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Sample records for canadian dairy cows

  1. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, S.; France, J.; Odongo, N.E.; McBride, R.A.; Kebreab, E.; Alzahal, O.; McBride, B.W.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records

  2. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S; France, J; Odongo, N E; McBride, R A; Kebreab, E; AlZahal, O; McBride, B W; Dijkstra, J

    2015-04-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records corresponding to 122 first, 99 second, and 92 third parity individual lactation curves. The functions were fitted using nonlinear regression procedures, and their performance was assessed using goodness-of-fit statistics (coefficient of determination, residual mean squares, Akaike information criterion, and the correlation and concordance coefficients between observed and adjusted milk yields at several days in milk). Overall, all the growth functions evaluated showed an acceptable fit to the cumulative milk production curves, with the Richards equation ranking first (smallest Akaike information criterion) followed by the Morgan equation. Differences among the functions in their goodness-of-fit were enlarged when fitted to average curves by parity, where the sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection (Richards and Morgan) outperformed the other 4 equations. All the functions provided satisfactory predictions of milk yield (calculated from the first derivative of the functions) at different lactation stages, from early to late lactation. The Richards and Morgan equations provided the most accurate estimates of peak yield and total milk production per 305-d lactation, whereas the least accurate estimates were obtained with the logistic equation. In conclusion, classical growth functions (especially sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection) proved to be feasible alternatives to fit cumulative milk production curves of dairy cows, resulting in suitable statistical performance and accurate estimates of lactation traits. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50

  4. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  5. Antimicrobial use on Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, V; McClure, J T; Léger, D; Dufour, S; Sheldon, A G; Scholl, D T; Barkema, H W

    2012-03-01

    Antimicrobial use (AMU) data are critical for formulating policies for containing antimicrobial resistance. The present study determined AMU on Canadian dairy farms and characterized variation in AMU based on herd-level factors such as milk production, somatic cell count, herd size, geographic region and housing type. Drug use data were collected on 89 dairy herds in 4 regions of Canada, Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and the Maritime provinces (Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia) for an average of 540 d per herd. Dairy producers and farm personnel were asked to deposit empty drug containers into specially provided receptacles. Antimicrobial use was measured as antimicrobial drug use rate (ADUR), with the unit being number of animal defined-daily doses (ADD)/1,000 cow-days. Antimicrobial drug use rates were determined at farm, region, and national level. Combined ADUR of all antimicrobial classes was 14.35 ADD/1,000 cow-days nationally. National level ADUR of the 6 most commonly used antimicrobial drug classes, cephalosporins, penicillins, penicillin combinations, tetracyclines, trimethoprim-sulfonamide combinations, and lincosamides were 3.05, 2.56, 2.20, 1.83, 0.87, and 0.84 ADD/1,000 cow-days, respectively. Dairy herds in Ontario were higher users of third-generation cephalosporins (ceftiofur) than in Québec. Alberta dairy herds were higher users of tetracyclines in comparison to Maritimes. Antimicrobial drug use rate was higher via systemic route as compared with intramammary and other routes of administration (topical, oral, and intrauterine). The ADUR of antimicrobials used intramammarily was higher for clinical mastitis treatment than dry cow therapy. For dry cow therapy, penicillin ADUR was greater than ADUR of first-generation cephalosporins. For clinical mastitis treatment, ADUR of intramammary penicillin combinations was greater than ADUR of cephapirin. Herd-level milk production was positively associated with overall ADUR, ADUR of

  6. Dairy cow monitoring by RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Stankovski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.

  7. Coping strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.

    1998-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate whether individual dairy cows display different and coherent patterns of physiological and behavioural stress responses. Such responses enable them to successful adapt in a changing environment.

    In Chapter 1, current

  8. Teat condition in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    The dairy cow's teat is the first line of defence against mastitis pathogens. The milking process may affect the teat's condition, increasing the risk of mastitis. It is well-proven that teat-ends with severe erosions or broken skin will have an increased risk of mastitis. However, more common

  9. Brief of requirements of the dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.M.R.; Ursinus, W.W.; Schepers, F.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Dixhoorn, van I.D.E.

    2009-01-01

    This report lists the brief of requirements of the dairy cow, based on her needs (also listed). The BoR indicates the actor’s needs with regards to the animal husbandry system. BoR of the main actors are incorporated in the redesign of a dairy husbandry system in the project Cow Power

  10. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  11. Eliminative behaviour of dairy cows at pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard

    2011-01-01

    Despite a strong avoidance of grazing near dung patches, cattle have traditionally been considered not to avoid bodily contact with faeces, regardless of any risk of disease. Little is understood of the behaviour of pasture-kept dairy cows at the time of defaecation and therefore, the eliminative...... was the predominant behaviour pattern of dairy cows at pasture, regardless of activity. Avoidance of bodily contamination with fresh faeces was shown at all observed eliminative events....

  12. Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows

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    Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.

  13. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  14. Behaviour of dairy cows under modern housing and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    The results of behavioural studies of dairy cows' behaviour under some modern housing and management conditions are presented. Social dominance in dairy cows is studied and methods to describe social dominance are discussed. The lying behaviour of dairy cows is studied under various

  15. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage concentrat...

  16. Automated behaviour monitoring in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Verhoeven, P.H.F.M.; Hogewerf, P.H.; Ipema, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Acceleration sensors in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) were used to monitor the behaviour of dairy cows. The data processing from 3D acceleration into behaviour classification (lying, standing or walking) was based on a two-steps method: first the distinction between lying and standing/walking was

  17. Modelling extended lactations of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, B.; Koops, W.J.; Herrero, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Nine mathematical models were compared for their ability to predict daily milk yields (n = 294,986) in standard 305-d and extended lactations of dairy cows of Costa Rica. Lactations were classified by parity (first and later), lactation length (9 to 10, 11 to 12, 13 to 14, 15 to 16, and 16 to 17

  18. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2008-01-01

    a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over...... the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5-10 years ago. Conclusions The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers...

  19. Dairy farmers' attitudes and intentions towards improving dairy cow foot health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Hogeveen, H.; Garforth, C.J.; Stassen, E.N.

    2013-01-01

    Dairy cow foot health is a subject of concern because it is considered to be the most important welfare problem in dairy farming and causes economic losses for the farmer. In order to improve dairy cow foot health it is important to take into account the attitude and intention of dairy farmers. In

  20. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    . The increased milk yield observed in experiment 1 was not observed in experiment 2. Adding 8% of MB to lactating cow diets had a mixed effect on DMI and milk production. Milk component yields and milk quality were not affected. Feeding this level of MB presents a hemolytic danger to lactating dairy cows. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. diets for lactating dairy cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I. & MERTENS, D.R.. l984. The use ofneutral detergent fibre versus acid detergent fibre in balancing dairy rations. Monsanto Technical Symposium, Fresno. Cal. March 14. 1984. VAN SOEST, P..I. & WlNE, R.H._ I967. Use ofdetergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. lV. Determination of plant cell wall constituents. J. Assoc.

  2. Ovarian follicular cysts in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garverick, H A

    1997-05-01

    Ovarian follicular cysts are anovulatory follicular structures that occur in 10 to 13% of dairy cows. This review focuses upon the dynamics of cyst growth, development, and persistence as well as on associated endocrine and cellular mechanisms. During the estrous cycle of cows, two to four waves of follicular growth occur. From a cohort of recruited follicles, one is selected for continued growth and dominance while the other undergo atresia and regress. In contrast, cysts have long been thought to be static structures that persist for extended periods. Although cysts can persist for extended periods, most regress over time and are replaced during subsequent follicular waves. The next dominant follicle either ovulates or develops into a new cyst. The recruitment of a cohort of follicles from which a cyst develops and the growth rate of cysts to ovulatory size are similar to ovulatory follicular waves, but the cyst continues to grow for a longer period. The interval between waves of follicular growth is longer for cows with cysts than for cows with normal estrous cycles. Each wave is preceded by a transient increase in circulating FSH. Near the time of cyst development and persistence, the concentration of FSH is not different from that during normal estrous cycles. Serum concentrations of LH and estradiol-17 beta are higher in cows that develop cysts than in cows that do not. Conversely, hypothalamic content of GnRH is lower in cows with cysts. Thus, cysts are dynamic structures, and their development and lifespan are likely associated with altered hypothalamic-hypophysial-ovarian function.

  3. Lifetime effects of infection with bovine leukemia virus on longevity and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Omid; VanLeeuwen, John; Stryhn, Henrik; Kelton, David; Keefe, Greg

    2016-10-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The economic impacts of the infection have been debated in the literature. The present study was conducted to determine the lifetime effects of BLV infection on longevity and milk production of dairy cows in Canada. The data were aggregated from a combination of two data sets: 1) BLV serum-ELISA test results from Canada-wide surveys of production limiting diseases, which took place between 1998 and 2003 in 8 provinces, and 2) longitudinal production data for all cows in the former study, extracted from the Canadian dairy herd improvement database. All participant cows had been culled or died by the onset of this study. A historical cohort study was designed, including cows which tested positive to BLV-antibodies in their first lactation (positive cohort, n=1858) and cows which tested negative in their second or later lactations (negative cohort, n=2194). To assess the impacts of infection with BLV on longevity (the number of lifetime lactations), a discrete-time survival analysis was carried out. The effect of BLV on the lifetime milk production (the sum of all life 305-day milk production) was evaluated using a multilevel linear regression model. Overall, 4052 cows from 348 herds met the eligibility criteria and were enrolled in the study. In the longevity model, the interaction term between time (lactation number) and BLV-status was highly significant. Cows which were positive to BLV had consistently greater probabilities of being culled (or dying) than the test-negative cows. In the milk production model, the interaction term between BLV-status and longevity of the cows was highly significant; indicating that lifetime BLV effects on the total milk production was dependent on the lactation in which the study cows were culled/died. Infected cows with 2 and 3 lactations showed significantly lower life milk productions [-2554kg (-3609 to -1500

  4. Biomarkers and mechanisms of natural disease resistance in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, van S.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to define and test biomarkers for disease resistance in dairy cows and to determine the underlying mechanism in natural disease resistance. The health status of the cows is an important issue in dairy farming. Due to the mandatory reduction in the use of antibiotics,

  5. Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteny, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Dairy cow husbandry contributes to environmental acidification through the emission of ammonia. In-depth knowledge on the processes and variable factors that play a role in the emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses benefits the production of emission data, the development of low

  6. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR) in subtropical southern China was surveyed between June 2009 and March 2010. A total of 455 serum samples of dairy cows were collected from 6 districts in 4 different cities, and examined for M. bovis ...

  7. Automated detection of oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows were developed, based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, cow's activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The detection model generated alerts for cows,

  8. Measures to improve dairy cow foot health: consequences for farmer income and dairy cow welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnis, M R N; Hogeveen, H; Stassen, E N

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farming in western countries with cubicle housing is an efficient way of dairy farming. Though, a disadvantage is the high prevalence and incidence of foot disorders (clinical and subclinical), which cause high economic losses and also seriously impair the welfare of dairy cattle. To point out the importance of reducing the amount and severity of foot disorders, advice to farmers should include information about the scale of the problem and the consequences in terms of economics and animal welfare. To provide support in making decisions on implementing intervention measures, insight into costs and benefits of different measures should be available. The objective of this study, therefore, is to provide more insight into the costs and benefits, for farmer and cow, of different intervention measures to improve dairy cow foot health. Intervention measures were modeled when they were applicable on a dairy farm with cubicle housing and when sufficient information was available in literature. Net costs were calculated as the difference between the costs of the measure and the economic benefits resulting from the measure. Welfare benefits were calculated as well. Cost-effective measures are: improving lying surface (mattress and bedding, €7 and €1/cow per year, respectively), reducing stocking density (break even) and performing additional foot trimming (€1/cow per year). Simultaneously, these measures have a relative high welfare benefit. Labor costs play an important role in the cost-effectiveness of labor-intensive measures. More insight into cost-effectiveness and welfare benefits of intervention measures can help to prioritize when choosing between intervention measures.

  9. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Røntved, Christine Maria; Sørensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of mastitis in terms of dairy cow behavior are relatively unknown. Future assessment of dairy cow welfare during mastitis will be facilitated by knowledge about the potential of mastitis to induce sickness behavior. Our aim was to examine behavior of dairy cows in the period from 2...... d before (d −2 and −1) to 3 d (d 0, 1, and 2) after experimental intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli. Effects of experimentally induced mastitis on behavior were examined in 20 primiparous Danish Holstein-Friesian cows, all 3 to 6 wk after calving and kept in tie stalls. After evening....... This knowledge can be useful for the development of welfare assessment protocols, early disease detection, and for future work aimed at understanding the behavioral needs of dairy cows suffering from mastitis....

  10. Carbon footprint of Canadian dairy products: calculations and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergé, X P C; Maxime, D; Dyer, J A; Desjardins, R L; Arcand, Y; Vanderzaag, A

    2013-09-01

    The Canadian dairy sector is a major industry with about 1 million cows. This industry emits about 20% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the main livestock sectors (beef, dairy, swine, and poultry). In 2006, the Canadian dairy herd produced about 7.7 Mt of raw milk, resulting in about 4.4 Mt of dairy products (notably 64% fluid milk and 12% cheese). An integrated cradle-to-gate model (field to processing plant) has been developed to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of 11 Canadian dairy products. The on-farm part of the model is the Unified Livestock Industry and Crop Emissions Estimation System (ULICEES). It considers all GHG emissions associated with livestock production but, for this study, it was run for the dairy sector specifically. Off-farm GHG emissions were estimated using the Canadian Food Carbon Footprint calculator, (cafoo)(2)-milk. It considers GHG emissions from the farm gate to the exit gate of the processing plants. The CF of the raw milk has been found lower in western provinces [0.93 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/L of milk] than in eastern provinces (1.12 kg of CO2e/L of milk) because of differences in climate conditions and dairy herd management. Most of the CF estimates of dairy products ranged between 1 and 3 kg of CO2e/kg of product. Three products were, however, significantly higher: cheese (5.3 kg of CO2e/kg), butter (7.3 kg of CO2e/kg), and milk powder (10.1 kg of CO2e/kg). The CF results depend on the milk volume needed, the co-product allocation process (based on milk solids content), and the amount of energy used to manufacture each product. The GHG emissions per kilogram of protein ranged from 13 to 40 kg of CO2e. Two products had higher values: cream and sour cream, at 83 and 78 kg of CO2e/kg, respectively. Finally, the highest CF value was for butter, at about 730 kg of CO2e/kg. This extremely high value is due to the fact that the intensity indicator per kilogram of product is high and that butter is almost exclusively

  11. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Jan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality risk in Danish dairy cows has more than doubled since 1990 (from 2% in 1990 to 5% in 2005. Until now, registrations about dead cows in the Danish Cattle Database have not included information about whether the cow died unassisted or was euthanized. Methods We interviewed a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5–10 years ago. Conclusion The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers, become lower. This might have positive impacts on animal welfare as more seriously ill cows are euthanized in the herds and not put through a period of suffering associated with disease and treatment or transported to a slaughterhouse in poor condition.

  12. Leptospira interrogans serotype hardjo in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić Branka M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on L. hardjo infection of dairy cows in the world pint out its important role in the occurrence of health and economic problem. L. interrogans serotype hardjo has been described as the cause of miscarriages, stillbirts, or the birhs of poorly vital calves, agalactia, mastitis, and low fertility in cows. Two L. hardjo genotypes have been identified in cows, namely, hardjopraitno and hardjobovis. Serological investigations have established a drastic increase in this leptospiral infection in cows. L. hardjo has become adapted to cattle as the primary host, so that an infection is maintained in herds and becomes deeply rooted because of the permanent presence of the source of infection. It was believed that sheep were accidental hosts, but the latest research suggest that they are yet another, transitory, host for maintining this leptospira serotype. L. hardjo is also important from the aspect of human health, especially of persons who are professionally exposed to this infection. L. hardjo infection is detected using serological tests and by proving the presence of leptospira. The medicine of choice in the therapy of leptospiral infections is streptomycin (DSM. Therapy using oxytetracyclines for clinical mastitis was also proven effective. Treatment is most successful in the early stage of the disease. A single dose of streptomycin administered in infected herds reduces the duration period of leptospira excretion through urine, thus preventing the spread of infection thorugh contaminated urine. The basic components of the plan to contain leptospira are the following: serological investigations, sanitary-higiene measures, the elimination of animals which excrete leptospira through urine, therapy, vaccination, quarantine.

  13. Robotic milking of dairy cows: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maculan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An innovative technology that currently tries to gain market share are milking robots. Despite the high costs, robotic milking may produce benefits for the farmer and for animals submitted to this system. The objective of this study was to perform a literature review on the use of robotic milking of dairy cows, addressing aspects such as implementation and functioning of the system and effect on milking frequency, milk production and composition, somatic cell count, mastitis, reproduction, and animal welfare. The results showed that the programming of the robot depends on the number of animals to be milked daily and on the milking frequency adopted in each batch. The implementation of the system mainly depends on the site where the facilities will be built and already existing structures on the farm. The milking frequency is higher for high-producing cows and at the beginning of lactation and is influenced by the palatability of the concentrate offered at the time of milking. Frequencies higher than three times per day reduce total milk fat production and increase the concentration of free fatty acids. The incidence of mastitis and somatic cell count tend to increase in the first three months after implementation of the system. After the second year, udder health tends to improve, normalizing mastitis incidence and somatic cell count. Reproduction of the cows is not affected if dry matter intake compensates the higher energy expenditure required for higher milk productions. Robotic milking improves cow welfare since the animals voluntarily turn to the robot when they feel discomfort.

  14. Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows Using Likelihood Ratio Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Björgvinssin, Trausti; Blanke, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses detection of oestrus in dairy cows using methods from statistical change detection. The activity of the cows was measured by a necklace attached sensor. Statistical properties of the activity measure were investigated. Using data sets from 17 cows, diurnal activity variations...... were identified for the ensemble and for the individual cows. A diurnal filter was adapted to remove the daily variation of the individual. Change detection algorithms were designed for the actual probability densities, which were Rayleigh distributed with individual parameters for each cow....... A generalized likelihood ratio algorithm was derived for the compensated activity signal and detection algorithm was tested on 2323 days of activity, which contained 42 oestruses on 12 cows in total. The application of statistical change detection methods is a new approach for detecting oestrus in dairy cows...

  15. Dairy producers' attitudes toward reproductive management and performance on Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis-Robichaud, J; Cerri, R L A; Jones-Bitton, A; LeBlanc, S J

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore Canadian dairy producers' attitudes toward reproductive performance and challenges they perceive to be related to reproduction and reproductive management practices. A survey in both English and French was developed, validated, and administered to Canadian dairy farmers between March and May 2014 to collect general farm, reproduction management, and reproductive performance data, as well as opinions and perceptions about different facets of reproduction. Associations between management practices and the perceived importance of reproduction were tested using a logistic regression model. Thematic network analysis was used to identify themes from the open-ended survey questions about challenges concerning reproduction. Finally, questions that were answered on a Likert scale were graphically represented using diverging stacked bar charts. A total of 832 questionnaires were completed online and by mail, which represents approximately 7% of all dairy farms in Canada. Respondents that ranked reproduction in lactating dairy cows as 1 of the 3 most important challenges faced on their farm (66%) were more likely to house their lactating cows in a tiestall and to have a lower herd annual 21-d pregnancy rate. Estrus detection and conception risk were 2 major themes raised and discussed by the respondents. Other concepts, including housing and milk production, were also perceived to affect estrus detection and conception risk. Whereas analysis of open-ended survey questions does not allow for quantification of the importance of different themes in the sample as a whole, it does show that respondents are aware of the multifactorial complexity of reproductive challenges on dairy farms. Improving performance was the main factor influencing decisions concerning reproduction for 80% of the respondents, and they adopted tools and technologies such as synchronization programs and automated activity monitoring systems to improve herd

  16. Modeling extended lactations of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, B; Koops, W J; Herrero, M; Van Arendonk, J A

    2000-06-01

    Nine mathematical models were compared for their ability to predict daily milk yields (n = 294,986) in standard 305-d and extended lactations of dairy cows of Costa Rica. Lactations were classified by parity (first and later), lactation length (9 to 10, 11 to 12, 13 to 14, 15 to 16, and 16 to 17 mo), and calving to conception interval (1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 6, 7 to 8, and 9 to 10 mo). Of the nine models, the diphasic model and lactation persistency model resulted in the best goodness of fit as measured by adjusted coefficient of determination, residual standard deviation, and Durbin-Watson coefficient. All other models showed less accuracy and positively correlated residuals. In extended lactations, models were also fitted using only test-day records before 305 d, which resulted in a different ranking. The diphasic model showed the best prediction of milk yield in standard and extended lactations. We concluded that the diphasic model provided accurate estimates of milk yield for standard and extended lactations. Interpretation of parameters deserves further attention because of the large variation observed. As expected, the calving to conception interval was found to have a negative effect on milk yield for cows with a standard lactation length. In extended lactations, these negative effects of pregnancy on milk yield were not observed.

  17. Dairy cows with prolonged calving seek additional isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2017-01-01

    In modern calving facilities, dairy cows either calve in a group pen or are moved to a separate individual pen when calving is imminent. In practice, cows are often moved too close to calving, which poses a health risk to cow and calf. Thus, a need exists for new calving facility designs and mana......In modern calving facilities, dairy cows either calve in a group pen or are moved to a separate individual pen when calving is imminent. In practice, cows are often moved too close to calving, which poses a health risk to cow and calf. Thus, a need exists for new calving facility designs...... that interactions between motivation for isolation seeking and calving behavior exist....

  18. Rubber Flooring Impact on Health of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate locomotion, health, production, and immunity over the first 180d of each of the 1st and 2nd lactations of cows assigned to free-stall housing with either r...

  19. Rubber Flooring Impact on Production and Herdlife of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The overall objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate production, reproduction, and retention of first and second lactations of cows assigned to either rubber (RUB) or concrete (CON) flooring at the fe...

  20. Bovine Mastitis in Dairy Cows in Mekele, Northern Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2007 to April 2008 on Holstein and Holstein-Zebu cross breds lactating dairy cows in and around Mekele to determine the prevalence, major risk factors and major bacterial pathogens of bovine mastitis in the study area. Simple random sampling of dairy herds, clinical ...

  1. Genetic determination of mortality rate in Danish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maia, Rafael Pimentel; Ask, Birgitte; Madsen, Per

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cow mortality has been steadily increasing during the last two decades in Denmark. This study aims to verify whether genetic mechanisms might be contributing to this increase. To do so, the records of 880,480 Holstein, 142,306 Jersey and 85,206 Red Danish dairy cows calving from 1990 to 2006...... were retrieved form the Danish Cattle register. Two causes of culling of cows were considered: death and slaughtering. Bivariate competing risk genetic models with a sire model structure were used to describe the death and the slaughtering rates simultaneously. The models included two random components...

  2. Rearing conditions, health and welfare of dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Hristov Slavča; Stanković B.; Zlatanović Z.; Joksimović-Todorović M.; Davidović V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in rearing conditions, health and welfare issues of dairy cows. The last approximately 30 years has witnessed worldwide increasing scientific research, consumer activity, and political response towards housing condition, health and welfare issues of dairy cattle. All buildings and housing systems for dairy cattle should be designed, constructed, maintained and managed to assist in the achievement of the Five Freedoms: freedom from hunger ...

  3. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Drinking and Cleaning Water Use in a Dairy Cow Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Krauß

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is used in dairy farming for producing feed, watering the animals, and cleaning and disinfecting barns and equipment. The objective of this study was to investigate the drinking and cleaning water use in a dairy cow barn. The water use was measured on a well-managed commercial dairy farm in North-East Germany. Thirty-eight water meters were installed in a barn with 176 cows and two milking systems (an automatic milking system and a herringbone parlour. Their counts were logged hourly over 806 days. On average, the cows in the automatic milking system used 91.1 (SD 14.3 L drinking water per cow per day, while those in the herringbone parlour used 54.4 (SD 5.3 L per cow per day. The cows drink most of the water during the hours of (natural and artificial light in the barn. Previously published regression functions of drinking water intake of the cows were reviewed and a new regression function based on the ambient temperature and the milk yield was developed (drinking water intake (L per cow per day = −27.937 + 0.49 × mean temperature + 3.15 × milk yield (R2 = 0.67. The cleaning water demand had a mean of 28.6 (SD 14.8 L per cow per day in the automatic milking system, and a mean of 33.8 (SD 14.1 L per cow per day in the herringbone parlour. These findings show that the total technical water use in the barn makes only a minor contribution to water use in dairy farming compared with the water use for feed production.

