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Sample records for canadian information processing

  1. The Canadian ISTAR Information-Centric Collaborative Workspace Concept. Paper 2: The Info-Centric Collaborative Workspace from the Processes Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thibault, Gaetan; Le May, Francois

    2004-01-01

    ...) concept in the Canadian Land Force. ISTAR provides the commander with a system to collect and process required information for producing intelligence on the threat and knowledge on the environment during operations, as well...

  2. Introducing New Priority Setting and Resource Allocation Processes in a Canadian Healthcare Organization: A Case Study Analysis Informed by Multiple Streams Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neale; Mitton, Craig; Dowling, Laura; Hiltz, Mary-Ann; Campbell, Matthew; Gujar, Shashi Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this article, we analyze one case instance of how proposals for change to the priority setting and resource allocation (PSRA) processes at a Canadian healthcare institution reached the decision agenda of the organization’s senior leadership. We adopt key concepts from an established policy studies framework – Kingdon’s multiple streams theory – to inform our analysis. Methods: Twenty-six individual interviews were conducted at the IWK Health Centre in Halifax, NS, Canada. Participants were asked to reflect upon the reasons leading up to the implementation of a formal priority setting process – Program Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA) – in the 2012/2013 fiscal year. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using Kingdon’s model as a template. Results: The introduction of PBMA can be understood as the opening of a policy window. A problem stream – defined as lack of broad engagement and information sharing across service lines in past practice – converged with a known policy solution, PBMA, which addressed the identified problems and was perceived as easy to use and with an evidence-base from past applications across Canada and elsewhere. Conditions in the political realm allowed for this intervention to proceed, but also constrained its potential outcomes. Conclusion: Understanding in a theoretically-informed way how change occurs in healthcare management practices can provide useful lessons to researchers and decision-makers whose aim is to help health systems achieve the most effective use of available financial resources PMID:26673646

  3. Introducing New Priority Setting and Resource Allocation Processes in a Canadian Healthcare Organization: A Case Study Analysis Informed by Multiple Streams Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neale Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In this article, we analyze one case instance of how proposals for change to the priority setting and resource allocation (PSRA processes at a Canadian healthcare institution reached the decision agenda of the organization’s senior leadership. We adopt key concepts from an established policy studies framework – Kingdon’s multiple streams theory – to inform our analysis. Methods Twenty-six individual interviews were conducted at the IWK Health Centre in Halifax, NS, Canada. Participants were asked to reflect upon the reasons leading up to the implementation of a formal priority setting process – Program Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA – in the 2012/2013 fiscal year. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using Kingdon’s model as a template. Results The introduction of PBMA can be understood as the opening of a policy window. A problem stream – defined as lack of broad engagement and information sharing across service lines in past practice – converged with a known policy solution, PBMA, which addressed the identified problems and was perceived as easy to use and with an evidence-base from past applications across Canada and elsewhere. Conditions in the political realm allowed for this intervention to proceed, but also constrained its potential outcomes. Conclusion Understanding in a theoretically-informed way how change occurs in healthcare management practices can provide useful lessons to researchers and decision-makers whose aim is to help health systems achieve the most effective use of available financial resources.

  4. Information processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Peter J.; Emmelkamp, Paul; Ehring, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models imply that emotional disorders critically depend on the existence of maladaptive cognitive structures in memory. These so-called schemas are assumed to automatically influence all stages of individuals' information processing. The basic assumption of the information-processing

  5. 78 FR 73875 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat... requirement concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I-68). This request for comment is being... information collection: Title: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit. OMB Number: 1651-0108. Form Number: CBP...

  6. 76 FR 2917 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit..., mechanical, or other technological techniques or other forms of information. Title: Canadian Border Boat...

  7. 75 FR 61508 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat... concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I- ] 68). This request for comment is being made... information collection: Title: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit. OMB Number: 1651-0108. Form Number: CBP...

  8. Examining an occupational perspective in a rural Canadian age-friendly consultation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauckner, Heidi M; Stadnyk, Robin L

    2014-12-01

    The age-friendly community movement is a community-level approach to promoting seniors' health that has yet to be thoroughly examined from an occupational perspective. Through the application of the Canadian Practice Process Framework to an age-friendly consultation process, the authors examined how age-friendly community consultations may provide strategies for occupational therapists to strengthen their work with communities. A consultation with a rural Canadian community was guided by the Age-Friendly Rural/Remote Communities Initiative. Focus groups were held with 35 older adults to identify age-friendly features of the community. Twenty key informants who provide services to seniors were also interviewed individually. Following the community consultation, we examined the relationship between the age-friendly community consultation process and occupational therapy community development practice processes using the Canadian Practice Process Framework. The steps of the consultation process paralleled the occupational therapy practice process, with occupational issues implicitly identified in the age-friendly consultation. The age-friendly consultation process emphasised the importance of collaborative partnerships and the need for occupational therapists to adopt a facilitative rather than leadership role. Skills that enable occupation were used throughout this age-friendly consultation. The study suggests that the process of this age-friendly community consultation has relevance to occupational therapy theory and practice, and can provide a useful framework for collaborative consultative processes when working with communities. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  9. Searching for medical information online: a survey of Canadian nephrologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Salimah Z; Bejaimal, Shayna A D; Sontrop, Jessica M; Iansavichus, Arthur V; Weir, Matthew A; Haynes, R Brian; Speechley, Mark R; Thind, Amardeep; Garg, Amit X

    2011-01-01

    Physicians often search for information to improve patient care. We evaluated how nephrologists use online information sources for this purpose. In this cross-sectional study (2008 to 2010), a random sample of Canadian nephrologists completed a survey of their online search practices. We queried respondents on their searching preferences, practices and use of 9 online information sources. Respondents (n=115; 75% response rate) comprised both academic (59%) and community-based (41%) nephrologists. Respondents were an average of 48 years old and were in practice for an average of 15 years. Nephrologists used a variety of online sources to retrieve information on patient treatment including UpToDate (92%), PubMed (89%), Google (76%) and Ovid MEDLINE (55%). Community-based nephrologists were more likely to consult UpToDate first (91%), while academic nephrologists were divided between UpToDate (58%) and PubMed (41%). When searching bibliographic resources such as PubMed, 80% of nephrologists scan a maximum of 40 citations (the equivalent of 2 search pages in PubMed). Searching practices did not differ by age, sex or years in practice. Nephrologists routinely use a variety of online resources to search for information for patient care. These include bibliographic databases, general search engines and specialized medical resources.

  10. Results of an informal survey of Canadian Atlantic mackerel commercial, recreational and bait fishers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Beveren, Elisabeth; Castonguay, Martin; Doniol-Valcroze, Thomas; Duplisea, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    ...) are underestimated, but the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. We launched an informal online survey targeting all Canadian Atlantic mackerel fishers in order to obtain a rough estimate of the proportion of catch which is undeclared...

  11. Quantum information processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leuchs, Gerd; Beth, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 SimulationofHamiltonians... References... 1 1 1 3 5 8 10 2 Quantum Information Processing and Error Correction with Jump Codes (G. Alber, M. Mussinger...

  12. Impact of information technology on information gaps in canadian ambulatory care encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosec, Lauren; Balenko, Krista; Hagens, Simon

    2015-01-08

    Specialist physicians require clinical information for patient visits in ambulatory encounters, some of which they may access via digital health solutions. This study explored the completeness of information for patient care and the consequences of gaps for ambulatory specialist services provided in ambulatory settings in Canada. A sample of specialist physicians practising in outpatient clinics was recruited from a health care provider research panel. The study (n=1800 patient encounters) looked at the completeness of patient information experienced by physicians who work in environments with rich health information exchange (Connected) and a comparison cohort with less information available electronically (Unconnected). Unconnected physicians were significantly more likely to be missing information they needed for patient encounters (13% of encounters for Unconnected physicians vs 7% for Connected physicians). Unconnected physicians were also more likely to report that missing information had consequences (23% vs 13% of encounters). Lab results were the most common type of patient information missing for both Unconnected and Connected specialists (25% for Unconnected physicians vs 11% Connected physicians). The results from this study indicate that Canadian physicians commonly experience information gaps in ambulatory encounters, and that many of these gaps are of consequence to themselves, their patients, and the healthcare system. Wasting physician and patient time, as well as being forced to proceed with incomplete information, were the most common consequences of information gaps reported.

  13. Risk communication and informed consent in the medical tourism industry: A thematic content analysis of canadian broker websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Medical tourism, thought of as patients seeking non-emergency medical care outside of their home countries, is a growing industry worldwide. Canadians are amongst those engaging in medical tourism, and many are helped in the process of accessing care abroad by medical tourism brokers - agents who specialize in making international medical care arrangements for patients. As a key source of information for these patients, brokers are likely to play an important role in communicating the risks and benefits of undergoing surgery or other procedures abroad to their clientele. This raises important ethical concerns regarding processes such as informed consent and the liability of brokers in the event that complications arise from procedures. The purpose of this article is to examine the language, information, and online marketing of Canadian medical tourism brokers' websites in light of such ethical concerns. Methods An exhaustive online search using multiple search engines and keywords was performed to compile a comprehensive directory of English-language Canadian medical tourism brokerage websites. These websites were examined using thematic content analysis, which included identifying informational themes, generating frequency counts of these themes, and comparing trends in these counts to the established literature. Results Seventeen websites were identified for inclusion in this study. It was found that Canadian medical tourism broker websites varied widely in scope, content, professionalism and depth of information. Three themes emerged from the thematic content analysis: training and accreditation, risk communication, and business dimensions. Third party accreditation bodies of debatable regulatory value were regularly mentioned on the reviewed websites, and discussion of surgical risk was absent on 47% of the websites reviewed, with limited discussion of risk on the remaining ones. Terminology describing brokers' roles was somewhat inconsistent across

  14. Risk communication and informed consent in the medical tourism industry: a thematic content analysis of Canadian broker websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Kali; Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Johnston, Rory

    2011-09-26

    Medical tourism, thought of as patients seeking non-emergency medical care outside of their home countries, is a growing industry worldwide. Canadians are amongst those engaging in medical tourism, and many are helped in the process of accessing care abroad by medical tourism brokers - agents who specialize in making international medical care arrangements for patients. As a key source of information for these patients, brokers are likely to play an important role in communicating the risks and benefits of undergoing surgery or other procedures abroad to their clientele. This raises important ethical concerns regarding processes such as informed consent and the liability of brokers in the event that complications arise from procedures. The purpose of this article is to examine the language, information, and online marketing of Canadian medical tourism brokers' websites in light of such ethical concerns. An exhaustive online search using multiple search engines and keywords was performed to compile a comprehensive directory of English-language Canadian medical tourism brokerage websites. These websites were examined using thematic content analysis, which included identifying informational themes, generating frequency counts of these themes, and comparing trends in these counts to the established literature. Seventeen websites were identified for inclusion in this study. It was found that Canadian medical tourism broker websites varied widely in scope, content, professionalism and depth of information. Three themes emerged from the thematic content analysis: training and accreditation, risk communication, and business dimensions. Third party accreditation bodies of debatable regulatory value were regularly mentioned on the reviewed websites, and discussion of surgical risk was absent on 47% of the websites reviewed, with limited discussion of risk on the remaining ones. Terminology describing brokers' roles was somewhat inconsistent across the websites. Finally

  15. Defining a risk-informed framework for whole-of-government lessons learned: A Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Shaye K; Kelsey, Shelley; Legere, J A Jim

    Lessons learned play an important role in emergency management (EM) and organizational agility. Virtually all aspects of EM can derive benefit from a lessons learned program. From major security events to exercises, exploiting and applying lessons learned and "best practices" is critical to organizational resilience and adaptiveness. A robust lessons learned process and methodology provides an evidence base with which to inform decisions, guide plans, strengthen mitigation strategies, and assist in developing tools for operations. The Canadian Safety and Security Program recently supported a project to define a comprehensive framework that would allow public safety and security partners to regularly share event response best practices, and prioritize recommendations originating from after action reviews. This framework consists of several inter-locking elements: a comprehensive literature review/environmental scan of international programs; a survey to collect data from end users and management; the development of a taxonomy for organizing and structuring information; a risk-informed methodology for selecting, prioritizing, and following through on recommendations; and standardized templates and tools for tracking recommendations and ensuring implementation. This article discusses the efforts of the project team, which provided "best practice" advice and analytical support to ensure that a systematic approach to lessons learned was taken by the federal community to improve prevention, preparedness, and response activities. It posits an approach by which one might design a systematic process for information sharing and event response coordination-an approach that will assist federal departments to institutionalize a cross-government lessons learned program.

  16. Information Processing - Administrative Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenko, Janis

    A three semester, 60-credit course package in the topic of Administrative Data Processing (ADP), offered in 1966 at Stockholm University (SU) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is described. The package had an information systems engineering orientation. The first semester focused on datalogical topics, while the second semester focused on the infological topics. The third semester aimed to deepen the students’ knowledge in different parts of ADP and at writing a bachelor thesis. The concluding section of this paper discusses various aspects of the department’s first course effort. The course package led to a concretisation of our discipline and gave our discipline an identity. Our education seemed modern, “just in time”, and well adapted to practical needs. The course package formed the first concrete activity of a group of young teachers and researchers. In a forty-year perspective, these people have further developed the department and the topic to an internationally well-reputed body of knowledge and research. The department has produced more than thirty professors and more than one hundred doctoral degrees.

  17. Process Information and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastain, Erick; Smith, Cameron

    2016-12-01

    Universal Semantic Communication (USC) is a theory that models communication among agents without the assumption of a fixed protocol. We demonstrate a connection, via a concept we refer to as process information, between a special case of USC and evolutionary processes. In this context, one agent attempts to interpret a potentially arbitrary signal produced within its environment. Sources of this effective signal can be modeled as a single alternative agent. Given a set of common underlying concepts that may be symbolized differently by different sources in the environment, any given entity must be able to correlate intrinsic information with input it receives from the environment in order to accurately interpret the ambient signal and ultimately coordinate its own actions. This scenario encapsulates a class of USC problems that provides insight into the semantic aspect of a model of evolution proposed by Rivoire and Leibler. Through this connection, we show that evolution corresponds to a means of solving a special class of USC problems, can be viewed as a special case of the Multiplicative Weights Updates algorithm, and that infinite population selection with no mutation and no recombination conforms to the Rivoire-Leibler model. Finally, using process information we show that evolving populations implicitly internalize semantic information about their respective environments.

  18. Introduction to information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Dietel, Harvey M

    2014-01-01

    An Introduction to Information Processing provides an informal introduction to the computer field. This book introduces computer hardware, which is the actual computing equipment.Organized into three parts encompassing 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the evolution of personal computing and includes detailed case studies on two of the most essential personal computers for the 1980s, namely, the IBM Personal Computer and Apple's Macintosh. This text then traces the evolution of modern computing systems from the earliest mechanical calculating devices to microchips. Other chapte

  19. Using Mobile Technology to Enhance Undergraduate Student Digital Information Literacy Skills: A Canadian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanbidge, Alice Schmidt; Sanderson, Nicole; Tin, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Learning essential information literacy skills through the use of mobile phones is an innovative m-learning pilot project that was collaboratively undertaken in a Canadian university college over the course of two academic terms by faculty and the library staff. The research pilot project involved ninety one undergraduate students in five…

  20. Educators of the Information Society: Information Literacy Instruction in Canadian Informational Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Henkel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As information literacy is a key competence of the information society, information literacy instruction in public as well as academic libraries is crucial. Today, librarians do not only act as providers of information but also as educators of the information society's citizens. The rapid development of information and communications technologies is constantly changing the way we interact with information, making it difficult to keep up to date with instructional trends. This study aims to assess the perceived quality of information literacy instruction in libraries of Canada's informational cities: Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver. Therefore, librarians were interviewed by means of a questionnaire inspired by the SERVQUAL diagnostic tool. The questionnaire comprises of two parts: The first part consists of questions regarding information literacy instruction, in the second part the focus is on the seven competence areas of information literacy. Based on the difference between the librarians' "Expectation" and "Experience", gap scores for all questionnaire items were calculated and are now being presented and discussed.

  1. Perception and information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Consumer researchers are interested in the responses of people to commercial stimuli. Usually, these stimuli are products and services, including all attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Perception is the first bottleneck in this process...... information and to characterise the operations they perform. To avoid confusion, it should be stressed that the term "perception" is often used in a colloquial sense in consumer research. In concepts like perceived quality, perceived value, or perceived risk, the modifier "perceived" simply highlights...... the subjective nature of these phenomena. However, many of these phenomena are the result of rather complex evaluative judgments and should therefore be regarded as attitudes, not as perceptions in a narrow sense. In this chapter, the term perception will be used in its narrow sense, referring to the selection...

  2. Computers behind bars : Information technology in Canadian prison libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prange, Laurie

    This report is the result of an independent study undertaken with the Faculty of Information and Media Studies (FIMS) at The University of Western Ontario (UWO) and advised by Dr. Carole Farber, Professor. The focus of this study is upon the impact the increased popularity of electronic provision...

  3. Consumer Medication Information: Similarities and Differences Between Three Canadian Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkman, Helen; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2017-01-01

    Prescription medication use is prevalent. When a new prescription medication is dispensed, Consumer Medication Information (CMI) is provided to communicate various important aspects of the medication (e.g., benefits, administration instructions, potential side effects). However, CMI is not regulated and differs from pharmacy to pharmacy. This study explores the similarities and differences between the CMI from three pharmacies (two paper print outs and one online source) for a single medication. The three CMI were assessed in terms of readability and utility. This evaluation revealed drastic differences in the length of the CMI (Range = 453 to 2 337 words). The online CMI was longer, described more topics and provided more detail than the print versions. Although online CMI has the advantage of interactivity to expedite navigation to specific topics of interest (e.g., heading links) and searching for key words, this CMI was not layered but rather presented as one long continuous page. Consumers with lower eHealth literacy skills may be deterred by the length of the document. As CMI makes the shift to online presentation an improved understanding of optimal information organization and media presentation will be needed.

  4. INFORMATIONAL APPROACH ON TRAINING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šemsudin Plojović

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Information technology is very important part in training process. Training process is always in innovation and assembling faze, especially at those that want to compete on international level. In that surrounding training process, as the trainers also, must be transformed. Great deal of information must be reliable for headquarter for optimal training process. Informational approach on training process, subject of this research, represent informational technologies and information systems with all aspects an possibilities of applications in sport. Information technology, information system and its application in sport in last decade is developed very fast in last decade. Computer is used, not only for data process, but also for making decisions. That is the key moment changing the basics of information system, especially the role of information system in training process. To define key words connected for information systems in sport we will start from characteristics of information, exchanging in this relations: man to man, machine to machine, man to machine, and opposite, machine to man. According to this we need to make the difference between data and information. In this research we talk about concrete application of information technology and information system as the backup of training process. Behind practical application of IT in sport, that is the main issue of this work, stands the marvelous results of athletes from AK Novi Pazar. Azra Eminovic, Edin Zukovic, Muamer Hasanovic, Emir Koca and Senadin Plojovic, they’ve achieved great results with information back up of training process.

  5. Canadian ENGOs in governance of water resources: information needs and monitoring practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebo, Sasha; Bunch, Martin J

    2013-11-01

    Water quality monitoring involves a complex set of steps and a variety of approaches. Its goals include understanding of aquatic habitats, informing management and facilitating decision making, and educating citizens. Environmental nongovernmental organizations (ENGOs) are increasingly engaged in water quality monitoring and act as environmental watchdogs and stewards of water resources. These organizations exhibit different monitoring mandates. As government involvement in water quality monitoring continues to decline, it becomes essential that we understand their modi operandi. By doing so, we can enhance efficacy and encourage data sharing and communication. This research examined Canadian ENGOs that collect their own data on water quality with respect to water quality monitoring activities and information needs. This work had a twofold purpose: (1) to enhance knowledge about the Canadian ENGOs operating in the realm of water quality monitoring and (2) to guide and inform development of web-based geographic information systems (GIS) to support water quality monitoring, particularly using benthic macroinvertebrate protocols. A structured telephone survey was administered across 10 Canadian provinces to 21 ENGOs that undertake water quality monitoring. This generated information about barriers and challenges of data sharing, commonly collected metrics, human resources, and perceptions of volunteer-collected data. Results are presented on an aggregate level and among different groups of respondents. Use of geomatics technology was not consistent among respondents, and we found no noteworthy differences between organizations that did and did not use GIS tools. About one third of respondents did not employ computerized systems (including databases and spreadsheets) to support data management, analysis, and sharing. Despite their advantage as a holistic water quality indicator, benthic macroinvertebrates (BMIs) were not widely employed in stream monitoring. Although

  6. Industrial Information Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates, how cross-functional business processes may be aligned with product specification systems in an intra-organizational environment by integrating planning systems and expert systems, thereby providing an end-to-end integrated and an automated solution to the “build-to-order...

  7. Canadian integrative oncology research priorities: results of a consensus-building process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, L.C.; Seely, D.; Balneaves, L.G.; Boon, H.S.; Leis, A.; Oneschuk, D.; Sagar, S.M.; Verhoef, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background In Canada, many diverse models of integrative oncology care have emerged in response to the growing number of cancer patients who combine complementary therapies with their conventional medical treatments. The increasing interest in integrative oncology emphasizes the need to engage stakeholders and to work toward consensus on research priorities and a collaborative research agenda. The Integrative Canadian Oncology Research Initiative initiated a consensus-building process to meet that need and to develop an action plan that will implement a Canadian research agenda. Methods A two-day consensus workshop was held after completion of a Delphi survey and stakeholder interviews. Results Five interrelated priority research areas were identified as the foundation for a Canadian research agenda: EffectivenessSafetyResource and health services utilizationKnowledge translationDeveloping integrative oncology models Research is needed within each priority area from a range of different perspectives (for example, patient, practitioner, health system) and in a way that reflects a continuum of integration from the addition of a single complementary intervention within conventional cancer care to systemic change. Strategies to implement a Canadian integrative oncology research agenda were identified, and working groups are actively developing projects in line with those strategic areas. Of note is the intention to develop a national network for integrative oncology research and knowledge translation. Conclusions The identified research priorities reflect the needs and perspectives of a spectrum of integrative oncology stakeholders. Ongoing stakeholder consultation, including engagement from new stakeholders, is needed to ensure appropriate uptake and implementation of a Canadian research agenda. PMID:23904767

  8. Aging, culture, and memory for categorically processed information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixia; Chen, Wenfeng; Ng, Andy H; Fu, Xiaolan

    2013-11-01

    Literature on cross-cultural differences in cognition suggests that categorization, as an information processing and organization strategy, was more often used by Westerners than by East Asians, particularly for older adults. This study examines East-West cultural differences in memory for categorically processed items and sources in young and older Canadians and native Chinese with a conceptual source memory task (Experiment 1) and a reality monitoring task (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, participants encoded photographic faces of their own ethnicity that were artificially categorized into GOOD or EVIL characters and then completed a source memory task in which they identified faces as old-GOOD, old-EVIL, or new. In Experiment 2, participants viewed a series of words, each followed either by a corresponding image (i.e., SEEN) or by a blank square within which they imagined an image for the word (i.e., IMAGINED). At test, they decided whether the test words were old-SEEN, old-IMAGINED, or new. In general, Canadians outperformed Chinese in memory for categorically processed information, an effect more pronounced for older than for young adults. Extensive exercise of culturally preferred categorization strategy differentially benefits Canadians and reduces their age group differences in memory for categorically processed information.

  9. Priority Setting Meets Multiple Streams: A Match to Be Further Examined? Comment on "Introducing New Priority Setting and Resource Allocation Processes in a Canadian Healthcare Organization: A Case Study Analysis Informed by Multiple Streams Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Jacqueline Margaret

    2016-05-16

    With demand for health services continuing to grow as populations age and new technologies emerge to meet health needs, healthcare policy-makers are under constant pressure to set priorities, ie, to make choices about the health services that can and cannot be funded within available resources. In a recent paper, Smith et al apply an influential policy studies framework - Kingdon's multiple streams approach (MSA) - to explore the factors that explain why one health service delivery organization adopted a formal priority setting framework (in the form of programme budgeting and marginal analysis [PBMA]) to assist it in making priority setting decisions. MSA is a theory of agenda-setting, ie, how it is that different issues do or do not reach a decision-making point. In this paper, I reflect on the use of the MSA framework to explore priority setting processes and how the framework might be applied to similar cases in future. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  10. Priority Setting Meets Multiple Streams: A Match to Be Further Examined?; Comment on “Introducing New Priority Setting and Resource Allocation Processes in a Canadian Healthcare Organization: A Case Study Analysis Informed by Multiple Streams Theory”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Margaret Cumming

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With demand for health services continuing to grow as populations age and new technologies emerge to meet health needs, healthcare policy-makers are under constant pressure to set priorities, ie, to make choices about the health services that can and cannot be funded within available resources. In a recent paper, Smith et al apply an influential policy studies framework – Kingdon’s multiple streams approach (MSA – to explore the factors that explain why one health service delivery organization adopted a formal priority setting framework (in the form of programme budgeting and marginal analysis [PBMA] to assist it in making priority setting decisions. MSA is a theory of agenda-setting, ie, how it is that different issues do or do not reach a decision-making point. In this paper, I reflect on the use of the MSA framework to explore priority setting processes and how the framework might be applied to similar cases in future.

  11. BRICS and Quantum Information Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1998-01-01

    BRICS is a research centre and international PhD school in theoretical computer science, based at the University of Aarhus, Denmark. The centre has recently become engaged in quantum information processing in cooperation with the Department of Physics, also University of Aarhus. This extended...... abstract surveys activities at BRICS with special emphasis on the activities in quantum information processing....

  12. Language Processing in Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doszkocs, Tamase

    1986-01-01

    Examines role and contributions of natural-language processing in information retrieval and artificial intelligence research in context of large operational information retrieval systems and services. State-of-the-art information retrieval systems combining the functional capabilities of conventional inverted file term adjacency approach with…

  13. Information and Communication Technologies in International Education: A Canadian Policy Analysi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Aucoin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The rhetoric surrounding the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs in international education speaks of providing education access for all. However, an examination of actual policies reveals an emphasis not on creating an educated population, but on improving economic opportunities using discourses such as globalization, knowledge economy, and knowledge society. This emphasis creates an imbalance in opportunities for using ICTs in education and presents challenges for international educators. This paper discusses the Canadian International Development Agency’s report, CIDA’s Strategy on Knowledge for Development through Information and Communication Technologies, as an example of how rhetoric does not always meet reality. The paper concludes with four simple recommendations for good ICT practice in developing contexts.

  14. Information processing, computation, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, Gualtiero; Scarantino, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Computation and information processing are among the most fundamental notions in cognitive science. They are also among the most imprecisely discussed. Many cognitive scientists take it for granted that cognition involves computation, information processing, or both - although others disagree vehemently. Yet different cognitive scientists use 'computation' and 'information processing' to mean different things, sometimes without realizing that they do. In addition, computation and information processing are surrounded by several myths; first and foremost, that they are the same thing. In this paper, we address this unsatisfactory state of affairs by presenting a general and theory-neutral account of computation and information processing. We also apply our framework by analyzing the relations between computation and information processing on one hand and classicism, connectionism, and computational neuroscience on the other. We defend the relevance to cognitive science of both computation, at least in a generic sense, and information processing, in three important senses of the term. Our account advances several foundational debates in cognitive science by untangling some of their conceptual knots in a theory-neutral way. By leveling the playing field, we pave the way for the future resolution of the debates' empirical aspects.

  15. Association between Falls and Caregiving Tasks among Informal Caregivers: Canadian Community Health Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughon, Wendy; Lee, Yeonjung; Gallo, William; Kaufman, Jennifer; Unuigbe, Aig

    2018-03-01

    Falls are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. While research has explored the relationship between older care recipient falls and caregiver health, there has been little investigation of the relationship between caregiving tasks and falls in older caregivers. This study assessed associations between falls and caregiving frequency and type of caregiving tasks among informal older caregivers. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey on Healthy Aging (Public Use Microdata File 2008-2009) (n = 2,934) were examined, using descriptive and logistic regression analyses. Higher frequency of caregiving was positively associated with falls, although those who performed household chores were less likely to report falling in the past year. Results suggest there may be an association between factors related to caregiving and falls in older caregivers. More research using longitudinal and experimental data is needed to better understand the relationship between caregiving tasks and falls in older caregivers.

  16. Canadian perspectives on the nutrition care process and international dietetics and nutrition terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Marlis; Basualdo-Hammond, Carlota; Hotson, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline benefits of adoption of the Nutrition Care Process (NCP) and International Dietetics and Nutrition Terminology (IDNT) by Canadian dietitians, discuss implementation considerations for broad-based action and change, and determine future directions. The NCP and IDNT are recommended by the International Confederation of Dietetic Associations for international adoption as a framework for dietetic practice. The NCP uses a client-centred framework to clarify the role of registered dietitians (RDs), nutrition practice elements and skills, and the environments in which RDs practice. It also incorporates an evaluation framework, including identification of specific goals and monitoring of clinical and behavioural outcomes, to improve the quality and effectiveness of nutrition care. The process helps RDs to identify interventions that are more likely to improve nutrition outcomes by providing a systematic approach that encourages critical thinking and problem-solving. IDNT provides a standard set of core nutrition care terms and definitions for the four steps of the nutrition care process: assessment, nutrition diagnosis, intervention, and monitoring/evaluation. Use of IDNT promotes uniform documentation of nutrition care, enables differentiation of the type and amount of nutrition care provided, and provides a basis for linking nutrition care activities with actual or predicted outcomes. To continue to advance the dietetic profession in the Canadian health system, RDs must demonstrate their value by highlighting population, group, and individual health outcomes that are most influenced by the RD. The NCP and IDNT will help dietitians achieve these goals.

  17. Image Processing and Geographic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Ronald G.; Daily, Julie; Kiss, Kenneth

    1985-12-01

    A Geographic Information System, which is a product of System Development Corporation's Image Processing System and a commercially available Data Base Management System, is described. The architecture of the system allows raster (image) data type, graphics data type, and tabular data type input and provides for the convenient analysis and display of spatial information. A variety of functions are supported through the Geographic Information System including ingestion of foreign data formats, image polygon encoding, image overlay, image tabulation, costatistical modelling of image and tabular information, and tabular to image conversion. The report generator in the DBMS is utilized to prepare quantitative tabular output extracted from spatially referenced images. An application of the Geographic Information System to a variety of data sources and types is highlighted. The application utilizes sensor image data, graphically encoded map information available from government sources, and statistical tables.

  18. Prosocial Development from Childhood to Adolescence: A Multi-Informant Perspective with Canadian and Italian Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantel-Vivier, Amelie; Kokko, Katja; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Pastorelli, Concetta; Gerbino, Maria Grazia; Paciello, Marinella; Cote, Sylvana; Pihl, Robert O.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To longitudinally describe prosocial behaviour development from childhood to adolescence, using multiple informants within Canadian and Italian samples. Method: Participants in Study 1 were 1037 boys from low socioeconomic status (SES) areas in Montreal, Canada, for whom yearly teacher and mother reports were obtained between the ages…

  19. "I didn't even know what I was looking for": A qualitative study of the decision-making processes of Canadian medical tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy

    2012-07-07

    Medical tourism describes the private purchase and arrangement of medical care by patients across international borders. Increasing numbers of medical facilities in countries around the world are marketing their services to a receptive audience of international patients, a phenomenon that has largely been made possible by the growth of the Internet. The growth of the medical tourism industry has raised numerous concerns around patient safety and global health equity. In spite of these concerns, there is a lack of empirical research amongst medical tourism stakeholders. One such gap is a lack of engagement with medical tourists themselves, where there is currently little known about how medical tourists decide to access care abroad. We address this gap through examining aspects of Canadian medical tourists' decision-making processes. Semi-structured phone interviews were administered to 32 Canadians who had gone abroad as medical tourists. Interviews touched on motivations, assessment of risks, information seeking processes, and experiences at home and abroad. A thematic analysis of the interview transcripts followed. Three overarching themes emerged from the interviews: (1) information sources consulted; (2) motivations, considerations, and timing; and (3) personal and professional supports drawn upon. Patient testimonials and word of mouth connections amongst former medical tourists were accessed and relied upon more readily than the advice of family physicians. Neutral, third-party information sources were limited, which resulted in participants also relying on medical tourism facilitators and industry websites. While Canadian medical tourists are often thought to be motivated by wait times for surgery, cost and availability of procedures were common primary and secondary motivations for participants, demonstrating that motivations are layered and dynamic. The findings of this analysis offer a number of important factors that should be considered in the

  20. Benchmarking quality for renal cancer surgery: Canadian Kidney Cancer information system (CKCis) perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Keith A; Saarela, Olli; Liu, Zhihui; Lavallée, Luke T; Breau, Rodney H; Wood, Lori; Jewett, Michael A S; Kapoor, Anil; Tanguay, Simon; Moore, Ronald B; Rendon, Ricardo; Pouliot, Frederic; Black, Peter C; Kawakami, Jun; Drachenberg, Darrel; Finelli, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    There is a lack of validated quality metrics to evaluate the care of patients receiving surgery for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). To address this, the Kidney Cancer Research Network of Canada defined a list of quality indicators (QI) to assess hospital-level performance. We have case-mix adjusted these QIs to benchmark RCC surgical care at Canadian academic centres. The Canadian Kidney Cancer information system (CKCis) was used to measure six QIs: laparoscopic approach proportion (LA), partial nephrectomy proportion (PN), partial nephrectomy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKDPN), positive margin rate (PMR), partial nephrectomy complication rate (PNCx), and warm ischemia time (WIT). To benchmark performance, indirect standardization (observed-to-expected ratio) methodology was employed using multivariate regression models. Multivariate models for LA, PN, and CKDPN demonstrated good discrimination and were used for benchmarking. National averages of 74% (70-78%), 73% (70-75%), and 70% (67-74%) for the LA, PN, and CKDPN QIs, respectively, were determined and used to benchmark individual hospital performance. Overall, three (23%), two (15%), and two (15%) hospitals performed below expected for LA, PN, and CKDPN, respectively. Hospital identity was an independent predictor of LA, PN, and CKDPN (p<0.001). Significant variability between CKCis hospitals for three RCC surgical QIs exists. Using the CKCis infrastructure may provide a framework for institution-level audit feedback for quality improvement. Greater CKCis capture rates and further data supporting the construct validity of these QIs are required to extend the use of this dataset to real-world quality initiatives.

  1. Fidelity in Archaeal Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart de Koning

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A key element during the flow of genetic information in living systems is fidelity. The accuracy of DNA replication influences the genome size as well as the rate of genome evolution. The large amount of energy invested in gene expression implies that fidelity plays a major role in fitness. On the other hand, an increase in fidelity generally coincides with a decrease in velocity. Hence, an important determinant of the evolution of life has been the establishment of a delicate balance between fidelity and variability. This paper reviews the current knowledge on quality control in archaeal information processing. While the majority of these processes are homologous in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryotes, examples are provided of nonorthologous factors and processes operating in the archaeal domain. In some instances, evidence for the existence of certain fidelity mechanisms has been provided, but the factors involved still remain to be identified.

  2. Exploring health information technology innovativeness and its antecedents in Canadian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, G; Jaana, M; Sicotte, C

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the antecedents of health information technology (HIT) innovativeness in public hospitals. To do so, we built upon our own previous work to relate the level of HIT innovativeness to organizational capacity characteristics. We conducted a survey of chief information officers (CIOs) in public hospitals in the two largest Canadian provinces to identify the level of HIT innovativeness in these settings and test nine research hypotheses derived from the proposed research model. A total of 106 completed questionnaires were received, which represents a response rate of 52%. Our findings indicate strong support for the research model. Seven out of nine hypotheses were supported indicating a significant relationship between HIT innovativeness and structural, financial, leadership, and knowledge sharing capacity characteristics. Results also reveal a moderate level of HIT innovativeness in the surveyed hospitals, with more emphasis on administrative systems and their integration than on clinical systems and emerging technologies. This study demonstrates that organizational characteristics are related to HIT innovativeness; this relationship holds irrespective of the public or private nature of hospitals.

  3. An Evaluation of the Five Most Used Evidence Based Bedside Information Tools in Canadian Health Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Farrell

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This project sought to identify the five most used evidence based bedside information tools used in Canadian health libraries, to examine librarians’ attitudes towards these tools, and to test the comprehensiveness of the tools. Methods – The author developed a definition of evidence based bedside information tools and a list of resources that fit this definition. Participants were respondents to a survey distributed via the CANMEDLIB electronic mail list. The survey sought to identify information from library staff regarding the most frequently used evidence based bedside information tools. Clinical questions were used to measure the comprehensiveness of each resource and the levels of evidence they provided to each question.Results – Survey respondents reported that the five most used evidence based bedside information tools in their libraries were UpToDate, BMJ Clinical Evidence, First Consult, Bandolier and ACP Pier. Librarians were generally satisfied with the ease of use, efficiency and informative nature of these resources. The resource assessment determined that not all of these tools are comprehensive in terms of their ability to answer clinical questions or with regard to the inclusion of levels of evidence. UpToDate was able to provide information for the greatest number of clinical questions, but it provided a level of evidence only seven percent of the time. ACP Pier was able to provide information on only 50% of the clinical questions, but it provided levels of evidence for all of these.Conclusion – UpToDate and BMJ Clinical Evidence were both rated as easy to use and informative. However, neither product generally includes levels of evidence, so it would be prudent for the practitioner to critically appraise information from these sources before using it in a patient care setting. ACP Pier eliminates the critical appraisal stage, thus reducing the time it takes to go from forming a clinical question to

  4. Models of memory: information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, M W

    1988-01-01

    A complete understanding of human memory will necessarily involve consideration of the active processes involved at the time of learning and of the organization and nature of representation of information in long-term memory. In addition to process and structure, it is important for theory to indicate the ways in which stimulus-driven and conceptually driven processes interact with each other in the learning situation. Not surprisingly, no existent theory provides a detailed specification of all of these factors. However, there are a number of more specific theories which are successful in illuminating some of the component structures and processes. The working memory model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974) and modified subsequently has shown how the earlier theoretical construct of the short-term store should be replaced with the notion of working memory. In essence, working memory is a system which is used both to process information and to permit the transient storage of information. It comprises a number of conceptually distinct, but functionally interdependent components. So far as long-term memory is concerned, there is evidence of a number of different kinds of representation. Of particular importance is the distinction between declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge, a distinction which has received support from the study of amnesic patients. Kosslyn has argued for a distinction between literal representation and propositional representation, whereas Tulving has distinguished between episodic and semantic memories. While Tulving's distinction is perhaps the best known, there is increasing evidence that episodic and semantic memory differ primarily in content rather than in process, and so the distinction may be of less theoretical value than was originally believed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Principles of neural information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Seelen, Werner v

    2016-01-01

    In this fundamental book the authors devise a framework that describes the working of the brain as a whole. It presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles of Neural Information Processing as well as recent and authoritative research. The books´ guiding principles are the main purpose of neural activity, namely, to organize behavior to ensure survival, as well as the understanding of the evolutionary genesis of the brain. Among the developed principles and strategies belong self-organization of neural systems, flexibility, the active interpretation of the world by means of construction and prediction as well as their embedding into the world, all of which form the framework of the presented description. Since, in brains, their partial self-organization, the lifelong adaptation and their use of various methods of processing incoming information are all interconnected, the authors have chosen not only neurobiology and evolution theory as a basis for the elaboration of such a framework, but also syst...

  6. Impact of the Adoption of Advanced Information and Communication Technologies on Firm Performance in the Canadian Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sabourin, David; Baldwin, John R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of the industrial structure in the Canadian manufacturing sector and its relationship to technological change by examining the take-up of advanced technologies and how it is related to the stochastic growth process in the plant population. Its framework is grounded in the view that growth is a stochastic process that involves learning. Experimentation with new technologies rewards some firms with superior growth and profitability. Examining how growth is ...

  7. Quantum communication and information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Travis Roland

    Quantum computers enable dramatically more efficient algorithms for solving certain classes of computational problems, but, in doing so, they create new problems. In particular, Shor's Algorithm allows for efficient cryptanalysis of many public-key cryptosystems. As public key cryptography is a critical component of present-day electronic commerce, it is crucial that a working, secure replacement be found. Quantum key distribution (QKD), first developed by C.H. Bennett and G. Brassard, offers a partial solution, but many challenges remain, both in terms of hardware limitations and in designing cryptographic protocols for a viable large-scale quantum communication infrastructure. In Part I, I investigate optical lattice-based approaches to quantum information processing. I look at details of a proposal for an optical lattice-based quantum computer, which could potentially be used for both quantum communications and for more sophisticated quantum information processing. In Part III, I propose a method for converting and storing photonic quantum bits in the internal state of periodically-spaced neutral atoms by generating and manipulating a photonic band gap and associated defect states. In Part II, I present a cryptographic protocol which allows for the extension of present-day QKD networks over much longer distances without the development of new hardware. I also present a second, related protocol which effectively solves the authentication problem faced by a large QKD network, thus making QKD a viable, information-theoretic secure replacement for public key cryptosystems.

  8. An Examination of Canadian Information Professionals' Involvement in the Provision of Business Information Synthesis and Analysis Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Liane; Martzoukou, Konstantina

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the processes information professionals, working in a business environment, follow to meet business clients' information needs and particularly their involvement in information synthesis and analysis practices. A combination of qualitative and quantitative data was collected via a survey of 98 information…

  9. Proprioceptive information processing in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M H

    This doctoral thesis focuses on brain activity in response to proprioceptive stimulation in schizophrenia. The works encompass methodological developments substantiated by investigations of healthy volunteers and two clinical studies of schizophrenia spectrum patients. American psychiatrist Sandor...... Rado (1890-1972) suggested that one of two un-reducible deficits in schizophrenia was a disorder of proprioception. Exploration of proprioceptive information processing is possible through the measurement of evoked and event related potentials. Event related EEG can be analyzed as conventional time......-series averages or as oscillatory averages transformed into the frequency domain. Gamma activity evoked by electricity or by another type of somatosensory stimulus has not been reported before in schizophrenia. Gamma activity is considered to be a manifestation of perceptual integration. A new load stimulus...

  10. Information systems process and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Urquhart, Christine; Tbaishat, Dina; Yeoman, Alison

    2017-01-01

    This book adopts a holistic interpretation of information architecture, to offer a variety of methods, tools, and techniques that may be used when designing websites and information systems that support workflows and what people require when 'managing information'.

  11. A Future North American Defense Arrangement: Applying a Canadian Defense Policy Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    especially grateful to Dr. Charles Pentland for his patience in working through the study. Others such as Brig Gen (ret) Don Macnamara , Dr. Douglas Bland...W. Don Macnamara , Strategic Profile: Canada (2003/2004), (Toronto: The Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies, 2004) 45 Ibid. The implication...Institute, March 2005. McDonough, David S., and W. Don Macnamara , Strategic Profile: Canada (2003/2004), The Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies

  12. Understanding the Canadian adult CT head rule trial: use of the theoretical domains framework for process evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curran Janet A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Canadian CT Head Rule was prospectively derived and validated to assist clinicians with diagnostic decision-making regarding the use of computed tomography (CT in adult patients with minor head injury. A recent intervention trial failed to demonstrate a decrease in the rate of head CTs following implementation of the rule in Canadian emergency departments. Yet, the same intervention, which included a one-hour educational session and reminders at the point of requisition, was successful in reducing cervical spine imaging rates in the same emergency departments. The reason for the varied effect of the intervention across these two behaviours is unclear. There is an increasing appreciation for the use of theory to conduct process evaluations to better understand how strategies are linked with outcomes in implementation trials. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF has been used to explore health professional behaviour and to design behaviour change interventions but, to date, has not been used to guide a theory-based process evaluation. In this proof of concept study, we explored whether the TDF could be used to guide a retrospective process evaluation to better understand emergency physicians’ responses to the interventions employed in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Methods A semi-structured interview guide, based on the 12 domains from the TDF, was used to conduct telephone interviews with project leads and physician participants from the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Two reviewers independently coded the anonymised interview transcripts using the TDF as a coding framework. Relevant domains were identified by: the presence of conflicting beliefs within a domain; the frequency of beliefs; and the likely strength of the impact of a belief on the behaviour. Results Eight physicians from four of the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial participated in the interviews. Barriers

  13. An Existentialist in Iqaluit: Existentialism and Reflexivity Informing Pedagogy in the Canadian North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    Reflecting on the personal experience of teaching human resource management in the Canadian Arctic, the author explores the utility of an existentialist approach to pedagogy. The author outlines select aspects of existentialism that are pertinent to the teaching and discusses the implications of using reflexive existential thought as guidance in a…

  14. Integration of gender-based analysis in government processes: Canadian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Rudik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the Canadian experience of new approaches development for integration of gender-based analysis into the government activities on the federal, provincial and municipal levels. Gender-based analysis is one of the main tools of gender mainstreaming in Canada. The paper analyzes new approaches and definitions of the term «gender-based analysis», which became the result of conceptual shifts in the understanding of the nature of gender-based analysis by several jurisdictions in Canada. It is considered a variety of practical tools – checklists, gender lenses, questions, graphs and specific cases – which are geared specifically toward a specific technical specialization of government agencies in Canada. It is noted that these tools are offered within the methods developed to link gender-based analysis to the functions of government performance. The conclusion is that Canada is a world leader not only in the use of gender-based analysis in the process of public policymaking, but further improvement of the practical tools, and expanding its scope.

