Marasco, Magda; Pisanti, Simona


    The link between hygiene and the concept of transmission of infective diseases was established earlier than the birth of microbiology, thanks to the studies of two neglected physicians of maternity clinic, Ignác Fülöp Semmelweis and Oliver Holmes, in the mid-1800s. Surprisingly, centuries earlier, a medieval women physician, Trotula de Ruggiero, introduced for the first time the notion of diseases’ prevention, highlighting the importance of the association of personal hygiene, balanced nutrition and physical activity for better health. Moreover, she was particularly concerned of hands hygiene for the midwives during child birth, to preserve the good health of both the mother and the baby. She practiced inside the medieval Medical School of Salerno, whose main text, the “Regimen Sanitatis Salerni” has an entire part dedicated to hygiene, providing hygienic precepts that anticipate the concepts derived from the revolutionary discoveries in medical science only centuries later.

  9. [Medical degree earned with a thesis in medical schools of Lima, 2011: characteristics, motivations and perceptions]. (United States)

    Mejia, Christian R; Inga-Berrospi, Fiorella; Mayta-Tristán, Percy


    We surveyed physicians who obtained their medical degree with a thesis in 2011 from the seven medical schools in Lima to know the characteristics of the degree by thesis process, as well as participants’ motivations and perceptions of that process. We included 98 students who did a thesis (87% of total); 99% conducted observational thesis, 30% did so in groups of three. The main motivation was that it was good for their curriculum vitae (94%). At the university where the thesis is compulsory, the process began with the choice of topic and adviser. Perceived “greatest” and “least” difficulty in the process was the completion of administrative procedures (53%) and selection of their advisor (11%), respectively. Administrative timeliness and processes should be reviewed so as not to impede the completion of thesis, since the new University Act requires the completion of a thesis to graduate.

  10. Need for injury-prevention education in medical school curriculum. (United States)

    Yoshii, Isaac; Sayegh, Rockan; Lotfipour, Shahram; Vaca, Federico E


    Injury is the leading cause of death and disability among the U.S. population aged 1 to 44 years. In 2006 more than 179,000 fatalities were attributed to injury. Despite increasing awareness of the global epidemic of injury and violence, a considerable gap remains between advances in injury-prevention research and prevention knowledge that is taught to medical students. This article discusses the growing need for U.S medical schools to train future physicians in the fundamentals of injury prevention and control. Teaching medical students to implement injury prevention in their future practice should help reduce injury morbidity and mortality. Deliberate efforts should be made to integrate injury-prevention education into existing curriculum. Key resources are available to do this. Emergency physicians can be essential advocates in establishing injury prevention training because of their clinical expertise in treating injury. Increasing the number of physicians with injury- and violence- prevention knowledge and skills is ultimately an important strategy to reduce the national and global burden of injury.

  11. Need for Injury Prevention Education In Medical School Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaca, Federico E


    Full Text Available Injury is the leading cause of death and disability among the U.S. population aged 1 to 44 years. In 2006 more than 179,000 fatalities were attributed to injury. Despite increasing awareness of the global epidemic of injury and violence, a considerable gap remains between advances in injury-prevention research and prevention knowledge that is taught to medical students. This article discusses the growing need for U.S medical schools to train future physicians in the fundamentals of injury prevention and control. Teaching medical students to implement injury prevention in their future practice should help reduce injury morbidity and mortality. Deliberate efforts should be made to integrate injury-prevention education into existing curriculum. Key resources are available to do this. Emergency physicians can be essential advocates in establishing injury prevention training because of their clinical expertise in treating injury. Increasing the number of physicians with injury- and violence- prevention knowledge and skills is ultimately an important strategy to reduce the national and global burden of injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:40-43].

  12. Teaching acupuncture to medical students: the experience of Rio Preto Medical School (FAMERP), Brazil. (United States)

    da Silva, João Bosco Guerreiro; Saidah, Rassen; Megid, Cecília Baccili Cury; Ramos, Neil Alvimar


    Complementary and alternative medicine, and in particular acupuncture, has been practised and taught in recent years in many universities in the Western world. Here, we relate our experiences since 1997 in teaching acupuncture to medical students at Rio Preto Medical School (Faculty of Medicine of São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP)), Brazil. Classes are given in the third and fifth years. The main goals of understanding the mechanisms of action and being able to recognise patients who may benefit from treatment and referring them have been well achieved, scoring 3.6 and 4.1, respectively, on a scale of 1-5. Also using that scale, medical students believe that acupuncture is important in the curriculum (4.6), course time is not sufficient (2.7) and they would like more information (4.6). To overcome these concerns, many students join an undergraduate study group (Acupuncture League) where they have more time to learn. We also describe the presence of foreign medical students who, since 2000, have enrolled in a course of 150 h in an exchange programme.

  13. A Family Day program enhances knowledge about medical school culture and necessary supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cushing Herbert E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Family Day program was implemented at Indiana University School of Medicine to educate the families and friends of in-coming medical students about the rigors of medical school and the factors that contribute to stress. Methods Surveys that assessed knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about medical school were administered to participants before and after the program. Results After the program, participants showed a significant improvement in their understanding of medical school culture and the importance of support systems for medical students. Post-test scores improved by an average of 29% (P Conclusions The inclusion of family members and other loved ones in pre-matriculation educational programs may serve to mitigate the stress associated with medical school by enhancing the students' social support systems.

  14. Evaluation of a health-promoting school program to enhance correct medication use in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Yun Chi


    Full Text Available This study was an evaluation of the Health Promoting School (HPS program in Taiwan and its effectiveness in enhancing students' knowledge and abilities with regard to correct medication usage. In 2011, baseline and follow-up self-administered online surveys were received from 3520 middle-school and primary students from intervention schools, and 3738 students from comparison primary and secondary schools completed the same survey. The results indicated that after implementing the correct medication use HPS program, students' knowledge and abilities concerning correct medication usage (i.e., the need to express clearly personal conditions to physicians, to check information on the medication packages, to take medication correctly and adhere to prescribed medication regimens, not to buy or acquire medication from unlicensed sources, and to consult pharmacists/physicians were significantly increased among the students in the intervention schools (p < 0.001. In addition, students' knowledge and abilities concerning correct medication usage were significantly higher in the intervention schools compared with the comparison schools (p < 0.001. In conclusion, the correct medication use HPS program significantly enhanced students' knowledge and abilities concerning correct medication usage.

  15. International Medical School Faculty Development: The Results of a Needs Assessment Survey among Medical Educators in China (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Sippola, Emily; Feng, Xinglin; Dong, Zhe; Wang, Debing; Moyer, Cheryl A.; Stern, David T.


    To explore the need for faculty development among Chinese medical educators. Leaders at each medical school in China were asked to complete a 123-item survey to identify interest in various topics and barriers and perceived benefits of participating in faculty development programs. Interest levels were high for all topics. Experience with Hospital…

  16. Core personal competencies important to entering students' success in medical school: what are they and how could they be assessed early in the admission process? (United States)

    Koenig, Thomas W; Parrish, Samuel K; Terregino, Carol A; Williams, Joy P; Dunleavy, Dana M; Volsch, Joseph M


    Assessing applicants' personal competencies in the admission process has proven difficult because there is not an agreed-on set of personal competencies for entering medical students. In addition, there are questions about the measurement properties and costs of currently available assessment tools. The Association of American Medical College's Innovation Lab Working Group (ILWG) and Admissions Initiative therefore engaged in a multistep, multiyear process to identify personal competencies important to entering students' success in medical school as well as ways to measure them early in the admission process. To identify core personal competencies, they conducted literature reviews, surveyed U.S and Canadian medical school admission officers, and solicited input from the admission community. To identify tools with the potential to provide data in time for pre-interview screening, they reviewed the higher education and employment literature and evaluated tools' psychometric properties, group differences, risk of coaching/faking, likely applicant and admission officer reactions, costs, and scalability. This process resulted in a list of nine core personal competencies rated by stakeholders as very or extremely important for entering medical students: ethical responsibility to self and others; reliability and dependability; service orientation; social skills; capacity for improvement; resilience and adaptability; cultural competence; oral communication; and teamwork. The ILWG's research suggests that some tools hold promise for assessing personal competencies, but the authors caution that none are perfect for all situations. They recommend that multiple tools be used to evaluate information about applicants' personal competencies in deciding whom to interview.

  17. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server


    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  18. [Proliferation of medical schools in latin America. Causes and consequences]. (United States)

    Goic, Alejandro


    Significant changes in university education have occurred in Latin America, caused by the strategic importance that it has on economical and social development. The educational system expanded and science, technology and informatics, experienced an important development. The eighties were characterized by a reduction in government expenditures, a more efficient use of resources, an increase in the number and variety of universities and university students. The creation of new universities, mostly private, was favored by a highly unregulated market. In Latinamerica, more new universities were created during the eighties than in the previous one hundred years. Since 1981, the number of universities in Chile increased from 8 to 60, the type of institutions was diversified, the government financing of public universities decreased substantially and the regulatory role of the market was emphasized. These changes have been quantitatively understandable but qualitatively unsatisfactory. Since 1981, the number of university students between 19 and 24 years old has triplicated. The number of medical schools and the annual admission of students has duplicated. In most Latin American countries, there is an insufficient number of physicians (Chile has one physician per 783 inhabitants). Since the decade of the nineties, an effort has been made to regulate the market, to introduce new barriers for the acceptance of new educational institutions, to improve the transparency of the system and to preserve the quality of teaching. The quality control of medicine and health is one of the most serious problems in Latin American countries. This includes accreditation of medical schools, health centers and specialists. In Chile there have been some progress in these topics but quality control is still unsatisfactory.

  19. The longitudinal primary care clerkship at Harvard Medical School. (United States)

    Peters, A S; Feins, A; Rubin, R; Seward, S; Schnaidt, K; Fletcher, R H


    The primary care clerkship (PCC) at Harvard Medical School was established in 1997. The goals are to provide students with longitudinal experiences with patients and to include modern themes in the curriculum: managing illness and clinical relationships over time; finding the best available answers to clinical questions; preventing illness and promoting health; dealing with clinical uncertainty; getting the best outcomes with available resources; working in a health care team; and sharing decision making with patients. The PCC, a required course in the clinical years, meets one afternoon a week for nine months. Students spend three afternoons per month in primary care practices, where they see three to five patients per session and follow at least one patient ("longitudinal patient") over time. Classroom sessions, in both large- and small-group formats, promote a common educational philosophy and experience, and reinforce habits of problem-based learning established in the preclinical years. The students rated 74% of their preceptors excellent, especially praising their ability to facilitate and support good interpersonal relationships with patients, their ability to encourage students' independent evaluation of patients (as opposed to shadowing), and their enthusiasm for teaching. Students saw their longitudinal patients a mean of 4.8 times; 83% saw their patients at least three times. The PCC complements the curriculum of block clerkships in hospitals, and because the two are offered concurrently, students are required to come to terms with two substantially different cultures within medicine. Other medical schools are beginning to develop longitudinal clerkships to ensure that students have essential educational experiences that are difficult to achieve in block, hospital-based clerkships.

  20. Integrating Geriatrics into Medical School: Student Journaling as an Innovative Strategy for Evaluating Curriculum (United States)

    Shield, Renee R.; Farrell, Timothy W.; Nanda, Aman; Campbell, Susan E.; Wetle, Terrie


    Purpose of the study: The Alpert Medical School of Brown University began to integrate geriatrics content into all preclerkship courses and key clerkship cases as part of a major medical school curriculum redesign in 2006. This study evaluates students' responses to geriatrics integration within the curriculum using journals kept by volunteer…

  1. The Medical School Admissions Process: A Review of the Literature 1955-1976. Special Report. (United States)

    Cuca, Janet Melei; And Others

    This document reviews the research on the medical school admissions process that has been completed during the past twenty years. The process is put into perspective by a historical overview chapter that traces trends in medical school admissions and highlights, where possible, relationships between the admissions process and institutional and…

  2. Misconceptions Highlighted among Medical Students in the Annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (United States)

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi


    The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…

  3. Impact of a recruitment campaign on students’ applications to medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Vrdoljak


    Full Text Available Objective. Medical schools might benefit if they have information about the activities that may help them to increase the number of applicants with superior academic qualifications. Methods. The study was carried out at the Split University School of Medicine, Croatia. Medical school applicants were surveyed in 2007 and 2009. Promotional activities consisted of presentations on medical education covering six general high-schools in 2008, and a presentation on regional television, aired in 2008 and 2009 shortly before the admission term. Results. The survey response rate was 79% (299/379. The number of applicants in 2009 increased by 37% and the percentage of applicants from general high schools increased by 10%, in relation to 2007. The percentage of students with the best grades in all four years of high school was 42% in the both surveys. Presumed quality was a major influencing factor for choosing Split University Medical School. However, the medical school in the Croatian capital remained the first choice for students. Only a few applicants stated that the medical schools’ promotional campaigns influenced their decision about where to study; 9.7% and 1.5%, respectively. Conclusion. Presentations in elected general high schools and a television campaign should be further explored as possible activities that regional schools may use to recruit potential applicants.

  4. Perceived Stress, Sources and Severity of Stress among medical undergraduates in a Pakistani Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Samina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently there is a growing concern about stress during undergraduate medical training. However, studies about the same are lacking from Pakistani medical schools. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress, sources of stress and their severity and to assess the determinants of stressed cases. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among undergraduate medical students of CMH Lahore Medical College, Pakistan during January to March 2009. Perceived stress was assessed using the perceived stress scale. A 33-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Results The overall response rate was 80.5% (161 out of 200 students. The overall mean perceived stress was 30.84 (SD = 7.01 and was significantly higher among female students. By logistic regression analysis, stressed cases were associated with occurrence of psychosocial (OR 5.01, 95% CI 2.44-10.29 and academic related stressors (OR 3.17 95% CI 1.52-6.68. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. 'High parental expectations', 'frequency of examinations', 'vastness of academic curriculum', 'sleeping difficulties', 'worrying about the future', 'loneliness', 'becoming a doctor', 'performance in periodic examinations' were the most frequently and severely occurring sources of stress. There was a negative but insignificant correlation between perceived stress and academic performance (r = -0.099, p > 0.05. Conclusion A higher level of perceived stress was reported by the students. The main stressors were related to academic and psychosocial domains. Further studies are required to test the association between stressed cases and gender, academic stressors and psychosocial stressors.

  5. Military medical graduates' perceptions of organizational culture in Turkish military medical school. (United States)

    Ozer, Mustafa; Bakir, Bilal; Teke, Abdulkadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Bas, Turker; Atac, Adnan


    Organizational culture is the term used to describe the shared beliefs, perceptions, and expectations of individuals in organizations. In the healthcare environment, organizational culture has been associated with several elements of organizational experience that contribute to quality, such as nursing care, job satisfaction, and patient safety. A range of tools have been designed to measure organizational culture and applied in industrial, educational, and health care settings. This study has been conducted to investigate the perceptions of military medical graduates on organizational culture at Gülhane Military Medical School. A measurement of organizational culture, which was developed by the researchers from Akdeniz University, was applied to all military medical graduates in 2004. This was a Likert type scale that included 31 items. Designers of the measurement grouped all these items into five main dimensions in their previous study. The items were scored on a five-point scale anchored by 1: strongly agree and 5: strongly disagree. Study participants included all military physicians who were in clerkship training period at Gulhane Military Medical Academy in 2004. A total of 106 graduates were accepted to response the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 25.2 +/- 1.1. At the time of study only 8 (7.5%) graduates were married. The study results have showed that the measurement tool with 31 items had a sufficient reliability with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.91. Factor analysis has resulted a final measurement tool of 24 items with five factors. Total score and the scores of five subdimensions have been estimated and compared between groups based on living city and marital status. The study has shown the dimension of symbol received positive perceptions while the dimension of organizational structure and efficiency received the most negative perceptions. GMMS has a unique organizational culture with its weak and strong aspects. Conducting this kind

  6. Medical aid provided by American, Canadian and British Nationals to the Spanish Republic during the Civil War, 1936-1939. (United States)

    Shapiro, M F


    During international or civil wars, private citizens of noncombatant nations often provide medical aid to one of the contending factions, particularly when they support a participant not favored by their own government. This paper details and analyzes the prominent campaign in the United States, Canada and Great Britain to provide medical aid to the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War (1936 to 1939). The substantial medical aid that was provided clearly alleviated some suffering, but one of the major objectives of the campaign was to arouse public opinion sufficiently to end the boycott of military aid to Republicans; this objective was never achieved. Whether it be in Republican Spain, Vietnam or El Salvador, even a successful medical aid campaign to people in a military conflict may save some lives but may not affect substantially the course of the conflict. Those who are primarily interested in influencing political or military developments, hoping to advance the cause of a particular contending faction, may find tactics other than medical aid campaigns more useful in accomplishing their goals.

  7. Resistance and mutations of non-specificity in the field of anxiety-depressive disorders in Canadian medical journals, 1950-1990. (United States)

    Collin, Johanne; Otero, Marcelo


    Pharmaceuticalisation is a complex phenomenon, co-constitutive of what scholars identify as a pharmaceutical regime, comprised of networks of actors, institutions and artefacts as well as cognitive structures that underlie the production, promotion and use of medications. The aim of this paper is to explore the linkages between different components of this pharmaceutical regime through the analysis of psychotropic drug advertising in Canadian medical journals between 1950 and 1990. Advertisements stand at the nexus of macro-level processes related to the development, regulation and marketing of new drug treatments and of micro-level processes related to the use of these drug treatments, both by clinicians and lay persons. We thus examine advertisements from the angle of the mental and classificatory universes to which doctors were exposed through direct-to-prescriber advertisement strategies implemented during this period. Furthermore, we explore to what extent the rationale behind advertisements was permeated by both scientific/professional and popular narratives of mind-body connections. This paper demonstrates that, although this period was marked by paradigm shifts in the classification of mental diseases, the development of modern psychopharmacology, and the questioning of the scientific legitimacy of psychiatry, advertisements unveil a remarkable continuity: that of the mass management of anxiety-depressive disorders by primary care physicians through psychotropic drugs. Also, despite the effective resistance to specificity as shown by the constant redefinitions of diagnostic categories and therapeutic indications, our analysis suggests that the language of specificity used in the promotion of new drugs and in the various narratives of mind-body connection may have been appealing to general practitioners. Finally, our study of the classes of psychoactive medications that have been in use for over half a century reveals a complex, non-linear dynamic of

  8. Harvey Cushing's Canadian connections. (United States)

    Feindel, William


    During his surgical career between 1896 and 1934, Harvey Cushing made eight visits to Canada. He had a broad impact on Canadian medicine and neurosurgery. Cushing's students Wilder Penfield and Kenneth McKenzie became outstanding leaders of the two major centers in Canada for neurosurgical treatment and training. On his first trip to Canada, shortly after completing his surgical internship in August 1896, Cushing traveled with members of his family through the Maritime Provinces and visited hospitals in Quebec and Montreal. Eight years later, in February 1904, as a successful young neurosurgeon at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, he reported to the Montreal Medico-Chirurgical Society on his surgical experience in 20 cases of removal of the trigeminal ganglion for neuralgia. In 1922, as the Charles Mickle Lecturer at the University of Toronto, Cushing assigned his honorarium of $1000 to support a neurosurgical fellowship at Harvard. This was awarded to McKenzie, then a general practitioner, for a year's training with Cushing in 1922-1923. McKenzie returned to initiate the neurosurgical services at the Toronto General Hospital, where he developed into a master surgeon and teacher. On Cushing's second visit to McGill University in October 1922, he and Sir Charles Sherrington inaugurated the new Biology Building of McGill's Medical School, marking the first stage of a Rockefeller-McGill program of modernization. In May 1929, Cushing attended the dedication of the Osler Library at McGill. In September 1934, responding to the invitation of Penfield, Cushing presented a Foundation Lecture-one of his finest addresses on the philosophy of neurosurgery-at the opening of the Montreal Neurological Institute. On that same trip, Cushing's revisit to McGill's Osler Library convinced him to turn over his own treasure of historical books to Yale University.

  9. The Medical Profession and School Design in England, 1902-1914 (United States)

    Lowe, Roy A.


    The medical profession was enormously influential in initiating a virtual revolution in English school design during the years before the First World War, working for the demise of the central-hall school and for the popularization of more spacious schools. (Author)

  10. Ethnographies across Virtual and Physical Spaces: A Reflexive Commentary on a Live Canadian/UK Ethnography of Distributed Medical Education (United States)

    Tummons, Jonathan; Macleod, Anna; Kits, Olga


    This article draws on an ongoing ethnography of distributed medical education (DME) provision in Canada in order to explore the methodological choices of the researchers as well as the wider pluralisation of ethnographic frameworks that is reflected within current research literature. The article begins with a consideration of the technologically…

  11. The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine summer medical program for high school students. (United States)

    Larson, Jerome; Atkins, R Matthew; Tucker, Phebe; Monson, Angela; Corpening, Brian; Baker, Sherri


    To enhance diversity of applicants to University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, a Summer Medical Program for High School Students was started in 2009. This comprehensive pipeline program included sessions on applying to medical school, interaction with a panel of minority physicians and health care professionals role models, clinically oriented didactics taught by physician faculty, shadowing experiences in clinics and hospitals, and presentation of student research reports. Students' assessments in 2009 showed increased understanding of the medical school application process, the medical curriculum and the medical field, and an increase in students'likeliness to choose a medical career. Importance of long-term mentoring and follow-up with students to sustain their medical interests is discussed.

  12. Social Accountability of Medical Schools: Do Accreditation Standards Help Promote the Concept? (United States)

    Abdalla, Mohamed Elhassan


    The social accountability of medical schools is an emerging concept in medical education. This issue calls for the consideration of societal needs in all aspects of medical programmes, including the values of relevance, quality, cost-effectiveness and equity. Most importantly, these needs must be defined collaboratively with people themselves.…

  13. What makes a top research medical school? A call for a new model to evaluate academic physicians and medical school performance. (United States)

    Goldstein, Matthew J; Lunn, Mitchell R; Peng, Lily


    Since the publication of the Flexner Report in 1910, the medical education enterprise has undergone many changes to ensure that medical schools meet a minimum standard for the curricula and clinical training they offer students. Although the efforts of the licensing and accrediting bodies have raised the quality of medical education, the educational processes that produce the physicians who provide the best patient care and conduct the best biomedical research have not been identified. Comparative analyses are powerful tools to understand the differences between institutions, but they are challenging to carry out. As a result, the analysis performed by U.S. News & World Report (USN&WR) has become the default tool to compare U.S. medical schools. Medical educators must explore more rigorous and equitable approaches to analyze and understand the performance of medical schools. In particular, a better understanding and more thorough evaluation of the most successful institutions in producing academic physicians with biomedical research careers are needed. In this Perspective, the authors present a new model to evaluate medical schools' production of academic physicians who advance medicine through basic, clinical, translational, and implementation science research. This model is based on relevant and accessible objective criteria that should replace the subjective criteria used in the current USN&WR rankings system. By fostering a national discussion about the most meaningful criteria that should be measured and reported, the authors hope to increase transparency of assessment standards and ultimately improve educational quality.

  14. Organ donation after medical assistance in dying or cessation of life-sustaining treatment requested by conscious patients: the Canadian context. (United States)

    Allard, Julie; Fortin, Marie-Chantal


    In June 2016, following the decision of the Supreme Court of Canada to decriminalise assistance in dying, the Canadian government enacted Bill C-14, legalising medical assistance in dying (MAID). In 2014, the province of Quebec had passed end-of-life care legislation making MAID available as of December 2015. The availability of MAID has many implications, including the possibility of combining this practice with organ donation through the controlled donation after cardiac death (cDCD) protocol. cDCD most often occurs in cases where the patient has a severe neurological injury but does not meet all the criteria for brain death. The donation is subsequent to the decision to withdraw life-sustaining treatment (LST). Cases where patients are conscious prior to the withdrawal of LST are unusual, and have raised doubts as to the acceptability of removing organs from individuals who are not neurologically impaired and who have voluntarily chosen to die. These cases can be compared with likely scenarios in which patients will request both MAID and organ donation. In both instances, patients will be conscious and competent. Organ donation in such contexts raises ethical issues regarding respect for autonomy, societal pressure, conscientious objections and the dead-donor rule. In this article, we look at relevant policies in other countries and examine the ethical issues associated with cDCD in conscious patients who choose to die.

  15. The role of pediatric surgery in the medical school curriculum. (United States)

    Karp, M P; Hassett, J M; Doerr, R J; Booth, F M; Petrelli, N; Allen, J E; Jewett, T C; Cooney, D R; Flint, L M


    In most medical schools, exposure to pediatric surgery is presented as a subspecialty elective. We have offered it as an integral part of the surgical clerkship for 10 years in the belief that it provides an excellent educational environment. To confirm this concept, the quizzes (Q), final examinations (FE), and grades of students assigned to the pediatric surgical service were prospectively studied. All students (N = 139) in the surgical clerkship entered the study. Thirty-two students were randomly selected and assigned to the surgical service of a major pediatric hospital (P-Surg) for 50% of their clerkship. The other students (N = 107) were assigned to a variety of adult surgical services (G-Surg) and served as the control group. All students attended the same seminars, used the same educational materials, were examined with the same test items, and were evaluated by the same oral examiners. Test items were electronically scored and the database was analyzed on an IBM computer. The statistical analysis was performed using a Student's t test and chi 2 analysis. There was no significant difference in the demonstrated cognitive performance and grades awarded to the two groups of students. We conclude that a pediatric surgical service provides an atmosphere that is educationally comparable to the adult general surgical service.

  16. Enhancing the Motivation for Rural Career: The Collaboration between the Local Government and Medical School. (United States)

    Seguchi, Masaru; Furuta, Noriko; Kobayashi, Seiji; Kato, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Kouji; Hori, Hiroki; Okuno, Masataka


    The shortage of medical workforce in rural areas is a global long-standing problem. Due to the severity of shortages in the medical workforce, Mie prefectural government has collaborated with a medical school and the municipal governments to increase the rural medical workforce. Since 2010, this collaboration has led to an annual lecture series on rural practice for medical students. We distributed questionnaires at the beginning and end of the lecture series to examine the effect of this program. The questionnaire consisted of two parts that included an understanding of rural practice and the motivation to work in rural areas. The lecture series significantly improved the responses to the following questions "Rural practice is interesting" (p motivation of medical students and their interest in a rural career. While collaboration between the local government and medical school rarely occurs in planning medical education programs, this approach may offer a promising way to foster local health professionals.

  17. Factors associated with dropping out of medical school: a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O’Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg


    of Aarhus; Jan Hartvigsen, PhD, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark.   Title: Factors associated with dropping out of medical school: a literature review.      Background: Considerable resources are spent on medical school selection and the competition...... for places is usually fierce. Dropping out must therefore be the worst possible performance outcome in medical education. What do we know about factors associated with dropping out of medical school? Summary of work: A systematic critical literature review of the international peer-reviewed research...... literature on medical education is ongoing. Inclusion criteria are: Study population=medical students, outcome=dropout, follow up period=minimum 1 year, study designs=cohort/case-control/experimental. An experienced research librarian performed a primary search of the databases PubMed, ERIC, Psyc...

  18. Medication adherence and persistence in the treatment of Canadian ulcerative colitis patients: analyses with the RAMQ database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachaine Jean


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although high non-adherence to medication has been noticed for ulcerative colitis (UC, little is known about adherence to mesalamine treatments and determinants that can predict adherence. The objective of this study was to assess adherence and persistence to mesalamine treatments and their potential determinants in mild to moderate UC patients in a real-life setting in Quebec, Canada. Methods A retrospective prescription and medical claims analysis was conducted using a random sample of mesalamine users with UC. For inclusion, patients were required to initiate an oral mesalamine treatment between January 2005 and December 2009. Patients with a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease were excluded. Treatment adherence (medication possession ratio [MPR] and persistence were evaluated over a 1-year period after the index prescription using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test and stepwise regression to identify potential determinants. Results A sample of 1,681 of the new oral mesalamine users (mean age = 55.3 patients was obtained. Overall, the percentage of patients with a MPR of 80% or greater at 12 months was 27.7%, while persistence was 45.5%. Among patients treated with mesalamine delayed/extended-release tablets (Mezavant®, adherence and persistence were 40.9% and 71.9%, respectively. Predictors of high adherence included, male gender (OR=1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.1–1.6, older age (>60 years; OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.3–2.0 and current use of corticosteroids (OR=1.4; 95% CI=1.1–1.8. Predictors of high persistence included male sex (OR=1.4; 95% CI=1.1–1.7, current use of corticosteroids (OR=1.4; 95% CI=1.1–1.7 and presence of hypertension or respiratory diseases (OR=1.2; 95% CI=1.01–1.55. Conclusions The majority of patients with UC exhibited low adherence and persistence to mesalamine treatments. Various determinants of improved adherence and persistence were identified.

  19. Behavioral science teaching in U.S. medical schools: a 1980 national survey. (United States)

    Blackwell, B; Torem, M


    The teaching of behavioral science in medical school has become increasingly complex in the attempt to integrate biological, social, and psychological knowledge. The authors sent a survey questionnaire to determine actual and preferred organizational structures to 130 medical schools; 90 responded. The most frequent structure--46 schools (51%)--was unidepartmental. Thirty-four schools (38%) were multidepartmental, and 10 (11%) had a matrix organization. Schools with a unidepartmental structure reported a higher degree of satisfaction and more organizational advantages. Multidepartmental and matrix models offered some educational advantages at the cost of administrative efficiency. During the 1980s, funding for unidepartmental schools may prove more cost effective than funding for schools with different organizational structures.