  5. Monitoring feeding behaviour of dairy cows using accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mattachini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring cow behaviour has become increasingly important in understanding the nutrition, production, management of the well being, and overall health of dairy cows. Methods of assessing behavioural activity have changed in recent years, favouring automatic recording techniques. Traditional methods to measure behaviour, such as direct observation or time-lapse video, are labour-intensive and time-consuming. Automated recording devices have become increasingly common to measure behaviour accurately. Thus, the development of automated monitoring systems that can continuously and accurately quantify feeding behaviour are required for efficient monitoring and control of modern and automated dairy farms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of a 3D accelerometer to record feeding behaviour of dairy cows. Feeding behaviour (feeding time and number of visits to the manger of 12 lactating dairy cows was recorded for approximately 3 h with 3D-accelerometer data loggers (HOBO Pendant G logger. The sensors were positioned in the high part of the neck to monitor head movements. Behaviour was simultaneously recorded using visual observation as a reference. Linear regression analysis between the measurement methods showed that the recorded feeding time (R2=0.90, n=12, P<0.001 was closely related to visual observations. In contrast, the number of visits was inadequately recorded by the 3D-accelerometer, showing a poor relationship with visual observations (R2=0.31, n=12, P<0.06. Results suggest that the use of accelerometer sensors can be a reliable and suitable technology for monitoring feeding behaviour of individual dairy cows in free stall housing. However, further research is necessary to develop an appropriate device able to detect and recognise the movements connected with the head movement during feeding. Such a device could be part of an automatic livestock management tool for the efficient monitoring and control of comfort and

  6. Recording and analysis of locomotion in dairy cows with 3D accelerometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Lammers, R.J.H.; Pompe, J.C.A.M.; Ipema, A.H.; Hogewerf, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    An automated method for lameness detection can be an alternative for detection by regular observations. Accelerometers attached to a leg of the dairy cow can be used to record the locomotion of a dairy cow. In an experiment the 3D acceleration of the right hind leg during walking of three dairy cows

  7. Contemporary aspects in assessment of protein needs in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubić Goran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of meeting protein needs in dairy cows is to provide sufficient degradable proteins, which are optimally used in the rumen, to provide the required level of productivity with a minimal amount of crude protein in the diet. The new concept, shown in this paper, which expresses protein value as metabolic, enables better protein balancing in dairy cows than before. The nutritive value of metabolic protein in dairy cows depends on essential amino acid composition of protein and their contribution to total essential amino acids. The improvement of protein utilization efficiency has practical implications. The reason for this is to decrease feeding costs per kilogram of milk or milk protein, the need for more efficient production, higher milk protein yield and to allow other nutrients in the diet to prove their influence on the increase of production.

  8. Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.A. Pires

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

  9. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in

  10. Feeding behavior identifies dairy cows at risk for metritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urton, G; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2005-08-01

    Dairy cows experience a high incidence of disease and metabolic disorders in the weeks immediately following calving, but early and accurate diagnosis remains a challenge. Cows suffering from metritis, one common disease following calving, exhibit reduced milk yield and reproductive performance. However, afflicted cows show few overt signs of illness and frequently go unnoticed in the absence of veterinary examination. To determine whether changes in feeding behavior could be used to identify animals at risk for metritis, attendance at the feed alley was monitored continuously for 26 Holstein cows during the transition period, beginning 2 wk before and ending 3 wk after calving. Every 3 +/- 1 d, cows were examined for metritis based on rectal body temperature and condition of vaginal discharge. Over the 3 wk of observations after calving, 69% of cows showed some signs of metritis. These cows spent on average 22 min/d less time at the feed alley during the transition period than did non-metritic cows. For every 10-min decrease in average daily feeding time, cows were twice as likely to be diagnosed with metritis. A threshold of 75 min of average daily feeding time was 89% sensitive and 62% specific for detection of acute metritis. In conclusion, reduced time at the feeder can be used to identify dairy cows at risk for metritis. More research is required to determine how soon before calving at-risk cows can be identified and whether these behavioral differences can also be used in the early diagnosis of other diseases or metabolic disorders.

  11. Examining the occurrence of residues of flunixin meglumine in cull dairy cows by use of the flunixin cull cow survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyrup, Cynthia L; Southern, Kristal J; Cornett, Julie A; Shultz, Craig E; Cera, Deborah A

    2012-07-15

    To determine whether cull dairy cows with signs of certain clinical conditions, termed suspect, are more likely than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows to have violative concentrations of flunixin meglumine in their tissues at slaughter. Cross-sectional study. 961 cull dairy cows. Suspect cull dairy cows were selected from 21 beef slaughter establishments with a high production volume of dairy cows, and kidney and liver tissues were collected for screening. Kidney tissues were screened for antibiotics and sulfonamides with the fast antimicrobial screening test (FAST). Liver tissues were screened for flunixin meglumine with an ELISA, and quantitative analysis of ELISA-positive samples was performed with high-performance liquid chromatography. During the same time period, liver tissues from 251 healthy-appearing cull dairy cows were collected for the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program Scheduled Sampling Plan, but were screened only for flunixin meglumine. Of 710 suspect cull dairy cows, 50 (7.04%) had liver tissue flunixin concentrations higher than the flunixin tolerance concentration (0.125 ppm). Thirty-one of 168 (18.45%) FAST-positive and 19 of 542 (3.51%) FAST-negative suspect cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Two of the 251 (0.80%) healthy-appearing cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Suspect cull dairy cows, especially those that were also FAST positive, had a significantly higher incidence of violative tissue flunixin concentrations than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows at slaughter. Targeted sampling plans for flunixin meglumine in suspect dairy cows can help to support more efficient use of resources and further safeguard the nation's food supply.

  12. Skin injuries on the body and thigh of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1994-01-01

    An epidemiological study was conducted in 18 dairy herds with the objective to characterize those groups of cows where skin injuries to the body and thighs occurred most frequently. Data were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression. The epidemiologic patterns were different in first...... and later lactations. In first lactation some degree of injury occurred among 7.7% of 1793 cows. For most cows occurrence of sole ulcer was positively associated with injury while occurrence of heel horn erosion was negatively associated with injury. The association between injury and body weight differed...... depending on month of calving (significant interaction). Injuries occurred most frequently among high yielding cows. Severe reproductive, metabolic, and/or infectious diseases were associated with injuries. In later lactations some degree of injury occurred among 13.4% of 832 cows in lactations 2 to 9 where...

  13. Circulating Metabolic Profile of High Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar CHALMEH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the metabolic profile based on the concept that the laboratory measurement of certain circulating components is a tool to evaluate metabolic status of dairy cows. Veterinarian also can evaluate the energy input-output relationships by assessing the metabolic profile to prevent and control of negative energy balance, metabolic disorders and nutritional insufficiencies. In the present study, 25 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided to 5 equal groups containing early, mid and late lactation, and far-off and close-up dry. Blood samples were collected from all cows through jugular venipuncture and sera were evaluated for glucose, insulin, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, high, low and very low density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL and VLDL. Insulin levels in mid lactation and close-up dry cows were significantly higher than other groups (P<0.05 and the lowest insulin concentration was detected in far-off dry group. Serum concentrations of NEFA and BHBA in early and mid-lactation and close-up dry cows were significantly higher than late lactation and far-off dry animals (P<0.05. Baseline levels of cholesterol in mid and late lactation were significantly higher than other groups. The level of LDL in mid lactation cows was higher than others significantly, and its value in far-off dry cows was significantly lower than other group (P<0.05. It may be concluded that the detected changes among different groups induce commonly by negative energy balance, lactogenesis and fetal growth in each state. The presented metabolic profile can be considered as a tool to assess the energy balance in dairy cows at different physiologic states. It can be used to evaluate the metabolic situations of herd and manage the metabolic and production disorders.

  14. Haematological and metabolic profiles of smallholder dairy cows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological and metabolic profiles of smallholder dairy cows in relation to weather patterns in southern highlands of Tanzania. ... and analysed for haemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV%), total protein (TP), glucose (Glu), calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and zinc (Zn) using standard methods ...

  15. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cow in Algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of clinical mastitis at the beginning of lactation on reproductive performance of dairy cows in Algeria. Calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals, number of insemination per conception and conception rate at the first artificial ...

  16. Nematode parasitism in adult dairy cows in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agneessens, J.; Claerebout, E.; Dorny, P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Vercruysse, J.

    2000-01-01

    Over a period of 1 year, from November 1997 to October 1998, the abomasa, blood and faecal samples of 121 dairy cows in Belgium were collected and examined for nematode infections. Nematodes were present in the abomasa of 110 animals. Ostertagia was found in all 110, Trichostrongylus was seen in 65

  17. Mastitis and oxidative stress in vitamin E supplemented dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this thesis evaluated the effect of vitamin E supplementation under field conditions on the udder health of Dutch dairy cows. Additionally, it investigated the mechanism by which vitamin E influenced oxidative stress, especially during the dry period. Moreover, it

  18. Progesterone profiles of postpartum dairy cows as an aid to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mining the concentration of progesterone in milk samples. (Laing & Heap, 1971; Darling, Laing & Harkness, 1974). The rapid measurement of progesterone in milk using a semi-automated radioimmunoassay (RIA) is now a well established technique for pregnancy diagnosis in dairy cows. (Booth & Holdsworth, 1976).

  19. Diagnosis of pregnancy in dairy cows based on the progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A linear discriminant function (LDF) was used to estimate the level of milk progesterone which allowed the best overall classification of dairy cows into pregnant and non-pregnant groups (confirmed by rectal palpation). Progesterone levels were measured in milk samples drawn between 20 and 24 days after insemination.

  20. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cow in Algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of clinical mastitis at the beginning of lactation on reproductive performance of dairy cows in Algeria. Calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals, number of insemination per conception and conception rate at the first artificial insemination were ...

  1. Recording of dairy cows behaviour with wireless accelerometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Bleumer, E.J.B.; Hogewerf, P.H.; Ipema, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The daily behaviour of dairy cows reflects the health and well-being status. The behaviour can be monitored with accelerometers (used as a tilt sensor to measure the angle) in a wireless sensor network. The angle of a leg reflects the lying or standing behaviour, the angle of the head might reflect

  2. Airborne Fungi in Dwellings for Dairy Cows and Laying Hens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matković, Kristina; Vučemilo, Marija; Vinković, Bara

    2009-01-01

    .... Pathogens contained may be a serious threat to animal and human health.The aim of our study was to analyse the fungi aerosol content in a stable housing dairy cows and in a coop for laying hens over the three autumn months of 2007...

  3. Nitrogen and amino acid metabolism in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S.

    1981-01-01

    For the process of milk production, the dairy cow requires nutrients of which energy supplying nutrients and protein or amino acid supplying nutrients are the most important. Amino acid supplying nutrients have to be absorbed from the small intestine and the research reported in this thesis mainly

  4. Performance of Crossbred Dairy Cows Suitable for Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    a new activity at Holetta Agricultural Research Centre (HARC). Purchased Boran heifers .... Table 1 Least square means ± se of body weight and daily growth rate to yearling F1 FB crossbred heifers. Age. N. Ls mean ± se body weight ... In developed countries dairy farmers often try to get the cow back in calf within 2 months ...

  5. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand

  6. Performance of crossbred dairy cows suitable for smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate productive and reproductive performances of F1 crossbred cows to produce and develop improved dairy cattle breed at on station and back up the on farm crossbreeding program at Holetta Research Center (HRC). One hundred fifty three F1 crossbred heifers were used to ...

  7. Ketosis in dairy cows: etiologic factors, monitoring, treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, S.G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Ketosis is a metabolic disorder that mainly occurs during the negative energy balance in early-lactation dairy cows. It is characterized by elevated concentrations of ketone bodies in blood (hyperketonemia), urine, and milk. The thesis of Saskia van der Drift covers investigations on etiologic

  8. Shortening or omitting the dry period in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Juncai

    2016-01-01

    During early lactation, dairy cows typically experience negative energy balance (EB) caused by the high energy requirement for milk yield, which cannot be met by feed intake. Severity of negative EB has been associated with an increased incidence of metabolic disorders and infectious diseases,

  9. Calculation of methane production from enteric fermentation in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, M.C.J.; Hoek, van der K.W.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to calculate methane production by dairy cows during the period 1990 till present. A dynamic mechanistic model of rumen fermentation and digestion will be used which represents the effect of detailed dietary characteristics on methane production

  10. Evaluation of an application for dynamic feeding of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, G.; Bleumer, E.J.B.; Duinkerken, van G.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic feeding is an innovative application for concentrate feeding of dairy cows. Daily individual settings are derived from the actual individual milk yield response to concentrate intake. This response is estimated using an adaptive dynamic linear model. Optimal daily individual settings for

  11. Estimate of the direct production losses in Canadian dairy herds with subclinical Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani; VanLeeuwen, John A.; Dohoo, Ian R.; Keefe, Greg P.; Weersink, Alfons

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the annual losses from Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) for an average, MAP-seropositive, Canadian dairy herd. A partial-budget simulation model was developed with 4 components of direct production losses (decreased milk production, premature voluntary culling, mortality, and reproductive losses). Input values were obtained primarily from a national seroprevalence survey of 373 Canadian dairy farms in 8 of 10 provinces. The model took into account the variability and uncertainty of the required input values; consequently, it produced probability distributions of the estimated losses. For an average Canadian dairy herd with 12.7% of 61 cows seropositive for MAP, the mean loss was $2992 (95% C.I., $143 to $9741) annually, or $49 per cow per year. Additional culling, decreased milk production, mortality, and reproductive losses accounted for 46%, 9%, 16%, and 29% of the losses, respectively. Canadian dairy producers should use best management practices to reduce these substantial annual losses. PMID:18624066

  12. Prevalence of lameness and associated risk factors in Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows housed in freestall barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Mason, S; LeBlanc, S J; Zaffino Heyerhoff, J C; Nash, C G R; Haley, D B; Vasseur, E; Pellerin, D; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Orsel, K

    2015-10-01

    Lameness is a severe welfare problem and a production-limiting disease in dairy farming. The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of lameness and investigate cow- and herd-level factors associated with lameness in dairy cows housed in freestall barns in 3 Canadian provinces. A purposive sample of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was selected from each of 141 dairy farms in Québec, Ontario, and Alberta. In total, 5,637 cows were scored once for lameness (presence of limping when walking). Data collected included information on individual cows (hock lesions, claw length, body condition score, parity, days in milk, and milk production), management practices (floor and stall cleaning routine, bedding routine, and footbath practices), and facility design (stall dimensions, stall base and bedding type, width of feed alley, flooring type, and slipperiness) hypothesized to be risk factors for lameness. Multilevel mixed logistic regression models were constructed (including farm as a random effect and province as a fixed effect). Herd-level lameness prevalence ranged from 0 to 69% (mean = 21%). Lameness prevalence increased with increasing parity; compared with first parity, cows in parity 2, 3, and ≥ 4 had 1.6, 3.3, and 4 times, respectively, higher odds of being lame. Furthermore, the odds of lameness were 1.6 times greater in cows with low body condition score (≤ 2.5) than in cows with a higher body condition score. In addition, injured hocks and overgrown claws were associated with 1.4- and 1.7-fold increased odds of being lame, respectively, whereas every 1 kg increase in daily milk production was associated with a 3% decrease in the odds of being lame. Lameness prevalence was higher in herds with ≤ 100 cows, but lower in barns with a sand or dirt stall base, or with bedding ≥ 2 cm deep. Cows exposed to very slippery floors had 2 times the odds of being lame compared with cows exposed to nonslippery floors. We attributed the wide range of lameness

  13. A necropsy-based descriptive study of dairy cow deaths on a Colorado dairy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, C S; Garry, F B; Lombard, J E; Kidd, J A; Hill, A E; Gould, D H

    2009-05-01

    Increasing levels of dairy cow mortality pose a challenge to the US dairy industry. The industry's current understanding of dairy cow mortality is reliant upon descriptions largely based on producer or veterinary assumptions regarding cause of death without the benefit of detailed postmortem evaluations. A thorough necropsy is a superior tool for establishing a cause of death, except for cases involving euthanasia for traumatic accidents or severe locomotor disorders. Information provided from a necropsy examination would be most valuable if it were categorized and combined with cow health information in a complete postmortem evaluation designed to guide future management decisions. The objective of this study was to describe dairy cow deaths on a Colorado dairy over a 1-yr period and explore classification systems for necropsy findings that might inform management actions aimed at reducing dairy cow mortality. Throughout the study period a thorough necropsy examination was performed on every cow that died. Based upon this examination each death was characterized by a proximate cause (i.e., the most likely immediate cause of the death). Each proximate cause of death was then categorized using 3 alternate schemes founded on generalized etiologic principles and influenced by previous clinical history and treatments. These schemes included the broad categories commonly used for classifying findings within a review of literature related to dairy cow mortality, a diagnostic scheme used within the problem-oriented veterinary medical record, and an analysis focusing on the primary physiologic system derangement for each death. A total of 2,067 cows were enrolled during the study period of which 1,468 cows freshened, 507 cows were sold, and 94 cows died, resulting in a mortality risk of 6.4 deaths per 100 lactations at risk. The distribution of deaths by parity was significantly different from the herd distribution at the end of study with the largest percentage of death

  14. Potential for reduction of methane emissions from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Maike; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Methane is a gas cows naturally produce in the rumen. However, it is also a potential greenhouse gas. Therefore, there is a certain interest from an environmental point of view to reduce methane emissions from dairy cows. Estimates from earlier studies indicate that there is a potential to reduce......, while fibre and sugar enhance methane emissions. Fat can be regarded as the most promising feed additive at the moment. At AU, respiration chambers have been installed to enable methane measurements from dairy cows combined with digestibility trials, and at present studies are being conducted concerning...... methane production by 10 to 25% by changing the feeding strategies. Several feedstuffs influence methane production, such as additional fat. The increase of the concentrate proportion can potentially decrease methane by decreasing the rumen degradability of the diet or by changing the rumen fermentation...

  15. Milk urea concentration as an indicator of ammonia emission from dairy cow barn under restricted grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duinkerken, van G.; Smits, M.C.J.; Andre, G.; Sebek, L.B.J.; Dijkstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk milk urea concentration was evaluated to assess its potential as an indicator of ammonia emission from a dairy cow barn in a situation with restricted grazing. An experiment was carried out with a herd of, on average, 52 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The cows were housed in a naturally

  16. Heel erosion and other interdigital disorders in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiologic associations between variables obtainable from dairy cow records and the occurrence of heel erosion, interdigital dermatitis, and interdigital hyperplasia at claw trimmings were estimated with multivariable logistic regression analysis on data from 1170 and 542 cows in lactation 1...... and lactations 2 to 9, respectively. In the 17 herds, heel erosion, interdigital dermatitis, and hyperplasia occurred among 43.8, 4.5, and .9% of cows in lactation 1 and among 69.1, 7.6 and 5.9% of cows in lactations 2 to 9, respectively. Severity of heel erosion increased with parity, and risk increased...... with stage of lactation. Strong seasonal effects were present. Various combinations of veterinary treatments were associated with heel erosion and hyperplasia depending on parity, stage of lactation, and the presence of other claw disorders. In contrast, veterinary treatment had a protective effect...

  17. Reduction of Slaughter Value of Paratuberculosis-Infected Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Braad; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on slaughter weight and slaughter value of dairy cows. Two datasets were analyzed: 1) recordings from 1,031 cows in herds in a pilot-study to control MAP infections; and 2...... datasets. Furthermore, repeated fecal culture and occurrence of enteritis and enteric edema found at slaughter were recorded in Dataset 1 and 2, respectively. Slaughter weight and value were reduced by 10% and 17%, respectively, in cows with positive ELISA at slaughter. If the cow was also positive...... in fecal culture, slaughter weight and value were reduced up to 15% and 31%, respectively. The slaughter weight and value were reduced an additional 20% and 31%, for cases with recorded enteritis or edema. Thereby, summarized weight losses up to 31% and value losses up to 48% occurred. Fecal culture...

  18. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

    2014-01-01

    Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were

  19. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was associated with poor hygiene of the udder and lower legs; multiparous cows had poorer hygiene of the upper legs

  20. Utilization of Tephrosia vogelii in controlling ticks in dairy cows by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of Tephrosia vogelii in controlling ticks on dairy cows among small-scale dairy farmers in Mashonaland Central Province of Zimbabwe. T. vogelii treatment concentrations and Triatix D acaricide dip were randomly administered to 40 dairy cows. The experiment was carried out ...

  1. Quercetin decrease somatic cells count in mastitis of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmańczuk, Artur; Hola, Piotr; Milczak, Andrzej; Piech, Tomasz; Kowalski, Cezary; Wojciechowska, Beata; Grabowski, Tomasz

    2018-01-09

    Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid which has an effect on inflammation, angiogenesis and vascular inflammation. In several other flavonoids (e.g. kaempferol, astragalin, alpinetin, baicalein, indirubin), anti-inflammatory mechanism was proven by using mice mastitis model. The aim of the current study was pilot analysis of quercetin tolerability and its impact on somatic cells count (SCC) after multiple intramammary treatment on dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Based on SCC and clinical investigation, 9 dairy cows with clinical mastitis of one quarter were selected for the pilot study. Baseline analysis (hematology, TNFα, SCC) was performed every 24h among all cows three days before the first dose (B1-B3). After the baseline monitoring (B1-B3) eight days treatment (D1-D8) was performed with a high and low dose. Selected blood parameters were analyzed. Starting from D1 to D8, a decrease of SCC in relation to baseline was characterized by declining trend. The presented results allowed the confirmation of the significant influence of quercetin on the reduction of SCC in mastitis in dairy cows after 8days of therapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Comparison of the Effects of Goat Dairy and Cow Dairy Based Breakfasts on Satiety, Appetite Hormones, and Metabolic Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Martín, Elehazara; García-Escobar, Eva; Ruiz de Adana, Maria-Soledad; Lima-Rubio, Fuensanta; Peláez, Laura; Caracuel, Angel-María; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco-Javier; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Olveira, Gabriel

    2017-08-15

    The satiating effects of cow dairy have been thoroughly investigated; however, the effects of goat dairy on appetite have not been reported so far. Our study investigates the satiating effect of two breakfasts based on goat or cow dairy and their association with appetite related hormones and metabolic profile. Healthy adults consumed two breakfasts based on goat (G-Breakfast) or cow (C-Breakfast) dairy products. Blood samples were taken and VAS tests were performed at different time points. Blood metabolites were measured and Combined Satiety Index (CSI) and areas under the curves (AUC) were calculated. Desire to eat rating was significantly lower (breakfast & time interaction p dairy when compared to cow dairy products, and pointed to a potential association of GLP-1 and triglyceride levels with the mechanisms by which dairy products might affect satiety after the G-Breakfast and C-Breakfast, respectively.

  3. The Serum Pepsinogen Level of Dairy Cows with Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali HAJIMOHAMMADI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of abomasal mucosal diseases in dairy cows suffering from gastrointestinal disorders is becoming more frequent in modern intensive production. Clinical signs are often non-specific. In this study, 67 dairy cows with gastrointestinal disorders and 9 healthy dairy cows as the control group were used. In order to make a tentative diagnosis, a complete physical examination was performed, and the fecal samples were taken from each cow for the fecal occult blood (FOB and the fecal egg count (FEC. Blood samples were taken from the coccygeal vein for WBC, Hematocrit (PCV evaluations, and serum biochemical analysis. Serum pepsinogen activity and total protein; albumin and globulin were measured using validated standard methods. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. The level of significance was set at P<0.05. A significant increase in serum pepsinogen activity was seen in all the cases of abomasal displacements compared to the control group. Among the abomasal displacement groups a significant increase in serum pepsinogen activity was seen in abomasal displacements with suspected abomasal ulcer in comparison with those without any signs of abomasal ulcer (positive FOB and melena. No considerable differences were observed between WBC, PCV, and total protein and globulin in different gastrointestinal disorders and the control group. In this study, the serum pepsinogen activity in all dairy cows with signs of abomasal ulcer (melena and positive fecal occult blood test was higher than the control group, since all of the cases had negative abomasal parasites; these increases in the signs of abomasal ulcer could predict abomasal ulcer complication in the cases of displacements.