  15. “I didn’t even know what I was looking for”: A qualitative study of the decision-making processes of Canadian medical tourists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical tourism describes the private purchase and arrangement of medical care by patients across international borders. Increasing numbers of medical facilities in countries around the world are marketing their services to a receptive audience of international patients, a phenomenon that has largely been made possible by the growth of the Internet. The growth of the medical tourism industry has raised numerous concerns around patient safety and global health equity. In spite of these concerns, there is a lack of empirical research amongst medical tourism stakeholders. One such gap is a lack of engagement with medical tourists themselves, where there is currently little known about how medical tourists decide to access care abroad. We address this gap through examining aspects of Canadian medical tourists’ decision-making processes. Methods Semi-structured phone interviews were administered to 32 Canadians who had gone abroad as medical tourists. Interviews touched on motivations, assessment of risks, information seeking processes, and experiences at home and abroad. A thematic analysis of the interview transcripts followed. Results Three overarching themes emerged from the interviews: (1) information sources consulted; (2) motivations, considerations, and timing; and (3) personal and professional supports drawn upon. Patient testimonials and word of mouth connections amongst former medical tourists were accessed and relied upon more readily than the advice of family physicians. Neutral, third-party information sources were limited, which resulted in participants also relying on medical tourism facilitators and industry websites. Conclusions While Canadian medical tourists are often thought to be motivated by wait times for surgery, cost and availability of procedures were common primary and secondary motivations for participants, demonstrating that motivations are layered and dynamic. The findings of this analysis offer a number of important factors

  16. “I didn’t even know what I was looking for”: A qualitative study of the decision-making processes of Canadian medical tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Rory

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical tourism describes the private purchase and arrangement of medical care by patients across international borders. Increasing numbers of medical facilities in countries around the world are marketing their services to a receptive audience of international patients, a phenomenon that has largely been made possible by the growth of the Internet. The growth of the medical tourism industry has raised numerous concerns around patient safety and global health equity. In spite of these concerns, there is a lack of empirical research amongst medical tourism stakeholders. One such gap is a lack of engagement with medical tourists themselves, where there is currently little known about how medical tourists decide to access care abroad. We address this gap through examining aspects of Canadian medical tourists’ decision-making processes. Methods Semi-structured phone interviews were administered to 32 Canadians who had gone abroad as medical tourists. Interviews touched on motivations, assessment of risks, information seeking processes, and experiences at home and abroad. A thematic analysis of the interview transcripts followed. Results Three overarching themes emerged from the interviews: (1 information sources consulted; (2 motivations, considerations, and timing; and (3 personal and professional supports drawn upon. Patient testimonials and word of mouth connections amongst former medical tourists were accessed and relied upon more readily than the advice of family physicians. Neutral, third-party information sources were limited, which resulted in participants also relying on medical tourism facilitators and industry websites. Conclusions While Canadian medical tourists are often thought to be motivated by wait times for surgery, cost and availability of procedures were common primary and secondary motivations for participants, demonstrating that motivations are layered and dynamic. The findings of this analysis offer a

  17. Immunization information systems in Canada: Attributes, functionality, strengths and challenges. A Canadian Immunization Research Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah E; Quach, Susan; MacDonald, Shannon E; Naus, Monika; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Mahmud, Salaheddin M; Tran, Dat; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Tu, Karen; Johnson, Caitlin; Desai, Shalini

    2017-03-01

    Canada does not have a national immunization registry. Diverse systems to record vaccine uptake exist, but these have not been systematically described. Our objective was to describe the immunization information systems (IISs) and non-IIS processes used to record childhood and adolescent vaccinations, and to outline the strengths and limitations of the systems and processes. We collected information from key informants regarding their provincial, territorial or federal organization's surveillance systems for assessing immunization coverage. Information collection consisted of a self-administered questionnaire and a follow-up interview. We evaluated systems against attributes derived from the literature using content analysis. Twenty-six individuals across 16 public health organizations participated over the period of April to August 2015. Twelve of Canada's 13 provinces and territories (P/Ts) and two organizations involved in health service delivery for on-reserve First Nations people participated. Across systems, there were differences in data collection processes, reporting capabilities and advanced functionality. Commonly cited challenges included timeliness and data completeness of records, particularly for physician-administered immunizations. Privacy considerations and the need for data standards were stated as challenges to the goal of information sharing across P/T systems. Many P/Ts have recently implemented new systems and, in some cases, legislation to improve timeliness and/or completeness. Considerable variability exists among IISs and non-IIS processes used to assess immunization coverage in Canada. Although some P/Ts have already pursued legislative or policy initiatives to address the completeness and timeliness of information, many additional opportunities exist in the information technology realm.

  18. Practicality of quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan

    Quantum Information Processing (QIP) is expected to bring revolutionary enhancement to various technological areas. However, today's QIP applications are far from being practical. The problem involves both hardware issues, i.e., quantum devices are imperfect, and software issues, i.e., the functionality of some QIP applications is not fully understood. Aiming to improve the practicality of QIP, in my PhD research I have studied various topics in quantum cryptography and ion trap quantum computation. In quantum cryptography, I first studied the security of position-based quantum cryptography (PBQC). I discovered a wrong assumption in the previous literature that the cheaters are not allowed to share entangled resources. I proposed entanglement attacks that could cheat all known PBQC protocols. I also studied the practicality of continuous-variable (CV) quantum secret sharing (QSS). While the security of CV QSS was considered by the literature only in the limit of infinite squeezing, I found that finitely squeezed CV resources could also provide finite secret sharing rate. Our work relaxes the stringent resources requirement of implementing QSS. In ion trap quantum computation, I studied the phase error of quantum information induced by dc Stark effect during ion transportation. I found an optimized ion trajectory for which the phase error is the minimum. I also defined a threshold speed, above which ion transportation would induce significant error. In addition, I proposed a new application for ion trap systems as universal bosonic simulators (UBS). I introduced two architectures, and discussed their respective strength and weakness. I illustrated the implementations of bosonic state initialization, transformation, and measurement by applying radiation fields or by varying the trap potential. When comparing with conducting optical experiments, the ion trap UBS is advantageous in higher state initialization efficiency and higher measurement accuracy. Finally, I

  19. Handbook on neural information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Maggini, Marco; Jain, Lakhmi

    2013-01-01

    This handbook presents some of the most recent topics in neural information processing, covering both theoretical concepts and practical applications. The contributions include:                         Deep architectures                         Recurrent, recursive, and graph neural networks                         Cellular neural networks                         Bayesian networks                         Approximation capabilities of neural networks                         Semi-supervised learning                         Statistical relational learning                         Kernel methods for structured data                         Multiple classifier systems                         Self organisation and modal learning                         Applications to ...

  20. Information processing among high-performance managers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S.C. Garcia-Santos; L.S. Almeida; B.S.G. Werlang; A.L.M. Veloso

    2010-01-01

    .... The theoretical framework considers three models: the Theory of Managerial Roles of Henry Mintzberg, the Theory of Information Processing, and Process Model Response to Rorschach by John Exner...

  1. Infochemistry Information Processing at the Nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Szacilowski, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Infochemistry: Information Processing at the Nanoscale, defines a new field of science, and describes the processes, systems and devices at the interface between chemistry and information sciences. The book is devoted to the application of molecular species and nanostructures to advanced information processing. It includes the design and synthesis of suitable materials and nanostructures, their characterization, and finally applications of molecular species and nanostructures for information storage and processing purposes. Divided into twelve chapters; the first three chapters serve as an int

  2. Information processing by neuronal populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hölscher, Christian; Munk, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    ... simultaneously recorded spike trains 120 Mark Laubach, Nandakumar S. Narayanan, and Eyal Y. Kimchi Part III Neuronal population information coding and plasticity in specific brain areas 149 7 F...

  3. Canadian forest service. Science and sustainable development directorate: Arnews: Annual report 1992. Information report No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sickle, J.P.; Hall, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    ARNEWS is a program managed by FIDS (Forest Insect and Disease Survey). It has been in place since 1984 to detect early signs of damage to Canadian forests. ARNEWS (Acid Rain National Early Warning System) is a long-term biomonitoring program designed to detect changes in forest vegetation and soils. ARNEWS consists of 103 permanent sample plots located in all 10 provinces. The health of 18 conifer and 9 hardwood species is described. This document presents methods used, the health of Canada's forests, discussion and conclusions.

  4. Quantifying Canadians' use of the Internet as a source of information on behavioural risk factor modifications related to cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, C G; Hamadani, L G; Gotay, C

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the frequency and timing of Canadians' Internet searches for information on modifying cancer prevention-related behavioural risk factors. We used the Google AdWords Keyword tool to estimate the number of Internet searches in Canada from July 2010 to May 2011 for content associated with the keywords "physical activity / exercise," "healthy eating / weight loss" and "quit smoking." For "physical activity / exercise," 663 related keywords resulted in 117 951 699 searches. For "healthy eating / weight loss," 687 related search terms yielded 98 277 954 searches. "Quit smoking" was associated with 759 related keywords with 31 688 973 searches. All search patterns noticeably peaked in January 2011. Many Canadians are actively searching for information on the Internet to support health behaviour change associated with cancer prevention, especially during the month of January. To take advantage of this opportunity, key stakeholders in cancer prevention need to identify knowledge translation priorities and work with health agencies to develop evidence-based strategies to support Internet-facilitated behaviour change.

  5. Fidelity in Archaeal Information Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de B.; Blombach, F.; Brouns, S.J.J.; Oost, van der J.

    2010-01-01

    A key element during the flow of genetic information in living systems is fidelity. The accuracy of DNA replication influences the genome size as well as the rate of genome evolution. The large amount of energy invested in gene expression implies that fidelity plays a major role in fitness. On the

  6. Information processes in filtered experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.O. Dzhaparidze (Kacha); P.J.C. Spreij; E. Valkeila

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we give explicit representations for Kullback-Leibler information numbers between a priori and a posteriori distributions, when the observations come from a semimartingale. We assume that the distribution of the observed semimartingale is described in terms of the so-called

  7. The Canadian Urology Fair: a model for minimizing the financial and academic costs of the residency selection process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grober, Ethan D.; Matsumoto, Edward D.; Jewett, Michael A.S.; Chin, Joseph L.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction In 1994, the Canadian urology residency training programs designed the “Canadian Urology Fair” — a single-site (Toronto, Ont.), 1-day fair to conduct the personal interview portion of the residency selection process. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the success of the Urology Fair in achieving its original goals of decreasing the financial burden and minimizing time away from medical training for applicants and faculty. Methods Both candidates and Canadian urology training programs were surveyed regarding the financial and academic costs (days absent) of attending the 2001 Urology Fair. Data from the 2001 Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS) was used to compare the financial and academic costs of attending personal interviews incurred by candidates declaring urology as their first-choice discipline to candidates interviewing with other surgical specialties throughout Canada. Results Financial costs incurred by candidates to attend the Urology Fair (mean Can$367) were significantly lower than candidates' estimated costs of attending on-site interviews at the individual programs (mean Can$2065). The financial costs of attending personal interviews by CaRMS applicants declaring urology as their first-choice discipline (mean Can$2002) were significantly lower than the costs incurred by applicants interviewing with other surgical disciplines (meanCan$2744). Financial costs to urology programs attending the fair (mean Can$1931) were not significantly greater than the programs' estimated costs of conducting on-site interviews at their respective program locations (mean Can$1825). Days absent from medical school to attend interviews were significantly lower among CaRMS applicants declaring urology as their first-choice discipline (3 d) compared with applicants who interviewed with other surgical specialties (9.1 d). Conclusion The Canadian Urology Fair represents an innovative and efficient method for residency programs to conduct

  8. A qualitative exploration of how Canadian informal caregivers in medical tourism use experiential resources to cope with providing transnational care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Rebecca; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Canadians travelling abroad for privately arranged surgeries paid for out-of-pocket are engaging in what has come to be known as medical tourism. They are often accompanied by friends or family members, who we call caregiver-companions. Caregiver-companions provide care in and across a variety of formal and informal settings, such as in hotels, airplanes and at home. This qualitative study examines the experiences of informal caregivers in medical tourism to learn more about the lived experiences or 'experiential resources' they draw upon to cope with providing care and avoiding caregiver burden. The care-giving literature has demonstrated that such burden can negatively impact caregivers' well-being. The unique, transnational context of care-giving in medical tourism and recent growth in popularity of this practice means that there are few supports or resources currently in place to assist informal caregivers. In this article, we report on an analysis that sought to detail how caregiver-companions draw upon their previous lived experiences to cope with providing transnational care and to minimise or avoid the onset of caregiver burden. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 20 Canadians who had accompanied their friends or family members abroad for surgery between September 2013 and January 2014. Thematic analysis revealed the ways that participants had developed practical strategies to deal with the challenges they faced in medical tourism. The interviews revealed three important experiential resources drawn upon by participants: (i) previous experiences of international travel; (ii) previous experiences of informal care-giving; and (iii) dimensions of the existing relationship with the care recipient. Differences in access to and use of these experiential resources related to participants' perspectives on medical tourism and the outcomes of the trip. By identifying the experiential resources drawn upon by informal caregivers in medical tourism

  9. Scaling the Information Processing Demands of Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Richard F.; Jome, LaRae M.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Connacher, Christopher C.; Sendrowitz, Kerrin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide additional validity evidence for a model of person-environment fit based on polychronicity, stimulus load, and information processing capacities. In this line of research the confluence of polychronicity and information processing (e.g., the ability of individuals to process stimuli from the environment…

  10. Cross-Cultural Differences in the Processing of Nonverbal Affective Vocalizations by Japanese and Canadian Listeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiko eKoeda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Montreal Affective Voices (MAVs consist of a database of nonverbal affect bursts portrayed by Canadian actors, and high recognitions accuracies were observed in Canadian listeners. Whether listeners from other cultures would be as accurate is unclear. We tested for cross-cultural differences in perception of the MAVs: Japanese listeners were asked to rate the MAVs on several affective dimensions and ratings were compared to those obtained by Canadian listeners. Significant Group x Emotion interactions were observed for ratings of Intensity, Valence, and Arousal. Whereas Intensity and Valence ratings did not differ across cultural groups for sad and happy vocalizations, they were significantly less intense and less negative in Japanese listeners for angry, disgusted, and fearful vocalizations. Similarly, pleased vocalizations were rated as less intense and less positive by Japanese listeners. These results demonstrate important cross-cultural differences in affective perception not just of nonverbal vocalizations expressing positive affect (Sauter et al, 2010, but also of vocalizations expressing basic negative emotions.

  11. Information literacy and knowledge organization in information management process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Leticia Capinzaiki Ottonicar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of information production and access, organizations need to be able to handle the information they obtain, whether digital or analog. Therefore, there is a process known as information management, responsible for the collection, processing, storage and dissemination. It is argued that the steps of this management can be guided by informational competence and the organization of knowledge. Therefore, the following questions are raised: what is the importance of information competence and knowledge organization in information management? How do knowledge organization techniques and information competence contribute to information management? The objective is to reflect on the importance of informational competence and knowledge management for the development of intelligent information management, which meets the needs of contemporary organizations. This work is justified by interrelating the topics knowledge organization, information management and informational competence and its contribution to organizations, characterizing itself as an interdisciplinary theme. The discussions present the interrelationship between knowledge organization, informational competence and knowledge organization, in order to improve organizational processes. As final considerations, it is argued that the three proposed themes contribute to the application and improvement of information management, so that individuals construct knowledge.

  12. Quantum information processing : science & technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Rebecca; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Tarman, Thomas David

    2010-09-01

    Qubits demonstrated using GaAs double quantum dots (DQD). The qubit basis states are the (1) singlet and (2) triplet stationary states. Long spin decoherence times in silicon spurs translation of GaAs qubit in to silicon. In the near term the goals are: (1) Develop surface gate enhancement mode double quantum dots (MOS & strained-Si/SiGe) to demonstrate few electrons and spin read-out and to examine impurity doped quantum-dots as an alternative architecture; (2) Use mobility, C-V, ESR, quantum dot performance & modeling to feedback and improve upon processing, this includes development of atomic precision fabrication at SNL; (3) Examine integrated electronics approaches to RF-SET; (4) Use combinations of numerical packages for multi-scale simulation of quantum dot systems (NEMO3D, EMT, TCAD, SPICE); and (5) Continue micro-architecture evaluation for different device and transport architectures.

  13. "Do your homework…and then hope for the best": the challenges that medical tourism poses to Canadian family physicians' support of patients' informed decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Johnston, Rory; Dharamsi, Shafik

    2013-09-22

    Medical tourism-the practice where patients travel internationally to privately access medical care-may limit patients' regular physicians' abilities to contribute to the informed decision-making process. We address this issue by examining ways in which Canadian family doctors' typical involvement in patients' informed decision-making is challenged when their patients engage in medical tourism. Focus groups were held with family physicians practicing in British Columbia, Canada. After receiving ethics approval, letters of invitation were faxed to family physicians in six cities. 22 physicians agreed to participate and focus groups ranged from two to six participants. Questions explored participants' perceptions of and experiences with medical tourism. A coding scheme was created using inductive and deductive codes that captured issues central to analytic themes identified by the investigators. Extracts of the coded data that dealt with informed decision-making were shared among the investigators in order to identify themes. Four themes were identified, all of which dealt with the challenges that medical tourism poses to family physicians' abilities to support medical tourists' informed decision-making. Findings relevant to each theme were contrasted against the existing medical tourism literature so as to assist in understanding their significance. Four key challenges were identified: 1) confusion and tensions related to the regular domestic physician's role in decision-making; 2) tendency to shift responsibility related to healthcare outcomes onto the patient because of the regular domestic physician's reduced role in shared decision-making; 3) strains on the patient-physician relationship and corresponding concern around the responsibility of the foreign physician; and 4) regular domestic physicians' concerns that treatments sought abroad may not be based on the best available medical evidence on treatment efficacy. Medical tourism is creating new challenges for

  14. Animal models for information processing during sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.M.L.; Drinkenburg, W.H.I.M.

    2002-01-01

    Information provided by external stimuli does reach the brain during sleep, although the amount of information is reduced during sleep compared to wakefulness. The process controlling this reduction is called `sensory' gating and evidence exists that the underlying neurophysiological processes take

  15. Integration of gender-based analysis in government processes: Canadian experience

    OpenAIRE

    O. M. Rudik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the Canadian experience of new approaches development for integration of gender-based analysis into the government activities on the federal, provincial and municipal levels. Gender-based analysis is one of the main tools of gender mainstreaming in Canada. The paper analyzes new approaches and definitions of the term «gender-based analysis», which became the result of conceptual shifts in the understanding of the nature of gender-based analysis by several...

  16. A language for information commerce processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aberer, Karl; Wombacher, Andreas

    Automatizing information commerce requires languages to represent the typical information commerce processes. Existing languages and standards cover either only very specific types of business models or are too general to capture in a concise way the specific properties of information commerce

  17. Value Driven Information Processing and Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Report Value Driven Information Processing and Fusion Award Number: W911NF1210383 Biao Chen ( PI ) Phone: (315)443-3332 Email: bichen@syr.edu Syracuse...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The objective of the project is to develop a general framework for value driven decentralized information processing...information value metrics as called for by different inference tasks. Major theoretical breakthroughs have been obtained under this effort

  18. Aptitude from an Information Processing Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Barry

    An information-processing approach to language learning is examined; language aptitude is factored into the approach, and the role of working memory is discussed. The process of learning includes two processes that make heavy use of working memory is: automatization and restructuring. At first, learners must make a conscious effort to remember and…

  19. Prince Edward Island implements province-wide drug information system. A small step for DIS; a giant leap for the pan-Canadian interoperable electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giokas, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    On March 13, 2008, Friendly Pharmacy in Charlottetown made a small but significant piece of Canadian healthcare history. It was the first drugstore to go online with Prince Edward Island's Drug Information System (DIS), the centrepiece of the province's All Drugs All People program. PEI is the first province to implement a DIS solution using a common pan-Canadian messaging standard based on Health Level 7 Version 3, an internationally recognized set of standards for clinical, financial and administrative messaging. PEI's initiative has positive implications for the rest of Canada. It is an important step toward the creation of a pan-Canadian interoperable electronic health record system covering all facets of patient care.

  20. Occurrence reporting and processing of operations information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-21

    DOE O 232.1A, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information, and 10 CFR 830.350, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information (when it becomes effective), along with this manual, set forth occurrence reporting requirements for Department of Energy (DOE) Departmental Elements and contractors responsible for the management and operation of DOE-owned and -leased facilities. These requirements include categorization of occurrences related to safety, security, environment, health, or operations (``Reportable Occurrences``); DOE notification of these occurrences; and the development and submission of documented follow-up reports. This Manual provides detailed information for categorizing and reporting occurrences at DOE facilities. Information gathered by the Occurrence Reporting and processing System is used for analysis of the Department`s performance in environmental protection, safeguards and security, and safety and health of its workers and the public. This information is also used to develop lessons learned and document events that significantly impact DOE operations.

  1. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Practice Guideline for Informed Consent – Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Miller MacSween

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Informed consent has undergone a transformation from an ethical concept to a legal doctrine. It is based on the ethical principles of self-determination and autonomy. Over the past several years, courts have established physician liability based on the failure to obtain adequate informed consent. It is the duty of all gastrointestinal endoscopists to obtain legally adequate informed consent before performing any endoscopic procedure.

  2. A process framework for information security management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Haufe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Securing sensitive organizational data has become increasingly vital to organizations. An Information Security Management System (ISMS is a systematic approach for establishing, implementing, operating, monitoring, reviewing, maintaining and improving an organization's information security. Key elements of the operation of an ISMS are ISMS processes. However, and in spite of its importance, an ISMS process framework with a description of ISMS processes and their interaction as well as the interaction with other management processes is not available in the literature. Cost benefit analysis of information security investments regarding single measures protecting information and ISMS processes are not in the focus of current research, mostly focused on economics. This article aims to fill this research gap by proposing such an ISMS process framework as the main contribution. Based on a set of agreed upon ISMS processes in existing standards like ISO 27000 series, COBIT and ITIL. Within the framework, identified processes are described and their interaction and interfaces are specified. This framework helps to focus on the operation of the ISMS, instead of focusing on measures and controls. By this, as a main finding, the systemic character of the ISMS consisting of processes and the perception of relevant roles of the ISMS is strengthened.

  3. Information processing among high-performance managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Garcia-Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the information processing of 43 business managers with a professional superior performance. The theoretical framework considers three models: the Theory of Managerial Roles of Henry Mintzberg, the Theory of Information Processing, and Process Model Response to Rorschach by John Exner. The participants have been evaluated by Rorschach method. The results show that these managers are able to collect data, evaluate them and establish rankings properly. At same time, they are capable of being objective and accurate in the problems assessment. This information processing style permits an interpretation of the world around on basis of a very personal and characteristic processing way or cognitive style.

  4. The orienting response in information processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sokolov, E. N

    2002-01-01

    ... Organization of Color Space 127 9. The Orienting Responseand Subjective Space I 141 10. The Orienting Responseand Subjective Space II 163vi CONTEiNTS 11. Orienting, Information, and Anticipation 189 12. Auditory Orienting Event-Related Response Potentials in the Study of the 241 13. Addendum: Processing Underlying Principles of Information 323 Glossar...

  5. Informed consent for MRI and fMRI research: Analysis of a sample of Canadian consent documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pike Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research ethics and the measures deployed to ensure ethical oversight of research (e.g., informed consent forms, ethics review are vested with extremely important ethical and practical goals. Accordingly, these measures need to function effectively in real-world research and to follow high level standards. Methods We examined approved consent forms for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies approved by Canadian research ethics boards (REBs. Results We found evidence of variability in consent forms in matters of physical and psychological risk reporting. Approaches used to tackle the emerging issue of incidental findings exposed extensive variability between and within research sites. Conclusion The causes of variability in approved consent forms and studies need to be better understood. However, mounting evidence of administrative and practical hurdles within current ethics governance systems combined with potential sub-optimal provision of information to and protection of research subjects support other calls for more scrutiny of research ethics practices and applicable revisions.

  6. Vision and visual information processing in cubozoans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielecki, Jan

    to analyse the received information, illustrated by the fact that one third of the human brain is devoted to visual information processing. The cost of maintaining such neural network deter most organisms from investing in the camera type option, if possible, and settle for a model that will more precisely...... 1000 neurons, which make these stunning animals the perfect model organism to explore basic visual information processing.......Eyes have been considered support for the divine design hypothesis over evolution because, surely, eyes cannot function with anything less than all the components that comprise a vertebrate camera type eye. Yet, devoted Darwinists have estimated that complex visual systems can evolve from a single...

  7. Selection of informative parameters of vibroacoustic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshek, L. N.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of selecting informative parameters of vibro-acoustic processes and the construction of apparatus for their determination are discussed. It is assumed that the processes being investigated are structurally uniform and either purely random or contain not very many determinative components.

  8. Teaching Information Systems Development via Process Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wee-Kek; Tan, Chuan-Hoo

    2010-01-01

    Acquiring the knowledge to assemble an integrated Information System (IS) development process that is tailored to the specific needs of a project has become increasingly important. It is therefore necessary for educators to impart to students this crucial skill. However, Situational Method Engineering (SME) is an inherently complex process that…

  9. The standards process: X3 information processing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emard, Jean-Paul

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: International Organization for Standards (ISO); International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC); ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC-1); U.S. interface to JTC-1; ANSI; national organizations; U.S. standards development processes; national and international standards developing organizations; regional organizations; and X3 information processing systems.

  10. Contract Faculty in Canada: Using Access to Information Requests to Uncover Hidden Academics in Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, universities are undergoing a process of corporatization where business interests, values and practices are assuming a more prominent place in higher education. A key feature of this process has been the changing composition of academic labor. While it is generally accepted that universities are relying more heavily on contract faculty,…

  11. Continuous-variable quantum information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.; Silberhorn, C.

    2010-01-01

    Observables of quantum systems can possess either a discrete or a continuous spectrum. For example, upon measurements of the photon number of a light state, discrete outcomes will result whereas measurements of the light's quadrature amplitudes result in continuous outcomes. If one uses the conti......Observables of quantum systems can possess either a discrete or a continuous spectrum. For example, upon measurements of the photon number of a light state, discrete outcomes will result whereas measurements of the light's quadrature amplitudes result in continuous outcomes. If one uses...... the continuous degree of freedom of a quantum system for encoding, processing or detecting information, one enters the field of continuous-variable (CV) quantum information processing. In this paper we review the basic principles of CV quantum information processing with main focus on recent developments...... in the field. We will be addressing the three main stages of a quantum information system; the preparation stage where quantum information is encoded into CVs of coherent states and single-photon states, the processing stage where CV information is manipulated to carry out a specified protocol and a detection...

  12. PHYSICAL RESOURCES OF INFORMATION PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail O. Kolbanev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of study. The paper describes basic information technologies for automating of information processes of data storage, distribution and processing in terms of required physical resources. It is shown that the study of these processes with such traditional objectives of modern computer science, as the ability to transfer knowledge, degree of automation, information security, coding, reliability, and others, is not enough. The reasons are: on the one hand, the increase in the volume and intensity of information exchange in the subject of human activity and, on the other hand, drawing near to the limit of information systems efficiency based on semiconductor technologies. Creation of such technologies, which not only provide support for information interaction, but also consume a rational amount of physical resources, has become an actual problem of modern engineering development. Thus, basic information technologies for storage, distribution and processing of information to support the interaction between people are the object of study, and physical temporal, spatial and energy resources required for implementation of these technologies are the subject of study. Approaches. An attempt is made to enlarge the possibilities of traditional cybernetics methodology, which replaces the consideration of material information component by states search for information objects. It is done by taking explicitly into account the amount of physical resources required for changes in the states of information media. Purpose of study. The paper deals with working out of a common approach to the comparison and subsequent selection of basic information technologies for storage, distribution and processing of data, taking into account not only the requirements for the quality of information exchange in particular subject area and the degree of technology application, but also the amounts of consumed physical resources. Main findings. Classification of resources

  13. Algorithmic information theory mathematics of digital information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Seibt, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Treats the Mathematics of many important areas in digital information processing. This book covers, in a unified presentation, five topics: Data Compression, Cryptography, Sampling (Signal Theory), Error Control Codes, Data Reduction. It is useful for teachers, students and practitioners in Electronic Engineering, Computer Science and Mathematics.

  14. Machine Process Capability Information Through Six Sigma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, M.F.

    1998-03-13

    A project investigating details concerning machine process capability information and its accessibility has been conducted. The thesis of the project proposed designing a part (denoted as a machine capability workpiece) based on the major machining features of a given machine. Parts are machined and measured to gather representative production, short-term variation. The information is utilized to predict the expected defect rate, expressed in terms of a composite sigma level process capability index, for a production part. Presently, decisions concerning process planning, particularly what machine will statistically produce the minimum amount of defects based on machined features and associated tolerances, are rarely made. Six sigma tools and methodology were employed to conduct this investigation at AlliedSignal FM and T. Tools such as the thought process map, factor relationship diagrams, and components of variance were used. This study is progressing toward completion. This research study was an example of how machine process capability information may be gathered for milling planar faces (horizontal) and slot features. The planning method used to determine where and how to gather variation for the part to be designed is known as factor relationship diagramming. Components-of-variation is then applied to the gathered data to arrive at the contributing level of variation illustrated within the factor relationship diagram. The idea of using this capability information beyond process planning to the other business enterprise operations is proposed.

  15. Information and Communication Technologies in International Education: A Canadian Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucoin, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    The rhetoric surrounding the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in international education speaks of providing education access for all. However, an examination of actual policies reveals an emphasis not on creating an educated population, but on improving economic opportunities using discourses such as globalization,…

  16. The minimal work cost of information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faist, Philippe; Dupuis, Frédéric; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Renner, Renato

    2015-07-01

    Irreversible information processing cannot be carried out without some inevitable thermodynamical work cost. This fundamental restriction, known as Landauer's principle, is increasingly relevant today, as the energy dissipation of computing devices impedes the development of their performance. Here we determine the minimal work required to carry out any logical process, for instance a computation. It is given by the entropy of the discarded information conditional to the output of the computation. Our formula takes precisely into account the statistically fluctuating work requirement of the logical process. It enables the explicit calculation of practical scenarios, such as computational circuits or quantum measurements. On the conceptual level, our result gives a precise and operational connection between thermodynamic and information entropy, and explains the emergence of the entropy state function in macroscopic thermodynamics.

  17. Information Support of Processes in Warehouse Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Gordei Kirill; Borisova Vera

    2013-01-01

    In the conditions of globalization and the world economic communications, the role of information support of business processes increases in various branches and fields of activity. There is not an exception for the warehouse activity. Such information support is realized in warehouse logistic systems. In relation to territorial administratively education, the warehouse logistic system gets a format of difficult social and economic structure which controls the economic str...

  18. Information processing for aerospace structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenwalner, Peter F.; White, Edward V.; Baumann, Erwin W.

    1998-06-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) technology provides a means to significantly reduce life cycle of aerospace vehicles by eliminating unnecessary inspections, minimizing inspection complexity, and providing accurate diagnostics and prognostics to support vehicle life extension. In order to accomplish this, a comprehensive SHM system will need to acquire data from a wide variety of diverse sensors including strain gages, accelerometers, acoustic emission sensors, crack growth gages, corrosion sensors, and piezoelectric transducers. Significant amounts of computer processing will then be required to convert this raw sensor data into meaningful information which indicates both the diagnostics of the current structural integrity as well as the prognostics necessary for planning and managing the future health of the structure in a cost effective manner. This paper provides a description of the key types of information processing technologies required in an effective SHM system. These include artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks, expert systems, and fuzzy logic for nonlinear modeling, pattern recognition, and complex decision making; signal processing techniques such as Fourier and wavelet transforms for spectral analysis and feature extraction; statistical algorithms for optimal detection, estimation, prediction, and fusion; and a wide variety of other algorithms for data analysis and visualization. The intent of this paper is to provide an overview of the role of information processing for SHM, discuss various technologies which can contribute to accomplishing this role, and present some example applications of information processing for SHM implemented at the Boeing Company.

  19. Introduction to quantum physics and information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vathsan, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    An Elementary Guide to the State of the Art in the Quantum Information FieldIntroduction to Quantum Physics and Information Processing guides beginners in understanding the current state of research in the novel, interdisciplinary area of quantum information. Suitable for undergraduate and beginning graduate students in physics, mathematics, or engineering, the book goes deep into issues of quantum theory without raising the technical level too much.The text begins with the basics of quantum mechanics required to understand how two-level systems are used as qubits. It goes on to show how quant

  20. Information Processing in Auto-regulated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Javorszky

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We present a model of information processing which is based on two concurrent ways of describing the world, where a description in one of the languages limits the possibilities for realisations in the other language. The two describing dimensions appear in our common sense as dichotomies of perspectives: subjective - objective; diversity - similarity; individual - collective. We abstract from the subjective connotations and treat the test theoretical case of an interval on which several concurrent categories can be introduced. We investigate multidimensional partitions as potential carriers of information and compare their efficiency to that of sequenced carriers. We regard the same assembly once as a contemporary collection, once as a longitudinal sequence and find promising inroads towards understanding information processing by auto-regulated systems. Information is understood to point out that what is the case from among alternatives, which could be the case. We have translated these ideas into logical operations on the set of natural numbers and have found two equivalence points on N where matches between sequential and commutative ways of presenting a state of the world can agree in a stable fashion: a flip-flop mechanism is envisioned. By following this new approach, a mathematical treatment of some poignant biomathematical problems is allowed. Also, the concepts presented in this treatise may well have relevance and applications within the information processing and the theory of language fields.

  1. Developments in quantum information processing by nuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Developments in quantum information processing by nuclear magnetic resonance: Use of quadrupolar and dipolar couplings ... Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India; Sophisticated Instruments Facility, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India; Media Lab, M.I.T., Cambridge, ...

  2. Social context effects on social information processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippenberg, A. van

    1996-01-01

    Discussed are social contextual factors that affect the way people process information concerning members of ingroup and outgroup. The specific focus of the paper is on ingroup-outgroup asymmetries in level of abstraction (personal versus social level of categorization) and on the effect of intra-

  3. Quantum Information Processing using Nonlinear Optical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling

    This PhD thesis treats applications of nonlinear optical effects for quantum information processing. The two main applications are four-wave mixing in the form of Bragg scattering (BS) for quantum-state-preserving frequency conversion, and sum-frequency generation (SFG) in second-order nonlinear...

  4. Springfield Processing Plant (SPP) Facility Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    The Springfield Processing Plant is a hypothetical facility. It has been constructed for use in training workshops. Information is provided about the facility and its surroundings, particularly security-related aspects such as target identification, threat data, entry control, and response force data.

  5. Developments in quantum information processing by nuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Use of dipolar and quadrupolar couplings for quantum information processing (QIP) by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described. In these cases, instead of the individual spins being qubits, the 2n energy levels of the spin-system can be treated as an n-qubit system. It is demonstrated that QIP in such ...

  6. Contextual Factors in Children's Social Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Andrea; Keane, Susan P.

    1994-01-01

    Two steps in the social information process model were assessed for socially accepted and rejected children by verbal responses to stories embedded in computer games. Attributions of intent and aggressive problem solutions were correlated with contextual factors (interpersonal context, outcome of game, and story type) and with sex and social…

  7. Processing Of Visual Information In Primate Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles H.; Van Essen, David C.

    1991-01-01

    Report reviews and analyzes information-processing strategies and pathways in primate retina and visual cortex. Of interest both in biological fields and in such related computational fields as artificial neural networks. Focuses on data from macaque, which has superb visual system similar to that of humans. Authors stress concept of "good engineering" in understanding visual system.

  8. Influence Processes for Information Technology Acceptance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacherjee, Anol; Sanford, Clive Carlton

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how processes of external influence shape information technology acceptance among potential users, how such influence effects vary across a user population, and whether these effects are persistent over time. Drawing on the elaboration-likelihood model (ELM), we compared two...

  9. Career information processing strategies of secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected using a self-constructed questionnaire titled “Questionnaire for exploring career information processing (QEIP)”. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square analysis, Kruskal wallis H test and Analysis of Variance. The results indicated that the largest percentage of the students ...

  10. Implementing stakeholder-informed research in the substance abuse treatment sector: strategies used by Connections, a Canadian knowledge translation and exchange project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joanna; Sword, Wendy; Niccols, Alison; Dobbins, Maureen

    2014-05-29

    Researcher-stakeholder collaboration has been identified as critical to bridging research and health system change. While collaboration models vary, meaningful stakeholder involvement over time ("integrated knowledge translation") is advocated to improve the relevance of research to knowledge users. This short report describes the integrated knowledge translation efforts of Connections, a knowledge translation and exchange project to improve services for women with substance abuse problems and their children, and implementation barriers and facilitators. Strategies of varying intensities were used to engage diverse stakeholders, including policy makers and people with lived experience, and executive directors, program managers, and service providers from Canadian addiction agencies serving women. Barriers to participation included individual (e.g., interest), organizational (e.g., funding), and system level (e.g., lack of centralized stakeholder database) barriers. Similarly, facilitators included individual (e.g., perceived relevance) and organizational (e.g., support) facilitators, as well as initiative characteristics (e.g., multiple involvement opportunities). Despite barriers, Connections' stakeholder-informed research efforts proved essential for developing clinically relevant and feasible processes, measures, and implementation strategies. Stakeholder-researcher collaboration is possible and robust integrated knowledge translation efforts can be productive. Future work should emphasize developing and evaluating a range of strategies to address stakeholders' knowledge translation needs and to facilitate sustained and meaningful involvement in research.

  11. Information Processing Capacity of Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambre, Joni; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Massar, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Many dynamical systems, both natural and artificial, are stimulated by time dependent external signals, somehow processing the information contained therein. We demonstrate how to quantify the different modes in which information can be processed by such systems and combine them to define the computational capacity of a dynamical system. This is bounded by the number of linearly independent state variables of the dynamical system, equaling it if the system obeys the fading memory condition. It can be interpreted as the total number of linearly independent functions of its stimuli the system can compute. Our theory combines concepts from machine learning (reservoir computing), system modeling, stochastic processes, and functional analysis. We illustrate our theory by numerical simulations for the logistic map, a recurrent neural network, and a two-dimensional reaction diffusion system, uncovering universal trade-offs between the non-linearity of the computation and the system's short-term memory. PMID:22816038

  12. Quantum information processing and nuclear magnetic resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Cummins, H K

    2001-01-01

    as spectrometer pulse sequence programs. Quantum computers are information processing devices which operate by and exploit the laws of quantum mechanics, potentially allowing them to solve problems which are intractable using classical computers. This dissertation considers the practical issues involved in one of the more successful implementations to date, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Techniques for dealing with systematic errors are presented, and a quantum protocol is implemented. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction to quantum computation. The physical basis of its efficiency and issues involved in its implementation are discussed. NMR quantum information processing is reviewed in more detail in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 considers some of the errors that may be introduced in the process of implementing an algorithm, and high-level ways of reducing the impact of these errors by using composite rotations. Novel general expressions for stabilising composite rotations are presented in Chapter 4 and a new class o...

  13. The effect of methylphenidate on information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, H; Halliday, R; Callaway, E

    1985-01-01

    Models of information processing currently popular in cognitive psychology divide the reaction process into a series of discrete separable stages. The distinction between one stage and another is verified by the additive factors method (AFM) as defined by Sternberg (1969). Task factors that do not interact with each other are inferred to affect different stages. The distinction between stimulus evaluation stages and response selection stages has been supported by brain event related potential (ERP) studies. The latency of the P300 component of the ERP is sensitive to changes in stimulus complexity but not to to changes in response complexity. The focus of this research is to determine the effects of stimulant drugs on stages of information processing using both reaction time (RT) and P300 latency within an AFM framework. Four doses of methylphenidate (MP) were used in a within-subjects design to examine the effects of MP on stimulus and response processing. We found that MP speeds RT, and that this effect does not interact with the effect of stimulus complexity on RT. MP dose interacts with response complexity, the dose for optimal speeding varying with the level of complexity. The latency of P300 is increased by stimulus complexity, and not by response complexity, nor is it affected by MP. These results show that the stimulant drug acts on processes involved in response selection, rather than in stimulus evaluation. Individual differences in drug response are dose dependent, but also point to an effect on response processing.

  14. Expectation, information processing, and subjective duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simchy-Gross, Rhimmon; Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth

    2018-01-01

    In research on psychological time, it is important to examine the subjective duration of entire stimulus sequences, such as those produced by music (Teki, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10, 2016). Yet research on the temporal oddball illusion (according to which oddball stimuli seem longer than standard stimuli of the same duration) has examined only the subjective duration of single events contained within sequences, not the subjective duration of sequences themselves. Does the finding that oddballs seem longer than standards translate to entire sequences, such that entire sequences that contain oddballs seem longer than those that do not? Is this potential translation influenced by the mode of information processing-whether people are engaged in direct or indirect temporal processing? Two experiments aimed to answer both questions using different manipulations of information processing. In both experiments, musical sequences either did or did not contain oddballs (auditory sliding tones). To manipulate information processing, we varied the task (Experiment 1), the sequence event structure (Experiments 1 and 2), and the sequence familiarity (Experiment 2) independently within subjects. Overall, in both experiments, the sequences that contained oddballs seemed shorter than those that did not when people were engaged in direct temporal processing, but longer when people were engaged in indirect temporal processing. These findings support the dual-process contingency model of time estimation (Zakay, Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 54, 656-664, 1993). Theoretical implications for attention-based and memory-based models of time estimation, the pacemaker accumulator and coding efficiency hypotheses of time perception, and dynamic attending theory are discussed.

  15. Learning from bacteria about natural information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2009-10-01

    Under natural growth conditions, bacteria live in complex hierarchical communities. To conduct complex cooperative behaviors, bacteria utilize sophisticated communication to the extent that their chemical language includes semantic and even pragmatic aspects. I describe how complex colony forms (patterns) emerge through the communication-based interplay between individual bacteria and the colony. Individual cells assume newly co-generated traits and abilities that are not prestored in the genetic information of the cells, that is, not all the information required for efficient responses to all environmental conditions is stored. To solve newly encountered problems, they assess the problem via collective sensing, recall stored information of past experience, and then execute distributed information processing of the 10(9)-10(12) bacteria in the colony--transforming the colony into a "super-brain." I show illuminating examples of swarming intelligence of live bacteria in which they solve optimization problems that are beyond what human beings can solve. This will lead to a discussion about the special nature of bacterial computational principles compared to Turing algorithm computational principles, in particular about the role of distributed information processing.

  16. Disjunctive Information Flow for Communicating Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ximeng; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2016-01-01

    The security validation of practical computer systems calls for the ability to specify and verify information flow policies that are dependent on data content. Such policies play an important role in concurrent, communicating systems: consider a scenario where messages are sent to different...... processes according to their tagging. We devise a security type system that enforces content-dependent information flow policies in the presence of communication and concurrency. The type system soundly guarantees a compositional noninterference property. All theoretical results have been formally proved...