  20. Mapping the different methods adopted for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil (United States)

    Chojniak, Rubens; Carneiro, Dominique Piacenti; Moterani, Gustavo Simonetto Peres; Duarte, Ivone da Silva; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe


    Objective To map the different methods for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was sent to each of the coordinators of 178 Brazilian medical schools. The following characteristics were assessed: teaching model; total course hours; infrastructure; numbers of students and professionals involved; themes addressed; diagnostic imaging modalities covered; and education policies related to diagnostic imaging. Results Of the 178 questionnaires sent, 45 (25.3%) were completed and returned. Of those 45 responses, 17 (37.8%) were from public medical schools, whereas 28 (62.2%) were from private medical schools. Among the 45 medical schools evaluated, the method of diagnostic imaging instruction was modular at 21 (46.7%), classic (independent discipline) at 13 (28.9%), hybrid (classical and modular) at 9 (20.0%), and none of the preceding at 3 (6.7%). Diagnostic imaging is part of the formal curriculum at 36 (80.0%) of the schools, an elective course at 3 (6.7%), and included within another modality at 6 (13.3%). Professors involved in diagnostic imaging teaching are radiologists at 43 (95.5%) of the institutions. Conclusion The survey showed that medical courses in Brazil tend to offer diagnostic imaging instruction in courses that include other content and at different time points during the course. Radiologists are extensively involved in undergraduate medical education, regardless of the teaching methodology employed at the institution. PMID:28298730

  1. Community perceptions of a rural medical school: a pilot qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestel D


    Full Text Available Debra Nestel,1 Katherine Gray,1 Margaret Simmons,1 Shane A Pritchard,1 Rumana Islam,1 Wan Q Eng,1 Adrian Ng,1 Tim Dornan2 1Gippsland Medical School/School of Rural Health, Monash University, Clayton, Australia; 2School of Health Professions Education, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: This paper explores local community perceptions of a relatively new rural medical school. For the purposes of this paper, community engagement is conceptualized as involvement in planning, delivering, and evaluating the medical program. Although there are several reviews of patient involvement in medical curricula development, this study was designed to pilot an approach to exploring the perspectives of well members of the community in the transition of institutional policy on community engagement to one medical school. Methods: An advertisement in the local newspaper invited volunteers to participate in a telephone interview about the new medical school. An independent researcher external to the medical school conducted the interviews using a topic guide. Audio recordings were not made, but detailed notes including verbatim statements were recorded. At least two research team members analyzed interview records for emergent themes. Human research ethics approval was obtained. Results: Twelve interviews were conducted. Participants offered rich imaginings on the role of the school and expectations and opportunities for students. Most participants expressed strong and positive views, especially in addressing long-term health workforce issues. It was considered important that students live, mix, and study in the community. Some participants had very clear ideas about the need of the school to address specified needs, such as indigenous health, obesity, aging, drug and alcohol problems, teenage pregnancy, ethnic diversity, and working with people of low socioeconomic status. Conclusion: This study has initiated a dialogue with potential

  2. Collaboration between schools of social work and university medical centers. (United States)

    Bracht, N F; Briar, S


    Although the interface involving social work, medicine, and the other health professions occurs primarily in the day-to-day world of practice in hospitals and other health agencies, an equally important opportunity exists for interaction at the university level between schools of social work and schools for health professionals. This artice analyzes one school's effort to build effective interdisciplinary linkages.

  3. Impact of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on School Performance: What are the Effects of Medication? (United States)

    Baweja, Raman; Mattison, Richard E; Waxmonsky, James G


    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects an estimated 5-7 % of schoolchildren worldwide. School functioning and academic achievement are frequently impaired by ADHD and represent one of the main reasons children start ADHD medication. Multiple potential causal pathways exist between ADHD and impaired school performance. In this review, we decompose school performance into three components and assess the impact of ADHD and its treatments on academic performance (assessed by grade point average [GPA], time on-task, percentage of work completed as well as percent completed correctly), academic skills (as measured by achievement tests and cognitive measures), and academic enablers (such as study skills, motivation, engagement, classroom behavior and interpersonal skills). Most studies examined only the short-term effects of medication on school performance. In these, ADHD medications have been observed to improve some aspects of school performance, with the largest impact on measures of academic performance such as seatwork productivity and on-task performance. In a subset of children, these benefits may translate into detectable improvements in GPA and achievement testing. However, limited data exists to support whether these changes are sustained over years. Optimizing medication effects requires periodic reassessment of school performance, necessitating a collaborative effort involving patients, parents, school staff and prescribers. Even with systematic reassessment, behavioral-based treatments and additional school-based services may be needed to maximize academic performance for the many youth with ADHD and prominent impairments in school performance.

  4. Visiting medical student elective and clerkship programs: a survey of US and Puerto Rico allopathic medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckman Thomas J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background No published reports of studies have provided aggregate data on visiting medical student (VMS programs at allopathic medical schools. Methods During 2006, a paper survey was mailed to all 129 allopathic medical schools in the United States and Puerto Rico using a list obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges. Contents of the survey items were based on existing literature and expert opinion and addressed various topics related to VMS programs, including organizational aspects, program objectives, and practical issues. Responses to the survey items were yes-or-no, multiple-choice, fill-in-the-blank, and free-text responses. Data related to the survey responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results Representatives of 76 schools (59% responded to the survey. Of these, 73 (96% reported their schools had VMS programs. The most common reason for having a VMS program was "recruitment for residency programs" (90%. "Desire to do a residency at our institution" was ranked as the leading reason visiting medical students choose to do electives or clerkships. In descending order, the most popular rotations were in internal medicine, orthopedic surgery, emergency medicine, and pediatrics. All VMS programs allowed fourth-year medical students, and approximately half (58% allowed international medical students. The most common eligibility requirements were documentation of immunizations (92%, previous clinical experience (85%, and successful completion of United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 (51%. Of the programs that required clinical experience, 82% required 33 weeks or more. Most institutions (96% gave priority for electives and clerkships to their own students over visiting students, and a majority (78% reported that visiting students were evaluated no differently than their own students. During academic year 2006-2007, the number of new resident physicians who were former visiting medical

  5. Five things they don’t teach you in medical school (United States)

    Ball, Chad G.; Grondin, Sean C.; Dixon, Elijah; Lillemoe, Keith D.; Bhandari, Mohit; Parry, Neil


    Summary You graduate from medical school with dreams of beginning your residency, during which you will study and train within the specialty you love more than any other. While you may be book-smart at this point in your career, medical school does not teach you everything you need to know. During residency you will learn the didactic and technical requirements for your future staff job, but medical school won’t explicitly address many of the crucial “dos and don’ts” of a successful 2- to 5-year postgraduate training voyage. Here we discuss a few of the important things about residency that you’ll need to know that they don’t teach you in medical school. PMID:27668328

  6. The influence of achievement before, during and after medical school on physician job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke


    In this longitudinal study, we investigated the relationship between physicians' prior achievements (before, during and after medical school) and job satisfaction, and tested the two lines of reasoning that prior achievements influence job satisfaction positively or negatively, respectively. The par

  7. Medical Physics in the new undergraduate curriculum of Spanish medical schools; La Fisica Medica en los nuevos planes de estudio de grado de las facultades de medicina espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibelalde, E.; Calzado, A.; Chevalier, M.


    The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review of the contents of Medical Physics in the curricula of the new curriculum Grade in Spanish medical schools after the entry into force of that legislation.

  8. Survey of teaching/learning of healthcare-associated infections in UK and Irish medical schools.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, D


    All medical doctors have an important role to play in the diagnosis, management and prevention of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Strengthening the contribution of medical doctors and medical students to HCAI prevention programmes should include measures that enhance knowledge, improve practice and develop appropriate attitudes to the safety and quality of patient care. The Hospital Infection Society (HIS) funded a review of medical education on HCAI throughout medical schools in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. A questionnaire was drafted and circulated to all medical schools and 31 of 38 (82%) responded. The prevalence and transmission of HCAI were taught by 97% and 100% of medical schools, respectively, but the importance of HCAI as a quality and safety issue was covered in only 60% of medical schools. Multiple choice questions (MCQs) and objective structure clinical examinations (OSCEs) were the most popular methods of assessment. Lectures, discussion of cases and practical demonstrations were considered useful by >90% of respondents and online material and log books by 67% and 60%, respectively. More than 80% were willing to share a common pool of educational resources. An agreed curriculum should be developed for educating medical students in HCAI prevention and control, to outline optimum methods for assessment and develop a shared pool of educational resources.

  9. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe


    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  10. Medical school dropout - testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta;


    dropout. Methods  This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n = 1544). Half of the students were admitted based on their prior achievement of highest grades (Strategy 1) and the other half......Medical Education 2011: 45: 1111-1120 Context  Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent...... years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. Results  Strategy 2 (admission test) students had a lower relative risk for dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80). Only the admission...

  11. William Fulton Gillespie, 1891-1949: transitional figure in western Canadian academic surgery. (United States)

    Macbeth, R A


    The professional life of William Fulton Gillespie, third professor of surgery at the University of Alberta (1939-49) and tenth president of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (1947-49), exemplifies a critical transitional period in Canadian postgraduate surgical training and in western Canadian academic surgery. This article explores the background, the training, the professional career, and the personal character of a surgical scholar and student of the humanities and arts, a man who was thrust into the professorship of surgery in a maturing western Canadian medical school following the financial restraints of the Great Depression and during the challenges faced as a result of the World War II.

  12. The entry of African-American students into US medical schools: an evaluation of recent trends. (United States)

    Carlisle, D M; Gardner, J E


    A need to reassess US medical schools' admission of African-American students exists based on recent challenges to affirmative action. The Association of American Medical Colleges (AMMC) provided US medical school enrollment data and characteristics. Measures of enrollment were constructed for each medical school and aggregated by ownership type and state. After peaking at 1311 students in 1994, African-American medical school matriculation decreased by 8.7% by 1996. This decline was disproportionately generated by public medical schools. However, it was not limited to institutions that are located in states where anti-affirmative action policies have been implemented. Several schools were consistently successful (e.g., UCLA, Case Western, and Robert Wood Johnson) or unsuccessful (e.g., Texas Tech and Texas A&M) in enrolling African-American students. Recent gains in the enrollment of African-American students are being reversed, particularly at public institutions. Implications exist, particularly for the health of poor and underserved communities that are more likely to be cared for by such students during their careers as physicians.

  13. Physiology of school burnout in medical students: Hemodynamic and autonomic functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross W. May


    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between burnout and hemodynamic and autonomic functioning in both medical students (N = 55 and premedical undergraduate students (N = 77. Questionnaires screened for health related issues and assessed school burnout and negative affect symptomatology (anxiety and depression. Continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP through finger plethysmography and electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring was conducted during conditions of baseline and cardiac stress induced via the cold pressor task to produce hemodynamic, heart rate variability, and blood pressure variability indices. Independent sample t-tests demonstrated that medical students had significantly higher school burnout scores compared to their undergraduate counterparts. Controlling for age, BMI, anxiety and depressive symptoms, multiple regression analyses indicated that school burnout was a stronger predictor of elevated hemodynamics (blood pressure, decreased heart rate variability, decreased markers of vagal activity and increased markers of sympathetic tone at baseline for medical students than for undergraduates. Analyses of physiological values collected during the cold pressor task indicated greater cardiac hyperactivity for medical students than for undergraduates. The present study supports previous research linking medical school burnout to hemodynamic and autonomic functioning, suggests biomarkers for medical school burnout, and provides evidence that burnout may be implicated as a physiological risk factor in medical students. Study limitations and potential intervention avenues are discussed.

  14. [The teaching of pharmacology in medical schools: current status and future perspectives]. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carranza, Rodolfo; Vidrio, Horacio; Campos-Sepúlveda, Efraín


    Pharmacology is a core course in all medical school curricula. In most medical schools, pharmacology is taught during the second year and teaching covers both basic aspects and useful drugs for the treatment of human diseases. It is assumed that relevant pharmacologic knowledge is revisited during the clinical clerkships and that students are adequately trained to prescribe drugs upon graduation. However, for many years it has been noted that pharmacological training is sometimes insufficient and that inadequate and irrational prescription of drugs is a very common problem in clinical settings. Information overload and proliferation of new drugs have been recognized as two of the major contributing factors. To address this issue, many authors have recommended the development of a core curricula in pharmacology which all students would have to complete coupled with a restricted list of drugs. Based on our own teaching experience we have identified what should constitute the core content of pharmacology courses in medical schools and have written a study guide for this discipline. Both documents provide an organizational framework to help second year medical students ascertain what part of the vast knowledge in pharmacology they need to learn. The number of drugs that students have to manage is limited to 168. Our program constitutes the first effort to medicalize the teaching of pharmacology in medical schools. We expect that most medical schools will follow our guidelines as our program is applicable to all curricula modalities.

  15. Measurement of specific medical school stress: translation of the "Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument" to the German language. (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Voltmer, Edgar


    Zielsetzung: Medizinstudierende sind spezifischen Stressoren ausgesetzt. Als Folge der Stressbelastung kommt es bei Medizinstudierenden im Vergleich zu gleichaltrigen Berufstätigen häufiger zu Ängsten, Depressionen und Burn-out. Vitaliano et al. haben bereits 1984 ein 13 Items umfassendes Instrument zur Messung der spezifischen Stressbelastung von Medizinstudierenden, das „Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument“ (PMSS), vorgestellt. Es wurde seitdem im englischsprachigen Bereich breit eingesetzt und validiert. Bislang liegt jedoch keine deutschsprachige Version des Instrumentes vor. Ziel des Projektes war die Übersetzung des PMSS in die deutsche Sprache, um es im Rahmen von Studien im deutschsprachigen Raum einzusetzen.Methodik: Die englischsprachigen Items des PMSS wurden von drei Untersuchern in die deutsche Sprache übersetzt. Die Versionen wurden synoptisch gegenübergestellt und auf dieser Basis wurde für jedes Item eine deutschsprachige Version formuliert. Diese Versionen wurden von Muttersprachlerinnen in die englische Sprache zurückübersetzt. Auf der Basis dieser Rückübersetzungen, eines kognitiven Debriefings an 19 deutschen Medizinstudierenden und einer testtheoretischen Evaluation an 169 deutschen Medizinstudierenden wurden dann die endgültigen deutschsprachigen Formulierungen festgelegt. Ergebnisse: Das PMSS konnte ohne größere Schwierigkeiten in die deutsche Sprache übersetzt werden. Sowohl zwischen den Übersetzungen in die deutsche Sprache als auch zwischen beiden Rückübersetzungen waren die Übereinstimmungen groß. Bei Diskrepanzen erfolgte die Einigung schnell und unkompliziert. Der Einsatz der deutschsprachigen Version erbrachte einen guten Wert für die Reliabilität (Cronbachs Alpha 0,81).Schlussfolgerung: Es steht nun auch für deutschsprachigen Raum ein spezifisches Instrument zur Messung der Stressbelastung von Medizinstudierenden zur Verfügung.

  16. Prudentia: A Medical School's Solution to Curriculum Mapping and Curriculum Management (United States)

    Steketee, Carole


    During early accreditation visits by the Australian Medical Council (AMC), staff in the School of Medicine (SoM) were asked to demonstrate how and when AMC student outcome statements were being integrated into the MBBS course. As a result, the School Executive committed to developing a curriculum mapping system (CMS) that could systematically…

  17. Medication-Related Practice Roles: An Ethical and Legal Primer for School Psychologists (United States)

    Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.


    Given the prevalence of school-age children and adolescents who are prescribed with and are taking psychotropic medications, a critical issue that school psychologists may likely encounter in contemporary practice is providing both quality and continuity of care to these students in the context of relevant legal and ethical parameters. With a…

  18. Evaluation of the medical student research programme in Norwegian medical schools. A survey of students and supervisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tømmerås Karin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Student Research Programme is a national education and grant scheme for medical students who wish to carry out research in parallel with their studies. The purpose of the programme is to increase recruitment of people with a standard medical degree to medical research. The Research Programme was established in 2002 and underwent a thorough evaluation during the spring of 2007. The evaluation should investigate if the programme had fulfilled its objectives of increased recruitment to medical research, in addition to the students' and supervisors' satisfaction of the programme, and unwanted differences between the universities. Methods Data was collected from students, supervisors and administrative staff via web-based questionnaires. Information about admission, implementation, results achieved and satisfaction was analysed and compared between the four Norwegian medical schools. In addition, the position of the scheme in relation to the national Quality Reform of Higher Education was analysed. Results At the end of 2006, the Medical Student Research Programme had recruited 265 medical students to research. These consisted of 214 active students, 35 who had completed their studies and only 17 who had dropped out. Both students and supervisors were generally very satisfied with the scheme, including the curriculum, the results achieved and the administrative service. The majority of students wanted to continue their research towards a PhD and, of those who had completed the Medical Student Research Programme, practically all had published one or several scientific papers. The survey showed only small differences between the four medical schools, despite their choice of somewhat different solutions in terms of administration and organisation. The Medical Student Research Programme satisfies the majority of the demands of the Quality Reform, however as an integrated research programme aimed at a PhD it presupposes

  19. Psychiatry in the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship: An Innovative, Year-Long Program (United States)

    Griswold, Todd; Bullock, Christopher; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Albanese, Mark; Bonilla, Pedro; Dvorak, Ramona; Epelbaum, Claudia; Givon, Lior; Kueppenbender, Karsten; Joseph, Robert; Boyd, J. Wesley; Shtasel, Derri


    Objective: The authors present what is to their knowledge the first description of a model for longitudinal third-year medical student psychiatry education. Method: A longitudinal, integrated psychiatric curriculum was developed, implemented, and sustained within the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship. Curriculum elements…

  20. Survey of House Staff Benefits at Forty-Four Medical Schools. (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Roberta; Shawhan, Gerald L.

    As an aid in evaluating the present and future benefits given house staff personnel (residents, interns, and clinical fellows) at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center, the Department of Institutional Studies sent out questionnaires concerning benefits extended to house staff personnel to the 46 medical schools using university owned or…

  1. Community perceptions of a rural medical school : a pilot qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nestel, Debra; Gray, Katherine; Simmons, Margaret; Pritchard, Shane A; Islam, Rumana; Eng, Wan Q; Ng, Adrian; Dornan, Tim


    BACKGROUND: This paper explores local community perceptions of a relatively new rural medical school. For the purposes of this paper, community engagement is conceptualized as involvement in planning, delivering, and evaluating the medical program. Although there are several reviews of patient invol

  2. Attitudes of Medical School Faculty toward Gifts from the Pharmaceutical Industry. (United States)

    Banks, James W., III; Mainous, Arch G., III


    A survey of 248 University of Kentucky medical school faculty investigated attitudes toward American Medical Association policy concerning gifts from the pharmaceutical industry. Faculty generally agreed with the guidelines but felt gifts did not influence prescribing behaviors. PhD faculty favored more prescriptive policy than did MD faculty.…

  3. Datagram: Applications Versus Acceptances to 1976-77 First-Year Medical School Class (United States)

    Cuca, Janet Melei


    As part of a forthcoming national study of the medical school admissions process, data on the number of applications for admission and acceptances were obtained from the AAMC Medical Student Information System. The data showed an average 8.83 applications per person, the reduction of which might save anxiety, time, effort, and money. (Author/LBH)

  4. Career Choices of the 1976 Graduates of U.S. Medical Schools. Final Report. (United States)

    Cuca, Janet Melei

    The interactions and influences of various sociodemographic, experiential, and other factors on the career decisions of medical students are described. Special emphasis is on students' characteristics and career preferences at application, their medical schools, their first graduate year programs, and the hospitals of their first graduate year…

  5. 1978 U.C. Medical School Graduates: Practice Setting Preferences, Other Career Plans, and Personal Characteristics. (United States)

    Cuca, Janet Melei


    The medical practice setting preferences, in terms of demography, of 1978 U.S. medical school graduates are reported along with their career plans and other individual characteristics. Characteristics of graduates preferring inner city, small city and town/rural settings are highlighted. (JMD)

  6. Positive Impact of Integrating Histology and Physiology Teaching at a Medical School in China (United States)

    Sherer, Renslow; Wan, Yu; Dong, Hongmei; Cooper, Brian; Morgan, Ivy; Peng, Biwen; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lin; Xu, David


    To modernize its stagnant, traditional curriculum and pedagogy, the Medical School of Wuhan University in China adopted (with modifications) the University of Chicago's medical curriculum model. The reform effort in basic sciences was integrating histology and physiology into one course, increasing the two subjects' connection to…

  7. Examination of Job Satisfaction of the Medical Vocational High School Teachers (United States)

    Bayraktar, Hatice Vatansever; Güney, Burcu


    The aim of this study is to determine the job satisfaction level of Medical Vocational High School teachers and whether it differs according to different variables. The research was organized in accordance with the screening model. The population of the research was composed of vocational course teachers who worked in Medical Vocational High…

  8. Formal Body Bequest Program in Nigerian Medical Schools: When Do We Start? (United States)

    Akinola, Oluwole Busayo


    Human body dissection is a prerequisite for the training of health professionals and the conduct of medical research. However, most Nigerian medical schools experience difficulty obtaining an adequate and regular supply of human tissue. Presently, the major source of anatomical material comes from unclaimed bodies collected from hospital…

  9. Digital dissection system for medical school anatomy training (United States)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Carmichael, Stephen W.; Korinek, Mark J.; Schroeder, Kathryn K.; Segovis, Colin M.; Robb, Richard A.


    As technology advances, new and innovative ways of viewing and visualizing the human body are developed. Medicine has benefited greatly from imaging modalities that provide ways for us to visualize anatomy that cannot be seen without invasive procedures. As long as medical procedures include invasive operations, students of anatomy will benefit from the cadaveric dissection experience. Teaching proper technique for dissection of human cadavers is a challenging task for anatomy educators. Traditional methods, which have not changed significantly for centuries, include the use of textbooks and pictures to show students what a particular dissection specimen should look like. The ability to properly carry out such highly visual and interactive procedures is significantly constrained by these methods. The student receives a single view and has no idea how the procedure was carried out. The Department of Anatomy at Mayo Medical School recently built a new, state-of-the-art teaching laboratory, including data ports and power sources above each dissection table. This feature allows students to access the Mayo intranet from a computer mounted on each table. The vision of the Department of Anatomy is to replace all paper-based resources in the laboratory (dissection manuals, anatomic atlases, etc.) with a more dynamic medium that will direct students in dissection and in learning human anatomy. Part of that vision includes the use of interactive 3-D visualization technology. The Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic has developed, in collaboration with the Department of Anatomy, a system for the control and capture of high resolution digital photographic sequences which can be used to create 3-D interactive visualizations of specimen dissections. The primary components of the system include a Kodak DC290 digital camera, a motorized controller rig from Kaidan, a PC, and custom software to synchronize and control the components. For each dissection procedure, the

  10. Sir Harry Sinderson Pasha and Iraq's first medical school. (United States)

    Al-Fattal, Sa'ad


    During the early twentieth century, the medical status of Mesopotamia, later Iraq, was very bad due to the lack of sanitation and recurrent epidemics and it was rife with endemic diseases including bilharziasis, tuberculosis and malaria. Medical care was poor, with few hospitals and doctors. The condition improved slowly with the return of a few Iraqi doctors who trained outside Iraq, in Turkey, Syria and Lebanon, and with the arrival of British Medical personnel, during and after the First World War, principally Sir Harry Sinderson who was one of the most influential figures in recent Iraqi medical and political history. He had the distinctive role of being one of the founders and the Dean of the first Iraqi medical college. During his service until his retirement in 1946 he achieved, with tireless effort, exceptionally high standards and brought fame and prestige to the new medical college in record time. He attained his goal of training at least 500 local doctors.

  11. [The First World War and medical school of Petrograd]. (United States)

    Rostovtsev, E A; Sidorchuk, I V


    The article is devoted to the history of higher medical education of the Petrograd just before and during the First World War. The topical issue is the lack of information concerning this period of the history of Russian medicine and medical education, and the history of development of domestic medicine during the First World War, the centenary of which is celebrated this year. On the basis of a wide range of published and archival sources the authors show the basic vectors of development of medical education and exploring the role of St. Petersburg as one of the leading academic medical centres in the country.

  12. Partnership for Diversity: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Nurturing Cultural Competence at an Emerging Medical School. (United States)

    Swanberg, Stephanie M; Abuelroos, Dena; Dabaja, Emman; Jurva, Stephanie; Martin, Kimberly; McCarron, Joshua; Reed-Hendon, Caryn; Yeow, Raymond Y; Harriott, Melphine M


    Fostering cultural competence in higher education institutions is essential, particularly in training future health care workers to care for diverse populations. The opportunity to explore techniques to address diversity and cultural competence at a new medical school was undertaken by a multidisciplinary team of librarians, faculty, staff, and medical students. From 2011 to 2015, the team sponsored a voluntary programming series to promote cultural competence and raise awareness of health care disparities for the medical school. Thirteen events were hosted with 562 participants across all. This approach to diversity proved effective and could be adapted in any higher education setting.

  13. Prepared for practice? Law teaching and assessment in UK medical schools. (United States)

    Preston-Shoot, Michael; McKimm, Judy


    A revised core curriculum for medical ethics and law in UK medical schools has been published. The General Medical Council requires medical graduates to understand law and ethics and behave in accordance with ethical and legal principles. A parallel policy agenda emphasises accountability, the development of professionalism and patient safety. Given the renewed focus on teaching and learning law alongside medical ethics and the development of professional identity, this survey aimed to identify how medical schools are responding to the preparation of medical students for practice in the future. Questions were asked about the location, content and methods of teaching and assessment of law in undergraduate medical education. Examples of course documentation were requested to illustrate the approaches being taken. A 76% response rate was achieved. Most responding schools integrate law teaching with medical ethics, emphasising both the acquisition of knowledge and its application in a clinical context. Teaching, learning and assessment of law in clinical attachments is much less formalised than that in non-clinical education. Coverage of recommended topic areas varies, raising questions about the degree to which students can embed their knowledge and skills in actual practice. More positively, teaching does not rely on single individuals and clear descriptions were offered for problem-based and small group case-based learning. Further research is required to explore whether there are optimum ways of ensuring that legal knowledge, and skills in its use, form part of the development of professionalism among doctors in training.

  14. Medical Student Attitudes to the Autopsy and Its Utility in Medical Education: A Brief Qualitative Study at One UK Medical School (United States)

    Bamber, Andrew R.; Quince, Thelma A.; Barclay, Stephen I. G.; Clark, John D. A.; Siklos, Paul W. L.; Wood, Diana F.


    Attending postmortems enables students to learn anatomy and pathology within a clinical context, provides insights into effects of treatment and introduces the reality that patients die. Rates of clinical autopsies have declined and medical schools have cut obligatory autopsy sessions from their curricula making it difficult to assess medical…

  15. Three Medical School Responses to the HIV/AIDS Epidemic and the Effect on Students' Knowledge and Attitudes. (United States)

    Anderson, Donna G.; And Others


    A survey of 1991 and 1994 graduating medical school students at medical schools (N=175) in Colorado, New Mexico and South Dakota found that differences in prevalence of AIDS/HIV cases in those states did not affect schools' training programs but indirectly affected students' knowledge and attitudes, which were related to the numbers of…

  16. Creating a virtual pharmacology curriculum in a problem-based learning environment: one medical school's experience. (United States)

    Karpa, Kelly Dowhower; Vrana, Kent E


    Integrating pharmacology education into a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum has proven challenging for many medical schools, including the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine (Penn State COM). In response to pharmacology content gaps in its PBL-intensive curriculum, Penn State COM in 2003 hired a director of medical pharmacology instruction to oversee efforts to improve the structure of pharmacology education in the absence of a stand-alone course. In this article, the authors describe the ongoing development of the virtual pharmacology curriculum, which weaves pharmacology instruction through the entire medical school curriculum with particular emphasis on the organ-based second year. Pharmacology is taught in a spiraling manner designed to add to and build upon students' knowledge and competency. Key aspects of the virtual curriculum (as of 2011) include clearly stated and behaviorally oriented pharmacology learning objectives, pharmacology study guides that correspond to each PBL case, pharmacology review sessions that feature discussions of United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE)-type questions, and pharmacology questions for each PBL case on course examinations to increase student accountability. The authors report a trend toward improved USMLE Step 1 scores since these initiatives were introduced. Furthermore, graduates' ratings of their pharmacology education have improved on the Medical School Graduation Questionnaire. The authors suggest that the initiatives they describe for enhancing pharmacology medical education are relevant to other medical schools that are also seeking ways to better integrate pharmacology into PBL-based curricula.

  17. Awareness and attitude regarding human papilloma virus and its vaccine among medical students in a medical school in India

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    Nagasireesha Challa


    Results: Most of the participants know well about the etiology and prevention of cervical cancer but information regarding the dosage, schedule, site and route of administration was lacking in majority of them. Conclusion: The medical students know the association between Human Papilloma Virus and cervical cancer, but the awareness about HPV vaccine was low among study population. Medical schools should modify their curricula to include teaching methods aimed at improving awareness regarding HPV and its vaccine. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1607-1611

  18. A systems approach to implementation of eLearning in medical education: five MEPI schools' journeys. (United States)

    Vovides, Yianna; Chale, Selamawit Bedada; Gadhula, Rumbidzayi; Kebaetse, Masego B; Nigussie, Netsanet Animut; Suleman, Fatima; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory Ramadhan; Ntabaye, Moshi; Frehywot, Seble; Nkomazana, Oathokwa


    How should eLearning be implemented in resource-constrained settings? The introduction of eLearning at four African medical schools and one school of pharmacy, all part of the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) eLearning Technical Working Group, highlighted the need for five factors essential for successful and sustainable implementation: institutional support; faculty engagement; student engagement; technical expertise; and infrastructure and support systems. All five MEPI schools reported strengthening technical expertise, infrastructure, and support systems; four schools indicated that they were also successful in developing student engagement; and three reported making good progress in building institutional support. Faculty engagement was the one core component that all five schools needed to enhance.

  19. Pilot Point-of-Care Ultrasound Curriculum at Harvard Medical School: Early Experience (United States)

    Rempell, Joshua S.; Saldana, Fidencio; DiSalvo, Donald; Kumar, Navin; Stone, Michael B.; Chan, Wilma; Luz, Jennifer; Noble, Vicki E.; Liteplo, Andrew; Kimberly, Heidi; Kohler, Minna J.


    Introduction Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is expanding across all medical specialties. As the benefits of US technology are becoming apparent, efforts to integrate US into pre-clinical medical education are growing. Our objective was to describe our process of integrating POCUS as an educational tool into the medical school curriculum and how such efforts are perceived by students. Methods This was a pilot study to introduce ultrasonography into the Harvard Medical School curriculum to first- and second-year medical students. Didactic and hands-on sessions were introduced to first-year students during gross anatomy and to second-year students in the physical exam course. Student-perceived attitudes, understanding, and knowledge of US, and its applications to learning the physical exam, were measured by a post-assessment survey. Results All first-year anatomy students (n=176) participated in small group hands-on US sessions. In the second-year physical diagnosis course, 38 students participated in four sessions. All students (91%) agreed or strongly agreed that additional US teaching should be incorporated throughout the four-year medical school curriculum. Conclusion POCUS can effectively be integrated into the existing medical school curriculum by using didactic and small group hands-on sessions. Medical students perceived US training as valuable in understanding human anatomy and in learning physical exam skills. This innovative program demonstrates US as an additional learning modality. Future goals include expanding on this work to incorporate US education into all four years of medical school. PMID:27833681

  20. 1H-Magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of stimulant medication effect on brain metabolites in French Canadian children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

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    BenAmor L


    Full Text Available Leila BenAmor1,21Department of Psychiatry Sainte-Justine Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaBackground: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in school aged children. Functional abnormalities have been reported in brain imaging studies in ADHD populations. Psychostimulants are considered as the first line treatment for ADHD. However, little is known of the effect of stimulants on brain metabolites in ADHD patients.Objectives: To compare the brain metabolite concentrations in children with ADHD and on stimulants with those of drug naïve children with ADHD, versus typically developed children, in a homogenous genetic sample of French Canadians.Methods: Children with ADHD on stimulants (n=57 and drug naïve children with ADHD (n=45 were recruited, as well as typically developed children (n=38. The presence or absence of ADHD diagnosis (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria was based on clinical evaluation and The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV. All children (n=140 underwent a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy session to measure the ratio of N-acetyl-aspartate, choline, glutamate, and glutamate–glutamine to creatine, respectively, in the left and right prefrontal and striatal regions of the brain, as well as in the left cerebellum.Results: When compared with drug naïve children with ADHD, children with ADHD on stimulants and children typically developed were found to have higher choline ratios in the left prefrontal region (P=0.04 and lower N-acetyl-aspartate ratios in the left striatum region (P=0.01, as well as lower glutamate–glutamine ratios in the left cerebellum (P=0.05. In these three regions, there was no difference between children with ADHD on stimulants and typically developed children.Conclusion: Therapeutic psychostimulant effects in children with ADHD may be

  1. The Association between Health Behaviours and Academic Performance in Canadian Elementary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Jessie-Lee D. McIsaac


    Full Text Available Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA. Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Results: Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students.