  4. Metabolism of americium-241 in dairy animals. [Cows and goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, W.W.; Patzer, R.G.; Mullen, A.A.; Hahn, P.B.; Potter, G.D.

    1978-10-01

    Groups of lactating cows and goats were used to examine americium-241 metabolism in dairy animals. Following either single oral or intravenous nuclide doses, samples of milk, urine, blood, and feces were taken over a 168-hr collection period and the americium concentrations were determined by gamma counting. Gastrointestinal uptake of americium by both cows and goats was estimated to be 0.014% of the respective oral doses. The cumulative percentage of oral dose transported to milk and urine was 4.4 x 10/sup -4/ and 1.1 x 10/sup -3/ respectively for cows and 4.4 x 10/sup -3/ and 1.2 x 10/sup -3/ respectively for goats. The relatively high americium concentrations noted in caprine milk following the oral doses are discussed. Plasma concentrations of americium decreased rapidly following all intravenous injections. The average percentage of injected americium transferred to milk, urine, and feces was 3, 6, and 2% respectively for cows and 2, 4, and 2% respectively for goats. In both intravenously dosed groups, approximately 30% of all americium released from the body was found in the urine during the first 24 hrs after injection. All animals were sacrificed 8 to 9 days after dosing. Bovine bone retained the greatest fraction of the administered dose followed by the liver. However, liver retained the greatest amount of americium in the goats following both oral and intravenous doses. Comparisons are presented between americium-241 and plutonium-238 transport in dairy cows.

  5. Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Dried Sardines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. AI-Abri

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available To utilize locally available feed resources with livestock production in hot climates, dried sardines were incorporated into diets for lactating dairy cows. Fourteen Holstein and 13 Australian Milk Zebu multiparous cows were used in a 70-day continuous feeding experiment. lsonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing either soybean meal or dried sardines (supplied 40% of dietary crude protein were fed ad - libitum. Comparisons between diets were made during the 7-week experimental period. The experiment was conducted as a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatment, with diet and breed as main factors. Ruminal pH, ammonia N, total and individual volatile fatty acids concentrations were not altered by the feeding of dried sardines. Intakes of dry matter, energy, crude protein, and acid detergent fiber were lower (P0.05 in Holstein cows fed dried sardines than those fed the control diet (16.2 vs 15.1 kg/d. Feeding of dried sardines did not affect milk composition and compositional yields. Milk production was higher (P<0.01 in Holstein than Australian Milk Zebu cows. Effect of diet and breed interaction on milk production was significant (P<0.01 . Potential of feeding marine proteins may be higher for higher milk producers (Holstein than lower producers (Australian Milk Zebu. Reproduction parameters, body condition scores, and heat-stress associated parameters were not affected by the feeding of dried sardines. This study suggests that dried sardines could be incorporated into diets of lactating dairy cows without affecting milk production.

  6. Cystic ovarian follicles and thyroid activity in the dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutinati, M; Rizzo, A; Sciorsci, R L

    2013-05-01

    Thyroid activity affects the functionality of the reproductive axis and thyroid dysfunction has been associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome, in human medicine. This study investigates serum17- estradiol, progesterone, thyrotropic and thyroid hormone levels, in cyclic dairy cows on heat (Group H) and in dairy cows with ovarian follicular cysts (Group FC). Both 17- estradiol and progesterone serum concentrations were statistically higher in cystic than in cyclic cows (estradiol: 8.51±1.91 vs 6.32±1pg/mL) (progesterone: 0.49±0.17 vs 0.13±0.03ng/mL), whereas TSH and fT4 serum concentrations were statistically lower in cows with cystic ovarian follicles (COF), compared to cyclic ones (TSH: 2.48±1.31 vs 3.56±1.03ng/mL) (fT4: 5.86±1.69 vs 8.63±1.08). fT3 serum levels were similar, in both cystic and cyclic subjects (2.94±0.65 vs 3.02±0.9, respectively). Based on these results it was decided to examine the function of the thyrothropic axis of dairy cows in a similar manner to that conducted on humans. If severe hypothyroidism should be found, a hormone replacement therapy could be attempted in cystic cows refractory to "ordinary" therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Behaviour of dairy cows under free or forced cow traffic in a simulated automatic milking system environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwere, de C.C.K.; Hendriks, M.M.B.; Metz, J.H.M.; Schouten, W.G.P.

    1998-01-01

    The introduction of fully automatic milking systems (AMS) on dairy farms can only succeed if cows visit the system more or less voluntarily, at regular intervals. This can be arranged by either forced or free cow traffic. In the case of forced cow traffic, the AMS is the only route from the lying

  8. The effect of heat waves on dairy cow mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, A; Felici, A; Esposito, S; Bernabucci, U; Bertocchi, L; Maresca, C; Nardone, A; Lacetera, N

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the mortality of dairy cows during heat waves. Mortality data (46,610 cases) referred to dairy cows older than 24mo that died on a farm from all causes from May 1 to September 30 during a 6-yr period (2002-2007). Weather data were obtained from 12 weather stations located in different areas of Italy. Heat waves were defined for each weather station as a period of at least 3 consecutive days, from May 1 to September 30 (2002-2007), when the daily maximum temperature exceeded the 90th percentile of the reference distribution (1971-2000). Summer days were classified as days in heat wave (HW) or not in heat wave (nHW). Days in HW were numbered to evaluate the relationship between mortality and length of the wave. Finally, the first 3 nHW days after the end of a heat wave were also considered to account for potential prolonged effects. The mortality risk was evaluated using a case-crossover design. A conditional logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for mortality recorded in HW compared with that recorded in nHW days pooled and stratified by duration of exposure, age of cows, and month of occurrence. Dairy cows mortality was greater during HW compared with nHW days. Furthermore, compared with nHW days, the risk of mortality continued to be higher during the 3 d after the end of HW. Mortality increased with the length of the HW. Considering deaths stratified by age, cows up to 28mo were not affected by HW, whereas all the other age categories of older cows (29-60, 61-96, and >96mo) showed a greater mortality when exposed to HW. The risk of death during HW was higher in early summer months. In particular, the highest risk of mortality was observed during June HW. Present results strongly support the implementation of adaptation strategies which may limit heat stress-related impairment of animal welfare and economic losses in dairy cow farm during HW. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science

  9. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymann, A K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner

    2014-01-01

    indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive...

  10. Elevated Apoptosis in the Liver of Dairy Cows with Ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiliang; Chen, Liang; Huang, Dan; Peng, Zhicheng; Zhao, Chenxu; Zhang, Yuming; Zhu, Yiwei; Wang, Zhe; Li, Xinwei; Liu, Guowen

    2017-01-01

    Dairy cows with ketosis are characterized by oxidative stress and hepatic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatic oxidative stress and the apoptotic status of ketotic cows, as well as the underlying apoptosis pathway. The blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities and the haptoglobin (HP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and serum apoptotic cytokeratin 18 neo-epitope M30 (CK18 M30) concentrations were determined by commercially available kits and ELISA kits, respectively. Liver histology, TUNEL and Oil red O staining were performed in liver tissue samples. TG contents were measured using an enzymatic kit; Caspase 3 assays were carried out using the Caspase 3 activity assay kit; oxidation and antioxidant markers were measured using biochemical kits; apoptosis pathway were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot. Ketotic cows displayed hepatic fat accumulation. The hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly increased, but the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were markedly decreased in ketotic cows compared with control cows, indicating that ketotic cows displayed severe oxidative stress. Significantly higher serum levels of the hepatic damage markers AST, ALT, GGT and GLDH were observed in ketotic cows than in control cows. The blood concentration of the apoptotic marker CK18 M30 and the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the liver of ketotic cows were 1.19- and 2.61-fold, respectively, higher than the values observed in control cows. Besides, Caspase 3 activity was significantly increased in the liver of ketosis cows. Importantly, the levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) were significantly increased but the level of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) was markedly decreased, which

  11. Elevated Apoptosis in the Liver of Dairy Cows with Ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Du

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Dairy cows with ketosis are characterized by oxidative stress and hepatic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatic oxidative stress and the apoptotic status of ketotic cows, as well as the underlying apoptosis pathway. Methods: The blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT activities and the haptoglobin (HP, serum amyloid A (SAA and serum apoptotic cytokeratin 18 neo-epitope M30 (CK18 M30 concentrations were determined by commercially available kits and ELISA kits, respectively. Liver histology, TUNEL and Oil red O staining were performed in liver tissue samples. TG contents were measured using an enzymatic kit; Caspase 3 assays were carried out using the Caspase 3 activity assay kit; oxidation and antioxidant markers were measured using biochemical kits; apoptosis pathway were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot. Results: Ketotic cows displayed hepatic fat accumulation. The hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA content was significantly increased, but the activities of catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were markedly decreased in ketotic cows compared with control cows, indicating that ketotic cows displayed severe oxidative stress. Significantly higher serum levels of the hepatic damage markers AST, ALT, GGT and GLDH were observed in ketotic cows than in control cows. The blood concentration of the apoptotic marker CK18 M30 and the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the liver of ketotic cows were 1.19- and 2.61-fold, respectively, higher than the values observed in control cows. Besides, Caspase 3 activity was significantly increased in the liver of ketosis cows. Importantly, the levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK were significantly increased but the level of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1

  12. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150 days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5 °C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21 days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P + I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the

  13. Short communication: Cow- and herd-level prevalence of hypoglycemia in hyperketonemic postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, J; Buczinski, S

    2018-02-07

    The objective of this study was to quantify the prevalence of hypoglycemia in hyperketonemic dairy cows during the early postpartum period. A prospective observational study was conducted in 100 dairy herds selected by convenience. Within all participating herds, 40 cows (or the entire herd if smaller than 40 cows) were enrolled in the study (total of 3,776 enrolled cows). Herds were visited every 2 wk by an animal health technician. Cows were bled from their coccygeal vessels once between 1 and 14 d in milk, and cow-side testing was performed for ketonemia and glycemia using a device validated in cattle (Precision Xtra, Abbott, Mississauga, ON, Canada). Hyperketonemia was defined as β-hydroxybutyrate ≥1.4 mmol/L, and hypoglycemia was defined as glucose ≤2.2 mmol/L. Descriptive statistics were computed at the cow and herd levels. The cow-level prevalence of hyperketonemia, hypoglycemia, and simultaneous hypoglycemia and hyperketonemia was 20.0% (757/3,776), 13.8% (642/3,776), and 6.2% (235/3,776), respectively. Within the subset of hyperketonemic cows only, the prevalence of hypoglycemia was 31.0% (235/757). At the herd level, the median prevalence was 17.5% (minimum: 5.0%, first quartile: 10.0%, third quartile: 22.5%, maximum: 77.5%) for hyperketonemia, 15.0% (minimum: 5.0%, first quartile: 12.5%, third quartile: 20.0%, maximum: 47.5%) for hypoglycemia, and 7.5% (minimum: 2.5%, first quartile: 5.0%, third quartile: 12.5%, maximum: 17.5%) for simultaneous hypoglycemia and hyperketonemia. The herd-level median prevalence of hypoglycemia within the subset of hyperketonemic cows only was 30.6% (minimum: 2.5%, first quartile: 20.0%, third quartile: 39.1%, maximum: 63.0%). The results from this study show that the prevalence of simultaneous hyperketonemia and hypoglycemia is relatively low in the overall early postpartum cow population but also that approximately one third of hyperketonemic cows are hypoglycemic, which might represent an opportunity to improve

  14. Morphological and milkability breed differences of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bobić

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical characteristics of dairy cattle are not equal for all breeds, meaning that the morphological traits of udder and teats could favor an individual performance or a determined breed. Changes in teat tissue after machine milking occur because of the negative influence of the vacuum and mechanical forces of the teat cup liner. Duration and performance of machine milking also depend on the udder and teat conformation and milkability traits of cows. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in morphological characteristics of Simmental and Holstein cows before and after machine milking, as well as to elaborate the differences in some of milkability traits of the cows during process of milking. A correlation (from -0.30 to 0.37 was determined between exterior and interior traits of teats and the performance of milkability traits. In both cow breeds, statistically significant difference (p<0.0001 was found between the pre- and post-milking values in all investigated traits, with exception of teat end width. Holstein cows had significantly (p<0.001 higher amount of milk per milking, maximum and average milk flow, while cows of the Simmental breed had longer milking time duration, but without statistical significance. In comparison to Holstein breed, results of internal morphological traits of teats showed that cows of Simmental breed had longer teat canals and wider teat ends for both front and rear teats. Holstein breed compared to Simmental had thinner teats wall, but wider teat cistern. If compared to pre-milking stage, differences in teat cistern width and teat wall thickness that occur after milking were more expressed in the Holstein breed than in Simmental. Simmental cows had significantly (p<0.05 longer and wider rear teats. Future research should focus on proving the differences in changes of teat tissue due to milking between different groups of cows, as depending on the milk flow. Ultrasound method of recording can be

  15. Stray voltage and robotic milking of dairy cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenburg, J.; Lang, B. [Ontario Ministry of Agriculture (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    Stray voltage in livestock agriculture is the difference in voltage potential measured between two surfaces that may be contacted simultaneously by an animal. The reactions of animals to mild electric shocks caused by stray voltage have been reported to include behavioural changes, changes in milking characteristics of dairy cows and changes in production performance. It can make cows more reluctant to enter the farm dairy and can induce more frequent dunging and urination in the holding yards or during milking. Milk production may be reduced if avoidance behaviours are severe. This factsheet outlines appropriate testing of a robot site for stray voltage. Correction and prevention options available to reduce or eliminate stray voltage in robotic milking systems, i.e. equipotential plane or slatted floors, are discussed along with advantages and disadvantages of each. The most appropriate solution may depend on the voltage level found, the utility's policies and whether it is new construction or renovation.

  16. Diverse antibiotic resistance genes in dairy cow manure.

    OpenAIRE

    Wichmann Fabienne; Udikovic-Kolic Nikolina; Andrew Sheila; Handelsman Jo

    2014-01-01

    Application of manure from antibiotic treated animals to crops facilitates the dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants into the environment. However our knowledge of the identity diversity and patterns of distribution of these antibiotic resistance determinants remains limited. We used a new combination of methods to examine the resistome of dairy cow manure a common soil amendment. Metagenomic libraries constructed with DNA extracted from manure were screened for resistance to be...

  17. Modeling heat loss from the udder of a dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Wu, Binxin

    2016-07-01

    A mechanistic model that predicts sensible and latent heat fluxes from the udder of a dairy cow was developed. The prediction of the model was spot validated against measured data from the literature, and the result agreed within 7% of the measured value for the same ambient temperature. A dairy cow can lose a significant amount of heat (388W/m(2)) from the udder. This suggests that the udder could be considered as a heat sink. The temperature profile through the udder tissue (core to skin) approached the core temperature for an air temperature ≥37°C whereas the profile decreased linearly from the core to skin surface for an air temperature less than 37°C. Sensible heat loss was dominant when ambient air temperature was less than 37.5°C but latent heat loss was greater than sensible heat loss when air temperature was ≥37.5°C. The udder could lose a total (sensible + latent) heat flux of 338W/m(2) at an ambient temperature of 35°C and blood-flow rate of 3.2×10(-3)m(3)/(sm(3) tissue). The results of this study suggests that, in time of heat stress, a dairy cow could be cooled by cooling the udder only (e.g., using an evaporative cooling jacket). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. FGF-21: promising biomarker for detecting ketosis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Xu, Qiushi; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Yu, Hongjiang; Zhu, Kuilin; Shen, Taiyu; Zhang, Ziyang

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), a protein mainly synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive biomarker for diagnosis of ketosis in dairy cows. Ninety Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 healthy and 30 ketosis cases) were selected and divided into a Ketosis group (K), and a Control group (C). We measured serum FGF-21 and other biochemical parameters by commercial ELISA kits. In a combined population of all 90 cows, we found that serum FGF-21 level was lower (P ketosis. When the β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) level increased over 1.2 mmol/L, the FGF-21 level tended to decline below 300.85 pg/ml. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) for serum FGF-21 for diagnosis of fatty liver was 0.952-0.025 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.904, 1.000] which was higher than the AUC-ROC for glucose (Glc) and other tested parameters. We concluded that FGF-21 could be a diagnostic parameter in the evaluation and auxiliary diagnosis of changes in the energy metabolism state, and serum FGF-21 measurement would have a considerable clinical impact and lead to greater profitability in the dairy industry.

  19. THE UTILIZATION OF THE COMPLETE RUMEN MODIFIER ON DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thalib

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the use of Complete Rumen Modifier (CRM to improve dairy cow productivity and to mitigate enteric methane production has been conducted. Sixteen lactating dairy cows were distributed into 4 groups by using compelete randomized design (CRD. Group I (Control fed by basal diet consisted of elephant grass and concentrate 7.5 kg/hd/dy (CP 16% and TDN 70%, Group II (Pro. Woodii fed by basal diet + probiotic Woodii, Group III (Pro.Noterae fed by basal diet + probiotic Noterae; Group IV (CRM-Noterae fed by basal diet + CRM + Pro.Noterae. Measurements were conducted on body weight gain, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, milk and methane production. Results showed that CRM-Noterae increased ADG by 72% (1.29 vs 0.75 kg and improved FCR (9.2 vs 15.6. Probiotic noterae as single treatment or combined with CRM increased fat and total solid content of milk from 3.18% and 10.58% in control group to become 3.91%; 11.31% and 3.55%; 11.02%, respectively. The lowest methane production was recorded in Group IV. The combination of CRM and Noterae reduced percentage of methane production by 14%. It is concluded that combination of CRM and Noterae can improve dairy cow performance and decrease methane production. Probiotic Noterae improved milk quality.

  20. Frequency of some acropodium diseases in dairy cows in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research included 520 dairy cows on 64 mini-farms in mountainous Serbian areas, with the goal to acquire an insight on acropodium diseases frequency in dairy cows, as well as distribution of hoof alterations. In 56.25% of farms, animals were kept tied in the stable, while 43.75% were grazing regularly or occasionally. Only 10.94% of farms were free of hoof acropodium alterations. Extremely bad hygienic conditions were noted in 18.75% of farms, where 74.01% of animals had acropodium lesions. Based on clinical analysis of 520 dairy cows, 388 of them were diagnosed with acropodium alternations: overgrown hooves (in 21.91% of animals, shoe-like hooves (7.22%, scissors-like (17.27% and spiral hooves (8.76%. Wounded acropodium skin was diagnosed in 1.8%, interdigital phlegmon in 9.02%, aseptic pododermatitis in 3.61%, digital dermatitis in 4.89%, interdigital dermatitis in 3.09%, hoof ulcer in 3.35%, interdigital blister in 4.89%, hollow hoof wall in 6.18%, horn wall rupture in 0.51%, heel abscess in 3.09%, tendovaginitis in 3.85% and crown joint displacement in 0.26% of animals. We found no pathological lesions of the acropodium in 132 animals (25.38%.

  1. Assessment of visceral pain associated with metritis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkov, J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Marchant-Forde, J N; Weary, D M

    2015-08-01

    Metritis is a common disease in dairy cattle, but to our knowledge, no work has assessed pain associated with this disease. Tissue palpation is commonly used to assess pain in human and veterinary medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate visceral pain responses during rectal palpation, with and without uterine palpation, in healthy cows and in cows diagnosed with metritis. A total of 49 Holstein dairy cows (mean ± standard deviation parity of 2.8±1.8) were subjected to systematic health checks every 3 d after parturition for 21 d, scoring for vaginal discharge (0 to 4); 13 cows showed a discharge score ≥2 during at least 1 health check and were classified as metritic, whereas 29 cows were classified as healthy and showed no sign of this or any other disease (including mastitis and lameness). Back arch and heart rate variability before examination and during palpation were recorded using video and heart rate monitors. Back arch (cm(2)) on the day of diagnosis was greater in metritic versus healthy cows (1,034±72 vs. 612±48cm(2)), and greater during rectal palpation with uterine palpation versus rectal palpation without uterine palpation (869±45 vs. 777±45cm(2)). Heart rate frequency domain analysis showed that the low-frequency portion was higher in cows with metritis versus healthy cows (16.5±1.2 vs. 12.9±1.0). Time domain analysis showed that the standard deviation between normal to normal interbeat intervals and the root mean square of successive differences both decreased during rectal palpation with uterine palpation versus rectal palpation without uterine palpation (1.9±0.1 vs. 2.5±0.1 and 1.3±0.1 vs. 1.7±0.1, respectively). Together, these results indicate that the inflammation associated with metritis is painful, and that the pain response can be detected during rectal palpation with and without uterine palpation. Rectal palpation with uterine palpation appears to be more aversive than rectal palpation without uterine palpation

  2. Reproductive performance of artificially inseminated dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This on-farm longitudinal study was carried out in artificially inseminated smallholder dairy cattle herds in Rwamagana and Kayonza districts, Eastern Province, Rwanda and in urban and peri-urban area of Tanga city, Tanzania. The objectives of the study were to generate a reliable field data set and analyze it to determine ...

  3. Ovarian follicular cysts in dairy cows: an abnormality in folliculogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, W J; Hatler, T B; Nugent, A M; Laranja da Fonseca, L F

    2002-07-01

    Ovarian follicular cysts are a major reproductive problem in lactating dairy cows. The primary physiological defect leading to the formation of ovarian follicular cysts is a failure of the hypothalamus to trigger the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) in response to estradiol. The factor responsible for this hypothalamic defect may be progesterone. Intermediate levels of progesterone have been shown to prevent ovulation and promote persistence of dominant follicles in normal cycling cows. Recently, we found that 66% of cows with ovarian follicular cysts had progesterone concentrations in an unusual, intermediate range (0.1-1.0 ng/mL) at the time of their detection. A majority of new follicles (76%) that develop in the presence of these intermediate progesterone concentrations became cysts. Only 10% ovulated. Based on these observations, a novel model for the formation and turnover of ovarian follicular cysts is proposed.

  4. The high-producing dairy cow and its reproductive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, H; Smith, Rf; Royal, Md

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that the reproductive performance of dairy cows has declined as milk yields have increased over the last 40 years. Identifying the precise cause(s) of this problem may provide focused solutions. Intensive genetic selection for very high yields has reduced fertility, due mainly...... to an increase in postpartum clinical problems, poor expression of oestrus, defective oocytes/embryos and uterine infections. It is a challenge to solve the problem by getting enough food into these cows to meet the high demands of peak milk yields in early lactation, as well as providing the considerable...... veterinary attention required in the early period after calving. Both these aspects also pose welfare issues. A better solution would be to make genetic and management changes to increase the persistency of lactations to reduce the number and intensity of clinical risk periods throughout a cow's life without...

  5. GRAZING BEHAVIOUR OF DAIRY COWS ON MOUNTAIN FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VOŘÍŠKOVÁ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The etological observation was provided on a dairy herd (65 Czech Fleckvieh and 51 Holstein cows on a low-input mountain farm during the pasture season (April – October 2008. The milking was provided two-times a day in the stalls. The 24-hours observations were made four-times: in June, July, September and October, in 10- minutes intervals. The cows spent 25 to 38 % of a day on average by feeding and 18 to 22 % on average by moving (stalls – pasture movements took about half of this period. The resting time consisting of chewing was found unsufficient and took 29 % to 40 % of a day on average. Better comfort of cows given by an improved milking technology and a more effective grazing management connected with longer time spent by resting is suggested to achieve higher milk yields on the farm.

  6. Indicators of dairy cow transition risks: Metabolic profiling revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Saun, R J

    2016-01-01

    Periparturient disease conditions affecting transition dairy cows have been recognized as a critical contributor to impaired dairy performance and have become a focal point of herd diagnostic investigations. Over the past 40 years use of blood sampling in the form of metabolic profiling has been applied to herd diagnostics with mixed impressions of diagnostic robustness. Research has greatly increased our understanding of underpinning mechanisms related to cow biology, management, environment and their interactions responsible for peripartum diseases. Elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration (> 1.2 mmol/l) within 7-10 days following calving identifies high risk cows for therapeutic intervention. Herd evaluations with 15-25% of first week fresh cows with elevated BHB indicates significant disease risk and productive losses. Elevated peripartal serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) also indicate increased disease risk. This review discusses documented (BHB, NEFA) and other potential analytes using individual or pooled samples useful for disease risk assessment or nutritional status and their application in risk-based or herd screening methods of herd metabolic profiling diagnostics. A pooled sample approach modified from the original Compton Metabolic Profile allows for more economic assessment of multiple analytes, though interpretation and herd-size application may be limited. Pooled samples between 5 and 10 individuals accurately represent arithmetic means of individuals. Most importantly metabolic profiles must be used in concert with other diagnostic metrics of animal and facility evaluations, body condition scoring and ration evaluation to be fully useful in herd evaluations.