  17. Digital image processing for information extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    The modern digital computer has made practical image processing techniques for handling nonlinear operations in both the geometrical and the intensity domains, various types of nonuniform noise cleanup, and the numerical analysis of pictures. An initial requirement is that a number of anomalies caused by the camera (e.g., geometric distortion, MTF roll-off, vignetting, and nonuniform intensity response) must be taken into account or removed to avoid their interference with the information extraction process. Examples illustrating these operations are discussed along with computer techniques used to emphasize details, perform analyses, classify materials by multivariate analysis, detect temporal differences, and aid in human interpretation of photos.

  18. Precisely timing dissipative quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastoryano, Michael; Eisert, Jens [FU Berlin (Germany); Wolf, Michael [TU Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Dissipative engineering constitutes a framework within which quantum information processing protocols are powered by system-environment interaction rather than by unitary dynamics alone. This framework embraces noise as a resource, and consequently, offers a number of advantages compared to one based on unitary dynamics alone, e.g., that the protocols are typically independent of the initial state of the system. However, the time independent nature of this scheme makes it difficult to imagine precisely timed sequential operations, conditional measurements or error correction. In this work, we provide a path around these challenges, by introducing basic dissipative gadgets which allow us to precisely initiate, trigger and time dissipative operations, while keeping the system Liouvillian time-independent. These gadgets open up novel perspectives for thinking of timed dissipative quantum information processing. As an example, we sketch how measurement based computation can be simulated in the dissipative setting.

  19. Fractional Transforms in Optical Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Calvo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We review the progress achieved in optical information processing during the last decade by applying fractional linear integral transforms. The fractional Fourier transform and its applications for phase retrieval, beam characterization, space-variant pattern recognition, adaptive filter design, encryption, watermarking, and so forth is discussed in detail. A general algorithm for the fractionalization of linear cyclic integral transforms is introduced and it is shown that they can be fractionalized in an infinite number of ways. Basic properties of fractional cyclic transforms are considered. The implementation of some fractional transforms in optics, such as fractional Hankel, sine, cosine, Hartley, and Hilbert transforms, is discussed. New horizons of the application of fractional transforms for optical information processing are underlined.

  20. Quantum information processing and nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, H.K

    2001-07-01

    Quantum computers are information processing devices which operate by and exploit the laws of quantum mechanics, potentially allowing them to solve problems which are intractable using classical computers. This dissertation considers the practical issues involved in one of the more successful implementations to date, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Techniques for dealing with systematic errors are presented, and a quantum protocol is implemented. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction to quantum computation. The physical basis of its efficiency and issues involved in its implementation are discussed. NMR quantum information processing is reviewed in more detail in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 considers some of the errors that may be introduced in the process of implementing an algorithm, and high-level ways of reducing the impact of these errors by using composite rotations. Novel general expressions for stabilising composite rotations are presented in Chapter 4 and a new class of composite rotations, tailored composite rotations, presented in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 describes some of the advantages and pitfalls of combining composite rotations. Experimental evaluations of the composite rotations are given in each case. An actual implementation of a quantum information protocol, approximate quantum cloning, is presented in Chapter 7. The dissertation ends with appendices which contain expansions of some equations and detailed calculations of certain composite rotation results, as well as spectrometer pulse sequence programs. (author)

  1. Analytic information processing style in migraineurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sabato, Francesco; Buonfiglio, Marzia; Mandillo, Silvia

    2013-07-01

    Despite great advances in pathophysiological facets of migraine that have been made during recent years, as of today, migraine etiology is still not completely understood; moreover, to date the relationship between psychological factors and this primary headache must be further elucidated. However, abnormal information processing, as measured by evoked and event-related potentials, has been considered a key feature in migraine pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the relationships between analytic/global style of information processing and migraine, hypothesizing an analytic style, as highlighted by our previous study on cluster headache. This study applied three cognitive style tests never previously used in the context of migraine: "Sternberg-Wagner Self-Assessment Inventory", the C. Cornoldi test series called AMOS, and Brain-Dominance Questionnaire. 280 migraneurs with and without aura were tested and matched with two control groups: healthy subjects and tension-type headache patients. Our results demonstrated a strong correlation between analytic information processing style and migraine, indicating a preference toward a visual sensory approach in migraine without aura, in line with known neuroelectrophysiological data. These findings may suggest a role for this specific cognitive behavior in migraine pathogenesis, leading us to further investigate the neuroelectrophysiological, neurobiological, and epigenetic correlates.

  2. Information processing in convex operational theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnum, Howard Nelch [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilce, Alexander G [SUSQUEHANNA UNIV

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the source and extent of the greater-than-classical information processing power of quantum systems, one wants to characterize both classical and quantum mechanics as points in a broader space of possible theories. One approach to doing this, pioneered by Abramsky and Coecke, is to abstract the essential categorical features of classical and quantum mechanics that support various information-theoretic constraints and possibilities, e.g., the impossibility of cloning in the latter, and the possibility of teleportation in both. Another approach, pursued by the authors and various collaborators, is to begin with a very conservative, and in a sense very concrete, generalization of classical probability theory--which is still sufficient to encompass quantum theory--and to ask which 'quantum' informational phenomena can be reproduced in this much looser setting. In this paper, we review the progress to date in this second programme, and offer some suggestions as to how to link it with the categorical semantics for quantum processes developed by Abramsky and Coecke.

  3. Physiological arousal in processing recognition information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hochman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The recognition heuristic (RH; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 suggests that, when applicable, probabilistic inferences are based on a noncompensatory examination of whether an object is recognized or not. The overall findings on the processes that underlie this fast and frugal heuristic are somewhat mixed, and many studies have expressed the need for considering a more compensatory integration of recognition information. Regardless of the mechanism involved, it is clear that recognition has a strong influence on choices, and this finding might be explained by the fact that recognition cues arouse affect and thus receive more attention than cognitive cues. To test this assumption, we investigated whether recognition results in a direct affective signal by measuring physiological arousal (i.e., peripheral arterial tone in the established city-size task. We found that recognition of cities does not directly result in increased physiological arousal. Moreover, the results show that physiological arousal increased with increasing inconsistency between recognition information and additional cue information. These findings support predictions derived by a compensatory Parallel Constraint Satisfaction model rather than predictions of noncompensatory models. Additional results concerning confidence ratings, response times, and choice proportions further demonstrated that recognition information and other cognitive cues are integrated in a compensatory manner.

  4. Internal and external information in error processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüsseler Jascha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of self-generated and externally provided information in performance monitoring is reflected by the appearance of error-related and feedback-related negativities (ERN and FRN, respectively. Several authors proposed that ERN and FRN are supported by similar neural mechanisms residing in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. The present study is aimed to test the functional relationship between ERN and FRN. Using an Eriksen-Flanker task with a moving response deadline we tested 17 young healthy subjects. Subjects received feedback with respect to their response accuracy and response speed. To fulfill both requirements of the task, they had to press the correct button and had to respond in time to give a valid response. Results When performance monitoring based on self-generated information was sufficient to detect a criterion violation an ERN was released, while the subsequent feedback became redundant and therefore failed to trigger an FRN. In contrast, an FRN was released if the feedback contained information which was not available before and action monitoring processes based on self-generated information failed to detect an error. Conclusion The described pattern of results indicates a functional interrelationship of response and feedback related negativities in performance monitoring.

  5. Immigrant-Native Differences in Earnings Mobility Processes: Evidence from Canadian and Danish Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Esmaeilzadeh, Rayhaneh

    This study compares the earnings mobility between immigrants and natives within and between Denmark and Canada. Both countries have different labour market conditions and immigration history which leads to an interesting comparison of earning mobility processes. The paper employs a dynamic...... that immigrants-native differences in earnings mobility, structural state dependence, and segmentation of earnings distribution are relatively more prominent in Denmark compared to Canada....

  6. Information processing of sexual abuse in elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ann W; Clements, Paul T

    2006-01-01

    Sexual abuse is considered to be a pandemic contemporary public health issue, with significant physical and psychosocial consequences for its victims. However, the incidence of elder sexual assault is difficult to estimate with any degree of confidence. A convenience sample of 284 case records were reviewed for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to present the limited data noted on record review on four PTSD symptoms of startle, physiological upset, anger, and numbness. A treatment model for information processing of intrapsychic trauma is presented to describe domain disruption within a nursing diagnosis of rape trauma syndrome and provide guidance for sensitive assessment and intervention.

  7. Information system for laser materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xian-Ning; Beckmann, Leo H. J. F.

    1990-10-01

    The computer information system combines the features of a data base management system (DBMS), some artificial intelligent (A.I.) techniques and the computer language C into one integrated system capable of handling a variety of data and knowledge types available in the area of laser materials processing (LMP). Experimental data and general guideline data and knowledge are stored in data bases using the DBMS. Models for parameter prediction and process simulation are implemented in the computer language C. Some heuristic reasoning rules are implemented to handle the searching of general knowledge and experimental data from the data bases. A so-called "control center", which is implemented in Prolog, functions as a shell, providing an interactive user environment and guiding the user in accessing different parts of the system.

  8. Integration of a neuroimaging processing pipeline into a pan-canadian computing grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Courchesne, S.; Rioux, P.; Chouinard-Decorte, F.; Sherif, T.; Rousseau, M.-E.; Das, S.; Adalat, R.; Doyon, J.; Craddock, C.; Margulies, D.; Chu, C.; Lyttelton, O.; Evans, A. C.; Bellec, P.

    2012-02-01

    The ethos of the neuroimaging field is quickly moving towards the open sharing of resources, including both imaging databases and processing tools. As a neuroimaging database represents a large volume of datasets and as neuroimaging processing pipelines are composed of heterogeneous, computationally intensive tools, such open sharing raises specific computational challenges. This motivates the design of novel dedicated computing infrastructures. This paper describes an interface between PSOM, a code-oriented pipeline development framework, and CBRAIN, a web-oriented platform for grid computing. This interface was used to integrate a PSOM-compliant pipeline for preprocessing of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging into CBRAIN. We further tested the capacity of our infrastructure to handle a real large-scale project. A neuroimaging database including close to 1000 subjects was preprocessed using our interface and publicly released to help the participants of the ADHD-200 international competition. This successful experiment demonstrated that our integrated grid-computing platform is a powerful solution for high-throughput pipeline analysis in the field of neuroimaging.

  9. Motivated information processing and group decision-making : Effects of process accountability on information processing and decision quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Lotte; van Knippenberg, Daan; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    Integrating dual-process models [Chaiken, S., & Trope, Y. (Eds.). (1999). Dual-process theories in social psychology. NewYork: Guilford Press] with work on information sharing and group decision-making [Stasser, G., & Titus, W. (1985). Pooling of unshared information in group decision making: biased

  10. Information-processing, storage characteristics and worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, P; Tallis, F; Eysenck, M

    1997-11-01

    Eysenck (1984, Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 22, 545-548) suggested that storage characteristics may be an important determinant of worry, and postulated that prolonged worry occurs in individuals who have tightly organised clusters of worry-related information stored in long-term memory. These clusters reflect areas or domains of worry. Because the information is stored in tight clusters, it becomes more accessible, more rapidly activated and therefore retrieved more quickly. The Worry Domains Questionnaire (WDQ) (Tallis, 1991c) is used to determine which domain worried subjects most (Primary) and least (Secondary). Two experiments are reported using a word allocation task, which requires subjects to make categorical decisions, based on these worry domains. It is reported that priming facilitates the emergence of domain effects, thus providing support for a structural hypothesis. High worries take longer to reject negative words if they are from the Primary domain and have difficulty rejecting Primary domain words when they are under a congruent heading. In addition, high worriers are reported to show retarded latencies when attempting to process ambiguous information, consistent with Metzger et al.'s studies (1990, Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48, 76-88). It is suggested that the initiation and maintenance of worry is largely attributable to an elevated evidence requirement and this may link to the personality trait of perfectionism.

  11. Lessons learned in applying the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research methodology to translating Canadian Emergency Department Information System Presenting Complaints List into German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammen, Dominik; Greiner, Felix; Dormann, Harald; Mach, Carsten; Wrede, Christian; Ballaschk, Anne; Stewart, Declan; Walker, Steven; Oesterling, Christine; Kulla, Martin

    2017-03-02

    The patient's presenting complaint guides diagnosis and treatment in the emergency department, but there is no classification system available in German. The Canadian Emergency Department Information System (CEDIS) Presenting Complaint List (PCL) is available only in English and French. As translation risks the altering of meaning, the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) has set guidelines to ensure translational accuracy. The aim of this paper is to describe our experiences of using the ISPOR guidelines to translate the CEDIS PCL into German. The CEDIS PCL (version 3.0) was forward-translated and back-translated in accordance with the ISPOR guidelines using bilingual clinicians/translators and an occupationally mixed evaluation group that completed a self-developed questionnaire. The CEDIS PCL was forward-translated (four emergency physicians) and back-translated (three mixed translators). Back-translation uncovered eight PCL items requiring amendment. In total, 156 comments were received from 32 evaluators, six of which resulted in amendments. The ISPOR guidelines facilitated adaptation of a PCL into German, but the process required time, language skills and clinical knowledge. The current methodology may be applicable to translating the CEDIS PCL into other languages, with the aim of developing a harmonized, multilingual PCL.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  12. The Canadian Bandaging Trial: Evidence-informed leg ulcer care and the effectiveness of two compression technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopman Wilma M

    2011-10-01

    -12 Physical Component Score: 4LB, 39.0; SSB, 39.6; p = 0.675. The most common adverse events experienced by both groups included infection, skin breakdown and ulcer deterioration. Conclusions The Canadian Bandaging Trial revealed that in the practice context of trained RNs using an evidence-informed protocol, the choice of bandage system (4LB and SSB does not materially affect healing times, recurrence rates, HRQL, or pain. From a community practice perspective, this is positive news for patient-centred care allowing individual/family and practitioner choice in selecting compression technologies based on circumstances and context. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00202267

  13. Designing and evaluating a balanced scorecard for a health information management department in a Canadian urban non-teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippak, Pria Md; Veracion, Julius Isidro; Muia, Maria; Ikeda-Douglas, Candace J; Isaac, Winston W

    2016-06-01

    This report is a description of a balanced scorecard design and evaluation process conducted for the health information management department at an urban non-teaching hospital in Canada. The creation of the health information management balanced scorecard involved planning, development, implementation, and evaluation of the indicators within the balanced scorecard by the health information management department and required 6 months to complete. Following the evaluation, the majority of members of the health information management department agreed that the balanced scorecard is a useful tool in reporting key performance indicators. These findings support the success of the balanced scorecard development within this setting and will help the department to better align with the hospital's corporate strategy that is linked to the provision of efficient management through the evaluation of key performance indicators. Thus, it appears that the planning and selection process used to determine the key indicators within the study can aid in the development of a balanced scorecard for a health information management department. In addition, it is important to include the health information management department staff in all stages of the balanced scorecard development, implementation, and evaluation phases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Canadian Civil Society Organizations and Human Rights and Global ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to strengthen the capacity of Canadian civil society organizations (CSOs) to inform Canadian policy on human rights and global justice. The Canadian Council for International Co-operation (CCIC) receives core funding from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). This grant will provide ...

  15. Modeling biochemical transformation processes and information processing with Narrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Johannes J; Fuss, Hendrik; Palfreyman, Niall M; Dubitzky, Werner

    2007-03-27

    Software tools that model and simulate the dynamics of biological processes and systems are becoming increasingly important. Some of these tools offer sophisticated graphical user interfaces (GUIs), which greatly enhance their acceptance by users. Such GUIs are based on symbolic or graphical notations used to describe, interact and communicate the developed models. Typically, these graphical notations are geared towards conventional biochemical pathway diagrams. They permit the user to represent the transport and transformation of chemical species and to define inhibitory and stimulatory dependencies. A critical weakness of existing tools is their lack of supporting an integrative representation of transport, transformation as well as biological information processing. Narrator is a software tool facilitating the development and simulation of biological systems as Co-dependence models. The Co-dependence Methodology complements the representation of species transport and transformation together with an explicit mechanism to express biological information processing. Thus, Co-dependence models explicitly capture, for instance, signal processing structures and the influence of exogenous factors or events affecting certain parts of a biological system or process. This combined set of features provides the system biologist with a powerful tool to describe and explore the dynamics of life phenomena. Narrator's GUI is based on an expressive graphical notation which forms an integral part of the Co-dependence Methodology. Behind the user-friendly GUI, Narrator hides a flexible feature which makes it relatively easy to map models defined via the graphical notation to mathematical formalisms and languages such as ordinary differential equations, the Systems Biology Markup Language or Gillespie's direct method. This powerful feature facilitates reuse, interoperability and conceptual model development. Narrator is a flexible and intuitive systems biology tool. It is

  16. Modeling biochemical transformation processes and information processing with Narrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palfreyman Niall M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Software tools that model and simulate the dynamics of biological processes and systems are becoming increasingly important. Some of these tools offer sophisticated graphical user interfaces (GUIs, which greatly enhance their acceptance by users. Such GUIs are based on symbolic or graphical notations used to describe, interact and communicate the developed models. Typically, these graphical notations are geared towards conventional biochemical pathway diagrams. They permit the user to represent the transport and transformation of chemical species and to define inhibitory and stimulatory dependencies. A critical weakness of existing tools is their lack of supporting an integrative representation of transport, transformation as well as biological information processing. Results Narrator is a software tool facilitating the development and simulation of biological systems as Co-dependence models. The Co-dependence Methodology complements the representation of species transport and transformation together with an explicit mechanism to express biological information processing. Thus, Co-dependence models explicitly capture, for instance, signal processing structures and the influence of exogenous factors or events affecting certain parts of a biological system or process. This combined set of features provides the system biologist with a powerful tool to describe and explore the dynamics of life phenomena. Narrator's GUI is based on an expressive graphical notation which forms an integral part of the Co-dependence Methodology. Behind the user-friendly GUI, Narrator hides a flexible feature which makes it relatively easy to map models defined via the graphical notation to mathematical formalisms and languages such as ordinary differential equations, the Systems Biology Markup Language or Gillespie's direct method. This powerful feature facilitates reuse, interoperability and conceptual model development. Conclusion Narrator is a

  17. Summertime stratospheric processes at northern mid-latitudes: comparisons between MANTRA balloon measurements and the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. L. Melo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on a study conducted using the Middle Atmospheric Nitrogen TRend Assessment (MANTRA balloon measurements of stratospheric constituents and temperature and the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM. Three different kinds of data are used to assess the inter-consistency of the combined dataset: single profiles of long-lived species from MANTRA 1998, sparse climatologies from the ozonesonde measurements during the four MANTRA campaigns and from HALOE satellite measurements, and the CMAM climatology. In doing so, we evaluate the ability of the model to reproduce the measured fields and to thereby test our ability to describe mid-latitude summertime stratospheric processes. The MANTRA campaigns were conducted at Vanscoy, Saskatchewan, Canada (52° N, 107° W in late August and early September of 1998, 2000, 2002 and 2004. During late summer at mid-latitudes, the stratosphere is close to photochemical control, providing an ideal scenario for the study reported here. From this analysis we find that: (1 reducing the value for the vertical diffusion coefficient in CMAM to a more physically reasonable value results in the model better reproducing the measured profiles of long-lived species; (2 the existence of compact correlations among the constituents, as expected from independent measurements in the literature and from models, confirms the self-consistency of the MANTRA measurements; and (3 the 1998 measurements show structures in the chemical species profiles that can be associated with transport, adding to the growing evidence that the summertime stratosphere can be much more disturbed than anticipated. The mechanisms responsible for such disturbances need to be understood in order to assess the representativeness of the measurements and to isolate long-term trends.

  18. Role of Information Anxiety and Information Load on Processing of Prescription Drug Information Leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, Shweta S; Patel, Harshali K; Sansgiry, Sujit S

    2017-10-16

    In this study, we evaluate the role of information anxiety and information load on the intention to read information from prescription drug information leaflets (PILs). These PILs were developed based on the principals of information load and consumer information processing. This was an experimental prospective repeated measures study conducted in the United States where 360 (62% response rate) university students (>18 years old) participated. Participants were presented with a scenario followed by exposure to the three drug product information sources used to operationalize information load. The three sources were: (i) current practice; (ii) pre-existing one-page text only; and (iii) interventional one-page prototype PILs designed for the study. Information anxiety was measured as anxiety experienced by the individual when encountering information. The outcome variable of intention to read PILs was defined as the likelihood that the patient will read the information provided in the leaflets. A survey questionnaire was used to capture the data and the objectives were analyzed by performing a repeated measures MANOVA using SAS version 9.3. When compared to current practice and one-page text only leaflets, one-page PILs had significantly lower scores on information anxiety (p information load (p Information anxiety and information load significantly impacted intention to read (p < 0.001). Newly developed PILs increased patient's intention to read and can help in improving the counseling services provided by pharmacists.

  19. Toward the Development of a Canadian Less Lethal Weapon Approval Process: A Study of Contemporary Process Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    they must be ISO /IEC 17025 compliant. A list of laboratories accredited to also certify terminal apparatus is available on the Industry Canada...For this equipment, the manufacturer selects a test laboratory that is ISO /ECS 17025 to conduct the testing. The results of the test are reviewed...accredited by Standards Council of Canada or Certified to ISO /IEC 17025 . The emphasis in the approval process is on the independence of testing or the

  20. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  1. Information Support of Processes in Warehouse Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordei Kirill

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of globalization and the world economic communications, the role of information support of business processes increases in various branches and fields of activity. There is not an exception for the warehouse activity. Such information support is realized in warehouse logistic systems. In relation to territorial administratively education, the warehouse logistic system gets a format of difficult social and economic structure which controls the economic streams covering the intermediary, trade and transport organizations and the enterprises of other branches and spheres. Spatial movement of inventory items makes new demands to participants of merchandising. Warehousing (in the meaning – storage – is one of the operations entering into logistic activity, on the organization of a material stream, as a requirement. Therefore, warehousing as "management of spatial movement of stocks" – is justified. Warehousing, in such understanding, tries to get rid of the perception as to containing stocks – a business expensive. This aspiration finds reflection in the logistic systems working by the principle: "just in time", "economical production" and others. Therefore, the role of warehouses as places of storage is transformed to understanding of warehousing as an innovative logistic system.

  2. Estimating the number of coronary artery bypass graft and percutaneous coronary intervention procedures in Canada: a comparison of cardiac registry and Canadian Institute for Health Information data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Yana; McFarlane, Anne; Morris, Kathleen; Jokovic, Aleksandra; Peterson, Gail M; Webster, Gregory K

    2010-01-01

    Provincial cardiac registries and the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) pan-Canadian administrative databases are invaluable tools for understanding Canadian cardiovascular health and health care. Both sources are used to enumerate cardiovascular procedures performed in Canada. To examine the level of agreement between provincial cardiac registry data and CIHI data regarding procedural counts for coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). CIHI staff obtained CABG and PCI counts from seven provinces that, in 2004, performed these procedures and had a cardiac registry (ie, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador). Structured mail questionnaires, and e-mail and telephone follow-ups elicited information from a designated registry respondent. The CIHI derived its counts of CABG and PCI procedures by applying the geographical boundaries, procedural definitions and analytical case criteria used by the cardiac registries to CIHI inpatient and day procedure databases. Steps were taken to reduce double-counting procedures when combining results from the two CIHI databases. Two measures were calculated: the absolute difference between registry and CIHI estimates, and the per cent agreement between estimates from the two sources. All seven cardiac registries identified as eligible for the study participated. Agreement was high between the two sources for CABG (98.8%). For PCI, the level of agreement was high (97.9%) when CIHI sources were supplemented with day procedure data from Alberta. The high level of agreement between cardiac registry and CIHI administrative data should increase confidence in estimates of CABG and PCI counts derived from these sources.

  3. Is Second Language Lexical Access Prosodically Constrained? Processing of Word Stress by French Canadian Second Language Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Annie

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study are (a) to determine if native speakers of Canadian French at different English proficiencies can use primary stress for recognizing English words and (b) to specify how the second language (L2) learners' (surface-level) knowledge of L2 stress placement influences their use of primary stress in L2 word recognition. Two…

  4. Aligning Business Process Quality and Information System Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Business processes and information systems mutually affect each other in non-trivial ways. Frequently, the business process design and the information system design are not well aligned. This means that business processes are designed without taking the information system impact into account, and vice versa. Missing alignment at design time often results in quality problems at runtime, such as large response times of information systems, large process execution times, overloaded information s...

  5. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.65 Process safety... to the technology of the process, and information pertaining to the equipment in the process. (b...) Information pertaining to the technology of the process. (1) Information concerning the technology of the...

  6. Cross-Cultural Differences in the Processing of Non-Verbal Affective Vocalizations by Japanese and Canadian Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeda, Michihiko; Belin, Pascal; Hama, Tomoko; Masuda, Tadashi; Matsuura, Masato; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    The Montreal Affective Voices (MAVs) consist of a database of non-verbal affect bursts portrayed by Canadian actors, and high recognitions accuracies were observed in Canadian listeners. Whether listeners from other cultures would be as accurate is unclear. We tested for cross-cultural differences in perception of the MAVs: Japanese listeners were asked to rate the MAVs on several affective dimensions and ratings were compared to those obtained by Canadian listeners. Significant Group × Emotion interactions were observed for ratings of Intensity, Valence, and Arousal. Whereas Intensity and Valence ratings did not differ across cultural groups for sad and happy vocalizations, they were significantly less intense and less negative in Japanese listeners for angry, disgusted, and fearful vocalizations. Similarly, pleased vocalizations were rated as less intense and less positive by Japanese listeners. These results demonstrate important cross-cultural differences in affective perception not just of non-verbal vocalizations expressing positive affect (Sauter et al., 2010), but also of vocalizations expressing basic negative emotions. PMID:23516137

  7. Imperfect Information in Software Design Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noppen, J.A.R.

    2007-01-01

    The process of designing high-quality software systems is one of the major issues in software engineering research. Over the years, this has resulted in numerous design methods, each with specific qualities and drawbacks. For example, the Rational Unified Process is a comprehensive design process,

  8. Analytic Hierarchy Process for Personalising Environmental Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabassi, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents how a Geographical Information System (GIS) can be incorporated in an intelligent learning software system for environmental matters. The system is called ALGIS and incorporates the GIS in order to present effectively information about the physical and anthropogenic environment of Greece in a more interactive way. The system…

  9. Information management and design & engineering processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutters, Diederick; ten Brinke, E.; Streppel, A.H.; Kals, H.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    In analysing design and manufacturing tasks and their mutual interactions, it appears that the underlying information of these tasks is of the utmost importance. If this information is managed in a formalized, structured way, it can serve as a basis for the control of design and manufacturing

  10. Influence Business Process On The Quality Of Accounting Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Meiryani; Muhammad Syaifullah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of business process to the quality of the accounting information system. This study aims to examine the influence of business process on the quality of the information system of accounting information system. The study was theoritical research which considered the roles of business process on quality of accounting information system which use secondary data collection. The results showed that the business process have a signifi...

  11. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    2011-01-01

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  12. PUBLIC RELATIONS AS AN INFORMATION PROCESS PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TKACH L. M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. If public relations as a phenomenon of information management are examined, we deal with the question of knowledge content and nature of relationship of PR with environment, ability to manage the perception and attitude of people to events in the environment; ensure priority of information over other resources. Goal. To investigate the concept of "public relations" of foreign and domestic experts; consider the typology of the public and the "laws" of public opinion; define the basic principles according to which relations with public should be built, and to identify PR activities as a kind of social communication. Conclusions. Public relations on the basis of advanced information and communication technologies create fundamentally new opportunities for information control and influence on public consciousness.

  13. Measuring Controller for Initial Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Skriabina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes to apply a combined measuring controller in order to solve a problem pertaining to redundancy of information transmitted from technical means which have passed  lifetime extension procedure at Atomic Power Stations (APS. The controller operates on the basis of digital and probabilistic forms of  information presentation that allows to obtain the best possible fit and combination of  accuracy, fast operation and hardware capacity.  

  14. Extending Conceptual Schemas with Business Process Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Brambilla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The specification of business processes is becoming a more and more critical aspect for organizations. Such processes are specified as workflow models expressing the logical precedence among the different business activities (i.e., the units of work. Typically, workflow models are managed through specific subsystems, called workflow management systems, to ensure a consistent behavior of the applications with respect to the organization business process. However, for small organizations and/or simple business processes, the complexity and capabilities of these dedicated workflow engines may be overwhelming. In this paper, we therefore, advocate for a different and lightweight approach, consisting in the integration of the business process specification within the system conceptual schema. We show how a workflow-extended conceptual schema can be automatically obtained, which serves both to enforce the organization business process and to manage all its relevant domain data in a unified way. This extended model can be directly processed with current CASE tools, for instance, to generate an implementation of the system (including its business process in any technological platform.

  15. Markovian Processes for Quantitative Information Leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio

    Quantification of information leakage is a successful approach for evaluating the security of a system. It models the system to be analyzed as a channel with the secret as the input and an output as observable by the attacker as the output, and applies information theory to quantify the amount...... of information transmitted through such channel, thus effectively quantifying how many bits of the secret can be inferred by the attacker by analyzing the system’s output. Channels are usually encoded as matrices of conditional probabilities, known as channel matrices. Such matrices grow exponentially...... in the size of the secret and observables, are cumbersome to compute and store, encode both the behavior of the system and assumptions about the attacker, and assume an input-output behavior of the system. For these reasons we propose to model the systemattacker scenario with Markovian models. We show...

  16. Internet-based intelligent information processing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tonfoni, G; Ichalkaranje, N S

    2003-01-01

    The Internet/WWW has made it possible to easily access quantities of information never available before. However, both the amount of information and the variation in quality pose obstacles to the efficient use of the medium. Artificial intelligence techniques can be useful tools in this context. Intelligent systems can be applied to searching the Internet and data-mining, interpreting Internet-derived material, the human-Web interface, remote condition monitoring and many other areas. This volume presents the latest research on the interaction between intelligent systems (neural networks, adap

  17. Processing data base information having nonwhite noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Morreale, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    A method and system for processing a set of data from an industrial process and/or a sensor. The method and system can include processing data from either real or calculated data related to an industrial process variable. One of the data sets can be an artificial signal data set generated by an autoregressive moving average technique. After obtaining two data sets associated with one physical variable, a difference function data set is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the two pairs of data sets over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function data set to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function data set. A residual function data set is obtained by subtracting the composite function data set from the difference function data set and the residual function data set (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test to provide a validated data base.

  18. Lexical Information and Processing Left Clause Boundaries in Japanese

    OpenAIRE

    村岡, 諭

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of lexical information in processing left clause boundaries in Japanese. Miyamoto (2002) proposed a mechanism in which the parser creates a left clause boundary before it processes a verb by using information of case-markers. I claim that the parser uses not only information of case-markers but also lexical information in processing left clause boundaries in Japanese. A self-paced reading experiment is conducted to verify this claim. The results are ...

  19. Cross-Cultural and Intra-Cultural Differences in Finger-Counting Habits and Number Magnitude Processing: Embodied Numerosity in Canadian and Chinese University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Richard Morrissey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in numerical cognition has shown-that number magnitude is not entirely abstract, and at least partly rooted in embodied and situated experiences, including finger-counting. The current study extends previous cross-cultural research to address within-culture individual differences in finger counting habits. Results indicated that Canadian participants demonstrated an additional cognitive load when comparing numbers that require more than one hand to represent, and this pattern of performance is further modulated by whether they typically start counting on their left hand or their right hand. Chinese students typically count on only one hand and so show no such effect, except for an increase in errors, similar to that seen in Canadians, for those whom self-identify as predominantly two-hand counters. Results suggest that the impact of finger counting habits extend beyond cultural experience and concord in predictable ways with differences in number magnitude processing for specific number-digits. We conclude that symbolic number magnitude processing is partially rooted in learned finger-counting habits, consistent with a motor simulation account of embodied numeracy and that argument is supported by both cross-cultural and within-culture differences in finger-counting habits.

  20. Career information processing strategies of secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adebowale

    parents and their school counsellor bore any positive relationship with their choice of career. The study .... obtain socio-demographic information from the respondents such as age, sex, choice of career, and so on. ... An instrument is said to be unidimensional and valid if there is a single dominant first factor; this was the.

  1. Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroscik, Judith Smith

    The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…

  2. Monitoring process mean level using auxiliary information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riaz, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a Shewhart-type control chart is proposed for the improved monitoring of process mean level (targeting both moderate and large shifts which is the major concern of Shewhart-type control charts) of a quality characteristic of interest Y. The proposed control chart, namely the M-r

  3. ADD, LD and Extended Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, J. B.; Cherkes-Julkowski, M.

    This study examines executive function and its relationship to attention dysfunction and working memory. It attempts to document the manifestations of executive function problems in school-related extended processing tasks, such as verbal problem-solving in math and reading of extended passages. Subjects (in grades 1-12) included 49 children with…

  4. Monitoring process variability using auxiliary information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riaz, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study a Shewhart type control chart namely V (r) chart is proposed for improved monitoring of process variability (targeting large shifts) of a quality characteristic of interest Y. The proposed control chart is based on regression type estimator of variance using a single auxiliary variable

  5. Local active information storage as a tool to understand distributed neural information processing

    OpenAIRE

    Michael eWibral; Joseph eLizier; Sebastian eVögler; Viola ePriesemann; Ralf eGaluske

    2014-01-01

    Every act of information processing can in principle be decomposed into the component operations of information storage, transfer, and modification. Yet, while this is easily done for today's digital computers, the application of these concepts to neural information processing was hampered by the lack of proper mathematical definitions of these operations on information. Recently, definitions were given for the dynamics of these information processing operations on a local scale in space and ...

  6. Default mode contributions to automated information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Deniz; Menon, David K; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2017-11-28

    Concurrent with mental processes that require rigorous computation and control, a series of automated decisions and actions govern our daily lives, providing efficient and adaptive responses to environmental demands. Using a cognitive flexibility task, we show that a set of brain regions collectively known as the default mode network plays a crucial role in such "autopilot" behavior, i.e., when rapidly selecting appropriate responses under predictable behavioral contexts. While applying learned rules, the default mode network shows both greater activity and connectivity. Furthermore, functional interactions between this network and hippocampal and parahippocampal areas as well as primary visual cortex correlate with the speed of accurate responses. These findings indicate a memory-based "autopilot role" for the default mode network, which may have important implications for our current understanding of healthy and adaptive brain processing.

  7. Cloud Standardization: Consistent Business Processes and Information

    OpenAIRE

    Razvan Daniel ZOTA; Lucian-Alexandru FRATILA

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing represents one of the latest emerging trends in distributed computing that enables the existence of hardware infrastructure and software applications as services. The present paper offers a general approach to the cloud computing standardization as a mean of improving the speed of adoption for the cloud technologies. Moreover, this study tries to show out how organizations may achieve more consistent business processes while operating with cloud computing technologies.

  8. Cloud Standardization: Consistent Business Processes and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Daniel ZOTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing represents one of the latest emerging trends in distributed computing that enables the existence of hardware infrastructure and software applications as services. The present paper offers a general approach to the cloud computing standardization as a mean of improving the speed of adoption for the cloud technologies. Moreover, this study tries to show out how organizations may achieve more consistent business processes while operating with cloud computing technologies.

  9. Gathering Information from Transport Systems for Processing in Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodym, Oldřich; Unucka, Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Paper deals with complex system for processing information from means of transport acting as parts of train (rail or road). It focuses on automated information gathering using AutoID technology, information transmission via Internet of Things networks and information usage in information systems of logistic firms for support of selected processes on MES and ERP levels. Different kinds of gathered information from whole transport chain are discussed. Compliance with existing standards is mentioned. Security of information in full life cycle is integral part of presented system. Design of fully equipped system based on synthesized functional nodes is presented.

  10. Quantum Information Processing with Modular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Clayton; Inlek, Ismail V.; Hucul, David; Sosnova, Ksenia; Vittorini, Grahame; Monroe, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Trapped atomic ions are qubit standards for the production of entangled states in quantum information science and metrology applications. Trapped ions can exhibit very long coherence times, external fields can drive strong local interactions via phonons, and remote qubits can be entangled via photons. Transferring quantum information across spatially separated ion trap modules for a scalable quantum network architecture relies on the juxtaposition of both phononic and photonic buses. We report the successful combination of these protocols within and between two ion trap modules on a unit structure of this architecture where the remote entanglement generation rate exceeds the experimentally measured decoherence rate. Additionally, we report an experimental implementation of a technique to maintain phase coherence between spatially and temporally distributed quantum gate operations, a crucial prerequisite for scalability. Finally, we discuss our progress towards addressing the issue of uncontrolled cross-talk between photonic qubits and memory qubits by implementing a second ion species, Barium, to generate the photonic link. This work is supported by the ARO with funding from the IARPA MQCO program, the DARPA Quiness Program, the ARO MURI on Hybrid Quantum Circuits, the AFOSR MURI on Quantum Transduction, and the NSF Physics Frontier Center at JQI.

  11. Quantum-Classical Hybrid for Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    Based upon quantum-inspired entanglement in quantum-classical hybrids, a simple algorithm for instantaneous transmissions of non-intentional messages (chosen at random) to remote distances is proposed. The idea is to implement instantaneous transmission of conditional information on remote distances via a quantum-classical hybrid that preserves superposition of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such a hybrid system reinforces the advantages, and minimizes the limitations, of both quantum and classical characteristics. Consider n observers, and assume that each of them gets a copy of the system and runs it separately. Although they run identical systems, the outcomes of even synchronized runs may be different because the solutions of these systems are random. However, the global constrain must be satisfied. Therefore, if the observer #1 (the sender) made a measurement of the acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, then the receiver, by measuring the corresponding acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, may get a wrong value because the accelerations are random, and only their ratios are deterministic. Obviously, the transmission of this knowledge is instantaneous as soon as the measurements have been performed. In addition to that, the distance between the observers is irrelevant because the x-coordinate does not enter the governing equations. However, the Shannon information transmitted is zero. None of the senders can control the outcomes of their measurements because they are random. The senders cannot transmit intentional messages. Nevertheless, based on the transmitted knowledge, they can coordinate their actions based on conditional information. If the observer #1 knows his own measurements, the measurements of the others can be fully determined. It is important to emphasize that the origin of entanglement of all the observers is the joint probability density that couples their actions. There is no centralized source

  12. Information Integration; The process of integration, evolution and versioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keijzer, Ander; van Keulen, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    At present, many information sources are available wherever you are. Most of the time, the information needed is spread across several of those information sources. Gathering this information is a tedious and time consuming job. Automating this process would assist the user in its task. Integration

  13. Geographic Information Processings for Astronomical Site Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The geographic information is of great importance for the site survey of ground-based telescopes. Especially, an effective utilization of the geographic information system (GIS) has been one of the most significant methods for the remote analysis of modern site survey. The astronomical site survey should give consideration to the following geographical conditions: a large relative fall, convenient traffic conditions, and far away from populated areas. Taking into account of the convenience of construction and maintenance of the observatories as well as the living conditions of the scientists-in-residence, the optimum candidate locations may meet the conditions to be at a altitude between 3000 m and 5000 m and within one-hour drive from villages/towns. In this paper, as an example, we take the regions of the Great Baicao mountain ridge at Dayao county in Yunnan province to research the role of the GIS for site survey task. The results indicate that the GIS can provide accurate and intuitive data for us to understand the three dimensional landforms, rivers, roads, villages, and the distributions of the electric power as well as to forecast the tendency of the population and city development around. According to the analysis based on the GIS, we find that the top of the Great Baicao mountain ridge is flat and droughty. There are few inhabitants to distribute around the place while the traffic conditions are convenient. Moreover, it is a natural conservation area protected by the local government, and no industry with pollution sources exists in this region. Its top is 1500 m higher than the nearby village 10 km away, and 1800 m higher than the town center 50 km away. The Great Baicao mountain ridge is definitely an isolated peak in the area of the Yi nationality of Yunnan. Therefore, the GIS data analysis is a very useful for the remote investigation stage for site survey, and the GIS is the indispensable source for modern astronomical site survey.

  14. Model for Process Description: From Picture to Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new model for the development of proces information systems is proposed. It is robust and inexpensive, capable of providing timely, neccessary information to the user by integrating Products, Instructions, Examples, Tools, and Process.

  15. Quantum information processing with mesoscopic photonic states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    The thesis is built up around a versatile optical experimental setup based on a laser, two optical parametric ampliers, a few sets of modulators and two sets of homodyne detectors, which together with passive linear optics generate, process and characterize various types of Gaussian quantum states....... Using this setup we have experimentally and theoretically investigated Gaussian quantum discord, continuous variable quantum key distribution and quantum polarization. The Gaussian discord broadens the definition of non-classical correlations from entanglement, to all types of correlations which cannot...... in the mixture of coherent states. Further we investigate the robustness of the discord of a broader range of states and suggest a toolbox of states which can be used to test if a protocol is discord based, before performing a rigid proof. Gaussian quantum key distribution can be implemented with current...

  16. Analytic information processing style in epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonfiglio, Marzia; Di Sabato, Francesco; Mandillo, Silvia; Albini, Mariarita; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Giallonardo, Annateresa; Avanzini, Giuliano

    2017-08-01

    Relevant to the study of epileptogenesis is learning processing, given the pivotal role that neuroplasticity assumes in both mechanisms. Recently, evoked potential analyses showed a link between analytic cognitive style and altered neural excitability in both migraine and healthy subjects, regardless of cognitive impairment or psychological disorders. In this study we evaluated analytic/global and visual/auditory perceptual dimensions of cognitive style in patients with epilepsy. Twenty-five cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients matched with 25 idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) sufferers and 25 healthy volunteers were recruited and participated in three cognitive style tests: "Sternberg-Wagner Self-Assessment Inventory", the C. Cornoldi test series called AMOS, and the Mariani Learning style Questionnaire. Our results demonstrate a significant association between analytic cognitive style and both IGE and TLE and respectively a predominant auditory and visual analytic style (ANOVA: p values style and its neurophysiological correlates in epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2012-01-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  18. Photonic Architecture for Scalable Quantum Information Processing in Diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Nemoto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Physics and information are intimately connected, and the ultimate information processing devices will be those that harness the principles of quantum mechanics. Many physical systems have been identified as candidates for quantum information processing, but none of them are immune from errors. The challenge remains to find a path from the experiments of today to a reliable and scalable quantum computer. Here, we develop an architecture based on a simple module comprising an optical cavity containing a single negatively charged nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. Modules are connected by photons propagating in a fiber-optical network and collectively used to generate a topological cluster state, a robust substrate for quantum information processing. In principle, all processes in the architecture can be deterministic, but current limitations lead to processes that are probabilistic but heralded. We find that the architecture enables large-scale quantum information processing with existing technology.

  19. Living is information processing: from molecules to global systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Keith D; Nelson, John; Gershenson, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    We extend the concept that life is an informational phenomenon, at every level of organisation, from molecules to the global ecological system. According to this thesis: (a) living is information processing, in which memory is maintained by both molecular states and ecological states as well as the more obvious nucleic acid coding; (b) this information processing has one overall function-to perpetuate itself; and (c) the processing method is filtration (cognition) of, and synthesis of, information at lower levels to appear at higher levels in complex systems (emergence). We show how information patterns, are united by the creation of mutual context, generating persistent consequences, to result in 'functional information'. This constructive process forms arbitrarily large complexes of information, the combined effects of which include the functions of life. Molecules and simple organisms have already been measured in terms of functional information content; we show how quantification may be extended to each level of organisation up to the ecological. In terms of a computer analogy, life is both the data and the program and its biochemical structure is the way the information is embodied. This idea supports the seamless integration of life at all scales with the physical universe. The innovation reported here is essentially to integrate these ideas, basing information on the 'general definition' of information, rather than simply the statistics of information, thereby explaining how functional information operates throughout life.