  2. Association of medical students' reports of interactions with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries and medical school policies and characteristics: a cross-sectional study.

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    James S Yeh


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Professional societies use metrics to evaluate medical schools' policies regarding interactions of students and faculty with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. We compared these metrics and determined which US medical schools' industry interaction policies were associated with student behaviors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using survey responses from a national sample of 1,610 US medical students, we compared their reported industry interactions with their schools' American Medical Student Association (AMSA PharmFree Scorecard and average Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP Conflicts of Interest Policy Database score. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to determine the association between policies and students' gift acceptance, interactions with marketing representatives, and perceived adequacy of faculty-industry separation. We adjusted for year in training, medical school size, and level of US National Institutes of Health (NIH funding. We used LASSO regression models to identify specific policies associated with the outcomes. We found that IMAP and AMSA scores had similar median values (1.75 [interquartile range 1.50-2.00] versus 1.77 [1.50-2.18], adjusted to compare scores on the same scale. Scores on AMSA and IMAP shared policy dimensions were not closely correlated (gift policies, r = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.44; marketing representative access policies, r = 0.51, 95% CI 0.36-0.63. Students from schools with the most stringent industry interaction policies were less likely to report receiving gifts (AMSA score, odds ratio [OR]: 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.72; IMAP score, OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.19-1.04 and less likely to interact with marketing representatives (AMSA score, OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.15-0.69; IMAP score, OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.95 than students from schools with the lowest ranked policy scores. The association became nonsignificant when fully adjusted for NIH funding level, whereas adjusting for year of

  3. Offshore Medical Schools Are Buying Clinical Clerkships in U.S. Hospitals: The Problem and Potential Solutions. (United States)

    Halperin, Edward C; Goldberg, Robert B


    U.S. medical education faces a threat from for-profit Caribbean medical schools which purchase clinical rotation slots for their students at U.S. hospitals. These offshore schools are monetizing a system that was previously characterized as a duty-the duty of the current generation of physicians to educate their successors. Offshore schools purchase clinical rotation slots using funds largely derived from federally subsidized student loans. This leads to pressure on U.S. schools to pay for clinical clerkships and is forcing some of them to find new clinical training sites.For-profit Caribbean schools largely escape the type of scrutiny that U.S. schools face from U.S. national accreditation organizations. They also enroll large classes of students with lower undergraduate GPAs and Medical College Admission Test scores than those of students at U.S. medical schools; their students take and pass Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination at a substantially lower rate than that of U.S. medical students; and their students match for residencies at a fraction of the rate of U.S. medical school graduates.Among the potential solutions proposed by the authors are passing laws to hold for-profit Caribbean schools to standards for board passage rates, placing restrictions on federal student loans, monitoring attrition rates, and denying offshore schools access to U.S. clinical training sites unless they meet accreditation standards equivalent to those of U.S. medical schools.

  4. International Workshop and Summer School on Medical and Service Robotics

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    Bouri, Mohamed; Mondada, Francesco; Pisla, Doina; Rodic, Aleksandar; Helmer, Patrick


    Medical and Service Robotics integrate the most recent achievements in mechanics, mechatronics, computer science, haptic and teleoperation devices together with adaptive control algorithms. The book  includes topics such as surgery robotics, assist devices, rehabilitation technology, surgical instrumentation and Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) as examples for medical robotics. Autonomous cleaning, tending, logistics, surveying and rescue robots, and elderly and healthcare robots are typical examples of topics from service robotics. This is the Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Medical and Service Robots, held in Lausanne, Switzerland in 2014. It presents an overview of current research directions and fields of interest. It is divided into three sections, namely 1) assistive and rehabilitation devices; 2) surgical robotics; and 3) educational and service robotics. Most contributions are strongly anchored on collaborations between technical and medical actors, engineers, surgeons and clinicians....

  5. Patient safety education at Japanese medical schools: results of a nationwide survey

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    Maeda Shoichi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety education, including error prevention strategies and management of adverse events, has become a topic of worldwide concern. The importance of the patient safety is also recognized in Japan following two serious medical accidents in 1999. Furthermore, educational curriculum guideline revisions in 2008 by relevant the Ministry of Education includes patient safety as part of the core medical curriculum. However, little is known about the patient safety education in Japanese medical schools partly because a comprehensive study has not yet been conducted in this field. Therefore, we have conducted a nationwide survey in order to clarify the current status of patient safety education at medical schools in Japan. Results Response rate was 60.0% (n = 48/80. Ninety-eight-percent of respondents (n = 47/48 reported integration of patient safety education into their curricula. Thirty-nine percent reported devoting less than five hours to the topic. All schools that teach patient safety reported use of lecture based teaching methods while few used alternative methods, such as role-playing or in-hospital training. Topics related to medical error theory and legal ramifications of error are widely taught while practical topics related to error analysis such as root cause analysis are less often covered. Conclusions Based on responses to our survey, most Japanese medical schools have incorporated the topic of patient safety into their curricula. However, the number of hours devoted to the patient safety education is far from the sufficient level with forty percent of medical schools that devote five hours or less to it. In addition, most medical schools employ only the lecture based learning, lacking diversity in teaching methods. Although most medical schools cover basic error theory, error analysis is taught at fewer schools. We still need to make improvements to our medical safety curricula. We believe that this

  6. Attitude and perception of urology by medical students at the end of their medical school: An appraisal from Saudi Arabia

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    Saleh Binsaleh


    Conclusions: Knowledge of medical school graduates is insufficient in many urologic subjects, and there is a need for more urology exposure. Social reasons and lack of knowledge about urology hinder the choice of urology specialty as a future career. Clearance of learning objectives, immediate and prompt feedback on performance and adequate emphasis of common problems and ambulatory care are some aspects that should be taken into account by curriculum planners as they consider improvements to urology rotation program.

  7. [Medical pedagogy and special didactics in graduate courses at the medical school of the University of São Paulo, Brazil]. (United States)

    Marcondes, E; Vanzolini, M E; Basile, M A; Fujimura, I; Pasqualucci, C A


    Graduate courses of medical pedagogy and special didactics at S. Paulo University Medical School are analysed. The authors present objectives, subject matters and methodologies of both courses, as well as their evaluation by the graduate students. After an initial rejection, the evaluation became very positive (67% in medical pedagogy and 82% in special didactics). Some future perspectives are discussed.

  8. Revisiting the cost of medical student education: a measure of the experience of UT Medical School-Houston. (United States)

    Gammon, Elizabeth; Franzini, Luisa


    This study uses a cost construction model to estimate the cost of a four-year undergraduate medical education at the University of Texas-Houston Medical School (UT-Houston) in 2006-2007 compared to 1994-1995. The model computes the cost by measuring increasingly inclusive definitions of the educational mission: instructional (direct-contact teaching), educational (instructional plus general supervision), and milieu (educational plus research costs). Using the model and adjusting for inflation, annual cost per student enrolled decreased by 16 percent in 2006-2007 compared to 1994-1995 and total cost decreased by 9 percent. Additionally, the model predicted 190 full-time equivalent (FTE) faculty and 187 FTE residents for 2006-2007 compared to 201 FTE faculty and 258 FTE residents for 1994-1995. Decreases in the cost of educating medical students were driven by (1) the reduction in the number of educator contact hours required for curriculum delivery; (2) change in the mix of educators; and (3) an increase in medical school class size.

  9. 34 CFR 600.55 - Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign graduate medical school is eligible to... (United States)


    ... credentials required of faculty members teaching the same or similar courses at medical schools in the United... Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) (including the ECFMG English test) in the...

  10. Medical Students and Abortion: Reconciling Personal Beliefs and Professional Roles at One Medical School. (United States)

    Dans, Peter E.


    Surveys of first- and fourth-year Johns Hopkins University (Maryland) medical students found little change in attitudes about abortion over four years. Attitudes correlated most strongly with personal beliefs about when a fetus is considered human life and somewhat with student gender. Results are used in a medical ethics course to illuminate…

  11. Profiles in medical courage: Michael Wilkins and the Willowbrook School

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    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has. "- Margaret Mead With this article we begin an intermittent series on physicians who displayed courage in trying to help their patients. Although there are many examples, hopefully what will be illustrated are examples of the lesser known doctors who identified problems and stood up to address them. Few remember the controversy surrounding the now closed Willowbrook School and Dr. Michael Wilkins’ involvement. However, Wilkins’ courage in advocating for change not only resulted in substantial improvement in conditions at the school but also led to the Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act (CRIPA of 1980.Wilkins was originally from Kansas City and graduated from the University of Missouri School of Medicine in 1967 (1. He left Missouri to do his pediatric internship and complete his military obligation…

  12. Views of junior doctors about whether their medical school prepared them well for work: questionnaire surveys

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    Taylor Kathryn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition from medical student to junior doctor in postgraduate training is a critical stage in career progression. We report junior doctors' views about the extent to which their medical school prepared them for their work in clinical practice. Methods Postal questionnaires were used to survey the medical graduates of 1999, 2000, 2002 and 2005, from all UK medical schools, one year after graduation, and graduates of 2000, 2002 and 2005 three years after graduation. Summary statistics, chi-squared tests, and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the results. The main outcome measure was the level of agreement that medical school had prepared the responder well for work. Results Response rate was 63.7% (11610/18216 in year one and 60.2% (8427/13997 in year three. One year after graduation, 36.3% (95% CI: 34.6, 38.0 of 1999/2000 graduates, 50.3% (48.5, 52.2 of 2002 graduates, and 58.2% (56.5, 59.9 of 2005 graduates agreed their medical school had prepared them well. Conversely, in year three agreement fell from 48.9% (47.1, 50.7 to 38.0% (36.0, 40.0 to 28.0% (26.2, 29.7. Combining cohorts at year one, percentages who agreed that they had been well prepared ranged from 82% (95% CI: 79-87 at the medical school with the highest level of agreement to 30% (25-35 at the lowest. At year three the range was 70% to 27%. Ethnicity and sex were partial predictors of doctors' level of agreement; following adjustment for them, substantial differences between schools remained. In years one and three, 30% and 34% of doctors specified that feeling unprepared had been a serious or medium-sized problem for them (only 3% in each year regarded it as serious. Conclusions The vast knowledge base of clinical practice makes full preparation impossible. Our statement about feeling prepared is simple yet discriminating and identified some substantial differences between medical schools. Medical schools need feedback from graduates about

  13. Reducing corruption in a Mexican medical school: impact assessment across two cross-sectional surveys

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    Paredes-Solís Sergio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corruption pervades educational and other institutions worldwide and medical schools are not exempt. Empirical evidence about levels and types of corruption in medical schools is sparse. We conducted surveys in 2000 and 2007 in the medical school of the Autonomous University of Guerrero in Mexico to document student perceptions and experience of corruption and to support the medical school to take actions to tackle corruption. Methods In both 2000 and 2007 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire in the classroom without the teacher present. The questionnaire asked about unofficial payments for admission to medical school, for passing an examination and for administrative procedures. We examined factors related to the experience of corruption in multivariate analysis. Focus groups of students discussed the quantitative findings. Results In 2000, 6% of 725 responding students had paid unofficially to obtain entry into the medical school; this proportion fell to 1.6% of the 436 respondents in 2007. In 2000, 15% of students reported having paid a bribe to pass an examination, not significantly different from the 18% who reported this in 2007. In 2007, students were significantly more likely to have bribed a teacher to pass an examination if they were in the fourth year, if they had been subjected to sexual harassment or political pressure, and if they had been in the university for five years or more. Students resented the need to make unofficial payments and suggested tackling the problem by disciplining corrupt teachers. The university administration made several changes to the system of admissions and examinations in the medical school, based on the findings of the 2000 survey. Conclusion The fall in the rate of bribery to enter the medical school was probably the result of the new admissions system instituted after the first survey. Further actions will be necessary to tackle the continuing presence of

  14. Reducing corruption in a Mexican medical school: impact assessment across two cross-sectional surveys (United States)


    Background Corruption pervades educational and other institutions worldwide and medical schools are not exempt. Empirical evidence about levels and types of corruption in medical schools is sparse. We conducted surveys in 2000 and 2007 in the medical school of the Autonomous University of Guerrero in Mexico to document student perceptions and experience of corruption and to support the medical school to take actions to tackle corruption. Methods In both 2000 and 2007 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire in the classroom without the teacher present. The questionnaire asked about unofficial payments for admission to medical school, for passing an examination and for administrative procedures. We examined factors related to the experience of corruption in multivariate analysis. Focus groups of students discussed the quantitative findings. Results In 2000, 6% of 725 responding students had paid unofficially to obtain entry into the medical school; this proportion fell to 1.6% of the 436 respondents in 2007. In 2000, 15% of students reported having paid a bribe to pass an examination, not significantly different from the 18% who reported this in 2007. In 2007, students were significantly more likely to have bribed a teacher to pass an examination if they were in the fourth year, if they had been subjected to sexual harassment or political pressure, and if they had been in the university for five years or more. Students resented the need to make unofficial payments and suggested tackling the problem by disciplining corrupt teachers. The university administration made several changes to the system of admissions and examinations in the medical school, based on the findings of the 2000 survey. Conclusion The fall in the rate of bribery to enter the medical school was probably the result of the new admissions system instituted after the first survey. Further actions will be necessary to tackle the continuing presence of bribery to pass examinations

  15. Current status of Kampo medicine curricula in all Japanese medical schools

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    Arai Makoto


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been a few but not precise surveys of the current status of traditional Japanese Kampo education at medical schools in Japan. Our aim was to identify problems and suggest solutions for a standardized Kampo educational model for all medical schools throughout Japan. Methods We surveyed all 80 medical schools in Japan regarding eight items related to teaching or studying Kampo medicine: (1 the number of class meetings, target school year(s, and type of classes; (2 presence or absence of full-time instructors; (3 curricula contents; (4 textbooks in use; (5 desire for standardized textbooks; (6 faculty development programmes; (7 course contents; and (8 problems to be solved to promote Kampo education. We conducted descriptive analyses without statistics. Results Eighty questionnaires were collected (100%. (1 There were 0 to 25 Kampo class meetings during the 6 years of medical school. At least one Kampo class was conducted at 98% of the schools, ≥4 at 84%, ≥8 at 44%, and ≥16 at 5%. Distribution of classes was 19% and 57% for third- and fourth-year students, respectively. (2 Only 29% of schools employed full-time Kampo medicine instructors. (3 Medicine was taught on the basis of traditional Japanese Kampo medicine by 81% of the schools, Chinese medicine by 19%, and Western medicine by 20%. (4 Textbooks were used by 24%. (5 Seventy-four percent considered using standardized textbooks. (6 Thirty-three percent provided faculty development programmes. (7 Regarding course contents, “characteristics” was selected by 94%, “basic concepts” by 84%, and evidence-based medicine by 64%. (8 Among the problems to be solved promptly, curriculum standardization was selected by 63%, preparation of simple textbooks by 51%, and fostering instructors responsible for Kampo education by 65%. Conclusions Japanese medical schools only offer students a short time to study Kampo medicine, and the impetus to include Kampo medicine

  16. Recording and podcasting of lectures for students of medical school. (United States)

    Brunet, Pierre; Cuggia, Marc; Le Beux, Pierre


    Information and communication technology (ICT) becomes an important way for the knowledge transmission, especially in the field of medicine. Podcasting (mobile broadcast content) has recently emerged as an efficient tool for distributing information towards professionals, especially for e-learning contents.The goal of this work is to implement software and hardware tools for collecting medical lectures at its source by direct recording (halls and classrooms) and provide the automatic delivery of these resources for students on different type of devices (computer, smartphone or videogames console). We describe the overall architecture and the methods used by medical students to master this technology in their daily activities. We highlight the benefits and the limits of the Podcast technologies for medical education.

  17. Teaching Pharmacology at a Nepalese Medical School: The Student Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar PR, ,


    Full Text Available BackgroundKIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal conducts problem-basedpharmacology learning during small-group practical sessions.The present study was carried out to obtain student feedbackregarding the sessions and suggestions for improvement.MethodThe questionnaire-based study was carried out among firstyear medical students during July 2009. Respondents wereenrolled after explaining the aims and objectives of the studyand obtaining written, informed consent. Basic demographicinformation and student agreement with a set of 30statements using a modified Likert-type scale was noted.ResultsSixty-four of the 75 students (86% participated. The mediantotal score was 107 (maximum score 150 and was higheramong males, students from within the Kathmandu valley andself-financing students. The differences were not statisticallysignificant. The suggestions for improvement were improvingthe physical infrastructure of the lab and providing more timefor the practical exercises.ConclusionStudent opinion was favourable. The findings would be ofinterest to medical educators especially in developingcountries.

  18. The power of partnerships: the Liverpool school of butterfly and medical genetics. (United States)

    Zallen, Doris T


    From the 1950s to the 1970s, a group of physician-researchers forming the 'Liverpool school' made groundbreaking contributions in such diverse areas as the genetics of Lepidoptera and human medical genetics. The success of this group can be attributed to the several different, but interconnected, research partnerships that Liverpool physician Cyril Clarke established with Philip Sheppard, Victor McKusick at Johns Hopkins University, the Nuffield Foundation, and his wife FCo. Despite its notable successes, among them the discovery of the method to prevent Rhesus haemolytic disease of the newborn, the Liverpool School began to lose prominence in the mid-1970s, just as the field of medical genetics that it had helped pioneer began to grow. This paper explores the role of partnerships in making possible the Liverpool school's scientific and medical achievements, and also in contributing to its decline.

  19. Canadian Perspectives on Equity in the Classroom. (United States)

    Bowlby, Brenda; Komlen, Mile


    Canadian school board administrators are increasingly expected to meet the needs of disabled or other students requiring specific types of accommodation. The duty to accommodate arises when otherwise legitimate school rules or policies affect the customs and observances of nonmajoritarian religions. (Contains 12 references.) (MLH)

  20. Indian medical students in public and private sector medical schools: are motivations and career aspirations different? – studies from Madhya Pradesh, India (United States)


    Background In recent years, there has been a massive growth in the private medical education sector in South Asia. India’s large private medical education sector reflects the market driven growth in private medical education. Admission criteria to public medical schools are based on qualifying examination scores, while admission into private institutions is often dependent on relative academic merit, but also very much on the ability of the student to afford the education. This paper from Madhya Pradesh province in India aims to study and compare between first year medical students in public and private sector medical schools (i) motives for choosing a medical education (ii) career aspirations on completion of a medical degree (iii) willingness to work in a rural area in the short and long terms. Methods Cross sectional survey of 792 first year medical students in 5 public and 4 private medical schools in the province. Results There were no significant differences in the background characteristics of students in public and private medical schools. Reasons for entering medical education included personal ambition (23%), parental desire (23%), prestigious/secure profession (25%) or a service motive (20%). Most students wished to pursue a specialization (91%) and work in urban areas (64%) of the country. A small proportion (7%) wished to work abroad. There were no differences in motives or career aspirations between students of public or private schools. 40% were willing to work in a rural area for 2 years after graduating; public school students were more willing to do so. Conclusion There was little difference in background characteristics, motives for entering medicine or career aspirations between medical students in from public and private sector institutions. PMID:24034988

  1. Choice and Social Class of Medical School Students in Greece (United States)

    Sianou-Kyrgiou, Eleni; Tsiplakides, Iakovos


    A growing body of literature focuses on choice of studies in the context of policies on widening participation in higher education and graduates' difficulties in the labour market. Drawing on research findings showing a relationship between social class and choice of studies, we conducted a qualitative study on first-year medical students in a…

  2. Biometrics in the Medical School Curriculum: Making the Necessary Relevant. (United States)

    Murphy, James R.


    Because a student is more likely to learn and retain course content perceived as relevant, an attempt was made to change medical students' perceptions of a biometrics course by introducing statistical methods as a means of solving problems in the interpretation of clinical lab data. Retrospective analysis of student course evaluations indicates a…

  3. Medical School Education in Hypertension Management: A National Survey. (United States)

    Moser, Marvin; And Others


    The management of patients with primary hypertension remains a significant problem for the medical profession. In spite of this, specific programs for education in hypertensive vascular disease have been poorly organized. A survey to determine the level of training in this discipline is discussed. (MLW)

  4. How Medical School Shapes Students' Orientation to Patients' Psychological Problems. (United States)

    Merrill, Joseph M.; And Others


    A survey of 423 medical students assessed (1) authoritarianism, self-esteem, locus of control, self-blame, belief in efficacy of high-tech medicine, and depression; and (2) attributional styles toward patients with psychological or emotional problems. A variety of findings and directions for research are discussed. (MSE)

  5. Student Attitudes toward Cadaveric Dissection at a UK Medical School (United States)

    Quince, Thelma A.; Barclay, Stephen I. G.; Spear, Michelle; Parker, Richard A.; Wood, Diana F.


    A more humanistic approach toward dissection has emerged. However, student attitudes toward this approach are unknown and the influences on such attitudes are little understood. One hundred and fifty-six first-year medical students participated in a study examining firstly, attitudes toward the process of dissection and the personhood of the…

  6. Challenges and Opportunities: Building a Relationship Between a Department of Biomedical Engineering and a Medical School. (United States)

    George, Steven C; Meyerand, M Elizabeth


    A department of biomedical engineering can significantly enhance the impact of their research and training programs if a productive relationship with a medical school can be established. In order to develop such a relationship, significant hurdles must be overcome. This editorial summarizes some of the major challenges and opportunities for a department of biomedical engineering as they seek to build or enhance a relationship with a medical school. The ideas were formulated by engaging the collective wisdom from the Council of Chairs of the biomedical engineering departments.

  7. Die Bibliothek der Medizinischen Hochschule Hannover / The Hannover Medical School library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss, Christiane


    Full Text Available The Hannover Medical School library was initially the only source to provide literature and information for the whole of the Medical School. Literature in every form is now made available by the central location of purchase based in the library. The traditional library is the main area to provide information and learning facilities for all students and employees. The extension of electronic facilities together with a broad spectrum of services offered by the library personnel constitutes the main functions of the library.

  8. The first anatomy professors in the medical school of the University of Athens. (United States)

    Piagkou, Maria; Androutsos, Georgios; Demesticha, Theano; Lappas, Dimitrios; Karamanou, Marianna; Piagkos, Giannoulis; Skandalakis, Panayiotis; Piagkos, Konstantinos


    The purpose of this historical review is to add new elements to the international literature in relation to the birth and progress of the science of anatomy in modern Greece. Step by step, it outlines the efforts of prominent Greek anatomists to establish the course of the basic science of anatomy in the newly founded Medical School, the laborious effort to collect cadaveric material to compile museum anatomical collections and to gradually build the foundations of modern anatomy science at the Medical School of the Athenian University.

  9. Stressbelastung von Medizinstudierenden messen: Übersetzung des „Perceived Medical School Stress Instruments“ in die deutsche Sprache [Measurement of specific medical school stress: translation of the “Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument” to the German language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltmer, Edgar


    Full Text Available [english] Objective: Medical students encounter specific stressors during their studies. As a result, they develop anxiety, depression and burnout symptoms more frequently than their similarly aged, but employed counterparts. In 1984, Vitaliano et al. published a 13-item instrument for the measurement of stress specific to medical school: the “Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument“ (PMSS. Since then, it has been widely applied and validated in English-speaking countries. No German version of the PMSS exists to date. Thus, our aim was to translate the instrument into the German language in order to be able to measure medical school stress in German-speaking countries.Method: The items of the PMSS were translated into German by three separate researchers. The resulting translations were compared and combined with each other to establish a first German version of each item in the PMSS. These items were then translated back into English by two native English speakers to validate the correct primary translation. Based on a revised German version, a cognitive debriefing with 19 German medical students and a theoretical testing on 169 German medical students, the final German translations for each of the 13 items were determined.Results: The PMSS was easily translated into German and there was a high congruency between the primary translations into German and the secondary translations back into English. Incongruities between the translations were solved quickly. The assessment of the German equivalent of the PMSS showed good results regarding its reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha 0.81.Conclusion: A German version of the PMSS is now available for measuring the medical school related stress in German-speaking countries.[german] Zielsetzung: Medizinstudierende sind spezifischen Stressoren ausgesetzt. Als Folge der Stressbelastung kommt es bei Medizinstudierenden im Vergleich zu gleichaltrigen Berufstätigen häufiger zu Ängsten, Depressionen und

  10. Edinburgh and its role in the foundation of Sydney Medical School. (United States)

    Walker-Smith, J


    In 1882, Thomas Anderson Stuart (1856-1920) was appointed as Foundation Professor of Physiology and Anatomy at the University of Sydney. At the time he was Assistant-Professor of Physiology in the University of Edinburgh. He initiated the building of the Sydney Medical School in Scottish Tudor Gothic style. He attracted notable figures to Sydney Medical School, such as Dr Robert Scot Skirving. The original medical school (now the Anderson Stuart Building) continues today as the pre-clinical medical school of the University of Sydney. Its stained glass windows and many busts of distinguished figures in the history of medicine are a constant reminder of the history of medicine. The building with its gothic architecture and echoes of northern Britain has given generations of Sydney medical students a powerful message, that they were part of an ancient and noble profession. The recruitment of Edinburgh academics to Sydney ended with Professor CG Lambie who retired in 1956. The 1950s were a watershed between the Edinburgh heritage and the Australian future.

  11. United States medical school graduate interest in radiology residency programs as depicted by online search tools. (United States)

    Haney, Nora M; Kinsella, Stuart D; Morey, José M


    Recent media publications have indicated a tough job market in medical specialty positions for medical school graduates, specifically in the field of radiology. Internet search tools, such as Google Trends, have proved useful in the prediction of certain diseases on the basis of the search volume index for a specific term. The authors hypothesized that online search tools might be useful in the prediction of US medical school graduates' interest in residency positions in radiology. Google Trends indicated an increase over time in searches for "radiology salary" and a decrease over time in searches for "radiology residency." National Resident Matching Program results for diagnostic radiology showed an increase from 2004 to 2009 in the percentage of US graduates entering radiology but a dramatic drop from 2010 to 2013. This occurred even while the total number of US graduates active in the National Resident Matching Program increased. This finding might have been foretold on the basis of online query result trends. Online search data may be a useful insight into the interests of US medical school graduates and may be predictive of unfilled radiology residency positions and eventual increased shortages of community radiologists coming from US medical schools.

  12. Do students learn to be more conscientious at medical school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaytor Andrew T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionalism in medical students is not only difficult to define but difficult to teach and measure. As negative behaviour in medical students is associated with post-graduate disciplinary action it would be useful to have a model whereby unprofessional behaviour at the undergraduate level can easily be identified to permit appropriate intervention. We have previously developed a scalar measure of conscientiousness, the Conscientiousness Index (CI, which positively correlates to estimates of professional behaviour in undergraduate medical students. By comparing CI points awarded in year 1 and year 2 of study we were able to use the CI model to determine whether teaching and clinical exposure had any effect on students’ conscientiousness. Methods CI points were collected by administrative staff from 3 successive cohorts of students in years 1 and 2 of study. Points were awarded to students for activities such as submission of immunisation status and criminal record checks, submission of summative assignments by a specified date and attendance at compulsory teaching sessions. CI points were then converted to a percentage of maximal possible scores (CI % to permit direct comparison between years 1 and 2 of study. Results CI % scores were generally high with each year of study for each cohort showing negatively skewed normal distributions with peaks > 89%. There was a high degree of correlation of CI % scores between year 1 and year 2 of study for each cohort alone and when cohort data was combined. When the change in CI % from year 1 to year 2 for all students was compared there was no significant difference in conscientiousness observed. Conclusions We have provided evidence that use of a CI model in undergraduate medical students provides a reliable measure of conscientiousness that is easy to implement. Importantly this study shows that measurement of conscientiousness by the CI model in medical students does not change

  13. Inspiring careers in STEM and healthcare fields through medical simulation embedded in high school science education. (United States)

    Berk, Louis J; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A; Gordon, James A; Faux, Russell; Oriol, Nancy E


    The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school science classes through collaboration between medical school and K-12 faculty. The design was based largely on the literature on concepts and mechanisms of self-efficacy. A structured telephone survey was conducted with 30 program alumni from the inaugural school who were no longer in high school. Near-term effects, enduring effects, contextual considerations, and diffusion and dissemination were queried. Students reported high incoming attitudes toward STEM education and careers, and these attitudes showed before versus after gains (P < .05). Students in this modest sample overwhelmingly attributed elevated and enduring levels of impact on their interest and confidence in pursuing a science or healthcare-related career to the program. Additionally, 63% subsequently took additional science or health courses, 73% participated in a job or educational experience that was science related during high school, and 97% went on to college. Four of every five program graduates cited a health-related college major, and 83% offered their strongest recommendation of the program to others. Further study and evaluation of simulation-based experiences that capitalize on informal, naturalistic learning and promote self-efficacy are warranted.

  14. Determining the Criteria and Their Weights for Medical Schools' Ranking: A National Consensus. (United States)

    Mojtahedzadeh, Rita; Mohammadi, Aeen; Kohan, Noushin; Gharib, Mitra; Zolfaghari, Mitra


    Delphi as a consensus development technique enables anonymous, systematic refinement of expert opinion with the aim of arriving at a combined or consensual position. In this study, we determined the criteria and their weights for Iranian Medical Schools' ranking through a Delphi process. An expert committee devised 13 proposed criteria with 32 indicators with their weights, which were arranged hierarchically in the form of a tree diagram. We used the Delphi technique to reach a consensus on these criteria and weights among the deans of 38 public Iranian medical schools. For this purpose, we devised and sent a questionnaire to schools and asked them to suggest or correct the criteria and their weights. We repeated this process in two rounds till all the schools reached an acceptable consensus on them. All schools reached a consensus on the set of 13 criteria and 30 indicators and their weights in three main contexts of education, research and facilities, and equipment which were used for Medical Schools' ranking. Using Delphi technique for devising the criteria and their weights in evaluation processes such as ranking makes their results more acceptable among universities.