  7. Attitudes towards the Canadian quality milk program and use of good production practices among Canadian dairy producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I; Rajić, A; Hendrick, S; Parker, S; Sanchez, J; McClure, J T; McEwen, S A

    2010-04-01

    To harmonize good production practices (GPP) for dairy producers in Canada, the Canadian dairy industry has developed and is implementing a program called Canadian Quality Milk (CQM). A postal questionnaire was administered to all Canadian dairy producers enrolled in dairy herd-improvement organizations in 2008 (n=10,474) to investigate their attitudes towards the program and to establish baseline information on their use of GPP. The response percentage was 20.9% (2185/10,474). Two-thirds of producers (67.6%) reported participation in CQM and 61.4% of these indicated that the requirements were easy to implement. Most producers (85.0%) reported the use of cats as a pest-control method in their barns. For dead-livestock disposal, 65.0% and 38.0% indicated use of a collection service and burial, respectively. Nearly 40.0% of respondents indicated that they purchase replacement cattle, and somatic cell-count score was the main health indicator considered before purchase. Over 70% of producers reported that they clean and disinfect maternity, calf and weaned-calf pens, while only 34.1% and 53.1% reported that they provide visitors and employees, respectively, with clean clothes and boots. Through latent-class analysis, five groups (classes) of producers with distinctive patterns of reported use of GPP were identified. These were labelled as "minimal", "sanitation-only", "employee-visitor hygiene", "typical" and "ideal" user groups, with 11.1%, 23.8%, 20.2%, 37.1% and 7.7% of respondents, respectively. Respondents in the "ideal users" group had a higher probability of reporting the use of each GPP and were more likely to have completed an educational course in food safety compared to respondents in each other group. They were also more likely to have a herd size in the uppermost quartile (>65 cows) and report participation in CQM compared to each other group except the "employee-visitor hygiene users". The greatest differences were observed when compared to the "minimal

  8. Measures to improve dairy cow foot health: consequences for farmer income and dairy cow welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E.N.

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farming in western countries with cubicle housing is an efficient way of dairy farming. Though, a disadvantage is the high prevalence and incidence of foot disorders (clinical and subclinical), which cause high economic losses and also seriously impair the welfare of dairy cattle. To point out

  9. Supplementation of prepartum dairy cows with β-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R C; Guerreiro, B M; Morais Junior, N N; Araujo, R L; Pereira, R A N; Pereira, M N

    2015-09-01

    The prepartum supplementation of dairy cows with β-carotene was evaluated. Cows were blocked by parity and expected calving date and assigned to a treatment: β-carotene (1.2 g/cow per d) or control (no supplementation). The same total mixed ration batch was offered to all cows, and β-carotene was top dressed to individual cows once per day. The data set contained 283 Holsteins that received a treatment for >14 d (29.1±6.9 d). Frequency distributions were analyzed with the GENMOD procedure of SAS using logistic regression for binomial data. Continuous variables were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS. Within parity, nonparametric estimates of the survivor function for reproductive variables were computed using the product-limit method of the Kaplan-Meier method with the LIFETEST procedure of SAS. Plasma β-carotene concentration before supplementation was similar between supplemented and nonsupplemented cows (2.99µg/mL) and peaked at 3.26±0.175µg/mL on d -15±2.4 precalving for supplemented cows (2.62±0.168µg/mL for control). Colostrum density, milk yield, and milk composition were similar between treatments. β-Carotene tended to increase milk protein content from 2.90 to 2.96% and to decrease the proportion of primiparous cows with a milk fat to protein ratio >1.5 from 22.6 to 6.4%. The proportion of primiparous and multiparous cows with difficult calving, metritis, progesterone >1 ng/mL at 21 d and at 42 d in lactation, % conception at first service, and % pregnancy at 90 and 150 d in lactation were similar between treatments. A trend for decreased incidence of somatic cell count >200,000 cells/mL was present in multiparous cows supplemented with β-carotene (38.9% vs. 28.1%). β-Carotene was associated with a reduction in the proportion of multiparous cows with retained placenta 12 h postpartum from 29.9 to 21.7%; time of placenta release was 392 min (340 to 440) for β-carotene and 490 min (395 to 540) for control (median and 95% confidence

  10. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow's milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria species on the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae- and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes

  11. Feeding toasted field beans to dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, K.F.; Kjeldsen, A.M.; Askegaard, M.

    2013-01-01

    Toasting field beans can improve the protein quality of field beans markedly. In the feed demonstrations carried out in Project EcoProtein testing a new method of toasting with a drum dryer, showed, however, only reduced effect on the protein quality due to a lower than optimal temperature. The toasted field beans were fed in two organic dairy herds, replacing a part of the concentrates in the ration in a cross-over design. Preliminary results showed no milk yield difference in herd 1, but a ...

  12. Factors associated with early cyclicity in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercouteren, M M A A; Bittar, J H J; Pinedo, P J; Risco, C A; Santos, J E P; Vieira-Neto, A; Galvão, K N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with resumption of ovarian cyclicity within 21 days in milk (DIM) in dairy cows. Cows (n=768) from 2 herds in north Florida had their ovaries scanned at 17±3, 21±3, and 24±3 DIM. Cows that had a corpus luteum ≥20mm at 17±3 or at 21±3 DIM or that had a corpus luteum metritis, mastitis, digestive problems, lameness, body weight loss, dry period length, and average daily milk yield. Body condition was scored at 17±3 DIM. Multivariable mixed logistic regression analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Variables with P≤0.2 were considered in each model. Herd was included as a random variable. Three models were constructed: model 1 included all cows, model 2 included only cows from dairy 1 that had daily body weights available, and model 3 included only multiparous cows with a previous dry period length recorded. In model 1, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were calving in the summer and fall rather than in the winter or spring, being multiparous rather than primiparous, and not having metabolic or digestive problems. In model 2, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were calving in the summer and fall, not having metritis or digestive problems and not losing >28 kg of BW within 14 DIM. In model 3, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were absence of metabolic problems and dry period ≤76 d. In summary, cyclicity by 21±3 DIM was negatively associated with calving in winter or spring, primiparity, metritis, metabolic or digestive problems, loss of >28 kg of body weight, and a dry period >76d. Strategies preventing extended dry period length and loss of BW, together with reductions in the incidence of metritis as well as metabolic and digestive problems should improve early cyclicity postpartum. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Behaviour of Dairy Cows, Useful Indicator in Assessing Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Cristina Andronie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to establish the manner in which the flooring type may influence the welfare levelsin dairy cows by assessment of laminitis incidence and animals’ behaviour. 42 dairy cows were grouped based on theshelter floor surface: concrete with straw bedding, asphalted concrete with straw bedding and concrete plus shavings.The behaviour was assessed through direct observation and laminitis incidence was established by numericalassessment of locomotion prior or following milking.The results have indicated an increase of laminitis incidence by 15-25 % in B and C lot and was absent in A lot. Thelarge number of diseases was recorded on concrete floors with shavings bedding (53%. The behavioural displays ofthe cows suffering from laminitis were different from the healthy ones, as their resting behaviour outside the stallswas more prevalent (17.6% compared to 8.8% while the feeding behaviour was less present (10.1% compared to14.7%. Likewise, the socializing behaviour was more active in these animals, compared to the healthycows.

  14. Barley distillers grains as a protein supplement for dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W P; Erickson, D O; Erickson, G M; Fisher, G R

    1989-04-01

    Dried distillers grains produced from a mix of 65% barley and 35% corn were evaluated in digestion and lactation experiments. Dried barley distillers grains had 56% NDF, 29% CP, 3% amino acid N, 2.5% NDIN (55% of total N), and 1.8% ADIN (39% of total N). Wet barley distillers grains had 38% NDF, 27% CP, 2.7% amino acid N, .5% NDIN (12% of total N), and .8% ADIN (19% of total N). Digestibility of DM and N was similar among lactating dairy cows fed diets containing approximately 25% corn silage DM, 15% alfalfa silage DM, 15% alfalfa hay DM, plus varying amounts of a corn-barley concentrate mix and supplemental CP from soybean meal, barley distillers grains, or from 1:1 mixture of soybean meal and barley distillers grains. Digestibility of ADIN, NDF, and ADF increased with increasing amounts of barley distillers grains in the diet. Similar diets were fed to 60 Holstein cows for 84 d in a lactation experiment. Source of supplemental protein did not affect milk production (22.5 kg/d), FCM (20.4 kg/d), milk fat percent (3.6%), or DM intake (19.0 kg/d). Milk protein percent was decreased by feeding barley distillers grains. It was concluded that barley distillers grains were an acceptable protein source for dairy cows and that ADIN and NDF might not be appropriate measures of the nutritional value of this product.

  15. Urea in sugarcane-based diets for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Magno Ferreira Santiago

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of adding four levels (0, 4, 8 and 12 g/kg, as fed of a mixture (9:1 of urea and ammonium sulfate (UAs to sugarcane on feed intake and digestibility, productive performance and metabolism of nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (12.6±0.5 kg/d of milk, 225±90 days in milk were distributed in three 4 × 4 Latin squares, receiving diets with the same amount of nitrogen (125 g crude protein/kg of dry matter. Concentrate feed was supplied at a ratio of 1 kg for each 3 kg of milk produced. The sugarcane presented 21.9 ºBrix. The level of UAs did not affect intake, total digestibility of diet components, milk production or milk components. Increasing UAs level linearly increased concentration of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, urinary excretion of nitrogen and contribution of non-urea nitrogen in the urinary excretion and linearly reduced milk production/urinary excretion of nitrogen ratio. In spite of the linear increase of PUN with increased urea, the maximum value observed (14.31 mg/dL was below the threshold value of 20 mg/dL, above which reproductive function may be compromised. In diets with sugarcane for dairy cows with production below 15 kg/day, the UAs level may be raised from 0 to 12 g/kg natural matter without impairing performance.

  16. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Intake, milk production and nitrogen utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: perennial ryegrass, dairy cows, intake, digestibility milk production, nitrogen utilisation.In the Netherlands, grass is one of the main roughages in the diet of high productive dairy cows. Grass is associated with two main problems: the limited dry matter intake (DMI)

  17. Cow's health and farmer's attitude towards the culling decision in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaudeau, F.

    1995-01-01

    The study described in this thesis focusses on the health related culling decision in dairy cows, with special attention to the role of farmer's attitude in this process. This thesis is composed of four parts. In the first part, the associations between diseases and culling in dairy cows

  18. Metabolic adaptation during early lactation: key to cow health, longevity and a sustainable dairy production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Hammon, H.M.; Bernabucci, U.; Bertoni, G.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Goselink, R.M.A.; Gross, J.J.; Kuhla, B.; Metges, C.C.; Parmentier, H.K.; Trevisi, E.; Tröscher, A.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing longevity by reducing involuntary culling and consequently increasing productive life and lifetime production of dairy cows is not only a strategy to improve a farm’s profit, but is also related to improved animal welfare. High rates of involuntary culling in dairy cows are currently

  19. Persistency of methane mitigation by dietary nitrate supplementation in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Newbold, J.R.; Hulshof, R.B.A.; Perdok, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Feeding nitrate to dairy cows may lower ruminal methane production by competing for reducing equivalents with methanogenesis. Twenty lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (33.2±6.0 kg of milk/d; 104±58 d in milk at the start of the experiment) were fed a total mixed ration (corn silage-based;

  20. Design and calibration of chambers for the measurement of housed dairy cow gaseous emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased global demand for milk and other dairy products over the past decade has heightened concerns about potential for increased environmental impacts. Accurate measurement of gas emissions from dairy cows is essential to assess the effect of cow diets and other management practices on both ...

  1. How well does pasture meet the nutrient needs of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little research has evaluated the nutritional content of pastures relative to nutrient needs of grazing dairy cows. We conducted a study to determine how frequently pastures in the northeastern U.S. met nutrient requirements of lactating dairy cows and to describe a sample of the feeding strategies ...

  2. Milk progesterone on day 5 following insemination in the dairy cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the importance of progesterone on the fertility of lactating dairy cows, the factors that affect post ovulatory progesterone concentration are still unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with the post ovulatory progesterone rise following 1st insemination in lactating dairy cows.

  3. Effect of dry period length on rumen adaption in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goselink, R.M.A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Duinkerken, van G.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of length of dry period on rumen papillae dimensions of dairy cows around parturition. Twelve rumen-cannulated Holstein dairy cows were assigned to a dry period length of 60 (G60), 30 (G30) or 0 (G0) days. The experiment started 60 d before

  4. Pre- and postpartum effects of starch and fat in dairy cows: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review discusses the effects of starch and fat before and after calving on metabolism, energy balance (EB), milk production, and reproduction in dairy cows. ... These periparturient biological improvements in dairy cows showed real benefits such as fewer postpartum health complications (e.g. milk fever, ketosis, mastitis, ...

  5. Determination of digestibility of different forages in dairy cows using indigestible NDF as marker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Four 4 x 4 Latin square experiments were conducted with four cannulated dairy cows. Eight forages were fed ad libitum or supplemented with concentrate.......Four 4 x 4 Latin square experiments were conducted with four cannulated dairy cows. Eight forages were fed ad libitum or supplemented with concentrate....

  6. Prevalence and Clinico-Pathology of Ketosis in Dairy Cows in Tigray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation to study the prevalence and clinico-pathology of ketosis in dairy cows was undertaken from November 2007 to May 2008 at Kalamino, Agazi and Mekelle University dairy farms in and around Mekelle town of Tigray region of Ethiopia. Recently- calved cows were screened for ketosis by subjecting urine and ...

  7. Effects of dietary starch content and rate of fermentation on methane production in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Podesta, S.C.; Laar, van H.; Pellikaan, W.F.; St-Pierre, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of starch varying in rate of fermentation and level of inclusion in the diet in exchange for fiber on methane (CH4) production of dairy cows. Forty Holstein-Friesian lactating dairy cows of which 16 were rumen cannulated were grouped in 10

  8. Product Quality in the Canadian Dairy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Lia; Baylis, Katherine R.

    2004-01-01

    Supply management has been shown to increase the price of milk. Technological change has induced (and allowed) processors to substitute alternative inputs, many of which can be imported tariff-free, for the traditional ingredients to lower costs and maximize profit. Meanwhile, there has been a great deal of consolidation in the dairy processing industry. We analyse the effect of these trends on cheese quality by measuring the increase in casein imports. Results suggest that supply management ...

  9. The effect of grazing on cow mortality in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2011-01-01

    The effect of summer grazing in large Danish dairy herds and certain management characteristics of grazing were studied for their impact on dairy cow mortality. Mortality data (from the Danish Cattle Database) from 391 Danish dairy herds (>100 cows) were combined with information from...... a questionnaire survey of grazing procedures on these herds in 2008. In all, 131 of the herds were identified as summer grazing and 260 as zero-grazing herds. The mortality was affected by an interaction of summer grazing and milking system. The risk of a cow dying was reduced to 46% in a grazing compared...... and pasture was associated with increased cow mortality....

  10. Replacing cows' with sheep's dairy fat lowers plasma cholesterol concentration in participants consuming dairy fat-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeaff, C M; Williscroft, K; Mann, J; Chisholm, A

    2004-02-01

    To determine the effects on plasma cholesterol concentration of replacing cows' dairy fat with sheep's dairy fat. Randomised crossover dietary intervention. General community, Dunedin, New Zealand. Volunteer sample of 41 healthy adults with initial plasma cholesterol concentration between 4.8 and 7.8 mmol/l. Participants were asked to follow a self-selected low-fat background diet throughout the study to which, during each of the 2, 3-week dairy diets, they were asked to add sheep's or cows' dairy products. Energy and nutrient intakes, plasma triacylglycerol fatty acids, and plasma cholesterol. Energy and nutrient intakes on the sheep-dairy and cow-dairy diets were very similar, with total, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat contributing 34, 18-19, 9, and 3% of total energy intake, respectively. Participants consumed approximately 50 g/day of dairy fat on each diet. Replacing cows' with sheep's dairy fat led to a 0.33 (0.11-0.56, 95% CI) mmol/l decrease (6%) in plasma total cholesterol concentration, from 5.53 (0.90, s.d.) to 5.20 (0.90) mmol/l. Plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was 0.18 (0.02-0.33) mmol/l lower on the sheep-dairy diet as was the concentration of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 0.11 (0.02-0.20) mmol/l. The LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio at the end of the sheep-dairy diet, 2.91 (1.10), was not significantly different (P>0.05) from the cow-dairy diet, 2.73 (0.83). Within the context of a diet high in dairy fat (50 g/day), replacing cows' milk fat with sheep's milk fat leads to a small reduction in plasma cholesterol concentration, but no change in the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol.

  11. Metritis in dairy cows: risk factors and reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, M J; Magnasco, R P; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M; Risco, C A; de la Sota, R L

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the risk factors for metritis, its effects on milk yield and on reproductive performance, and the efficacy of ceftiofur therapy in Holstein dairy cows. Cows (n=303) from a commercial dairy herd in Argentina were studied. Cows were scored for body condition, and blood samples were collected on d -14, 7, 21, 31, 41, and 50 relative to parturition. Cows having a watery, purulent, or brown, and fetid vaginal discharge (VD) and rectal temperature ≤ 39.2°C were diagnosed as having clinical metritis, and those having a similar VD and rectal temperature >39.2°C were diagnosed as having puerperal metritis. Both clinical and puerperal metritis cows were randomly assigned to control (no treatment) or ceftiofur group (2.2mg/kg×3 consecutive days). Cure was declared if clear VD was observed at 21 d in milk (DIM). Blood samples were analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and blood urea nitrogen using commercial kits, and for insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, and leptin by RIA. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED, GENMOD, PHREG, and LIFETEST from SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The risk for metritis increased with dystocia, retained fetal membranes, and dead calf [AOR (adjusted odds ratio)=2.58, 95% CI: 1.189-5.559], and as prepartum nonesterified fatty acids levels increased (AOR=1.001, 95% CI: 0.999-1.002). Conversely, risk decreased as prepartum insulin-like growth factor-1 increased (AOR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.349-1.219). Cows having either clinical or puerperal metritis produced less milk by 90 DIM than did healthy cows (2,236 ± 172 vs. 2,367 ± 77 vs. 2,647 ± 82 kg, respectively). Cows with puerperal metritis had lower risk for pregnancy by 100 DIM (AOR=0.189, 95% CI: 0.070-0.479) and a lower hazard rate for pregnancy by 150 DIM (hazard rate: 0.753, 95% CI: 0.621-0.911), and took longer to get pregnant (129 vs. 111 vs. 109 d, for puerperal metritis, clinical metritis, and healthy cows, respectively

  12. The influence of Borna disease viral infection on dairy cow reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Katsuro; Ando, Tatsuya; Koiwa, Masateru

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the influence of Borna disease virus (BDV) infection on the clinical state of dairy cows. Sera from 149 cows were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting detect antibodies to the BDV-nucleoprotein antigen. Among 149 investigated cows, 25 (16.8%) showed a positive reaction to BDV antigen. No significant difference existed in milk production or medical history between seropositive and seronegative cows. Although the estrus cycle appeared normal even in the seropositive cows, the frequency of artificial insemination and calving-to-conception intervals significantly increased in seropositive cows. Therefore, fertilization failure was recognized in the BDV-antibody positive cows.

  13. Faecal bacterial composition in dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in faeces in comparison with nonshedding cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaevska, Marija; Videnska, Petra; Sedlar, Karel; Bartejsova, Iva; Kralova, Alena; Slana, Iva

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in the faecal microbiota of dairy cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in comparison with noninfected cows from the same herds. Faecal samples from cows in 4 herds were tested for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by real-time PCR, and faecal bacterial populations were analysed by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The most notable differences between shedding and nonshedding cows were an increase in the genus Psychrobacter and a decrease in the genera Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, and Bifidobacterium in cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The present study is the first to report the faecal microbial composition in dairy cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

  14. The Relationship of Cow Comfort and Flooring to Lameness Disorders in Dairy Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Marcia I

    2017-07-01

    Cow comfort and flooring contribute to lameness incidence in dairy herds. The trigger factors for lameness can all be exacerbated by poor cow comfort. Reduced cow comfort influences lameness incidence by increasing the risk for development of new cases and the time it takes for a cow to recover. Reduction in resting time will increase the cow's exposure to hard flooring surfaces. Many factors are associated with lameness prevalence. Housing and management factors should be optimized to reduce lameness incidence on dairy farms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Swedish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvåsen, K.; Jansson Mörk, M.; Dohoo, I. R.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cow mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) has increased, worldwide and in Sweden. On-farm mortality indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare and causes financial loss for the dairy producer. The objective of this study was to identify cow-level risk factors associated with on......). The effects of potential risk factors on on-farm cow mortality were analysed using a Weibull proportional hazard model with a gamma distributed frailty effect common to cows within herd. The event of interest (failure) was euthanasia or unassisted death. An observation was right censored if the cow...

  16. Reactions of dairy cows during the operation of a robotic slat cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stülpner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During manure removal, robotic slat cleaners move in close proximity to dairy cows. The present study investigated the influence of a robotic cleaner on the animals by video recording and analysing their reactions. As most important influence factors concerning individual animal reactions, the small proportion of 8 % of marked reactions by cows to the slat robot as well as the actual distance between the cows and the slat robot, indicated a good adaption of dairy cows to the equipment. Observation of the complete herd of cows demonstrated that animals increased their movement from lying area to feeding area while the robotic slat cleaner was operating.

  17. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  18. The metabolism of radium in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, B. F.; Garner, R. J.

    1966-01-01

    1. The isotopes 45Ca and 224Ra were administered simultaneously, both orally and intravenously, to two pairs of cows. 2. The first pair of animals received large doses of 224Ra and 45Ca, which produced clinical and metabolic disturbances. 3. The second pair of animals received much smaller doses and showed no clinical disturbances. The mean recoveries in these animals of 45Ca and 224Ra in the 8 days after the oral administration were respectively: from faeces, 63·2 and 103·8%; from urine, 0·26 and 0·44%; from milk, 15·8 and 0·35% of the dose; and in the 8 days after intravenous administration: from faeces, 20·5 and 36·5%; from urine, 1·56 and 17·6%; from milk, 49·3 and 11·8% of the dose. 4. Calculation of discrimination factors shows that absorptive discrimination played the most important part in the overall discrimination between the calcium and radium in their passage from diet to milk, but that mammary discrimination plays a more important role than in the overall discrimination between calcium and strontium or barium. 5. In its treatment by the kidney radium is more like strontium than barium, but radium is actively secreted by the gut in the same way as barium. 6. In its skeletal metabolism radium is indistinguishable from calcium and strontium except in its rate of resorption, which is similar to that of barium. PMID:5964964

  19. Milk production of dairy cows as affected by the length of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk performance records of 561 Holstein cows, with a previous DP from the Elsenburg Research Farm obtained from the National Milk Recording Scheme, were used in the study. Four groups of dairy cows were identified, based on the duration of their dry period, i.e. cows with a DP of less than 60 days, DP of 61 to 90 days ...

  20. Social interactions of dairy cows introduced postpartally to a separated barn section - pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Nielsen, Tine Rousing; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis of reduced social activity of early lactating dairy cows when transferred postpartally to a separated barn section (S, group size 9.3 SD 2.1) vs. to a barn section of the main lactating herd (H, group size 130.1 SD 57.9) was tested. Social interactions of 12 cows in S and 14 cows...

  1. Behavioural adaptation to a short or no dry period with associated management in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.; Hoeij, van R.J.; Tolkamp, B.J.; Haskell, M.J.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    From calving, dairy cows are typically milked for about a year, and subsequently managed to have a non-lactating or ‘dry period’ (DP) before next calving. However, the use of a DP may reduce cow welfare because typical DP management involves the cow changing groups and ration. Also, the DP results

  2. Risk factors for digital dermatitis in dairy cows kept in cubicle houses in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, J.G.C.J.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of digital dermatitis (DD) in dairy cows has increased considerably over the last 10 years in The Netherlands, resulting in a current prevalence of 30% in cows kept in cubicle houses. Our objective was to evaluate a diversified sample of cow- and herd-related risk factors for DD in

  3. A proteomic-based characterization of liver metabolism in dairy cows and young pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Henrik

    This thesis deals with studies on liver metabolism in cows and pigs. Proteome analysis was used to quantify a large number of proteins involved in metabolic pathways. In cows, the objective was to characterize differences in the liver proteome between early lactation dairy cows with low or high...