  20. Unveiling the mystery of visual information processing in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-08-15

    It is generally accepted that human vision is an extremely powerful information processing system that facilitates our interaction with the surrounding world. However, despite extended and extensive research efforts, which encompass many exploration fields, the underlying fundamentals and operational principles of visual information processing in human brain remain unknown. We still are unable to figure out where and how along the path from eyes to the cortex the sensory input perceived by the retina is converted into a meaningful object representation, which can be consciously manipulated by the brain. Studying the vast literature considering the various aspects of brain information processing, I was surprised to learn that the respected scholarly discussion is totally indifferent to the basic keynote question: "What is information?" in general or "What is visual information?" in particular. In the old days, it was assumed that any scientific research approach has first to define its basic departure points. Why was it overlooked in brain information processing research remains a conundrum. In this paper, I am trying to find a remedy for this bizarre situation. I propose an uncommon definition of "information", which can be derived from Kolmogorov's Complexity Theory and Chaitin's notion of Algorithmic Information. Embracing this new definition leads to an inevitable revision of traditional dogmas that shape the state of the art of brain information processing research. I hope this revision would better serve the challenging goal of human visual information processing modeling.

  1. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

  2. Team confidence, motivated information processing, and dynamic group decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Beersma, B.

    2010-01-01

    According to the Motivated Information Processing in Groups (MIP-G) model, groups should perform ambiguous (non-ambiguous) tasks better when they have high (low) epistemic motivation and concomitant tendencies to engage in systematic (heuristic) information processing and exchange. The authors

  3. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Associations with Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Iwanski, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Attachment theory suggests that internal working models of self and significant others influence adjustment during development by controlling information processing and self-regulation. We provide a conceptual overview on possible mechanisms linking attachment and information processing and review the current literature in middle childhood.…

  4. Information paths within the new product development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    2007-01-01

    The present study explores the information acquisition within the new product development process (NPD). The effect of the front-end and environmental turbulence on the inter-stage connectedness of information within the NPD process is examined. An agent-based simulation is applied as the data...

  5. Regulating Direct-to-Consumer Drug Information: A Case Study of Eli Lilly's Canadian 40over40 Erectile Dysfunction Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipon, Jean-Christophe Bélisle; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2015-05-01

    Like most jurisdictions, Canada prohibits direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescribed drugs. However, direct-to-consumer information (DTCI) is permitted, allowing companies to inform the public about medical conditions. An analysis of Eli Lilly's 40over40 promotion campaign for erectile dysfunction (ED), which included a quiz on ED, shows that DTCI, like DTCA, can be an effective means of drug familiarization. The pharmaceutical industry is "playing by the rules" currently in effect in Canada. Regulators should thus seriously consider whether existing rules permitting DTCI actually meet stated objectives of protecting the public from marketing campaigns (i.e., DTCA) that may deliver misleading information. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.

  6. Motivated information processing in group judgement and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Nijstad, B.A.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2008-01-01

    This article expands the view of groups as information processors into a motivated information processing in groups (MIP-G) model by emphasizing, first, the mixedmotive structure of many group tasks and, second, the idea that individuals engage in more or less deliberate information search and

  7. Motivated information processing in group judgment and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; van Knippenberg, Daan

    This article expands the view of groups as information processors into a motivated information processing in groups (MIP-G) model by emphasizing, first, the mixed-motive structure of many group tasks and, second, the idea that individuals engage in more or less deliberate information search and

  8. Memory Processes and the Integration of Attitudinal and Behavioral Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxton, Jack S.; Miller, Arthur G.

    Many scientists are currently studying the manner in which individuals process social information. The reconstruction of attitudinal and subsequent behavioral information was studied to determine whether information about a person's schema can influence the interpretation of that person's subsequent behavior or whether the behavior itself is more…

  9. 1st International Conference on Cognitive Systems and Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Dewen; Liu, Huaping

    2014-01-01

    "Foundations and Practical Applications of Cognitive Systems and Information Processing" presents selected papers from the First International Conference on Cognitive Systems and Information Processing, held in Beijing, China on December 15-17, 2012 (CSIP2012). The aim of this conference is to bring together experts from different fields of expertise to discuss the state-of-the-art in artificial cognitive systems and advanced information processing, and to present new findings and perspectives on future development. This book introduces multidisciplinary perspectives on the subject areas of Cognitive Systems and Information Processing, including cognitive sciences and technology, autonomous vehicles, cognitive psychology, cognitive metrics, information fusion, image/video understanding, brain-computer interfaces, visual cognitive processing, neural computation, bioinformatics, etc. The book will be beneficial for both researchers and practitioners in the fields of Cognitive Science, Computer Science and Cogni...

  10. Guide to Canadian Aerospace Related Industries,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    fabrication, PWC assembly & test, automatic backplane wiring, computerized wire History : AEI, an established Canadian company for over 55...production of Automatic Number Identification (ANI) systems and 911 Emergency History : Aeo Machining Ltd is a small machining company Reporting Systems for...Aircraft, DeHavilland, Grumman Aircraft, and Canadian Digital Radar Data Processing - Contract with Fundacao Vickers Ltd. Educacional de Bauru, Brazil

  11. Metastable memristive lines for signal transmission and information processing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slipko, Valeriy A; Pershin, Yuriy V

    2017-04-01

    Traditional studies of memristive devices have mainly focused on their applications in nonvolatile information storage and information processing. Here, we demonstrate that the third fundamental component of information technologies-the transfer of information-can also be employed with memristive devices. For this purpose, we introduce a metastable memristive circuit. Combining metastable memristive circuits into a line, one obtains an architecture capable of transferring a signal edge from one space location to another. We emphasize that the suggested metastable memristive lines employ only resistive circuit components. Moreover, their networks (for example, Y-connected lines) have an information processing capability.

  12. Business models for scientific information, and the scientific process?

    OpenAIRE

    Roosendaal, Hans E.; Kurek, Kasia

    2005-01-01

    Any business model for scientific information should create: - value in the scientific process, - commercial value. In this breakout session we will discuss business models from these two values, the emphasis being on the value in the scientific process. This leads to the following questions for discussion: 1. An important characteristic of scientific information is that it is not an end product in the scientific process but an intermediate product accepted by the scientific co...

  13. Information Technology Process Improvement Decision-Making: An Exploratory Study from the Perspective of Process Owners and Process Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    There is information available in the literature that discusses information technology (IT) governance and investment decision making from an executive-level perception, yet there is little information available that offers the perspective of process owners and process managers pertaining to their role in IT process improvement and investment…

  14. A simplified computational memory model from information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lanhua; Zhang, Dongsheng; Deng, Yuqin; Ding, Xiaoqian; Wang, Yan; Tang, Yiyuan; Sun, Baoliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper is intended to propose a computational model for memory from the view of information processing. The model, called simplified memory information retrieval network (SMIRN), is a bi-modular hierarchical functional memory network by abstracting memory function and simulating memory information processing. At first meta-memory is defined to express the neuron or brain cortices based on the biology and graph theories, and we develop an intra-modular network with the modeling algorithm by mapping the node and edge, and then the bi-modular network is delineated with intra-modular and inter-modular. At last a polynomial retrieval algorithm is introduced. In this paper we simulate the memory phenomena and functions of memorization and strengthening by information processing algorithms. The theoretical analysis and the simulation results show that the model is in accordance with the memory phenomena from information processing view. PMID:27876847

  15. Quantum information processing in nanostructures Quantum optics; Quantum computing

    CERN Document Server

    Reina-Estupinan, J H

    2002-01-01

    Since information has been regarded os a physical entity, the field of quantum information theory has blossomed. This brings novel applications, such as quantum computation. This field has attracted the attention of numerous researchers with backgrounds ranging from computer science, mathematics and engineering, to the physical sciences. Thus, we now have an interdisciplinary field where great efforts are being made in order to build devices that should allow for the processing of information at a quantum level, and also in the understanding of the complex structure of some physical processes at a more basic level. This thesis is devoted to the theoretical study of structures at the nanometer-scale, 'nanostructures', through physical processes that mainly involve the solid-state and quantum optics, in order to propose reliable schemes for the processing of quantum information. Initially, the main results of quantum information theory and quantum computation are briefly reviewed. Next, the state-of-the-art of ...

  16. Moral judgment as information processing: an integrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Steve

    2015-01-01

    How do humans make moral judgments about others’ behavior? This article reviews dominant models of moral judgment, organizing them within an overarching framework of information processing. This framework poses two distinct questions: (1) What input information guides moral judgments? and (2) What psychological processes generate these judgments? Information Models address the first question, identifying critical information elements (including causality, intentionality, and mental states) that shape moral judgments. A subclass of Biased Information Models holds that perceptions of these information elements are themselves driven by prior moral judgments. Processing Models address the second question, and existing models have focused on the relative contribution of intuitive versus deliberative processes. This review organizes existing moral judgment models within this framework and critically evaluates them on empirical and theoretical grounds; it then outlines a general integrative model grounded in information processing, and concludes with conceptual and methodological suggestions for future research. The information-processing framework provides a useful theoretical lens through which to organize extant and future work in the rapidly growing field of moral judgment. PMID:26579022

  17. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jaime; Salazar, Idana; Vargas, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process) considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent.

  18. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process) considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent. PMID:27035456

  19. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  20. A Process Model for Goal-Based Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Hyman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the domain of information search and propose a "goal-based" approach to study search strategy. We describe "goal-based information search" using a framework of Knowledge Discovery. We identify two Information Retrieval (IR goals using the constructs of Knowledge Acquisition (KA and Knowledge Explanation (KE. We classify these constructs into two specific information problems: An exploration-exploitation problem and an implicit-explicit problem. Our proposed framework is an extension of prior work in this domain, applying an IR Process Model originally developed for Legal-IR and adapted to Medical-IR. The approach in this paper is guided by the recent ACM-SIG Medical Information Retrieval (MedIR Workshop definition: "methodologies and technologies that seek to improve access to medical information archives via a process of information retrieval."

  1. Agenda-setting for Canadian caregivers: using media analysis of the maternity leave benefit to inform the compassionate care benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykeman, Sarah; Williams, Allison M

    2014-04-24

    The Compassionate Care Benefit was implemented in Canada in 2004 to support employed informal caregivers, the majority of which we know are women given the gendered nature of caregiving. In order to examine how this policy might evolve over time, we examine the evolution of a similar employment insurance program, Canada's Maternity Leave Benefit. National media articles were reviewed (n = 2,698) and, based on explicit criteria, were analyzed using content analysis. Through the application of Kingdon's policy agenda-setting framework, the results define key recommendations for the Compassionate Care Benefit, as informed by the developmental trajectory of the Maternity Leave Benefit. Recommendations for revising the Compassionate Care Benefit are made.

  2. Information processing and routing in wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yang; Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2006-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art cross-layer optimization techniques for energy-efficient information processing and routing in wireless sensor networks. Besides providing a survey on this important research area, three specific topics are discussed in detail - information processing in a collocated cluster, information transport over a tree substrate, and information routing for computationally intensive applications. The book covers several important system knobs for cross-layer optimization, including voltage scaling, rate adaptation, and tunable compression. By exploring tradeoffs of en

  3. Splash, pop, sizzle: Information processing with phononic computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia R. Sklan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Phonons, the quanta of mechanical vibration, are important to the transport of heat and sound in solid materials. Recent advances in the fundamental control of phonons (phononics have brought into prominence the potential role of phonons in information processing. In this review, the many directions of realizing phononic computing and information processing are examined. Given the relative similarity of vibrational transport at different length scales, the related fields of acoustic, phononic, and thermal information processing are all included, as are quantum and classical computer implementations. Connections are made between the fundamental questions in phonon transport and phononic control and the device level approach to diodes, transistors, memory, and logic.

  4. Advanced information processing and analysis steering group: intelligence community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kees, Terry S.; Rose, Russell R.

    1994-03-01

    Today's intelligence analysis environment is more complex with an ever increasing focus on technology to solve the analyst's problems and to make the information processing and analysis simpler. The analytic emphasis is heavily oriented toward document selection, data extraction and data monitoring, as well as toward the drafting, coordinating and editing of written reports and similar intelligence products. The Advanced Information Processing and Analysis Steering Group (AIPASG) desires to have an impact on technology development and on the technology insertion to solve high priority information processing and analysis problems.

  5. What information is provided in transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records from Canadian Medical Schools? A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Jason A; McInnes, Matthew D F; Esmail, Kaisra

    2014-01-01

    Resident selection committees must rely on information provided by medical schools in order to evaluate candidates. However, this information varies between institutions, limiting its value in comparing individuals and fairly assessing their quality. This study investigates what is included in candidates' documentation, the heterogeneity therein, as well as its objective data. Samples of recent transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records were anonymised prior to evaluation. Data were then extracted by two independent reviewers blinded to the submitting university, assessing for the presence of pre-selected criteria; disagreement was resolved through consensus. The data were subsequently analysed in multiple subgroups. Inter-rater agreement equalled 92%. Inclusion of important criteria varied by school, ranging from 22.2% inclusion to 70.4%; the mean equalled 47.4%. The frequency of specific criteria was highly variable as well. Only 17.7% of schools provided any basis for comparison of academic performance; the majority detailed only status regarding pass or fail, without any further qualification. Considerable heterogeneity exists in the information provided in official medical school documentation, as well as markedly little objective data. Standardization may be necessary in order to facilitate fair comparison of graduates from different institutions. Implementation of objective data may allow more effective intra- and inter-scholastic comparison.

  6. Conjoint Management of Business Processes and Information Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur

    technologies can be supported and improved. The study is organized into five research papers and this summary. Each paper addresses a different aspect of conjoint management of business processes and information technologies, i.e. problem development and managerial practices on software...... resulting from systems and process implementations and their corporate-level management aspects. It reports on four case studies of industrial projects representing different perspectives of the studied phenomenon. The first case study pertains to the interdependencies between business processes...... and improve business processes. As a consequence, there is a growing need to address managerial aspects of the relationships between information technologies and business processes. The aim of this PhD study is to investigate how the practice of conjoint management of business processes and information...

  7. Finite-Time Approach to Microeconomic and Information Exchange Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghey A. Amelkin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Finite-time approach allows one to optimize regimes of processes in macrosystems when duration of the processes is restricted. Driving force of the processes is difference of intensive variables: temperatures in thermodynamics, values in economics, etc. In microeconomic systems two counterflow fluxes appear due to the only driving force. They are goods and money fluxes. Another possible case is two fluxes with the same direction. The processes of information exchange can be described by this formalism.

  8. Polar science, technology and information: Tenth anniversary conference of ACUNS (Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studies), Ryerson Polytechnical Institute. La science, la technologie et l'information polaires: Dixieme conference anniversaire de l'AUCEN (Association Universitaire Canadienne d'Etudes Nordiques), Institut Polytechnique Ryerson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, P.; Duerden, F. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    A conference was held on the subject of polar science, technology and information, by the Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studies (ACUNS). Papers were presented on varied subjects under the categories of technology and the north, polar science, information and the north, and ACUNS related activiities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for five papers from this conference.

  9. Graduate training in Earth science across borders and disciplines: ArcTrain -"Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Rüdiger; Kucera, Michal; Walter, Maren; de Vernal, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Due to a complex set of feedback processes collectively known as "polar amplification", the Arctic realm is expected to experience a greater-than-average response to global climate forcing. The cascades of feedback processes that connect the Arctic cryosphere, ocean and atmosphere remain incompletely constrained by observations and theory and are difficult to simulate in climate models. Our capacity to predict the future of the region and assess the impacts of Arctic change processes on global and regional environments hinges on the availability of interdisciplinary experts with strong international experience and understanding of the science/society interface. This is the basis of the International Research Training Group "Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic - ArcTrain", which was initiated in 2013. ArcTrain aims to educate PhD students in an interdisciplinary environment that combines paleoclimatology, physical oceanography, remote sensing and glaciology with comprehensive Earth system modelling, including sea-ice and ice-sheet components. The qualification program for the PhD students includes joint supervision, mandatory research residences at partner institutions, field courses on land and on sea (Floating University), annual meetings and training workshops and a challenging structured training in expert skills and transferrable skills. Its aim is to enhance the career prospects and employability of the graduates in a challenging international job market across academic and applied sectors. ArcTrain is a collaborative project at the University of Bremen and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven. The German part of the project is designed to continue for nine years and educate three cohorts of twelve PhD students each. The Canadian partners comprise a consortium of eight universities led by the GEOTOP cluster at the Université du Québec à Montréal and including

  10. Discovery of Information Diffusion Process in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwanho; Jung, Jae-Yoon; Park, Jonghun

    Information diffusion analysis in social networks is of significance since it enables us to deeply understand dynamic social interactions among users. In this paper, we introduce approaches to discovering information diffusion process in social networks based on process mining. Process mining techniques are applied from three perspectives: social network analysis, process discovery and community recognition. We then present experimental results by using a real-life social network data. The proposed techniques are expected to employ as new analytical tools in online social networks such as blog and wikis for company marketers, politicians, news reporters and online writers.

  11. Dictionaries of Canadian English

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    ... Globe and Mail said, an enterprising publication. Despite the existence of the Winston dictionary, some Canadians were still, at the end of the 1950s, prepared to dismiss Canadian lexicography as pointless. When the idea of a Canadian dictionary was introduced to the Dean of Arts and Science at Dalhousie University in ...

  12. Physics Colloquium: The optical route to quantum information processing

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2011-01-01

    Geneva University Physics Department 24, Quai Ernest Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 Monday 11 April 2011 17h00 - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stückelberg The optical route to quantum information processing Prof. Terry Rudolph/Imperial College, London Photons are attractive as carriers of quantum information both because they travel, and can thus transmit information, but also because of their good coherence properties and ease in undergoing single-qubit manipulations. The main obstacle to their use in information processing is inducing an effective interaction between them in order to produce entanglement. The most promising approach in photon-based information processing architectures is so-called measurement-based quantum computing. This relies on creating upfront a multi-qubit highly entangled state (the cluster state) which has the remarkable property that, once prepared, it can be used to perform quantum computation by making only single qubit measurements. In this talk I will discuss generically the...

  13. The Nonlethal Information Operations Targeting Process: Duties, Responsibilities and Procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallogly, Erin

    1998-01-01

    .... This monograph's purpose is twofold. First, it provides the Joint Task Force Commander procedures by which to integrate nonlethal information operations into the joint targeting process and recommends duties and responsibilities...

  14. Re-engineering the process of surgical informed consent

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dierks, M M; Sands, D Z; Safran, C

    1999-01-01

    We have created a clinical performance support system that transforms surgical informed consent into an interactive process capable of evolving in response to institution-specified, provider-specified...

  15. Data Processing: The Need for Programs in Business Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, James

    1980-01-01

    There is a demand in industry for both computer science graduates and business information systems graduates. Educators need to start this training at the secondary level with an introduction to all phases of data processing for any interested student. (CT)

  16. The effects of alcohol on the driver's visual information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Twenty-seven male subjects were tested in a driving simulator to study the effects of alcohol on visual information processing and allocation of attention. Subjects were required to control heading angle, maintain a constant speed, search for critica...

  17. Introducing OCTAVE Allegro: Improving the Information Security Risk Assessment Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caralli, Richard A; Stevens, James F; Young, Lisa R; Wilson, William R

    2007-01-01

    ...) methodology, OCTAVE Allegro. OCTAVE Allegro is a methodology to streamline and optimize the process of assessing information security risks so that an organization can obtain sufficient results with a small investment in time...

  18. The Logic Process Formalism of the Informational Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of present-day informational technologies has two main properties: the universality of the structures used and the flexibility of the final user's interfaces. The first determines the potential cover area of the informational domain. The second determines the diversity and efficiency of processing methods of the proceedings being automated. The mentioned aspects are of great importance in agriculture and ecology because there are complex processes and considerable volumes of used information. For example, the meteoro-logical processes are a part of the ecological one like habitats' existential conditions and are known as a complex prognostic problem. The latter needs considerable computational resources to solve the appropriate equations. Likewise, agriculture as a controlled activity under strong impact from natural conditions has the same high requirements for diverse structures and flexibility of information processing.

  19. INFORMATION SYSTEM OF AUTOMATION OF PREPARATION EDUCATIONAL PROCESS DOCUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Matyushenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Information technology is rapidly conquering the world, permeating all spheres of human activity. Education is not an exception. An important direction of information of education is the development of university management systems. Modern information systems improve and facilitate the management of all types of activities of the institution. The purpose of this paper is development of system, which allows automating process of formation of accounting documents. The article describes the problem of preparation of the educational process documents. Decided to project and create the information system in Microsoft Access environment. The result is four types of reports obtained by using the developed system. The use of this system now allows you to automate the process and reduce the effort required to prepare accounting documents. All reports was implement in Microsoft Excel software product and can be used for further analysis and processing.

  20. VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING DEFICITS IN CLINICALLY REMITTED OUTPATIENT SCHIZOPHRENICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayanan, C.V.; Janakiramaiah, N.; Gangadhar, B.N.; Vittal, S.; Andade, C.; Kumaraiah, V.

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY Twenty four remitted schizophrenics and twenty four neurotic depressives were studied on three measures of visual information processing, viz., simple reaction time, choice reaction time, and a forced choice span of apprehension test. The groups were matched for age, sex, and educational status. The remitted schizophrenics performed poorly on these measures compared to neurotic depressives. The findings suggest that information processing deficits are present in outpatient schizophrenics even during clinical remission. PMID:21776163

  1. A semantic-based approach to information processing

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Ray

    1994-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis is centred around the development of a semantic based approach to information processing. Traditional word-based pattern matching approaches to information processing suffer from both the richness and ambiguousness of natural language. Although retrieval performances of traditional systems can be satisfactory in many situations, it is commonly held that the traditional approach has reached the peak of its potential and any substantial improvements will be ...

  2. Scalable Engineering of Quantum Optical Information Processing Architectures (SEQUOIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-13

    scalable architecture for LOQC and cluster state quantum computing (Ballistic or non-ballistic) - With parametric nonlinearities (Kerr, chi-2...Scalable Engineering of Quantum Optical Information-Processing Architectures (SEQUOIA) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W31-P4Q-15-C-0045 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Technologies 13 December 2016 “Scalable Engineering of Quantum Optical Information-Processing Architectures (SEQUOIA)” Final R&D Status Report

  3. Pathways From Toddler Information Processing to Adolescent Lexical Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A; Feldman, Judith F; Jankowski, Jeffery J

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation of 3-year core information-processing abilities to lexical growth and development. The core abilities covered four domains-memory, representational competence (cross-modal transfer), processing speed, and attention. Lexical proficiency was assessed at 3 and 13 years with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and verbal fluency. The sample (N = 128) consisted of 43 preterms (toddler information processing and language proficiency and, independent of stability in language, direct predictive links between (a) 3-year cross-modal ability and 13-year PPVT and (b) 3-year processing speed and both 13-year measures, PPVT and verbal fluency. Thus, toddler information processing was related to growth in lexical proficiency from 3 to 13 years. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Reshaping the Enterprise through an Information Architecture and Process Reengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudato, Nicholas C.; DeSantis, Dennis J.

    1995-01-01

    The approach used by the University of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) in designing a campus-wide information architecture and a framework for reengineering the business process included building consensus on a general philosophy for information systems, using pattern-based abstraction techniques, applying data modeling and application prototyping, and…

  5. Marketing for Special Libraries and Information Centers: The Positioning Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterngold, Arthur

    1982-01-01

    The positioning process of marketing used by special libraries and information centers involves two key decisions from which other decisions are derived: to which user groups marketing programs and services will be directed; and which information needs will be served. Two cases are discussed and a bibliography is provided. (EJS)

  6. Information processing in the outer retina of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endeman, D.

    2017-01-01

    The retina translates light into neuronal activity. Thus, it renders visual information of the external environment. The retina can only send a limited amount of information to the brain within a given period. To use this amount optimally, light stimuli are strongly processed in the retina. This

  7. Morphological evidence for parallel processing of information in rat macula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. D.

    1988-01-01

    Study of montages, tracings and reconstructions prepared from a series of 570 consecutive ultrathin sections shows that rat maculas are morphologically organized for parallel processing of linear acceleratory information. Type II cells of one terminal field distribute information to neighboring terminals as well. The findings are examined in light of physiological data which indicate that macular receptor fields have a preferred directional vector, and are interpreted by analogy to a computer technology known as an information network.

  8. Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2008). Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification. Presentation at the ICWL 2008 conference. August, 20, 2008, Jinhua, China.

  9. IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF MAINTENANCE PROCESSES USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Arsovski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In essence, process of maintaining equipment is a support process, because it indirectly contributes to operational ability of the production process necessary for the supply chain of the new value. Taking into account increased levels of automatization and quality, this proces s becomes more and more significant and for some branches of industry, even crucial. Due to the fact that the quality of the entire process is more and more dependent on the maintenance process, these processes must be carefully designed and effectively im plemented. There are various techniques and approaches at our disposal, such as technical, logistical and intensive application of the information - communication technologies. This last approach is presented in this work. It begins with organizational goa ls, especially quality objectives. Then, maintenance processes and integrated information system structures are defined. Maintenance process quality and improvement processes are defined using a set of performances, with a special emphasis placed on effectiveness and quality economics. At the end of the work, information system for improving maintenance economics is structured. Besides theoretical analysis, work also presents results authors obtained analyzing food industry, metal processing industry an d building materials industry.

  10. Information Architecture without Internal Theory: An Inductive Design Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverty, Marsha

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that information architecture design is primarily an inductive process, partly because it lacks internal theory and partly because it is an activity that supports emergent phenomena (user experiences) from basic design components. Suggests a resemblance to Constructive Induction, a design process that locates the best representational…

  11. Why genetic information processing could have a quantum basis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optimization criteria in this information processing can be searched for using the laws of physics. Quantum dynamics can explain why living organisms have 4 nucleotide bases and 20 amino acids, as optimal solutions of the molecular assembly process. Experiments should be able to tell whether evolution indeed took ...

  12. A Social Information Processing Model of Media Use in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulk, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a model to examine how social influence processes affect individuals' attitudes toward communication media and media use behavior, integrating two research areas: media use patterns as the outcome of objectively rational choices and social information processing theory. Asserts (in a synthesis) that media characteristics and attitudes are…

  13. Knowledge acquisition process as an issue in information sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bosančić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of some problems of information science which are explicitly portrayed in literature. It covers the following issues: information explosion, information flood and data deluge, information retrieval and relevance of information, and finally, the problem of scientific communication. The purpose of this paper is to explain why knowledge acquisition, can be considered as an issue in information sciences. The existing theoretical foundation within the information sciences, i.e. the DIKW hierarchy and its key concepts - data, information, knowledge and wisdom, is recognized as a symbolic representation as well as the theoretical foundation of the knowledge acquisition process. Moreover, it seems that the relationship between the DIKW hierarchy and the knowledge acquisition process is essential for a stronger foundation of information sciences in the 'body' of the overall human knowledge. In addition, the history of both the human and machine knowledge acquisition has been considered, as well as a proposal that the DIKW hierarchy take place as a symbol of general knowledge acquisition process, which could equally relate to both human and machine knowledge acquisition. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to modify the existing concept of the DIKW hierarchy. The appropriate modification of the DIKW hierarchy (one of which is presented in this paper could result in a much more solid theoretical foundation of the knowledge acquisition process and information sciences as a whole. The theoretical assumptions on which the knowledge acquisition process may be established as a problem of information science are presented at the end of the paper. The knowledge acquisition process does not necessarily have to be the subject of epistemology. It may establish a stronger link between the concepts of data and knowledge; furthermore, it can be used in the context of scientific research, but on the more primitive level than conducting

  14. Development of technical information processing system(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jee Hoh; Kim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Kwang; Chung, Hyun Sook; Keum, Jong Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    This project is to establish high-quality information circulation system by developing serials-control system to improve serials management from ordering to distributing and availability on R and D and to advance in quality of information service needed in R and D by fast retrieval and providing of research information with CD-Net. The results of the project are as follows. 1. Serials management process which covers from ordering to distributing have higher efficiency by development of subscription information system. 2. Systematic control on each issue of serials is achieved by development of serials checking system. 3. It is possible to provide vol. and no. information of issue received currently to researchers promptly by improvement of serials holding information system. 4. Retrieval of research information contained in various CD-ROM DB throughout KAERI-NET is possible by research on construction methods of CD-Net. 2 figs, 25 refs. (Author).

  15. Optimizing information processing in neuronal networks beyond critical states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Mariana Sacrini Ayres; Melo-Silva, Hiago Lucas Cardeal; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Critical dynamics have been postulated as an ideal regime for neuronal networks in the brain, considering optimal dynamic range and information processing. Herein, we focused on how information entropy encoded in spatiotemporal activity patterns may vary in critical networks. We employed branching process based models to investigate how entropy can be embedded in spatiotemporal patterns. We determined that the information capacity of critical networks may vary depending on the manipulation of microscopic parameters. Specifically, the mean number of connections governed the number of spatiotemporal patterns in the networks. These findings are compatible with those of the real neuronal networks observed in specific brain circuitries, where critical behavior is necessary for the optimal dynamic range response but the uncertainty provided by high entropy as coded by spatiotemporal patterns is not required. With this, we were able to reveal that information processing can be optimized in neuronal networks beyond critical states.

  16. Optimizing information processing in neuronal networks beyond critical states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Sacrini Ayres Ferraz

    Full Text Available Critical dynamics have been postulated as an ideal regime for neuronal networks in the brain, considering optimal dynamic range and information processing. Herein, we focused on how information entropy encoded in spatiotemporal activity patterns may vary in critical networks. We employed branching process based models to investigate how entropy can be embedded in spatiotemporal patterns. We determined that the information capacity of critical networks may vary depending on the manipulation of microscopic parameters. Specifically, the mean number of connections governed the number of spatiotemporal patterns in the networks. These findings are compatible with those of the real neuronal networks observed in specific brain circuitries, where critical behavior is necessary for the optimal dynamic range response but the uncertainty provided by high entropy as coded by spatiotemporal patterns is not required. With this, we were able to reveal that information processing can be optimized in neuronal networks beyond critical states.

  17. STUDENTS READINESS TO USE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN UNIVERSITIES EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Denysenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problem of readiness of students of different specialties to use information technology in the educational process of higher education. Particular attention is paid to contemporary processes of globalization and informatization of higher education as a priority trends of modern Ukrainian society. Experimental data provided in the publication are comparative characteristics of the students using different specialty areas and preparation of information technologies in education. Computerization of the educational process - one of the main priorities in the development of higher education, a new stage for the entire higher education system, promising improvements in the direction of learning in higher education

  18. Information geometrical characterization of the Onsager-Machlup process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shigenori

    2017-12-01

    The Onsager-Machlup (OM) relaxation process, which provides a prototypical example of linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics, is characterized in terms of information geometry over the two-dimensional temperature-time parameter space. After deriving the probability distribution function for the OM process under the harmonic potential within a theoretical framework based on a transformation into imaginary-time quantum mechanics, the Fisher information metric is explicitly obtained. Differential geometry in the temperature-time space then gives the scalar curvature R = - 1 , thus specifying the OM process in a topological manner.

  19. Application of information and communication technology in process reengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of information communication technologies in reengineering processes. General analysis of a process will show that information communication technologies improve their efficiency. Reengineering model based on the BPMN 2.0 standard will be applied to the process of seeking internship/job by students from Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering. In the paper, after defining the technical characteristics and required functionalities, web / mobile application is proposed, enabling better visibility of traffic engineers to companies seeking that education profile.

  20. Cerebro-cerebellar interactions underlying temporal information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Kenji; Hanakawa, Takashi; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2010-12-01

    The neural basis of temporal information processing remains unclear, but it is proposed that the cerebellum plays an important role through its internal clock or feed-forward computation functions. In this study, fMRI was used to investigate the brain networks engaged in perceptual and motor aspects of subsecond temporal processing without accompanying coprocessing of spatial information. Direct comparison between perceptual and motor aspects of time processing was made with a categorical-design analysis. The right lateral cerebellum (lobule VI) was active during a time discrimination task, whereas the left cerebellar lobule VI was activated during a timed movement generation task. These findings were consistent with the idea that the cerebellum contributed to subsecond time processing in both perceptual and motor aspects. The feed-forward computational theory of the cerebellum predicted increased cerebro-cerebellar interactions during time information processing. In fact, a psychophysiological interaction analysis identified the supplementary motor and dorsal premotor areas, which had a significant functional connectivity with the right cerebellar region during a time discrimination task and with the left lateral cerebellum during a timed movement generation task. The involvement of cerebro-cerebellar interactions may provide supportive evidence that temporal information processing relies on the simulation of timing information through feed-forward computation in the cerebellum.

  1. Processing of indexical information requires time: Evidence from change deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S; Donoso, Alexander

    2011-08-01

    Studies of change detection have increased our understanding of attention, perception, and memory. In two innovative experiments we showed that the change detection phenomenon can be used to examine other areas of cognition-specifically, the processing of linguistic and indexical information in spoken words. One hypothesis suggests that cognitive resources must be used to process indexical information, whereas an alternative suggests that it is processed more slowly than linguistic information. Participants performed a lexical decision task and were asked whether the voice presenting the stimuli changed. Nonwords varying in their likeness to real words were used in the lexical decision task to encourage participants to vary the amount of cognitive resources/processing time. More cognitive resources/processing time are required to make a lexical decision with word-like nonwords. Participants who heard word-like nonwords were more likely to detect the change when it occurred (Experiment 1) and were more confident that the voice was the same when it did not change (Experiment 2). These results suggest that indexical information is processed more slowly than linguistic information and demonstrate how change detection can provide insight to other areas of cognition.

  2. Automated business processes in outbound logistics: An information system perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2010-01-01

    by securing a much higher quality of data and eliminating a number of defect management processes in the domain of fashion wholesale and retail. The information system perspective is used in dealing with adopting bespoke ERP development effort of creating an ERP system on the leading edge of business process......This article analyses the potentials and possibilities of changing outbound logistics from highly labour intensive on the information processing side to a more or less fully automated solution. Automation offers advantages in terms of direct labour cost reduction as well as indirect cost reduction...... alignment with a highly standardised outbound logistics although serving a vast range of customers and countries. Expressing a number of compliance requirements and associated business processes outlines the design criteria for the information system. Implementation of this design with bespoke ERP...

  3. An analytical approach to customer requirement information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zude; Xiao, Zheng; Liu, Quan; Ai, Qingsong

    2013-11-01

    'Customer requirements' (CRs) management is a key component of customer relationship management (CRM). By processing customer-focused information, CRs management plays an important role in enterprise systems (ESs). Although two main CRs analysis methods, quality function deployment (QFD) and Kano model, have been applied to many fields by many enterprises in the past several decades, the limitations such as complex processes and operations make them unsuitable for online businesses among small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Currently, most SMEs do not have the resources to implement QFD or Kano model. In this article, we propose a method named customer requirement information (CRI), which provides a simpler and easier way for SMEs to run CRs analysis. The proposed method analyses CRs from the perspective of information and applies mathematical methods to the analysis process. A detailed description of CRI's acquisition, classification and processing is provided.

  4. Computational information geometry for image and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Critchley, Frank; Dodson, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the application and development of information geometric methods in the analysis, classification and retrieval of images and signals. It provides introductory chapters to help those new to information geometry and applies the theory to several applications. This area has developed rapidly over recent years, propelled by the major theoretical developments in information geometry, efficient data and image acquisition and the desire to process and interpret large databases of digital information. The book addresses both the transfer of methodology to practitioners involved in database analysis and in its efficient computational implementation.

  5. 77 FR 36983 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research and Information Program; Request for Extension and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ...-0021] Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research and Information Program; Request for Extension and... approved information collection National Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Program... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Program. OMB...

  6. Information-Processing and Perceptions of Control: How Attribution Style Affects Task-Relevant Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeigh, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of perceived controllability on information processing within Weiner's (1985, 1986) attributional model of learning. Attributional style was used to identify trait patterns of controllability for 37 university students. Task-relevant feedback on an information-processing task was then manipulated to test for…

  7. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2016-08-23

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  8. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Greitzer, Frank L; Hampton, Shawn D

    2014-03-04

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  9. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2015-08-18

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  10. Clues as information, the semiotic gap, and inferential investigative processes, or making a (very small) contribution to the new discipline, Forensic Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Thellefsen, Martin Muderspach

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we try to contribute to the new discipline Forensic Semiotics – a discipline introduced by the Canadian polymath Marcel Danesi. We focus on clues as information and criminal investigative processes as inferential. These inferential (and Peircean) processes have a certain complexity...... consisting of the interrelation between the collateral observations of the investigator, e. g., his background knowledge concerning criminal and technical analysis, the context that the investigator acts within or in relation to (the universe of discourse), e. g., the scene of crime or the criminal law...

  11. QUALITY OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION TO OPTIMIZE THE DECISIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miculescu Marius Nicolae

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information on business and therefore need managers to obtain information relevant accounting, reliable, clear, accurate and lowest costs to optimize decision making. This need derives from the current economic environment. The survival of organizations in a competitive environment, to which they must adapt, is conditioned by obtaining accounting information which should be qualitative, opportune, vital, and in a short time. This information is related to patrimony, analytical results, the market (dynamics, dimensions, and structure, and relationships with business partners, competitors, suppliers. Therefore focus more intensely on the quality of accounting information. Definition of quality of accounting information but leave the boundaries and features of accounting communication process and aims to determine \\\\\\"quality criteria\\\\\\" or \\\\\\"qualitative characteristics\\\\\\" to develop a measurement tool. Note that the reviewliterature was found that the normalization and accounting dotrine, criteria for definition of quality of accounting infornation are not identical, their selection and ranking is different. Theory and practice also identifies the fact that information itself is worthless. Instead it is valuable once it is used in a decisional process. Thus, the economic value of the accounting information depends on the earnings obtained after making a decision, diminished by information cost. To be more specific, it depends on the table or on the implemented decision tree, on the informational cost and on the optimal condition established by the decision maker (due to the fact that producing accounting information implies costs which are often considerable and profits arise only form shares. The problem of convergence between content and interpretation of information sent by users also take, and the quality of information to be intelligible. In this case, those who use, say users should have sufficient

  12. The process of developing audiovisual patient information: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Catherine; McCreaddie, May

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this project was to produce audiovisual patient information, which was user friendly and fit for purpose. The purpose of the audiovisual patient information is to inform patients about randomized controlled trials, as a supplement to their trial-specific written information sheet. Audiovisual patient information is known to be an effective way of informing patients about treatment. User involvement is also recognized as being important in the development of service provision. The aim of this paper is (i) to describe and discuss the process of developing the audiovisual patient information and (ii) to highlight the challenges and opportunities, thereby identifying implications for practice. A future study will test the effectiveness of the audiovisual patient information in the cancer clinical trial setting. An advisory group was set up to oversee the project and provide guidance in relation to information content, level and delivery. An expert panel of two patients provided additional guidance and a dedicated operational team dealt with the logistics of the project including: ethics; finance; scriptwriting; filming; editing and intellectual property rights. Challenges included the limitations of filming in a busy clinical environment, restricted technical and financial resources, ethical needs and issues around copyright. There were, however, substantial opportunities that included utilizing creative skills, meaningfully involving patients, teamworking and mutual appreciation of clinical, multidisciplinary and technical expertise. Developing audiovisual patient information is an important area for nurses to be involved with. However, this must be performed within the context of the multiprofessional team. Teamworking, including patient involvement, is crucial as a wide variety of expertise is required. Many aspects of the process are transferable and will provide information and guidance for nurses, regardless of specialty, considering developing this

  13. Computing the trajectory mutual information between a point process and an analog stochastic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Syed Ahmed; Solo, Victor

    2012-01-01

    In a number of application areas such as neural coding there is interest in computing, from real data, the information flows between stochastic processes one of which is a point process. Of particular interest is the calculation of the trajectory (as opposed to marginal) mutual information between an observed point process which is influenced by an underlying but unobserved analog stochastic process i.e. a state. Using particle filtering we develop a model based trajectory mutual information calculation for apparently the first time.

  14. Limits Of Quantum Information In Weak Interaction Processes Of Hyperons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesmayr, B C

    2015-07-06

    We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay Σ(+)→ pπ(0)). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities where α is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated, the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this information theoretic insight we show how entanglement can be measured in these systems and why Bell's nonlocality (in contradiction to common misconception in literature) cannot be revealed in hyperon decays. Last but not least we study under which circumstances contextuality can be revealed.

  15. Information processing theory in the early design stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Kreye, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    suggestions for improvements and support. One theory that may be particularly applicable to the early design stages is Information Processing Theory (IPT) as it is linked to the design process with regard to the key concepts considered. IPT states that designers search for information if they perceive......, the new knowledge is shared between the design team to reduce ambiguity with regards to its meaning and to build a shared understanding – reducing perceived uncertainty. Thus, we propose that Information-Processing Theory is suitable to describe designer activity in the early design stages......Developing appropriate theory is one of the main challenges facing engineering design (Cross, 2007). Theory helps to both explain design activity but also support greater research impact in the domain. It is useful for gaining a more comprehensive understanding of design activity and developing...

  16. Does accreditation stimulate change? A study of the impact of the accreditation process on Canadian healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Lemieux-Charles, Louise; Champagne, François; Angus, Doug; Shabah, Abdo; Contandriopoulos, André-Pierre

    2010-04-26

    One way to improve quality and safety in healthcare organizations (HCOs) is through accreditation. Accreditation is a rigorous external evaluation process that comprises self-assessment against a given set of standards, an on-site survey followed by a report with or without recommendations, and the award or refusal of accreditation status. This study evaluates how the accreditation process helps introduce organizational changes that enhance the quality and safety of care. We used an embedded multiple case study design to explore organizational characteristics and identify changes linked to the accreditation process. We employed a theoretical framework to analyze various elements and for each case, we interviewed top managers, conducted focus groups with staff directly involved in the accreditation process, and analyzed self-assessment reports, accreditation reports and other case-related documents. The context in which accreditation took place, including the organizational context, influenced the type of change dynamics that occurred in HCOs. Furthermore, while accreditation itself was not necessarily the element that initiated change, the accreditation process was a highly effective tool for (i) accelerating integration and stimulating a spirit of cooperation in newly merged HCOs; (ii) helping to introduce continuous quality improvement programs to newly accredited or not-yet-accredited organizations; (iii) creating new leadership for quality improvement initiatives; (iv) increasing social capital by giving staff the opportunity to develop relationships; and (v) fostering links between HCOs and other stakeholders. The study also found that HCOs' motivation to introduce accreditation-related changes dwindled over time. We conclude that the accreditation process is an effective leitmotiv for the introduction of change but is nonetheless subject to a learning cycle and a learning curve. Institutions invest greatly to conform to the first accreditation visit and reap

  17. Does accreditation stimulate change? A study of the impact of the accreditation process on Canadian healthcare organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabah Abdo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One way to improve quality and safety in healthcare organizations (HCOs is through accreditation. Accreditation is a rigorous external evaluation process that comprises self-assessment against a given set of standards, an on-site survey followed by a report with or without recommendations, and the award or refusal of accreditation status. This study evaluates how the accreditation process helps introduce organizational changes that enhance the quality and safety of care. Methods We used an embedded multiple case study design to explore organizational characteristics and identify changes linked to the accreditation process. We employed a theoretical framework to analyze various elements and for each case, we interviewed top managers, conducted focus groups with staff directly involved in the accreditation process, and analyzed self-assessment reports, accreditation reports and other case-related documents. Results The context in which accreditation took place, including the organizational context, influenced the type of change dynamics that occurred in HCOs. Furthermore, while accreditation itself was not necessarily the element that initiated change, the accreditation process was a highly effective tool for (i accelerating integration and stimulating a spirit of cooperation in newly merged HCOs; (ii helping to introduce continuous quality improvement programs to newly accredited or not-yet-accredited organizations; (iii creating new leadership for quality improvement initiatives; (iv increasing social capital by giving staff the opportunity to develop relationships; and (v fostering links between HCOs and other stakeholders. The study also found that HCOs' motivation to introduce accreditation-related changes dwindled over time. Conclusions We conclude that the accreditation process is an effective leitmotiv for the introduction of change but is nonetheless subject to a learning cycle and a learning curve. Institutions invest

  18. Evaluation of EMG processing techniques using Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Carmelo J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electromyographic signals can be used in biomedical engineering and/or rehabilitation field, as potential sources of control for prosthetics and orthotics. In such applications, digital processing techniques are necessary to follow efficient and effectively the changes in the physiological characteristics produced by a muscular contraction. In this paper, two methods based on information theory are proposed to evaluate the processing techniques. Methods These methods determine the amount of information that a processing technique is able to extract from EMG signals. The processing techniques evaluated with these methods were: absolute mean value (AMV, RMS values, variance values (VAR and difference absolute mean value (DAMV. EMG signals from the middle deltoid during abduction and adduction movement of the arm in the scapular plane was registered, for static and dynamic contractions. The optimal window length (segmentation, abduction and adduction movements and inter-electrode distance were also analyzed. Results Using the optimal segmentation (200 ms and 300 ms in static and dynamic contractions, respectively the best processing techniques were: RMS, AMV and VAR in static contractions, and only the RMS in dynamic contractions. Using the RMS of EMG signal, variations in the amount of information between the abduction and adduction movements were observed. Conclusions Although the evaluation methods proposed here were applied to standard processing techniques, these methods can also be considered as alternatives tools to evaluate new processing techniques in different areas of electrophysiology.