  15. Implementation of a longitudinal mentored scholarly project: an approach at two medical schools. (United States)

    Boninger, Michael; Troen, Philip; Green, Emily; Borkan, Jeffrey; Lance-Jones, Cynthia; Humphrey, Allen; Gruppuso, Philip; Kant, Peter; McGee, James; Willochell, Michael; Schor, Nina; Kanter, Steven L; Levine, Arthur S


    An increasing number of medical schools have implemented or are considering implementing scholarly activity programs as part of their undergraduate medical curricula. The goal of these programs is to foster students' analytical skills, enhance their self-directed learning and their oral and written communication skills, and ultimately to train better physicians. In this article, the authors describe the approach to implementing scholarly activities at a school that requires this activity and at a school where it is elective. Both programs have dealt with significant challenges including orienting students to a complex activity that is fundamentally different than traditional medical school courses and clerkships, helping both students and their mentors understand how to "stay on track" and complete work, especially during the third and fourth years, and educating students and mentors about the responsible conduct of research, especially involving human participants. Both schools have found the implementation process to be evolutionary, requiring experience before faculty could significantly improve processes. A required scholarly activity has highlighted the need for information technology (IT) support, including Web-based document storage and student updates, as well as automatic e-mails alerting supervisory individuals to student activity. Directors of the elective program have found difficulty with both ensuring uniform outcomes across different areas of study and leadership changes in a process that has been largely student-driven. Both programs have found that teamwork, regular meetings, and close communication have helped with implementation. Schools considering the establishment of a scholarly activity should consider these factors when designing programs.

  16. Driving change in rural workforce planning: the medical schools outcomes database. (United States)

    Gerber, Jonathan P; Landau, Louis I


    The Medical Schools Outcomes Database (MSOD) is an ongoing longitudinal tracking project ofmedical students from all medical schools in Australia and New Zealand. It was established in 2005 to track the career trajectories of medical students and will directly help develop models of workforce flow, particularly with respect to rural and remote shortages. This paper briefly outlines the MSOD project and reports on key methodological factors in tracking medical students. Finally, the potential impact of the MSOD on understanding changes in rural practice intentions is illustrated using data from the 2005 pilot cohort (n = 112). Rural placements were associated with a shift towards rural practice intentions, while those who intended to practice rurally at both the start and end of medical school tended to be older and interested in a generalist career. Continuing work will track these and future students as they progress through the workforce, as well as exploring issues such as the career trajectories of international fee-paying students, workforce succession planning, and the evaluation of medical education initiatives.

  17. Professionalism perspectives among medical students of a novel medical graduate school in Malaysia. (United States)

    Haque, Mainul; Zulkifli, Zainal; Haque, Seraj Zohurul; Kamal, Zubair M; Salam, Abdus; Bhagat, Vidya; Alattraqchi, Ahmed Ghazi; Rahman, Nor Iza A


    Defining professionalism in this constantly evolving world is not easy. How do you measure degrees of benevolence and compassion? If it is so obvious to our profession, what professionalism is, then why is it so difficult to teach it to medical students and residents? Today's definition of medical professionalism is evolving - from autonomy to accountability, from expert opinion to evidence-based medicine, and from self-interest to teamwork and shared responsibility. However, medical professionalism is defined as the basis for the trust in the patient-physician relationship, caring and compassion, insight, openness, respect for patient dignity, confidentiality, autonomy, presence, altruism, and those qualities that lead to trust-competence, integrity, honesty, morality, and ethical conduct. The purpose of this study is to explore professionalism in terms of its fundamental elements among medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA). This was a cross-sectional study carried out on medical students of UniSZA. The study population included preclinical and clinical medical students of UniSZA from Year I to Year V of academic session 2014/2015. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Data were collected using a validated instrument. The data were then compiled and analyzed using SPSS Version 21. Out of 165 questionnaires distributed randomly among Year I to Year V medical students of UniSZA, 144 returned, giving a response rate of 87%. Among the study participants, 38% (54) and 62% (90) were males and females, respectively. The grand total score was 170.92±19.08. A total of 166.98±20.15 and 173.49±18.09 were the total professionalism score of male and female study participants, respectively, with no statistically significant (P=0.61) differences. This study found almost similar levels of familiarity with all fundamental issues of professionalism with no statistically (P>0.05) significant differences. Medical faculty members

  18. Associations of Pass-Fail Outcomes with Psychological Health of First-Year Medical Students in a Malaysian Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad S. B. Yusoff


    Full Text Available Objectives: The demanding and intense environment of medical training can create excessive pressures on medical students that eventually lead to unfavorable consequences, either at a personal or professional level. These consequences can include poor academic performance and impaired cognitive ability. This study was designed to explore associations between pass-fail outcome and psychological health parameters (i.e. stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a cohort of first-year medical students in a Malaysian medical school. The depression anxiety stress scale 21-item assessment (DASS-21 was administered to them right after the final paper of the first-year final examination. Their final examination outcomes (i.e. pass or fail were traced by using their student identity code (ID through the Universiti Sains Malaysia academic office. Results: A total of 194 (98.0% of medical students responded to the DASS-21. An independent t-test showed that students who passed had significantly lower stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms than those who failed the first-year final examination (P <0.05. Those who experienced moderate to high stress were at 2.43 times higher risk for failing the examination than those who experienced normal to mild stress. Conclusion: Medical students whofailed in the final examination had higher psychological distress than those who passed the examination. Those who experienced high stress levels were more likely to fail than those who did not. Reducing the psychological distress of medical students prior to examination may help them to perform better in the examination.

  19. The Malaysia DREEM: perceptions of medical students about the learning environment in a medical school in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Naggar RA


    Full Text Available Redhwan A Al-Naggar,1 Mahfoudh Abdulghani,2,14 Muhamed T Osman,3 Waqar Al-Kubaisy,1 Aqil Mohammad Daher,15 Khairun Nain Bin Nor Aripin,4 Ali Assabri,5 Dawood A Al-Hidabi,6 Mohamed Izham B Mohamed Ibrahim,7 Ahmed Al-Rofaai,8 Hisham S Ibrahim,9 Hassanain Al-Talib,10 Alyaa Al-Khateeb,11 Gamil Qasem Othman,6 Qaid Ali Abdulaziz,6 Karuthan Chinna,12 Yuri V Bobryshev131Population Health and Preventive Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 2Pharmacology Department, International Medical School, Management and Science University, 3Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine & Defence Health, National Defence University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 4Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Islamic Science University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 5Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Sana'a University, 6University of Science and Technology, Sana'a, Yemen; 7College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 8School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia, 9Physiology Discipline-Faculty Of Medicine and Health Sciences-Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia, 10Laboratory Medical Science Cluster, Drug Discovery & Health Community of Research, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 11Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Discipline, Drug Discovery & Health Community of Research, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 12Social and Preventive Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 13Faculty of Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 14Pharmacology Department, Unaizah College of Pharmacy (UCP, Qassim University, Al Qassim, Saudi Arabia; 15Department of Community medicine, Faculty of Medicine & Defence Health, National Defence University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaBackground: Students’ perceptions of their learning environment, by defining its

  20. How Should Medical Schools Respond to Students with Dyslexia? (United States)

    Romberg, Frederick; Shaywitz, Bennett A; Shaywitz, Sally E


    We examine the dilemmas faced by a medical student with dyslexia who wonders whether he should "out" himself to faculty to receive the accommodations entitled by federal law. We first discuss scientific evidence on dyslexia's prevalence, unexpected nature, and neurobiology. We then examine the experiences of medical students who have revealed their dyslexia to illustrate the point that, far too often, attending physicians who know little about dyslexia can misperceive the motives or behavior of students with dyslexia. Because ignorance and misperception of dyslexia can result in bias against students with dyslexia, we strongly recommend a mandatory course for faculty that provides a basic scientific and clinical overview of dyslexia to facilitate greater understanding of dyslexia and support for students with dyslexia.

  1. Impact of a prior medical degree on students' dental school performance in Innsbruck, Austria. (United States)

    Beier, Ulrike Stephanie; Kapferer, Ines; Burtscher, Doris; Ulmer, Hanno; Dumfahrt, Herbert


    The purpose of this study was to identify the performance differences between two groups of Austrian dental students (one with a prior medical degree and one without a medical degree) during their dental school training and final dental licensure examination. A specific aim was to determine if having a medical degree is a predictive factor for dental students' scores on the Austrian Dental Admission Test (Austrian DAT), performance in the dental clinic, and scores on final exam. The study consisted of a retrospective analysis of 122 students (thirty-nine with a medical degree and eighty-three without a medical degree) who were enrolled in the Dental Clinic at Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria, between 2001 and 2006. Three performance categories were considered: Austrian DAT results, clinical performance after the first clinical year in dental school, and performance on the final dental licensure examination. Information on students' age, gender, and previous medical degree was collected from official records. Analyses with student's t-test and Pearson's chi-square test revealed that the students with a medical degree had significantly higher Austrian DAT total test scores, grade point averages after the first clinical year, and scores on the final exam. Additionally, those students had significantly better performance on the final exam in prosthodontics and oral and maxillofacial surgery. The linear regression analysis showed that a medical degree had an independent effect on average scores on the final exam, age, and Austrian DAT test scores, while gender showed no statistically significant effect. Overall, the study found that dental students with a prior medical degree had significantly higher Austrian DAT total test scores and performed significantly better in the first clinical year and on the final exam than those without a prior medical degree.

  2. Genetics in medical school curriculum: A look at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deanne M. ROBINSON; Chin-To FONG


    Genetics is assuming an increasingly important role in medicine. As a result, the teaching of genetics should also be increased proportionally to ensure that future physicians will be able to take advantage of the new genetic technology, and to understand the associated ethical, legal and social issues. At the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, we have been able to incorporate genetic education into a four-year medical curriculum in a fully integrated fashion. This model may serve as a template for other medical curriculum still in development.

  3. Standard Setting for Clinical Competence at Graduation from Medical School: A Comparison of Passing Scores across Five Medical Schools (United States)

    Boursicot, Katharine A. M.; Roberts, Trudie E.; Pell, Godfrey


    While Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) have become widely used to assess clinical competence at the end of undergraduate medical courses, the method of setting the passing score varies greatly, and there is no agreed best methodology. While there is an assumption that the passing standard at graduation is the same at all medical…

  4. [The movement to establish a Christian medical school proposed by medical missionary "John C. Berry"]. (United States)

    Fuseda, Tetsuya


    John C. Berry (1847-1936) came to Japan in 1872, worked as a medical missionary for the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM . He attempted to influence Japanese medical education toward a more Christian-influenced approach. In early Meiji, the Japanese government adopted the German language and principles for its national medical program. This promoted a tendency towards the adoption of German concepts in Japanese medical education. The director of of Doshisha, Niijima, was concerned about such a tendency, which he considered rather science-oriented or skeptical and atheistic, according to his writings. The tradition of corruption among Japanese doctors also deeply disappointed him. Niijima sought the type of medical institution in which the students would learn Western medicine based on a moral base of Christianity, presumably in Kyoto, to take advantage of the foundation of Doshisha, which had already been built. Missionaries in Japan, especially Berry, supported Niijima's intentions. During his visit to the U.S. he promoted a mission statement in support of Niijima's idea in order to raise funds among Christian communities. This project produced a resolution among the Christian community in Philadelphia to establish an interdenominational foundation for establishing such a medical institution and it encouraged other cities to follow. However, the American Board of Missionaries in Japan disagreed with the idea of its being interdenominational, and then, along with other struggles such as the lack of funding in light of the economic slowdown, and the widespread social rejection of Christianity in Japan, the project fell apart and was suspended.

  5. Gateway to curiosity: Medical marijuana ads and intention and use during middle school. (United States)

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S


    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents' perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed sixth- to eighth-grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in Southern California (n = 8,214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13 years) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions, and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use 1 year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure 1 year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products.

  6. Introducing managed care to the medical school curriculum: effect on student attitudes. (United States)

    Field, T S; Baldor, R A; Casey, L M; Chuman, A; Lasser, D; Ehrlich, A; Gurwitz, J H


    In order to assess the effect of clinical training and didactic instruction on medical student attitudes toward managed care, we conducted a survey of all medical students at the midpoint of their third year clerkships at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. The students were exposed to clinical training in managed care settings and a 2-day required course on the principles underlying managed care. The main outcome measures were student attitudes toward the concepts of managed care, managed care organizations, and future careers in managed care. Students also assessed the attitudes of medical faculty toward managed care. Attitudes of students with previous clinical training in managed care settings did not differ from those of students without such exposure toward the concepts underlying managed care or managed care organizations and were less positive about careers in managed care. Student responses before and after the 2-day course on managed care demonstrated that attitudes moved in a significantly positive direction. Seventy-one percent of students reported that the opinions they had heard from medical faculty about managed care were negative. Preparing medical students to practice medicine effectively in managed care settings will require focused attention on managed care issues in the medical school curriculum and the combined efforts of academic health centers and managed care organizations.

  7. Development and initial validation of a survey to assess students' self-efficacy in medical school. (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Dong, Ting; DeZee, Kent J; Gilliland, William R; Waechter, Donna M; Cruess, David F; Durning, Steven J


    Self-efficacy is a personal belief in one's capability to successfully execute the behaviors necessary to attain designated types of performances. Sometimes described as task-specific self-confidence, self-efficacy is a key component in many contemporary theories of motivation and learning. The purpose of this study was to develop a survey for measuring students' medical skills self-efficacy and to collect reliability and validity evidence for the instrument. A secondary purpose was to explore differences in students' self-efficacy from year 1 of medical school to year 4. We created 19 survey items based on the 6 core competencies of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, and we collected data from 304 medical students. Results from an exploratory factor analysis suggested three interpretable factors: patient care self-efficacy (eight items, Cronbach's alpha = 0.92), interpersonal skills self-efficacy (three items, Cronbach's alpha = 0.76), and evidence-based medicine self-efficacy (three items, Cronbach's alpha = 0.79). We then compared students' self-efficacy at different stages of training using a one-way multivariate analysis of variance. Consistent with our expectations, we found several statistically significant differences, suggesting students' self-efficacy increased considerably from year 1 of medical school to year 4, F(9, 725) = 30.58, p students' medical skills self-efficacy during undergraduate medical education. Practical implications and future directions are discussed.

  8. Stability of empathy among undergraduate medical students: A longitudinal study at one UK medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson John A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Empathy is important to patient care. The prevailing view is that empathy declines during university medical education. The significance of that decline has been debated. This paper reports the findings in respect of two questions relating to university medical education: 1. Do men and women medical students differ in empathy? 2. Does empathy change amongst men and women over time? Methods The medical course at the University of Cambridge comprises two components: Core Science (Years 1-3 and Clinical (Years 4-6. Data were obtained from repeated questionnaire surveys of medical students from each component over a period of four years: 2007-2010. Participation in the study was voluntary. Empathy was measured using two subscales of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index: IRI-EC (affective empathy and IRI-PT (cognitive empathy. We analysed data separately for men and women from the Core Science and Clinical components. We undertook missing value analyses using logistic regression separately, for each measure of empathy, to examine non-response bias. We used Student's t-tests to examine gender differences and linear mixed effects regression analyses to examine changes over time. To assess the influence of outliers, we repeated the linear mixed effects regression analyses having excluded them. Results Women displayed statistically significant higher mean scores than men for affective empathy in all 6 years of medical training and for cognitive empathy in 4 out of 6 years - Years 1 and 2 (Core Science component and Years 4 and 5 (Clinical component. Amongst men, affective empathy declined slightly during both Core Science and Clinical components. Although statistically significant, both of these changes were extremely small. Cognitive empathy was unchanged during either component. Amongst women, neither affective empathy nor cognitive empathy changed during either component of the course. Analysis following removal of outliers showed a

  9. End-of-Life and Palliative Care Issues in Medical and Nursing Schools in the United States (United States)

    Dickinson, George E.


    Medical and nursing schools in the United States have traditionally had a limited emphasis on end-of-life care. The present study is a comparison of these 2 professional programs' current offerings on death education. Data were gathered via a mailed survey from the 122 medical schools in 2005 and the 580 baccalaureate nursing programs in 2006.…

  10. Academic and Professional Career Outcomes of Medical School Graduates Who Failed USMLE Step 1 on the First Attempt (United States)

    McDougle, Leon; Mavis, Brian E.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Roberts, Nicole K.; Ephgrave, Kimberly; Hageman, Heather L.; Lypson, Monica L.; Thomas, Lauree; Andriole, Dorothy A.


    This study sought to determine the academic and professional outcomes of medical school graduates who failed the United States Licensing Examination Step 1 on the first attempt. This retrospective cohort study was based on pooled data from 2,003 graduates of six Midwestern medical schools in the classes of 1997-2002. Demographic, academic, and…

  11. Outcome Measurement in Postgraduate Year One of Graduates from a Medical School with a Pass/Fail Grading System. (United States)

    Vosti, Kenneth L.; Jacobs, Charlotte D.


    A study investigated the clinical preparedness of 144 Stanford University (California) medical school graduates in 11 areas, comparing it with peers from graded medical schools and rating the accuracy of the dean's letter in representing graduates' capabilities. Results indicate that graduates from Stanford's two-interval, pass/fail system…

  12. An Analysis of the Admission Process to U.S. Medical Schools, 1973 and 1976. Final Report. (United States)

    Cuca, Janet Melei

    The medical school admission process is a major determinant of various attributes and characteristics of the American physician manpower pool. This analysis investigated the criteria of national and institutional consequence in selecting students for medical school, the changes in the relative importance of these criteria from 1973 to 1976, the…

  13. Survey of the Prevalence of Burnout, Stress, Depression, and the Use of Supports by Medical Students at One School (United States)

    Chang, Elaine; Eddins-Folensbee, Florence; Coverdale, John


    Objective: The authors determined the prevalence of stress, depression, and burnout in medical students and the resources used by students in one school to alleviate psychological distress. Methods: A survey was administered to 526 students in the first 3 years of medical school (336 responders; response rate: 70%) at one institution, using a…

  14. New Bottles for Vintage Wines: The Changing Management of the Medical School Faculty. (United States)

    Griner, Paul F.; Blumenthal, David


    Case studies of 10 medical schools identified innovative mechanisms of faculty governance and management to enlist faculty in meeting demands of a competitive marketplace, including appointment letters explicitly specifying roles and responsibilities; annual, objective, performance reviews; salary tied to performance; lengthened pretenure period;…

  15. Sexual Health Curricula in U.S. Medical Schools: Current Educational Objectives (United States)

    Galletly, Carol; Lechuga, Julia; Layde, Joseph B.; Pinkerton, Steven


    Objective: The authors identify the explicit and implicit objectives that shape decisions about what medical schools teach regarding human sexuality. Methods: The authors reviewed relevant articles in journals, physician licensing examinations, and publications by professional organizations to identify learning objectives for human sexuality in…

  16. Integration of Computers into the Medical School Curriculum: An Example from a Microbiology Course. (United States)

    Platt, Mark W.; And Others


    While the use of computers has become widespread in recent years, a unified, integrated approach to their use in the medical school curriculum has not yet emerged. Describes a program at the University of New Mexico that will phase-in computerization of its curriculum beginning in the fall of 1993. (LZ)

  17. Quality of Work-Life Programs in U.S. Medical Schools: Review and Case Studies (United States)

    Otto, Ann; Bourguet, Claire


    Quality of work life is being recognized more and more as a driving factor in the recruitment and retention of highly qualified employees. Before Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine began development of its QWL initiative, it surveyed other medical schools across the U.S. to determine benchmarks of best practices in these programs.…

  18. Integrating and Evaluating Geriatrics in Medical School: A Novel Approach for the Challenge (United States)

    Besdine, Richard W.; Shield, Renee R.; McNicoll, Lynn; Campbell, Susan E.; Wetle, Terrie


    Brown Medical School developed a comprehensive curriculum in which enriched aging content increased from 22 to 80 hours in preclerkship courses and was also added for clerkships, residencies, and nongeriatrician physicians. Innovative evaluation strategies are also described. Highlights include "treasure hunts" in the anatomy laboratory, a…

  19. How Issues of Professional Liability Are Taught in U.S. Medical Schools. (United States)

    Hamilton, Thomas E.


    A survey of 120 medical schools found 61 percent have curricula on professional liability. Many indicated students' training has been compromised or jeopardized by physicians' concerns about medicolegal issues, and many had students named in malpractice suits. Findings suggest issues of professional liability have significantly affected…

  20. Historical evidence for the origin of teaching hospital, medical school and the rise of academic medicine. (United States)

    Modanlou, H D


    Historical progression and the development of current teaching hospitals, medical schools and biomedical research originated from the people of many civilizations and cultures. Greeks, Indians, Syriacs, Persians and Jews, assembled first in Gondi-Shapur during the Sasanian empire in Persia, and later in Baghdad during the Golden Age of Islam, ushering the birth of current academic medicine.

  1. Medical Service Utilization among Youth with School-Identified Disabilities in Residential Care (United States)

    Lambert, Matthew C.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Epstein, Michael H.; W. Thompson, Ronald


    Background: Behavioral, social, emotional, and educational risks among children and youth with school identified disabilities served in residential care have been well documented. However, the health care needs and medical service utilization of this high-risk population are less well known. Given the risks associated with children with…

  2. Selection and study performance : comparing three admission processes within one medical school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schripsema, Nienke R.; van Trigt, Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke


    ObjectivesThis study was conducted to: (i) analyse whether students admitted to one medical school based on top pre-university grades, a voluntary multifaceted selection process, or lottery, respectively, differed in study performance; (ii) examine whether students who were accepted in the multiface

  3. The Influence of Achievement before, during and after Medical School on Physician Job Satisfaction (United States)

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J.; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke


    In this longitudinal study, we investigated the relationship between physicians' prior achievements (before, during and after medical school) and job satisfaction, and tested the two lines of reasoning that prior achievements influence job satisfaction positively or negatively, respectively. The participants were graduates who started their…

  4. Recovering from Loss: A Qualitative Study Examining Student Loss While in Medical School (United States)

    Yokota, Mitsue


    Recovering from the loss of a loved one can be difficult for anyone, but it can be especially trying for individuals already dealing with elevated levels of stress. Various studies have looked at the causes of stress in medical school students, but little has been done to understand the adjustments these students undergo after experiencing the…

  5.   Open Source E-learning for Medical Schools in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dørup, Jens; Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simunovic, V.


    difficulties and with "brain drainage" of young physicians to more developed countries. Five medical schools, Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Tuzzla, Mostar, and Serb Sarajevo are collaborating in an EU supported Tempus project, Dictum (˜r28/DICTUM/index.php) with the support of EU member...

  6. The "Canadian" in Canadian Children's Literature. (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Wolodko, Brenda


    Notes that a rich body of Canadian children's literature exists that reflects the country's literary and socio-cultural values, beliefs, themes and images, including those of geography, history, language and identity. Discusses how Canadians tend to identify themselves first by region or province and then by nation. (SG)

  7. Five-year survey of medical student attrition in a medical school in Nigeria: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogugua A Egwu


    Full Text Available Ogugua A Egwu1, Godson E Anyanwu21Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Ebonyi State; 2Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Enugu State, NigeriaBackground: Student attrition represents a waste of career opportunity and, at times, results in a holistic loss of sense of self-worth for the students involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nature, causes, and impact of medical student attrition in Nigeria.Method: A pilot analysis was undertaken using the records of students who failed at medical school as a result of inability to pass the second MBBS examination at Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria, between 2002 and 2007. Some of these students were interviewed using a structured questionnaire.Results: Data analysis showed that 58 (7.8% of the students admitted into preclinical class withdrew from their study. Thirty-six (62.1% were males and the rest were females. Thirteen of those withdrawn were interviewed, and 53.8% of them believed they had poor academic ability, while 15.4% attributed their withdrawal to family pressure. No record of guidance or counseling session programs was noted for these students either at the point of withdrawal from the faculty and on the choice of a new career path.Conclusion: As a result of the high attrition rate due to low academic ability, efforts should be made to check students for evidence of this at the point of admission to medicine training. Also, more accommodating teaching programs should be encouraged in faculties to accommodate students with such challenges. Good guidance and counseling programs should be encouraged to handle these inevitable cases of attrition when they occur, to avoid the demoralizing low self-esteem that plagues these individuals for the rest of their lives.Keywords: medical students, attrition, medical education, Nigeria

  8. Psychometric properties of the Medical Student Well-Being Index among medical students in a Malaysian medical school. (United States)

    Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Yaacob, Mohd Jamil; Naing, Nyi Nyi; Esa, Ab Rahman


    This study evaluated the convergent, discriminant, construct, concurrent and discriminative validity of the Medical Student Wellbeing Index (MSWBI) as well as to evaluate its internal consistency and optimal cut-off total scores to detect at least moderate levels of general psychological distress, stress, anxiety and depression symptoms. A cross sectional study was done on 171 medical students. The MSWBI and DASS-21 were administered and returned immediately upon completion. Confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis, ROC analysis and Pearson correlation test were applied to assess psychometric properties of the MSWBI. A total of 168 (98.2%) medical students responded. The goodness of fit indices showed the MSWBI had a good construct (χ(2)=6.14, p=0.803, RMSEAinternal consistency. Pearson correlation coefficients and ROC analysis suggested each MSWBI's item showed adequate convergent and discriminant validity. Its optimal cut-off scores to detect at least moderate levels of general psychological distress, stress, anxiety, and depression were 1.5, 2.5, 1.5 and 2.5 respectively with sensitivity and specificity ranged from 62 to 80% and the areas under ROC curve ranged from 0.71 to 0.83. This study showed that the MSWBI had good level of psychometric properties. The MSWBI score more than 2 can be considered as having significant psychological distress. The MSWBI is a valid and reliable screening instrument to assess psychological distress of medical students.

  9. Enacting the Carnegie Foundation call for reform of medical school and residency. (United States)

    O'Brien, Bridget C; Irby, David M


    On the 100th anniversary of the Flexner Report, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching published a new study of medical education. This study, titled Educating Physicians: A Call for Reform of Medical Schools and Residency Programs, contained four primary recommendations intended to stimulate innovation and improvement in medical education. In this article, the authors examined the ways others have applied the four recommendations from Educating Physicians within and beyond medical education. In their review of 246 publications citing the Carnegie work, they found that the recommendation for integration was addressed most frequently, often through descriptions of integration of curricular content in undergraduate medical education. The recommendation to focus on professional identity formation was the second most frequently addressed, followed by standardization and individualization, then inquiry, innovation, and improvement. The publications related to these latter three recommendations tended to be conceptual rather than descriptive or empirical. Publications spanned the continuum of medical education (from medical school to residency to physicians in practice) and even into other fields, but undergraduate medical education received the most attention. The authors discuss common themes among the citing publications and highlight opportunities for further discussion and innovation. Many exciting developments have occurred in medical education and beyond since the publication of Educating Physicians in 2010. Thus far, most of the publications citing the Carnegie recommendations describe incremental changes in medical education, particularly in the area of integration. Some of the conceptual work around these recommendations, coupled with a variety of external factors such as changes in health care and accreditation systems, suggests the potential for changes that are more transformative in nature.

  10. Coordinating the undergraduate medical (MBBS basic sciences programme in a Nepalese medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar PR


    Full Text Available KIST Medical College follows the curriculum of the Institute ofMedicine, Tribhuvan University. The programme aims toproduce socially responsible and competent physicians whoare willing and able to meet the existing and emergingchallenges of the national and international healthcaresystem. The first cohort of undergraduate medical students(MBBS students was admitted in November 2008 and threecohorts including the one admitted in 2008 have beenadmitted at the time of writing. The basic science subjects aretaught in an integrated, organ-system-based manner withcommunity medicine during the first two years. I wasappointed as the MBBS Phase I programme coordinator inSeptember 2008 and in this article I share my experiences ofrunning the basic sciences programme and also offersuggestions for running an efficient academic programme. Themanuscript will be of special interest to readers runningundergraduate medical programmes. The reader canunderstand our experiences in running the programme inadverse circumstances, learning to achieve greater integrationamong basic science, community medicine and clinicaldepartments, obtain information about a communitydiagnosis programme and know about running specialmodules on the medical humanities and pharmaceuticalpromotion.

  11. [Proposal of residency integrated with medical masters degree at the UFMG Medical School: an evaluation among residents]. (United States)

    Lamounier, J A; Pereira, A A; de Oliveira, H N


    A project which integrates medical RESIDENCY with medical masters degree has been discussed and is expected to be set up at UFMG Medical School in the near future. Such project is optional for the entering residents and aims those who are interested in becoming researchers. This paper's objective is to raise the residents' opinion on the project as well as their interests in post graduation level. A 240 university hospital residents (HC-UFMG) and a 114 non-university hospital (IPSEMG) were studied through questionnaire application. From the total population of 354 residents we had a 50% questionnaire devolution, 120 (68%) from HC-UFMG and 57 (32%) from IPSEMG. Residents of different clinical and surgical areas were included, 55% male and 45% female. Most of them work exclusively in residency activities, 69% have interest in specialize after residency, 55% in taking medical masters degree, 52% in taking up academic life and 67% in applying for the integrated residency-master degree program. Twelve (7%) are not particularly interested in join the program because they are not sure whether they are able to carry on adequately both residency and research activities at the same time. This study shows that residents are highly receptive to the UFMG's program and that more detailed information concerning its contents should be handed out in order to generate further discussion.

  12. Canadian Children's Literature. (United States)

    School Libraries in Canada, 2001


    Includes 15 articles that relate to Canadian children's literature, including the power of literature; using Canadian literature in Canada; the principal's role in promoting literacy; Canadian Children's Book Centre; the National Library of Canada's children's literature collection; book promotion; selection guide; publisher's perspective; and…

  13. Personal characteristics of students entering higher medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimova O.V.


    Full Text Available The article presents the structure of personal features of students decided to devote their life to medical profession, their personal readiness for a profession of a doctor. 241 students going to enter the Saratov Medical University in 2013 serve as an object of research. Methods of research included psychology tests on a self-assessment of a mental state, ability to empathy, a motivation orientation. Result. It was revealed that the majority of respondents low level of uneasiness, low level of frustration, the average level of aggression, the average level of a rigidity, and also high rates on an empathy scale. The types of the personality in relation to work are emotive and intuitive. Prevalence of motive of achievement of success or motive of avoiding of failures directly depends on specifics of a situation. Conclusion. Students possess qualities which are necessary in professional activity for doctors, namely high resistance to stress, absence of fear before difficulties, low level of rigidity, high level of empathy, the average level of aggression. Students are motivated on success, in situations when they are fully confident.