  4. Concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and iron in the serum of dairy cows with subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhigang; Li, Xiaobing; Wang, Hongbin; Guo, Changming; Gao, Li; Liu, Lei; Gao, Ruifeng; Zhang, Yi; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhe; Li, Yanfei; Liu, Guowen

    2011-12-01

    Serum concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and iron were measured in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis. Compared with healthy cows, the subclinically ketotic cows had significantly higher levels of non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutirate in serum and significantly lower levels of blood glucose (p ketosis.

  5. The milk quality and feasebility analysis of loose housing dairy cows - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Janžekovič

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was technological and economical analysis of free range cow breeding. The case study analyzed two different systems of holstein-friesian dairy cows breeding. The model total costs enterprise budget was developed for evaluation of economic feasibility of loose housing dairy cows in comparison with tied cow breeding system. Computer supported calculation enabled estimation of the most important economical parameters (net return, total cost, and coefficient of economics. Results obtained show that (at observed input parameters loose housing system is economically feasible, if there is a minimum of 41 dairy cows with an average milk production of 8610 kg per cow. It was also established that cows need approximately 6 months to fully adapt to the loose housing system.

  6. Precursors for liver gluconeogenesis in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2013-01-01

    The review is based on a compiled data set from studies quantifying liver release of glucose concomitant with uptake of amino acids (AA) and other glucogenic precursors in periparturient dairy cows. It has become dogma that AAs are significant contributors to liver gluconeogenesis in early....... The quantitative data on liver metabolism of AA do not support the hypothesis that the rapid post partum increase in net liver release of glucose is supported by increased utilisation of AA for gluconeogenesis. Only alanine is likely to contribute to liver release of glucose through its role in the inter...

  7. Determination of economic selection index coefficients for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Sanjin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no research regarding economic effects of genetic improvement for dairy cattle in Serbia. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to determine economic values for various production traits (milk yield, milk fat content and proteins content in dairy production, as well as to determine total economic selection index. The research is based on data which include 9,516 lactations of 4,893 milking cows from 7 farms. Data were collected during the period 2004 - 2012. Authors used sensitivity analysis and partial budgeting approach to determine changes in revenues caused by variations of particular production traits. It was determined that within economic selection index the most important trait is milk yield, while values for other traits are almost negligible. On the other hand, it is expected that importance of certain traits will be changed after Serbian accession to the European Union.

  8. Effect of following recommendations for tiestall configuration on neck and leg lesions, lameness, cleanliness, and lying time in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, V; de Passillé, A M; Rushen, J; Vasseur, E; Nash, C G R; Haley, D B; Pellerin, D

    2017-04-01

    Cow comfort in tiestalls is directly affected by stall dimensions, for which some recommendations exist. To evaluate how well Canadian dairy farms with tiestalls complied with recommendations for stall dimensions, as well as the effect of compliance on cow comfort and cleanliness, we assessed lactating Holstein cows (n = 3,485) on 100 tiestall dairy farms for neck and leg lesions, lameness, and cleanliness and measured time spent lying down. Data on stall dimensions (width and length of the stall, position and height of the tie rail, length of the chain, and height of the manger curb) were recorded for each cow. The majority of cows were housed in stalls smaller than recommended. The prevalence of lesions and lameness was high (neck, 33%; knee, 44%; hock; 58%, lameness, 25%) and the prevalence of dirtiness was low (udder, 4%; flank, 11%; legs, 4%). Chains shorter than recommended increased the risk of neck, knee, and hock lesions. A tie rail further back in the stall than recommended increased the risk of neck, knee, and hock lesions and reduced the frequency of lying bouts and the risk of a dirty udder. A tie rail set lower than recommended decreased the risk of neck lesions and lameness and increased lying time and lying bout frequency. Stalls narrower in width than recommended increased the risk of neck injuries and lameness and reduced the daily duration of lying time and the risk of a dirty flank and legs. Stalls shorter in length than recommended increased the risk of knee lesions and reduced lying bout frequency and the risk of a dirty udder. The majority of farms do not follow recommendations for stall dimensions (with the exception of tie rail height), and the lack of compliance is associated with increased risk of lesions and lameness and can affect lying time. Recommended stall dimensions tend to reduce cleanliness, but the prevalence of dirty cows remains very low. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  9. Main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Abeni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarise the main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows. Intensive farming systems are considered, both from a structural and a managerial point of view, for their constraints that may limit animal welfare: possible physical activity; acceptable interactions with humans and other animals; feeding and watering, protection from climate, parasites, and diseases. The dairy farms managed according to the organic rules do not always guarantee, per se, better welfare conditions; organic or low input dairy farming needs to consider the right interaction among cattle breed and herd management, focusing on the actual quality of feedstuffs meet face cow requirements. The considered structural aspects evidence how special care must be given to the rest area (straw yard or cubicle; to the floors that should be not too hard or abrasive and not slippery; to the cubicle bedding material to ensure hygiene, softness, and dryness; to the feeding (and watering area to reduce conflicts; to a microclimate control system, to avoid heat stress during summer time. The importance of proper management for animal welfare is evidenced for buildings and equipment, to have clean and comfortable stables and well functioning milking machines; nutritive and storage quality of feeds; diet suitability (energy, protein, physically efficient fibre, buffers etc., in the different phases of a dairy cow’s life (dry period, close-up, transition, and lactation; feed distribution (frequency and time, and 24h availability. Special attention has to be paid to the social aspects, regarding both animal competition (stocking density, group size, and human/animal interactions (methods of management and manipulation. The interaction between welfare and health requires special attention. Poor welfare can cause immune depression, thus increasing the risk of disease. In turn, any disease that causes an inflammatory response may determine depression

  10. Daily eating activity of dairy cows from 3D accelerometer data and RFID signals: prediction by random forests and detection of sick cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldager, Leslie; Gildbjerg, Lars Bilde; Voss, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Feed intake is very important for dairy cows and deviation from normal eating behaviour may predict a cow that needs treatment. We used video recordings of dairy cows at the Danish Cattle Research Centre (DKC) combined with data from a neck-collar mounted 3D accelerometer and RFID device from...

  11. Effect of infection with bovine leukemia virus on milk production in Michigan dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norby, B; Bartlett, P C; Byrem, T M; Erskine, R J

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between individual cow-level milk production and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection as measured by milk BLV-ELISA. Dairy Herd Improvement technicians collected milk samples from 10 cows from each of first, second, third, and 4+ parity cows in 105 Holstein herds with ≥ 120 milking cows. Milk samples were tested for the presence of anti-BLV antibodies by ELISA. Additional data regarding the cows and the herds were collected by farm survey and Dairy Herd Improvement records. A set of mixed-effect models using all cows and only 2+ parity cows were used to investigate the association between BLV ELISA-corrected optical density and 305-d mature equivalents of individual cows. The BLV milk positivity was associated with decreased 305-d mature-equivalent yields, especially among the older cows. Additionally, increasing milk ELISA-corrected optical density was associated with increasing loss of milk production at the cow level. In summary, our results provide evidence that BLV infection is associated with decreased milk production in Michigan dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal radiation absorbed by dairy cows in pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Guilhermino, Magda Maria; de Morais, Débora Andréia E. Façanha

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present paper was to assess a method for estimating the thermal radiation absorbed by dairy cows (0.875 Holstein-0.125 Guzerath) on pasture. A field test was conducted with 472 crossbred dairy cows in three locations of a tropical region. The following environmental data were collected: air temperature, partial vapour pressure, wind speed, black globe temperature, ground surface temperature and solar radiation. Average total radiation absorbed by animals was calculated as {R_{abs}} = 640.0 ± 3.1 W.{m^{ - 2}} . Absorbed short-wave radiation (solar direct, diffuse and reflected) averaged 297.9 ± 2.7 W m-2; long wave (from the sky and from terrestrial surfaces) averaged 342.1 ± 1.5 W m-2. It was suggested that a new environmental measurement, the effective radiant heat load (ERHL), could be used to assess the effective mean radiant temperature ( {T_{mr}^* } ) . Average T_{mr}^* was 101.4 ± 1.2°C, in contrast to the usual mean radiant temperature, {T_{mr}} = 65.1 ± 0.5° C . Estimates of T_{mr}^* were considered as more reliable than those of T mr in evaluating the thermal environment in the open field, because T mr is almost totally associated only with long wave radiation.

  13. Metabolic factors affecting the inflammatory response of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, Lorraine M; Contreras, G A; Aitken, Stacey L

    2009-06-01

    Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of disease during the periparturient period. Increased health disorders have been associated with alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Many different aspects of the bovine immune system change during the periparturient period, but uncontrolled inflammation is a dominant factor in several economically important disorders such as metritis and mastitis. In human medicine, the metabolic syndrome is known to trigger several key events that can initiate and promote uncontrolled systemic inflammation. Altered lipid metabolism, increased circulating concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and oxidative stress are significant contributing factors to systemic inflammation and the development of inflammatory-based diseases in humans. Dairy cows undergo similar metabolic adaptations during the onset of lactation, and it was postulated that some of these physiological events may negatively impact the magnitude and duration of inflammation. This review will discuss how certain types of fatty acids may promote uncontrolled inflammation either directly or through metabolism into potent lipid mediators. The relationship of increased lipid metabolism and oxidative stress to inflammatory dysfunction will be reviewed as well. Understanding more about the underlying cause of periparturient health disorders may facilitate the design of nutritional regimens that will meet the energy requirements of cows during early lactation and reduce the susceptibility to disease as a function of compromised inflammatory responses.

  14. Analysis of milking characteristics in New Zealand dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J P; Jago, J G; Lopez-Villalobos, N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the variation in milking characteristics, and factors associated with these traits, in grazing dairy cows milked without premilking stimulation. Milk yield, duration, and average and maximum milk flow rate data were collected from 38 farms in New Zealand at 2 time points (spring and autumn) during the 2010 to 2011 season. Subsequently, a second data set, allowing the generation of daily milk flow profiles, was collected from 2 farms in the 2011 to 2012 season. Corresponding animal data, such as breed, date of birth, and ancestry information, were extracted from the New Zealand Dairy Industry Good Animal Database (New Zealand Animal Evaluation Ltd., Hamilton, New Zealand). Residual milking duration (deviation from the regression line of milk yield on milking duration) was calculated, allowing the identification of fast-milking cows independent of milk yield. Variance components for the milking characteristics traits were estimated using an animal linear mixed model. The average milk yield was 10 kg/milking and the average milking duration was 360 s. The average milk flow rate was 1.8 kg/min and maximum milk flow 3.3 kg/min, with 44% of milk flow curves being classified as bimodal. Primiparous animals exhibited different milk flow profiles, with a lower maximum flow, than multiparous animals, possibly due to differences in cisternal capacity. Residual milking duration was shortest (-10s) in mid-lactation (121-180 d) and was 13s longer for Jersey compared with Friesian cows; however, it was 19s shorter when adjusted for energy content. Residual milking duration had a negligible genetic correlation (-0.07) with milk yield, indicating that selection for cows with shorter residual milking duration should have a negligible effect on milk yield. A heritability of 0.27 indicated that residual milking duration could be valuable as part of a breeding program. Knowledge of the distribution of milking durations for a given milk yield

  15. Behavioral changes in freestall-housed dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner; Herskin, Mette S

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cows exhibit classic signs of sickness behavior during mastitis. However, knowledge about the consequences of naturally occurring mastitis in freestall-housed dairy cows, milked in automatic milking systems, is lacking. The aim of the present study was to describe the behavior of dairy cows...... after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior...... was evident in the mastitic dairy cows and local clinical signs in the udder as well as behavioral changes persisted beyond the 3 d of antibiotic treatment. In the days before diagnosis and treatment, feed intake was reduced compared with the control animals. Although reduced by the antibiotic treatment...

  16. Predicting manure volatile solid output of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Moraes, L E; Wagner-Riddle, C; Casper, D P; Kebreab, E

    2018-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) in livestock manure consisting of biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions is known as volatile solids (VS). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 2 guidelines, methane produced by stored manure is determined based on VS. However, only biodegradable OM generates methane production. Therefore, estimates of biodegradable VS (dVS; dVS = VS - lignin) would yield better estimates of methane emissions from manure. The objective of the study was to develop mathematical models for estimating VS and dVS outputs of lactating dairy cows. Dry matter intake, dietary nutrient contents, milk yield and composition, body weight, and days in milk were used as potential predictor variables. Multicollinearity, model simplicity, and random study effects were taken into account during model development that used 857 VS and dVS measurements made on individual cows (kg/cow per day) from 43 metabolic trials conducted at the USDA Energy and Metabolism laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland. The new models and the IPCC Tier 2 model were evaluated with an independent data set including 209 VS and dVS measurements (kg/cow per day) from 2 metabolic trials conducted at the University of California, Davis. Organic matter intake (kg/d) and dietary crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents (% of dry matter) were significantly associated with VS. A new model including these variables fitted best to data. When evaluated with independent data, the new model had a root mean squared prediction error as a percentage of average observed value (RMSPE) of 12.5%. Mean and slope biases were negligible at IPCC Tier 2 model had a RMSPE of 13.7% and a notable mean bias for VS to be overpredicted by 0.4 kg/cow per day. A separate model including OM intake as well as dietary crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents as predictor variables fitted best to dVS data and performed well on independent data (RMSPE = 12.7%). The Cornell Net

  17. Lateralized behaviour as indicator of affective state in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, David C.; Murrell, Joanna C.; Whay, Helen R.

    2017-01-01

    In humans, there is evidence that sensory processing of novel or threatening stimuli is right hemisphere dominated, especially in people experiencing negative affective states. There is also evidence for similar lateralization in a number of non-human animal species. Here we investigate whether this is also the case in domestic cattle that may experience long-term negative states due to commonly occurring conditions such as lameness. Health and welfare implications associated with pain in lame cows are a major concern in dairy farming. Behavioural tests combining animal behaviour and cognition could make a meaningful contribution to our understanding of disease-related changes in sensory processing in animals, and consequently enhance their welfare. We presented 216 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with three different unfamiliar objects which were placed either bilaterally (e.g. two yellow party balloons, two black/white checkerboards) or hung centrally (a Kong™) within a familiar area. Cows were individually exposed to the objects on three consecutive days, and their viewing preference/eye use, exploration behaviour/nostril use, and stop position during approach was assessed. Mobility (lameness) was repeatedly scored during the testing period. Overall, a bias to view the right rather than the left object was found at initial presentation of the bilateral objects. More cows also explored the right object rather than the left object with their nose. There was a trend for cows appearing hesitant in approaching the objects by stopping at a distance to them, to then explore the left object rather than the right. In contrast, cows that approached the objects directly had a greater tendency to contact the right object. No significant preference in right or left eye/nostril use was found when cows explored the centrally-located object. We found no relationship between lameness and lateralized behaviour. Nevertheless, observed trends suggesting that lateralized

  18. Lateralized behaviour as indicator of affective state in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Sarah; Mendl, Michael T; Barrett, David C; Murrell, Joanna C; Whay, Helen R

    2017-01-01

    In humans, there is evidence that sensory processing of novel or threatening stimuli is right hemisphere dominated, especially in people experiencing negative affective states. There is also evidence for similar lateralization in a number of non-human animal species. Here we investigate whether this is also the case in domestic cattle that may experience long-term negative states due to commonly occurring conditions such as lameness. Health and welfare implications associated with pain in lame cows are a major concern in dairy farming. Behavioural tests combining animal behaviour and cognition could make a meaningful contribution to our understanding of disease-related changes in sensory processing in animals, and consequently enhance their welfare. We presented 216 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with three different unfamiliar objects which were placed either bilaterally (e.g. two yellow party balloons, two black/white checkerboards) or hung centrally (a Kong™) within a familiar area. Cows were individually exposed to the objects on three consecutive days, and their viewing preference/eye use, exploration behaviour/nostril use, and stop position during approach was assessed. Mobility (lameness) was repeatedly scored during the testing period. Overall, a bias to view the right rather than the left object was found at initial presentation of the bilateral objects. More cows also explored the right object rather than the left object with their nose. There was a trend for cows appearing hesitant in approaching the objects by stopping at a distance to them, to then explore the left object rather than the right. In contrast, cows that approached the objects directly had a greater tendency to contact the right object. No significant preference in right or left eye/nostril use was found when cows explored the centrally-located object. We found no relationship between lameness and lateralized behaviour. Nevertheless, observed trends suggesting that lateralized

  19. Lateralized behaviour as indicator of affective state in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kappel

    Full Text Available In humans, there is evidence that sensory processing of novel or threatening stimuli is right hemisphere dominated, especially in people experiencing negative affective states. There is also evidence for similar lateralization in a number of non-human animal species. Here we investigate whether this is also the case in domestic cattle that may experience long-term negative states due to commonly occurring conditions such as lameness. Health and welfare implications associated with pain in lame cows are a major concern in dairy farming. Behavioural tests combining animal behaviour and cognition could make a meaningful contribution to our understanding of disease-related changes in sensory processing in animals, and consequently enhance their welfare. We presented 216 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with three different unfamiliar objects which were placed either bilaterally (e.g. two yellow party balloons, two black/white checkerboards or hung centrally (a Kong™ within a familiar area. Cows were individually exposed to the objects on three consecutive days, and their viewing preference/eye use, exploration behaviour/nostril use, and stop position during approach was assessed. Mobility (lameness was repeatedly scored during the testing period. Overall, a bias to view the right rather than the left object was found at initial presentation of the bilateral objects. More cows also explored the right object rather than the left object with their nose. There was a trend for cows appearing hesitant in approaching the objects by stopping at a distance to them, to then explore the left object rather than the right. In contrast, cows that approached the objects directly had a greater tendency to contact the right object. No significant preference in right or left eye/nostril use was found when cows explored the centrally-located object. We found no relationship between lameness and lateralized behaviour. Nevertheless, observed trends suggesting that

  20. Variation in enteric methane emissions among cows on commercial dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M J; Potterton, S L; Craigon, J; Saunders, N; Wilcox, R H; Hunter, M; Goodman, J R; Garnsworthy, P C

    2014-09-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions by dairy cows vary with feed intake and diet composition. Even when fed on the same diet at the same intake, however, variation between cows in CH4 emissions can be substantial. The extent of variation in CH4 emissions among dairy cows on commercial farms is unknown, but developments in methodology now permit quantification of CH4 emissions by individual cows under commercial conditions. The aim of this research was to assess variation among cows in emissions of eructed CH4 during milking on commercial dairy farms. Enteric CH4 emissions from 1964 individual cows across 21 farms were measured for at least 7 days/cow using CH4 analysers at robotic milking stations. Cows were predominantly of Holstein Friesian breed and remained on the same feeding systems during sampling. Effects of explanatory variables on average CH4 emissions per individual cow were assessed by fitting a linear mixed model. Significant effects were found for week of lactation, daily milk yield and farm. The effect of milk yield on CH4 emissions varied among farms. Considerable variation in CH4 emissions was observed among cows after adjusting for fixed and random effects, with the CV ranging from 22% to 67% within farms. This study confirms that enteric CH4 emissions vary among cows on commercial farms, suggesting that there is considerable scope for selecting individual cows and management systems with reduced emissions.

  1. Evaporative cooling for Holstein dairy cows under grazing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtorta, Silvia E.; Gallardo, Miriam R.

    . Twenty-four grazing Holstein cows in mid and late lactation were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: control and cooled. The trial was performed at the Experimental Dairy Unit, Rafaela Agricultural Experimental Station (INTA), Argentina. The objective was to evaluate the effects of sprinkler and fan cooling before milkings on milk production and composition. The effects of the cooling system on rectal temperature and respiration rate were also evaluated. Cooled cows showed higher milk production (1.04 l cow-1 day-1). The concentration and yield of milk fat and protein increased in response to cooling treatment. The cooling system also reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate. No effects were observed on body condition. It was concluded that evaporative cooling, which is efficient for housed animals, is also appropriate to improve yields and animal well-being under grazing systems. These results are impressive since the cooling system was utilized only before milkings, in a system where environmental control is very difficult to achieve. This trial was performed during a mild summer. The results would probably be magnified during hotter weather.

  2. Serum calcium and magnesium level in dairy cows at calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Pulimeno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fever and hypocalcaemia are post-partum metabolic diseases affecting about 6% of dairy cows and are due to a fail of the homeostatic metabolism regulating the calcium blood level around 9 and 10mg/100mL. The calcium drainage to the mammary gland along with the reduced capacity of the animal to mobilize calcium from bone reserve lead to a drop of the calcium blood level under 5-6mg/100mL with paresis like clinical symptoms known as milk fever. The incidence of the clinical milk fever is low, however the occurrence of mild hypocalcaemia (subclinical could be as high as 15- 20% within few days after calving, particularly in multiparous cows. The hypocalcaemia status as for the reduced bone calcium mobilization and intestinal absorption leads to reduced feed intake and make it a good start for ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasums and mastitis problems (Beede, 1991. The acid-base balance of the cow in the late pregnancy is determinant for hypocalcaemia............

  3. Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refaal, Walid; Mahmmod, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    with the occurrence of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs) diagnosed by California mastitis test (CMT) in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 dairy cows were included in this field study. Subclinical IMI was diagnosed by CMT on all lactating quarters of cows. A cow......Aim: Bovine mastitis and lameness are the most common production diseases affecting dairy farms worldwide resulting in huge economic impact and impaired animal welfare. The objective of this field study was to investigate the association of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders...... was considered to have subclinical IMI if it had at least one subclinically infected quarter (≥3). Cows were inspected carefully for claw disorders that recorded based on type and site. Locomotion and body condition scores were also recorded for each cow in addition to the limb affected. The association between...

  4. Effects of main reproductive and health problems on the performance of dairy cows: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the potential effects of twinning, dystocia, stillbirth, abortion, retained placenta and metritis on the productive and reproductive performances in dairy cattle. These are diverse disorders that are similar in that they all can result in impaired performance of dairy cows. Reproductive problems occur frequently in lactating dairy cows and can dramatically affect reproductive efficiency in a dairy herd. Poor reproductive performance is a major cause of involuntary culling and therefore reduces the opportunity for voluntary culling and has a negative influence on the subsequent productivity of a dairy herd. Reproductive performance is influenced by the interactive effect of environment, management, health, and genetic factors. In addition, diseases mainly affect dairy cow productivity by decreasing reproductive efficiency, shortening the expected length of productive life and by lowering milk production. Deciding whether to breed, treat, or cull dairy cows showing one or more of these problems is a challenge for both veterinarians and dairy producers. In addition, there is considerable debate among dairy scientists and bovine practitioners regarding the economic impact of these problems in a dairy operation and the most effective management or therapeutic intervention for treating them. Because of this controversy, dairy managers should focus on prevention and control of risk factors associated with each problem rather than on prescriptive therapeutic interventions.

  5. Sward and milk production response to early turnout of dairy cows to pasture in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Virkajärvi, Perttu; Sairanen, Auvo; Nousiainen, Jouni I.; Khalili, Hannele

    2003-01-01

    The timing of turnout is an important factor affecting the grazing management of dairy cows. However, its consequences are not well known in the short grazing season of northern Europe. Thus, the effect of the turnout date of dairy cows to pasture on sward regrowth, herbage mass production and milk production was studied in two experiments, 1) a grazing trial with 16 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows and 2) a plot trial where the treatments simulated the grazing trial. The treatments were early tu...

  6. A Cow- and Herd-specific Bio-Economic Model of Intramammary Infections in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Gussmann, Maya Katrin; Græsbøll, Kaare

    Introduction. Mastitis, or intramammary infection (IMI), is one of the most significant diseases in dairy herds worldwide. It is caused by environmental and contagious bacteria. Simulation models have proven useful for evaluating the effect of different control strategies. However, previous...... farms. We modelled the increase in somatic cell count (SCC) due to subclinical infection. The reduction in milk yield for individual cows is then based on their SSC. Thus we are able to estimate the economic consequences of each IMI pathogen in the herd, simulate different control scenarios and estimate...