  19. Thermodynamics of information processing based on enzyme kinetics: An exactly solvable model of an information pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuansheng; Gong, Zongping; Quan, H T

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by the recent proposed models of the information engine [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 11641 (2012)] and the information refrigerator [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 030602 (2013)], we propose a minimal model of the information pump and the information eraser based on enzyme kinetics. This device can either pump molecules against the chemical potential gradient by consuming the information to be encoded in the bit stream or (partially) erase the information initially encoded in the bit stream by consuming the Gibbs free energy. The dynamics of this model is solved exactly, and the "phase diagram" of the operation regimes is determined. The efficiency and the power of the information machine is analyzed. The validity of the second law of thermodynamics within our model is clarified. Our model offers a simple paradigm for the investigating of the thermodynamics of information processing involving the chemical potential in small systems.

  20. Energy-efficient Spin-polarized Multilevel Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeong; Berkeley Team

    Magnetic memory and logic devices have advantages of non-volatility, radiation hardness, scalability down to the sub-5-nm range, straightforward three-dimensional (3D) integration and data-intensive multi-level capability. Despite these unique advantages, development of practical nonmagnetic 3D devices for new information processing applications faces many challenges. A major stumbling block is the relatively high energy required to switch information states in the new nano devices. Specifically, using a separate recording transducer to directly apply an external magnetic field to switch magnetic states in a nanomagnetic information bit is extremely energy inefficient. The spin =transfer torque (STT) method has been introduced to overcome this issue by using a spin-polarized electric current instead of an external field. However, the switching current density on the order of 1 MA/cm^2 in state-of-the-art STT magnetic tunneling junctions under exploration still remains high for many information processing applications. In this talk, we present a case study in which two junctions are placed in series to enable ternary and higher multilevel information processing in a very small nonmagnetic structure. The system can be transitioned between three states through application of certain voltage values. Other cases will be discussed in the presentation. This type of nonmagnetic junction with multilevel signal processing could be used for a building block for future 3D electronics.

  1. Active Cellular Mechanics and Information Processing in the Living Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M.

    2014-07-01

    I will present our recent work on the organization of signaling molecules on the surface of living cells. Using novel experimental and theoretical approaches we have found that many cell surface receptors are organized as dynamic clusters driven by active currents and stresses generated by the cortical cytoskeleton adjoining the cell surface. We have shown that this organization is optimal for both information processing and computation. In connecting active mechanics in the cell with information processing and computation, we bring together two of the seminal works of Alan Turing.

  2. Toward a Process View in Adoption of Interorganizational Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Charlotte J.

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of how interorganizational information systems (IOIS) are adopted is important since a successful implementation of information systems (IS) can be expected to raise long-term organizational efficiency. However, organizations often find IOIS adoption to be a bumpy ride...... are affecting the buyer-supplier relationship they are introduced into; and 4) studies categorizing the structure of IOIS adopters in different configurations. Seemingly only limited effort has been made to study the actual adoption process. This apparent lack of studies of the adoption process calls...

  3. Neural mechanisms of order information processing in working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dolenc

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to encode and maintain the exact order of short sequences of stimuli or events is often crucial to our ability for effective high-order planning. However, it is not yet clear which neural mechanisms underpin this process. Several studies suggest that in comparison with item recognition temporal order coding activates prefrontal and parietal brain regions. Results of various studies tend to favour the hypothesis that the order of the stimuli is represented and encoded on several stages, from primacy and recency estimates to the exact position of the item in a sequence. Different brain regions play a different role in this process. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has a more general role in attention, while the premotor cortex is more involved in the process of information grouping. Parietal lobe and hippocampus also play a significant role in order processing as they enable the representation of distance. Moreover, order maintenance is associated with the existence of neural oscillators that operate at different frequencies. Electrophysiological studies revealed that theta and alpha oscillations play an important role in the maintenance of temporal order information. Those EEG oscillations are differentially associated with processes that support the maintenance of order information and item recognition. Various studies suggest a link between prefrontal areas and memory for temporal order, implying that EEG neural oscillations in the prefrontal cortex may play a role in the maintenance of information on temporal order.

  4. Processing of order information for numbers and months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Michael S; Jonides, John; Smith, Edward E

    2009-07-01

    Despite a great deal of research on the processing of numerical magnitude (e.g., the quantity denoted by the number 5), few studies have investigated how this magnitude information relates to the ordinal properties of numbers (e.g., the fact that 5 is the fifth integer). In the present study, we investigated order-related processing of numbers, as well as months of the year, with a novel ordering task to see whether the processing of order information differs from the processing of magnitude information. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were shown three numbers (Experiment 1) or three months (Experiment 2) and were required to indicate whether the stimuli were in the correct order. In Experiment 3, participants were again shown three numbers; however, now they were instructed to indicate whether the three numbers were ordered in a forward, backward, or mixed direction. Whereas number comparison tasks typically reveal distance effects (comparisons become easier with increased distance between two numbers), these three experiments reveal a different pattern of results. There were reverse distance effects when the stimuli crossed a boundary (i.e., when numbers crossed a decade or months crossed the year boundary) and no effect of distance when the stimuli did not cross a boundary (i.e., when numbers were within a decade and months were within the January-December calendar year). These data suggest that additional mechanisms are involved in the processing of order information: a scanning mechanism and a long-term memory checking mechanism.

  5. Industrial and agricultural process heat information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar industrial and agricultural process heat (IAPH) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 10 IAPH groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: IPH Researchers; APH Researchers; Representatives of Manufacturers of Concentrating and Nonconcentrating Collectors; Plant, Industrial, and Agricultural Engineers; Educators; Representatives of State Agricultural Offices; and County Extension Agents.

  6. Information Processing in Nursing Information Systems: An Evaluation Study from a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Shahrokhi, Nafiseh; Saremian, Marzieh; Garavand, Ali; Birjandi, Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, information technology has been introduced in the nursing departments of many hospitals to support their daily tasks. Nurses are the largest end user group in Hospital Information Systems (HISs). This study was designed to evaluate data processing in the Nursing Information Systems (NISs) utilized in many university hospitals in Iran. This was a cross-sectional study. The population comprised all nurse managers and NIS users of the five training hospitals in Khorramabad city (N = 71). The nursing subset of HIS-Monitor questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were analyzed by the descriptive-analytical method and the inductive content analysis. The results indicated that the nurses participating in the study did not take a desirable advantage of paper (2.02) and computerized (2.34) information processing tools to perform nursing tasks. Moreover, the less work experience nurses have, the further they utilize computer tools for processing patient discharge information. The "readability of patient information" and "repetitive and time-consuming documentation" were stated as the most important expectations and problems regarding the HIS by the participating nurses, respectively. The nurses participating in the present study used to utilize paper and computerized information processing tools together to perform nursing practices. Therefore, it is recommended that the nursing process redesign coincides with NIS implementation in the health care centers.

  7. Quantum information processing with finite resources mathematical foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Tomamichel, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the mathematical framework required to fully explore the potential of small quantum information processing devices. As decoherence will continue to limit their size, it is essential to master the conceptual tools which make such investigation possible. A strong emphasis is given to information measures that are essential for the study of devices of finite size, including Rényi entropies and smooth entropies. The presentation is self-contained and includes rigorous and concise proofs of the most important properties of these measures. The first chapters will introduce the formalism of quantum mechanics, with particular emphasis on norms and metrics for quantum states. This is necessary to explore quantum generalizations of Rényi divergence and conditional entropy, information measures that lie at the core of information theory. The smooth entropy framework is discussed next and provides a natural means to lift many arguments from information theory to the quantum setting. F...

  8. TUNS/TCIS information model/process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James

    1992-01-01

    An Information Model is comprised of graphical and textual notation suitable for describing and defining the problem domain - in our case, TUNS or TCIS. The model focuses on the real world under study. It identifies what is in the problem and organizes the data into a formal structure for documentation and communication purposes. The Information Model is composed of an Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) and a Data Dictionary component. The combination of these components provide an easy to understand methodology for expressing the entities in the problem space, the relationships between entities and the characteristics (attributes) of the entities. This approach is the first step in information system development. The Information Model identifies the complete set of data elements processed by TUNS. This representation provides a conceptual view of TUNS from the perspective of entities, data, and relationships. The Information Model reflects the business practices and real-world entities that users must deal with.

  9. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute 1996 annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) is an association of Canadian companies involved in the downstream sector of the petroleum industry which includes refining, distributing and marketing of petroleum products. CPPI`s mandate includes: (1) establishing environmental policies, (2) establishing working relationships with governments to develop public policy, (3) developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, and (4) providing information about the petroleum industry to the public. Canada`s 19 refineries processed an average of 1.5 million barrels of crude oil per day in 1996. Domestic sources of crude made up 61 per cent of crude oil processed in 1996. Total exports during the year amounted to 105 million barrels. Some of the issues that the CPPI focused on during 1996 included the controversy over the future of the octane enhancing fuel additive MMT, fuel quality standards for transportation fuels and reformulated fuels, gasoline pricing, air quality and workplace safety. CPPI members` participation in the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions was also discussed. The industry was also actively involved in seeking to improve its refinery wastewater discharges.

  10. Approaching the Affective Factors of Information Seeking: The Viewpoint of the Information Search Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The article contributes to the conceptual studies of affective factors in information seeking by examining Kuhlthau's information search process model. Method: This random-digit dial telephone survey of 253 people (75% female) living in a rural, medically under-serviced area of Ontario, Canada, follows-up a previous interview study…

  11. Information systems for material flow management in construction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesároš, P.; Mandičák, T.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the options for the management of material flows in the construction process. Management and resource planning is one of the key factors influencing the effectiveness of construction project. It is very difficult to set these flows correctly. The current period offers several options and tools to do this. Information systems and their modules can be used just for the management of materials in the construction process.

  12. The processing of information from sensors in intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokovin, V. A.; Sytin, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    The article describes the processing of information obtained from sensors in intelligent systems. The paper analyzes the need of advanced treatment for a paralleling operation calculator which reduces the time of response to input events. A realization of a speculative processing algorithm in the FPGA by streaming control is based on a data flow model. This solution can be used in applications related to telecommunications networks of distributed control systems.

  13. The MBTI and social information processing: an incremental validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, John A; Lanning, Kevin; Hooker, Karen

    2002-06-01

    The ability of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1985) to predict performance on social cognitive tasks tapping information processing effort was assessed. Judgment and intuition interacted to predict amount of attributional adjustment on a dispositional attribution task. The MBTI scales predicted processing above and beyond measures of the five factors, rational-experiential preferences, and causal uncertainty. The relevance of these results for interpretation of the MBTI indexes is discussed.

  14. Informational and Causal Architecture of Continuous-time Renewal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, Sarah; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-07-01

    We introduce the minimal maximally predictive models (ɛ {-machines }) of processes generated by certain hidden semi-Markov models. Their causal states are either discrete, mixed, or continuous random variables and causal-state transitions are described by partial differential equations. As an application, we present a complete analysis of the ɛ {-machines } of continuous-time renewal processes. This leads to closed-form expressions for their entropy rate, statistical complexity, excess entropy, and differential information anatomy rates.

  15. Cognitive and emotional information processing: protein synthesis and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Navakkode, Sheeja; Korz, Volker; Frey, Julietta U

    2007-10-15

    Recent findings suggest that functional plasticity phenomena such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) - cellular processes underlying memory - are restricted to functional dendritic compartments. It was also shown, however, that a relatively strong activation of a synaptic input can abolish compartment restrictions. Our data support these findings and we present one cellular pathway responsible for uncompartmentalization of the normally localized plasticity processes by the action of rolipram, an inhibitor of type 4 phosphodiesterases. In contrast with compartment-restricted information processing, uncompartmentalization requires transcription. In the search for system relevance of compartmentalization versus uncompartmentalization we describe firstly data which show that more cognitive information processing in rats' behaviour may follow rules of compartmentalization, whereas stressful, more life-threatening, inputs abolish compartment-restricted information processing involving transcription. Our findings allow us to suggest that consolidation of processes which take place during the cognitive event most probably depend on local protein synthesis, whereas stress immediately induces gene expression in addition, resulting in a compartment-unspecific up-regulation of plasticity-related proteins (PRPs), providing the entire neuron with a higher level of 'reactiveness'. These data would provide a specific functional cellular mechanism to respond differentially and effectively to behaviourally weighted inputs.

  16. Utilising Benchmarking to Inform Decision-Making at the Institutional Level: A Research-Informed Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarking has traditionally been viewed as a way to compare data only; however, its utilisation as a more investigative, research-informed process to add rigor to decision-making processes at the institutional level is gaining momentum in the higher education sector. Indeed, with recent changes in the Australian quality environment from the…

  17. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PROCESS OF TRAINING MARITIME SPECIALISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyana Lyashenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article represents main questions concerning usage of the newest information-communicative technologies of maritime educational establishments in the process of training specialists of corresponding specialities; reviews the problem of training cadets of Maritime educational institutions by means of information technologies while studying professionally focused disciplines; means of implementation information technologies into the educational process and their practical usage in future professional activity on board a ship are disclosed; the importance of online communications in teaching foreign language speaking, listening comprehension, writing and test tasks implementation to control forming of cadet’s lexical, phonetic and grammar skills are proved; presentations of authentic professionally oriented materials from the newest electronic sources on lectures on disciplines «Marine diesel installations», «Power management system», «Radio-navigational devices and systems». The author of the article grounds practicability of implementation of the newest information communicative technologies into educational process in classroom and extracurricular work, cadets are given an opportunity to get authentic professionally focused information on professional discipline, to extend knowledge on these disciplines and to realize control of formation corresponding competences.

  18. Designing quantum information processing via structural physical approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Joonwoo

    2017-10-01

    In quantum information processing it may be possible to have efficient computation and secure communication beyond the limitations of classical systems. In a fundamental point of view, however, evolution of quantum systems by the laws of quantum mechanics is more restrictive than classical systems, identified to a specific form of dynamics, that is, unitary transformations and, consequently, positive and completely positive maps to subsystems. This also characterizes classes of disallowed transformations on quantum systems, among which positive but not completely maps are of particular interest as they characterize entangled states, a general resource in quantum information processing. Structural physical approximation offers a systematic way of approximating those non-physical maps, positive but not completely positive maps, with quantum channels. Since it has been proposed as a method of detecting entangled states, it has stimulated fundamental problems on classifications of positive maps and the structure of Hermitian operators and quantum states, as well as on quantum measurement such as quantum design in quantum information theory. It has developed efficient and feasible methods of directly detecting entangled states in practice, for which proof-of-principle experimental demonstrations have also been performed with photonic qubit states. Here, we present a comprehensive review on quantum information processing with structural physical approximations and the related progress. The review mainly focuses on properties of structural physical approximations and their applications toward practical information applications.

  19. Designing quantum information processing via structural physical approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Joonwoo

    2017-10-01

    In quantum information processing it may be possible to have efficient computation and secure communication beyond the limitations of classical systems. In a fundamental point of view, however, evolution of quantum systems by the laws of quantum mechanics is more restrictive than classical systems, identified to a specific form of dynamics, that is, unitary transformations and, consequently, positive and completely positive maps to subsystems. This also characterizes classes of disallowed transformations on quantum systems, among which positive but not completely maps are of particular interest as they characterize entangled states, a general resource in quantum information processing. Structural physical approximation offers a systematic way of approximating those non-physical maps, positive but not completely positive maps, with quantum channels. Since it has been proposed as a method of detecting entangled states, it has stimulated fundamental problems on classifications of positive maps and the structure of Hermitian operators and quantum states, as well as on quantum measurement such as quantum design in quantum information theory. It has developed efficient and feasible methods of directly detecting entangled states in practice, for which proof-of-principle experimental demonstrations have also been performed with photonic qubit states. Here, we present a comprehensive review on quantum information processing with structural physical approximations and the related progress. The review mainly focuses on properties of structural physical approximations and their applications toward practical information applications.

  20. Army Information Technology Procurement: A Business Process Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-27

    Brent Langhals, Lt Col, USAF Member John Elshaw, PhD Member Abstract The integration of Information and Communication Technology ( ICT ...the lack transparency in how resources are allocated. This thesis presents a business process analysis of the Army’s ICT procurement system. The...6  Research Questions .........................................................................................................7  Methodology and

  1. Feedback Specificity, Information Processing, and Transfer of Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jodi S.; Wood, Robert E.; Chen, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of feedback specificity on transfer of training and the mechanisms through which feedback can enhance or inhibit transfer. We used concurrent verbal protocol methodology to elicit and operationalize the explicit information processing activities used by 48 trainees performing the Furniture Factory computer…

  2. Structural optimization for materially informed design to robotic production processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.; Mostafavi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbody’s materially informed Design-to-Robotic-Production (D2RP) processes for additive and subtractive manufacturing aim to achieve performative porosity in architecture at various scales. An extended series of D2RP experiments aiming to produce prototypes at 1:1 scale wherein design materiality

  3. Auditory information processing in rat genotypes with different dopaminergic properties.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, N.M.W.J. de; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Cools, A.R.; Ellenbroek, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    RATIONALE: Auditory filtering disturbances, as measured in the sensory gating and prepulse inhibition (PPI) paradigms, have been linked to aberrant auditory information processing and sensory overload in schizophrenic patients. In both paradigms, the response to the second stimulus (S2) is

  4. Auditory information processing in rat genotypes with different dopaminergic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, N.M.W.J. de; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Cools, A.R.; Ellenbroek, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    Rationale: Auditory filtering disturbances, as measured in the sensory gating and prepulse inhibition (PPI) paradigms, have been linked to aberrant auditory information processing and sensory overload in schizophrenic patients. In both paradigms, the response to the second stimulus (S2) is

  5. How Students Learn: Information Processing, Intellectual Development and Confrontation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Noel

    1975-01-01

    A model derived from information processing theory is described, which helps to explain the complex verbal learning of students and suggests implications for lecturing techniques. Other factors affecting learning, which are not covered by the model, are discussed in relationship to it: student's intellectual development and effects of individual…

  6. Decision support for information systems management : applying analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Decision-making in the field of information systems has become more complex due to a larger number of alternatives, multiple and sometimes conflicting goals, and an increasingly turbulent environment. In this paper we explore the appropriateness of Analytic Hierarchy Process to support I/S decision

  7. Information Processing in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Jane; Joormann, Jutta; Gotlib, Ian H.; Kelley, Ryan G.; Acquaye, Tenah; Howe, Meghan; Chang, Kiki D.; Singh, Manpreet K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cognitive models of bipolar I disorder (BD) may aid in identification of children who are especially vulnerable to chronic mood dysregulation. Information-processing biases related to memory and attention likely play a role in the development and persistence of BD among adolescents; however, these biases have not been extensively…

  8. The Order of Explicit Information in Processing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty Diaz, Erin

    2017-01-01

    The two main components of Processing Instruction (PI) are Explicit Information (EI) and Structured Input (SI). Most researchers have concluded that the SI is more responsible for learner gains than the EI (Benati, 2004a, 2004b; VanPatten & Oikennon, 1996; Wong, 2004). However, some researchers have found that EI does significantly impact…

  9. Applying Information Processing Theory to Supervision: An Initial Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Jodi L.; Borders, L. DiAnne

    2017-01-01

    Although clinical supervision is an educational endeavor (Borders & Brown, [Borders, L. D., 2005]), many scholars neglect theories of learning in working with supervisees. The authors describe 1 learning theory--information processing theory (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968, 1971; Schunk, 2016)--and the ways its associated interventions may…

  10. Motivated information processing, social tuning, and group creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bechtoldt, Myriam N.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Choi, Hoon-Seok

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which groups are creative has wide implications for their overall performance, including the quality of their problem solutions, judgments, and decisions. To further understanding of group creativity, we integrate the motivated information processing in groups model (De Dreu, Nijstad,

  11. Self-Schemata and the Processing of Attitudinal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidera, Joseph A.; And Others

    A two-session experiment was conducted to test the relationship of self-schemata to the processing of attitudinal information. In Session I, subjects were classified as either Religious (n=20) or Legal (n=19) in their schemata, using weighted response times to personality trait words on slides. In Session II, these subjects heard one of four…

  12. Quantum information processing using designed defect states in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper; Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new physical implementation of spin qubits for quantum information processing, namely defect states in antidot lattices de¯ned in the two-dimensional electron gas at a semiconductor heterostructure. Calculations of the band structure of the periodic antidot lattice are presented. A p...

  13. A Petri Net-Based Software Process Model for Developing Process-Oriented Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Oberweis, Andreas

    Aiming at increasing flexibility, efficiency, effectiveness, and transparency of information processing and resource deployment in organizations to ensure customer satisfaction and high quality of products and services, process-oriented information systems (POIS) represent a promising realization form of computerized business information systems. Due to the complexity of POIS, explicit and specialized software process models are required to guide POIS development. In this chapter we characterize POIS with an architecture framework and present a Petri net-based software process model tailored for POIS development with consideration of organizational roles. As integrated parts of the software process model, we also introduce XML nets, a variant of high-level Petri nets as basic methodology for business processes modeling, and an XML net-based software toolset providing comprehensive functionalities for POIS development.

  14. Construction Of A Computerised Information-Processing Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann M. Schepers

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of the study was to construct a computerised information-processing test battery to measure choice reaction time for up to and including six bits of information, to measure discrimination reaction time with regard to colour patterns and form patterns, to measure rate of information processing with regard to perceptual stimuli and conceptual reasoning, and to develop a suitable scoring system for the respective tests. The battery of tests was applied to 58 pilots. Opsomming Die hoofdoel van die studie was om ‘n gerekenariseerde inligtingverwerkingstoets-battery te konstrueer om keusereaksietyd tot en met ses bis inligting te meet, om diskriminasie-reaksietyd ten opsigte van kleurpatrone en vormpatrone te meet, om tempo van inligtingverwerking ten opsigte van perseptuele stimuli en konseptuele redenering te meet en om ‘n gepaste nasienstelsel vir die onderskeie toetse te ontwikkel. Die battery toetse is op 58 vlieëniers toegepas

  15. Information processing by networks of quantum decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.; Sornette, D.

    2018-02-01

    We suggest a model of a multi-agent society of decision makers taking decisions being based on two criteria, one is the utility of the prospects and the other is the attractiveness of the considered prospects. The model is the generalization of quantum decision theory, developed earlier for single decision makers realizing one-step decisions, in two principal aspects. First, several decision makers are considered simultaneously, who interact with each other through information exchange. Second, a multistep procedure is treated, when the agents exchange information many times. Several decision makers exchanging information and forming their judgment, using quantum rules, form a kind of a quantum information network, where collective decisions develop in time as a result of information exchange. In addition to characterizing collective decisions that arise in human societies, such networks can describe dynamical processes occurring in artificial quantum intelligence composed of several parts or in a cluster of quantum computers. The practical usage of the theory is illustrated on the dynamic disjunction effect for which three quantitative predictions are made: (i) the probabilistic behavior of decision makers at the initial stage of the process is described; (ii) the decrease of the difference between the initial prospect probabilities and the related utility factors is proved; (iii) the existence of a common consensus after multiple exchange of information is predicted. The predicted numerical values are in very good agreement with empirical data.

  16. Environmental Performance of Hypothetical Canadian Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Processes Using Life-Cycle Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakkana Piewkhaow

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of life-cycle assessment was applied in order to evaluate the environmental performance of a hypothetical Saskatchewan lignite-fueled Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC electricity generation, with and without pre-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2 capture from a full life-cycle perspective. The emphasis here is placed on environmental performance associated with air contaminants of the comparison between IGCC systems (with and without CO2 capture and a competing lignite pulverized coal-fired electricity generating station in order to reveal which technology offers the most positive environmental effects. Moreover, ambient air pollutant modeling was also conducted by using American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD air dispersion modeling to determine the ground-level concentration of pollutants emitted from four different electricity generating stations. This study assumes that all stations are located close to Estevan. The results showed a significant reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and acidification potential by applying both post-combustion and pre-combustion CO2 capture processes. The GHG emissions were found to have reduced by 27%–86%, and IGCC systems were found to compare favorably to pulverized coal systems. However, in other environmental impact categories, there are multiple environmental trade-offs depending on the capture technology used. In the case of post-combustion capture, it was observed that the environmental impact category of eutrophication potential, summer smog, and ozone depletion increased due to the application of the CO2 capture process and the surface mining coal operation. IGCC systems, on the other hand, showed the same tendency as the conventional coal-fired electricity generation systems, but to a lesser degree. This is because the IGCC system is a cleaner technology that produces lower pollutant emission levels than the electricity

  17. Local active information storage as a tool to understand distributed neural information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibral, Michael; Lizier, Joseph T.; Vögler, Sebastian; Priesemann, Viola; Galuske, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Every act of information processing can in principle be decomposed into the component operations of information storage, transfer, and modification. Yet, while this is easily done for today's digital computers, the application of these concepts to neural information processing was hampered by the lack of proper mathematical definitions of these operations on information. Recently, definitions were given for the dynamics of these information processing operations on a local scale in space and time in a distributed system, and the specific concept of local active information storage was successfully applied to the analysis and optimization of artificial neural systems. However, no attempt to measure the space-time dynamics of local active information storage in neural data has been made to date. Here we measure local active information storage on a local scale in time and space in voltage sensitive dye imaging data from area 18 of the cat. We show that storage reflects neural properties such as stimulus preferences and surprise upon unexpected stimulus change, and in area 18 reflects the abstract concept of an ongoing stimulus despite the locally random nature of this stimulus. We suggest that LAIS will be a useful quantity to test theories of cortical function, such as predictive coding. PMID:24501593

  18. The cognitive viewpoint on information science and processing information in cognitive psychology - a vision for interdisciplinary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Guimarães Pimenta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction amongst the ‘user’, ‘information’, and ‘text’ is of interest to Information Science although it has deserved insufficient attention in the literature. This issue is addressed by this paper whose main purpose is to contribute to the discussion of theoretical affinity between the cognitive viewpoint in Information Science and the information processing approach in Cognitive Psychology. Firstly, the interdisciplinary nature of Information Science is discussed and justified as a means to deepen and strengthen its theoretical framework. Such interdisciplinarity helps to avoid stagnation and keep pace with other disciplines. Secondly, the discussion takes into consideration the cognitive paradigm, which originates the cognitive viewpoint approach in Information Science. It is highlighted that the cognitive paradigm represented a change in the Social Sciences due to the shift of focus from the object and the signal to the individual. Besides that, it sheds light to the notion of models of worlds, i.e., the systems of categories and concepts that guide the interaction between the individual and his/her environment. Thirdly, the theoretical assumptions of the cognitive viewpoint approach are discussed, with emphasis on the concept of ‘information’, as resulting of cognitive processes and as related to the notion of ‘text’. This approach points out the relevance of understanding the interaction amongst users, information, and text. However, it lacks further development. Using notions which are common to both approaches, some of the gaps can be fulfilled. Finally, the concept of ‘text’, its constituents and structures are presented from the perspective of text comprehension models and according to the information processing approach. As a concluding remark, it is suggested that bringing together the cognitive viewpoint and the information processing approach can be enriching and fruitful to the both Information

  19. Speed of emotional information processing and emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodonova, Yulia A; Dodonov, Yury S

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the speed of emotional information processing and emotional intelligence (EI). To evaluate individual differences in the speed of emotional information processing, a recognition memory task consisted of two subtests similar in design but differing in the emotionality of the stimuli. The first subtest required judgment about whether an emotional facial expression in the test face was identical to one of the four emotional expressions of the same individual previously presented. The second subtest required deciding whether the test face with a neutral emotional expression was identical to one of the four neutral faces of different individuals previously presented. Mean response latencies were calculated for "Yes" and "No" responses. All latencies were correlated with other measures of processing speed such as discrimination time and time of figure recognition. However, the emotional expression recognition subtest was hypothesized to require the processing of emotional information in addition to that of facial identity. Latencies in this subtest were longer than those in the face recognition subtest. To obtain a measure of the additional processing that was called for by the emotionality of the stimuli, a subtraction method and regression analysis were employed. In both cases, measures calculated for "No" responses were related to ability EI, as assessed via a self-report questionnaire. According to structural equation modeling, there was a moderately negative association between latent EI and the latency of "No" responses in the subtest with emotional stimuli. These relationships were not observed for "Yes" responses in the same subtest or for responses in the subtest with neutral face stimuli. Although the differences between "Yes" and "No" responses in their associations with EI require further investigation, the results suggest that, in general, individuals with higher EI are also more efficient in

  20. Model choice considerations and information integration using analytical hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenbrunner, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [BOOKER SCIENTIFIC; Ross, Timothy J. [UNM

    2010-10-15

    Using the theory of information-gap for decision-making under severe uncertainty, it has been shown that model output compared to experimental data contains irrevocable trade-offs between fidelity-to-data, robustness-to-uncertainty and confidence-in-prediction. We illustrate a strategy for information integration by gathering and aggregating all available data, knowledge, theory, experience, similar applications. Such integration of information becomes important when the physics is difficult to model, when observational data are sparse or difficult to measure, or both. To aggregate the available information, we take an inference perspective. Models are not rejected, nor wasted, but can be integrated into a final result. We show an example of information integration using Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), integrating theory, simulation output and experimental data. We used expert elicitation to determine weights for two models and two experimental data sets, by forming pair-wise comparisons between model output and experimental data. In this way we transform epistemic and/or statistical strength from one field of study into another branch of physical application. The price to pay for utilizing all available knowledge is that inferences drawn for the integrated information must be accounted for and the costs can be considerable. Focusing on inferences and inference uncertainty (IU) is one way to understand complex information.

  1. Promoting information diffusion through interlayer recovery processes in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Weihua; Liu, Longzhao; Pei, Sen; Tang, Shaoting; Zheng, Zhiming

    2017-09-01

    For information diffusion in multiplex networks, the effect of interlayer contagion on spreading dynamics has been explored in different settings. Nevertheless, the impact of interlayer recovery processes, i.e., the transition of nodes to stiflers in all layers after they become stiflers in any layer, still remains unclear. In this paper, we propose a modified ignorant-spreader-stifler model of rumor spreading equipped with an interlayer recovery mechanism. We find that the information diffusion can be effectively promoted for a range of interlayer recovery rates. By combining the mean-field approximation and the Markov chain approach, we derive the evolution equations of the diffusion process in two-layer homogeneous multiplex networks. The optimal interlayer recovery rate that achieves the maximal enhancement can be calculated by solving the equations numerically. In addition, we find that the promoting effect on a certain layer can be strengthened if information spreads more extensively within the counterpart layer. When applying the model to two-layer scale-free multiplex networks, with or without degree correlation, similar promoting effect is also observed in simulations. Our work indicates that the interlayer recovery process is beneficial to information diffusion in multiplex networks, which may have implications for designing efficient spreading strategies.

  2. Recruiting for Epigenetic Research: Facilitating the Informed Consent Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Jallo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the effects of epigenetic (gene-environment interaction changes have been associated with numerous adverse health states, the study of epigenetic measures provides exciting research opportunities for biobehavioral scientists. However, recruitment for studies focusing on any aspect of genetics poses challenges. Multiple factors, including lack of knowledge regarding a research study, have been identified as barriers to recruitment. Strengthening the informed consent process through extended discussion has been found to be effective in recruiting for research studies in general, yet there is a paucity of information that focused on such a recruitment strategy for epigenetic studies. In this paper, we share our experiences with strategies to strengthen the informed consent process as well as provide samples of materials developed to heighten potential participants’ understanding of epigenetics, in 4 epigenetic research studies with women from diverse backgrounds experiencing a range of health issues. The combined enrollment success rate for epigenetic studies using the process was 89% with participants representing a diverse population. We posit that carefully developed recruitment scripts provided a foundation for improving potential participants’ understanding of the research project. Easy to understand illustrations of the epigenetic process provided a basis for active engagement and encouraged individual questions.

  3. Barriers to data quality resulting from the process of coding health information to administrative data: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucyk, Kelsey; Tang, Karen; Quan, Hude

    2017-11-22

    Administrative health data are increasingly used for research and surveillance to inform decision-making because of its large sample sizes, geographic coverage, comprehensivity, and possibility for longitudinal follow-up. Within Canadian provinces, individuals are assigned unique personal health numbers that allow for linkage of administrative health records in that jurisdiction. It is therefore necessary to ensure that these data are of high quality, and that chart information is accurately coded to meet this end. Our objective is to explore the potential barriers that exist for high quality data coding through qualitative inquiry into the roles and responsibilities of medical chart coders. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 28 medical chart coders from Alberta, Canada. We used thematic analysis and open-coded each transcript to understand the process of administrative health data generation and identify barriers to its quality. The process of generating administrative health data is highly complex and involves a diverse workforce. As such, there are multiple points in this process that introduce challenges for high quality data. For coders, the main barriers to data quality occurred around chart documentation, variability in the interpretation of chart information, and high quota expectations. This study illustrates the complex nature of barriers to high quality coding, in the context of administrative data generation. The findings from this study may be of use to data users, researchers, and decision-makers who wish to better understand the limitations of their data or pursue interventions to improve data quality.

  4. Random Matrices for Information Processing – A Democratic Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak

    The thesis studies three important applications of random matrices to information processing. Our main contribution is that we consider probabilistic systems involving more general random matrix ensembles than the classical ensembles with iid entries, i.e. models that account for statistical...... dependence between the entries. Specifically, the involved matrices are invariant or fulfill a certain asymptotic freeness condition as their dimensions grow to infinity. Informally speaking, all latent variables contribute to the system model in a democratic fashion – there are no preferred latent variables...... in the system....

  5. Quantum Information Processing and Quantum Error Correction An Engineering Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Quantum Information Processing and Quantum Error Correction is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information, quantum computation, and quantum error-correction. Assuming no knowledge of quantum mechanics and written at an intuitive level suitable for the engineer, the book gives all the essential principles needed to design and implement quantum electronic and photonic circuits. Numerous examples from a wide area of application are given to show how the principles can be implemented in practice. This book is ideal for the electronics, photonics and computer engineer

  6. Framing Canadian federalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saywell, John; Anastakis, Dimitry; Bryden, Penny E

    2009-01-01

    ... the pervasive effects that federalism has on Canadian politics, economics, culture, and history, and provide a detailed framework in which to understand contemporary federalism. Written in honour of John T. Saywell's half-century of accomplished and influential scholarly work and teaching, Framing Canadian Federalism is a timely and fitting t...

  7. Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Miao, Y., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2008). Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification. In F. W. B. Li, J. Zhao, T. K. Shih, R. W. H. Lau, Q. Li & D. McLeod (Eds.), Advances in Web Based Learning - Proceedings of the 7th

  8. Capturing how age-friendly communities foster positive health, social participation and health equity: a study protocol of key components and processes that promote population health in aging Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Dubois, Marie-France; Généreux, Mélissa; Menec, Verena; Raina, Parminder; Roy, Mathieu; Gabaude, Catherine; Couturier, Yves; St-Pierre, Catherine

    2017-05-25

    To address the challenges of the global aging population, the World Health Organization promoted age-friendly communities as a way to foster the development of active aging community initiatives. Accordingly, key components (i.e., policies, services and structures related to the communities' physical and social environments) should be designed to be age-friendly and help all aging adults to live safely, enjoy good health and stay involved in their communities. Although age-friendly communities are believed to be a promising way to help aging Canadians lead healthy and active lives, little is known about which key components best foster positive health, social participation and health equity, and their underlying mechanisms. This study aims to better understand which and how key components of age-friendly communities best foster positive health, social participation and health equity in aging Canadians. Specifically, the research objectives are to: 1) Describe and compare age-friendly key components of communities across Canada 2) Identify key components best associated with positive health, social participation and health equity of aging adults 3) Explore how these key components foster positive health, social participation and health equity METHODS: A mixed-method sequential explanatory design will be used. The quantitative part will involve a survey of Canadian communities and secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). The survey will include an age-friendly questionnaire targeting key components in seven domains: physical environment, housing options, social environment, opportunities for participation, community supports and healthcare services, transportation options, communication and information. The CLSA is a large, national prospective study representative of the Canadian aging population designed to examine health transitions and trajectories of adults as they age. In the qualitative part, a multiple

  9. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leigh

    2012-06-15

    Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, "Liberation therapy" for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1) where in Canada these businesses are located; 2) the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3) the medical procedures they promote; 4) core marketing messages; and 5) whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism companies. Seven other businesses market regional, cross

  10. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Leigh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Methods Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1 where in Canada these businesses are located; 2 the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3 the medical procedures they promote; 4 core marketing messages; and 5 whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Results Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism

  11. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Methods Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1) where in Canada these businesses are located; 2) the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3) the medical procedures they promote; 4) core marketing messages; and 5) whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Results Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism companies. Seven other

  12. Information Systems’ Portfolio: Contributions of Enterprise and Process Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fernandes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We are witnessing a need for a quick and intelligent reaction from organizations to the level and speed of change in business processes.New information technologies and systems (IT/IS are challenging business models and products. One of the great shakes comes from the online and/or mobile apps and platforms.These are having a tremendous impact in launching innovative and competitive services through the combination of digital and physical features. This leads to actively rethink enterprise information systems’ portfolio, its management and suitability. One relevant way for enterprises to manage their IT/IS in order to cope with those challenges is enterprise and process architecture. A decision-making culture based on processes helps to understand and define the different elements that shape an organization and how those elements inter-relate inside and outside it. IT/IS portfolio management requires an increasing need of modeling data and process flows for better discerning and acting at its selection and alignment with business goals. The new generation of enterprise architecture (NGEA helps to design intelligent processes that answer quickly and creatively to new and challenging trends. This has to be open, agile and context-aware to allow well-designed services that match users’ expectations. This study includes two real cases/problems to solve quickly in companies and solutions are presented in line with this architectural approach.

  13. Delayed processing of global shape information in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Klargaard, Solja K.; Petersen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence suggesting that a central deficit in developmental prosopagnosia (DP), a disorder characterized by profound and lifelong difficulties with face recognition, concerns impaired holistic processing. Some of this evidence comes from studies using Navon’s paradigm where...... individuals with DP in Navon’s paradigm we find evidence of a reduced global precedence effect: The DPs are slower than controls to process global but not local shape information. Importantly, and in contrast to previous studies, we demonstrate that the DPs perform normally in a comprehensive test of visual...

  14. The basics of IT audit purposes, processes, and practical information

    CERN Document Server

    Gantz, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    The Basics of IT Audit: Purposes, Processes, and Practical Information provides you with a thorough, yet concise overview of IT auditing. Packed with specific examples, this book gives insight into the auditing process and explains regulations and standards such as the ISO-27000, series program, CoBIT, ITIL, Sarbanes-Oxley, and HIPPA. IT auditing occurs in some form in virtually every organization, private or public, large or small. The large number and wide variety of laws, regulations, policies, and industry standards that call for IT auditing make it hard for organizations to consistent

  15. Specificity, promiscuity, and the structure of complex information processing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    Both the top-down designs of engineered systems and the bottom-up serendipities of biological evolution must negotiate tradeoffs between specificity and control: overly specific interactions between components can make systems brittle and unevolvable, while more generic interactions can require elaborate control in order to aggregate specificity from distributed pieces. Complex information processing systems reveal network organizations that navigate this landscape of constraints: regulatory and signaling networks in cells involve the coordination of molecular interactions that are surprisingly promiscuous, and object-oriented design in software systems emphasizes the polymorphic composition of objects of minimal necessary specificity [C.R. Myers, Phys Rev E 68, 046116 (2003)]. Models of information processing arising both in systems biology and engineered computation are explored to better understand how particular network organizations can coordinate the activity of promiscuous components to achieve robust and evolvable function.

  16. Pure sources and efficient detectors for optical quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielnicki, Kevin

    Over the last sixty years, classical information theory has revolutionized the understanding of the nature of information, and how it can be quantified and manipulated. Quantum information processing extends these lessons to quantum systems, where the properties of intrinsic uncertainty and entanglement fundamentally defy classical explanation. This growing field has many potential applications, including computing, cryptography, communication, and metrology. As inherently mobile quantum particles, photons are likely to play an important role in any mature large-scale quantum information processing system. However, the available methods for producing and detecting complex multi-photon states place practical limits on the feasibility of sophisticated optical quantum information processing experiments. In a typical quantum information protocol, a source first produces an interesting or useful quantum state (or set of states), perhaps involving superposition or entanglement. Then, some manipulations are performed on this state, perhaps involving quantum logic gates which further manipulate or entangle the intial state. Finally, the state must be detected, obtaining some desired measurement result, e.g., for secure communication or computationally efficient factoring. The work presented here concerns the first and last stages of this process as they relate to photons: sources and detectors. Our work on sources is based on the need for optimized non-classical states of light delivered at high rates, particularly of single photons in a pure quantum state. We seek to better understand the properties of spontaneous parameteric downconversion (SPDC) sources of photon pairs, and in doing so, produce such an optimized source. We report an SPDC source which produces pure heralded single photons with little or no spectral filtering, allowing a significant rate enhancement. Our work on detectors is based on the need to reliably measure single-photon states. We have focused on

  17. Distributed atomic quantum information processing via optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Li, Hui-Ran; Wang, Xiaojun

    2017-04-27

    The qudit system may offer great flexibilities for quantum information processing. We investigate the possibility of realizing elementary quantum gates between two high-dimensional atoms in distant cavities coupled by an optical fiber. We show that highly reliable special swap gate is achievable by different detuning. The numerical simulation shows that the proposed elementary gate is robust against the atomic spontaneous decay, photon leakage of cavities and optical fibers by choosing the experimental parameters appropriately.

  18. Business Process driven solutions for innovative enterprise information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Taglino, Francesco; Lezoche, Mario

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Existing limitations and problems in the current life-cycle of software applications will encourage new development paradigms. New technological trends, aiming at responding to current needs, such as flexibility, dynamicity, scalability, will certainly drive the envisaged changes. In this paper, possible solutions for the development and maintenance of innovative enterprise information systems (IS) are outlined. In particular, it will be argued about business process d...

  19. Advancements on Radar Polarization Information Acquisition and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Dahai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study on radar polarization information acquisition and processing has currently been one important part of radar techniques. The development of the polarization theory is simply reviewed firstly. Subsequently, some key techniques which include polarization measurement, polarization anti-jamming, polarization recognition, imaging and parameters inversion using radar polarimetry are emphatically analyzed in this paper. The basic theories, the present states and the development trends of these key techniques are presented and some meaningful conclusions are derived.

  20. The complementarity relations of quantum coherence in quantum information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fei; Qiu, Liang; Liu, Zhi

    2017-03-08

    We establish two complementarity relations for the relative entropy of coherence in quantum information processing, i.e., quantum dense coding and teleportation. We first give an uncertainty-like expression relating local quantum coherence to the capacity of optimal dense coding for bipartite system. The relation can also be applied to the case of dense coding by using unital memoryless noisy quantum channels. Further, the relation between local quantum coherence and teleportation fidelity for two-qubit system is given.

  1. Automated Problem Domain Cognition Process in Information Systems Design

    OpenAIRE

    Loginov, Maxim; Mikov, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    An automated cognitive approach for the design of Information Systems is presented. It is supposed to be used at the very beginning of the design process, between the stages of requirements determination and analysis, including the stage of analysis. In the context of the approach used either UML or ERD notations may be used for model representation. The approach provides the opportunity of using natural language text documents as a source of knowledge for automated problem domain...