  14. The missions of medical schools: the pursuit of health in the service of society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewkonia Ray M


    Full Text Available Abstract Mission statements and role documents of medical schools in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia have been examined on their Internet Web sites and categorised in purpose, content and presentation. The format and content are highly variable, but there is a common vision of three integral roles, namely, education, advancement of knowledge and service to society. Other frequent themes include tradition and historical perspective, service for designated communities, and benchmarking to accreditation standards. Differences in content reflect variable interpretation of the notion of "mission", and local or national characteristics such as institutional affiliations, the types, levels and organisation of medical education, relationships with health systems, and extent of multi-professional education. Outcomes data and measures of medical school performance referenced to the institution's stated missions are rarely encountered. Mission documents placed on the Internet are in the public domain. These Web sites and documents and linked information constitute a valuable new resource for international exchange of approaches and ideas in medical education and generally in academic medicine. Routine inclusion of outcome or performance data could help to demonstrate the community roles and social accountability of medical schools This paper proposes that partial standardisation of these Web documents could enhance their value both internally and for external readers. A generic descriptive statement template is offered.

  15. The missions of medical schools: the pursuit of health in the service of society. (United States)

    Lewkonia, R M


    Mission statements and role documents of medical schools in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia have been examined on their Internet Web sites and categorised in purpose, content and presentation. The format and content are highly variable, but there is a common vision of three integral roles, namely, education, advancement of knowledge and service to society. Other frequent themes include tradition and historical perspective, service for designated communities, and benchmarking to accreditation standards. Differences in content reflect variable interpretation of the notion of "mission", and local or national characteristics such as institutional affiliations, the types, levels and organisation of medical education, relationships with health systems, and extent of multi-professional education. Outcomes data and measures of medical school performance referenced to the institution's stated missions are rarely encountered. Mission documents placed on the Internet are in the public domain. These Web sites and documents and linked information constitute a valuable new resource for international exchange of approaches and ideas in medical education and generally in academic medicine. Routine inclusion of outcome or performance data could help to demonstrate the community roles and social accountability of medical schools This paper proposes that partial standardisation of these Web documents could enhance their value both internally and for external readers. A generic descriptive statement template is offered.

  16. [The Salernitan School of Medicine: Its History and Contribution to European Medical Education]. (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo


    The Salernitan School of Medicine was founded in the late 10th century as a loose association of medical teachers. The period before the middle 13th century was divided into three phases. In the early phase, before the end of 11th century, "practica" books were written, utilizing extant ancient literature, Arabic medical treatises were translated into Latin, and the medical text "Articella" was compiled. In the high phase before the end of the 12th century, the "Articella" was commented upon and new pharmacopeia and practica books were written. In the late phase before the middle of the 13th century, physicians who graduated from Salerno were active in various countries in Europe. After the middle of the 13th century the school developed organizations and rules, became a university at the end of 16th century, and was closed in 1811. The Salernitan school produced "Articella", which pioneered in theoretical medical education, and produced "practica", which dealt with both local diseases from head to foot and systemic fever diseases, and it continued until the end of 18th century. The two major disciplines of medical education before the end of 18th century, theoretica and practica, were derived from Salerno.

  17. Ethics teaching on 'Beginning of Life' issues in UK medical schools. (United States)

    Oldroyd, Christopher; Fialova, Lydie


    Medical ethics forms an essential component of an undergraduate medical programme. In the UK the Institute of Medical Ethics has released a consensus statement detailing its recommendations for a minimum curriculum for ethics. One important issue it highlights for inclusion is 'Beginning of Life', which includes a wide range of themes. This paper presents an evaluation of the current teaching and assessment of these important issues in UK medical schools, complemented by a specific analysis of students' reaction to the teaching they received at the University of Edinburgh as part of their Obstetrics and Gynaecology rotation. Schools which responded to the survey reported a wide range of teaching and assessment methods. While there was a good overall coverage of topics, only one of them was covered by every institution and the religious/cultural elements of those topics were often neglected. The medical schools viewed better clinical integration of ethics teaching as the best route to improvement, but the students reported a desire for more ethics teaching in the form of specific tutorials, lectures or discussions. It is likely that a combination of these approaches will lead to significant improvements in the delivery of ethics teaching in this area and in others.

  18. An evaluation of training of teachers in medical education in four medical schools of Nepal. (United States)

    Baral, Nirmal; Paudel, Bishnu Hari; Das, Binod Kumar Lal; Aryal, Madhukar; Das, Balbhadra Prasad; Jha, Nilambar; Lamsal, Madhab


    Effective teaching is a concern of all teachers. Therefore, regular teachers' training is emphasized globally. B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), a health science deemed university situated in eastern region of Nepal has an established Medical Education unit which attempts to improve teaching-learning skills by training faculty members through organizing regular medical education training programs. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of 3-day training workshop on "Teaching-learning methodology and Evaluation" held in four different medical colleges of Nepal. The workshop was targeted at middle and entry level of health profession teachers who had not been previously exposed to any teacher's training program. The various components, such as teaching-learning principles, writing educational objectives, organizing and sequencing education materials, teaching-learning methods, microteaching and assessment techniques, were incorporated in the workshop. A team of resource persons from BPKIHS were involved in all the four medical institutions. The collection data had two categories of responses: (1) a questionnaire survey of participants at the beginning and end of the workshop to determine their gain in knowledge and (2) a semi-structured questionnaire survey of participants at the end of workshop to evaluate their perception on usefulness of the workshop. The later category had items with three-point likert scale (very useful, useful and not useful) and responses to open-ended questions/ statements to document participants general views. The response was entered into a spreadsheet and analyzed using SPSS. The result showed that all participants (n = 92) improved their scores after attending the workshop (p education would be highly beneficial to improve teaching learning skill of medical teachers.

  19. Medical school dropout - testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta;


     years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. Results  Strategy 2 (admission test) students had a lower relative risk for dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80). Only the admission...... dropout. Methods  This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n = 1544). Half of the students were admitted based on their prior achievement of highest grades (Strategy 1) and the other half...... took a composite non-grade-based admission test (Strategy 2). Educational as well as social predictor variables (doctor-parent, origin, parenthood, parents living together, parent on benefit, university-educated parents) were also examined. The outcome of interest was students' dropout status at 2...

  20. Formal public health education and career outcomes of medical school graduates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Krousel-Wood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few data are available evaluating the associations of formal public health education with long-term career choice and professional outcomes among medical school graduates. The objective of this study was to determine if formal public health education via completion of a masters of public health (MPH degree among US medical school graduates was associated with early and long-term career choice, professional satisfaction, or research productivity. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in 1108 physicians (17.1% completed a MPH degree who had 10-20 years of follow-up post medical school graduation. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Compared to their counterparts with no MPH, medical school graduates with a MPH were more likely to have completed a generalist primary care residency only [relative risk (RR 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.35-2.29], obtain employment in an academic institution (RR 1.81; 95% CI 1.33-2.37 or government agency (RR 3.26; 95% CI 1.89-5.38, and practice public health (RR 39.84; 95% CI 12.13-107.38 or primary care (RR 1.59; 95% CI 1.18-2.05. Furthermore, medical school graduates with a MPH were more likely to conduct public health research (RR 8.79; 95% CI: 5.20-13.82, receive NIH or other federal funding (RR 3.11, 95% CI 1.74-5.33, have four or more peer-reviewed publications (RR 2.07; 95% CI 1.56-2.60, and have five or more scientific presentations (RR 2.31, 95% CI 1.70-2.98. CONCLUSION: Formal public health education via a MPH was associated with career choice and professional outcomes among physicians.

  1. The evolution of PAs in the Canadian Armed Forces. (United States)

    Mertens, Jonathan; Descoteaux, Marc


    This study documents the growing role of the physician assistant (PA) in the Canadian Armed Forces. PAs have served as the backbone of the Royal Canadian Medical Services' frontline medical operations since 1984, on land, aboard ships and submarines, and domestically in garrison. Candidates begin as medical technicians and receive advanced training to become PAs at midcareer. The current rank of PAs as warrant officers is evolving and a commissioned status is under consideration.

  2. Professionalism perspectives among medical students of a novel medical graduate school in Malaysia


    Haque M; Zulkifli Z; Haque SZ; Kamal ZM; Salam A; Bhagat V; Alattraqchi AG; Rahman NIA


    Mainul Haque,1 Zainal Zulkifli,2 Seraj Zohurul Haque,3 Zubair M Kamal,4 Abdus Salam,5 Vidya Bhagat,2 Ahmed Ghazi Alattraqchi,2 Nor Iza A Rahman2 1Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Defense Health, National Defense University of Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Jalan Sultan Mahmud, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 3School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Ninewells H...

  3. Commentary: a ray of hope for medical school research funding. (United States)

    Gabbe, Steven G; Lockwood, Charles J; Marsh, Clay B


    Academic health centers are traditionally dependent on extramural agencies like the National Institutes of Health to fund medical research. The still-struggling U.S. economy has kept federal paylines stagnant in recent years even as research costs climb. Academic health center leaders need to find new funding sources to ensure that critical medical research continues. Myers and colleagues, in their report in this issue of Academic Medicine, found that scientific research funding by philanthropic nonprofit organizations rose 26% from 2006 to 2008. Even though the time frame for their study precedes the recent economic recession, their findings provide hope and guidance to academic health centers. Stable research portfolios should include a variety of sources, and Myers and colleagues suggest that partnership opportunities exist between federal and not-for-profit funding sources to focus on key disease areas. Seeking broader research funding may benefit at-risk groups like junior investigators, as the average age of a first-time NIH grant recipient in 2008 was 42 years old. To foster the new discoveries and ideas that come from young scientists, academic health centers need to diversify their research funding sources.It is encouraging that high-visibility philanthropic organizations enhanced funding by 26% from 2006 to 2008. However, between 2008 and 2010, overall grant support from foundations declined 2.3%. Should federal and private funding continue to fall, there is an eminent threat of losing a generation of investigators. Thus, creative solutions and partnerships are needed to fund more high-priority research to cure disease and create the future of medicine.

  4. Training programs and reference of medical imaging physicians of Canadian%加拿大医学影像科住院医师培训方式及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴仁华; 杨棉华


    Canadian medical education and resident training of medical imaging were observed and studied concerning the program standardization,with considerable emphasis on selection process,training curriculum,and examinations.Training methods and training progress for medical imaging undergraduates and physicians in Shantou University were summarized.In order to further improve training programs for medical imaging residents,some concerns for program standardization in Shantou University are discussed.%通过观察加拿大的医学教育和医学影像科住院医师的培训,尤其是在医学影像科住院医师录取、培训和考核方面的特色,分析其规范化培训的举措,比较汕头大学对医学影像学专业学生的培养和住院医师的培训,探讨相关问题,以期进一步做好汕头大学医学影像科住院医师规范化培训.

  5. Academic Guidance for Undergraduate Students in a South African Medical School: Can we guide them all?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho P Jama


    Full Text Available Higher education institutions, including medical schools, still grapple with the challenge of poor academic performance of students. Some studies report the positive results of providing academic guidance for common challenges such as poor and/or ineffective time management, study methods, test- and exam-taking techniques and management, and the high academic workload of undergraduate medical students. However, limited detailed insights and understanding of medical students who experience more complex challenges are available.  This study was conducted at a medical school in South Africa to determine undergraduate medical students’ perceptions of factors affecting their academic performance. A total of 89 semi-structured interviews were held with undergraduate medical students who were identified as having academic problems between 2012 and 2015. According to the results, more blacks, males and first- and second year students experienced poor academic performance. Prominent findings included the harsh realities and implications of lack of accommodation for black students; how poor academic performance can lead to an array of other social and psychological problems, such as withdrawal of bursaries and negative achievement emotions that some students experience. Compared to the usual objective measures of individual ability, the rich qualitative data of cases presented in this study reveal critical, real insights and understanding of students’ challenges from their own perspective.

  6. Neuroimmune pharmacology as a sub-discipline of immunology in the medical school curriculum. (United States)

    Cabral, Guy A


    This article provides a description of a proposed sub-module and attendant syllabus for inclusion of neuroimmune pharmacology as a sub-discipline of an immunology course that is offered to medical students during the first year of medical school. Neuroimmune pharmacology is an area of study that integrates fundamental concepts in pharmacology, immunology, neuroscience, and infectious disease. This convergent disciplinary area is of increasing importance to the foundational training of medical students, especially in view of the recognition that a variety of neuropathological processes such as demyelinating disease, drug abuse, and viral encephalitis has an immunological component. A lecture sub-module that addresses this convergent topic is proposed for inclusion as a sub-discipline of an immunology course offered as a component of a Scientific Foundations curriculum that takes place during the first 6 months of medical school. It is proposed to revisit the neuroimmune pharmacology topic area in a more clinical setting during the subsequent 14 months of study when medical students would be presented with an organ system-based curriculum. In this instructional model, basic science teaching faculty would interface with clinical faculty in presenting the topical block material in the context of different organ systems. Discussion of clinical cases related to neuroimmune pharmacology would be integrated into the organ system-based curriculum in order to highlight a translational relevance to medical practice.

  7. [Educational program in the Medical Science Course, Kitasato University School of Allied Health Sciences]. (United States)

    Kitasato, Hidero; Takahashi, Shinichiro; Ohbu, Makoto; Obata, Fumiya; Ogawa, Zensuke; Sato, Yuichi; Hattori, Manabu; Saito-Taki, Tatsuo; Hara, Kazuya; Okano, Tetsuroh; Kubo, Makoto; Maruyama, Hiroko; Tsuchiya, Benio; Okazaki, Toshio; Ishii, Naohito; Nishimura, Yukari; Takada, Nobukazu; Abe, Michiko; Hachimura, Kazuo; Tanigawa, Kozo; Katagiri, Masato


    The aim of education in the Medical Laboratory Science course, Kitasato University School of Allied Health Sciences, is to bring up train students who have Kitasato spirit, for careers in laboratory medicine of hospital or scientific staff of medical companies or as researchers. General and enlightening education concerning "Kitasato spirit" and professional education composed of major subjects was carried out in the first and during the 2nd and two third of 3rd grade, respectively. Medical practice and research training were alternatively carried out for 6 months between November of the 3rd year and November of the 4th year, in order to gain practical experience. Two problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial courses, "Infectious Diseases Course" and "Team Medical Care--Interprofessional Collaborations" were also carried out at the end of the 3rd and beginning of the 4th years, respectively, in order to convert a memory to knowledge. Team medical care course enrolls 1000 students at the School of Allied Health Sciences, Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy and Kitasato College Applied Clinical Dietetics Course, is now one of special courses available at our university. This attempt is thought to result in a way of thinking that recognizes the importance of co-operation as a team member and personal contributions to actual team medical care.

  8. Simulated surgical workshops enhance medical school students’ preparation for clinical rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Johnson


    Full Text Available BackgroundA major focus of the medical school curriculum is to ensure medical students are well prepared prior to entering clinical rotations, which includes the compulsory surgical rotation.AimsThe objective of this research was to design and formally evaluate a set of real-life surgical workshops aimed at better preparing medical students for their clinical rotation in surgery. These workshops would be incorporated into the pre-clinical medical school curriculum.MethodDedicated surgical workshops were introduced into the preclinical component of the Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS program at our University in 2009. These workshops encompassed training in the clinical skills needed in the perioperative and wider hospital setting. A survey comprising of eight to nine ranked questions (utilising a five-point Likert Scale as well as three short answer questions was administered to the medical students after they completed their compulsory surgical clinical rotation.ResultsThe overall response rate to the survey evaluating the surgical workshops was 79% (123/155. The mean of the ranked questions ranged from 4.05 to 4.89 which indicated that the students found the workshops useful. When evaluating the short answer questions (via topic coding, additional information was provided that supported and explained the survey findings and also included suggestions for improvements.ConclusionThe findings of the medical student survey demonstrated the value of incorporating dedicated preparatory surgical workshops in the medical school pre-clinical curriculum. However, further research is warranted to determine if this inclusion translated into improved student performance during the clinical surgical rotation.

  9. Does Emotional Intelligence Change during Medical School Gross Anatomy Course? Correlations with Students' Performance and Team Cohesion (United States)

    Holman, Michelle A.; Porter, Samuel G.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Juskewitch, Justin E.; Lachman, Nirusha


    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been associated with increased academic achievement, but its impact on medical education is relatively unexplored. This study sought to evaluate change in EI, performance outcomes, and team cohesion within a team-based medical school anatomy course. Forty-two medical students completed a pre-course and post-course…

  10. ADHD Medication and Social Self-Understanding: Social Practice Research with a First Grade in a Danish Primary School (United States)

    Kristensen, Karen-Lis; Mørck, Line Lerche


    This paper addresses some of the contradictions, dilemmas, and struggles in a Danish primary school practice involved in medicating children diagnosed with ADHD. It draws on a social practice research study of a 7-year-old boy diagnosed with ADHD, who was medicated against his will. It focuses on his struggles when being medicated, and…

  11. Study for Teaching Behavioral Sciences in Schools of Medicine, Volume III: Behavioral Science Perspectives in Medical Education. (United States)

    American Sociological Association, Washington, DC. Medical Sociology Council.

    Volume III of a study of teaching behavioral sciences in medical school presents perspectives on medical behavioral science from the viewpoints of the several behavioral disciplines (anthropology, psychology, sociology, political science, economics, behavioral biology and medical education). In addition, there is a discussion of translating…

  12. Diversification of U.S. medical schools via affirmative action implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhan Shaheen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diversification of medical school student and faculty bodies via race-conscious affirmative action policy is a societal and legal option for the U.S. Supreme Court has recently ruled its use constitutional. This paper investigates the implications of affirmative action, particularly race-conscious compared to race-blind admissions policy; explains how alternative programs are generally impractical; and provides a brief review of the history and legality of affirmative action in the United States. Discussion Selection based solely on academic qualifications such as GPA and MCAT scores does not achieve racial and ethnic diversity in medical school, nor does it adequately predict success as practicing physicians. However, race-conscious preference yields greater practice in underserved and often minority populations, furthers our biomedical research progression, augments health care for minority patients, and fosters an exceptional medical school environment where students are better able to serve an increasingly multicultural society. Summary The implementation of race-conscious affirmative action results in diversity in medicine. Such diversity has shown increased medical practice in underserved areas, thereby providing better health care for the American people.

  13. Nursing student medication errors: a snapshot view from a school of nursing's quality and safety officer. (United States)

    Cooper, Elizabeth


    Medication errors are one of the most common types of errors in the health care arena. For more than a decade, health care providers have been challenged to improve patient safety outcomes, including medication administration issues. Nurse educators are challenged to provide didactic content and clinical experiences that will ensure students gain the knowledge necessary to administer medications in a safe manner. The aim of this article is to discuss nursing student medication errors identified at a university school of nursing, looking to categorize the errors into three areas: administration rights, system issues, and knowledge and understanding. Introducing nursing students to a reporting system early in their educational process can lead to increased transparency in error reporting and increased patient safety.

  14. Part I. "Behind every problem lies an opportunity": meeting the challenge of diversity in medical schools. (United States)

    Fischbach, R L; Hunt, M


    The authors describe the historical evolution and present status of affirmative action in medical school admission policies. The demographic transformation of the medical student body between 1965 and 1998 from a homogeneous white and male group to one that includes a significant number of women and minority students is presented. Challenges to affirmative action are outlined. In addition, the authors note the increasing diversity of the general population and discuss the benefits of diversity to medical practice, research, and education. However, the upper ranks of professors and administrators remain white and male. The rationale for an innovative course on the history of bias in medicine and the benefits that diversity brings to the medical enterprise are presented.

  15. "DREEM" comes true - Students′ perceptions of educational environment in an Indian medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H S Kiran


    Full Text Available Background: The accomplishment and contentment of students depends upon their educational environment. Very few studies in India have looked at the impact of educational environment on students, there are few such studies in our country despite having a large number of medical schools. Objective: This study was performed to assess the undergraduate students′ perceptions of medical education in general and educational environment in our medical school in particular. Materials and Methods: The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM, a validated inventory was distributed among undergraduate students in final Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS (2010-2011 and students who were undergoing internship (2010-2011 and various scores were calculated and the means were compared using Mann-Whitney test. Results: The mean total DREEM score was found to be 121.5/200 for final MBBS students (n = 115 and 118.4/200 (n = 109 for the internship batch students. There was no statistically significant difference between the scores of the two batches. The overall DREEM score for our Medical School during the academic year 2010-2011 (for the final MBBS and internship batch was 120/200 (n = 224, which showed that the students′ perceptions were more positive. Conclusion: The study showed that the students′ perception of the educational environment was positive. There was no statistically significant difference between the scores of the two batches (final MBBS and internship. This study helped us to introspect and identify remediable areas in the educational environment of our medical school and hence we could suggest some measures to modify them.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriers Among Medical Students in A Medical School. (United States)

    Syafinaz, A M; Nur Ain, N Z; Nadzirahi, S N; Fatimah, J S; Shahram, A; Nasir, M D M


    Staphylococcus aureus is usually considered a colonizer but can result in infections under favourable conditions, especially in the healthcare setting. Healthcare workers can be colonized by S. aureus, and may transmit them to patients under their care. We conducted a cross sectional study to determine the prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriers among medical students in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) (from January to June 2011). Our study involved 209 medical students comprising of 111 and 97 preclinical and clinical students respectively. A selfadministered questionnaire was distributed and nasal swabs were collected. Upon identification, the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was examined followed by categorical analysis (Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests) with factors associated with S. aureus nasal carriage. Twenty one (10%) S. aureus strains were isolated from 209 nasal swab samples. 14 isolates were from pre-clinical students while the remaining seven were from clinical students. There was no significant association between gender, ethnicity, health status, skin infection and students' exposure to hospital environment with S. aureus nasal carriage (p>0.05). Nineteen (90.5%) isolates were resistant to penicillin and there was also no significant association between penicillin resistant and the students' groups. One (5.3%) isolate was resistant to erythromycin. There was no methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolated in this study.

  17. Post-graduation migration intentions of students of Lebanese medical schools: a survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakr Mazen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The international migration of physicians is a global public health problem. Lebanon is a source country with the highest emigration factor in the Middle East and North Africa and the 7th highest in the World. Given that residency training abroad is a critical step in the migration of physicians, the objective of this study was to survey students of Lebanese medical schools about their intentions to train abroad and their post training plans. Methods Our target population consisted of all students of Lebanese medical schools in the pre-final and final years of medical school. We developed the survey questionnaire based on the results of a qualitative study assessing the intentions and motives for students of Lebanese medical schools to train abroad. The questionnaire inquired about student's demographic and educational characteristics, intention to train abroad, the chosen country of abroad training, and post-training intention of returning to Lebanon. Results Of 576 eligible students, 425 participated (73.8% response rate. 406 (95.5% respondents intended to travel abroad either for specialty training (330 (77.6% or subspecialty training (76 (17.9%. Intention to train abroad was associated with being single compared with being married. The top 4 destination countries were the US (301(74.1%, France (49 (12.1%, the United Kingdom (31 (7.6% and Canada (17 (4.2%. One hundred and two (25.1% respondents intended to return to Lebanon directly after finishing training abroad; 259 (63.8% intended to return to Lebanon after working abroad temporarily for a varying number or years; 43 (10.6% intended to never return to Lebanon. The intention to stay indefinitely abroad was associated male sex and having a 2nd citizenship. It was inversely associated with being a student of one of the French affiliated medical schools and a plan to train in a surgical specialty. Conclusion An alarming percentage of students of Lebanese medical schools

  18. Personal health promotion at US medical schools: a quantitative study and qualitative description of deans' and students' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elon Lisa K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior literature has shown that physicians with healthy personal habits are more likely to encourage patients to adopt similar habits. However, despite the possibility that promoting medical student health might therefore efficiently improve patient outcomes, no one has studied whether such promotion happens in medical school. We therefore wished to describe both typical and outstanding personal health promotion environments experienced by students in U.S. medical schools. Methods We collected information through four different modalities: a literature review, written surveys of medical school deans and students, student and dean focus groups, and site visits at and interviews with medical schools with reportedly outstanding student health promotion programs. Results We found strong correlations between deans' and students' perceptions of their schools' health promotion environments, including consistent support of the idea of schools' encouraging healthy student behaviors, with less consistent follow-through by schools on this concept. Though students seemed to have thought little about the relationships between their own personal and clinical health promotion practices, deans felt strongly that faculty members should model healthy behaviors. Conclusions Deans' support of the relationship between physicians' personal and clinical health practices, and concern about their institutions' acting on this relationship augurs well for the role of student health promotion in the future of medical education. Deans seem to understand their students' health environment, and believe it could and should be improved; if this is acted on, it could create important positive changes in medical education and in disease prevention.

  19. Validity evidence for the measurement of the strength of motivation for medical school. (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Croiset, Gerda; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle


    The Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire is designed to determine the strength of motivation of students particularly for medical study. This research was performed to establish the validity evidence for measuring strength of motivation for medical school. Internal structure and relations to other variables were used as the sources of validity evidence. The SMMS questionnaire was filled out by 1,494 medical students in different years of medical curriculum. The validity evidence for the internal structure was analyzed by principal components analysis with promax rotation. Validity evidence for relations to other variables was tested by comparing the SMMS scores with scores on the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) and the exhaustion scale of Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) for measuring study stress. Evidence for internal consistency was determined through the Cronbach's alpha for reliability. The analysis showed that the SMMS had a 3-factor structure. The validity in relations to other variables was established as both, the subscales and full scale scores significantly correlated positively with the intrinsic motivation scores and with the more autonomous forms of extrinsic motivation, the correlation decreasing and finally becoming negative towards the extrinsic motivation end of the spectrum. They also had significant negative correlations with amotivation scale of the AMS and exhaustion scale of MBI-SS. The Cronbach's alpha for reliability of the three subscales and full SMMS scores was 0.70, 0.67, 0.55 and 0.79. The strength of motivation for medical school has a three factor structure and acceptable validity evidence was found in our study.

  20. Teaching of pharmacology in Universiti Malaya and the other medical schools in Malaysia- a historical perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si Mui SIM


    Traditional pharmacology teaching has focused more on drug instead of therapeutics, such that although pharmacological knowledge is acquired, practical skills in prescribing remain weak. In Malaysia many new medical schools (both public and private) have been set up in the last 12 years due to a change in government policy, resulting in a wide spectrum of medical curricula. Universiti Malaya (UM) being the oldest medical school in Malaysia was deep set in its traditional way of teaching-learning, since its inception in 1962, until a visit from the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom in 1984 triggered off a change of tide. Since then the medical curriculum in UM has undergone two major revisions. The first revised curriculum (1988) aimed to inject more clinical relevance into basic science teaching, through introducing clinical lectures and skills in the paraclinical year.Professional behaviour was also addressed. The second revised curriculum (1998) sought to improve further the integration of knowledge as well as to produce a holistic doctor, viewing the patient as a person instead of a clinical entity. The teaching-learning of pharmacology has gradually moved from factual regurgitation to more clinical reasoning, from lab-based to more patient-oriented approach. As more new medical schools are being set up in Malaysia, exchange of experience in this area of learning will hopefully help us find a happy medium between "the old is best" and "the new is better" type approach so that a pedagogically sound and yet logistically practical curriculum can be found in our local setting, to help produce doctors with good prescribing practice.

  1. The new University of Colorado medical school curriculum: a pediatric perspective. (United States)

    Deterding, Robin R; Wong, Shale; Faries, Glenn; Glover, Jacqueline J; Garrington, Timothy P; Wang, Michael; Anderson, Marsha S; Krugman, Richard D


    The University of Colorado School of Medicine has developed an innovative 4-year undergraduate curriculum. As a strong advocate for education and curriculum reform, Dr M. Douglas Jones Jr. created an environment for pediatrics to flourish in this new curriculum. Pediatric content has increased in all years of the curriculum, and pediatric faculty have had greater opportunities to teach and seek career development in medical education. In this report, we review the process that led to curriculum reform, provide an overview of the new curriculum design, and highlight examples of the positive impact this process has had on education in pediatrics. We hope that sharing our experience, may benefit others in medical education.

  2. Technical Standards and Deaf and Hard of Hearing Medical School Applicants and Students: Interrogating Sensory Capacity and Practice Capacity. (United States)

    Argenyi, Michael


    Applicants to medical schools who are deaf and hard of hearing (DHoH) or who have other disabilities face significant barriers to medical school admission. One commonly cited barrier to admission is medical schools' technical standards (TS) for admission, advancement, and graduation. Ethical values of diversity and equity support altering the technical standards to be more inclusive of people with disabilities. Incorporating these values into admissions, advancement, and graduation considerations for DHoH and other students with disabilities can contribute to the physician workforce being more representative of the diverse patients it serves and better able to care for them.

  3. Longitudinal and horizontal integration of nutrition science into medical school curricula. (United States)

    Tobin, Brian; Welch, Kimberly; Dent, Marie; Smith, Colleen; Hooks, Beulette; Hash, Robert


    The overall goal of our Nutrition Academic Award (NAA) medical nutrition program at Mercer University School of Medicine is to develop, implement and evaluate a medical education curriculum in nutrition and other aspects of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and patient management with emphasis on the training of primary care physicians for medically underserved populations. The curriculum is 1) vertically integrated throughout all 4 y of undergraduate medical education, including basic science, clinical skills, community science and clinical clerkships as well as residency training; 2) horizontally integrated to include allied healthcare training in dietetics, nursing, exercise physiology and public health; and 3) designed as transportable modules adaptable to the curricula of other medical schools. The specific aims of our program are 1) to enhance our existing basic science problem-based Biomedical Problems Program with respect to CVD prevention through development of additional curriculum in nutrition/diet/exercise and at-risk subpopulations; 2) to integrate into our Clinical Skills Program objectives for medical history taking, conducting patient exams, diet/lifestyle counseling and referrals to appropriate allied healthcare professionals that are specific to CVD prevention; 3) to enhance CVD components in the Community Science population-based medicine curriculum, stressing the health-field concept model, community needs assessment, evidence-based medicine and primary care issues in rural and medically underserved populations; 4) to enhance the CVD prevention and patient management component in existing 3rd- and 4th-y clinical clerkships with respect to nutrition/diet/exercise and socioeconomic issues, behavior modification and networking with allied health professionals; and 5) to integrate a nutrition/behavior change component into Graduate Residency Training in CVD prevention.