  7. An electrochemical immunosensor for detecting progesterone in milk from dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ling; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Xu, Chuang; Zhang, Hongyou

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an electrochemical immunosensor for milk progesterone produced by dairy cows was developed. Using the immunosensor, milk progesterone levels in healthy estrus dairy cows was found to range from 1 to 6 ng/mL 20 days after estrus. There were high levels of progesterone in the milk from cows with prolonged luteal phase and luteal cysts, which ranged from 15 to 28 and 19 to 29 ng/mL, respectively. Cows with inactive ovaries also showed low milk progesterone levels of 1-8 ng/mL, but...

  8. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  9. Staphylococcus aureus Entrance into the Dairy Chain: Tracking S. aureus from Dairy Cow to Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Judith; Stessl, Beatrix; Gonano, Monika; Walcher, Georg; Bereuter, Othmar; Fricker, Martina; Grunert, Tom; Wagner, Martin; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. one thousand hundred seventy six one thousand hundred seventy six quarter milk (QM) samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294) and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM) of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing), dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day 14 of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej) of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus, our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires

  10. Dairy cow handling facilities and the perception of Beef Quality Assurance on Colorado dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A E; Olea-Popelka, F J; Grandin, T; Woerner, D R; Roman-Muniz, I N

    2014-02-01

    A survey was conducted on Colorado dairies to assess attitudes and practices regarding Dairy Beef Quality Assurance (DBQA). The objectives were to (1) assess the need for a new handling facility that would allow all injections to be administered via DBQA standards; (2) establish if Colorado dairy producers are concerned with DBQA; and (3) assess differences in responses between dairy owners and herdsmen. Of the 95 dairies contacted, 20 (21%) agreed to participate, with a median herd size of 1,178. When asked to rank the following 7 traits--efficiency, animal safety, human safety, ease of animal handling, ease of operation, inject per Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) procedures, and cost--in order of priority when designing a new handling facility, human and animal safety were ranked highest in priority (first or second) by the majority of participants, with ease of animal handling and efficiency ranked next. Interestingly, the administration of injections per BQA standards was ranked sixth or seventh by most participants. Respondents estimated the average annual income from the sale of cull cows to be 4.6% of all dairy income, with 50% receiving at least one carcass discount or condemnation in the past 12 mo. Although almost all of the participating dairy farmers stated that the preferred injection site for medications was the neck region, a significant number admitted to using alternate injection sites. In contrast, no difference was found between responses regarding the preferred and actual location for intravenous injections. Although most participating producers are aware of BQA injection guidelines, they perceive efficiency as more important, which could result in injections being administered in locations not promoted by BQA. Dairy owners and herdsmen disagreed in whether or not workers had been injured in the animal handling area in the last 12 mo. Handling facilities that allow for an efficient and safe way to administer drugs according to BQA guidelines and

  11. Associations of herd- and cow-level factors, cow lying behavior, and risk of elevated somatic cell count in free-stall housed lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, M E Alexandrea; Meijer, Karin M A; Barkema, Herman W; Leslie, Kenneth E; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Devries, Trevor J

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the risk of intramammary infection in dairy cows is related to lying patterns. The objectives of this study were to quantify the standing and lying behavior of dairy cows milked 3×/d, determine the cow- and herd-level factors associated with these behaviors, and relate these findings to the risk of an elevated somatic cell count (SCC). Five commercial free-stall dairy herds in Eastern Ontario, milking 3×/d, were enrolled in a longitudinal study. Forty Holstein-Friesian cows/herd were randomly selected as focal animals based on days in milk (cow SCC was recorded at the beginning of each period and end of the final period. Elevated SCC (eSCC) was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis. A new incident eSCC was defined as an individual cow that started the period with a SCC cows for hygiene and lameness. Throughout the course of the study, cows averaged 11.2h/d of lying time, split into 8.6 lying bouts/d that were on average 84.6 min in length. Later lactation cows had longer daily lying times that were split into fewer lying bouts of longer duration than cows earlier in lactation. Lame cows had longer daily lying times and lying bout durations than non-lame cows. Cows with greater milk yield had lower lying times than lower producing cows. Average post-milking standing time across the study herds was 103 min. Manipulation of feed (feed delivery or push-up) by the stockperson, in the hour before milking or shortly thereafter, resulted in the longest post-milking standing times. Over the study period, 48 new eSCC were detected, resulting in a mean herd incidence rate of 0.91 eSCC/cow-year at risk for all study herds. A non-linear relationship between post-milking standing time and eSCC incidence was found; compared to those cows that lie down cows that lie down for the first time >90 min after milking had a lower risk of acquiring a new eSCC. The risk of experiencing an eSCC was also increased in multiparous cows, and in those cows

  12. Review: welfare of dairy cows in continuously housed and pasture-based production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, G; Ferris, C P; O'Connell, N E

    2017-02-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of continuous housing systems for dairy cows, with various reasons put forward to advocate such systems. However, the welfare of dairy cows is typically perceived to be better within pasture-based systems, although such judgements are often not scientifically based. The aim of this review was to interrogate the existing scientific literature to compare the welfare, including health, of dairy cows in continuously housed and pasture-based systems. Although summarising existing work, knowledge gaps and directions for future research are also identified. The scope of the review is broad, examining relevant topics under three main headings; health, behaviour and physiology. Regarding health, cows on pasture-based systems had lower levels of lameness, hoof pathologies, hock lesions, mastitis, uterine disease and mortality compared with cows on continuously housed systems. Pasture access also had benefits for dairy cow behaviour, in terms of grazing, improved lying/resting times and lower levels of aggression. Moreover, when given the choice between pasture and indoor housing, cows showed an overall preference for pasture, particularly at night. However, the review highlighted the need for a deeper understanding of cow preference and behaviour. Potential areas for concern within pasture-based systems included physiological indicators of more severe negative energy balance, and in some situations, the potential for compromised welfare with exposure to unpredictable weather conditions. In summary, the results from this review highlight that there remain considerable animal welfare benefits from incorporating pasture access into dairy production systems.

  13. Development of a Bilingual Training Tool to Train Dairy Workers on the Prevention and Management of Non-Ambulatory Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Muniz, Ivette N.; Van Metre, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cows at risk of becoming non-ambulatory or downers represent economic losses and animal well-being issues for the dairy industry. Colorado State University researchers and Extension faculty collaborated with Colorado's dairy industry to create a training tool for the early identification and management of cows at risk of becoming downers on…

  14. Detection of Oestrus and Lameness in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi

    support system is based on identifying behaviour from patterns of normal and deviant behaviour. Signal processing combined with statistical methods, e.g. likelihood ratio tests, are utilized to correlate observed behaviours with normal and detect changes. Diagnosis includes data from the available......This thesis describes studies conducted on the subject of detecting oestrus and lameness in dairy cows. The studies comprise methods of statistical change detection and model based diagnosis, respectively. In the case of statistical change detection the development of algorithms for a decision...... population of animals in order to isolate patterns of behaviours outside the norm for individuals, while being robust to common disturbance factors. The research is based on methods from change detection and fault diagnosis. Fault diagnosis techniques are employed to reduce the false alarm ratio...

  15. Selenium and vitamin E: Reproductive disorders in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović-Todorović Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium and vitamin E deficiency leads to reproductive disorders in dairy cows: placental retention, ovarian cysts, metritis, reduced percentage of conception, abortions, birthing of poorly vital calves. Placental retention is a post partal disorder of multifactorial etiology which has harmful effects on reproduction and the feasibility of milk production. The administration of selenium and vitamin E reduces the incidence of placental retention, which suggests that oxidative stress is responsible for the occurrence of this disorder. The occurrence of ovarian cysts has as its consequence a disorder in the oestral cycle. Vitamin E prevents oxidative damage of lipid membranes by preventing the forming of destructive hydroperoxides, acting in synergy with selenium. These nutrients protect cell membranes and lipid organelles, inhibit and destroy endogenous peroxides, and in that way protect the integrity of the membranes and reduce oxidative stress.

  16. Immunological aspects of metritis in dairy cows: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Marianna; Rizzo, Annalisa; D'Onghia, Giovanni; D'Onghia, Gianfranco; Roncetti, Maria; Piccinno, Mariagrazia; Mutinati, Maddalena; Terlizzi, Michele Roberto; Sciorsci, Raffaele Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews puerperal metritis in the cow, particularly the complex and multi-factorial pathogenesis characterized by an altered cross-talk among infectious agents, endocrine and immune systems. Uterine infections impair fertility and is one of the main causes of economic losses in dairy production. The early postpartum is a period characterized by an increased exposition to infectious agents and the disruption of the metabolic homeostasis, leading to endocrine and immunologic disorders. Dysregulation of uterine defence mechanisms results in the development of metritis. Because there is a complex interaction between infectious, endocrine and immune factors during metritis, there is need to use safer and cheaper drugs which are able to strengthen the anti-infective actions of the routine therapies.

  17. Evaluation of a Lameness Scoring System for Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, P T; Munksgaard, L; Tøgersen, F A

    2008-01-01

    Lameness is a major problem in dairy production both in terms of reduced production and compromised animal welfare. A 5-point lameness scoring system was developed based on previously published systems, but optimized for use under field conditions. The scoring system included the words "in most...... cases" in the descriptions of the clinical signs evaluated. This was done to avoid a situation in which cows might not fit into any of the categories. Additionally, a number of clinical signs used in other lameness scoring systems, considered of less importance in relation to lameness, were not included....... Only clinical signs were included that could easily be assessed within a few seconds from a distance. The scoring system was evaluated with intra-and interobserver agreement using kappa statistics. The evaluation was done before and after training 5 observers. Weighted kappa values ranged from 0...

  18. Red blood cell phosphate concentration and osmotic resistance during dietary phosphate depletion in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünberg, W; Mol, J A; Teske, E

    BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatemia in early lactating dairy cows has been implicated as primary cause for postparturient hemoglobinuria in cattle. Decreased availability of phosphorus has been proposed to reduce adenosine triphosphate synthesis of erythrocytes and thereby reduce osmotic resistance of

  19. Biological mechanisms related to differences in residual feed intake in dairy cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xi, Y M; Wu, F; Zhao, D Q; Yang, Z; Li, L; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2016-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and expected feed intake over a specific period, is an inheritable character of feed conversion efficiency in dairy cows...

  20. Effect of Sampling Site on Protozoa and Fermentation End Products in the Rumen of Dairy Cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, C.-M. J; Varga, G. A

    1989-01-01

    Department of Dairy and Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802 ABSTRACT Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows fed a diet containing 55% corn silage and 45% concentrate (DM basis...

  1. Detection and levels of aflatoxin M₁ in raw milk of dairy cows from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection and levels of aflatoxin M₁ in raw milk of dairy cows from selected small scale and commercial farms in Harare, Zimbabwe. Rachel J. Stewart, Oswin Choga, Blessing Chiriseri, Davies M. Pfukenyi ...

  2. Forages from intensively managed and semi-natural grasslands in the diet of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords : Intensively managed grass, semi-natural grasslands, forage species, dairy cows, in vivo digestibility, feed degradation, energy metabolism, milk production, ruminant nutrition, rumen fermentation, rumen kinetics, voluntary intake, feed

  3. On-farm methane measurements during milking correlate with total methane production by individual dairy cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garnsworthy, P C; Craigon, J; Hernandez-Medrano, J H; Saunders, N

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether measurement of methane emissions by individual dairy cows during milking could provide a useful technique for monitoring on-farm methane emissions...

  4. Effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immune system, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jinshun; Liu, Mingmei; Su, Xiaoshuang; Zhan, Kang; Zhang, Chungang; Zhao, Guoqi

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immunity, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows. The experiments employed four primiparous Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas, and used a 4×4 Latin square design. Cattle were fed total mixed ration supplemented with 0 (control group, Con), 20, 60, or 100 mg of alfalfa flavonoids extract (AFE) per kg of dairy cow body weight (BW). The feed intake of the group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE were significantly higher (pdairy cows. The addition of 60 mg/kg BW of AFE to the diet of dairy cows was shown to be beneficial in this study.

  5. Changes in thermal nociceptive responses in dairy cows following experimentally induced Esherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ditte B.; Fogsgaard, Katrine; Røntved, Christine Maria

    2011-01-01

    Mastitis is a high incidence disease in dairy cows. The acute stage is considered painful and inflammation can lead to hyperalgesia and thereby contribute to decreased welfare. The aim of this study was to examine changes in nociceptive responses toward cutaneous nociceptive laser stimulation (NLS......) in dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis, and correlate behavioral changes in nociceptive responses to clinical and paraclinical variables....

  6. Effect of selecting for “Robustness” on temperament in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    Increased rates of involuntary culling as a consequence of poorer health and fertility had led to the conclusion that dairy cows appear to be less “robust” or adaptable than in the past. A way to address these concerns in breeding programs could be to select for health and welfare by including appropriate traits in a broader breeding index. However, it is important to consider any consequences that such breeding goals may have on dairy cow temperament and welfare. There were tw...

  7. Analysis of Johne?s disease ELISA status and associated performance parameters in Irish dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, A. E.; Byrne, N; Garcia, A. B.; O'Mahony, J.; Sayers, R. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has been associated with reductions in milk production in dairy cows and sub optimal fertility. The aim of this study was to highlight the production losses associated with testing MAP ELISA positive in Irish dairy cows. Secondary objectives included investigation of risk factors associated with testing MAP ELISA positive. A survey of management practices on study farms was also conducted, with examination of asso...

  8. The influence of cow and management factors on reproductive performance of Irish seasonal calving dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Elizabeth A; Crowe, Mark A; Beltman, Marijke E; More, Simon J

    2013-09-01

    Herd management record analysis facilitates accurate assessment of the current herd reproductive status; a crucial decision making tool to implement effective change. To determine the relative importance of cow and management factors on reproductive indices in moderate-yielding Irish seasonal-calving dairy herds, breeding records of 1173 cows were collected from 10 seasonal calving herds between 2007 and 2009. Backward-stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilised to determine the effect of cow factors including parity, calving timing, days post partum, heat detection accuracy and herd factors including herd size and heat detection efficiency on key reproductive indices. Mean farm six-week pregnancy and end of season not-in-calf rate were 46% (range 14-72%) and 22% (range 3-40%), respectively. Oestrous detection efficiency (Pcow parity were not associated (P>0.05) with either outcome when factors including existing calving pattern and heat detection accuracy and efficiency were accounted for. The existing spread in calving pattern, heat detection quality and length of voluntary waiting period were the most influential factors that reduced fertility performance in seasonal-calving herds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of lactation on energy metabolism in dairy cows from different categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrov Dine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was determination of the energy status of Holstein-Friesian cows in three dairy farms in our country. For that purpose, blood samples were taken from three different farms with similar diet for dairy cows. Blood samples were taken from clinically healthy cows, from 2nd to 7th lactation. Several biochemical parameters were measured for determination of the energy status: glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutirate (BHB, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol. Total of N=378 samples were taken from multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from all categories. Cows were divided into three main groups. The group 1 was formed of dry cows, and it was divided into two subgroups: “far from calving” (n=64 and “close up to calving” (n=62. The animals in the group 2 - early lactation cows, were divided into three subgroups as follows: up to 14 days after calving (n=66, up to 60 days after calving (n=63 and up to 100 days after calving (n=62. The group 3 was with cows that were in middle lactation, more than 100 days after calving (n=61. Biochemical parameters were analyzed with standard colorimetric methods, using Sentinel and Randox reagents, on photometer Stat Fax 3300 (Awareness Technology Inc.. These results have shown that dairy cows developed hypoglycemia and early lipolysis (high level of serum NEFA and BHB, during the dry period. The obtained results confirm the ability of the dairy cows for adaptation in various hysiological stages of lactation, but the actual system of feeding does not allow them to achieve their genetic potential. Finally, the evident health problems, occurring as a result of managerial and nutritional errors on the dairy farms, defined as “production diseases” are the most serious cause for decreased production effects.

  10. Short term post-partum heat stress in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuquay, J. W.; Chapin, L. T.; Brown, W. H.

    1980-06-01

    Since many dairy cows calve during late summer, the objective was to determine if heat stress immediately post-partum would (1) alter metabolism, thus, increasing susceptibility to metabolic disorders, (2) affect lactation and/or (3) affect reproduction. Forty four cows, calving during late summer, were paired with one member of each pair stressed (HS) for the first 10 post-partum days in a hot barn. Controls (CC) were kept in a cooled section of the barn. Plasma drawn weekly for 7 weeks was analyzed in an autoanalyzer for calcium, inor. phosphorus, protein, glucose and cholesterol and by radioimmunoassay for cortisol and progesterone. Ovaries and uteri were palpated weekly. Rectal temperatures were significant higher for HS during the first 10 post-partum days. No significant effects on plasma constituents were observed during the 10-day treatment period. For the 7-week period, glucose and cholesterol were lower in HS, as were cyclic peaks of progesterone and cortisol. Both calcium and inorganic phosphorus remained clinically low for the 7 weeks, but no treatment effects were seen. Uteri of HS involuted more rapidly than the CC. Treatment did not affect reproductive efficiency. Lactation milk yields did not differ, but milk fat percent was lower in HS. Heat stress immediately post-partum altered lipid metabolism, but the animal's compensatory mechanisms prevented reduction in milk production or reproductive efficiency.

  11. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.

  12. The effect of thermal environment on daily milk yield of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metodija Trajchev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of environmental air temperatures on the milk production of dairy cows. Therefore, the experiment was carried out at the height of summer (from 15th of June to 15th of September in three small family dairy farms and one commercial dairy farm. In total, 51 dairy cows from the black-white breed were subjected to the study. The season of research was divided into three periods: the period before the hot season, the period of the hot season and the period after the hot season. In each period there were three test days selected that were used for recording the air temperature inside and outside the barns and cow’s daily milk yield. Unvaried associations between the test day milk yield of cows and independent environmental and cow factors were done using the linear mixed model for repeated measurements. The statistical model showed that the farm management system and the hot season of the year had significant infl uence on daily milk yield per cow at the level of p<0.001. The test day per periods of the season when milk control was performed and the average test day environmental temperature showed statistically significant influence on daily milk yield per cow at level p<0.01. The present results revealed that environmental air temperatures contributes to considerable loss in the milk production of dairy cows.

  13. Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy cows: incidence and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Cabal, M. A.; Yaici, S.; Alenda, R.

    2008-07-01

    Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy herds has been studied. Since April 2005 up to December 2006, in 25 Spanish herds 1,054 cases registered were available. Aims were to determine mastitis incidence and factors of risk, to analyze whether yield production has been affected, and to quantify mastitis costs along 2006. The 25% lactations were infected at least once with average recurrence of 1.64. Descriptive analysis showed that 29% of cases occurred within the first month after calving. Primiparous showed higher mastitis frequency at early and late lactation while in multiparous cases number was progressively decreasing since the first month. Multiparous were statistically more liable to mastitis than primiparous. Mastitis did not show effect on yield production. Mastitis costs included treatment products and discarded milk. Individual daily production at each case onset was estimated by using monthly official milking records. An average mastitis case cost was 73.93, cheaper in primiparous than in multiparous because of lower milk production. Average discarded milk represented 74% of total cost per case. Mastitis costs were 117 per infected cow and lactation. Then, annual economic losses due to mastitis were 3,190 per average herd, showing the concern of producers on selecting resistant animals as well as the importance of the implementation of systematic recording for clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy farms. Additional key words: genetic selection, udder health. (Author) 28 refs.

  14. The Design and Experiment of the Track-Type Equipment for Feeding Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping LI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As one of the effective ways of reducing the cost and increase the revenue, feeding dairy cows with individual precision in quantity could further develop the production potential of high- yield dairy cows and improve the milk yield of every dairy cow. Therefore, based on three kinds of technologies of radio frequency identification technology, wireless transmission technology and infrared technology and grounded on the foundation of previous studies, this thesis has completed the track- type equipment for feeding dairy cows with individual precision in quantity. The equipment takes the computer as the information management platform, adopts the singly chip microcomputer as the control platform, uses the wireless module and U disk to conduct the transmission of individual feeding data of dairy cows and guides the whole process with the track. This kind of equipment could advance automatically, identify and feed dairy cows precisely during the feeding process. This thesis also designs the matching feeding technology of the equipment, and accomplishes the test of feeding outside the cowshed, which takes “TMR + precise feeding with concentrated feed” as the feeding model, so that the feeding process could be more effective and further steady.

  15. Role of nutrition in ethiopathogenesis of health disturbances of dairy cows in periparturient period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of high producing dairy cow nutrition are to provide good health and condition of animals, normal 300-day long lactation, more lactation cycle during exploitation, maximal amount of milk yield with optimal chemical contents, as well as bringing healthy and vital veal once a year. Nutrients metabolism disturbances in dairy cows mostly expressed in periparturient period due to higher demands needed for fetus growth and development, as well as for requirements for lactation. Energy metabolism disorder in dairy cows mostly appeared as kethosis complicated with liver fatty acid accumulation that firstly caused fatty infiltration and later fatty degeneration of hepatocytes. Besides energy, in this period changes of mineral status are very common as consequences of higher mineral deposition in skeleton of fetus, and secretion via milk by beginning of the lactation. Mineral metabolism disorder in dairy cows, firstly calcium, mostly appeared as paresis and paralysis. Dairy cows peripartal metabolic disturbances are very dependent and caused among themselves commonly leading to mutual appearance. That’s why the meal for high producing dairy cow in periparturient period have to be optimal balanced not only according to amount of some nutrients, but their relationship, as well as their influences on metabolic pathways and homeostasis.

  16. Molecular characterisation of the uterine microbiome of dairy cows suffering from endometritis, metritis, and pyometra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lif Rødtness Vesterby

    Postpartum uterine disease is a problem in dairy herds. Approximately 90% of dairy cows experience postpartum bacterial contamination of the uterus. Most of the cows are able to clear the infection within 8 weeks in the process of involution, but up to 20% of the cows develop metritis, which...... most up-regulated transcripts of the microbiota from the uterus of cows with metritis and endometritis were primarily involved in DNA replication, transcription, translation, and metabolic processes. This indicates an active multiplication phase in the infection, and an adaption to the host environment...... is infection throughout the uterine wall; and in some herds, 30-50% of cows develop endometritis, which is infection in the inner lining of the uterus. Pyometra is a related postpartum uterine disease, which is thought to occur when a cow with endometritis ovulates, and the cervix closes. The diseases...

  17. Influence of digital dermatitis and sole ulcer on dairy cow behaviour and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, A; Bergsten, C; Ekesbo, I; Kaart, T; Aland, A; Lidfors, L

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the presence of digital dermatitis (DD) and sole ulcer (SU) in dairy cows was associated with changes in behaviour and milk production. Swedish Red and Swedish Holstein cows (mostly in the first to second lactation) were housed in a cubicle system with automatically scraped passageways. After maintenance claw trimming of all the cows in the herd, 10 cows with DD and 10 cows with SU were selected. For each DD- or SU-affected cow, a healthy control cow, matched according to breed, age, parity and lactation stage, was selected. The behaviour of each of the 20 focal cows was observed for 1 h during 2 to 3 weeks after claw trimming (WACT; period 1) and for 1 h during 5 to 6 WACT (period 2). Milk production parameters: energy-corrected milk (ECM), fat and protein percentages and somatic cell counts (SCCs) were recorded once monthly. Lameness was scored once at the start of the study and cows with SU and DD showed more score 2 lameness (42% v. 31%) than the healthy cows (12%). Most differences in behaviour were found during 2 to 3 WACT when DD- and SU-affected cows were lying less (P = 0.001 and P = 0.012, respectively) than healthy cows. Ruminating while standing was performed more in DD-affected cows (P importance of regular claw checking and claw trimming of the cows in order to avoid the negative effects on behaviour and milk production.

  18. Effects of milk production capacity and metabolic status on HPA function in early postpartum dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerda, B.; Kornalijnslijper, J.E.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Hopster, H.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing milk yields in modern dairy cows cause concern that high yield may impair the cows' health and welfare, for example, via negative effects on metabolic status and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) function. This study aims to investigate whether a high level of milk production,

  19. Sweating rates of dairy cows and beef heifers in hot conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a “Portable Calorimeter” and a “Bovine Evaporation Meter” designed and fabricated for the studies reported herein. Measurements were taken when cows were in their natural habitat. The focus of the study was to compare swea...