  2. A Review on Sensor, Signal, and Information Processing Algorithms (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    use for estimating speech intelligibility in auditoria , Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 77 (1985) 1069–1077. [68] A. Spanias, Speech...detection under communication constraints, in: IEEE Interna - tional Symposium on Information Theory, 1995. [78] C. Yu, P. Varshney, Bit allocation for...Processing 55 (5, Part 1) (2007) 1634–1643. [107] J. Karlsson, N. Wernersson, M. Skoglund, Distributed scalar quantizers for noisy channels, in: IEEE Interna

  3. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  4. Introduction to the theory of quantum information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Bergou, János A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to the Theory of Quantum Information Processing provides the material for a one-semester graduate level course on quantum information theory and quantum computing for students who have had a one-year graduate course in quantum mechanics. Many standard subjects are treated, such as density matrices, entanglement, quantum maps, quantum cryptography, and quantum codes. Also included are discussions of quantum machines and quantum walks. In addition, the book provides detailed treatments of several underlying fundamental principles of quantum theory, such as quantum measurements, the no-cloning and no-signaling theorems, and their consequences. Problems of various levels of difficulty supplement the text, with the most challenging problems bringing the reader to the forefront of active research. This book provides a compact introduction to the fascinating and rapidly evolving interdisciplinary field of quantum information theory, and it prepares the reader for doing active research in this area.

  5. Catechol-Based Hydrogel for Chemical Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunkyoung Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Catechols offer diverse properties and are used in biology to perform various functions that range from adhesion (e.g., mussel proteins to neurotransmission (e.g., dopamine, and mimicking the capabilities of biological catechols have yielded important new materials (e.g., polydopamine. It is well known that catechols are also redox-active and we have observed that biomimetic catechol-modified chitosan films are redox-active and possess interesting molecular electronic properties. In particular, these films can accept, store and donate electrons, and thus offer redox-capacitor capabilities. We are enlisting these capabilities to bridge communication between biology and electronics. Specifically, we are investigating an interactive redox-probing approach to access redox-based chemical information and convert this information into an electrical modality that facilitates analysis by methods from signal processing. In this review, we describe the broad vision and then cite recent examples in which the catechol–chitosan redox-capacitor can assist in accessing and understanding chemical information. Further, this redox-capacitor can be coupled with synthetic biology to enhance the power of chemical information processing. Potentially, the progress with this biomimetic catechol–chitosan film may even help in understanding how biology uses the redox properties of catechols for redox signaling.

  6. Microscopic information processing and communication in crowd dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henein, Colin Marc; White, Tony

    2010-11-01

    Due, perhaps, to the historical division of crowd dynamics research into psychological and engineering approaches, microscopic crowd models have tended toward modelling simple interchangeable particles with an emphasis on the simulation of physical factors. Despite the fact that people have complex (non-panic) behaviours in crowd disasters, important human factors in crowd dynamics such as information discovery and processing, changing goals and communication have not yet been well integrated at the microscopic level. We use our Microscopic Human Factors methodology to fuse a microscopic simulation of these human factors with a popular microscopic crowd model. By tightly integrating human factors with the existing model we can study the effects on the physical domain (movement, force and crowd safety) when human behaviour (information processing and communication) is introduced. In a large-room egress scenario with ample exits, information discovery and processing yields a crowd of non-interchangeable individuals who, despite close proximity, have different goals due to their different beliefs. This crowd heterogeneity leads to complex inter-particle interactions such as jamming transitions in open space; at high crowd energies, we found a freezing by heating effect (reminiscent of the disaster at Central Lenin Stadium in 1982) in which a barrier formation of naïve individuals trying to reach blocked exits prevented knowledgeable ones from exiting. Communication, when introduced, reduced this barrier formation, increasing both exit rates and crowd safety.

  7. MAIA - Method for Architecture of Information Applied: methodological construct of information processing in complex contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael de Moura Costa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Paper to presentation the MAIA Method for Architecture of Information Applied evolution, its structure, results obtained and three practical applications.Objective: Proposal of a methodological constructo for treatment of complex information, distinguishing information spaces and revealing inherent configurations of those spaces. Metodology: The argument is elaborated from theoretical research of analitical hallmark, using distinction as a way to express concepts. Phenomenology is used as a philosophical position, which considers the correlation between Subject↔Object. The research also considers the notion of interpretation as an integrating element for concepts definition. With these postulates, the steps to transform the information spaces are formulated. Results: This article explores not only how the method is structured to process information in its contexts, starting from a succession of evolutive cicles, divided in moments, which, on their turn, evolve to transformation acts. Conclusions: This article explores not only how the method is structured to process information in its contexts, starting from a succession of evolutive cicles, divided in moments, which, on their turn, evolve to transformation acts. Besides that, the article presents not only possible applications as a cientific method, but also as configuration tool in information spaces, as well as generator of ontologies. At last, but not least, presents a brief summary of the analysis made by researchers who have already evaluated the method considering the three aspects mentioned.

  8. Local active information storage as a tool to understand distributed neural information processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eWibral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Every act of information processing can in principle be decomposed into the component operations of information storage, transfer, and modification. Yet, while this is easily done for today’s digital computers, the application of these concepts to neural information processing was hampered by the lack of proper mathematical definitions of these operations on information. Recently, such definitions were given and the specific concept of local active information storage was successfully applied to the analysis and optimization of artificial neural systems. However, no attempt to measure local active information storage in neural data has been made to date. Here we measure local active information storage on a local scale in time and space in voltage sensitive dye imaging data from area 18 of the cat. We show that storage reflects neural properties such as stimulus preferences and surprise upon unexpected stimulus change, and in area 18 reflects the abstract concept of an ongoing stimulus despite the locally random nature of this stimulus. We suggest that LAIS will be a useful quantity to test theories of cortical function, such as predictive coding.

  9. What do information reuse and automated processing require in engineering design? Semantic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossi Nykänen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to characterize, analyze, and demonstrate machine-understandable semantic process for validating, integrating, and processing technical design information. This establishes both a vision and tools for information reuse and semi-automatic processing in engineering design projects, including virtual machine laboratory applications with generated components.Design/methodology/approach: The process model has been developed iteratively in terms of action research, constrained by the existing technical design practices and assumptions (design documents, expert feedback, available technologies (pre-studies and experiments with scripting and pipeline tools, benchmarking with other process models and methods (notably the RUP and DITA, and formal requirements (computability and the critical information paths for the generated applications. In practice, the work includes both quantitative and qualitative components.Findings: Technical design processes may be greatly enhanced in terms of semantic process thinking, by enriching design information, and automating information validation and transformation tasks. Contemporary design information, however, is mainly intended for human consumption, and needs to be explicitly enriched with the currently missing data and interfaces. In practice, this may require acknowledging the role of technical information or knowledge engineer, to lead the development of the semantic design information process in a design organization. There is also a trade-off between machine-readability and system complexity that needs to be studied further, both empirically and in theory.Research limitations/implications: The conceptualization of the semantic process is essentially an abstraction based on the idea of progressive design. While this effectively allows implementing semantic processes with, e.g., pipeline technologies, the abstraction is valid only when technical design is organized into

  10. Understanding the Information Research Process of Experienced Online Information Researchers to Inform Development of a Scholars Portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Whitehead

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective - The main purpose of this study was to understand the information research process of experienced online information researchers in a variety of disciplines, gather their ideas for improvement and as part of this to validate a proposed research framework for use in future development of Ontario’s Scholars Portal.Methods - This was a qualitative research study in which sixty experienced online information researchers participated in face-to-face workshops that included a collaborative design component. The sessions were conducted and recorded by usability specialists who subsequently analyzed the data and identified patterns and themes.Results - Key themes included the similarities of the information research process across all disciplines, the impact of interdisciplinarity, the social aspect of research and opportunities for process improvement. There were many specific observations regarding current and ideal processes. Implications for portal development and further research included: supporting a common process while accommodating user-defined differences; supporting citation chaining practices with new opportunities for data linkage and granularity; enhancing keyword searching with various types of intervention; exploring trusted social networks; exploring new mental models for data manipulation while retaining traditional objects; improving citation and document management. Conclusion – The majority of researchers in the study had almost no routine in their information research processes, had developed few techniques to assist themselves and had very little awareness of the tools available to help them. There are many opportunities to aid researchers in the research process that can be explored when developing scholarly research portals. That development will be well guided by the framework ‘discover, gather, synthesize, create, share.’

  11. Neural Mechanisms and Information Processing in Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamiko Ozaki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nestmate recognition is a hallmark of social insects. It is based on the match/mismatch of an identity signal carried by members of the society with that of the perceiving individual. While the behavioral response, amicable or aggressive, is very clear, the neural systems underlying recognition are not fully understood. Here we contrast two alternative hypotheses for the neural mechanisms that are responsible for the perception and information processing in recognition. We focus on recognition via chemical signals, as the common modality in social insects. The first, classical, hypothesis states that upon perception of recognition cues by the sensory system the information is passed as is to the antennal lobes and to higher brain centers where the information is deciphered and compared to a neural template. Match or mismatch information is then transferred to some behavior-generating centers where the appropriate response is elicited. An alternative hypothesis, that of “pre-filter mechanism”, posits that the decision as to whether to pass on the information to the central nervous system takes place in the peripheral sensory system. We suggest that, through sensory adaptation, only alien signals are passed on to the brain, specifically to an “aggressive-behavior-switching center”, where the response is generated if the signal is above a certain threshold.

  12. Information thermodynamics for feedback processes with the appearance of overshooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chulan

    2017-04-01

    We investigate feedback processes with measurement-induced protocols for particular tasks that drive systems in specified directions in state spaces. We focus on mutual information as a measure of correlation between system and memory, which has been known to play a crucial role for the second law of information thermodynamics. The performance of task is enhanced in the early stage of driving, along with the decrease of correlation and mutual information due to the passage from initial measurement. However, we find that the performance is suppressed if the time of driving exceeds a threshold, which we call feedback overshooting. We find that a type of correlation, anticorrelation, between system and memory is built up as a result of overshooting and gives rise to regaining mutual information. We examine the effect of overshooting in detail from two examples. We study the Szilard engine for the task of work extraction. We also study a recurrent feedback with finite time interval for the task to reduce the mean square distance of a colloid below the value by thermal fluctuation. We find that recurrent feedback is stable only for a moderate range of time intervals and the intensity of feedback protocol. We discuss the problem of divergence of mutual information for error-free measurement.

  13. Metadata and their impact on processes in Building Information Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nyvlt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Building Information Modeling (BIM itself contains huge potential, how to increase effectiveness of every project in its all life cycle. It means from initial investment plan through project and building-up activities to long-term usage and property maintenance and finally demolition. Knowledge Management or better say Knowledge Sharing covers two sets of tools, managerial and technological. Manager`s needs are real expectations and desires of final users in terms of how could they benefit from managing long-term projects, covering whole life cycle in terms of sparing investment money and other resources. Technology employed can help BIM processes to support and deliver these benefits to users. How to use this technology for data and metadata collection, storage and sharing, which processes may these new technologies deploy. We will touch how to cover optimized processes proposal for better and smooth support of knowledge sharing within project time-scale, and covering all its life cycle.

  14. Neural processing of gustatory information in insular circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Arianna; Haley, Melissa; Fontanini, Alfredo

    2012-08-01

    The insular cortex is the primary cortical site devoted to taste processing. A large body of evidence is available for how insular neurons respond to gustatory stimulation in both anesthetized and behaving animals. Most of the reports describe broadly tuned neurons that are involved in processing the chemosensory, physiological and psychological aspects of gustatory experience. However little is known about how these neural responses map onto insular circuits. Particularly mysterious is the functional role of the three subdivisions of the insular cortex: the granular, the dysgranular and the agranular insular cortices. In this article we review data on the organization of the local and long-distance circuits in the three subdivisions. The functional significance of these results is discussed in light of the latest electrophysiological data. A view of the insular cortex as a functionally integrated system devoted to processing gustatory, multimodal, cognitive and affective information is proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Information processing in multi-step signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Ambhi; Hamidzadeh, Archer; Zhang, Jin; Levchenko, Andre

    Information processing in complex signaling networks is limited by a high degree of variability in the abundance and activity of biochemical reactions (biological noise) operating in living cells. In this context, it is particularly surprising that many signaling pathways found in eukaryotic cells are composed of long chains of biochemical reactions, which are expected to be subject to accumulating noise and delayed signal processing. Here, we challenge the notion that signaling pathways are insulated chains, and rather view them as parts of extensively branched networks, which can benefit from a low degree of interference between signaling components. We further establish conditions under which this pathway organization would limit noise accumulation, and provide evidence for this type of signal processing in an experimental model of a calcium-activated MAPK cascade. These results address the long-standing problem of diverse organization and structure of signaling networks in live cells.

  16. Informational and Causal Architecture of Discrete-Time Renewal Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Marzen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewal processes are broadly used to model stochastic behavior consisting of isolated events separated by periods of quiescence, whose durations are specified by a given probability law. Here, we identify the minimal sufficient statistic for their prediction (the set of causal states, calculate the historical memory capacity required to store those states (statistical complexity, delineate what information is predictable (excess entropy, and decompose the entropy of a single measurement into that shared with the past, future, or both. The causal state equivalence relation defines a new subclass of renewal processes with a finite number of causal states despite having an unbounded interevent count distribution. We use the resulting formulae to analyze the output of the parametrized Simple Nonunifilar Source, generated by a simple two-state hidden Markov model, but with an infinite-state ϵ-machine presentation. All in all, the results lay the groundwork for analyzing more complex processes with infinite statistical complexity and infinite excess entropy.

  17. Bayesian inference for Markov jump processes with informative observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, Andrew; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of parameter inference for Markov jump process (MJP) representations of stochastic kinetic models. Since transition probabilities are intractable for most processes of interest yet forward simulation is straightforward, Bayesian inference typically proceeds through computationally intensive methods such as (particle) MCMC. Such methods ostensibly require the ability to simulate trajectories from the conditioned jump process. When observations are highly informative, use of the forward simulator is likely to be inefficient and may even preclude an exact (simulation based) analysis. We therefore propose three methods for improving the efficiency of simulating conditioned jump processes. A conditioned hazard is derived based on an approximation to the jump process, and used to generate end-point conditioned trajectories for use inside an importance sampling algorithm. We also adapt a recently proposed sequential Monte Carlo scheme to our problem. Essentially, trajectories are reweighted at a set of intermediate time points, with more weight assigned to trajectories that are consistent with the next observation. We consider two implementations of this approach, based on two continuous approximations of the MJP. We compare these constructs for a simple tractable jump process before using them to perform inference for a Lotka-Volterra system. The best performing construct is used to infer the parameters governing a simple model of motility regulation in Bacillus subtilis.

  18. Minimal approach to neuro-inspired information processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel C. Soriano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To learn and mimic how the brain processes information has been a major research challenge for decades. Despite the efforts, little is known on how we encode, maintain and retrieve our memories. One of the hypothesis assumes that transient states are generated in our intricate network of neurons when the brain is stimulated by a sensory input. Based on this idea, powerful computational schemes have been developed. These schemes, known as machine-learning techniques, include artificial neural networks, support vector machine and reservoir computing, among others.In this paper, we concentrate on the reservoir computing (RC technique using delay-coupled systems. Unlike traditional RC, where the information is processed in large recurrent networks of interconnected artificial neurons, we choose a minimal design, implemented via a simple nonlinear dynamical system subject to a self-feedback loop with delay. This design is not intended to represent an actual brain circuit, but aims at finding the minimum ingredients that allow developing an efficient information processor. This simple scheme not only allows us to address fundamental questions but also permits simple hardware implementations. By reducing the neuro-inspired reservoir computing approach to its bare essentials, we find that nonlinear transient responses of the simple dynamical system enable the processing of information with excellent performance and at unprecedented speed. We specifically explore different hardware implementations and, by that, we learn about the role of nonlinearity, noise, system responses, connectivity structure, and the quality of projection onto the required high-dimensional state space. Besides the relevance for the understanding of basic mechanisms, this scheme opens direct technological opportunities that could not be addressed with previous approaches.

  19. Effectiveness of Information Technology Infrastructure Library Process Implementations by Information Technology Departments within United States Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persinger, Jon F.

    2010-01-01

    This research study examined whether the overall effectiveness of the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) could be predicted by measuring multiple independent variables. The primary variables studied included the number of ITIL process modules adopted and the overall ITIL "maturity level." An online survey was used to…

  20. Analytical processing of binary mixture information by olfactory bulb glomeruli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L Fletcher

    Full Text Available Odors are rarely composed of a single compound, but rather contain a large and complex variety of chemical components. Often, these mixtures are perceived as having unique qualities that can be quite different than the combination of their components. In many cases, a majority of the components of a mixture cannot be individually identified. This synthetic processing of odor information suggests that individual component representations of the mixture must interact somewhere along the olfactory pathway. The anatomical nature of sensory neuron input into segregated glomeruli with the bulb suggests that initial input of odor information into the bulb is analytic. However, a large network of interneurons within the olfactory bulb could allow for mixture interactions via mechanisms such as lateral inhibition. Currently in mammals, it is unclear if postsynaptic mitral/tufted cell glomerular mixture responses reflect the analytical mixture input, or provide the initial basis for synthetic processing with the olfactory system. To address this, olfactory bulb glomerular binary mixture representations were compared to representations of each component using transgenic mice expressing the calcium indicator G-CaMP2 in olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cells. Overall, dorsal surface mixture representations showed little mixture interaction and often appeared as a simple combination of the component representations. Based on this, it is concluded that dorsal surface glomerular mixture representations remain largely analytical with nearly all component information preserved.

  1. Quantum information processing with electronic and nuclear spins in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, Paul Victor

    Traditional electronic and communication devices operate by processing binary information encoded as bits. Such digital devices have led to the most advanced technologies that we encounter in our everyday lives and they influence virtually every aspect of our society. Nonetheless, there exists a much richer way to encode and process information. By encoding information in quantum mechanical states as qubits, phenomena such as coherence and entanglement can be harnessed to execute tasks that are intractable to digital devices. Under this paradigm, it should be possible to realize quantum computers, quantum communication networks and quantum sensors that outperform their classical counterparts. The electronic spin states of color-center defects in the semiconductor silicon carbide have recently emerged as promising qubit candidates. They have long-lived quantum coherence up to room temperature, they can be controlled with mature magnetic resonance techniques, and they have a built-in optical interface operating near the telecommunication bands. In this thesis I will present two of our contributions to this field. The first is the electric-field control of electron spin qubits. This development lays foundation for quantum electronics that operate via electrical gating, much like traditional electronics. The second is the universal control and entanglement of electron and nuclear spin qubits in an ensemble under ambient conditions. This development lays foundation for quantum devices that have a built-in redundancy and can operate in real-world conditions. Both developments represent important steps towards practical quantum devices in an electronic grade material.

  2. Quantum information processing by nuclear magnetic resonance on quadrupolar nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, João; DeAzevedo, Eduardo R; Freitas, Jair C C; Sarthour, Roberto S; Oliveira, Ivan S; Bonagamba, Tito J

    2012-10-13

    Nuclear magnetic resonance is viewed as an important technique for the implementation of many quantum information algorithms and protocols. Although the most straightforward approach is to use the two-level system composed of spin 1/2 nuclei as qubits, quadrupolar nuclei, which possess a spin greater than 1/2, are being used as an alternative. In this study, we show some unique features of quadrupolar systems for quantum information processing, with an emphasis on the ability to execute efficient quantum state tomography (QST) using only global rotations of the spin system, whose performance is shown in detail. By preparing suitable states and implementing logical operations by numerically optimized pulses together with the QST method, we follow the stepwise execution of Grover's algorithm. We also review some work in the literature concerning the relaxation of pseudo-pure states in spin 3/2 systems as well as its modelling in both the Redfield and Kraus formalisms. These data are used to discuss differences in the behaviour of the quantum correlations observed for two-qubit systems implemented by spin 1/2 and quadrupolar spin 3/2 systems, also presented in the literature. The possibilities and advantages of using nuclear quadrupole resonance experiments for quantum information processing are also discussed.

  3. Progressive evaluation of incorporating information into a model building process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharari, Shervan; Hrachowitz, Markus; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Gao, Hongkai; Gupta, Hoshin; Savenije, Huub

    2014-05-01

    Catchments are open systems meaning that it is impossible to find out the exact boundary conditions of the real system spatially and temporarily. Therefore models are essential tools in capturing system behaviour spatially and extrapolating it temporarily for prediction. In recent years conceptual models have been in the center of attention rather than so called physically based models which are often over-parameterized and encounter difficulties for up-scaling of small scale processes. Conceptual models however are heavily dependent on calibration as one or more of their parameter values can typically not be physically measured at the catchment scale. The general understanding is based on the fact that increasing the complexity of conceptual model for better representation of hydrological process heterogeneity typically makes parameter identification more difficult however the evaluation of the amount of information given by each of the model elements, control volumes (so called buckets), interconnecting fluxes, parameterization (constitutive functions) and finally parameter values are rather unknown. Each of the mentioned components of a model contains information on the transformation of forcing (precipitation) into runoff, however the effect of each of them solely and together is not well understood. In this study we follow hierarchal steps for model building, firstly the model structure is built by its building blocks (control volumes) as well as interconnecting fluxes. The effect of adding every control volumes and the architecture of the model (formation of control volumes and fluxes) can be evaluated in this level. In the second layer the parameterization of model is evaluated. As an example the effect of a specific type of stage-discharge relation for a control volume can be explored. Finally in the last step of the model building the information gained by parameter values are quantified. In each development level the value of information which are added

  4. A New Technique For Information Processing of CLIC Technical Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Tzermpinos, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    The scientific work presented in this paper could be described as a novel, systemic approach to the process of organization of CLIC documentation. The latter refers to the processing of various sets of archived data found on various CERN archiving services in a more friendly and organized way. From physics aspect, this is equal to having an initial system characterized by high entropy, which after some transformation of energy and matter will produce a final system of reduced entropy. However, this reduction in entropy can be considered valid for open systems only, which are sub-systems of grander isolated systems, to which the total entropy will always increase. Thus, using as basis elements from information theory, systems theory and thermodynamics, the unorganized form of data pending to be organized to a higher form, is modeled as an initial open sub-system with increased entropy, which, after the processing of information, will produce a final system with decreased entropy. This systemic approach to the ...

  5. Impact of informal institutions on the development integration processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorova Alexandra, M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the impact of informal institutions on the definition of the vector integration processes and the development of integration processes in the countries of the Customs Union and Ukraine. The degree of scientific development of the phenomenon in different economic schools is determined in this article. Economic mentality is a basic informal institutions, which determines the degree of effectiveness of the integration processes. This paper examines the nature, characteristics and effects of economic mentality on the economic activities of people. Ethnometrichal method allows to quantify the economic mentality that enables deeper understanding and analysis of the formation and functioning of political and economic system, especially business and management, establishing contacts with other cultures. It was measured modern Belarusian economic mentality based on international methodology Hofstede and compared with the economic mentality of Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. With the help of cluster analysis congruence economic mentality of the Customs Union and Ukraine was determined. Economic mentality of these countries was also compared with the economic mentality of other countries in order to identify the main types of economic culture.

  6. Who Avoids Cancer Information? Examining a Psychological Process Leading to Cancer Information Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jiyoung

    2016-07-01

    Although cancer information avoidance (CIA) is detrimental to public health, predictors of CIA have not been fully investigated. Based on uncertainty management theory, this study viewed CIA as a response to uncertainty related to the distress associated with cancer information and illustrated the psychological process leading to CIA. Given the current information context, it was hypothesized that cancer information overload (CIO), accompanied by confusion and stress about cancer information, causes CIA. As trait anxiety is a strong predictor of CIO, it was also hypothesized that trait anxiety has an indirect effect on CIA through CIO. Study 1 tested this relationship in a U.S. sample (N = 384); the results showed that CIO was positively associated with CIA and that trait anxiety indirectly influenced CIA through CIO. Whereas Study 1 tested the relationship with cross-sectional data in the general cancer context, Study 2 replicated Study 1 with 3-wave longitudinal data in the context of a specific cancer (i.e., stomach cancer) in South Korea (N = 1,130 at Wave 1, 813 at Wave 2, and 582 at Wave 3). Trait anxiety at Wave 1 predicted CIO at Wave 2, which in turn increased CIA at Wave 3, suggesting that some people are inherently inclined to avoid cancer information due to their trait anxiety, which results in confusion about cancer information.

  7. Research on information security system of waste terminal disposal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Ziying; Guo, Jing; Guo, Yajuan; Huang, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Informatization has penetrated the whole process of production and operation of electric power enterprises. It not only improves the level of lean management and quality service, but also faces severe security risks. The internal network terminal is the outermost layer and the most vulnerable node of the inner network boundary. It has the characteristics of wide distribution, long depth and large quantity. The user and operation and maintenance personnel technical level and security awareness is uneven, which led to the internal network terminal is the weakest link in information security. Through the implementation of security of management, technology and physics, we should establish an internal network terminal security protection system, so as to fully protect the internal network terminal information security.

  8. The process of urban regeneration in context of information society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazik Dragana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the concept of innovation of the urban regeneration process in context of transformations which are generated by information-communication technologies. From one aspect, Serbia has an exceptional human potential presented in number of 13,000 graduates each year, or in share of 42% of population who speaks English, which is the largest among all Eastern and Central European countries. This forms a basis for formulation of strategies of information society development in Serbia as well as for economic adjustments based upon knowledge, and for tracing the way to future knowledge society, i.e. eEurope 2020. On the other hand, we are witnessing an intensive development of huge complexes of mega and hypermarkets as a present dominant way for our city spaces' regeneration. At the same time, experiences from some other locations point to the deterioration of cities' urban identity as a consequence of the global capital infiltration and of development within an urban tissue of a huge complex of multi-national companies. Aiming to overcome the mistakes portrayed by international experience, as well as potential oversights that may occur because of routine and mismatch between certain phases of the sustainable development process, this paper makes an emphasis on the importance of an integral evaluation of the information society development trends and the spatial aspects of urban regeneration. It is essential to adjust devastated urban spaces as artifacts of one technological era to the actual information era with indication of future digital knowledge era, i.e. to plan, design and develop *according to new technological requirements and possibilities for new working places and new quality of living.

  9. MarsSI: Martian surface data processing information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin-Nataf, C.; Lozac'h, L.; Thollot, P.; Loizeau, D.; Bultel, B.; Fernando, J.; Allemand, P.; Dubuffet, F.; Poulet, F.; Ody, A.; Clenet, H.; Leyrat, C.; Harrisson, S.

    2018-01-01

    MarsSI (Acronym for Mars System of Information, https://emars.univ-lyon1.fr/MarsSI/, is a web Geographic Information System application which helps managing and processing martian orbital data. The MarsSI facility is part of the web portal called PSUP (Planetary SUrface Portal) developed by the Observatories of Paris Sud (OSUPS) and Lyon (OSUL) to provide users with efficient and easy access to data products dedicated to the martian surface. The portal proposes 1) the management and processing of data thanks to MarsSI and 2) the visualization and merging of high level (imagery, spectral, and topographic) products and catalogs via a web-based user interface (MarsVisu). The portal PSUP as well as the facility MarsVisu is detailed in a companion paper (Poulet et al., 2018). The purpose of this paper is to describe the facility MarsSI. From this application, users are able to easily and rapidly select observations, process raw data via automatic pipelines, and get back final products which can be visualized under Geographic Information Systems. Moreover, MarsSI also contains an automatic stereo-restitution pipeline in order to produce Digital Terrain Models (DTM) on demand from HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) or CTX (Context Camera) pair-images. This application is funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) (ERC project eMars, No. 280168) and has been developed in the scope of Mars, but the design is applicable to any other planetary body of the solar system.

  10. Towards Device-Independent Information Processing on General Quantum Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ciarán M.; Hoban, Matty J.

    2018-01-01

    The violation of certain Bell inequalities allows for device-independent information processing secure against nonsignaling eavesdroppers. However, this only holds for the Bell network, in which two or more agents perform local measurements on a single shared source of entanglement. To overcome the practical constraints that entangled systems can only be transmitted over relatively short distances, large-scale multisource networks have been employed. Do there exist analogs of Bell inequalities for such networks, whose violation is a resource for device independence? In this Letter, the violation of recently derived polynomial Bell inequalities will be shown to allow for device independence on multisource networks, secure against nonsignaling eavesdroppers.

  11. The management information system and change processes in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, E; Segovia, M; Paganini, J M

    1995-06-01

    This report describes a management information system (MIS) designed by PAHO's Health Systems and Services Division in collaboration with technical experts from a number of different countries. This MIS, a methodology currently used at the institutional or national level in more than 21 countries of the Americas, is a strategic and practical instrument that is easy to apply, interpret, and use, and whose purpose is to facilitate fundamental changes in health management. Based on the management concept that inputs, processes, and outputs are quantifiable, the MIS places special emphasis on health system productivity, an essential condition for achieving health coverage that is both adequate and equitable.

  12. Advanced Image Processing Techniques for Maximum Information Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    David Touretzky, Michael Mozer, and Mark Hasselmo, editors, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 8, p. 757–763. MIT Press, 1996. 23. Y. Ye... David G. Long, Q. P. Remund and Douglas L. Daun, “A Cloud-removal Algorithm for SSM/I Data,” IEEE Trans. On Geoscience and Remote Sensing”, vol/ 37...No. 1, January, 1999, pp 54-62, 1999. 28. Barry Beckham , The Digital Photographer’s Guide to Photoshop Elements, Larks Books, New York, 2005

  13. Synchronization of optical photons for quantum information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Kenzo; Hashimoto, Yosuke; Yoshikawa, Jun-Ichi; Ohdan, Hideaki; Toyama, Takeshi; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira

    2016-05-01

    A fundamental element of quantum information processing with photonic qubits is the nonclassical quantum interference between two photons when they bunch together via the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect. Ultimately, many such photons must be processed in complex interferometric networks. For this purpose, it is essential to synchronize the arrival times of the flying photons and to keep their purities high. On the basis of the recent experimental success of single-photon storage with high purity, we demonstrate for the first time the HOM interference of two heralded, nearly pure optical photons synchronized through two independent quantum memories. Controlled storage times of up to 1.8 μs for about 90 events per second were achieved with purities that were sufficiently high for a negative Wigner function confirmed with homodyne measurements.

  14. Towards process-informed bias correction of climate change simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraun, Douglas; Shepherd, Theodore G.; Widmann, Martin; Zappa, Giuseppe; Walton, Daniel; Gutiérrez, José M.; Hagemann, Stefan; Richter, Ingo; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Hall, Alex; Mearns, Linda O.

    2017-11-01

    Biases in climate model simulations introduce biases in subsequent impact simulations. Therefore, bias correction methods are operationally used to post-process regional climate projections. However, many problems have been identified, and some researchers question the very basis of the approach. Here we demonstrate that a typical cross-validation is unable to identify improper use of bias correction. Several examples show the limited ability of bias correction to correct and to downscale variability, and demonstrate that bias correction can cause implausible climate change signals. Bias correction cannot overcome major model errors, and naive application might result in ill-informed adaptation decisions. We conclude with a list of recommendations and suggestions for future research to reduce, post-process, and cope with climate model biases.

  15. Processing of emotional information in the human subthalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buot, Anne; Welter, Marie-Laure; Karachi, Carine; Pochon, Jean-Baptiste; Bardinet, Eric; Yelnik, Jérôme; Mallet, Luc

    2013-12-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an efficient target for treating patients with Parkinson's disease as well as patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using high frequency stimulation (HFS). In both Parkinson's disease and OCD patients, STN-HFS can trigger abnormal behaviours, such as hypomania and impulsivity. To investigate if this structure processes emotional information, and whether it depends on motor demands, we recorded subthalamic local field potentials in 16 patients with Parkinson's disease using deep brain stimulation electrodes. Recordings were made with and without dopaminergic treatment while patients performed an emotional categorisation paradigm in which the response varied according to stimulus valence (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral) and to the instruction given (motor, non-motor and passive). Pleasant, unpleasant and neutral stimuli evoked an event related potential (ERP). Without dopamine medication, ERP amplitudes were significantly larger for unpleasant compared with neutral pictures, whatever the response triggered by the stimuli; and the magnitude of this effect was maximal in the ventral part of the STN. No significant difference in ERP amplitude was observed for pleasant pictures. With dopamine medication, ERP amplitudes were significantly increased for pleasant compared with neutral pictures whatever the response triggered by the stimuli, while ERP amplitudes to unpleasant pictures were not modified. These results demonstrate that the ventral part of the STN processes the emotional valence of stimuli independently of the motor context and that dopamine enhances processing of pleasant information. These findings confirm the specific involvement of the STN in emotional processes in human, which may underlie the behavioural changes observed in patients with deep brain stimulation.

  16. Evaluating participatory decision processes: which methods inform reflective practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Sanda; Ozawa, Connie P; Shmueli, Deborah F

    2014-02-01

    Evaluating participatory decision processes serves two key purposes: validating the usefulness of specific interventions for stakeholders, interveners and funders of conflict management processes, and improving practice. However, evaluation design remains challenging, partly because when attempting to serve both purposes we may end up serving neither well. In fact, the better we respond to one, the less we may satisfy the other. Evaluations tend to focus on endogenous factors (e.g., stakeholder selection, BATNAs, mutually beneficial tradeoffs, quality of the intervention, etc.), because we believe that the success of participatory decision processes hinges on them, and they also seem to lend themselves to caeteris paribus statistical comparisons across cases. We argue that context matters too and that contextual differences among specific cases are meaningful enough to undermine conclusions derived solely from comparisons of process-endogenous factors implicitly rooted in the caeteris paribus assumption. We illustrate this argument with an environmental mediation case. We compare data collected about it through surveys geared toward comparability across cases to information elicited through in-depth interviews geared toward case specifics. The surveys, designed by the U.S. Institute of Environmental Conflict Resolution, feed a database of environmental conflicts that can help make the (statistical) case for intervention in environmental conflict management. Our interviews elicit case details - including context - that enable interveners to link context specifics and intervention actions to outcomes. We argue that neither approach can "serve both masters." Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Canadians' eating habits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garriguet, Didier

    2007-01-01

    This report is an overview of Canadians' eating habits: total calories consumed and the number of servings from the various food groups, as well as the percentage of total calories from fat, protein and carbohydrates...

  18. Canadian leadership in energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Re-engineering the process of surgical informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, M M; Sands, D Z; Safran, C

    1999-01-01

    We have created a clinical performance support system that transforms surgical informed consent into an interactive process capable of evolving in response to institution-specified, provider-specified and patient-specified needs. The system functions in several capacities, including: (1) a source of standardized and comprehensive content and format the transmission of procedure-related risk and complications; (2) as expert critique, providing cues in an effort to reduce the effects of biased risk appraisal; (3) captures and archives clinician behavior relating to use, modification and disclosure of standardized knowledge sources; (4) provides just-in-time access to procedural descriptions information relating to risks and complications; (5) captures, archives and makes available to the clinician patient use of procedure-related knowledge resources. By design, the system will be used to assess the relationship between clinician perception and heuristics surrounding risk appraisal and disclosure and patient perceptions based on response to the disclosure process. The system prototype is currently being deployed in a breast surgery unit at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

  20. Social Information Processing Mechanisms and Victimization: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reemst, Lisa; Fischer, Tamar F C; Zwirs, Barbara W C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current literature review, which is based on 64 empirical studies, was to assess to what extent mechanisms of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model of Crick and Dodge (1994) are related to victimization. The reviewed studies have provided support for the relation between victimization and several social information processing mechanisms, especially the interpretation of cues and self-efficacy (as part of the response decision). The relationship between victimization and other mechanisms, such as the response generation, was only studied in a few articles. Until now research has often focused on just one step of the model, instead of attempting to measure the associations between multiple mechanisms and victimization in multivariate analyses. Such analyses would be interesting to gain more insight into the SIP model and its relationship with victimization. The few available longitudinal studies show that mechanisms both predict victimization (internal locus of control, negative self-evaluations and less assertive response selection) and are predicted by victimization (hostile attribution of intent and negative evaluations of others). Associations between victimization and SIP mechanisms vary across different types and severity of victimization (stronger in personal and severe victimization), and different populations (stronger among young victims). Practice could focus on these stronger associations and the interpretation of cues. More research is needed however, to investigate whether intervention programs that address SIP mechanisms are suitable for victimization and all relevant populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Risk-maps informing land-use planning processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basta, Claudia [DIRC Sustainable Urban Areas, Section of Material Science and Sustainable Construction, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2600 GA, Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: c.basta@citg.tudelft.nl; Neuvel, Jeroen M.M. [Land Use Planning, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3, Postbus 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: jeroen.neuvel@wur.nl; Zlatanova, Sisi [Section GISt, OTB Research Institute for Housing, Urban and Mobility Studies, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 9, P.O. Box 5030, 2600 GA, Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: s.zlatanova@otb.tudelft.nl; Ale, Ben [Safety Science Group, TBM Faculty, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 5, 2600 GA, Delft (Netherlands)

    2007-06-25

    The definition of safety distances as required by Art 12 of the Seveso II Directive on dangerous substances (96/82/EC) is necessary to minimize the consequences of potential major accidents. As they affect the land-use destinations of involved areas, safety distances can be considered as risk tolerability criteria with a territorial reflection. Recent studies explored the suitability of using Geographical Information System technologies to support their elaboration and visual rendering. In particular, the elaboration of GIS 'risk-maps' has been recognized as functional to two objectives: connecting spatial planners and safety experts during decision making processes and communicating risk to non-experts audiences. In order to elaborate on these findings and to verify their reflection on European practices, the article presents the result of a comparative study between the United Kingdom and the Netherlands recent developments. Their land-use planning practices for areas falling under Seveso II requirements are explored. The role of GIS risk-maps within decisional processes is analyzed and the reflection on the transparency and accessibility of risk-information is commented. Recommendations for further developments are given.

  2. Mineralocorticoid receptor haplotype, oral contraceptives and emotional information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstra, D A; de Kloet, E R; van Hemert, A M; de Rijk, R H; Van der Does, A J W

    2015-02-12

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) affect mood in some women and may have more subtle effects on emotional information processing in many more users. Female carriers of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) haplotype 2 have been shown to be more optimistic and less vulnerable to depression. To investigate the effects of oral contraceptives on emotional information processing and a possible moderating effect of MR haplotype. Cross-sectional study in 85 healthy premenopausal women of West-European descent. We found significant main effects of oral contraceptives on facial expression recognition, emotional memory and decision-making. Furthermore, carriers of MR haplotype 1 or 3 were sensitive to the impact of OCs on the recognition of sad and fearful faces and on emotional memory, whereas MR haplotype 2 carriers were not. Different compounds of OCs were included. No hormonal measures were taken. Most naturally cycling participants were assessed in the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle. Carriers of MR haplotype 2 may be less sensitive to depressogenic side-effects of OCs. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Complete integrability of information processing by biochemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Dello Schiavo, Lorenzo; Moro, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Statistical mechanics provides an effective framework to investigate information processing in biochemical reactions. Within such framework far-reaching analogies are established among (anti-) cooperative collective behaviors in chemical kinetics, (anti-)ferromagnetic spin models in statistical mechanics and operational amplifiers/flip-flops in cybernetics. The underlying modeling - based on spin systems - has been proved to be accurate for a wide class of systems matching classical (e.g. Michaelis-Menten, Hill, Adair) scenarios in the infinite-size approximation. However, the current research in biochemical information processing has been focusing on systems involving a relatively small number of units, where this approximation is no longer valid. Here we show that the whole statistical mechanical description of reaction kinetics can be re-formulated via a mechanical analogy - based on completely integrable hydrodynamic-type systems of PDEs - which provides explicit finite-size solutions, matching recently investigated phenomena (e.g. noise-induced cooperativity, stochastic bi-stability, quorum sensing). The resulting picture, successfully tested against a broad spectrum of data, constitutes a neat rationale for a numerically effective and theoretically consistent description of collective behaviors in biochemical reactions.

  4. Advanced modeling of management processes in information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalczuk, Zdzislaw

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the issues of modelling management processes of information technology and IT projects while its core is the model of information technology management and its component models (contextual, local) describing initial processing and the maturity capsule as well as a decision-making system represented by a multi-level sequential model of IT technology selection, which acquires a fuzzy rule-based implementation in this work. In terms of applicability, this work may also be useful for diagnosing applicability of IT standards in evaluation of IT organizations. The results of this diagnosis might prove valid for those preparing new standards so that – apart from their own visions – they could, to an even greater extent, take into account the capabilities and needs of the leaders of project and manufacturing teams. The book is intended for IT professionals using the ITIL, COBIT and TOGAF standards in their work. Students of computer science and management who are interested in the issue of IT...

  5. A Reaction Database for Small Molecule Pharmaceutical Processes Integrated with Process Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Papadakis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of a reaction database with the objective to collect data for multiphase reactions involved in small molecule pharmaceutical processes with a search engine to retrieve necessary data in investigations of reaction-separation schemes, such as the role of organic solvents in reaction performance improvement. The focus of this reaction database is to provide a data rich environment with process information available to assist during the early stage synthesis of pharmaceutical products. The database is structured in terms of reaction classification of reaction types; compounds participating in the reaction; use of organic solvents and their function; information for single step and multistep reactions; target products; reaction conditions and reaction data. Information for reactor scale-up together with information for the separation and other relevant information for each reaction and reference are also available in the database. Additionally, the retrieved information obtained from the database can be evaluated in terms of sustainability using well-known “green” metrics published in the scientific literature. The application of the database is illustrated through the synthesis of ibuprofen, for which data on different reaction pathways have been retrieved from the database and compared using “green” chemistry metrics.

  6. Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Rajić, A

    2014-12-01

    Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts.

  7. Disentangling Early Sensory Information Processing Deficits in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissling, Anthony J.; Braff, David L.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Rassovsky, Yuri; Sprock, Joyce; Pela, Marlena; Light, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The disentangling of early sensory information processing deficits and examination of their relationships to demographic and clinical factors are important steps for the validation of potential biomarkers and/or endophenotypes of schizophrenia. The aims of the present study were to characterize commonly used sensory event-related potential deficits, to determine whether they are 1) distinct from one another and 2) independently associated with important clinical characteristics. Methods MMN, P3a and RON event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded from schizophrenia patients (SZ; n=429) and nonpsychiatric comparison subjects (NCS; n=286). Subgroup analyses on demographic and clinical variables were performed. Results Schizophrenia patients exhibited robust ERP deficits at frontocentral electrodes (MMN: d=1.10; P3a: d=0.87; RON: d=0.77), consistent with previous studies. Each ERP component uniquely accounted for variance in amplitude and schizophrenia deficits. Amplitude reductions occurred with increasing age in both NCS and SZ patients. A small subset of patients prescribed combinations of 1st and 2nd generation antipsychotics exhibited significantly reduced MMN amplitude relative to other medication-defined subgroups. Conclusions MMN, P3a, and RON are dissociable deficits with distinct relationships to age and medication status in schizophrenia patients, potentially reflecting divergent pathophysiological processes. Reduced MMN in patients taking multiple antipsychotic medications appear to be attributable to greater severity of symptoms and functional impairments, rather than a medication effect. Significance Independent information processing deficits in schizophrenia patients may differentially contribute to the commonly observed deficits in neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning. PMID:22608970

  8. Overview of Related Research To Inform the Development of the Western Canadian Protocol Social Studies (K-12) Common Curriculum Framework for Francophone Education = Apercu de recherches en vue de l'elaboration du Cadre commun de resultats d'apprentissage en sciences humaines (M-12) du Protocole de l'Ouest canadien pour l'education francophone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Denise; Belanger, Jocelyne, Ed.

    This curriculum framework informs the development of the Western Canadian Protocol Social Studies (K-12) Common Curriculum Framework for Francophone students in a minority setting. Most of the information presented in the framework is drawn from three unpublished documents (in French) that can be consulted at the Alberta Learning Library…

  9. Role of Age, Gender and Education in Information Processing Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Knežević

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST is based on earlier developed substitution tests – the Wechsler's Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT. The performance on these tests depends on many different cognitive processes, including visual scanning, mental flexibility, sustained attention, psychomotor speed, and the speed of information processing. The LDST consists of "over-learned" signs – letters and digits – and participants only have to learn the letter-digit association, which makes performance relatively less dependent on memory and complex visual processes than it is in the DSST or SDMT. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent age, sex, level of education of the participants and level of education of their parents influence LDST performance. A total of 334 participants (191 females aged 18-25 years were included in the study. Females and higher-level educated participants outperformed males and lower-level educated participants. Parents educational level only indirectly influenced the performance on the LDST, possibly through the participants level of education. Additionally, we derived normative data for the LDST for the ages between 18 and 25 years. Normative data in percentiles and z-values for the ages 18 to 25 years are presented, according to sex and level of education, which is compatible with and supplements the previously reported norms in other studies.