  4. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland (United States)

    Ketovuori, Mikko


    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003-2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to…

  5. A study of the factors influencing school-going students considering medical careers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M


    INTRODUCTION: Obtaining a place in an Irish medical school is extremely competitive, a situation mirrored in many other countries. We aimed to determine the factors influencing school students in deciding to study medicine in university. We further determined what level of interest exists in pursuing a surgical career after completion of medical school. METHODS: The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland hosts an annual "Introduction to Medicine" programme for senior school children. Attendees were surveyed using a Likert scale to examine the factors influencing the group in choosing to study medicine, and pursue surgery as their ultimate career choice. RESULTS: A total of 128 completed the survey, giving a response rate of 100%. The opportunity to help others was most the most influential factors cited by students (97%). Males were significantly more likely to have an interest in a career in surgery rather than medicine (p = 0.003), and ranked "financial reward" (p = 0.036) as a more significant factors in influencing career choice than did females. CONCLUSIONS: A clear understanding of these factors influencing our students in their career choices and a strategy of recruitment based on these is imperative in order to optimize recruitment of students most suited to working as doctors.

  6. The relationship among self-efficacy, perfectionism and academic burnout in medical school students (United States)

    Yu, Ji Hye; Chae, Su Jin; Chang, Ki Hong


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among academic self-efficacy, socially-prescribed perfectionism, and academic burnout in medical school students and to determine whether academic self-efficacy had a mediating role in the relationship between perfectionism and academic burnout. Methods: A total of 244 first-year and second-year premed medical students and first- to fourth-year medical students were enrolled in this study. As study tools, socially-prescribed perfectionism, academic self-efficacy, and academic burnout scales were utilized. For data analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Results: Academic burnout had correlation with socially-prescribed perfectionism. It had negative correlation with academic self-efficacy. Socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy had 54% explanatory power for academic burnout. When socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy were simultaneously used as input, academic self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic burnout. Conclusion: Socially-prescribed perfectionism had a negative effect on academic self-efficacy, ultimately triggering academic burnout. This suggests that it is important to have educational and counseling interventions to improve academic self-efficacy by relieving academic burnout of medical school students. PMID:26838568

  7. Impact of a novel dental school admission test on student performance at Innsbruck Medical University, Austria. (United States)

    Beier, Ulrike Stephanie; Kapferer, Ines; Ostermann, Herwig; Staudinger, Roland; Dumfahrt, Herbert


    Since the year 2000, prospective dental students at Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria, have undergone both theoretical and practical preadmission exams, called the Dental Admission Test (DAT). The aim of this investigation was to assess the suitability and outcome of this selection practice. Five classes from 2001 to 2005 (N=97; forty-three female, fifty-four male) were retrospectively reviewed. DAT results were compared with student performance, gender, ability to graduate on time, and dropout rates. Furthermore, the influence of a previous medical degree was evaluated. The t-test was used to analyze correlations between the results of the DAT and the following: gender, students who graduated on time, and students who had previously completed a medical degree. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was applied to analyze correlations among test scores, age, and students' performance during the first clinical year. Students graduating on time were noted to have significantly better DAT results; students with a previous medical degree showed significantly better grades during their first clinical year. The difference between the performance of male and female applicants on the DAT was not significant. Correlation was found between DAT results and dental school performance (r=-0.462). We conclude that the DAT may reduce dropout rates by excluding applicants unlikely to be successful in practical courses and that DAT scores are a reliable tool to predict student performance during the first clinical year of dental school in Innsbruck.

  8. A proposal to establish master's in biomedical sciences degree programs in medical school environments. (United States)

    Ingoglia, Nicholas A


    Most graduate schools associated with medical schools offer programs leading to the PhD degree but pay little attention to master's programs. This is unfortunate because many university graduates who are interested specifically in biomedical rather than pure science fields need further education before making decisions on whether to enter clinical, research, education, or business careers. Training for these students is done best in a medical school, rather than a graduate university, environment and by faculty who are engaged in research in the biomedical sciences. Students benefit from these programs by exploring career options they might not have previously considered while learning about disease-related subjects at the graduate level. Graduate faculty can also benefit by being compensated for their teaching with a portion of the tuition revenue, funds that can help run their laboratories and support other academic expenses. Faculty also may attract talented students to their labs and to their PhD programs by exposing them to a passion for research. The graduate school also benefits by collecting masters tuition revenue that can be used toward supporting PhD stipends. Six-year outcome data from the program at Newark show that, on completion of the program, most students enter educational, clinical, or research careers and that the graduate school has established a new and significant stream of revenue. Thus, the establishment of a master's program in biomedical sciences that helps students match their academic abilities with their career goals significantly benefits students as well as the graduate school and its faculty.

  9. Neuroimmune pharmacology as a component of pharmacology in medical school curriculum. (United States)

    Chen, Yuh F


    An introduction to the discipline of pharmacology is a standard part of the scientific foundation of medical school curricula. Neuroimmune pharmacology is a new subtopic that integrates fundamental concepts of neuroscience, immunology, infectious disease, and pharmacology. The integration of these areas is important to medical training in view of the growing concern over neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive disorders. This article introduces a submodule and concomitant syllabus for inclusion of neuroimmune pharmacology as a component of a pharmacology curriculum. The introductory lectures of neuroimmune pharmacology will concentrate on the role of the immune system in (1) schizophrenia and major depression; (2) neurodegenerative disorders; and (3) drug addiction. Emphasis will be placed on the competencies of critical thinking, problem solving, learning interest, and effectiveness of medical students. Problem-based learning and case study discussions will also be applied.

  10. Medical schools, affirmative action, and the neglected role of social class. (United States)

    Magnus, S A; Mick, S S


    Medical schools' affirmative action policies traditionally focus on race and give relatively little consideration to applicants' socioeconomic status or "social class." However, recent challenges to affirmative action have raised the prospect of using social class, instead of race, as the basis for preferential admissions decisions in an effort to maintain or increase student diversity. This article reviews the evidence for class-based affirmative action in medicine and concludes that it might be an effective supplement to, rather than a replacement for, race-based affirmative action. The authors consider the research literature on (1) medical students' socioeconomic background, (2) the impact of social class on medical treatment and physician-patient communication, and (3) correlations between physicians' socioeconomic origins and their service patterns to the disadvantaged. They also reference sociological literature on distinctions between race and class and Americans' discomfort with "social class."

  11. Is the pass/fail system applicable to a medical school in Korea? (United States)

    Kim, Mee Young


    To determine whether a pass/fail system is more appropriate for medical education instead of a grade-based system, a survey of medical students and faculty members of Hallym University, Korea, was taken. A questionnaire was delivered to 54 junior students and 36 faculty members from a medical school in Korea and analyzed. Of these participants, 37.7% of students and 36.1% of faculty agreed to the pass/fail system, while 28.3% of students and 52.8% of faculty objected to it. The most frequent reason for objection was the potential decrease in learning achievement. A pass/fail system should be considered after persuasion of the students and faculty to think positively of this system.

  12. Awareness and attitude towards human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine among medical students in a premier medical school in India.

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    Deeksha Pandey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As preventing cancer with the help of a vaccine is a comparatively new concept, awareness and education about it will have important implication in the implementation of this strategy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Present explorative questionnaire based survey included 618 MBBS students for final analysis. RESULTS: Majority of participants (89.6% were well aware of the preventable nature of cervical cancer. Most of them (89.2% knew that necessary factor responsible for cervical cancer is infection with high risk HPV. Awareness regarding the availability of vaccine against cervical cancer was 75.6%. Females had a better awareness regarding availability of vaccine, target population for vaccination and about the catch up program. Overall acceptance of HPV vaccine among the population studied was 67.8%. Medical teaching had a definitive impact on the understanding of this important public health issue. Females seemed to be more ready to accept the vaccine and recommend it to others. For our study population the most common source of information was medical school teaching. Majority of participants agreed that the most important obstacle in implementation of HPV vaccination program in our country is inadequate information and 86.2% wanted to be educated by experts in this regard. CONCLUSION: HPV vaccine for primary prevention of cervical cancer is a relatively new concept. Health professional will be able to play a pivotal role in popularizing this strategy.

  13. "The School of Life": Differences in U.S. and Canadian Settlement Policies and Their Effect on Individual Haitian Immigrants' Language Learning (United States)

    Duguay, Annie Laurie


    A growing body of literature suggests that language proficiency in the main language of the destination country is one of the most significant factors in the integration of immigrants. This study examines the overall differences in U.S. and Canadian settlement policy, using the provision of language courses as a specific example of the ways in…

  14. Organizational role stress among medical school faculty members in Iran: dealing with role conflict

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    Brommels Mats


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little research has been conducted to investigate role stress experienced by faculty members in medical schools in developing countries. This becomes even more important when the process of reform in medical education has already taken place, such as the case of Iran. The objectives of this study were to investigate and assess the level and source of role-related stress as well as dimensions of conflict among the faculty members of Iranian medical schools. Variables like the length of academic work, academic rank, employment position, and the departments of affiliation were also taken into consideration in order to determine potentially related factors. Methods A survey was conducted at three different ranks of public medical schools. The validated Organizational Role Stress Scale was used to investigate the level of role stress and dimensions of role conflict among medical faculty members. The response rate was 66.5%. Results The findings show that role stress was experienced in high level among almost all faculty members. All three studied medical schools with different ranks are threatened with relatively the same levels of role stress. Specific differences were found among faculty members from different disciplines, and academic ranks. Also having permanent position and the length of services had significant correlation with the level of role stress. The major role- related stress and forms of conflict among faculty members were role overload, role expectation conflict, inter-role distance, resource inadequacy, role stagnation, and role isolation. Conclusion The most role-related stressors and forms of conflict among faculty members include too many tasks and everyday work load; conflicting demands from colleagues and superiors; incompatible demands from their different personal and organizational roles; inadequate resources for appropriate performance; insufficient competency to meet the demands of their role; inadequate

  15. Mentoring During Medical School and Match Outcome Among Emergency Medicine Residents

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    Erin Dehon


    Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies have documented the value of mentoring for medical students, and research has been limited to more subjective (e.g., job satisfaction, perceived career preparation rather than objective outcomes. This study examined whether having a mentor is associated with match outcome (where a student matched based on their rank order list [ROL]. Methods: We sent a survey link to all emergency medicine (EM program coordinators to distribute to their residents. EM residents were surveyed about whether they had a mentor during medical school. Match outcome was assessed by asking residents where they matched on their ROL (e.g., first choice, fifth choice. They were also asked about rank in medical school, type of degree (MD vs. DO, and performance on standardized tests. Residents who indicated having a mentor completed the Mentorship Effectiveness Scale (MES, which evaluates behavioral characteristics of the mentor and yields a total score. We assessed correlations among these variables using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Post-hoc analysis using independent sample t-test was conducted to compare differences in the MES score between those who matched to their first or second choice vs. third or higher choice. Results: Participants were a convenience sample of 297 EM residents. Of those, 199 (67% reported having a mentor during medical school. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no significant correlation between having a mentor and match outcome (r=0.06, p=0.29. Match outcome was associated with class rank (r=0.13, p=0.03, satisfaction with match outcome (r= -0.37, p<0.001, and type of degree (r=0.12, p=0.04. Among those with mentors, a t-test revealed that the MES score was significantly higher among those who matched to their first or second choice (M=51.31, SD=10.13 compared to those who matched to their third or higher choice (M=43.59, SD=17.12, t(194=3.65, p<0.001, d=0.55. Conclusion: Simply having a mentor during medical

  16. Learning approaches to physiology of undergraduates in an Indian medical school. (United States)

    Abraham, Reem R; Kamath, Asha; Upadhya, Subramanya; Ramnarayan, Komattil


    Inventories monitoring students' learning approaches are widely used in medical education research. It is important that teaching interventions adopted in medical schools aim to develop a deep approach to learning in medical students. To study the changes in medical students' approaches to learning before and after the incorporation of clinically orientated physiology teaching (COPT) in the undergraduate physiology curriculum, using the Short Inventory of Approaches to Learning (SIAL). Medical students (n = 223) at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus) undertake a 9-week learning block of endocrine, reproductive and renal physiology in Year 1. During this period, COPT was incorporated along with regular didactic lectures with the intention of enhancing the use of the deep approach and decreasing the use of the surface and strategic approaches to learning taken by the students. The SIAL, which focuses on the learning approaches of students to physiology, was distributed both before and after COPT. The implementation of COPT seemed to affect the learning approaches of students as measured by the SIAL. After the introduction of COPT, there was a significant increase in the use of the deep learning approach, while the majority of subscales for the surface approach showed decreased use. Nevertheless, use of the strategic approach was found to have increased after COPT. The SIAL was found to be a fairly reliable tool with which to determine the learning approaches of medical students. Clinically orientated physiology teaching was successful in enhancing use of the deep approach to learning and reducing use of the surface approach among undergraduate medical students.

  17. Student perception about working in rural United States/Canada after graduation: a study in an offshore Caribbean medical school [v1; ref status: indexed,

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    P Ravi Shankar


    mentioned above. Graduates from Caribbean medical schools have a role in addressing rural physician shortage. Similar studies in other offshore Caribbean medical schools are required as Caribbean IMGs make an important contribution to the rural US and Canadian health workforce.

  18. Attitudes Towards Smoking and Frequency of Smoking Among Students of Duzce Medical School

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    Atilla Senih Mayda


    Full Text Available In this cross-sectional study; to determine smoking prevalence in the students of Duzce Medical School and to learn attitudes of students towards smoking was aimed and questionnaires applied under supervision to 230 students (96.0% who accepted to participated to the study of all 242 students of the Medical School in the term of 2005-2006. The prevalence of smoking was found 31.3%. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher in the students who have smokers among their friends, the students who had been graduated from Science High School, the students who deal with an art such as painting, music, theatre and the students who have lived alone. Almost all the students declined that they had supported the legal regulations and sanctions against smoking and 43.0 % of the students thought that to persuade community not to smoke has been the mission of doctors. The reasons to begin to smoke were declined as; the affects of friends, (54.4%, affectation (28.0%, curiosity (28.8% and being alone (20.6%. Of the students who have been smoking currently 42 students (65.6% have wanted to quit smoking, 20 (31.3% haven’t want to quit and 2 (%3.1 has been undecided. Of smokers, 47 students (74.6% had been tried to quit smoking. The students of Medical School have known that smoking was harmful to health. Because friends’ affects are important to begin smoking; campaigns to quit smoking has to be planned towards friend groups not to individuals. Considering that behaviors of physicians have effected to community physicians have to be ensured to quit smoking and not to begin smoking with campaigns against smoking. It’s important to support students who want to quit smoking. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 364-370

  19. Attitudes Towards Smoking and Frequency of Smoking Among Students of Duzce Medical School

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    Atilla Senih Mayda


    Full Text Available In this cross-sectional study; to determine smoking prevalence in the students of Duzce Medical School and to learn attitudes of students towards smoking was aimed and questionnaires applied under supervision to 230 students (96.0% who accepted to participated to the study of all 242 students of the Medical School in the term of 2005-2006. The prevalence of smoking was found 31.3%. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher in the students who have smokers among their friends, the students who had been graduated from Science High School, the students who deal with an art such as painting, music, theatre and the students who have lived alone. Almost all the students declined that they had supported the legal regulations and sanctions against smoking and 43.0 % of the students thought that to persuade community not to smoke has been the mission of doctors. The reasons to begin to smoke were declined as; the affects of friends, (54.4%, affectation (28.0%, curiosity (28.8% and being alone (20.6%. Of the students who have been smoking currently 42 students (65.6% have wanted to quit smoking, 20 (31.3% haven’t want to quit and 2 (%3.1 has been undecided. Of smokers, 47 students (74.6% had been tried to quit smoking. The students of Medical School have known that smoking was harmful to health. Because friends’ affects are important to begin smoking; campaigns to quit smoking has to be planned towards friend groups not to individuals. Considering that behaviors of physicians have effected to community physicians have to be ensured to quit smoking and not to begin smoking with campaigns against smoking. It’s important to support students who want to quit smoking. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 364-370

  20. A holistic review of the medical school admission process: examining correlates of academic underperformance

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    Terry D. Stratton


    Full Text Available Background: Despite medical school admission committees’ best efforts, a handful of seemingly capable students invariably struggle during their first year of study. Yet, even as entrance criteria continue to broaden beyond cognitive qualifications, attention inevitably reverts back to such factors when seeking to understand these phenomena. Using a host of applicant, admission, and post-admission variables, the purpose of this inductive study, then, was to identify a constellation of student characteristics that, taken collectively, would be predictive of students at-risk of underperforming during the first year of medical school. In it, we hypothesize that a wider range of factors than previously recognized could conceivably play roles in understanding why students experience academic problems early in the medical educational continuum. Methods: The study sample consisted of the five most recent matriculant cohorts from a large, southeastern medical school (n=537. Independent variables reflected: 1 the personal demographics of applicants (e.g., age, gender; 2 academic criteria (e.g., undergraduate grade point averages [GPA], medical college admission test; 3 selection processes (e.g., entrance track, interview scores, committee votes; and 4 other indicators of personality and professionalism (e.g., Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test™ emotional intelligence scores, NEO PI-R™ personality profiles, and appearances before the Professional Code Committee [PCC]. The dependent variable, first-year underperformance, was defined as ANY action (repeat, conditionally advance, or dismiss by the college's Student Progress and Promotions Committee (SPPC in response to predefined academic criteria. This study protocol was approved by the local medical institutional review board (IRB. Results: Of the 537 students comprising the study sample, 61 (11.4% met the specified criterion for academic underperformance. Significantly increased

  1. Nurturing educational research at Dartmouth Medical School: the synergy among innovative ideas, support faculty, and administrative structures. (United States)

    Nierenberg, David W; Carney, Patricia A


    In recent years, Dartmouth Medical School has increased its commitment to educational research within the school, and in collaboration with other schools across the country. Passionate faculty members with ideas and expertise in particular curricular areas are one critical component needed for a successful educational research program. Other components include an atmosphere that fosters research collaborations and mentoring, and various types of institutional support structures. This same model has effectively supported basic science and clinical research for decades. Because of the complexities involved in studying medical education, Dartmouth Medical School has invested in support structures for educational grant and manuscript development, financial support for pilot projects and partial salary support for investigators and key staff members, and other support targeted toward specific research projects. Ultimately, the goal is to use the results of the school's educational research projects to improve the curriculum through cycles of hypothesis development and testing, providing evidence for subsequent curricular change. When some research findings are relevant and applicable for use in other medical schools, that is an additional benefit of the educational research process. In this report, the authors describe the development of Dartmouth Medical School's infrastructure for supporting educational research, which has helped to accelerate the educational research productivity teaching faculty now enjoy. The authors also address some of the challenges that they anticipate in the near future.

  2. Multimedia-based courseware in the Virtual Learning Center at the Hannover Medical School. (United States)

    Matthies, H K; von Jan, U; Porth, A J; Tatagiba, M; Stan, A C; Walter, G F


    The commercial use of the World Wide Web causes an extensive change in information technology. Web browser are becoming the universal front-end for all kinds of client-server applications. The possibilities of telematics offer a base for multimedia applications, for instance telelearning. Learning is not limited by geography and does not cause pressure of time by the user. The development of such multimedia information and communication systems demands cooperative working teams of authors, who are able to master several areas of medical knowledge as well as the presentation of these using different multimedia facilities. A very important part of graphic design in the context of multimedia applications is the creation and interactive use of images (still, moving). The growth and the complexity of medical knowledge as well as the need for continuous, fast, and economically feasible maintenance impose requirements on the media used for medical education and training. Web-based courseware in the Virtual Learning Center at the Hannover Medical School is an innovative education resource for medical students and professionals.

  3. Medical problems among dental patients at the school of dentistry, the university of the West Indies. (United States)

    Al-Bayaty, H F; Murti, P R; Naidu, R S; Matthews, R; Simeon, D


    This study ascertained demographic information and prevalence rates of medical problems among 571 new and consecutive dental patients attending the emergency clinic of the School of Dentistry, The University of the West Indies. Patients were interviewed by specially trained and calibrated dental students and interns. Various medical problems of patients were recorded in individual open-ended case sheets, maintaining their privacy and confidentiality. This information was then transcribed into a specially designed and pretested form. The data were entered into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using the SPSS statistical package to obtain the prevalence rates of medical conditions, which were then cross-tabulated with gender, age, ethnicity, and other variables. Significance of differences, if any, was evaluated by chi-square test. In all, 303 medical conditions were encountered in 239 individuals, giving a prevalence rate of 42 percent. Hypertension (12.6 percent), diabetes (6.1 percent), asthma (5.8 percent), arthritis (4.7 percent), and various allergies (8.3 percent) constituted an important segment of the problems. Gender, ethnic, and age differences were also evident for some diseases. In this study-which was the first of this kind in the West Indies-vital information on medical problems among dental patients was obtained by interviews conducted by dental students and interns, forming an important part of their dental education.

  4. Investigating the Effects of Asthma Medication on the Cognitive and Psychosocial Functioning of Primary School Children with Asthma (United States)

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.


    The effects of asthma medication on the cognitive and psychosocial functioning of primary school children with asthma are investigated. A questionnaire survey was conducted in a primary school in Stellenbosch (South Africa) with a population of six hundred and thirty-five students. Among these students, fifty-nine asthmatic children were…

  5. Knowledge of Hazards of Self-Medication among Secondary School Students in Ethiopia East Local Government Area of Delta State (United States)

    Iyeke, Patrick; Dafe, Onoharigho Festus


    This study is set out to ascertain the knowledge of hazards of self-medication among Secondary School Students. The descriptive Survey design was adopted for the work. The population of the study is 9,500 students in the public Secondary Schools, in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The sample is 300 students randomly selected…

  6. The pipeline of physiology courses in community colleges: to university, medical school, and beyond. (United States)

    McFarland, Jenny; Pape-Lindstrom, Pamela


    Community colleges are significant in the landscape of undergraduate STEM (science technology, engineering, and mathematics) education (9), including biology, premedical, and other preprofessional education. Thirty percent of first-year medical school students in 2012 attended a community college. Students attend at different times in high school, their first 2 yr of college, and postbaccalaureate. The community college pathway is particularly important for traditionally underrepresented groups. Premedical students who first attend community college are more likely to practice in underserved communities (2). For many students, community colleges have significant advantages over 4-yr institutions. Pragmatically, they are local, affordable, and flexible, which accommodates students' work and family commitments. Academically, community colleges offer teaching faculty, smaller class sizes, and accessible learning support systems. Community colleges are fertile ground for universities and medical schools to recruit diverse students and support faculty. Community college students and faculty face several challenges (6, 8). There are limited interactions between 2- and 4-yr institutions, and the ease of transfer processes varies. In addition, faculty who study and work to improve the physiology education experience often encounter obstacles. Here, we describe barriers and detail existing resources and opportunities useful in navigating challenges. We invite physiology educators from 2- and 4-yr institutions to engage in sharing resources and facilitating physiology education improvement across institutions. Given the need for STEM majors and health care professionals, 4-yr colleges and universities will continue to benefit from students who take introductory biology, physiology, and anatomy and physiology courses at community colleges.

  7. Life satisfaction and resilience in medical school – a six-year longitudinal, nationwide and comparative study

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    Gronvold Nina T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the relationship between life satisfaction among medical students and a basic model of personality, stress and coping. Previous studies have shown relatively high levels of distress, such as symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts in medical undergraduates. However despite the increased focus on positive psychological health and well-being during the past decades, only a few studies have focused on life satisfaction and coping in medical students. This is the first longitudinal study which has identified predictors of sustained high levels of life satisfaction among medical students. Methods This longitudinal, nationwide questionnaire study examined the course of life satisfaction during medical school, compared the level of satisfaction of medical students with that of other university students, and identified resilience factors. T-tests were used to compare means of life satisfaction between and within the population groups. K-means cluster analyses were applied to identify subgroups among the medical students. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the subgroups. Results Life satisfaction decreased during medical school. Medical students were as satisfied as other students in the first year of study, but reported less satisfaction in their graduation year. Medical students who sustained high levels of life satisfaction perceived medical school as interfering less with their social and personal life, and were less likely to use emotion focused coping, such as wishful thinking, than their peers. Conclusion Medical schools should encourage students to spend adequate time on their social and personal lives and emphasise the importance of health-promoting coping strategies.

  8. An evaluation of the performance in the UK Royal College of Anaesthetists primary examination by UK medical school and gender

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    Watmough Simon D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been comparatively little consideration of the impact that the changes to undergraduate curricula might have on postgraduate academic performance. This study compares the performance of graduates by UK medical school and gender in the Multiple Choice Question (MCQ section of the first part of the Fellowship of the Royal College of Anaesthetists (FRCA examination. Methods Data from each sitting of the MCQ section of the primary FRCA examination from June 1999 to May 2008 were analysed for performance by medical school and gender. Results There were 4983 attempts at the MCQ part of the examination by 3303 graduates from the 19 United Kingdom medical schools. Using the standardised overall mark minus the pass mark graduates from five medical schools performed significantly better than the mean for the group and five schools performed significantly worse than the mean for the group. Males performed significantly better than females in all aspects of the MCQ – physiology, mean difference = 3.0% (95% CI 2.3, 3.7, p Conclusion Graduates from each of the medical schools in the UK do show differences in performance in the MCQ section of the primary FRCA, but significant curriculum change does not lead to deterioration in post graduate examination performance. Whilst females now outnumber males taking the MCQ, they are not performing as well as the males.

  9. Against the Odds: Students, a Teacher, and a School Nurse Build Strong Learning Experiences and a Medical Clinic in West Texas. (United States)

    Active Learner: A Foxfire Journal for Teachers, 1999


    In a small rural high school in Balmorhea, Texas, business students helped to establish a school-based clinic. Students wrote grant applications, learned medical office skills, structured the business curriculum around their project, and involved other students. Cooperation with Texas Tech Medical School led to a full-service community clinic…

  10. Use of Medical Plants in Schools Communities from Sinop, Mato Grosso.

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    A. C. M. Urtado


    Full Text Available Abstract: This study was conducted in Sinop, Mato Grosso, on two school communities. It was applied semi-structured questionnaires with questions focused on socioeconomic and the use of medicinal plants. It has as finality proved the effective use of medicinal plants on the everyday and a levy of the most used plant. The general profile of the respondents has shown that the women detain the major part of the knowledge, and that pass this uses to the future generations and friends, and find these plants on specialty stores, backyards, supermarket, root stores, bush and fairs. The plants that were found more frequently was (Ruta graveolens L., Babosa (Aloe vera L., Erva-Cidreira (Lippia alba Mill., Erva-Santa-Maria (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Boldo (Plectranthus amboinicus Spreng., Hortel(Menta x vilosa Huds. e Terramicina (Alternanthera dentata Moench..Keywords: medical plants, Sinop, school.

  11. Social Adversity and Regional Differences in Prescribing of ADHD Medication for School-Age Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Thielen, Karsten


    Objectives: To explore whether regional variations in the initiation of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication among school-age children are explained by differences in sociodemographic composition and/or ADHD prescribing practice, especially in children who face social...... adversity (low parental education and single parenthood). Methods: A cohort of Danish school-age children (ages 5–17) without previous psychiatric conditions (N = 813,416) was followed during 2010–2011 for incident ADHD prescribing in the individual-level Danish registers. Register information was retrieved...... regional differences prevail in prescribing practices for children facing social adversity, indicating that local cultures shape the interpretation and handling of children with ADHD-like behaviors....

  12. Educational opportunities: a nursing school model for medical special-needs sheltering. (United States)

    Deal, Belinda; Alfred, Danita; Fountain, Rebecca; Ford, Terri; Chilton, Jennifer


    The devastation of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina increased the awareness of persons who were unable to self-evacuate because of physical and/or mental disabilities. From that awareness, plans emerged to provide a safe haven for those who had special needs. In this article, we describe our efforts as a school of nursing to shelter medical special needs (MSN) evacuees in the wake of a hurricane. After the shelter closed, faculty and students involved in the shelter answered a short survey that included both open- and close-ended questions. The responses are summarized to encourage other schools of nursing to consider caring for MSN evacuees and to share our successes, our failures, and our plans for the future.

  13. Reference activity and the external user: confluence of community needs at a medical school branch library. (United States)

    Landwirth, T K; Wilson, M L; Dorsch, J


    The allocation of reference services between primary and secondary users constantly challenges academic medical libraries. Routine statistics at a medical school branch library suggested that over 40% of its reference transactions involved persons not affiliated with the university. To investigate this finding, a survey of reference activity was conducted using measurement techniques unobtrusive to the user. Fifteen data items were recorded, including user status, type of question, intended use of information requested, status of staff taking request, and staff time spent. Survey results showed that nonaffiliates accounted for 51% of reference activity. Based on this documented data, definitive reference guidelines addressing hours, priority of requests, charges, and staffing patterns can now be developed. Findings will also assist in evaluating the library's regional role, in formulating marketing strategies, and in determining library objectives.

  14. [Evaluations and examinations at the Tromsø medical school. Evaluation by students after graduation]. (United States)

    Tollan, A; Magnus, J H


    The medical curriculum at the University of Tromsø is based on an organ-system model with full integration of the three main disciplines (basic science, clinical and community medicine). There are only three examinations during the six-year course. We present the results of a survey among the first 417 physicians educated at the Medical School in Tromsø. A mailed questionnaire was answered by 84.2%. More than 80% stated that it was of great importance to evaluate the form and contents of the lectures and their supervisors' teaching abilities. More than 96% found that integration of the examinations was achieved in accordance with the intention. Furthermore, the examinations were also relevant for them as physicians.

  15. Generation X arrives at medical school to find changing expectations, growing pressures. (United States)

    OReilly, M


    Students entering medical school today face a health care system that is vastly different from the one new students experienced in the 1970s and 1980s. Michael OReilly interviewed five first-year students from the University of Western Ontario to learn about the hopes and dreams of medicine's next generation and the pressures facing these students. The Class of '98 doesn't appear intimidated by the cutbacks practising physicians are facing. As one student put it, these students won't be yearning for the "good old days" because "we don't have any good old days to remember."

  16. A medical team approach to children who fail to progress in school. (United States)

    Cartwright, J D; Rosin, M F; Price, Y


    A multidisciplinary team composed of a psychologist, a speech therapist, an occupational therapist, a remedial teacher and a social worker and headed by a paediatrician examined 502 children referred for failure at school. The advantages and disadvantages of the team approach to such children are discussed. The establishment of multidisciplinary teams comprising medical, paramedical and educational members to diagnose and treat these children's problems and to monitor their progress, together with close liaison with the educational and welfare authorities, is recommended as being in the best interests of the child.