  20. Sweating Rates of Dairy and Feedlot Cows in Stressful Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a portable calorimeter. Measurements were made when cows were in shade and exposed to direct sunlight (120 to 1100 W/m2) under different air velocities (0.1 to 1.8 m/s). The effect of color of hair coat (black and white) on...

  1. Heat Stress in Tunisia: Effects on dairy cows and potential means ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, one of the challenges to dairy producers is heat stress. The objectives of this work were to characterize the environmental conditions to which Holstein cows are exposed in Tunisia using the Temperature Humidity Index (THI), examine heat stress effects on lactating cows and to suggest potential management ...

  2. Circulating blood metabolites in early-lactation dairy cows fed canola or soybean meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    A successful transition from pregnancy to lactation is imperative for dairy cows to maximize milk production potential. Altering the dietary protein source can change the availability of energy to the cow. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of crude protein (CP) source canol...

  3. Effect of silage maize hybrid (dry down vs. stay green) on dairy cow performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.; Schooten, van H.A.; Laar, van H.

    2008-01-01

    A randomized block design experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two contrasting silage maize hybrids (DD: dry down vs. SG: stay green) harvested at 33% dry matter (DM) on in situ degradation and dairy cow performance. Thirty-eight Red-HF cows were assigned to two silage treatments and

  4. Improved knowledge about Conception Rates Influences the Decision to Stop Insemination in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Vries, de A.; Jorritsma, R.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    The conception rate in dairy cows is dependent on a number of cow factors such as days in milk and insemination number. Unfortunately, some of these factors were not accounted for in optimal insemination and replacement decision models. By using wrong estimates of the conception rate, the calculated

  5. Heat treated soybeans in the nutrition of high producing dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this research was to study the effect of rations containing full-fat extruded soybeans or fat-extracted heat treated soybean meal, in the nutrition of dairy cows during the period of middle lactation. The study was carried out with two groups of 15 Holstein cows. The animal's health was controlled on the ...

  6. WASmith The genetic potential of dairy cows has increased to such

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coppock, West, Moya, Thompson, Rowe, Nave, La Bore &. Gates (1985) did not find any gossypol toxicity using 13 blood metabolites as indicators in lactating Holstein cows ... Until further proof can be obtained, it seems improbable that the gossypol content of whole cottonseed can cause toxic effects in dairy cows, ...

  7. Evaluation of energy balance of Friesian x Bunaji dairy cows using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potentials of using milk composition as indicators of energy balance (EB) in dairy cows were evaluated. Milk composition traits (milk protein, fat and lactose percentages) from thirteen (13) primiparous and 47 multiparous (F1) Friesian x Bunaji cows were studied. The milk composition was analyzed weekly from 4 to 300 ...

  8. Studies on test-day and lactation milk, fat and protein yield of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmink, J.B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Data of milk recording provides the basis to control herd management and genetic improvement of cows. Different management guides can be presented to dairy farmers. Breeding values are predicted for 305-day yields in order to select bulls and cows. However, breeding values should be

  9. Natural Antibodies Related to Energy Balance in Early Lactation Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Meulenberg, S.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Kemp, B.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of natural antibodies (NAb) in plasma and milk of individual dairy cows and to study the relation between NAb concentrations and energy balance (EB) and dietary energy source. Cows (n = 76) were fed a mainly glucogenic, lipogenic, or a

  10. Harnessing the genetics of the modern dairy cow to continue improvements in feed efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    VandeHaar, M.J.; Armentano, L.E.; Weigel, K.; Spurlock, D.M.; TEMPELMAN, R. J.; Veerkamp, R.

    2016-01-01

    Feed efficiency, as defined by the fraction of feed energy or dry matter captured in products, has more than doubled for the US dairy industry in the past 100 yr. This increased feed efficiency was the result of increased milk production per cow achieved through genetic selection, nutrition, and management with the desired goal being greater profitability. With increased milk production per cow, more feed is consumed per cow, but a greater portion of the feed is partitioned toward milk instea...

  11. On-farm methane measurements during milking correlate with total methane production by individual dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Garnsworthy, P. C.; Craigon, J.; Hernandez-Medrano, J.H.; Saunders, N.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether measurement of methane emissions by individual dairy cows during milking could provide a useful technique for monitoring on-farm methane emissions. To quantify methane emissions from individual cows on farm, we developed a novel technique based on sampling air released by eructation during milking. Eructation frequency and methane released per eructation were used to estimate methane emission rate. For 82 cows, methane emission rate durin...

  12. Factors associated with age at slaughter and carcass weight, price, and value of dairy cull cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzoli, I; De Marchi, M; Cecchinato, A; Berry, D P; Bittante, G

    2014-02-01

    The sale of cull cows contributes to the overall profit of dairy herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with slaughter age (mo), cow carcass weight (kg), price (€/kg of carcass weight), and value (€/head) of dairy cull cows. Data included 20,995 slaughter records in the period from 2003 to 2011 of 5 different breeds: 2 dairy [Holstein Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS)] and 3 dual-purpose [Simmental (Si), Alpine Grey (AG), and Rendena (Re)]. Associations of breed, age of cow (except when the dependent variable was slaughter age), and year and month of slaughter with slaughter age, carcass weight, price, and value were quantified using a mixed linear model; herd was included as a random effect. The seasonal trends in cow price and value traits were inversely related to the number of cows slaughtered, whereas annual variation in external factors affected market conditions. Relative to BS cows, HF cows were younger at slaughter (73.1 vs. 80.7 mo), yielded slightly lighter carcasses (242 vs. 246 kg), and received a slightly lower price (1.69 vs. 1.73 €/kg) and total value (394 vs. 417 €/head). Dual-purpose breeds were older and heavier and received a much greater price and total value at slaughter (521, 516, and 549 €/head, respectively for Si, Re, and AG) than either dairy breed. Of the dual-purpose cows, Si carcasses were heavier (271 kg), whereas the carcasses of local breeds received a higher price (2.05 and 2.18 €/kg for Re and AG, respectively) and Alpine Grey cows were the oldest at slaughter (93.3 mo). The price per kilogram of cull cow carcasses was greatest for very young cows (i.e., <3 yr of age) and the differential in price and value between younger and older cows was greater in dual-purpose than in dairy breeds. Large differences in cull cow whole carcass value (carcass weight × unit price) among dairy breeds suggest that such a trait could be considered in the breeding objectives of the breeds. Copyright

  13. Assessing circumstances and causes of dairy cow death in Italian dairy farms through a veterinary practice survey (2013-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Francesca; Angelucci, Alessandra; Lorenzi, Valentina; Bolzoni, Luca; Bertocchi, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    A questionnaire survey about on farm dairy cow mortality was carried out among veterinary practitioners in Italy between January 2013 and May 2014. The study aimed at investigating the main circumstances of death in dairy cows (euthanasia, emergency slaughter or unassisted death), the primary causes and the risk factors of death. Out of 251 dead cows involved (across 137 farms), 54.6% died assisted and 45.4% were found dead. The main causes of death were metabolic/digestive disorders (22.3%) and mastitis/udder problems (17.1%), while in 14.7% of all cases, reasons of death were unknown. From the univariable generalised linear mixed models, dry cows showed a significantly higher odds to die unassisted compared to lactating cows (OR=3.2); dry cows also had higher odds of dying from unknown reasons (OR=11.7). Season was not significantly related to the risk of dying unassisted and for unknown reasons, but during the summer (characterised by hot and muggy weather in Northern Italy) cows died mostly for problems at calving. 54.2% of cows died during the first 30days in milk (DIM). Half of the multiparous cows that died, died in the first 29.5 DIM, while half of the primiparous cows that died, died in the first 50 DIM. Results pointed out that, especially in dry cows, around calving and during the summer, some failure in management practices and daily inspections may occur. Improvements should be done in monitoring activities and in recognising early symptoms of diseases among stockperson. In addition, in case of diagnosed diseases with poor prognosis, euthanasia procedures should be implemented to prevent cows from dying unassisted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. On-farm methane measurements during milking correlate with total methane production by individual dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnsworthy, P C; Craigon, J; Hernandez-Medrano, J H; Saunders, N

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether measurement of methane emissions by individual dairy cows during milking could provide a useful technique for monitoring on-farm methane emissions. To quantify methane emissions from individual cows on farm, we developed a novel technique based on sampling air released by eructation during milking. Eructation frequency and methane released per eructation were used to estimate methane emission rate. For 82 cows, methane emission rate during milking increased with daily milk yield (r = 0.71), but varied between individuals with the same milk yield and fed the same diet. For 12 cows, methane emission rate recorded during milking on farm showed a linear relationship (R² = 0.79) with daily methane output by the same cows when housed subsequently in respiration chambers. For 42 cows, the methane emission rate during milking was greater on a feeding regimen designed to produce high methane emissions, and the increase compared with a control regimen was similar to that observed for cows in respiration chambers. It was concluded that, with further validation, on-farm monitoring of methane emission rate during milking could provide a low-cost reliable method to estimate daily methane output by individual dairy cows, which could be used to study variation in methane, to identify cows with low emissions, and to test outcomes of mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Selenium and Antioxidant Status in Dairy Cows at Different Stages of Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Xiao, Min

    2016-05-01

    Thirty-five multiparous Holstein cows averaging 550 ± 50 kg of body weight and in 2 to 4 parity were divided into three groups according to lactation stage (group A: nine cows from 4 to 1 weeks prepartum; group B: 11 cows from 1 to 30 days postpartum; group C: 15 cows from 30 to 100 days postpartum). Selenium concentration, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS) in serum were determined to evaluate selenium and antioxidant status in dairy cows at different stages of lactation. The results showed that mean serum selenium concentration, MDA level, and GSH-Px activity of cows in early lactation increased significantly (P lactation. Conversely, serum TrxR activity and TAS declined during this period (P lactation indicate that the reactive oxygen species, including lipid hydroperoxides, increase in this period, thus placing the cows at a greater risk of oxidative stress. The significant decrease in TrxR activity that is accompanied with a decrease in TAS during early lactation suggests that dairy cows have low antioxidant defense in this period and TrxR may be an important antioxidant defense mechanism in transition dairy cows.

  16. Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam : report of a workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, A.P.; Lee, van der J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results of the workshop "Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam" which was held with Vietnamese stakeholders on January 17-18, 2013 in Ho Chi Minh City as part of the project "Forage and Grass Production for Dairy Development in Vietnam" funded by the

  17. Lipids in herbage : their fate in the rumen of dairy cows and implications for milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgersma, A.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes the fatty-acid profile of lipids in milk and herbage normally included in dairy diets. The next section deals with the possible effects of forage management on lipid intake in dairy cows. Then a detailed account is given of the fate of fatty acids in the rumen, showing that

  18. Measurement methods to assess methane production of individual dairy cows in a barn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mitigation of methane production from dairy cows is critical to reduce the dairy industry’s contribution to the production of greenhouse gases. None of current used methane measurement methods are flawless and application of the methods is limited to assess the

  19. Fats for lactating dairy cows | Smith | South African Journal of Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fat provides essential fatty acids and a concentrated source of energy for dairy cows. The energetic efficiency of milk production is therefore also improved. Of the numerous fat sources that are available, oilseeds, especially cottonseed, probably offer the best opportunity of supplementing fat in dairy diets. It also seems ...

  20. Incidence and risk factors of milk fever among cross-bred dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted on 206 cross-bred dairy cows in different dairy herds in Khartoum State, Sudan, during the period from March 2003 to June 2004 to determine the prevalence and incidence rate of milk fever (MF) based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis, and to recognize the risk factors associated with the ...

  1. Economic optimization of decisions with respect to dairy cow health management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, E.H.P.

    1995-01-01


    The research described in this thesis was directed towards decision support in dairy cow health management. Attention was focused on clinical mastitis, in many countries considered to be the most important dairy health problem. First a statistical analysis was carried out to obtain

  2. Nutrient Prioritization in Dairy Cows Early Postpartum: Mismatch Between Metabolism and Fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leroy, J.L.M.R.; Vanholder, T.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Garcia-Ispierto, I.; Bols, P.E.J.

    2008-01-01

    For several decades, researchers worldwide report a decrease in fertility in high-yielding dairy cows, most probably based on conflicting metabolic and reproductive needs. The dairy herd manager's success at improving milk production has been accompanied by a negative trend for the most visible

  3. Variation in rumen fermentation and the rumen wall during the transition period in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; France, J.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Strong adaptive changes occur in the peri-parturient dairy cow related to a marked rise in dry matter intake and alteration in diet composition after calving. Early lactation dairy cattle are susceptible to metabolic disorders and impaired rumen function during the transition period, with

  4. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers’ grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  5. Adding cows to the reference population makes a small dairy population competitive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2014-01-01

    Small dairy breeds are challenged by low reliabilities of genomic prediction. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of including cows in the reference population for small dairy cattle populations with a limited number of sires in the reference population. Using detailed simulations, 2 types....... The effects were evaluated in the 2 main breeding schemes. The breeding schemes were chosen to mimic options for the Danish Jersey cattle population. Evaluation criteria were annual monetary genetic gain, rate of inbreeding, reliability of genomic predictions, and variance of response. Inclusion of cows...... and hence increase genetic gain in a small population. An economic evaluation shows that genotyping of cows is a profitable investment...

  6. Analyze of the milk yield and economics indicators in dairy cows of Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    ZNAMENANÁ, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the trial was to analyze selected indicators of milk yield and economics of milk production in dairy herd of Holstein cattle. Economics of dairy cows is critical to keeping cattle on the farm. Among the main priorities that can improve the economic results of cattle, are mainly production conditions corresponding milk yields, good fertility, high quality market products, quality dairy nutrition, good health, appropriate management of breeding and compliance of welfare in the cattle...

  7. Cow cooling on commercial drylot dairies: A description of 10 farms in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyne Tresoldi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available California summers are hot, compromising the welfare and productivity of dairy cows. To minimize negative effects, producers use shade, fans and sprayed water. However, little is known about how those heat abatement strategies are provided in commercial conditions, nor their effectiveness. Ten dairies with drylots, a common housing system in California, were assessed for strategies provided, and the cows' responses to heat load were observed for 3 days in the afternoon. Dairies were diverse in all aspects. Shade varied in terms of placement (at corral and feed bunk or at corral only and amount (28 to 74 square feet, or 2.6 to 6.9 square meters, per cow. The quantity of water used to spray cows ranged from 0 to 6.8 gallons (0 to 25.6 liters per hour per cow. Across dairies, there was a range in the cows' shade use (47% to 98% of herd and feeding activity (7% to 33% of herd. Respiration rates ranged from 65 (normal to 95 breaths per minute (very hot and were positively related to inactivity. Our results indicate that there are opportunities to improve cooling, and consequently dairy cattle welfare, in drylots.

  8. Short communication: Association of lying behavior and subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, E I; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the association of lying behavior and subclinical ketosis (SCK) in transition dairy cows. A total of 339 dairy cows (107 primiparous and 232 multiparous) on 4 commercial dairy farms were monitored for lying behavior and SCK from 14d before calving until 28 d after calving. Lying time, frequency of lying bouts, and average lying bout length were measured using automated data loggers 24h/d. Cows were tested for SCK 1×/wk by taking a blood sample and analyzing for β-hydroxybutyrate; cows with β-hydroxybutyrate ≥1.2mmol/L postpartum were considered to have SCK. Cases of retained placenta, metritis, milk fever, or mastitis during the study period were recorded and cows were categorized into 1 of 4 groups: healthy (HLT) cows had no SCK or any other health problem (n=139); cows treated for at least 1 health issue other than SCK (n=50); SCK (HYK) cows with no other health problems during transition (n=97); or subclinically ketotic plus (HYK+) cows that had SCK and 1 or more other health problems (n=53). Daily lying time was summarized by week and comparisons were made between HLT, HYK, and HYK+, respectively. We found no difference among health categories in lying time, bout frequency, or bout length fromwk -2 towk +4 relative to calving for first-lactation cows. Differences in lying time for multiparous cows were seen inwk +1, when HYK+ cows spent 92±24.0 min/d more time lying down than HLT cows, and duringwk +3 and +4 when HYK cows spent 44±16.7 and 41±18.9 min/d, respectively, more time lying down than HLT cows. Increased odds of HYK+ were found to be associated with higher parity, longer dry period, and greater stall stocking density inwk -1 and longer lying time duringwk +1. When comparing HYK to HLT cows, the same variables were associated with odds of SCK; however, lying time was not retained in the final model. These results suggest that monitoring lying time may contribute to identifying multiparous cows

  9. In situ provision of drinking water to grazing dairy cows improves milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglierina, M M; Bonadeo, N; Ornstein, A M; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effect of providing water within the area grazed by dairy cows on milk yield and quality, compared to requiring cows to walk to a distant water trough, on a dairy farm in the Pampa region of Argentina during summer. Holstein dairy cows were allocated to two herds with similar parity, days in milk and milk production. They were grazed in one paddock that was divided in two, with a fixed water trough at one end. Cows were moved twice daily to grazing plots within the paddock. Control cows (n=66) could only access water from the fixed trough, whereas supplemented cows (n=67) also received water from a mobile trough within the grazing plot. Milk production of each cow, and water consumption of the two herds were measured daily over 62 days. Milk composition for each herd was determined weekly from Days 18 to 60 of the study, and grazing behaviour was observed between 08:00 and 16:00 hours on Days 11-15, 19-22 and 39-43. Over the 62 days of the study, supplemented cows produced 1.39 (SE 0.11) L/cow/day more milk than Control cows (p=0.027). Estimated mean daily water intake was 50.4 (SE 2.1) L/cow/day for supplemented cows and 58.2 (SE 2.7) L/cow/day for Control cows (p=0.004). Percentage total solids in milk was higher for supplemented (12.5 (SE 0.06)%) than Control (12.4 (SE 0.04)%) cows (p=0.047). During the periods of behavioural observation, a higher percentage of cows in the water supplemented than the Control herd were observed in the grazing area (p=0.012). This preliminary study demonstrated that provision of water to dairy cows within the grazing plot was beneficial for milk production and composition, and may be associated with longer periods spent within the grazing area, during hot weather in the Pampa region of Argentina.

  10. Prevention of clinical coliform mastitis in dairy cows by a mutant Escherichia coli vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R N; Cullor, J S; Jasper, D E; Farver, T B; Bushnell, R B; Oliver, M N

    1989-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was undertaken in two commercial California dairies. The treatment group, 246 cows, received three doses of a whole cell bacterin of J5 Escherichia coli (mutant of E. coli O111:B4) plus Freund's incomplete adjuvant vaccine (two in the dry period and one after calving) while 240 unvaccinated cows served as controls. Thirty-five cases of clinical coliform mastitis were diagnosed, six in vaccinated cows and 29 in unvaccinated cows. Bacteria isolated from the clinical cases included 15 E. coli five Klebsiella pneumoniae, three K. oxytoca, three K. ozaenae, five Enterobacter aerogenes, three Serratia marcescens and one Serratia spp. Four control cows were culled, three of them because of chronic coliform mastitis and one because of postcoliform infection agalactia. Incidence rate of clinical gram-negative mastitis was 2.57% in vaccinated cows and 12.77% in unvaccinated cows. The estimated risk ratio, the measure of risk of having clinical gram-negative mastitis for vaccinated cows to unvaccinated cows, was 0.20 (p less than 0.005), indicating a strong relationship between vaccination and lack of clinical gram-negative mastitis. The results of this trial indicate that the administration of the E. coli J5 vaccine is protective against natural challenge to gram-negative bacteria, and reduces the incidence of clinical gram-negative mastitis in dairy cows during the first three months of lactation. PMID:2670166

  11. Non-invasive individual methane measurement in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie, E; Lehtinen, J; Mäntysaari, P; Bayat, A R; Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, E A; Lidauer, M H

    2017-05-01

    Attempts to lower the environmental footprint of milk production needs a sound understanding of the genetic and nutritional basis of methane (CH4) emissions from the dairy production systems. This in turn requires accurate and reliable techniques for the measurement of CH4 output from individual cows. Many of the available measurement techniques so far are either slow, expensive, labor intensive and are unsuitable for large-scale individual animal measurements. The main objectives of this study were to examine and validate a non-invasive individual cow CH4 measurement system that is based on photoacoustic IR spectroscopy (PAS) technique implemented in a portable gas analysis equipment (F10), referred to as PAS-F10 method and to estimate the magnitude of between-animal variations in CH4 output traits. Data were collected from 115 Nordic Red cows of the Minkiö experimental dairy farm, at the Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke). Records on continuous daily measurements of CH4, milk yield, feed intake and BW measurements over 2 years period were compiled for data analysis. The daily CH4 output was calculated using carbon dioxide as a tracer method. Estimates from the non-invasive PAS-F10 technique were then tested against open-circuit indirect respiration calorimetric chamber measurements and against estimates from other widely used prediction models. Concordance analysis was used to establish agreement between the chamber and PAS-F10 methods. A linear mixed model was used for the analysis of the large continuous data. The daily CH4 output of cows was 555 l/day and ranged from 330 to 800 l/day. Dry matter intake, level of milk production, lactation stage and diurnal variation had significant effects on daily CH4 output. Estimates of the daily CH4 output from PAS-F10 technique compared relatively well with the other techniques. The concordance correlation coefficient between combined weekly CH4 output estimates of PAS-F10 and chamber was 0.84 with lower and

  12. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding...... previously housed in straw pens also stood up and suckled their dams sooner compared with Jersey calves of cows previously housed in freestalls. Holstein cows previously housed in straw pens tended to stand up sooner compared with Holstein cows previously housed in freestalls. These results suggest...... or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were...

  13. Relationship between dairy cow genetic merit and profit on commercial spring calving dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsbottom, G; Cromie, A R; Horan, B; Berry, D P

    2012-07-01

    Because not all animal factors influencing profitability can be included in total merit breeding indices for profitability, the association between animal total merit index and true profitability, taking cognisance of all factors associated with costs and revenues, is generally not known. One method to estimate such associations is at the herd level, associating herd average genetic merit with herd profitability. The objective of this study was to primarily relate herd average genetic merit for a range of traits, including the Irish total merit index, with indicators of performance, including profitability, using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Physical, genetic and financial performance data from 1131 Irish seasonal calving pasture-based dairy farms were available following edits; data on some herds were available for more than 1 year of the 3-year study period (2007 to 2009). Herd average economic breeding index (EBI) was associated with reduced herd average phenotypic milk yield but with greater milk composition, resulting in higher milk prices. Moderate positive correlations (0.26 to 0.61) existed between genetic merit for an individual trait and average herd performance for that trait (e.g. genetic merit for milk yield and average per cow milk yield). Following adjustment for year, stocking rate, herd size and quantity of purchased feed in the multiple regression analysis, average herd EBI was positively and linearly associated with net margin per cow and per litre as well as gross revenue output per cow and per litre. The change in net margin per cow per unit change in the total merit index was €1.94 (s.e. = 0.42), which was not different from the expectation of €2. This study, based on a large data set of commercial herds with accurate information on profitability and genetic merit, confirms that, after accounting for confounding factors, the change in herd profitability per unit change in herd genetic merit for the total merit index is

  14. Effects of rutin and buckwheat seeds on energy metabolism and methane production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Das, Gürbüz; Weitzel, Joachim M; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites with several health promoting effects. As dairy cows often suffer from metabolic imbalance and health problems, interest is growing in health improvements by plant substances such as flavonoids. Our group has recently shown that the flavonoids quercetin and rutin (a glucorhamnoside of quercetin) are bioavailable in cows when given via a duodenal fistula or orally, respectively, affect glucose metabolism, and have beneficial effects on liver health. Furthermore, flavonoids may reduce rumen methane production in vitro through their antibacterial properties. To test the hypothesis that rutin has effects on energy metabolism, methane production, and production performance in dairy cows, we fed rutin trihydrate at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight to a group of 7 lactating dairy cows for 2 wk in a crossover design. In a second experiment, 2 cows were fed the same ration but were supplemented with buckwheat seeds (Fagopyrum tartaricum), providing rutin at a dose comparable to the first experiment. Two other cows receiving barley supplements were used as controls in a change-over mode. Blood samples were taken weekly and respiration measurements were performed at the end of each treatment. Supplementation of pure rutin, but not of rutin contained in buckwheat seeds, increased the plasma quercetin content. Methane production and milk yield and composition were not affected by rutin treatment in either form. Plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and albumin were increased by pure rutin treatment, indicating a possible metabolic effect of rutin on energy metabolism of dairy cows. In addition, we did not show that in vivo ruminal methane production was reduced by rutin. In conclusion, we could not confirm earlier reports on in vitro methane reduction by rutin supplementation in dairy cows in established lactation. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanshi Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolic and innate immunity alterations in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of lameness during periparturient period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vain once per week before morning feeding from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during −8, −4, disease diagnosis, and +4 weeks (wks relative to parturition. Six healthy cows (CON and six cows that showed clinical signs of lameness were selected for intensive serum analyses. Concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP, lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA were measured in serum by ELISA or colorimetric methods. Health status, DMI, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk composition also were monitored for each cow during the whole experimental period. Results showed that cows affected by lameness had greater concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA in the serum vs. CON cows. Concentrations of TNF tended to be greater in cows with lameness compared with CON. In addition, there was a health status (Hs by time (week interaction for IL-1, TNF, and Hp in lameness cows vs. CON ones. Enhanced serum concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA at −8 and −4 wks before parturition were different in cows with lameness as compared with those of the CON group. The disease was also associated with lowered overall milk production and DMI as well as milk fat and fat-to-protein ratio. In conclusion, cows affected postpartum by lameness had alterations in several serum variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate metabolism that give insights into the etiopathogenesis of the disease and might serve to monitor health status of transition dairy cows in the near future.