  10. Information-educational environment with adaptive control of learning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modjaev, A. D.; Leonova, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent years, a new scientific branch connected with the activities in social sphere management developing intensively and it is called "Social Cybernetics". In the framework of this scientific branch, theory and methods of management of social sphere are formed. Considerable attention is paid to the management, directly in real time. However, the decision of such management tasks is largely constrained by the lack of or insufficiently deep study of the relevant sections of the theory and methods of management. The article discusses the use of cybernetic principles in solving problems of control in social systems. Applying to educational activities a model of composite interrelated objects representing the behaviour of students at various stages of educational process is introduced. Statistical processing of experimental data obtained during the actual learning process is being done. If you increase the number of features used, additionally taking into account the degree and nature of variability of levels of current progress of students during various types of studies, new properties of students' grouping are discovered. L-clusters were identified, reflecting the behaviour of learners with similar characteristics during lectures. It was established that the characteristics of the clusters contain information about the dynamics of learners' behaviour, allowing them to be used in additional lessons. The ways of solving the problem of adaptive control based on the identified dynamic characteristics of the learners are planned.

  11. Information theory and signal transduction systems: from molecular information processing to network inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Mahon, Siobhan S; Sim, Aaron; Filippi, Sarah; Johnson, Robert; Liepe, Juliane; Smith, Dominic; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2014-11-01

    Sensing and responding to the environment are two essential functions that all biological organisms need to master for survival and successful reproduction. Developmental processes are marshalled by a diverse set of signalling and control systems, ranging from systems with simple chemical inputs and outputs to complex molecular and cellular networks with non-linear dynamics. Information theory provides a powerful and convenient framework in which such systems can be studied; but it also provides the means to reconstruct the structure and dynamics of molecular interaction networks underlying physiological and developmental processes. Here we supply a brief description of its basic concepts and introduce some useful tools for systems and developmental biologists. Along with a brief but thorough theoretical primer, we demonstrate the wide applicability and biological application-specific nuances by way of different illustrative vignettes. In particular, we focus on the characterisation of biological information processing efficiency, examining cell-fate decision making processes, gene regulatory network reconstruction, and efficient signal transduction experimental design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mineralocorticoid receptor haplotype, estradiol, progesterone and emotional information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstra, Danielle A; de Kloet, E Ronald; Quataert, Ina; Jansen, Myrthe; Van der Does, Willem

    2017-02-01

    Carriers of MR-haplotype 1 and 3 (GA/CG; rs5522 and rs2070951) are more sensitive to the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) and menstrual cycle phase on emotional information processing than MR-haplotype 2 (CA) carriers. We investigated whether this effect is associated with estradiol (E2) and/or progesterone (P4) levels. Healthy MR-genotyped premenopausal women were tested twice in a counterbalanced design. Naturally cycling (NC) women were tested in the early-follicular and mid-luteal phase and OC-users during OC-intake and in the pill-free week. At both sessions E2 and P4 were assessed in saliva. Tests included implicit and explicit positive and negative affect, attentional blink accuracy, emotional memory, emotion recognition, and risky decision-making (gambling). MR-haplotype 2 homozygotes had higher implicit happiness scores than MR-haplotype 2 heterozygotes (p=0.031) and MR-haplotype 1/3 carriers (p<0.001). MR-haplotype 2 homozygotes also had longer reaction times to happy faces in an emotion recognition test than MR-haplotype 1/3 (p=0.001). Practice effects were observed for most measures. The pattern of correlations between information processing and P4 or E2 differed between sessions, as well as the moderating effects of the MR genotype. In the first session the MR-genotype moderated the influence of P4 on implicit anxiety (sr=-0.30; p=0.005): higher P4 was associated with reduction in implicit anxiety, but only in MR-haplotype 2 homozygotes (sr=-0.61; p=0.012). In the second session the MR-genotype moderated the influence of E2 on the recognition of facial expressions of happiness (sr=-0.21; p=0.035): only in MR-haplotype 1/3 higher E2 was correlated with happiness recognition (sr=0.29; p=0.005). In the second session higher E2 and P4 were negatively correlated with accuracy in lag2 trials of the attentional blink task (p<0.001). Thus NC women, compared to OC-users, performed worse on lag 2 trials (p=0.041). The higher implicit happiness scores of MR

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Theory of Neural Information Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Tobias

    2006-04-01

    It is difficult not to be amazed by the ability of the human brain to process, to structure and to memorize information. Even by the toughest standards the behaviour of this network of about 1011 neurons qualifies as complex, and both the scientific community and the public take great interest in the growing field of neuroscience. The scientific endeavour to learn more about the function of the brain as an information processing system is here a truly interdisciplinary one, with important contributions from biology, computer science, physics, engineering and mathematics as the authors quite rightly point out in the introduction of their book. The role of the theoretical disciplines here is to provide mathematical models of information processing systems and the tools to study them. These models and tools are at the centre of the material covered in the book by Coolen, Kühn and Sollich. The book is divided into five parts, providing basic introductory material on neural network models as well as the details of advanced techniques to study them. A mathematical appendix complements the main text. The range of topics is extremely broad, still the presentation is concise and the book well arranged. To stress the breadth of the book let me just mention a few keywords here: the material ranges from the basics of perceptrons and recurrent network architectures to more advanced aspects such as Bayesian learning and support vector machines; Shannon's theory of information and the definition of entropy are discussed, and a chapter on Amari's information geometry is not missing either. Finally the statistical mechanics chapters cover Gardner theory and the replica analysis of the Hopfield model, not without being preceded by a brief introduction of the basic concepts of equilibrium statistical physics. The book also contains a part on effective theories of the macroscopic dynamics of neural networks. Many dynamical aspects of neural networks are usually hard to find in the

  14. Quantum information processing with superconducting circuits: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendin, G

    2017-10-01

    During the last ten years, superconducting circuits have passed from being interesting physical devices to becoming contenders for near-future useful and scalable quantum information processing (QIP). Advanced quantum simulation experiments have been shown with up to nine qubits, while a demonstration of quantum supremacy with fifty qubits is anticipated in just a few years. Quantum supremacy means that the quantum system can no longer be simulated by the most powerful classical supercomputers. Integrated classical-quantum computing systems are already emerging that can be used for software development and experimentation, even via web interfaces. Therefore, the time is ripe for describing some of the recent development of superconducting devices, systems and applications. As such, the discussion of superconducting qubits and circuits is limited to devices that are proven useful for current or near future applications. Consequently, the centre of interest is the practical applications of QIP, such as computation and simulation in Physics and Chemistry.

  15. Advanced information processing system: Inter-computer communication services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Masotto, Tom; Sims, J. Terry; Whittredge, Roy; Alger, Linda S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to document the functional requirements and detailed specifications for the Inter-Computer Communications Services (ICCS) of the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS). An introductory section is provided to outline the overall architecture and functional requirements of the AIPS and to present an overview of the ICCS. An overview of the AIPS architecture as well as a brief description of the AIPS software is given. The guarantees of the ICCS are provided, and the ICCS is described as a seven-layered International Standards Organization (ISO) Model. The ICCS functional requirements, functional design, and detailed specifications as well as each layer of the ICCS are also described. A summary of results and suggestions for future work are presented.

  16. Using Geographic Information Systems in Knowledge Management Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Filiz Gürder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, organizations are required to develop quick and accurate responses to internal and external changes that gain momentum. In this context, knowledge management activities become more important to all organizations. On the other hand, Geographic Information Systems (GIS become common more and more. GIS which address a broad spectrum of users such as public agencies, local communities, civil society organizations, the private sector, academic environment, and personal users have been aiming to solve problems which occurred in location-based areas. GIS are important to get, combine, analyze and transfer the spatial data. Common use of PCs for personal needs, digital geography and improvements of software technologies, also the need to make socially acceptable business decisions facilitated development and widespread use of GIS applications. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss using areas and contribution potentials of GIS in enterprise-wide knowledge management processes.

  17. FEATURES OF INFORMATIVE PROVIDING IN THE MODERN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir D. Secerin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thesis of importance of informative constituent Comes into question as non-material assets in a postindustrial economy. Importance of limitations is shown in realization of technological processes to want of authenticity, objectivity and timeliness of actualization of knowledge of specialists. As recommendations on providing of accordance of actuality of on-line tutorial to the level of technological development on a production at the limitations determined by the system requirements of educational standard “From a teacher to a student”, the chart of forming of the creative thinking of student is offered as nooswear technologies are in organization of feed-back “From a student to a teacher “. 

  18. Misfits in Organization Design: Information Processing as a Compensatory Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Nanfeng Luo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a compensatory misfits theory which holds that an “over-fitting” organization structure can compensate for an “under-fitting” structure, thereby reducing the total misfit. In organizations, over-fit occurs when structural features misfit the core contingencies because the structural level is too high to fit the contingencies. An under-fit occurs when structural features misfit the contingencies because the structural level is too low. When an under-fit is compensated by an over-fit, the combination can produce performance outcomes that approximate those from fit. The reason inheres in information processing being a higher level factor that cuts across different contingencies and structural features that are mis-fitted to each other, so that compensation is possible. We identify the specific conditions that must be fulfilled for compensation to occur, and we discuss implications for organization design theory and practice.

  19. Quantum information processing with superconducting circuits: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendin, G.

    2017-10-01

    During the last ten years, superconducting circuits have passed from being interesting physical devices to becoming contenders for near-future useful and scalable quantum information processing (QIP). Advanced quantum simulation experiments have been shown with up to nine qubits, while a demonstration of quantum supremacy with fifty qubits is anticipated in just a few years. Quantum supremacy means that the quantum system can no longer be simulated by the most powerful classical supercomputers. Integrated classical-quantum computing systems are already emerging that can be used for software development and experimentation, even via web interfaces. Therefore, the time is ripe for describing some of the recent development of superconducting devices, systems and applications. As such, the discussion of superconducting qubits and circuits is limited to devices that are proven useful for current or near future applications. Consequently, the centre of interest is the practical applications of QIP, such as computation and simulation in Physics and Chemistry.

  20. Texture information processing system with binary optical wavelet element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenyi; Yan, Yingbai; Jin, Guofan; Wang, Wenlu; Wu, Minxian

    1996-12-01

    The implementation strategy of optical wavelet transform for texture information processing is discussed in this paper. An opto-electronic hybrid system is constructed for texture segmentation, which is based on the multi-channel filtering framework in the early stages of human visual theory. First, a traditional optical system with a Damman grating as the beam splitter and a bank of Gabor wavelets as the channel filters is set up for feature extraction, and several clustering algorithms are then used for feature integration. Furthermore, a novel binary optical element with the functions of splitting, filtering and imaging is designed and fabricated to simplify the traditional system. The experimental results and the primary applications are also provided.

  1. Photonic reservoir computing: a new approach to optical information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoorne, Kristof; Fiers, Martin; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Dambre, Joni; Bienstman, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Despite ever increasing computational power, recognition and classification problems remain challenging to solve. Recently, advances have been made by the introduction of the new concept of reservoir computing. This is a methodology coming from the field of machine learning and neural networks that has been successfully used in several pattern classification problems, like speech and image recognition. Thus far, most implementations have been in software, limiting their speed and power efficiency. Photonics could be an excellent platform for a hardware implementation of this concept because of its inherent parallelism and unique nonlinear behaviour. Moreover, a photonic implementation offers the promise of massively parallel information processing with low power and high speed. We propose using a network of coupled Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOA) and show in simulation that it could be used as a reservoir by comparing it to conventional software implementations using a benchmark speech recognition task. In spite of the differences with classical reservoir models, the performance of our photonic reservoir is comparable to that of conventional implementations and sometimes slightly better. As our implementation uses coherent light for information processing, we find that phase tuning is crucial to obtain high performance. In parallel we investigate the use of a network of photonic crystal cavities. The coupled mode theory (CMT) is used to investigate these resonators. A new framework is designed to model networks of resonators and SOAs. The same network topologies are used, but feedback is added to control the internal dynamics of the system. By adjusting the readout weights of the network in a controlled manner, we can generate arbitrary periodic patterns.

  2. Strategic-Decision Quality in Public Organizations: An Information Processing Perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R.J. George (Bert); S. Desmidt (Sebastian)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis study draws on information processing theory to investigate predictors of strategic-decision quality in public organizations. Information processing theory argues that (a) rational planning practices contribute to strategic-decision quality by injecting information into decision

  3. Nutrition marketing on processed food packages in Canada: 2010 Food Label Information Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermel, Alyssa; Emrich, Teri E; Arcand, JoAnne; Wong, Christina L; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2013-06-01

    The current study describes the frequency of use of different forms of nutrition marketing in Canada and the nutrients and conditions that are the focus of nutrition marketing messages. Prepackaged foods with a Nutrition Facts table (N = 10,487) were collected between March 2010 and April 2011 from outlets of the 3 largest grocery chains in Canada and 1 major western Canadian grocery retailer. The nutrition marketing information collected included nutrient content claims, disease risk reduction claims, and front-of-pack nutrition rating systems (FOPS). We found that nutrition marketing was present on 48.1% of Canadian food packages, with nutrient content claims being the most common information (45.5%), followed by FOPS on 18.9% of packages. Disease risk reduction claims were made least frequently (1.7%). The marketing messages used most often related to total fat and trans fat (15.6% and 15.5% of nutrient content claims, respectively). Limiting total and trans fats is a current public health priority, as recommended by Health Canada and the World Health Organization. However, other nutrients that are also recommended to be limited, including saturated fats, sodium, and added sugars, were not nearly as prominent on food labels. Thus, greater emphasis should be placed by the food industry on these other important nutrients. Repeated data collection in the coming years will allow us to track longitudinal changes in nutrition marketing messages over time as food marketing, public health, and consumer priorities evolve.

  4. Using information technology to support knowledge conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main roles of Information Technology in Knowledge Management programs is to accelerate the speed of knowledge transfer and creation. The Knowledge Management tools intend to help the processes of collecting and organizing the knowledge of groups of individuals in order to make this knowledge available in a shared base. Due to the largeness of the concept of knowledge, the software market for Knowledge Management seems to be quite confusing. Technology vendors are developing different implementations of the Knowledge Management concepts in their software products. Because of the variety and quantity of Knowledge Management tools available on the market, a typology may be a valuable aid to organizations that are looking for answers to specific needs. The objective of this article is to present guidelines that help to design such a typology. Knowledge Management solutions such as intranet systems, Electronic Document Management (EDM, groupware, workflow, artificial intelligence-based systems, Business Intelligence (BI, knowledge map systems, innovation support, competitive intelligence tools and knowledge portals are discussed in terms of their potential contributions to the processes of creating, registering and sharing knowledge. A number of Knowledge Management tools (Lotus Notes, Microsoft Exchange, Business Objects, Aris Toolset, File Net, Gingo, Vigipro, Sopheon have been checked. The potential of each category of solutions to support the transfer of tacit and/or explicit knowledge and to facilitate the knowledge conversion spiral in the sense of Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995 is discussed.

  5. Quantum information processing by weaving quantum Talbot carpets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farías, Osvaldo Jiménez; de Melo, Fernando; Milman, Pérola; Walborn, Stephen P.

    2015-06-01

    Single-photon interference due to passage through a periodic grating is considered in a novel proposal for processing D -dimensional quantum systems (quDits) encoded in the spatial degrees of freedom of light. We show that free-space propagation naturally implements basic single-quDit gates by means of the Talbot effect: an intricate time-space carpet of light in the near-field diffraction regime. By adding a diagonal phase gate, we show that a complete set of single-quDit gates can be implemented. We then introduce a spatially dependent beam splitter that allows for projective measurements in the computational basis and can be used for the implementation of controlled operations between two quDits. Universal quantum information processing can then be implemented with linear optics and ancilla photons via postselection and feed-forward following the original proposal of Knill-Laflamme and Milburn. Although we consider photons, our scheme should be directly applicable to a number of other physical systems. Interpretation of the Talbot effect as a quantum logic operation provides a beautiful and interesting way to visualize quantum computation through wave propagation and interference.

  6. Visitor Intake Processing Re-write Management Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The data store houses detail information pertaining to visitors' wait times, visits, calls, and other customer relationship information relating to VIPR and CHIP....

  7. Highlight: Canadian and Caribbean parliamentarians discuss open ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Toward open parliaments. Open parliaments were also on the agenda in a session moderated by Senator David Smith, in the Centre Block of the Canadian Parliament Buildings. Increased information about legislative activities and greater opportunities for dialogue between citizens and their parliaments ...

  8. Portrayal of youth suicide in canadian news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easson, Amanda; Agarwal, Arnav; Duda, Stephanie; Bennett, Kathryn

    2014-09-01

    Responsible media reporting of youth suicide may reduce the risk of contagion and increase help-seeking behaviour. Accordingly, we conducted a content analysis of Canadian youth suicide newspaper articles to assess quality and summarize content (themes, age groups, populations and use of scientific evidence). The Canadian Periodical Index Quarterly (CPI.Q) was searched (2008-2012) for full-text Canadian newspaper articles using the keywords "youth" and "suicide." The top five most relevant articles as judged by CPI.Q were selected sequentially for each year (n=25). Quality was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for responsible media reporting. Content analysis was completed in duplicate by two reviewers. All articles addressed youth suicide generally rather than reporting exclusively on a specific death by suicide. Alignment of articles with individual WHO guideline items ranged from 16 to 60%. The most common content theme was prevention (80%). No article was judged to glamorize suicide. Help seeking was addressed in 52% of articles, but only 20% provided information on where to obtain help. Statistics were referenced more frequently than scientific research (76% vs. 28%). Our review suggests that Canadian media presents youth suicide as an issue for which hope and help exist. While the majority of reports aim to educate the public about suicide, increased use of scientific evidence about risk factors and prevention is recommended to facilitate the translation of rigorous scientific knowledge into improved mental health and reduced suicide risk among Canadian youth.

  9. Context-dependent information processing in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, N; Perruchet, P; Hardy-Bayle, M C; Feline, A

    2000-09-29

    Thirty schizophrenic patients fulfilling the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria for schizophrenia and 30 control participants were shown a set of incomplete sentences, and were asked to complete them with the first word(s) that came to mind. Target sentences included an ambiguous word, the ambiguity of which was not resolved within the clause. However, completion necessarily required participants to select one specific meaning. Each target sentence was preceded by another sentence playing the role of context, which was designed to prime the less frequent meaning of the ambiguous word. The results showed that schizophrenic patients, especially those with thought disorder [on the basis of their TLC scores (Thought, Language and Communication Scale; Andreasen, N.C., 1979. Thought, language and communication disorders. Clinical assessment, definition of terms and evaluation of their reliability. Diagnostic significance. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 39, 778-782)], used the most common meaning of the ambiguous word more frequently than controls, thus revealing a specific deficit in context use. The deficit was observed whether or not the relation between context and target sentences was made explicit. These results are in line with the cognitive models of schizophrenia that postulate a decreased ability to use context information. However, when considered in the light of prior studies (e.g., Bazin, N., Perruchet, P., 1996. Implicit and explicit memory in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 22, 241-248), they suggest that the deficit in processing contextual information is limited to what Baddeley (Baddeley, A.D., 1982. Domains of recollection. Psychol. Rev. 98, 708-729) called the interactive context (which affects the meaning, or the interpretation, of the target event) in contrast to the independent context (which does not interfere with the meaning-based interpretation of the target event).

  10. Notification: Preliminary Research on EPA's Decision Making Process to Release Information Under the Freedom of Information Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    July 19, 2013. The Office of Inspector General plans to begin preliminary research on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s process for deciding to release information requested under the Freedom of Information Act.

  11. Unconscious auditory information can prime visual word processing: a process-dissociation procedure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Dominique; Mudrik, Liad; Deouell, Leon Y

    2008-09-01

    Whether information perceived without awareness can affect overt performance, and whether such effects can cross sensory modalities, remains a matter of debate. Whereas influence of unconscious visual information on auditory perception has been documented, the reverse influence has not been reported. In addition, previous reports of unconscious cross-modal priming relied on procedures in which contamination of conscious processes could not be ruled out. We present the first report of unconscious cross-modal priming when the unaware prime is auditory and the test stimulus is visual. We used the process-dissociation procedure [Debner, J. A., & Jacoby, L. L. (1994). Unconscious perception: Attention, awareness and control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 304-317] which allowed us to assess the separate contributions of conscious and unconscious perception of a degraded prime (either seen or heard) to performance on a visual fragment-completion task. Unconscious cross-modal priming (auditory prime, visual fragment) was significant and of a magnitude similar to that of unconscious within-modality priming (visual prime, visual fragment). We conclude that cross-modal integration, at least between visual and auditory information, is more symmetrical than previously shown, and does not require conscious mediation.

  12. Canadian synthetic resins industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margeson, J. [Industry Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    The growth of the synthetic resin industry in Canada is described. In 1999 the industry had shipments totalling $6.3 billion and employed about 9,000 people in 105 establishments. The industry is concentrated in Alberta, Ontario and Quebec. Plants in Alberta produce commodity-grade thermoplastic resins from raw materials derived mainly from natural gas, whereas plants in Ontario and Quebec produce both thermoplastic and thermoset resins using raw materials derived from both crude oil and natural gas. Sixty-four per cent of the synthetic reins produced in Canada, worth about $4.1 billion, are exported. This is offset by imports of 68 per cent of domestic consumption, (valued at $5.0 billion) reflecting rationalization and specialization of the resin industry on a continental basis. Process and product technologies used in Canada are up-to-date and licensed from parent or other foreign chemical companies. Capital investment in the Canadian resin industry is lagging behind investment in the United States, however, this is expected to change once the impact of recent investments in the industry in Alberta is reflected in the statistics. A five to seven per cent real average annual growth in world-wide consumption is predicted over the next five years. Growth in North America is projected to be in the three to four per cent range. The Alberta-based component of the industry, being relatively new, is expected to improve its ability to compete globally in commodity thermoplastics. In contrast, the plants in Ontario and Quebec suffer from the fact that they were built prior to the Free Trade Agreement and were designed to satisfy domestic requirements. They are attempting to compensate for their lack of economics of scale by developing strategies to supply niche products. 8 figs.

  13. [Fundamental bases of digital information processing in nuclear cardiology (III)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuarón, A; González, C; García Moreira, C

    1984-01-01

    This article describes the transformation of the gamma-camera images into digital form. The incidence of a gamma photon on the detector, produces two voltage pulses, which are proportional to the coordinates of the incidence points, and a digital pulse, indicative of the occurrence of the event. The coordinate pulses passes through a analog-digital converter, that is activated by the pulse. The result is the appearance of a digital number at the out-put of the converter, which is proportional to the voltage at its in-put. This number, is stored on the accumulation memory of the system, either on a list mode or on a matrix mode. Static images can be stored on a single matrix. Dynamic data can be stored on a series of matrixes, each representing a different period of acquisition. It is also possible to capture information on a series of matrixes syncronized with the electrocardiogram of the patient. In this instance, each matrix represents a distinct period of the cardiac cycle. Data stored on the memory, can be used to process and display images and quantitative histograms on a video screen. In order to do that, it is necessary to translate the digital data on the memory to voltage levels, and to transform these on light levels on the screen. This, is achieved through a digital analog converter. The reading of the digital memory must be syncronic with the electronic scanning of the video screen.

  14. Dynamic phases in control and information processing biological circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan

    2015-03-01

    Recent work using the mathematical framework of large deviation theory has shown that fluctuations about the steady state can have a particularly rich structure even in extremely simple non-equilibrium systems [Phys. Rev. E. 89, 062108, 2014]. In certain instances the fluctuations can encode the presence of a dynamical phase with properties distinct from those of the steady state of the system. The transition between these two regimes is akin to a first order thermodynamic phase transition. Specifically, it implies an extreme sensitivity of the system to changes in certain sets of parameters. I will show that such dynamical phase transitions can serve as a general organizing principle to understand biological circuits that are involved in information processing and control. I will focus on two specific examples: adaptation control in E. coli chemotaxis and ultra sensitive response of the E. coli flagella motor, to illustrate these calculations. This work also elucidates the role played by energy dissipation in ensuring control and suggests general guidelines for the construction of robust non equilibrium circuits that perform various specified functions.

  15. Signal transduction and information processing in mammalian taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The molecular machinery for chemosensory transduction in taste buds has received considerable attention within the last decade. Consequently, we now know a great deal about sweet, bitter, and umami taste mechanisms and are gaining ground rapidly on salty and sour transduction. Sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are transduced by G-protein-coupled receptors. Salty taste may be transduced by epithelial Na channels similar to those found in renal tissues. Sour transduction appears to be initiated by intracellular acidification acting on acid-sensitive membrane proteins. Once a taste signal is generated in a taste cell, the subsequent steps involve secretion of neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin. It is now recognized that the cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami taste stimuli do not possess synapses and instead secrete the neurotransmitter ATP via a novel mechanism not involving conventional vesicular exocytosis. ATP is believed to excite primary sensory afferent fibers that convey gustatory signals to the brain. In contrast, taste cells that do have synapses release serotonin in response to gustatory stimulation. The postsynaptic targets of serotonin have not yet been identified. Finally, ATP secreted from receptor cells also acts on neighboring taste cells to stimulate their release of serotonin. This suggests that there is important information processing and signal coding taking place in the mammalian taste bud after gustatory stimulation. PMID:17468883

  16. Unsupervised Neural Network Quantifies the Cost of Visual Information Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente L Orbán

    Full Text Available Untrained, "flower-naïve" bumblebees display behavioural preferences when presented with visual properties such as colour, symmetry, spatial frequency and others. Two unsupervised neural networks were implemented to understand the extent to which these models capture elements of bumblebees' unlearned visual preferences towards flower-like visual properties. The computational models, which are variants of Independent Component Analysis and Feature-Extracting Bidirectional Associative Memory, use images of test-patterns that are identical to ones used in behavioural studies. Each model works by decomposing images of floral patterns into meaningful underlying factors. We reconstruct the original floral image using the components and compare the quality of the reconstructed image to the original image. Independent Component Analysis matches behavioural results substantially better across several visual properties. These results are interpreted to support a hypothesis that the temporal and energetic costs of information processing by pollinators served as a selective pressure on floral displays: flowers adapted to pollinators' cognitive constraints.

  17. Statistics in action a Canadian outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F

    2014-01-01

    Commissioned by the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC), Statistics in Action: A Canadian Outlook helps both general readers and users of statistics better appreciate the scope and importance of statistics. It presents the ways in which statistics is used while highlighting key contributions that Canadian statisticians are making to science, technology, business, government, and other areas. The book emphasizes the role and impact of computing in statistical modeling and analysis, including the issues involved with the huge amounts of data being generated by automated processes.The first two c

  18. Prosody's Contribution to Fluency: An Examination of the Theory of Automatic Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauben, Julie E.

    2010-01-01

    LaBerge and Samuels' (1974) theory of automatic information processing in reading offers a model that explains how and where the processing of information occurs and the degree to which processing of information occurs. These processes are dependent upon two criteria: accurate word decoding and automatic word recognition. However, LaBerge and…

  19. Carbon–the first frontier of information processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Information is often encoded as an aperiodic chain of building blocks. Modern digital computers use bits as the building blocks, but in general the choice of building blocks depends on the nature of the information to be encoded. What are the optimal building blocks to encode structural information? This can be analysed by ...

  20. Canadian Public Library Users are Unaware of Their Information Literacy Deficiencies as Related to Internet Use and Public Libraries are Challenged to Address These Needs. A Review of: Julien, Heidi and Cameron Hoffman. “Information Literacy Training in Canada’s Public Libraries.” Library Quarterly 78.1 (2008: 19‐41.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2009-12-01

    level of information literacy and their feelings with regard to being information literate, the nature of their exposure to IL training, the benefits they derived from such training, and their desire for further training. Public service librarians and other staff were also interviewed in a similar manner. These questions sought to ascertain staff views on the role of the public library with regard to IL training; perceptions of the need for and expected outcomes of such training; as well as the current situation pertinent to the provision of IL skills training in their respective libraries in terms of staff competencies, resource allocation, and the forms of training and evaluation. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Data were interpreted via qualitative content analysis through the use of NVivo software.Main Results – Men were more frequent users of public library computers than women, outnumbering them by a ratio ranging from 2:1 to 3.4:1. Customers appeared to be mostly under the age of 30 and of diverse ethnicities. The average income of interviewed customers was less than the Canadian average. The site observations revealed that customers were seen using the Internet mainly for the purposes of communication (e.g., e‐mail, instant messaging, online dating services. Such use was observed 78 times in four of the libraries. Entertainment accounted for 43 observations in all five sites and comprised activities such as online games, music videos, and movie listings. Twenty‐eight observations involved business/financial uses (e.g., online shopping, exploration of investment sites, online banking. The use of search engines (25 observations, news information (23, foreign language and forum websites (21, and word processing were less frequently observed. Notably, there were only 20 observed library‐specific uses (e.g., searching online catalogues, online database and library websites. Customers reported that they used the Internet mainly for general web

  1. Science-based information processing in the process control of power stations. Wissensbasierte Informationsverarbeitung in der Prozessfuehrung von Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisang, C. (Asea Brown Boveri AG, Heidelberg (Germany). Konzernforschungszentrum)

    1992-02-01

    Through the application of specialized systems, future-orientated information processing integrates the sciences of processes, control systems, process control strategies, user behaviour and ergonomics. Improvements in process control can be attained, inter alia, by the preparation of the information contained (e.g. by suppressing the flow of signals and replacing it with signals which are found on substance) and also by an ergonomic representation of the study of the process. (orig.).

  2. Scalable quantum information processing with photons and atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jian-Wei

    Over the past three decades, the promises of super-fast quantum computing and secure quantum cryptography have spurred a world-wide interest in quantum information, generating fascinating quantum technologies for coherent manipulation of individual quantum systems. However, the distance of fiber-based quantum communications is limited due to intrinsic fiber loss and decreasing of entanglement quality. Moreover, probabilistic single-photon source and entanglement source demand exponentially increased overheads for scalable quantum information processing. To overcome these problems, we are taking two paths in parallel: quantum repeaters and through satellite. We used the decoy-state QKD protocol to close the loophole of imperfect photon source, and used the measurement-device-independent QKD protocol to close the loophole of imperfect photon detectors--two main loopholes in quantum cryptograph. Based on these techniques, we are now building world's biggest quantum secure communication backbone, from Beijing to Shanghai, with a distance exceeding 2000 km. Meanwhile, we are developing practically useful quantum repeaters that combine entanglement swapping, entanglement purification, and quantum memory for the ultra-long distance quantum communication. The second line is satellite-based global quantum communication, taking advantage of the negligible photon loss and decoherence in the atmosphere. We realized teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100 km, and later on a rapidly moving platform. We are also making efforts toward the generation of multiphoton entanglement and its use in teleportation of multiple properties of a single quantum particle, topological error correction, quantum algorithms for solving systems of linear equations and machine learning. Finally, I will talk about our recent experiments on quantum simulations on ultracold atoms. On the one hand, by applying an optical Raman lattice technique, we realized a two-dimensional spin-obit (SO

  3. The meaning creation process, information, emotion, knowledge, two objects and the significance-effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Thellefsen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    What is the relation between emotion, information, and knowledge? The aim of the paper is to focus on the meaning creation process, which involves emotion, information, and knowledge. The paper shows how the meaning creation process is an intricate relation between information and knowledge, how...... information is the catalyst for knowledge, and how knowledge can effect information, while emotion is the flavor of information and knowledge, respectively. The paper also presents a concept of information based on Peirce’s semeiotic...

  4. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  5. Cancer information and anxiety: applying the extended parallel process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ruth Ec; Beeken, Rebecca J; Steptoe, Andrew; Wardle, Jane

    2012-05-01

    There is concern that public education about testicular cancer (TC) may cause unnecessary anxiety. Psychological theory suggests that if threat (eg, TC) information is accompanied with threat control strategies (eg, testicular self-examination; TSE) anxiety is less likely. Male students (N=443) were randomized to either a TC or TC +TSE information group or a no information control group, and assessed at three time points. Anxiety levels did not differ between the groups and exposure to TC+TSE resulted in greater perceived message benefit, increased intention to self-examine and lower message denigration. This suggests TC information is not anxiogenic, but inclusion of TSE information may improve acceptance of disease awareness information.

  6. Reducing dietary sodium intake: the Canadian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan I

    2010-02-01

    Sodium is a required nutrient; Adequate Intakes for adults range from 1200 to 1500 mg*day(-1), depending on age. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium is 2300 mg*day(-1) for adults, based on the relationship between sodium intake and increased blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure, which is prevalent among Canadians, is, in turn, a major risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Sodium intake is not the only determinant of blood pressure; other modifiable risk factors include relative mass, physical activity, overall dietary quality, and alcohol consumption. However, because >90% of adult Canadian men and two thirds of Canadian women have sodium intakes above the UL, Health Canada's Working Group on Dietary Sodium Reduction has been charged with developing, implementing, and overseeing a strategy to reduce Canadians' sodium intakes. It is estimated that approximately 75% of dietary sodium is added during food processing; in addition to taste and palatability, sodium also has functional roles in food manufacturing and preservation, although the amounts used often exceed those required. Because of the central role of processed foods in sodium intake, the strategy proposed by Health Canada's Working Group includes voluntary reduction of sodium in processed foods and foods sold in food service establishments. It will also include an education and awareness campaign, and research and surveillance. Initiatives to reduce sodium in other parts of the world have demonstrated that it will be challenging to reduce sodium intake to the recommended range and will likely require many years to accomplish.

  7. Integrated Reporting and Assurance of Sustainability Information: An Experimental Study on Professional Investors’ Information Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimsbach, D.; Hahn, R.; Gürtürk, A.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability-related non-financial information is increasingly deemed value relevant. Against this background, two recent trends in non-financial reporting are frequently discussed: integrated reporting and assurance of sustainability information. Using an established framework of information

  8. Memory for stereotype-consistent and stereotype-inconsistent information as a function of processing pace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, A.; Knippenberg, A. van

    1995-01-01

    Additional evidence is obtained for the notion that stereotypes guide information processing and judgment inference under high processing demands. Subjects were provided with behavioural information about members of a social group. When presentation pace was high, subjects recalled more

  9. 36 CFR 1256.74 - How does NARA process Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests for classified information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does NARA process Freedom... Information § 1256.74 How does NARA process Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests for classified... accordance with the provisions of 36 CFR part 1250. Time limits for responses to FOIA requests for classified...

  10. The informed consent process for anaesthesia: perspectives of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    role of the anaesthetist in patient care.3−9 These studies have only considered the issue of patient perceptions of informed consent to a small degree. This study aimed to ascertain the knowledge of patients with regard to the information divulged by the anaesthetist during the preoperative interview, focusing specifically on ...

  11. Developmental Foundations and Clinical Applications of Social Information Processing: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Molly; Lyon, Aaron R; Oti, Rosalind; Tininenko, Jennifer

    2010-07-01

    Social information processing has emerged as an important construct in understanding children's interpersonal functioning. This article reviews (a) the theoretical models guiding research, (b) the development of normative and atypical social problem solving, and (c) the connection between social information processing and individual differences in functioning. Finally, this review ends with a summary of efficacy of programs aimed at preventing social information processing biases or intervening with youth who display dysfunctional social information processing skills.

  12. Animal spare parts? A Canadian public consultation on xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsiedel, Edna F; Ross, Heather

    2002-10-01

    Xenotransplantation, or the use of animal cells, tissues and organs for humans, has been promoted as an important solution to the worldwide shortage of organs. While scientific studies continue to be done to address problems of rejection and the possibility of animal-to-human virus transfer, socio-ethical and legal questions have also been raised around informed consent, life-long monitoring, animal welfare and animal rights, and appropriate regulatory practices. Many calls have also been made to consult publics before policy decisions are made. This paper describes the Canadian public consultation process on xenotransplantation carried out by the Canadian Public Health Association in an arm's length process from Health Canada, the ministry overseeing government health policy and regulation. Focusing on six citizen for a conducted around the country patterned after the citizen jury deliberative approach, the paper describes the citizen panelists' recommendations to hold off on proceeding with clinical trials and the rationales behind this recommendation. The consultation process is discussed in the context of constructive technology assessment, a framework which argues for broader input into earlier stages of technology innovation, particularly at the technology design stage.

  13. 77 FR 60714 - Information Collection Activities: Legacy Data Verification Process (LDVP); Submitted for Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... the information. The subject of this information collection request is the ``Legacy Data Verification... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Information Collection Activities: Legacy Data Verification Process (LDVP); Submitted for Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Review; Comment Request ACTION...

  14. Testing the Causal Mediation Component of Dodge's Social Information Processing Model of Social Competence and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possel, Patrick; Seemann, Simone; Ahrens, Stefanie; Hautzinger, Martin

    2006-01-01

    In Dodge's model of "social information processing" depression is the result of a linear sequence of five stages of information processing ("Annu Rev Psychol" 44: 559-584, 1993). These stages follow a person's reaction to situational stimuli, such that each stage of information processing mediates the relationship between earlier and later stages.…

  15. 10 CFR 1017.28 - Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). 1017.28... UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.28 Processing on Automated Information Systems (AIS). UCNI may be processed or produced on any AIS that complies with the guidance in OMB...

  16. The Importance of Management Information Systems in Decision-Making Process in Najran University

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Sultan Mahasneh

    2015-01-01

    Management information systems is very important for organizations especially decision-making process. This study is to answer the question related to the Importance of Management Information Systems on Decision-Making Process in Najran University, by exploring the role of management information systems in providing the necessary information to make decisions, the role of management information systems in decisionmaking, exploring the relationship of management information systems with deci...

  17. Attentional modulation of implicit processing of information in spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, J; Maruff, P; Kinsella, G; de Graaff, S; Currie, J

    1999-04-06

    Patients with parietal lesions often fail to identify stimuli in the contralesional field (i.e. neglect) but may nevertheless demonstrate implicit processing of neglected stimuli. Explanations of implicit processing in neglect range from intact preattentive mechanisms, to intact higher level categorical processing. Such theories assume implicit processing in neglect is passive and not subject to attentional modulation. We investigated implicit processing in a neglect patient US) using a flanker task in which targets differed on two dimensions simultaneously (i.e. coloured letters). Controls demonstrated interference effects only from goal-relevant dimensions of flankers. JS showed a similar pattern of results even when flankers appeared in his neglected field, suggesting that implicit processing of neglected stimuli can be modulated by behavioural goals.

  18. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Current Canadian Efforts and Analysis of Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Poole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective prevention of risky alcohol use in pregnancy involves much more than providing information about the risk of potential birth defects and developmental disabilities in children. To categorize the breadth of possible initiatives, Canadian experts have identified a four-part framework for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD prevention: Level 1, public awareness and broad health promotion; Level 2, conversations about alcohol with women of childbearing age and their partners; Level 3, specialized support for pregnant women; and Level 4, postpartum support for new mothers. In order to describe the level of services across Canada, 50 Canadian service providers, civil servants, and researchers working in the area of FASD prevention were involved in an online Delphi survey process to create a snapshot of current FASD prevention efforts, identify gaps, and provide ideas on how to close these gaps to improve FASD prevention. Promising Canadian practices and key areas for future action are described. Overall, Canadian FASD prevention programming reflects evidence-based practices; however, there are many opportunities to improve scope and availability of these initiatives.

  19. GUIDELINE THE RECRUITMENT PROCESS THROUGH INTERCULTURALITY USING INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beniamin G. BOŞCAI; Doina DĂNĂIAŢĂ

    2014-01-01

    ... of employees with different cultural backgrounds in organizations. Relating to interculturality, information systems have a crucial role by establishing the link between the recruiter and candidate, and vice versa...

  20. The Role of the Individual in the Social Information Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Christian

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to point out which role the individual plays in the generation of information in social systems. First, it is argued that the individual is a social, self-conscious, creative, reflective, cultural, symbol- and language-using, active natural, producing, labouring, objective, corporeal, living, real, sensuous, visionary, imaginative, designing, co-operative being that makes its own history and can strive towards freedom and autonomy. Based on these assumptions the re-creation/self-organisation of social systems is described as a dialectic of actions and social structures and as a dialectic of individual information and social information. The individual enters economic, political and cultural relationships that result in the emergence and differentiation of social (i.e. economic, political and cultural) information which enables and constrains individual actions and thinking. Individuals as actors in social systems are indispensable for social self-organisation.

  1. Incidental Processing of Speaker Characteristics: Voice as Connotative Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiselman, Ralph E.; Crawley, Joseph M.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how paralinguistics information of a voice is remembered without apparent intent and concludes that this happens because the connotation of the voice influences the meaning of what is being said. (EKN)

  2. The Role of the Individual in the Social Information Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this paper is to point out which role the individual plays in the generation of information in social systems. First, it is argued that the individual is a social, self-conscious, creative, reflective, cultural, symbol- and language-using, active natural, producing, labouring, objective, corporeal, living, real, sensuous, visionary, imaginative, designing, co-operative being that makes its own history and can strive towards freedom and autonomy. Based on these assumptions the re-creation/self-organisation of social systems is described as a dialectic of actions and social structures and as a dialectic of individual information and social information. The individual enters economic, political and cultural relationships that result in the emergence and differentiation of social (i.e. economic, political and cultural information which enables and constrains individual actions and thinking. Individuals as actors in social systems are indispensable for social self-organisation.

  3. Advances in intelligent process-aware information systems concepts, methods, and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Oberhauser, Roy; Reichert, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a state-of-the-art perspective on intelligent process-aware information systems and presents chapters on specific facets and approaches applicable to such systems. Further, it highlights novel advances and developments in various aspects of intelligent process-aware information systems and business process management systems. Intelligence capabilities are increasingly being integrated into or created in many of today’s software products and services. Process-aware information systems provide critical computing infrastructure to support the various processes involved in the creation and delivery of business products and services. Yet the integration of intelligence capabilities into process-aware information systems is a non-trivial yet necessary evolution of these complex systems. The book’s individual chapters address adaptive process management, case management processes, autonomically-capable processes, process-oriented information logistics, process recommendations, reasoning over ...

  4. Constructing Topic Models of Internet of Things for Information Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Xin; Zhiming Cui; Shukui Zhang; Tianxu He; Chunhua Li; Haojing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is regarded as a remarkable development of the modern information technology. There is abundant digital products data on the IoT, linking with multiple types of objects/entities. Those associated entities carry rich information and usually in the form of query records. Therefore, constructing high quality topic hierarchies that can capture the term distribution of each product record enables us to better understand users’ search intent and benefits tasks such as taxon...

  5. A High-Performance Reconfigurable Fabric for Cognitive Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Building Blocks for Dataflow Computation. 4 support operate in a similar fashion. The key performance amplifier in the AFPGA is its flexible...design flow for the new tool chain operates as follows:  Synthesize the Verilog or VHDL description using a commercial synthesis tool.  Use the open...information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Washington Headquarters Service, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215

  6. Too few, too weak: conflict of interest policies at Canadian medical schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Shnier

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The education of medical students should be based on the best clinical information available, rather than on commercial interests. Previous research looking at university-wide conflict of interest (COI policies used in Canadian medical schools has shown very poor regulation. An analysis of COI policies was undertaken to document the current policy environment in all 17 Canadian medical schools. METHODS: A web search was used to initially locate COI policies supplemented by additional information from the deans of each medical school. Strength of policies was rated on a scale of 0 to 2 in 12 categories and also on the presence of enforcement measures. For each school, we report scores for all 12 categories, enforcement measures, and summative scores. RESULTS: COI policies received summative scores that ranged from 0 to 19, with 0 the lowest possible score obtainable and 24 the maximum. The highest mean scores per category were for disclosure and ghostwriting (0.9 and for gifts and scholarships (0.8. DISCUSSION: This study provides the first comprehensive evaluation of all 17 Canadian medical school-specific COI policies. Our results suggest that the COI policy environment at Canadian medical schools is generally permissive. Policy development is a dynamic process. We therefore encourage all Canadian medical schools to develop restrictive COI policies to ensure that their medical students are educated based on the best clinical evidence available, free of industry biases and COI relationships that may influence the future medical thinking and prescribing practices of medical students in Canada once they graduate.