  17. Librarian integration in a four-year medical school curriculum: a timeline. (United States)

    MacEachern, Mark; Townsend, Whitney; Young, Kristen; Rana, Gurpreet


    The Taubman Health Sciences Library (THL) is integrated in all four years of the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) curriculum. Information resources are introduced at strategic points throughout the curriculum so that students receive training at times when they are most likely to need the resource. Most of the core instruction sessions are taught in teams that consist of librarians and UMMS faculty, which provides unique learning opportunities for students. This article describes each THL instruction activity in the four-year undergraduate UMMS curriculum and provides commentary on the overall effectiveness of this integrated approach to instruction.

  18. Conceptual foundations of classes with the disciples of special medical group in secondary schools

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    Vaskov Y.V.


    Full Text Available Purpose: study and scientific rationale for new approaches to the organization of educational work with students of special medical group in secondary schools. Material : analyzed 15 scientific sources regarding the approaches of different authors to develop educational programs for students of special medical group. Results : focuses on the outstanding issues in a substantive, logistical and human aspects. Found that the selection of the content of educational material for special medical groups is an empirical question. Selection is carried out by copying the existing curriculum of physical culture for healthy children with an indication of the load reduction and exemption of complex elements. Established a complete absence of evaluation of educational achievements of pupils. Based on modern approaches to teaching students based on biomedical and didactic aspects: Leading defined function of each stage of training, fleshed main goals and objectives of the educational process, substantiated various kinds of sports activity, taking into account the diagnosis of diseases and the needs of students of different ages and gender. Conclusions : the main controversy in the decision of the designated problem. Substantiated leading features of each stage of training in special medical groups. A system of assessment of students' achievements.

  19. Career satisfaction among medical school professors: a case study in Brazil

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    Nilce Maria da Silva Campos Costa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the career satisfaction of medical school professors in relation to initial motivation, satisfaction factors, and the desire to remain in the profession. METHODOLOGY: A qualitative methodology was used, based on questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with faculty members at a federal institution of higher education in Brazil. RESULTS: For 42.86% of the sample, teaching began while they were medical students; 80% had chosen teaching either as a vocation or due to influence from families or professors; 20% chose teaching as a professional opportunity. The majority, 57.14%, stated they were happy with teaching, and 51.42% did not plan to leave the career. Factors involved in satisfaction with teaching were: the possibility of remaining up-to-date in the medical profession, the feeling of doing their duty, their contribution to training future doctors, and contact with young people and the university setting. Factors leading to dissatisfaction were pedagogical (33.33%, economic (30.95%, institutional (14.28%, and relational (14.28%. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects expressed a positive attitude towards teaching, and because of their great personal satisfaction with the career, they did not plan to leave it. These findings should shed light on factors that interfere with career satisfaction and help increase those that promote satisfaction, thus improving the productivity and well-being of medical professors.

  20. Balance deficits and ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve school-aged boys

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    Konicarova J


    Full Text Available Jana Konicarova,1 Petr Bob,1,2 Jiri Raboch11Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry and UHSL, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Central European Institute of Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech RepublicBackground and objectives: Functional disturbances developed early in life include balance deficits which are linked to dysfunctions of higher levels of cognitive and motor integration. According to our knowledge, there are only a few studies suggesting that balance deficits are related to behavioral disturbances in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: We tested the extent to which balance deficits were related to ADHD symptoms in 35 medication-naïve boys of school age (8–11 years and compared the results with a control group of 30 boys of the same age.Results: ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve boys had specific relationships to disturbances of postural and gait balance.Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence in the medical literature for a direct relationship between ADHD symptoms and balance deficits, that cannot be attributed to medication and the presence of any neurological disease.Keywords: ADHD, balance deficits, conduct problems, developmental disorders, inhibitory deficits, impulsivity

  1. Racial Diversity in the Medical Profession: The Impact of Affirmative Action Bans on Underrepresented Student of Color Matriculation in Medical Schools (United States)

    Garces, Liliana M.; Mickey-Pabello, David


    This study examines the impact of affirmative action bans in six states (California, Washington, Florida, Texas, Michigan, and Nebraska) on the matriculation rates of historically underrepresented students of color in public medical schools in these states. Findings show that affirmative action bans have led to about a 17% decline (from 18.5% to…

  2. Using a Cost-Construction Model To Assess the Cost of Educating Undergraduate Medical Students at the University of Texas-Houston Medical School. (United States)

    Franzini, Luisa; And Others


    Using a cost-construction model, cost of the University of Texas-Houston Medical School program, instructional costs, educational costs, and milieu costs were calculated. Sensitivity analysis revealed the financial effects of various factors, some of which increased and some of which decreased cost. Despite inherent complexities of the method and…

  3. Medical School Librarians Need More Training to Support their Involvement in Evidence Based Medicine Curricula

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    Aislinn Conway


    Full Text Available Objective – To describe the self-perceived role of librarians in developing evidence based medicine (EBM curricula and identify their current and desired level of training to support these activities. Design – Multi-institutional qualitative study. Setting – Nine medical schools in Canada and the United States of America. Subjects – Nine librarians identified by medical school faculty as central to the provision of EBM training for medical students at their institution. Methods – The researchers designed a semi-structured interview schedule based on a review of the literature and their own experiences as librarians teaching EBM. The topics covered were; librarians’ perceptions of their roles in relation to the curriculum, the training required to enable them to undertake these roles, and their professional development needs. The interviews were conducted by telephone and then audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The authors present five main themes; curricular design, curricular deployment, curricular assessment, educational training, and professional development. Profiles were developed for each participant based on the latter two themes and from this information common characteristics were identified. Main Results – The participants described the importance of collaboration with faculty and student bodies when designing a curriculum. Information literacy instruction and specifically literature searching and forming a research question were taught by all of the participants to facilitate curricular deployment. Some of the librarians were involved or partly involved in curricular assessment activities such as formulating exam questions or providing feedback on assignments. Educational training of participants varied from informal observation to formal workshops offered by higher education institutions. All librarians indicated a willingness to partake in professional development focused on teaching and EBM. The subjects

  4. A randomized-controlled trial with a Canadian electronic pill dispenser used to measure and improve medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia

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    Emmanuel eStip


    Full Text Available Objective: Medication adherence is extremely important in preventing relapse and lowering symptoms in schizophrenic patients. However, estimates show that nearly half of these patients have poor adherence. The Brief Adherence Rating Scale (BARS seems to be the most reliable tool assessing adherence in schizophrenia and shows that the antipsychotic adherence ratio (AAR is about 49.5 % in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to test if an electronic pill dispenser named DoPill® improved AAR of schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, we compared AAR obtained by the DoPill® and the BARS, in order to verify whether the DoPill® provides reliable assessment of medication adherence. Methods: The DoPill® is a smart pill dispenser that beeps and flashes at the appropriate time of the day. Each of its 28 compartments is covered by a plastic lamina that, when taken off, sends a signal to the pharmacist. Patients were randomized to the DoPill® or Treatment As Usual group (TAU for six weeks. The BARS was used as a reference measure. Results: Forty-six percent of patients were deemed to be non-adherent with antipsychotic medication. The mean AAR was 67 % after six weeks. DoPill® recorded better AAR than some of those found in the literature and were lower than the BARS estimate we found. Conclusion: These results suggest that DoPill® is a valid tool that provides more reliable and objective data for the clinician about their patient’s adherence, than existing assessment tools like the BARS. Furthermore, the device may help patients successfully manage their medication regimen.

  5. Are family physicians comprehensively using electronic medical records such that the data can be used for secondary purposes? A Canadian perspective


    Tu, Karen; Widdifield, Jessica; Young, Jacqueline; Oud, William; Ivers, Noah M.; Butt, Debra A.; Leaver, Chad A.; Jaakkimainen, Liisa


    Background With the introduction and implementation of a variety of government programs and policies to encourage adoption of electronic medical records (EMRs), EMRs are being increasingly adopted in North America. We sought to evaluate the completeness of a variety of EMR fields to determine if family physicians were comprehensively using their EMRs and the suitability of use of the data for secondary purposes in Ontario, Canada. Methods We examined EMR data from a convenience sample of fami...

  6. Evolution of the New Pathway curriculum at Harvard Medical School: the new integrated curriculum. (United States)

    Dienstag, Jules L


    In 1985, Harvard Medical School adopted a "New Pathway" curriculum, based on active, adult learning through problem-based, faculty-facilitated small-group tutorials designed to promote lifelong skills of self-directed learning. Despite the successful integration of clinically relevant material in basic science courses, the New Pathway goals were confined primarily to the preclinical years. In addition, the shifting balance in the delivery of health care from inpatient to ambulatory settings limited the richness of clinical education in clinical clerkships, creating obstacles for faculty in their traditional roles as teachers. In 2006, Harvard Medical School adopted a more integrated curriculum based on four principles that emerged after half a decade of self-reflection and planning: (1) integrate the teaching of basic/population science and clinical medicine throughout the entire student experience; (2) reestablish meaningful and intensive faculty-student interactions and reengage the faculty; (3) develop a new model of clinical education that offers longitudinal continuity of patient experience, cross-disciplinary curriculum, faculty mentoring, and student evaluation; and (4) provide opportunities for all students to pursue an in-depth, faculty-mentored scholarly project. These principles of our New Integrated Curriculum reflect our vision for a curriculum that fosters a partnership between students and faculty in the pursuit of scholarship and leadership.

  7. Stigma and perception of psychological distress and depression in Australian-trained medical students: results from an inter-state medical school survey. (United States)

    Cheng, Daryl R; Poon, Flora; Nguyen, Tran T; Woodman, Richard J; Parker, Jun D


    Stigmatisation towards depression has previously been reported amongst medical students from a variety of backgrounds. This study explored personal and perceived stigmas associated with depression, and their relationship with demographics, knowledge of depression, levels of personal stress and history of medical illness amongst Australian-trained medical students. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken amongst students enroled June-to-August 2009 across four Australian medical schools. In total, 1010 students completed the survey, a response rate of 29.6%. Approximately 25% of students reported a past history of depression. Higher stress (K-10 scores) was reported by females and those with a past history of depression. On a scale of 0-to-5, the mean (±S.D.) personal and perceived stigma depression scores were 1.83±1.49 and 4.05±1.42 respectively. In multivariate analysis, higher perceived stigma and K-10 scores, a past history of anxiety and Year 3 of medical school indicated higher personal stigma scores. Perceived stigma was positively associated with K-10 scores, personal stigma scores, and a Caucasian background. Our findings suggest a high level of personal and particularly perceived stigma associated with depression amongst medical students, especially those displaying higher levels of stress. Adequate support and screening for psychological stress may de-stigmatise depression and improve mental health amongst future Australian doctors.

  8. Job requirements compared to medical school education: differences between graduates from problem-based learning and conventional curricula

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    Federkeil Gero


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problem-based Learning (PBL has been suggested as a key educational method of knowledge acquisition to improve medical education. We sought to evaluate the differences in medical school education between graduates from PBL-based and conventional curricula and to what extent these curricula fit job requirements. Methods Graduates from all German medical schools who graduated between 1996 and 2002 were eligible for this study. Graduates self-assessed nine competencies as required at their day-to-day work and as taught in medical school on a 6-point Likert scale. Results were compared between graduates from a PBL-based curriculum (University Witten/Herdecke and conventional curricula. Results Three schools were excluded because of low response rates. Baseline demographics between graduates of the PBL-based curriculum (n = 101, 49% female and the conventional curricula (n = 4720, 49% female were similar. No major differences were observed regarding job requirements with priorities for "Independent learning/working" and "Practical medical skills". All competencies were rated to be better taught in PBL-based curriculum compared to the conventional curricula (all p Conclusion Among medical graduates in Germany, PBL demonstrated benefits with regard to competencies which were highly required in the job of physicians. Research and business competence deserve closer attention in future curricular development.

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in elementary school children in Rhode Island: associated psychosocial factors and medications used. (United States)

    Harel, Ephat H; Brown, William D


    This study was undertaken to explore psychosocial factors associated with referral for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) evaluation or ADHD diagnosis among elementary school children in Rhode Island, as well as to examine the extent of drug therapy among this population. A survey was distributed to parents/guardians of 2,800 3rd- to 5th-grade public school students in 4 Rhode Island school districts. The average age of the children was 9.0 +/- 1.0 years with 52% girls. Approximately 12% of the students had been referred for ADHD evaluation (RFE). Of these, 52% (6% of all children in the survey) were receiving psychoactive prescription medications daily. While the male:female ratio in the non-RFE group was almost 1:1, there were more boys than girls in the RFE group (male/female ratio of 3:1, p medicated group (male/female ratio 4:1, p children and medicated children were older than classroom peers (p children and medicated children were significantly less likely to have parents who completed college (p children (p medicated children) followed by methylphenidate (43%). Nearly 18% of the medicated children were receiving 1 to 3 additional psychoactive prescription medications on a daily basis. In conclusion, RFE children and children medicated for ADHD were more likely to have a stepparent, have no siblings, and have parents that had not completed college. Amphetamine rather than methylphenidate accounted for the majority of medications used in this study, and simultaneous use of multiple psychoactive medications was reported in 18% of the medicated children.

  10. Prevalence of abuse and related factors in a Colombian medical school

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    César Augusto Guevara Cuéllar


    Full Text Available Introduction: Different forms of abusive practices are very common in medical schools and have serious implications on vocational and professional formation. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of perception of abuse in a university in Colombia and to identify associated factors.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2008 in a private medical school. A proportional cycle-based stratified sampling technique and randomized sampling per semester was done. Socio demographic, academic, and abuse-related variables were obtained.Results: One hundred twenty-eight students participated in the study. The prevalence of perception of abuse was 40.6%. The most common type of abuse was psychological (98% and unjustified critique (10.9%, ridiculing (10.7%, shouting (10%, and discredit (9.5% were the most frequent manifestations. Professors in preclinical courses were reported as the most prevalent abusers (25.9%, followed by clinical professors (19.8%. The frequency of abusive manifestations was rare (15.8% and 11.5% in preclinical and clinical years, respectively. The abusive manifestations were most frequent in pathology and pediatrics in the preclinical and clinical years,  espectively. Nineteen percent of the victims of abuse reported such to somebody. The main consequences were desire to withdraw from the career (63.2% and change of career (36.8%. Increased perception of abuse (OR: 4.74 95% IC: 1.9-11.4 p=0.001 was associated during the clinical years.Conclusions: Although abusive practices are more frequent during clinical years, they do not constitute a systematic behavior among medical students from a private university in Colombia in comparison with other  tudies.

  11. A multi-site study on medical school selection, performance, motivation and engagement. (United States)

    Wouters, A; Croiset, G; Schripsema, N R; Cohen-Schotanus, J; Spaai, G W G; Hulsman, R L; Kusurkar, R A


    Medical schools seek ways to improve their admissions strategies, since the available methods prove to be suboptimal for selecting the best and most motivated students. In this multi-site cross-sectional questionnaire study, we examined the value of (different) selection procedures compared to a weighted lottery procedure, which includes direct admission based on top pre-university grade point averages (≥8 out of 10; top-pu-GPA). We also considered whether students had participated in selection, prior to being admitted through weighted lottery. Year-1 (pre-clinical) and Year-4 (clinical) students completed standard validated questionnaires measuring quality of motivation (Academic Self-regulation Questionnaire), strength of motivation (Strength of Motivation for Medical School-Revised) and engagement (Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student). Performance data comprised GPA and course credits in Year-1 and clerkship performance in Year-4. Regression analyses were performed. The response rate was 35% (387 Year-1 and 273 Year-4 students). Top-pu-GPA students outperformed selected students. Selected Year-1 students reported higher strength of motivation than top-pu-GPA students. Selected students did not outperform or show better quality of motivation and engagement than lottery-admitted students. Participation in selection was associated with higher engagement and better clerkship performance in Year-4. GPA, course credits and strength of motivation in Year-1 differed between students admitted through different selection procedures. Top-pu-GPA students perform best in the medical study. The few and small differences found raise questions about the added value of an extensive selection procedure compared to a weighted lottery procedure. Findings have to be interpreted with caution because of a low response rate and small group sizes.

  12. Evidence-based public health education as preparation for medical school. (United States)

    Riegelman, Richard K; Garr, David R


    The Institute of Medicine has recommended that all undergraduates have access to public health education. An evidence-based public health framework including curricula such as "Public Health 101" and "Epidemiology 101" was recommended for all colleges and universities by arts and sciences, public health, and clinical health professions educators as part of the Consensus Conference on Undergraduate Public Health Education. These courses should foster critical thinking whereby students learn to broadly frame options, critically analyze data, and understand the uncertainties that remain. College-level competencies or learning outcomes in research literature reading, determinants of health, basic understanding of health care systems, and the synergies between health care and public health can provide preparation for medical education. Formally tested competencies could substitute for a growing list of prerequisite courses. Grounded in principles similar to those of evidence-based medicine, evidence-based public health includes problem description, causation, evidence-based recommendations for intervention, and implementation considering key issues of when, who, and how to intervene. Curriculum frameworks for structuring "Public Health 101" and "Epidemiology 101" are provided by the Consensus Conference that lay the foundation for teaching evidence-based public health as well as evidence-based medicine. Medical school preparation based on this foundation should enable the Clinical Prevention and Population Health Curriculum Framework, including the evidence base for practice and health systems and health policy, to be fully integrated into the four years of medical school. A faculty development program, curriculum guide, interest group, and clear student interest are facilitating rapid acceptance of the need for these curricula.

  13. Nutritional condition of school age children. Clinic, anthropo-medical and alimentary assessment

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    Alina Esther González Hermida


    Full Text Available Background: the study of children´s growth in an appropriate indicator of children health condition and should be used as one of the basis in the practice of preventive medicine. Objective: to determine the nutritional al condition of children of third and sixth grade of elementary schools of Health Area V of Cienfuegos Municipality. Methods: descriptive, observational, cross-sectional and relational study of 445 school age children from 4 elementary schools. A clinic assessment was carried out along with an anthropo-medical evaluation. A qualitative survey was developed to assess the frequency of consumption of different alimentary groups. Results: the relation weight/height in the two genders presents a prevalence of normal weight; undernourishment is more common among females, overweight is more usual among boys and obesity can be found in both genders. The variable weight/age showed one bad-nutrition (for defect among females, there was a prevalence of bad-nutrition for excess in both genders. There were no children with height under the third percentile, with prevalence of boys and girls tall and very tall. Bronchial asthma was the most common disease. Conclusions: Food consumption in general, taking into account frequency and kind of food, is not the appropriate. There is a relation between positive clinical findings and the anthropometric assessment of weight/height.

  14. Medical schools can cooperate: a new joint venture to provide medical education in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales. (United States)

    Page, Sue L; Birden, Hudson H; Hudson, J Nicky; Thistlethwaite, Jill E; Roberts, Chris; Wilson, Ian; Bushnell, John; Hogg, John; Freedman, S Ben; Yeomans, Neville


    The medical schools at the University of Western Sydney, University of Wollongong and University of Sydney have developed a joint program for training medical students through placements of up to 40 weeks on the New South Wales North Coast. The new partnership agency - the North Coast Medical Education Collaboration - builds on the experience of regional doctors and their academic partners. A steering committee has identified the availability and support requirements of local practitioners to provide training, and has undertaken a comparative mapping of learning objectives and assessments from the courses of the three universities. The goals of the program include preparing doctors who can perform effectively in rural settings and multidisciplinary health care teams, and to advance research in medical education.

  15. Management of Hepatitis B: A Longitudinal National Survey – Impact of the Canadian Hepatitis B Consensus Guidelines

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    Paul Marotta


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver, and The Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Canada, jointly developed the Canadian Chronic Hepatitis B (HBV Consensus Guidelines to assist practitioners involved in the management of this complex disease. These guidelines were published in The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology in June 2007 and distributed to all Canadian gastroenterologists and hepatologists.

  16. The evaluation of the relevance of teaching of homeopathy at the medical school

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    Francisco José de Freitas


    knowledge could be applicable to their future career. Conclusion: Most students aim to learn the guiding principles of homeopathy. Their aim is to know all available treatment, modalities and alternatives to allopathy in medical education. They considered that the learning of Homeopathy is a part of general medical training due to the fact that it has been a recognized medical specialty in Brazil since 1980. The student’s opportunity to learn homeopathy during the undergraduate course in medical schools widens the individuality concept, “the doctor-patient relationship and the holistic vision of the patient”. These results demonstrate the relevance of teaching homeopathy in the medical curriculum and the need to spread the teaching of homeopathy as a compulsory course for all other medical universities.

  17. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.


    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  18. Recall of Theoretical Pharmacology Knowledge by 6th Year Medical Students and Interns of Three Medical Schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    A. A. Mustafa


    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to provide some insights into the ability of the sixth year medical students and interns to recall theoretical knowledge of pharmacology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students who graduated from three different medical schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to male and female students in 3 different colleges of medicine. The questionnaire included demographic information and ten multiple choice questions (MCQs on basic pharmacology. Out of the 161 students, there were 39 females (24% and 122 males (76%. A total of 36 (22% students studied at a traditional learning school whereas 125 (78% students studied at problem based learning (PBL schools. The students were recruited from three universities: KSU, KSAU-HS, and KFMC-COM. In general, 31 students (19% of the participants scored ≥ 7 out of 10, 77 students (48% of them obtained a correct score of (4–6 out of 10, and 53 students (33% scored less than 4. The study showed no statistically significant difference in recalling pharmacology between traditional school and problem based learning school except for those who prepared for exams. Results suggest that pharmacology is a difficult subject. Reevaluations are needed in the way of teaching pharmacology.

  19. The attractions of medicine: the generic motivations of medical school applicants in relation to demography, personality and achievement

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    Katona Cornelius


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The motivational and other factors used by medical students in making their career choices for specific medical specialities have been looked at in a number of studies in the literature. There are however few studies that assess the generic factors which make medicine itself of interest to medical students and to potential medical students. This study describes a novel questionnaire that assesses the interests and attractions of different aspects of medical practice in a varied range of medical scenarios, and relates them to demographic, academic, personality and learning style measures in a large group of individuals considering applying to medical school. Methods A questionnaire study was conducted among those attending Medlink, a two-day conference for individuals considering applying to medical school for a career in medicine. The main outcome measure was the Medical Situations Questionnaire, in which individuals ranked the attraction of three different aspects of medical practise in each of nine detailed, realistic medical scenarios in a wide range of medical specialities. As well as requiring clear choices, the questionnaire was also designed so that all of the possible answers were attractive and positive, thereby helping to eliminate social demand characteristics. Factor analysis of the responses found four generic motivational dimensions, which we labelled Indispensability, Helping People, Respect and Science. Background factors assessed included sex, ethnicity, class, medical parents, GCSE academic achievement, the 'Big Five' personality factors, empathy, learning styles, and a social desirability scale. Results 2867 individuals, broadly representative of applicants to medical schools, completed the questionnaire. The four generic motivational factors correlated with a range of background factors. These correlations were explored by multiple regression, and by path analysis, using LISREL to assess direct and

  20. The New England Collaborative Data Management Curriculum Pilot at the University of Manitoba: A Canadian Experience

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    Mayu Ishida


    Full Text Available Canada’s federal funding agencies are following the directions of funding agencies in the United States and United Kingdom, and will soon require a data management plan in grant applications. The University of Manitoba Libraries in Canada has started planning and implementing research data services, and education is seen as a key component. In June 2014, the New England Collaborative Data Management Curriculum (NECDMC (Lamar Soutter Library, University of Massachusetts Medical School 2014 was piloted and used to provide data management training for a group of subject librarians at the University of Manitoba Libraries, in combination with information about data-related policies of the Canadian funding agencies and the University of Manitoba. The seven NECDMC modules were delivered in a seminar style, with emphasis on group discussions and Canadian content. The benefits of NECDMC – adaptability and flexible framework – should be weighed against the challenges experienced in the pilot, mainly the significant amount of time needed to create local content and complement the existing curriculum. Overall, the pilot showed that NECDMC is a good, thorough introduction to data management, and that it is possible to adapt NECDMC to the local and Canadian settings in an effective way.

  1. Implementation of a four-year multimedia computer curriculum in cardiology at six medical schools. (United States)

    Petrusa, E R; Issenberg, S B; Mayer, J W; Felner, J M; Brown, D D; Waugh, R A; Kondos, G T; Gessner, I H; McGaghie, W C


    The pressures of a changing health care system are making inroads on the commitment and effort that both basic science and clinical faculty can give to medical education. A tool that has the potential to compensate for decreased faculty time and thereby to improve medical education is multimedia computer instruction that is applicable at all levels of medical education, developed according to instructional design principles, and supported by evidence of effectiveness. The authors describe the experiences of six medical schools in implementing a comprehensive computer-based four-year curriculum in bedside cardiology developed by a consortium of university cardiologists and educational professionals. The curriculum consisted of ten interactive, patient-centered, case-based modules focused on the history, physical examination, laboratory data, diagnosis, and treatment. While an optimal implementation plan was recommended, each institution determined its own strategy. Major goals of the project, which took place from July 1996 to June 1997, were to identify and solve problems of implementation and to assess learners' and instructors' acceptance of the system and their views of its value. A total of 1,586 students used individual modules of the curriculum 6,131 times. Over 80% of students rated all aspects of the system highly, especially its clarity and educational value compared with traditional lectures. The authors discuss the aspects of the curriculum that worked, problems that occurred (such as difficulties in scheduling use of the modules in the third year), barriers to change and ways to overcome them (such as the type of team needed to win acceptance for and oversee implementation of this type of curriculum), and the need in succeeding years to formally assess the educational effectiveness of this and similar kinds of computer-based curricula.

  2. Metabolic syndrome and low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets in the medical school biochemistry curriculum. (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Makowske, Mary


    One of Robert Atkins contributions was to define a diet strategy in terms of an underlying metabolic principle ("the science behind Atkins"). The essential feature is that, by reducing insulin fluxes, lipids are funnelled away from storage and oxidized. Ketosis can be used as an indicator of lipolysis. A metabolic advantage is also proposed: controlled carbohydrates leads to greater weight loss per calorie than other diets. Although the Atkins diet and its scientific rationale are intended for a popular audience, the overall features are consistent with current metabolic ideas. We have used the Atkins controlled-carbohydrate diet as a focal point for teaching nutrition and metabolism in the first-year medical school curriculum. By presenting metabolism in the context of the current epidemic of obesity and of metabolic syndrome and related disorders, we provide direct application of the study of metabolic pathways, a subject not traditionally considered by medical students to be highly relevant to medical practice. We present here a summary of the metabolic basis of the Atkins diet as we teach it to medical students. We also discuss a proposed mechanism for metabolic advantage that is consistent with current ideas and that further brings out ideas in metabolism for students. The topics that are developed include the role of insulin and glucagon in lipolysis, control of lipoprotein lipase, the glucose-glycogen-gluconeogenesis interrelations, carbohydrate-protein interactions and ketosis. In essence, the approach is to expand the traditional feed-fast (post-absorptive) cycles to include the effect of low-carbohydrate meals: the disease states studied are generalized from traditional study of diabetes to include obesity and metabolic syndrome. The ideal diet for weight loss and treatment of metabolic syndrome, if it exists, remains to be determined, but presenting metabolism in the context of questions raised by the Atkins regimen prepares future physicians for

  3. An analysis of the medical review process at the National Outdoor Leadership School. (United States)

    Monz, C A; Schimelpfenig, T


    A statistical analysis of the medical characteristics of students on field courses at the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) was performed. This analysis determined that the group of students with the highest overall student scores (> or = 4 on a 1 through 5 scale) tended to score lower in the psychological counseling and current psychological treatment questions and scored significantly higher in the athletic ability question on the NOLS medical review form. This indicates that these individuals tended to have little or no history of counseling and psychological treatment and were more likely to be engaged in competitive sports. Discriminant analysis demonstrated that these variables also contributed the most to discerning mathematically among the four possible student outcome score groups, which ranged from the inability to complete a course (evacuation) through highly successful. Many of the questions on the current NOLS medical form could not be analyzed statistically because they demonstrated no variance among the groups. Although these questions may still be valuable for screening purposes, some of them could be reworded for increased sensitivity. Discriminant analysis of six responses on the medical form was 43.7% effective at classifying individuals to outcome groups, and it is likely that this could be more effective with some modifications to the evaluation process. Admissions personnel in outdoor programs are encouraged to include questions such as those mentioned above in their overall admission procedures and to examine them thoroughly in their admissions decisions. Although additional studies should be conducted to examine these issues more thoroughly, it is possible that programmatic changes would assist students without the above-mentioned characteristics in becoming more successful in field courses.

  4. How the Distinctive Cultures of Osteopathic and Allopathic Medical Schools Affect the Careers, Perceptions, and Institutional Efforts of Their Anatomy Faculties: A Qualitative Case Study of Two Schools (United States)

    Brokaw, James J.; Byram, Jessica N.; Traser, Courtney J.; Arbor, Tafline C.


    Anatomy faculties are integral to basic science instruction in medical schools, particularly given the preponderance of anatomic instruction in the preclinical curriculum. Recent years have witnessed major curricular restructuring and other emerging national trends that pose significant challenges to anatomists. An examination of anatomy faculty…

  5. 加拿大医学教育中以问题为基础学习体系概览%The overview of problem-based learning curriculum system in Canadian medical education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this paper the integrated problem-based learning medical curriculum system adopted in McMaster University and the University of British Columbia in Canada were defined and analyzed hoping to offer helpful information or suitable models for medical schools in China.%本文对加拿大东西部2所知名院校医学教育的较为成熟的以问题为基础学习课程体系进行了详细介绍与分析,希望能够为国内正在开展或准备开展以问题为基础学习教学的医学院校提供一些有益的信息或可以借鉴参考的样板.

  6. Do personality traits assessed on medical school admission predict exit performance? A UK-wide longitudinal cohort study. (United States)

    MacKenzie, R K; Dowell, J; Ayansina, D; Cleland, J A


    Traditional methods of assessing personality traits in medical school selection have been heavily criticised. To address this at the point of selection, "non-cognitive" tests were included in the UK Clinical Aptitude Test, the most widely-used aptitude test in UK medical education (UKCAT: ). We examined the predictive validity of these non-cognitive traits with performance during and on exit from medical school. We sampled all students graduating in 2013 from the 30 UKCAT consortium medical schools. Analysis included: candidate demographics, UKCAT non-cognitive scores, medical school performance data-the Educational Performance Measure (EPM) and national exit situational judgement test (SJT) outcomes. We examined the relationships between these variables and SJT and EPM scores. Multilevel modelling was used to assess the relationships adjusting for confounders. The 3343 students who had taken the UKCAT non-cognitive tests and had both EPM and SJT data were entered into the analysis. There were four types of non-cognitive test: (1) libertariancommunitarian, (2) NACE-narcissism, aloofness, confidence and empathy, (3) MEARS-self-esteem, optimism, control, self-discipline, emotional-nondefensiveness (END) and faking, (4) an abridged version of 1 and 2 combined. Multilevel regression showed that, after correcting for demographic factors, END predicted SJT and EPM decile. Aloofness and empathy in NACE were predictive of SJT score. This is the first large-scale study examining the relationship between performance on non-cognitive selection tests and medical school exit assessments. The predictive validity of these tests was limited, and the relationships revealed do not fit neatly with theoretical expectations. This study does not support their use in selection.