  7. Too Few, Too Weak: Conflict of Interest Policies at Canadian Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnier, Adrienne; Lexchin, Joel; Mintzes, Barbara; Jutel, Annemarie; Holloway, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The education of medical students should be based on the best clinical information available, rather than on commercial interests. Previous research looking at university-wide conflict of interest (COI) policies used in Canadian medical schools has shown very poor regulation. An analysis of COI policies was undertaken to document the current policy environment in all 17 Canadian medical schools. Methods A web search was used to initially locate COI policies supplemented by additional information from the deans of each medical school. Strength of policies was rated on a scale of 0 to 2 in 12 categories and also on the presence of enforcement measures. For each school, we report scores for all 12 categories, enforcement measures, and summative scores. Results COI policies received summative scores that ranged from 0 to 19, with 0 the lowest possible score obtainable and 24 the maximum. The highest mean scores per category were for disclosure and ghostwriting (0.9) and for gifts and scholarships (0.8). Discussion This study provides the first comprehensive evaluation of all 17 Canadian medical school-specific COI policies. Our results suggest that the COI policy environment at Canadian medical schools is generally permissive. Policy development is a dynamic process. We therefore encourage all Canadian medical schools to develop restrictive COI policies to ensure that their medical students are educated based on the best clinical evidence available, free of industry biases and COI relationships that may influence the future medical thinking and prescribing practices of medical students in Canada once they graduate. PMID:23861928

  8. Unconscious auditory information-processing during general anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Jelicic (Marko)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation aims to examine the possibility of cognitive processing and memory storage in anaesthesia. It consists of four parts. The first section provides a brief outline of unconscious mental processes in psychological research. Next, a review of the experimental studies of

  9. Process quality control. Modern information technology to improve power plant efficiency; Prozessgueteueberwachung. Moderne Informations-systeme zur Effizienzsteigerung der Kraftwerksprozesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knieschke, Andreas [Vattenfall Europe PowerConsult GmbH, Vetschau (Germany); Deeskow, Peter [Evonik Energy Services GmbH, Essen (Germany); Hufmann, Theo [E.ON Engineering GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Leusden, Christoph Pels [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In order to achieve the best possible efficiency of their plants, an increasing number of power plant operators employ performance monitoring systems (PM systems). This term is connected with modern IT applications which usually process online transmitted process data, perform performance calculations on this basis and in result provide very precise information of the current quality of energy conversion process. (orig.)

  10. Canadian Public Libraries Are Aware of Their Role as Information Literacy Training Providers, but Face Several Challenges. A Review of: Lai, H.-J. (2011. Information literacy training in public libraries: A case from Canada. Educational Technology & Society, 14(2, 81-88.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Newton Miller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective– To explore the current state of information literacy (IL training in Canadian public libraries, and to identify strategies used for improving IL training skills for staff and patrons.Design – Mixed-methods approach, including document analysis, observations, and focus group interviews.Setting – Two libraries of a large public library system in Canada: the central library and one branch library.Subjects – Six staff members (manager, administrator, training coordinator, instructor, and computer technician who have been involved in designing and teaching information literacy courses for library patrons and staff.Methods – The researcher analyzed internal and external library documents related to information literacy, including, but not limited to, reports, posters, lesson plans, newsletters, and training scripts. He also observed interactions and behaviours of patrons during IL training sessions. Finally, he conducted a focus group with people involved in IL training, asking questions about facilities and resources, programs, patron reaction, librarian knowledge of IL theory, and impediments and benefits of IL training programs in public libraries.Main Results – Staff were aware of the importance of IL training in the library. Attracting more library patrons (including building partnerships with other organizations, improving staff IL and training skills, employing effective strategies for running training programs, and dealing with financial issues were all concerns about running IL training that were highlighted.Conclusion – Canadian public libraries are well aware of their role as IL training providers, but they still face several challenges in order to improve their effectiveness.

  11. Information from processes about the nature of information creation, use, and representation

    CERN Document Server

    Losee, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    Information is an important concept that is studied extensively across a range of disciplines, from the physical sciences to genetics to psychology to epistemology. Information continues to increase in importance, and the present age has been referred to as the ""Information Age."" One may understand information in a variety of ways. For some, information is found in facts that were previously unknown. For others, a fact must have some economic value to be considered information. Other people emphasize the movement through a communication channel from one location to another when describing in

  12. Harvesting Social Signals to Inform Peace Processes Implementation and Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Aastha; Dambanemuya, Henry K; Joshi, Madhav; Chawla, Nitesh V

    2017-12-01

    Peace processes are complex, protracted, and contentious involving significant bargaining and compromising among various societal and political stakeholders. In civil war terminations, it is pertinent to measure the pulse of the nation to ensure that the peace process is responsive to citizens' concerns. Social media yields tremendous power as a tool for dialogue, debate, organization, and mobilization, thereby adding more complexity to the peace process. Using Colombia's final peace agreement and national referendum as a case study, we investigate the influence of two important indicators: intergroup polarization and public sentiment toward the peace process. We present a detailed linguistic analysis to detect intergroup polarization and a predictive model that leverages Tweet structure, content, and user-based features to predict public sentiment toward the Colombian peace process. We demonstrate that had proaccord stakeholders leveraged public opinion from social media, the outcome of the Colombian referendum could have been different.

  13. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  14. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  15. The quest for the next information processing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welser, Jeffrey J. [IBM and SRC-NRI (United States); Bourianoff, George I. [Intel Corporation (United States); Zhirnov, Victor V.; Cavin, Ralph Keary [Semiconductor Research Corporation, Research Operations (United States)], E-mail: cavin@src.org

    2008-01-15

    Fundamental physical considerations indicate that the scaling of devices that use electron charge as the information carrier will limit within the next one to two decades. The Nanoelectronics Research Initiative (NRI), a joint industry-government program, has been developed to fund university research seeking devices that utilize alternative physical information carriers or non-equilibrium switching mechanisms to continue the historical cost and performance trends of information technology. Three research centers have been established to pursue five research vectors that have been identified as critical to the effort to replace the electronic switch. A brief history and rationale for NRI is given and the projects currently underway are described in the context of the five research vectors.

  16. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  17. Nuclear communications : A Canadian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macpherson, John A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ottawa (Canada)

    1994-04-15

    Times have changed since the early days of nuclear energy when it was a symbol of a brave new world, Public information strategies have evolved to meet increasing public concerns, and have shifted from being a largely unfocused attempt at publicity to being more concerned with managing issues and solving problems. This paper describes some of the salient features of the Canadian experience in nuclear communications and examines four key aspects: opinion and attitude research; media relations; coeducation; and advertising. It also addresses the challenge of responding to the allegations and tactics of those who are actively hostile to nuclear energy, and recommends that the principles of Total Quality Management and of organizational effectiveness be applied more thorough and more consistently to the public affairs function.

  18. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  19. Toward a Process View in Adoption of Interorganizational Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Charlotte J.

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of how interorganizational information systems (IOIS) are adopted is important as a successful implementation of information systems (IS) can be expected to raise long-term organizational efficiency. However, organizations often find IOIS adoption to be a bumpy ride......; 2) studies explaining how to create the desired organizational effects with IOIS; 3) studies explaining how IOIS are affecting the buyer-supplier relationship they are introduced into; and 4) studies categorizing the structure of IOIS adopters in different configurations. Seemingly only limited...

  20. Conference on information processing and management of uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Marsala, Christophe; Rifqi, Maria; Yager, Ronald R

    2008-01-01

    Intelligent systems are necessary to handle modern computer-based technologies managing information and knowledge. This book discusses the theories required to help provide solutions to difficult problems in the construction of intelligent systems. Particular attention is paid to situations in which the available information and data may be imprecise, uncertain, incomplete or of a linguistic nature. The main aspects of clustering, classification, summarization, decision making and systems modeling are also addressed. Topics covered in the book include fundamental issues in uncertainty, the rap

  1. Monitoring of the Process of System Information Broadcasting in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironowicz, P.; Korbicz, J. K.; Horodecki, P.

    2017-04-01

    One of the problems of quantum physics is how a measurement turns quantum, noncopyable data, towards copyable classical knowledge. We use the quantum state discrimination in a central system model to show how its evolution leads to the broadcasting of the information, and how orthogonalization and decoherence factors allow us to monitor the distance of the state in question to the one perfectly broadcasting information, in any moment of time not just asymptotically. We illustrate this in the spin-spin model where the distance is shown to be typically small and provide the related time scales.

  2. Canadian identity: Implications for international social work by Canadians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2011-01-01

    This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all......, to critically examine and unpack our ‘Canadian’ identity in order to practice international work that is socially just and anti-imperialist. Drawing on the work of post-colonial authors, critical race theorists, and those who study national myth-making, this essay revisits Canadian identity because...... it is this identity that Canadian social workers often carry into their international work....

  3. 77 FR 26911 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... almost $361 million. California's crop is predominately delivered to the fresh market, while Oregon and... growing region in Canada. Exports of processed frozen raspberries from British Colombia to the United...

  4. White-Light Optical Information Processing and Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-23

    processing Coherence Coherence Traitement optique en &icairage partiellement coherent en modulant la source et le signal et en filtrant le spectre du signal...subtraction. ’ coneren" noese. whacn frecuentix lmits its processin.z . canabi :: e II. - COLOR IMAGE SUBTRACTION \\We vi no, CesZri’e a co o irttace sQ...CHAO Molls 11 I’: KI.’ o\\iu)s Traitement des images Optical processing Pseudocouleurs Pseudocolors Images codees par trois couleurs primaires SUMMARY

  5. Medial prefrontal dissociations during processing of trait diagnostic and nondiagnostic person information

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Jason P.; Cloutier, Jasmin; Banaji, Mahzarin R.; Macrae, C. Neil

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that perceivers spontaneously extract trait-specific information from the behaviour of others. However, little is known about whether perceivers spontaneously engage in the same depth of social-cognitive processing for all person information or reserve such processing specifically for information that conveys diagnostic clues about another person's dispositions. Moreover, a question remains as to whether the processing of such nondiagnostic information can be a...

  6. An audit of the informed consent process in postgraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Informed consent ensures respect for individual autonomy and safeguards against abuses of human participants. However, the high prevalence of poverty, inaccessibility of healthcare services, diseases, social insecurity and low literacy in developing countries such as Kenya increases participants' ...

  7. Information-triggered Co-evolution: A Combined Process Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Gonçalves, Milene

    2017-01-01

    Core elements of design work include the development of problem/solution understanding, as well as information and knowledge sharing activities. However, their interrelationships have been little explored. As such, this work aims to take the first steps towards a more integrated evaluation...

  8. Improving the software fault localization process through testability information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Sanchez, A.; Abreu, R.; Gross, H.; Van Gemund, A.

    2010-01-01

    When failures occur during software testing, automated software fault localization helps to diagnose their root causes and identify the defective components of a program to support debugging. Diagnosis is carried out by selecting test cases in such way that their pass or fail information will narrow

  9. Social Networks as Information Source for the Purchase Decision Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Leoni Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The social networks have caused changes in the consumption habits and in the ways of relationship among companies and consumers, emerging a more demanding and informed consumer. In this paper it is aimed to assess the social networks as a source of information for the purchase of goods or services. In the study it was applied a research of exploratory nature through the survey method, conducted through personal interviews using a questionnaire with closed-ended questions. The sample of non-probabilistic type was comprised of 200 individuals from a higher education institution of São Paulo State hinterland. The survey data were analyzed descriptively. Overall, the results showed the use of social networks as a source of information search, in which the main motive is the practicality. The results corroborate the studies of Kotler and Keller (2006 when they state that the consumer seeks information on social networks to help him in the purchase, as Edelman and Hirshberg (2006 when approaching the user confidence in their friends’ opinion. For future works it is recommended to check what strategies and in what ways the companies could work in order to provide more detailed data to Internet users, aiming to support them in the decision

  10. Why genetic information processing could have a quantum basis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    to break it up in small segments. This is called digitiza- tion. Instead of handling a single variable covering a large range, it is much easier to handle several variables each spanning a smaller range. Information of the whole mes- sage is maintained by putting together as many as nece- ssary of the smaller range variables, ...

  11. Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Anders

    2012-01-01

    I dette projektarbejde med titlen “Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing” har målet været at generere optiske kat-tilstande. Dette er en kvantemekanisk superpositions tilstand af to koherente tilstande med stor amplitude. Sådan en tilstand er...

  12. Advanced applications of natural language processing for performing information extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Mário

    2015-01-01

    This book explains how can be created information extraction (IE) applications that are able to tap the vast amount of relevant information available in natural language sources: Internet pages, official documents such as laws and regulations, books and newspapers, and social web. Readers are introduced to the problem of IE and its current challenges and limitations, supported with examples. The book discusses the need to fill the gap between documents, data, and people, and provides a broad overview of the technology supporting IE. The authors present a generic architecture for developing systems that are able to learn how to extract relevant information from natural language documents, and illustrate how to implement working systems using state-of-the-art and freely available software tools. The book also discusses concrete applications illustrating IE uses.   ·         Provides an overview of state-of-the-art technology in information extraction (IE), discussing achievements and limitations for t...

  13. Information Processing and the Management of Curriculum, Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, D. S. G.

    Well-constructed Information Management Systems (IMSs) are designed specifically to allow for the unobtrusive and automatic acquisition of data describing the key operations associated with the interlocking cycle of relationships between curriculum, instruction, and assessment. This paper argues that IMS software is an essential element to be…

  14. A new technique for accelerating routing information process in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the processor that performs the calculations. This is why we turned to the FPGA technology allows to combine the flexibility of software, hardware speed [6]. Researchers at the Central ... Routing is a function of the layer 3 (network layer) of the OSI model ... information for the transmission of data packets over the network ...

  15. CanWEA Pan-Canadian wind integration study paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Martin [GL Garrad Hassan Canada Inc, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gardner, Paul [GL Garrad Hassan and Partners, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Price, Doug; Le, Don [GL Garrad Hassan America, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    GL Garrad Hassan has been contracted by CanWEA to undertake a scoping study for a future Pan-Canadian Wide-Scale Wind Integration Study. The scoping study provides the methodology and the rationale on which the actual wind integration study and request for proposals will be based on. Major system operators and owners of each Canadian Province along with experts involved in major US wind integration studies have been consulted and contributed to the decisional process. This paper provides a summary of the factors considered in the study and outline the actual methodology that was adopted for the future Pan-Canadian wind integration study. (orig.)

  16. Perioperative blood ordering optimization process using information from an anesthesia information management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Joseph B; Lee, Tiffany C; Kaneshiro, Kayleigh; Tran, Minh-Ha; Sun, Coral; Kain, Zeev N

    2016-04-01

    As part of ongoing perioperative surgical home implantation process, we applied a previously published algorithm for creation of a maximum surgical blood order schedule (MSBOS) to our operating rooms. We hypothesized that using the MSBOS we could show a reduction in unnecessary preoperative blood testing and associated costs. Data regarding all surgical cases done at UC Irvine Health's operating rooms from January 1, 2011, to January 1, 2014 were extracted from the anesthesia information management systems (AIMS). After the data were organized into surgical specialties and operative sites, blood order recommendations were generated based on five specific case characteristics of the group. Next, we assessed current ordering practices in comparison to actual blood utilization to identify potential areas of wastage and performed a cost analysis comparing the annual hospital costs from preoperative blood orders if the blood order schedule were to be followed to historical practices. Of the 19,138 patients who were categorized by the MSBOS as needing no blood sample, 2694 (14.0%) had a type and screen (T/S) ordered and 1116 (5.8%) had a type and crossmatch ordered. Of the 6073 procedures where MSBOS recommended only a T/S, 2355 (38.8%) had blood crossmatched. The cost analysis demonstrated an annual reduction in actual hospital costs of $57,335 with the MSBOS compared to historical blood ordering practices. We showed that the algorithm for development of a multispecialty blood order schedule is transferable and yielded reductions in preoperative blood product screening at our institution. © 2016 AABB.

  17. A theory-informed, process-oriented Resident Scholarship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Darby, John B; Hair, Amy B; Rose, Karen M; Ward, Mark A; Turner, Teri L; Balmer, Dorene F

    2016-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires residency programs to provide curricula for residents to engage in scholarly activities but does not specify particular guidelines for instruction. We propose a Resident Scholarship Program that is framed by the self-determination theory (SDT) and emphasize the process of scholarly activity versus a scholarly product. The authors report on their longitudinal Resident Scholarship Program, which aimed to support psychological needs central to SDT: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. By addressing those needs in program aims and program components, the program may foster residents' intrinsic motivation to learn and to engage in scholarly activity. To this end, residents' engagement in scholarly processes, and changes in perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness were assessed. Residents engaged in a range of scholarly projects and expressed positive regard for the program. Compared to before residency, residents felt more confident in the process of scholarly activity, as determined by changes in increased perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Scholarly products were accomplished in return for a focus on scholarly process. Based on our experience, and in line with the SDT, supporting residents' autonomy, competence, and relatedness through a process-oriented scholarship program may foster the curiosity, inquisitiveness, and internal motivation to learn that drives scholarly activity and ultimately the production of scholarly products.

  18. Open Access and Canadian Libraries: Taking a Position

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Heather; Waller, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The co-convenors of the Canadian Library Association (CLA) Task Force on Open Access report on the work of the Task Force. CLA has adopted strong policies on open access to CLA's own publications, most of which have been implemented. CLA has contributed to consultations on open access. On May 21, 2008, CLA approved a Position Statement on Open Access for Canadian Libraries. The Position Statement reinforces access to information as one of librarianship's key values. Libraries are encoura...

  19. Financial Situation and Performance of Canadian Farms 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Niekamp, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This publication is a resource book of statistics on farm income in Canada. Farm income is a complex issue because of the diversity of Canadian farms and agricultural production in Canada. This resource book focuses on both income and the opportunities and challenges facing Canadian producers to provide a better understanding of the financial conditions of farms and farm families in Canada. Charts, figures and tables with brief accompanying text are used to summarize information and to provid...

  20. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  1. Textual and chemical information processing: different domains but similar algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Willett

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extent to which algorithms developed for the processing of textual databases are also applicable to the processing of chemical structure databases, and vice versa. Applications discussed include: an algorithm for distribution sorting that has been applied to the design of screening systems for rapid chemical substructure searching; the use of measures of inter-molecular structural similarity for the analysis of hypertext graphs; a genetic algorithm for calculating term weights for relevance feedback searching for determining whether a molecule is likely to exhibit biological activity; and the use of data fusion to combine the results of different chemical similarity searches.

  2. Maritime Safety – Stakeholders in Information Exchange Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wolejsza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology and research results on identification of potential users of the ESABALT system, which is targeted towards improving the situational awareness in the Baltic Sea region. We describe the technique of analysing the stakeholders involved in maritime sector processes, especially in maritime transport processes, while also taking into account their different classification criteria. The resulting list of stakeholders is used to identify system users and their classification into user profiles groups. This study will form the basis for the identification of user requirements of the ESABALT system.

  3. Constructing Topic Models of Internet of Things for Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jie; Cui, Zhiming; Zhang, Shukui; He, Tianxu; Li, Chunhua; Huang, Haojing

    2014-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is regarded as a remarkable development of the modern information technology. There is abundant digital products data on the IoT, linking with multiple types of objects/entities. Those associated entities carry rich information and usually in the form of query records. Therefore, constructing high quality topic hierarchies that can capture the term distribution of each product record enables us to better understand users' search intent and benefits tasks such as taxonomy construction, recommendation systems, and other communications solutions for the future IoT. In this paper, we propose a novel record entity topic model (RETM) for IoT environment that is associated with a set of entities and records and a Gibbs sampling-based algorithm is proposed to learn the model. We conduct extensive experiments on real-world datasets and compare our approach with existing methods to demonstrate the advantage of our approach. PMID:25110737

  4. Towards Web-based representation and processing of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, S.; Mioc, Darka; Yi, X.L.

    2009-01-01

    at their fingertips. Increasingly complex problems in the health field require increasingly sophisticated computer software, distributed computing power, and standardized data sharing. To address this need, Web-based mapping is now emerging as an important tool to enable health practitioners, policy makers......, and the public to understand spatial health risks, population health trends and vulnerabilities. Today several web-based health applications generate dynamic maps; however, for people to fully interpret the maps they need data source description and the method used in the data analysis or statistical modeling....... For the representation of health information through Web-mapping applications, there still lacks a standard format to accommodate all fixed (such as location) and variable (such as age, gender, health outcome, etc) indicators in the representation of health information. Furthermore, net-centric computing has not been...

  5. Processing of Pheromone Information in Related Species of Heliothine Moths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente G. Berg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In heliothine moths, the male-specific olfactory system is activated by a few odor molecules, each of which is associated with an easily identifiable glomerulus in the primary olfactory center of the brain. This arrangement is linked to two well-defined behavioral responses, one ensuring attraction and mating behavior by carrying information about pheromones released by conspecific females and the other inhibition of attraction via signal information emitted from heterospecifics. The chance of comparing the characteristic properties of pheromone receptor proteins, male-specific sensory neurons and macroglomerular complex (MGC-units in closely-related species is especially intriguing. Here, we review studies on the male-specific olfactory system of heliothine moths with particular emphasis on five closely related species, i.e., Heliothis virescens, Heliothis subflexa, Helicoverpa zea, Helicoverpa assulta and Helicoverpa armigera.

  6. Constructing Topic Models of Internet of Things for Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT is regarded as a remarkable development of the modern information technology. There is abundant digital products data on the IoT, linking with multiple types of objects/entities. Those associated entities carry rich information and usually in the form of query records. Therefore, constructing high quality topic hierarchies that can capture the term distribution of each product record enables us to better understand users’ search intent and benefits tasks such as taxonomy construction, recommendation systems, and other communications solutions for the future IoT. In this paper, we propose a novel record entity topic model (RETM for IoT environment that is associated with a set of entities and records and a Gibbs sampling-based algorithm is proposed to learn the model. We conduct extensive experiments on real-world datasets and compare our approach with existing methods to demonstrate the advantage of our approach.

  7. Constructing topic models of Internet of Things for information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jie; Cui, Zhiming; Zhang, Shukui; He, Tianxu; Li, Chunhua; Huang, Haojing

    2014-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is regarded as a remarkable development of the modern information technology. There is abundant digital products data on the IoT, linking with multiple types of objects/entities. Those associated entities carry rich information and usually in the form of query records. Therefore, constructing high quality topic hierarchies that can capture the term distribution of each product record enables us to better understand users' search intent and benefits tasks such as taxonomy construction, recommendation systems, and other communications solutions for the future IoT. In this paper, we propose a novel record entity topic model (RETM) for IoT environment that is associated with a set of entities and records and a Gibbs sampling-based algorithm is proposed to learn the model. We conduct extensive experiments on real-world datasets and compare our approach with existing methods to demonstrate the advantage of our approach.

  8. Implementing Trauma-Informed Care: Recommendations on the Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane K. Yatchmenoff

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of trauma-informed care (TIC is now recognized across most health and human service systems. Providers are calling for concrete examples of what TIC means in practice and how to create more trauma-informed organizations. However, much of the current understanding about implementation rests on principles and values rather than specific recommendations for action. This paper addresses this gap based on observations during the provision of technical assistance over the past decade in fields like mental health and addictions, juvenile justice, child welfare, healthcare, housing, and education. Focusing on the infrastructure for making change (the TIC workgroup, assessment and planning, and the early stages of implementation, the authors discuss barriers and challenges that are commonly encountered, strategies that have proven effective in addressing barriers, and specific action steps that can help sustain momentum for the longer term.

  9. Acquisition and processing of multiparametric information from apixelmatrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfredi, P.F.; Millaud, J.E.; Sushkov, V.V.

    2001-02-01

    This paper addresses the design of a system intended to readout multiparametric information from a matrix of pixels. The system presented here acquires the charge associated with the signal and provides a timing information from each pixel. Although it lends itself to a broad range of time-correlated imaging situations involving any kind of pixel matrices, the design constraints assumed here are particularly tailored to the application with pixels that sense the output charge distribution from a Micro Channel Plate (MCP). The combination of a microchannel plate and a pixel matrix is an extremely versatile detector and the readout system must be able to fully exploit the intrinsically high position resolution and time accuracy featured by the MCP. The behavior of the readout system described in this paper is based upon advanced concepts to meet the above application requirements and is believed to provide a significant functional improvement over the conventional pixel systems.

  10. Sociolinguistically Informed Natural Language Processing: Automating Irony Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    this dataset to empirically demonstrate that human annotators require context to infer irony. Moreover, we have shown that the classification errors ...derides Senator Cruz (e.g., writing “Ted Cruz is no Ronald Reagan. They aren’t even close.”). From this contextual information, then, we can reasonably...annotators tend to request context. Indeed we have shown that annotators rely on contextual cues (in addition to word and grammatical features) to discern

  11. USE OF THE INFORMATION SYSTEM COSTS UNDER MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EC OBICI NICOLAE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making takes place at all levels of the organization, taking into account both short-term outlook and long-term perspective. Plans are implemented by decisions whose purpose is materialized by formulating rational conclusions obtained as a result of financial and quantitative analysis. Thus, managerial accounting practice is deeply involved in decision making, a basic requirement of the existence of a solid managerial accounting information system cost, able to provide fundamental data

  12. Multisensory Information Processing For Enhanced Human Machine Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-02

    gestures, tactile signals, brain neural signals, and physiological signals (e.g., speech, heart rate, respiration rate, skin temperature, and...high level activity recognition are active research areas in artificial intelligence [43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49]. The methods for visual data analysis... respiration rate, heart rate, blood pressure and temperature) and behavioral information (e.g., posture, eye movements, gesture, and visual/thermal facial

  13. GUIDELINE THE RECRUITMENT PROCESS THROUGH INTERCULTURALITY USING INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Beniamin G. BOŞCAI; Dănăiaţă, Doina

    2014-01-01

    Building strategic partnerships between organizations from different countries, opening the borders and increasing the possibilities of emigration in Europe determined the appearance of a large number of employees with different cultural backgrounds in organizations. Relating to interculturality, information systems have a crucial role by establishing the link between the recruiter and candidate, and vice versa. It represents a communication bridge, relating the two cultures, employer’s cu...

  14. USE OF THE INFORMATION SYSTEM COSTS UNDER MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECOBICI NICOLAE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making takes place at all levels of the organization, taking into account both short-term outlook and long-term perspective. Plans are implemented by decisions whose purpose is materialized by formulating rational conclusions obtained as a result of financial and quantitative analysis. Thus, managerial accounting practice is deeply involved in decision making, a basic requirement of the existence of a solid managerial accounting information system cost, able to provide fundamental data.

  15. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmings, R.L. [Canatom NPM (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  16. Dynamic stepping information process method in mobile bio-sensing computing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Gyu; Lee, Seong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the interest toward human longevity free from diseases is being converged as one system frame along with the development of mobile computing environment, diversification of remote medical system and aging society. Such converged system enables implementation of a bioinformatics system created as various supplementary information services by sensing and gathering health conditions and various bio-information of mobile users to set up medical information. The existing bio-information system performs static and identical process without changes after the bio-information process defined at the initial system configuration executes the system. However, such static process indicates ineffective execution in the application of mobile bio-information system performing mobile computing. Especially, an inconvenient duty of having to perform initialization of new definition and execution is accompanied during the process configuration of bio-information system and change of method. This study proposes a dynamic process design and execution method to overcome such ineffective process.

  17. Investigating Implemented Process Design: A Case Study on the Impact of Process-aware Information Systems on Core Job Dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschler, B.B.; Rijpkema, M.; Reichert, M.U.

    Adequate process design particularly means that a process fulfills its stakeholders’ expectations. However, when designing process-aware information systems (PAIS), one stakeholder and his expectations are often neglected: the end user. Frequently, this results in end user fears, which, in turn,

  18. Auxin information processing : partners and interactions beyond the usual suspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Thea|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412584565; ten Tusscher, Kirsten H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/271539879

    2017-01-01

    Auxin plays a major role in a variety of processes involved in plant developmental patterning and its adaptation to environmental conditions. Therefore, an important question is how specificity in auxin signalling is achieved, that is, how a single signalling molecule can carry so many different

  19. Capturing Design Process Information in Complex Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenenk, Krijn; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Alvarez Cabrera, Andres A.; Tomiyama, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    From interviewing developers and analyzing examples from industry, the authors have concluded that communication issues during the design process are a key factor of the complexity of product development. These communication issues stem from a lack of insight in the workflow between designers and

  20. Human Information Processing in the Dynamic Environment (HIPDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    largest increases occurred after the Gz exposure was over. This was most likely caused by subjects prematurely arresting their performance on the task... Neuroanatomy of Spatial Orientation Processing in Turner Syndrome. Cerebral Cortex, 14 (2): 174-180. 198 33. Krnjevic, K. (1999). Early Effects of

  1. 77 FR 30308 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Alternatives Process in Hydropower Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Office of the Secretary Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Alternatives Process in Hydropower... Process in Hydropower Licensing, OMB Control Number 1094-0001. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: To request... mail to [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract This notice is for renewal of...

  2. Bridging domains : a comparison between information processing in Archaea and Eukarya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de B.

    2015-01-01

    Bridging Domains A Comparison between Information Processing in Archaea and Eukarya

    Studying Information Processing Living cells evolved complex systems to handle the flow of information both accurately and efficiently.

  3. Generalized Bell states map physical systems’ quantum evolution into a grammar for quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    Quantum information processing should be generated through control of quantum evolution for physical systems being used as resources, such as superconducting circuits, spinspin couplings in ions and artificial anyons in electronic gases. They have a quantum dynamics which should be translated into more natural languages for quantum information processing. On this terrain, this language should let to establish manipulation operations on the associated quantum information states as classical information processing does. This work shows how a kind of processing operations can be settled and implemented for quantum states design and quantum processing for systems fulfilling a SU(2) reduction in their dynamics.

  4. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.

  5. The relative influence of available resources during the residency match: a national survey of canadian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Sarah; Law, Christine; Morra, Dante; Ginsburg, Shiphra

    2011-12-01

    Many medical students find choosing a residency challenging. There are several steps involved, including determining one's own priorities, arranging electives, choosing a training program and site, and preparing an in-depth application and a rank order list. Many resources are available to assist students, including the Canadian Resident Matching Service website, program websites, career counselors, career information sessions, mentors, peers, family/friends, and the Canadian Medical Residency Guide. Our study explored the relative impact of these resources on the career decision-making process. We invited medical students in their final year at 12 Canadian medical schools to complete an online survey. Questions included identifying the relative utility of resources in the context of each component of the decision-making process. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The response rate was 71% (1076 of 1518). Overall, mentors, family/friends, and peers had the most impact on students' decision making. Career counselors, websites, and the Canadian Medical Residency Guide had much less impact. Family/friends were most frequently cited as essential to the process; however, family/friends and peers were equal in having some impact. Our findings suggest that students are most influenced by family, friends, and peers, who are not involved in the formal residency selection effort. Appreciating the impact of these influences on students' decision making is important to understanding how they decide on their future careers. The study supports continuation of mentorship programs. Future work could focus on qualitative research to further characterize resource use.

  6. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION IN BANKS - KEY ELEMENTS OF THE INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM #8211; AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS BETWEEN ROMANIAN, AMERICAN AND CANADIAN MODELS OF CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bota-Avram Cristina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to focus on one of the most important aspect of the internal control in banking system #8211; information and communication - trying to identify on which of the two well-known international models of control (COSO or CoCo i

  7. [Quality of information in the process of informed consent for anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Perales, José; Luna-Maldonado, Aurelio; Fernández-Prada, María; Guillén-Solvas, José Francisco; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora

    2013-11-01

    To assess the quality of the information that patients receive in the informed consent document signed prior to surgery. Cross-sectional study of a sample of cancer patients admitted for surgery at the University Hospital San Cecilio of Granada in 2011. After checking the inclusion criteria and obtaining their consent, demographic data were collected and procedure data, and a questionnaire «ad hoc» to assess the quality and comprehensiveness of the information provided in the informed consent. 150 patients were studied. The majority (109 over 150) said they had received sufficient information, in appropriate language, and had the opportunity to ask questions, but only 44.7% correctly answered three or more issues related to anesthesia. University education level, knowledge of the intervention, information about the anesthesia problems and appropriate language were associated. Although systematic informed consent was performed, half of the patients did not comprehend the anesthesia risks. Variables primarily related to the information received were associated with the quality of the response, but not with patient characteristics. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Information Technology and Knowledge Processes : - an Uneasy Couple?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, J.; Christiansen, N.; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    2001-01-01

    -technical perspective taking the interconnected relationship between knowledge and knowing into account. We explore the role of IT in knowledge processes by studying three different practices. These practices are a pre-defense of a Ph.D. dissertation using a video conferencing system in the area of geophysics......In this paper we apply the framework of Cook and Brown (1999) to gain a broader perspective on the role of IT in organizational knowledge creation and use. The framework of Cook and Brown suggests that knowledge, as something people possess, and knowing, as the epistemic work done in action......, are both very relevant, interrelated and mutually enabling aspects of the organizational knowledge processes. However it seems as it the research on IT in knowledge management has been primarily concerned with knowledge. We argue that there is a need for studying the work practices in a socio...

  9. Using natural language processing techniques to inform research on nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassja A. Lewinski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature in the field of nanotechnology is exponentially increasing with more and more engineered nanomaterials being created, characterized, and tested for performance and safety. With the deluge of published data, there is a need for natural language processing approaches to semi-automate the cataloguing of engineered nanomaterials and their associated physico-chemical properties, performance, exposure scenarios, and biological effects. In this paper, we review the different informatics methods that have been applied to patent mining, nanomaterial/device characterization, nanomedicine, and environmental risk assessment. Nine natural language processing (NLP-based tools were identified: NanoPort, NanoMapper, TechPerceptor, a Text Mining Framework, a Nanodevice Analyzer, a Clinical Trial Document Classifier, Nanotoxicity Searcher, NanoSifter, and NEIMiner. We conclude with recommendations for sharing NLP-related tools through online repositories to broaden participation in nanoinformatics.

  10. Processing of Sensory Information in the Olfactory System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The olfactory system is an attractive model system due to the easy control of sensory input and the experimental accessibility in animal studies. The odorant signals are processed from receptor neurons to a neural network of mitral and granular cells while various types of nonlinear behaviour can...... and equation-free techniques allow for a better reproduction and understanding of recent experimental findings. Talks: Olfaction as a Model System for Sensory-Processing Neural Networks (Jens Midtgaard, University of Copenhagen, Denmark) Nonlinear Effects of Signal Transduction in Olfactory Sensory Neurons......, Bayer Technology Services) Axonal Pathfinding and Sorting in the Olfactory System (Noemi Hummel, ETH Zuerich, Switzerland; Simon Kokkendorff and Jens Starke, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark) Analysis of Macroscopic Network Activities (Jens Starke, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark...

  11. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 2 of 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-11-01

    professionals such as nurses, nurse practitioners, midwives, and pharmacists and promoting task-sharing in family planning. (II-2B) 6. The Canadian Community Health Survey should include adequate reproductive health indicators in order for health care providers and policy makers to make appropriate decisions regarding reproductive health policies and services in Canada. (III-B) 7. Health Canada processes and policies should be reviewed to ensure a wide range of modern contraceptive methods are available to Canadian women. (III-B) Chapter 2: Contraceptive Care and Access Summary Statements  8. Although there are many contraceptive options in Canada, only a narrow range of contraceptive methods are commonly used by those of reproductive age. (II-3)  9. Condom use decreases with longer relationship tenure and when the sexual partner is considered to be the main partner, likely due to a lower perceived risk of sexually transmitted infection in that relationship. Condom use may also decrease markedly as an unintended consequence when an effective non-barrier method, such as hormonal contraception or intrauterine contraception, is initiated. (II-3) 10. Family planning counselling provides a natural segue into screening for concerns about sexual function or intimate partner violence. (III) 11. Well-informed and well-motivated individuals who have developed skills to practise safer sex behaviours are more likely to use contraceptive and safer sex methods effectively and consistently. (II-2) Recommendations 8. Comprehensive family planning services, including abortion services, should be accessible to all Canadians regardless of geographic location. These services should be confidential, non-judgemental, and respectful of individuals' privacy and cultural contexts. (III-A) 9. A contraceptive visit should include history taking, screening for contraindications, dispensing or prescribing a method of contraception, and exploring contraceptive choice and adherence in the broader context

  12. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 1 of 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-10-01

    professionals such as nurses, nurse practitioners, midwives, and pharmacists and promoting task-sharing in family planning. (II-2B) 6. The Canadian Community Health Survey should include adequate reproductive health indicators in order for health care providers and policy makers to make appropriate decisions regarding reproductive health policies and services in Canada. (III-B) 7. Health Canada processes and policies should be reviewed to ensure a wide range of modern contraceptive methods are available to Canadian women. (III-B) Chapter 2: Contraceptive Care and Access Summary Statements 8. Although there are many contraceptive options in Canada, only a narrow range of contraceptive methods are commonly used by those of reproductive age. (II-3) 9. Condom use decreases with longer relationship tenure and when the sexual partner is considered to be the main partner, likely due to a lower perceived risk of sexually transmitted infection in that relationship. Condom use may also decrease markedly as an unintended consequence when an effective non-barrier method, such as hormonal contraception or intrauterine contraception, is initiated. (II-3) 10. Family planning counselling provides a natural segue into screening for concerns about sexual function or intimate partner violence. (III) 11. Well-informed and well-motivated individuals who have developed skills to practise safer sex behaviours are more likely to use contraceptive and safer sex methods effectively and consistently. (II-2) Recommendations 8. Comprehensive family planning services, including abortion services, should be accessible to all Canadians regardless of geographic location. These services should be confidential, non-judgemental, and respectful of individuals' privacy and cultural contexts. (III-A) 9. A contraceptive visit should include history taking, screening for contraindications, dispensing or prescribing a method of contraception, and exploring contraceptive choice and adherence in the broader context of

  13. The Structural Correlates of Statistical Information Processing during Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Isabelle; Hasson, Uri; Tremblay, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    The processing of continuous and complex auditory signals such as speech relies on the ability to use statistical cues (e.g. transitional probabilities). In this study, participants heard short auditory sequences composed either of Italian syllables or bird songs and completed a regularity-rating task. Behaviorally, participants were better at differentiating between levels of regularity in the syllable sequences than in the bird song sequences. Inter-individual differences in sensitivity to regularity for speech stimuli were correlated with variations in surface-based cortical thickness (CT). These correlations were found in several cortical areas including regions previously associated with statistical structure processing (e.g. bilateral superior temporal sulcus, left precentral sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus), as well other regions (e.g. left insula, bilateral superior frontal gyrus/sulcus and supramarginal gyrus). In all regions, this correlation was positive suggesting that thicker cortex is related to higher sensitivity to variations in the statistical structure of auditory sequences. Overall, these results suggest that inter-individual differences in CT within a distributed network of cortical regions involved in statistical structure processing, attention and memory is predictive of the ability to detect structural structure in auditory speech sequences. PMID:26919234

  14. [Relationship between creativity and hemispheric information processing: effect of handedness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karazaeva, A Iu; Razumnikova, O M

    2012-01-01

    Effect of handedness in creativity-related global and local hemispheric selective processing was examined with lateralized presentation of hierarchical letters. Eighty-four university students (aged 17-22 years) participated in the study. Handedness was determined by Annett questionnaire. Originality of imagery was assessed by a computer-based Torrance 'Incomplete Figures' test. Verbal creativity was assessed by the results of the sentence construction with three nouns belonging to remote semantic categories. The results show that higher figural originality is provided by an increase in both right-hemispheric and interhemispheric interference processes at the global/local or congruent/noncongruent level. Verbal originality is associated with an increase in the right-hemispheric interference between congruent and noncongruent stimuli at the local attention level and with a decrease in interhemispheric interference at the global level. A decrease in the typical preference of the right hand is accompanied by the higher creativity and acceleration of the right-hemispheric interference processes.

  15. AGING, CAFFEINE, AND INFORMATION-PROCESSING - AN EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LORIST, MM; SNEL, J; MULDER, G; KOK, A

    Structural and energetic processes in information processing were studied in young and elderly subjects. A visually focussed selective search task was used, in which subjects had to select relevant information, followed by controlled memory search processes to locate a target item. Caffeine was used

  16. Rethinking the Reference Interview--from Interpersonal Communication to Online Information Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Tula

    1999-01-01

    Compares the traditional model of the reference interview with a new model based on online information process. Findings offer new perspectives on the reference interview process and lend support to the adoption of a new reference model which shifts its venue from a person to person process, to one in which information itself provides the platform…

  17. The Role of Unconscious Information Processing in the Acquisition and Learning of Instructional Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldas, Seffetullah; Bakar, Zainudin Abu; Ismail, Hairul Nizam

    2012-01-01

    This review investigates how the unconscious information processing can create satisfactory learning outcomes, and can be used to ameliorate the challenges of teaching students to regulate their learning processes. The search for the ideal model of human information processing as regards achievement of teaching and learning objectives is a…

  18. Using Informance to Educate Parents and Demonstrate the Music Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowmos, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    Informances, informal and informative presentations of student learning that emphasize the learning process, provide an alternative to traditional concerts or programs, which may take general music classroom time away from activities not geared toward a specific performance. Informances are an excellent means of communicating educational…

  19. Breaking the Deadlock: Towards a New Intergovernmental Relationship in Canadian Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, William; Fierlbeck, Katherine; Levy, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Canadians are, at best, only "marginally confident" in the future of Canada's healthcare system (Nanos and Jenkins 2014). They are skeptical that simply spending more money can address the issues underlying Canadian healthcare, yet they also doubt the country's capacity to harness innovative strategies to improve healthcare (ibid). These issues are central to Canadians' concerns about healthcare reform: increased funding is no guarantee of better quality or access to healthcare and may reinforce inefficient patterns of health spending (Canadian Institute for Health Information 2012). For example, Contandriopoulos showed that since 2007 in Québec, total physician compensation, average physician compensation and average unit cost per service all rose quickly but the total number of services, number of services per capita and average number of services per physician were either level or declined (Contandriopoulos and Perroux 2013). However, simply pressuring provinces and territories to do more with less may also be counterproductive, because it creates immediate delivery pressures that reduce opportunities for careful deliberation of strategies for enduring and meaningful improvement. In this article, we present an approach to making the Canadian healthcare system more effective, efficient and sustainable. The program maintains the autonomy of the provinces and territories while renewing federal leadership. The core idea is to use federal healthcare transfer payments to incentivize greater efficiency, better access, better outcomes and increased health equity. Our goal is to set out this model for discussion. We acknowledge that measuring health outcomes, healthcare quality and health equity is challenging. Developing and implementing such measures will require conceptual development and detailed technical plans that are beyond the scope of this article. Moreover, we can only touch briefly on the political processes required to implement a model that balances

  20. Iron sufficiency of Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Marcia; Greene-Finestone, Linda; Lowell, Hélène; Levesque, Johanne; Robinson, Stacey

    2012-12-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world, but little is known about the iron status of people in Canada, where the last estimates are from 1970-1972. The data are from cycle 2 (2009 to 2011) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey, which collected blood samples from a nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 3 to 79. Descriptive statistics (percentages, arithmetic means, geometric means) were used to estimate hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations, and other markers of iron status. Analyses were performed by age/sex group, household income, self-perceived health, diet, and use of iron supplements. World Health Organization reference values (2001) were used to estimate the prevalence of iron sufficiency and anemia. The overall prevalence of anemia was low in the 2009-to-2011 period--97% of Canadians had sufficient hemoglobin levels. Generally, hemoglobin concentration increased compared with 1970-1972; however, at ages 65 to 79, rates of anemia were higher than in 1970-1972. Depleted iron stores were found in 13% of females aged 12 to 19 and 9% of females aged 20 to 49. Lower household income was associated with a lower prevalence of hemoglobin sufficiency, but was not related to lower serum ferritin sufficiency. Self-perceived health and diet were not significantly associated with hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels. The lack of a relationship between iron status and diet may be attributable to the use of questions about food consumption frequency that were not specifically designed to estimate dietary iron intake. Factors other than iron intake might have contributed to the increase in the prevalence of anemia among seniors.