  7. Status of underrepresented minority and female faculty at medical schools located within Historically Black Colleges and in Puerto Rico

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    Emily M. Mader


    Full Text Available Background and objectives: To assess the impact of medical school location in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU and Puerto Rico (PR on the proportion of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM and women hired in faculty and leadership positions at academic medical institutions. Method: AAMC 2013 faculty roster data for allopathic medical schools were used to compare the racial/ethnic and gender composition of faculty and chair positions at medical schools located within HBCU and PR to that of other medical schools in the United States. Data were compared using independent sample t-tests. Results: Women were more highly represented in HBCU faculty (mean HBCU 43.5% vs. non-HBCU 36.5%, p=0.024 and chair (mean HBCU 30.1% vs. non-HBCU 15.6%, p=0.005 positions and in PR chair positions (mean PR 38.23% vs. non-PR 15.38%, p=0.016 compared with other allopathic institutions. HBCU were associated with increased African American representation in faculty (mean HBCU 59.5% vs. non-HBCU 2.6%, p=0.011 and chair (mean HBCU 73.1% vs. non-HBCU 2.2%, p≤0.001 positions. PR designation was associated with increased faculty (mean PR 75.40% vs. non-PR 3.72%, p≤0.001 and chair (mean PR 75.00% vs. non-PR 3.54%, p≤0.001 positions filled by Latinos/Hispanics. Conclusions: Women and African Americans are better represented in faculty and leadership positions at HBCU, and women and Latino/Hispanics at PR medical schools, than they are at allopathic peer institutions.

  8. Poster — Thur Eve — 24: Commissioning and preliminary measurements using an Attix-style free air ionization chamber for air kerma measurements on the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy beamlines at the Canadian Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D [Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); McEwen, M; Shen, H [Ionizing Radiation Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Siegbahn, EA [Department of Medical Physics, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Fallone, BG; Warkentin, B [Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    Synchrotron facilities, including the Canadian Light Source (CLS), provide opportunities for the development of novel imaging and therapy applications. A vital step progressing these applications toward clinical trials is the availability of accurate dosimetry. In this study, a refurbished Attix-style (cylindrical) free air chamber (FAC) is tested and used for preliminary air kerma measurements on the two BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) beamlines at the CLS. The FAC consists of a telescoping chamber that relies on a difference measurement of collected charge in expanded and collapsed configurations. At the National Research Council's X-ray facility, a Victoreen Model 480 FAC was benchmarked against two primary standard FACs. The results indicated an absolute accuracy at the 0.5% level for energies between 60 and 150 kVp. A series of measurements were conducted on the small, non-uniform X-ray beams of the 05B1-1 (∼8 – 100 keV) and 05ID-2 (∼20 – 200 keV) beamlines for a variety of energies, filtrations and beam sizes. For the 05B1-1 beam with 1.1 mm of Cu filtration, recombination corrections of less than 5 % could only be achieved for field sizes no greater than 0.5 mm × 0.6 mm (corresponding to an air kerma rate of ∼ 57 Gy/min). Ionic recombination thus presents a significant challenge to obtaining accurate air kerma rate measurements using this FAC in these high intensity beams. Future work includes measurements using a smaller aperture to sample a smaller and thus more uniform beam area, as well as experimental and Monte Carlo-based investigation of correction factors.

  9. Profiling medical school learning environments in Malaysia: a validation study of the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale

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    Sean Tackett


    Full Text Available Purpose: While a strong learning environment is critical to medical student education, the assessment of medical school learning environments has confounded researchers. Our goal was to assess the validity and utility of the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale (JHLES for preclinical students at three Malaysian medical schools with distinct educational and institutional models. Two schools were new international partnerships, and the third was school leaver program established without international partnership. Methods: First- and second-year students responded anonymously to surveys at the end of the academic year. The surveys included the JHLES, a 28-item survey using five-point Likert scale response options, the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM, the most widely used method to assess learning environments internationally, a personal growth scale, and single-item global learning environment assessment variables. Results: The overall response rate was 369/429 (86%. After adjusting for the medical school year, gender, and ethnicity of the respondents, the JHLES detected differences across institutions in four out of seven domains (57%, with each school having a unique domain profile. The DREEM detected differences in one out of five categories (20%. The JHLES was more strongly correlated than the DREEM to two thirds of the single-item variables and the personal growth scale. The JHLES showed high internal reliability for the total score (α=0.92 and the seven domains (α, 0.56-0.85. Conclusion: The JHLES detected variation between learning environment domains across three educational settings, thereby creating unique learning environment profiles. Interpretation of these profiles may allow schools to understand how they are currently supporting trainees and identify areas needing attention.

  10. Profiling medical school learning environments in Malaysia: a validation study of the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Tackett


    Full Text Available Purpose: While a strong learning environment is critical to medical student education, the assessment of medical school learning environments has confounded researchers. Our goal was to assess the validity and utility of the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale (JHLES for preclinical students at three Malaysian medical schools with distinct educational and institutional models. Two schools were new international partnerships, and the third was school leaver program established without international partnership. Methods: First- and second-year students responded anonymously to surveys at the end of the academic year. The surveys included the JHLES, a 28-item survey using five-point Likert scale response options, the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM, the most widely used method to assess learning environments internationally, a personal growth scale, and single-item global learning environment assessment variables. Results: The overall response rate was 369/429 (86%. After adjusting for the medical school year, gender, and ethnicity of the respondents, the JHLES detected differences across institutions in four out of seven domains (57%, with each school having a unique domain profile. The DREEM detected differences in one out of five categories (20%. The JHLES was more strongly correlated than the DREEM to two thirds of the single-item variables and the personal growth scale. The JHLES showed high internal reliability for the total score (α=0.92 and the seven domains (α= 0.56-0.85. Conclusion: The JHLES detected variation between learning environment domains across three educational settings, thereby creating unique learning environment profiles. Interpretation of these profiles may allow schools to understand how they are currently supporting trainees and identify areas needing attention.

  11. The Study of Canadian Culture (United States)

    Mandel, Eli


    Discussed are Canadian novels, short stories, poems and a film which revolve around man's confrontation with nature, the depression, the problem of isolation, realism in Canadian literature. (Author/AF)

  12. Weighing the views of a university hospital and medical school regarding an HMO. (United States)

    Herrmann, T J; Matthews, C W; Segadelli, L J


    After 14 years of study, the University of Michigan decided to terminate development of a health maintenance organization (HMO). The process was long and difficult because of the university's need to consider the HMO from the university's perspective of both an employer and a provider. As an employer, the university's early view was favorable and then declined when employee interest was found to be weak and the HMO's impact on the rapidly rising cost of the university's health insurance benefit was determined to be modest. As a provider, the university's view was mixed. In regard to its hospitals, the university's judgment was positive largely because it hoped that HMO incentives might help the hospitals remain viable in the health care delivery environment that was becoming increasingly competitive. From the Medical School's point of view, an HMO was felt not to be desirable because it could put in jeopardy the professional fee revenue used by the school to help underwrite its academic programs, which are the primary source of faculty pride and recognition.

  13. Prevalence, severity and medical management of asthma in European school children in 1985 and 1991. (United States)

    Mitchell, E A; Asher, M I


    This present study, conducted in 1991, examined trends in the prevalence, severity and medical management of asthma in European school children by repeating the protocol of a study performed in 1985, using the same schools and questionnaire. One thousand, nine hundred and one children in 1991 were compared with 1084 children in 1985. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms increased significantly by approximately one-third, although the increase in the diagnostic label 'asthma' did not increase significantly. Asthma severity indices (> 12 asthma attacks in the last 12 months and symptoms in the last month) were not significantly increased, except for night cough in the last month (1985 7.0%, 1991 9.9%, P = 0.008). In 1991, children with wheeze in the last 12 months were more likely to be diagnosed as having asthma and treated with bronchodilators and prophylactic drugs than in 1985. We conclude that the prevalence of asthma symptoms has increased from 1985 to 1991, but the two indices of severity of asthma are mostly unchanged. Diagnosis of asthma in children with symptoms has improved but asthma still appears underrecognized. Drug treatment of asthma has increased.

  14. Small group effectiveness during pharmacology learning sessions in a Nepalese medical school

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    Shankar PR


    Full Text Available BackgroundSmall group learning sessions are used in pharmacology atthe KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal. Feedback aboutstudent behaviours that enhance and hinder small groupeffectiveness was obtained. This will help us improve thesmall group sessions and will also be useful to educatorsusing small groups in other medical schools.MethodThe small groups were self-managing with a group leader,time-keeper, recorder and presenter. Small groupeffectiveness was measured using the Tutorial GroupEffectiveness Instrument (TGEI developed by Singaram andco-authors. The instrument was administered in June 2010and key findings obtained were shared with students andfacilitators. The instrument was administered again inAugust. The mean cognitive, motivational, demotivationaland overall scores were compared among differentcategories of respondents in June and August. Scores werealso compared between June and August 2010.ResultsA total of 89 students participated in the study in June and88 in August 2010. In June, females rated overall groupproductivity higher compared to males. The cognitive andmotivational scores were higher in August 2010 while thedemotivational score was lower.ConclusionThe small group effectiveness was higher in August after theeducational intervention which utilised feedback aboutproblems observed, theoretical considerations of effectivesmall groups and how this information can be applied inpractice.

  15. USRC: a new strategy for adding digital images to the medical school curriculum. (United States)

    Pinelle, David; Burbridge, Brent; Kalra, Neil


    Many medical schools use learning management systems (LMSs) to give students access to online lecture notes, assignments, quizzes, and other learning resources. LMSs can also be used to provide access to digital radiology images, potentially improving preclinical teaching in anatomy, physiology, and pathology while also allowing students to develop interpretation skills that are important in clinical practice. However, it is unclear how radiology images can best be stored, imported, and displayed in an LMS. We developed University of Saskatchewan Radiology Courseware (USRC), a new web application that allows course designers to import images into pages linked to BlackBoard Learn, a popular LMS. Page content, including images, annotations, captions, and supporting text, are stored as teaching cases on a MIRC (Medical Imaging Resource Center) server. Course designers create cases in MIRC, and then create a corresponding page in BlackBoard by modifying an HTML template so that it holds the URL of a MIRC case. When a user visits the page in BlackBoard, the page requests content from the MIRC case, reformats the text for display in BlackBoard, and loads an image viewer plug-in that allows students to view and interact with the images stored in the case. The USRC technology can be used to reformat MIRC cases for presentation in any website or in any learning management system that supports custom pages written in HTML with embedded JavaScript.

  16. The experiences of successful faculty members in medical school in teaching of basic sciences

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    M Avizhgan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Basic sciences are an important part of education in medical courses, which without it training the competent and efficient physicians is impossible. Given the complexities of teaching and in particular the teaching of basic sciences and its influence of various factors, comprehensive investigate this phenomenon was felt. This study was aimed to explore the underlying factors affecting the teaching based on experiences of successful faculty members of basic sciences in Isfahan medical school. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted using conventional content analysis. The data was collected using purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews with faculty members of basic sciences and group interviews with the students of basic sciences. Results: After analysis the data, the extracted data were divided into three main categories and seven sub- classes, including strengthen the construction of teaching infrastructures (lesson plans, useful and practical educational materials, and continuous curriculum reform, improving the teaching process (facilitating learning and appropriate transfering of content and completing the teaching process (appropriate evaluation tool and continuity assessment. Conclusion: Some positive experiences, such as reducing volume of materials, teaching useful and practical materials, attractive teaching, early clinical exsposure and provide the appropriate educational materials should be considered as a model and to eliminate negative experiences such as teaching of pure basic sciences, drowning in detail, the emphass on memorization, indulge in speech, the multiple choice tests systems and some faculty members were not ready for some of teaching methods should be taken account some items.

  17. Attitudes towards addressing medical absenteeism of students : A qualitative study among principals and special education needs coordinators in Dutch secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanneste-van Zandvoort, Y.T.M.; van de loo, L.; Feron, F.; de Vries, M.C.; van de Goor, L.A.M.


    Background Reducing school absenteeism benefits the health and educational opportunities of young people. The Dutch intervention Medical Advice for Sick-reported Students (abbreviated as MASS) was developed to address school absenteeism due to sickness reporting, also called medical absenteeism. Thi


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Garanin


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop the algorithm of formation of the case on discipline «Clinical Medicine». Methods. The methods involve the effectiveness analysis of the self-diagnosed levels of professional and personal abilities of students in the process of self-study. Results. The article deals with the organization of independent work of students of case-method, which is one of the most important and complex active learning methods. When implementing the method of case analysis in the educational process the main job of the teacher focused on the development of individual cases. While developing the case study of medical character the teacher needs to pay special attention to questions of pathogenesis and pathological anatomy for students’ formation of the fundamental clinical thinking allowing to estimate the patient’s condition as a complete organism, taking into account all its features, to understand the relationships of cause and effect arising at development of a concrete disease, to master new and to improve the available techniques of statement of the differential diagnosis. Scientific novelty and practical significance. The structure of a medical case study to be followed in the development of the case on discipline «Clinical Medicine» is proposed. Unification algorithm formation cases is necessary for the full implementation of the introduction in the educational process in the higher medical school as one of the most effective active ways of learning – method of case analysis, in accordance with the requirements that apply to higher professional education modern reforms and, in particular, the introduction of new Federal State Educational Standards. 

  19. The Effectiveness of the Community Medicine Undergraduate Program in Medical Schools on Enabling Medical Graduates to Work in the Health Systems

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    Hossein Jabbari Bayrami


    Full Text Available Introduction: The main mission of medical schools is to train competent medical trainees for providing primary health care services, management of health care team and improving the health status of the population. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the undergraduate program of community medicine department among the graduates as general (family physicians in health system of East Azerbaijan, North-West of` Iran. Methods: In this cross- sectional study all family physicians of East Azerbaijan province were included. A questionnaire on the views of graduates about the effectiveness of community medicine undergraduate program was used for gathering data. Data were analyzed by T-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation. Results: Performance of community medicine department in creating competency for providing effective health services among physicians was 2.13 and management competency was 1.96 out of 4. To teach the necessary skills to meet the professional needs in Primary Health Care (PHC, Tabriz Community Medicine Department was better compared to Azad and other medical schools (p<0.001. Conclusions: The results of the study showed that the community medicine program in undergraduate medical education was effective for future career of physicians in the health system. There is a need to revise the health management courses in community medicine program.

  20. Use of Medical Students in a Flipped Classroom Programme in Nutrition Education for Fourth-Grade School Students (United States)

    McEvoy, Christian S.; Cantore, Kathryn M.; Denlinger, LeAnn N.; Schleich, Michele A.; Stevens, Nicole M.; Swavely, Steven C.; Odom, Anne A.; Novick, Marsha B.


    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a flipped classroom progamme, designed and implemented by medical students, in communicating nutrition education to fourth-grade school students aged 9-10 years and to characterise teachers' assessments of the progamme, which was designed to minimise the burden placed on…

  1. A Problem Solving Curriculum for Active Learning at the Northwest Center for Medical Education, Indiana University School of Medicine. (United States)

    Iatridis, Panayotis G.

    An innovative curriculum called the "Regional Center Alternative Pathway," recently adopted by the Northwest Center for Medical Education (part of Indiana University's School of Medicine), is presented. The curriculum combines the traditional structure's didactic approach with a new problem-based tutorial curriculum. In this curriculum…

  2. The Student Admission to Medicine (SAM) Program: First Steps toward the Paperless Processing of Medical School Admissions. (United States)

    Harasym, P. H.; And Others


    The University of Calgary (Canada) medical school admissions process has been streamlined with the Student Admission to Medicine computer program, largely paperless, that creates a database from student applications. The database then converts grades to the university's standards and assists with administrative details, statistical analyses, and…

  3. Integrating eLearning to Support Medical Education at the New University of Botswana School of Medicine (United States)

    Kebaetse, Masego B.; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Haverkamp, Cecil


    Since the enrolment of its first cohort of students in 2009, the University of Botswana School of Medicine (UB SoM) has employed elearning as a key element to support and strengthen its model of decentralised medical education. Significant investments have been made in setting up the physical infrastructure, and in acquiring relevant expertise to…

  4. A Flexible, Preclinical, Medical School Curriculum Increases Student Academic Productivity and the Desire to Conduct Future Research (United States)

    Peacock, Justin G.; Grande, Joseph P.


    In 2006, small blocks of flexible curriculum time, termed selectives, were implemented in the Mayo Medical School preclinical curriculum. Selectives permitted students to pursue professional endeavors, such as research, service, and career exploration, in the preclinical years. The purpose of this study was to survey current and former Mayo…

  5. Teachers' Drug Reference: A Guide to Medical Conditions and Drugs Commonly Used in School-Aged Children. (United States)

    Agins, Alan P.

    This book provides a guide to approximately 175 drugs used with children. An introduction precedes the three major sections of the guide. Section 1 provides an overview of pharmacology and therapeutics in chapters on the basics of pharmacology, the language of pharmacology and therapeutics, compliance, side effects, and medications in school.…

  6. Parent & Educators' Drug Reference: A Guide to Common Medical Conditions & Drugs Used in School-Aged Children. (United States)

    Agins, Alan P.

    This book provides a guide to more than 180 drugs used for children. An introduction precedes the four major sections of the guide. Section 1 provides an overview of pharmacology and therapeutics in chapters on the basics of pharmacology, the language of pharmacology and therapeutics, compliance, side effects, medications in school, and drug…

  7. Does undertaking an intercalated BSc influence first clinical year exam results at a London medical school?

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    Jones Melvyn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intercalated BScs (iBScs are an optional part of the medical school curriculum in many Universities. Does undertaking an iBSc influence subsequent student performance? Previous studies addressing this question have been flawed by iBSc students being highly selected. This study looks at data from medical students where there is a compulsory iBSc for non-graduates. Our aim was to see whether there was any difference in performance between students who took an iBSc before or after their third year (first clinical year exams. Methods A multivariable analysis was performed to compare the third year results of students at one London medical school who had or had not completed their iBSc by the start of this year (n = 276. A general linear model was applied to adjust for differences between the two groups in terms of potential confounders (age, sex, nationality and baseline performance. Results The results of third year summative exams for 276 students were analysed (184 students with an iBSc and 92 without. Unadjusted analysis showed students who took an iBSc before their third year achieved significantly higher end of year marks than those who did not with a mean score difference of 4.4 (0.9 to 7.9 95% CI, p = 0.01. (overall mean score 238.4 "completed iBSc" students versus 234.0 "not completed", range 145.2 - 272.3 out of 300. There was however a significant difference between the two groups in their prior second year exam marks with those choosing to intercalate before their third year having higher marks. Adjusting for this, the difference in overall exam scores was no longer significant with a mean score difference of 1.4 (-4.9 to +7.7 95% CI, p = 0.66. (overall mean score 238.0 " completed iBSc" students versus 236.5 "not completed". Conclusions Once possible confounders are controlled for (age, sex, previous academic performance undertaking an iBSc does not influence third year exam results. One explanation for this

  8. Management of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity: research and optimization

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    Erugina M.V.


    Full Text Available The Objective: research of regularities of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity and justification of the directions of optimization of management by this process. Material and Methods. Object of research included functioning of system of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity. Are carried out: The study of reports of the Saratov region for 2006-2012, documentation of 16 treatment-and-prophylactic medical organizations and 84 responses on graduates of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky; anonymous retrospective questioning of 164 doctors after professional retraining at the faculty of professional development; expert questionnaire of 15 persons of the faculty of organizational chairs have been carried out. Results. In the work "complex adaptation factor"; dynamics of level of social and psychological, psychophysiological, organizational and professional indicators of adaptation of graduates to conditions of independent professional activity; the characteristic of "lagging behind" doctors; purposes of management of adaptation, importance of stages of its organizational support have been established. The ways to evaluate the success of individual adaptation and management of this process have been worked out, which are designed on the basis of the corresponding authorized optimization technology. Conclusion. Results of the conducted research allowed to expand idea of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity and to solve a number of applied problems of its optimization.

  9. Academic and professional career outcomes of medical school graduates who failed USMLE Step 1 on the first attempt. (United States)

    McDougle, Leon; Mavis, Brian E; Jeffe, Donna B; Roberts, Nicole K; Ephgrave, Kimberly; Hageman, Heather L; Lypson, Monica L; Thomas, Lauree; Andriole, Dorothy A


    This study sought to determine the academic and professional outcomes of medical school graduates who failed the United States Licensing Examination Step 1 on the first attempt. This retrospective cohort study was based on pooled data from 2,003 graduates of six Midwestern medical schools in the classes of 1997-2002. Demographic, academic, and career characteristics of graduates who failed Step 1 on the first attempt were compared to graduates who initially passed. Fifty medical school graduates (2.5 %) initially failed Step 1. Compared to graduates who initially passed Step 1, a higher proportion of graduates who initially failed Step 1 became primary care physicians (26/49 [53 %] vs. 766/1,870 [40.9 %]), were more likely at graduation to report intent to practice in underserved areas (28/50 [56 %] vs. 419/1,939 [ 21.6 %]), and more likely to take 5 or more years to graduate (11/50 [22.0 %] vs. 79/1,953 [4.0 %]). The relative risk of first attempt Step 1 failure for medical school graduates was 13.4 for African Americans, 7.4 for Latinos, 3.6 for matriculants >22 years of age, 3.2 for women, and 2.3 for first generation college graduates. The relative risk of not being specialty board certified for those graduates who initially failed Step 1 was 2.2. Our observations regarding characteristics of graduates in our study cohort who initially failed Step 1 can inform efforts by medical schools to identify and assist students who are at particular risk of failing Step 1.

  10. Foreign intervention in medical education: a case study of the Rockefeller Foundation's involvement in a Thai medical school. (United States)

    Donaldson, P J


    A case study of the process of foreign intervention in medical education in the developing world is presented. Material collected from the Rockefeller Foundation Archives on a Foundation program in Thailand is used to analyze the conditions under which foreign agencies and their personnel intervene in the development of medical professionals in the Third World and to study the problems that may occur as a result of such intervention. The importance of value consensus and the competitive advantage foreigners have in the marketing of professional models are highlighted as reasons for the diffusion of Western models of medical education throughout the developing world.

  11. Student perceptions of reproductive health education in US medical schools: a qualitative analysis of students taking family planning electives

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    Kathryn Veazey


    Full Text Available Background: Abortion services will be sought by an estimated one in three US women before they reach age 45. Despite the importance of family planning (FP care, many medical schools do not currently offer formal education in this area, and students are unable to meet associated competency standards prior to graduation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore students’ motivations in pursuing FP electives throughout the United States, their experiences during these courses, and any impact of these rotations on their plans for future practice. Method: We conducted a qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews with medical students upon completing fourth-year FP electives at US medical schools. Thirty-seven LCME-accredited US medical schools offered fourth-year FP electives. Course directors at 21 of these institutions recruited study participants between June 2012 and June 2013. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS/ti software to identify salient themes. Results: We interviewed 29 students representing 14 institutions from all regions of the United States (East Coast, Midwest, South, and West Coast. Five central themes emerged. Medical students are using FP electives to fill gaps in the standard curriculum. Elective participation did not change students’ pre-elective stance on abortion. Many students intend to provide abortion in the future but identified possible limiting factors. Proficiency in contraception and options counseling were top competencies desired and gained. Students reported excellent satisfaction with FP electives and would recommend it to their peers, regardless of their personal beliefs. Conclusions: Interview data revealed that students are using FP electives to fill gaps within preclinical and clinical medical school curriculum. Future physicians will be unable to provide comprehensive care for their female patients if they are not provided with this education. Research

  12. A Comparison of the Performance on Three Multiple Choice Question Papers in Obstetrics and Gynecology Over a Period of Three Years Administered at Five London Medical Schools (United States)

    Stevens, J. M.; And Others


    Five of the medical schools in the University of London collaborated in administering one multiple choice question paper in obstetrics and gynecology, and results showed differences in performance between the five schools on questions and alternatives within questions. The rank order of the schools may result from differences in teaching methods.…

  13. Banal Race Thinking: Ties of Blood, Canadian History Textbooks and Ethnic Nationalism (United States)

    Montgomery, Ken


    This paper examines how the idea of "race" is represented in high school Canadian history textbooks. It looks at textbooks authorized by the Province of Ontario between 1940 and 1960 and those authorized after 2000. It is argued in this paper that even though historical racisms have increasingly made their way into Canadian history…

  14. [Aims and objectives of medical education at the Medical School of Universidad de Concepción]. (United States)

    Schiappacasse Ferretti, E


    Ultimately, medical education is oriented world wide towards the promotion and improvement of people's health and the promotion of welfare, along with other organisations. The development of science, technology and instructional resources, the concerns of the community and nations about health matters and their health care policies, require a new approach towards medical education. Universities must be aware of these new demands, that must be taken into account in medical education. New medical curricula should consider the new scenarios in which the process of health and disease takes place and the new participants in such process, the need for technological offices with trained and committed personnel devoted to its design and the need to be permanently evaluated.

  15. Twitter and Canadian Educators (United States)

    Cooke, Max


    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  16. Canadian Adult Basic Education. (United States)

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional…

  17. The development of self-regulated learning during the pre-clinical stage of medical school: a comparison between a lecture-based and a problem based curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Lucieer (Susanna); J.N. van der Geest (Jos); S. Elói-Santos (Silvana); R.M.D. de Faria (Rosa Malena Delbone); L. Jonker (Laura); C. Visscher (Chris); R.M.J.P. Rikers (Remy); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)


    textabstractSociety expects physicians to always improve their competencies and to be up to date with developments in their field. Therefore, an important aim of medical schools is to educate future medical doctors to become self-regulated, lifelong learners. However, it is unclear if medical studen

  18. Evaluation of mobile learning: Students' experiences in a new rural-based medical school

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    Nestel Debra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile learning (ML is an emerging educational method with success dependent on many factors including the ML device, physical infrastructure and user characteristics. At Gippsland Medical School (GMS, students are given a laptop at the commencement of their four-year degree. We evaluated the educational impact of the ML program from students' perspectives. Methods Questionnaires and individual interviews explored students' experiences of ML. All students were invited to complete questionnaires. Convenience sampling was used for interviews. Quantitative data was entered to SPSS 17.0 and descriptive statistics computed. Free text comments from questionnaires and transcriptions of interviews were thematically analysed. Results Fifty students completed the questionnaire (response rate 88%. Six students participated in interviews. More than half the students owned a laptop prior to commencing studies, would recommend the laptop and took the laptop to GMS daily. Modal daily use of laptops was four hours. Most frequent use was for access to the internet and email while the most frequently used applications were Microsoft Word and PowerPoint. Students appreciated the laptops for several reasons. The reduced financial burden was valued. Students were largely satisfied with the laptop specifications. Design elements of teaching spaces limited functionality. Although students valued aspects of the virtual learning environment (VLE, they also made many suggestions for improvement. Conclusions Students reported many educational benefits from school provision of laptops. In particular, the quick and easy access to electronic educational resources as and when they were needed. Improved design of physical facilities would enhance laptop use together with a more logical layout of the VLE, new computer-based resources and activities promoting interaction.

  19. Genome sequencing of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in conjunction with a medical school human anatomy course. (United States)

    Kumar, Akash; Dougherty, Max; Findlay, Gregory M; Geisheker, Madeleine; Klein, Jason; Lazar, John; Machkovech, Heather; Resnick, Jesse; Resnick, Rebecca; Salter, Alexander I; Talebi-Liasi, Faezeh; Arakawa, Christopher; Baudin, Jacob; Bogaard, Andrew; Salesky, Rebecca; Zhou, Qian; Smith, Kelly; Clark, John I; Shendure, Jay; Horwitz, Marshall S


    Even in cases where there is no obvious family history of disease, genome sequencing may contribute to clinical diagnosis and management. Clinical application of the genome has not yet become routine, however, in part because physicians are still learning how best to utilize such information. As an educational research exercise performed in conjunction with our medical school human anatomy course, we explored the potential utility of determining the whole genome sequence of a patient who had died following a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Medical students performed dissection and whole genome sequencing of the cadaver. Gross and microscopic findings were more consistent with the fibrosing variant of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), as opposed to IPF per se. Variants in genes causing Mendelian disorders predisposing to IPF were not detected. However, whole genome sequencing identified several common variants associated with IPF, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs35705950, located in the promoter region of the gene encoding mucin glycoprotein MUC5B. The MUC5B promoter polymorphism was recently found to markedly elevate risk for IPF, though a particular association with NSIP has not been previously reported, nor has its contribution to disease risk previously been evaluated in the genome-wide context of all genetic variants. We did not identify additional predicted functional variants in a region of linkage disequilibrium (LD) adjacent to MUC5B, nor did we discover other likely risk-contributing variants elsewhere in the genome. Whole genome sequencing thus corroborates the association of rs35705950 with MUC5B dysregulation and interstitial lung disease. This novel exercise additionally served a unique mission in bridging clinical and basic science education.

  20. Teaching population health as a basic science at Harvard Medical School. (United States)

    Finkelstein, Jonathan A; McMahon, Graham T; Peters, Antoinette; Cadigan, Rebecca; Biddinger, Paul; Simon, Steven R


    In 2006-2007, Harvard Medical School implemented a new, required course for first-year medical and dental students entitled Clinical Epidemiology and Population Health. Conceived of as a "basic science" course, its primary goal is to allow students to develop an understanding of caring for individuals and promoting the health of populations as a continuum of strategies, all requiring the engagement of physicians. In the course's first iteration, topical content accessible to first-year students was selected to exemplify physicians' roles in addressing current threats to population health. Methodological areas included domains of clinical epidemiology, decision sciences, population-level prevention and health promotion, physicians' roles in the public health system, and population-level surveillance and intervention strategies. Large-group settings were selectively used to frame the relevance of each topic, and conceptual learning of statistical and epidemiologic methods occurred in conference groups of 24 students. Finally, tutorials of eight students and one or two faculty were used for critical reading of published studies, review of problem sets, and group discussion of population health issues. To help students appreciate the structure and function of the public health system and physicians' role in public health emergencies, the course included a role-playing exercise simulating response to an influenza pandemic. The first iteration of the course was well received, and assessment of students suggested mastery of basic skills. Preclinical courses represent a progressive step in developing a workforce of physicians who embrace their responsibility to improve the health of the population as a whole, as well as the health of the patient in front of them.