  16. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Deng, Qilan; Goldansaz, Seyed A; Dunn, Suzanna M; Ametaj, Burim N

    2015-08-14

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolic and innate immunity alterations in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of lameness during periparturient period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vain once per week before morning feeding from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during -8, -4, disease diagnosis, and +4 weeks (wks) relative to parturition. Six healthy cows (CON) and six cows that showed clinical signs of lameness were selected for intensive serum analyses. Concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured in serum by ELISA or colorimetric methods. Health status, DMI, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk composition also were monitored for each cow during the whole experimental period. Results showed that cows affected by lameness had greater concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA in the serum vs. CON cows. Concentrations of TNF tended to be greater in cows with lameness compared with CON. In addition, there was a health status (Hs) by time (week) interaction for IL-1, TNF, and Hp in lameness cows vs. CON ones. Enhanced serum concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA at -8 and -4 wks before parturition were different in cows with lameness as compared with those of the CON group. The disease was also associated with lowered overall milk production and DMI as well as milk fat and fat-to-protein ratio. In conclusion, cows affected postpartum by lameness had alterations in several serum variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate metabolism that give insights into the etiopathogenesis of the disease and might serve to monitor health status of transition dairy cows in the near future.

  17. Passage of feed in dairy cows : use of stable isotopes to estimate passage kinetics through the digestive tract of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, D.

    2013-01-01

    Dairy cows possess a unique digestive system to digest fibre-rich diets. Ingested feed is retained and degraded in the rumen by the enteric microbial population and is passed from the rumen to the following segments of the digestive tract. Passage of feed determines energy and protein supply to the

  18. Use of monosodium glutamate by-product in cow diet on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padunglerk, Achira; Prasanpanich, Somkiert; Kongmun, Phongthorn

    2017-01-01

    Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were monosodium glutamate by-product (MSGB) replacement for soybean meal in concentrate at four levels: MSGB replacement at 0, 20, 40 and 60%, respectively. Pangola hay was given on an ad libitum basis. It was found that total dry matter intake, concentrate intake, pangola hay intake and all apparent digestibilities were not different among treatments. Ammonia nitrogen concentration in the rumen at 4 h post-feeding was significantly different, in which the 0% treatment had the highest (P < 0.05) while the 20% treatment had the lowest. Milk fat percentage was the highest (P < 0.05) in the 0% treatment. MSGB replacement at 40% and 60% were shown to be the lowest (P < 0.05) feed cost for milk production, and profitability of milk production was the highest (P < 0.05) for the 60% treatment. Based on this experiment, it could be concluded that MSGB replacement for soybean meal at 20-60% in the feed for dairy cows presented no negative effects on their performances. In addition, it could decrease feed cost 2.9-17.3% and increase milk production profit up to 33.3% in the 60% treatment. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Vulvovaginal laceration as a risk factor for uterine disease in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Neto, A; Lima, F S; Santos, J E P; Mingoti, R D; Vasconcellos, G S; Risco, C A; Galvao, K N

    2016-06-01

    The main objective was to evaluate the association between vulvovaginal laceration and uterine diseases in dairy cows. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the association between vulvovaginal laceration and cyclicity, and reproductive performance. The vulvovaginal region of 660 Holstein cows from a 5,000 lactating-cows herd was inspected at 4d in milk (DIM) for the presence of lacerations, and scored (VLS) as follows: 0=no laceration; 1=laceration metritis, and then at 32 DIM for diagnosis of purulent vaginal discharge (PVD). Data were analyzed using LOGISTIC and PHREG procedures of SAS. Cows with VLS 2 had greater incidence of metritis than cows with VLS 0 (69.1 vs. 42.4%), and cows with VLS 1 tended to have greater incidence of metritis than cows with VLS 0 (52.0 vs. 42.4%). Cows with VLS 2 had greater incidence of PVD than cows with VLS 0 (56.5 vs. 43.1%). A lower proportion of cows with VLS 2 than VLS 0 were cyclic by 64 DIM (70.0 vs. 86.8%). A lower proportion of cows with VLS 2 than VLS 0 were pregnant at 60 d after first AI (28.7 vs. 33.6%). Proportion of pregnant cows at 60d after AI tended to be lower for VLS 1 than VLS 0 (28.4 vs. 33.6%). Hazard of pregnancy by 300 DIM was not affected by VLS. Hazard of pregnancy was decreased for cows with metritis, PVD, and anovular cows. In summary, vulvovaginal laceration was associated with uterine disease and cyclicity, which were negatively associated with reproductive performance. Vulvovaginal laceration was recognized as a risk factor for postpartum uterine disease. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Western Canadian dairy farms, based on environmental sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Slomp, M; Flaig, J; Haupstein, D; Pickel, C; Orsel, K

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic progressive enteritis in ruminants. The pathogen is present in most countries with modern dairy production, causing substantial economic losses for the industry. The objectives of this study were to estimate dairy herd prevalence of MAP in the Western Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and to determine whether herd size and housing system (tie-stall versus freestall or loose housing) affected the risk of a herd testing positive for MAP. Six environmental samples were collected on 360 Alberta farms (60% of registered producers) and on 166 Saskatchewan dairy farms (99%). In total, 47% of the sampled farms in Alberta and 53% of the sampled farms in Saskatchewan had at least one environmental sample that was MAP culture positive and were, therefore, defined as infected. Sensitivity of environmental sampling was estimated using 3 subsequent annual tests performed on 82 farms. Because laboratory protocols were continuously improved throughout the project, the sensitivity increased over time. Therefore, a mean of the sensitivity estimates weighted on sampling year was constructed; this resulted in sensitivities of 68 and 69% for Alberta and Saskatchewan, respectively. Implementing those estimates in an approximate Bayesian computation model resulted in a true herd prevalence of 68% (95% probability interval: 60-80%) for Alberta and 76% (95% probability interval: 70-85%) for Saskatchewan. Herds with >200 cows had 3.54 times higher odds of being environmental sample positive and had more positive samples than herds with <50 cows (neither province nor housing system affected those results). In conclusion, the majority of Alberta and Saskatchewan dairy farms were infected with MAP and larger herds were more often MAP positive than smaller herds. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pattern of antibiotic resistant mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chandrasekaran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of drug resistant mastitis and their pattern of antibiotic resistance in dairy cows from Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: Isolation and identification of resistant pathogens were performed from acute clinical mastitis samples. Based on culture, isolation and sensitivity tests, cows with resistant mastitis were grouped as; Group I: Escherichia coli (n=119, Group II: Staphylococcus aureus (n=104 and Group III: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA (n=12. The isolates were tested using agar disc diffusion method for their antimicrobial susceptibility and modified resazurin assay microdilution technique for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to 8 antimicrobial drugs. The organisms were also confirmed for their identity by performing PCR on the bacterial pellet targeting the specific genes such as 16s-23s rRNA, mecA and blaZ respectively for the resistant pathogens and also confirmed by sequencing. Results: Antibiotic resistant mastitis was detected in 235 out of 401 cows accounting to 56.1%. The predominant resistant causative pathogen was E. coli (50.64% followed by S. aureus (44.25% and MRSA (5.11%. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test and MIC breakpoints, E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA organisms showed more sensitivity to enrofloxacin, amoxicillin + sulbactam, gentamicin and ceftriaxone and had highest resistant to penicillin followed by amoxicillin, oxytetracycline and methicillin. E. coli and S. aureus isolates were found to be resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobials, whereas most of the MRSA isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant i.e resistance to 3 or more of antimicrobials. Out of 235 milk samples, the specific target gene 16s-23s rRNA (E. coli , 16s-23s rRNA (S. aureus and MRSA (mecA and blaZ could be amplified from 119, 104 and 12 isolates with a percentage positivity of 50.64 (119/235, 89.64 (104/116 and 10.34 (12/116 respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR in

  2. A genetic study of loser cows in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Kargo, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Following the recent years' increase in herd size, the awareness of a group of cows with a generally lowered health and production level, the “loser cows,” has arisen in Denmark. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between the loser cow score, 305d protein yield and realized...... productive life (RPL) and inbreeding depression for the loser cow score. Estimation of genetic correlations and inbreeding depression was performed on 2644 first-lactation cows and 4914 multiple-lactation cows, respectively. We found no significant genetic correlation between the loser cow score...... and the inbreeding level or between the loser cow score and protein yield. However, the loser cow score was favorably correlated with RPL (−0.53). This implies that the prevalence of loser cows is neither a result of inbreeding depression nor an undesirable side effect of selecting for increased production....

  3. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  4. Factors associated with ovarian structures and intrauterine fluid in the postpartum period in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Helguera, I; Colazo, M G; Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F

    2016-05-01

    The objective was to examine risk factors for the interval to resumption of ovarian cyclicity (ROC), multiple ovulations (MCL), ovarian follicular cysts (OC), and presence of intrauterine fluid (IUF) at 22 to 28 [visit (V) 1] and 36 to 42 (V2) days in milk (DIM) in dairy cows. The study was conducted retrospectively by evaluating records from 1,155 Holstein cows from 3 herds. Ovaries and uteri were examined at V1 and V2 by transrectal ultrasonography to determine ovarian structures and IUF. Based on the odds ratio, multiparous cows were more likely to have ROC at V1 by a factor of 1.79 compared with primiparous cows. The likelihood of ROC at V1 was lower in cows with higher milk production, in cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM) or cows with IUF at V1 by factors of 0.98 (for each kg of milk increased), 0.52, and 0.61, respectively. Based on the odds ratio, cows diagnosed with IUF at V2 were 2.85 times more likely to have attained ROC at V2. Multiparous cows and cows that delivered twins were 2.73 and 2.16 times, respectively, more likely to have MCL at V1, whereas cows with RFM were 0.38 times less likely to have MCL at V1. The likelihood of MCL at V2 was higher in cows with MCL and OC at V1 by factors of 2.67 and 1.91, respectively. Multiparous cows were 8.51 times more likely to have OC at V1 than primiparous cows. Higher producing cows were more likely to have OC at V2 by a factor of 1.04 compared with lower producing cows. Parity, stillbirth, RFM, and ROC at V1 were all identified as risk factors for IUF at V1. Cows with RFM and delivering twins were more likely to be diagnosed with IUF at V2 by a factor of 3.43 and 4.07, respectively. In summary, parity, twinning, RFM, metritis, IUF, and milk production were all associated with altered ovarian structures, and the presence of IUF was related to parity, twinning, RFM, and ROC in postpartum dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy partitioning in dairy cows : effects of lipogenic and glucogenic diets on energy balance, metabolites and reproduction variables in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: dairy cows; dietary energy source; glucogenic nutrients; lipogenic nutrients; negative energy balance; metabolic disorders; reproduction, immune system   Dairy cows experience a negative energy balance (NEB) in early lactation which results from high energy requirements for milk production

  6. Association between Prepartum Feeding Behavior and Periparturient Health Disorders in Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchterhand, Karen M.; Silva, Paula R. B.; Chebel, Ricardo C.; Endres, Marcia I.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prepartum feeding behavior, measured as time spent feeding per day, and periparturient health disorders, milk yield, milk composition, and milk somatic cell count in Jersey cows. Pregnant Jersey cows were marked with unique alphanumeric symbols and were moved into a prepartum group 4 weeks prior to their expected calving date. At enrollment, cows with a body condition score 4 or a locomotion score >3 were not included. Time spent feeding was measured using 10-min video scan sampling for 24-h periods of 2–4 days per week of the study. A total of 925 cows were eligible for analysis. Parity was based on lactation number at the time of enrollment and classified as nulliparous (cows pregnant with their first calf), primiparous (cows pregnant with their second calf), and multiparous (lactation ≥2). Multiparous cows with two or more health disorders spent approximately 10% less time feeding prepartum than cows that did not have any health disorders. Multiparous cows subsequently diagnosed with metritis had a tendency to spend 5% less time feeding prepartum than healthy counterparts. Primiparous cows with retained placenta had a 10% reduction in feeding time compared to healthy primiparous cows. Monitoring time spent feeding prepartum by primiparous and multiparous cows, even on a limited number of days, appeared to be beneficial in predicting cows at risk for periparturient health disorders. Real-time daily feeding behavior monitoring technologies that can be used by dairy farms are now available, which might prove to be even more helpful in identifying cows at risk for periparturient cow health disorders as more data points can be recorded for each cow and compared to her own behavior or that of specific cohorts. PMID:27597948

  7. Association between prepartum feeding behaviour and periparturient health disorders in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Luchterhand

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prepartum feeding behaviour, measured as time spent feeding per day, and periparturient health disorders, milk yield, milk composition, and milk somatic cell count in Jersey cows. Pregnant Jersey cows were marked with unique alphanumeric symbols and were moved into a prepartum group four weeks prior to their expected calving date. At enrollment, cows with a body condition score 4 or a locomotion score > 3 were not included. Time spent feeding was measured using 10-min video scan sampling for 24-hour periods 2 to 4 days per week of the study. A total of 925 cows were eligible for analysis. Parity was based on lactation number at time of enrollment and classified as nulliparous (cows pregnant with their first calf, primiparous (cows pregnant with their second calf and multiparous (lactation > 2. Multiparous cows with two or more health disorders spent approximately 10% less time feeding prepartum than cows that did not have any health disorders. Multiparous cows subsequently diagnosed with metritis had a tendency to spend 5% less time feeding prepartum than healthy counterparts. Primiparous cows with retained placenta had a 10% reduction in feeding time compared to healthy primiparous cows. Monitoring time spent feeding prepartum by primiparous and multiparous cows, even on a limited number of days, appeared to be beneficial in predicting cows at risk for periparturient health disorders. Real-time daily feeding behaviour monitoring technologies that can be used by dairy farms are now available which might prove to be even more helpful in identifying cows at risk for periparturient cow health disorders as more data points can be recorded for each cow and compared to her own behaviour or that of specific cohorts.

  8. Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows using Automata Modelling and Diagnosis Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Caponetti, Fabio; Blanke, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses detection of oestrus in dairy cows using automata-based modelling and diagnosis. Measuring lying/standing behaviour of the cows by a sensor attached to the cows hindleg, lying/standing behaviour is modelled as a stochastic automaton. The paper introduces a cow's lying-balance......-oestrus conditions, with state transition probability densities identified from observations, diagnosis theory for stochastic automata is employed to obtain diagnoses of oestrus. The oestrus cases are detected using consistency based diagnosis on real data.......This paper addresses detection of oestrus in dairy cows using automata-based modelling and diagnosis. Measuring lying/standing behaviour of the cows by a sensor attached to the cows hindleg, lying/standing behaviour is modelled as a stochastic automaton. The paper introduces a cow's lying......-balance as a biologically inspired quantity describing how much the cow has been resting for a preceding period. A dynamic lying-balance model is identified from real data and the lying balance is used as input, together with lying/standing sensor measurements. Using different automata models for oestrus and non...

  9. Herd-level and contextual factors influencing dairy cow mortality in France in 2005 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboisson, D; Cahuzac, E; Sans, P; Allaire, G

    2011-04-01

    Dairy cow mortality causes financial loss and is increasing over time; it indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare. To describe the herd-level and contextual factors affecting cow mortality, the French National Bovine Dataset Identification was used to create dairy, beef, or fattening units within farms, for 2005 and 2006. Mortality rate (MO-RA, outcome variable) and most variables were calculated at the unit level, whereas contextual variables were defined at the municipality level [cattle density, inhabitant density, agricultural land always with grass on overall agricultural land (ALWG/OAL)]. The localization (11 dairy production areas, representative of the farming systems) was also included. The statistical analysis was performed with a probit regression model (MO-RA=0 or>0) and with a linear model corrected by the Heckman method for bias sample selection. For 2005 and 2006, 3.8 and 3.7 million dairy cow-years, 101,445 and 96,954 dairy units, and 141,677 and 143,424 deaths were recorded, respectively. Over one-third of the units had no dairy cow mortality in 2005 or 2006. Overall MO-RA was 3.7 and 3.8% for 2005 and 2006, respectively. Restricted MO-RA (farms without death excluded) was 5.8% for 2005 and 2006. The correlation of MO-RA among units between the 2 yr was 0.25. The same effects and close estimate values were reported for 2005 and 2006 with both models. Mortality rate was positively associated with the number of cow-years, having a beef unit in addition to a dairy unit, the proportion of purchased cows, the proportion of first-calving cows, the average calving interval, being a Milk Control Program member, inhabitant density, not being in dairy production area Grand-Ouest, and ALWG/OAL. Negative associations were reported for breed other than Holstein, being a Good Breeding Practices member, having a calving peak in autumn, culling rate, and municipal cattle density. This study reports an average mortality rate for the French dairy cows. It

  10. Evaluation of intrauterine antibiotic treatment of clinical metritis and retained fetal membranes in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshen, Tamir; Shpigel, Nahum Y

    2006-12-01

    Retained fetal membranes (RFM) and clinical metritis (CM) are frequently diagnosed disease conditions in dairy cows and considered of major economic impact due to negative effect on reproduction and milk production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of i.u. tetracycline for the treatment of RFM and CM in dairy cows. Affected cows were randomly assigned to two groups; treatment group animals received i.u. 5g chlortetracycline twice weekly for 2 wks, and no treatment group. A total of 1416 cows and 804 heifers in 5 herds calved during the study period. CM was diagnosed in 18.6% (inter farm range; 15.2-23.5%) and 30% (19.4-42.3%) of cows and heifers, respectively. RFM was diagnosed in 13.1% (9.4-18.1%) and 9.2% (3.6-13.8%) of cows and heifers, respectively. Conception rates after first insemination were 38.3%, 42.5% and 18% in normal, treated and non-treated CM cows, respectively. Numbers of days open were 140.5, 136.2 and 165.5 in normal, treated and non-treated CM cows, respectively. Based on 305-d corrected milk yield, cows and heifers affected by RFM and CM produced 300-500kg less milk compared with their normal herd mates. Cows treated for CM produced 654kg more milk per 305-d corrected lactation compared to non-treated control cows. Treatment of RFM had no effect on reproductive performance or milk production. In conclusion, i.u. chlortetracycline treatment was proven to prevent the detrimental effect of CM on reproductive performance in heifers and cows and on milk production in cows only.

  11. Lateralization of behavior in dairy cows in response to conspecifics and novel persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C J C; Oevermans, H; Syrett, K L; Jespersen, A Y; Pearce, G P

    2015-04-01

    The right brain hemisphere, connected to the left eye, coordinates fight and flight behaviors in a wide variety of vertebrate species. We investigated whether left eye vision predominates in dairy cows' interactions with other cows and humans, and whether dominance status affects the extent of visual lateralization. Although we found no overall lateralization of eye use to view other cows during interactions, cows that were submissive in an interaction were more likely to use their left eye to view a dominant animal. Both subordinate and older cows were more likely to use their left eye to view other cattle during interactions. Cows that predominantly used their left eye during aggressive interactions were more likely to use their left eye to view a person in unfamiliar clothing in the middle of a track by passing them on the right side. However, a person in familiar clothing was viewed predominantly with the right eye when they passed mainly on the left side. Cows predominantly using their left eyes in cow-to-cow interactions showed more overt responses to restraint in a crush compared with cows who predominantly used their right eyes during interactions (crush scores: left eye users 7.9, right eye users 6.4, standard error of the difference=0.72). Thus, interactions between 2 cows and between cows and people were visually lateralized, with losing and subordinate cows being more likely to use their left eyes to view winning and dominant cattle and unfamiliar humans. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finnish dairy cows: changes during recent decades and impact of cow and herd factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiitiö, Heidi; Vakkamäki, Johanna; Simojoki, Heli; Autio, Tiina; Junnila, Jouni; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Pyörälä, Satu

    2017-04-20

    The dairy industry has undergone substantial structural changes as intensive farming has developed during recent decades. Mastitis continues to be the most common production disease of dairy cows. Nationwide surveys of mastitis prevalence are useful in monitoring udder health of dairy herds and to study the impact of structural changes on the dairy industry. This survey on bovine subclinical mastitis was the first based on cow composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) data from the Finnish national health monitoring and milk recording database. A cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in at least one of the four test milkings during the year was considered to have subclinical mastitis and a cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in three or in all four test milkings during the year to have chronic subclinical mastitis. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and chronic subclinical mastitis in Finland in 1991, 2001 and 2010 and to investigate cow and herd factors associated with elevated SCC. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades from 22.3% (1991) and 20.1% (2001) to 19.0% (2010). Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis was 20.4% in 1991, 15.5% in 2001 and 16.1% in 2010. The most significant cow and herd factors associated with subclinical mastitis or high milk SCC were increasing parity, Holstein breed, free-stalls with an automatic milking system and organic production. Milk SCC were highest from July to September. Main factors associated with chronic mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades, the greatest change taking place during the first decade of the study. Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis significantly decreased from 1991. The most significant factors associated with both types of mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed, and for subclinical mastitis also

  13. A simulation model "CTR Dairy" to predict the supply of nutrients in dairy cows managed under discontinuous feeding patterns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chilibroste, P.; Dijkstra, J.; Robinson, P.H.; Tamminga, S.

    2008-01-01

    A simulation rumen model has been developed to function under non-steady state conditions in order to allow prediction of nutrient availability in dairy cows managed under discontinuous feeding systems. The model simulates availability of glycogenic, aminogenic and lipogenic nutrients to lactating

  14. Effects of glucose on lactose synthesis in mammary epithelial cells from dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ye; Sun, Xiaoxu; Hou, Xiaoming; Qu, Bo; Gao, Xuejun; Li, Qingzhang

    2016-05-26

    Lactose, as the primary osmotic component in milk, is the major determinant of milk volume. Glucose is the primary precursor of lactose. However, the effect of glucose on lactose synthesis in dairy cow mammary glands and the mechanism governing this process are poorly understood. Here we showed that glucose has the ability to induce lactose synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells, as well as increase cell viability and proliferation. A concentration of 12 mM glucose was the optimum concentration to induce cell growth and lactose synthesis in cultured dairy cow mammary epithelial cells. In vitro, 12 mM glucose enhanced lactose content, along with the expression of genes involved in glucose transportation and the lactose biosynthesis pathway, including GLUT1, SLC35A2, SLC35B1, HK2, β4GalT-I, and AKT1. In addition, we found that AKT1 knockdown inhibited cell growth and lactose synthesis as well as expression of GLUT1, SLC35A2, SLC35B1, HK2, and β4GalT-I. Glucose induces cell growth and lactose synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells. Protein kinase B alpha acts as a regulator of metabolism in dairy cow mammary gland to mediate the effects of glucose on lactose synthesis.

  15. Does ownership of improved dairy cow breeds improve child nutrition? A pathway analysis for Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabunga, Nassul S; Ghosh, Shibani; Webb, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The promotion of livestock production is widely believed to support enhanced diet quality and child nutrition, but the empirical evidence for this causal linkage remains narrow and ambiguous. This study examines whether adoption of improved dairy cow breeds is linked to farm-level outcomes that translate into household-level benefits including improved child nutrition outcomes in Uganda. Using nationwide data from Uganda's National Panel Survey, propensity score matching is used to create an unbiased counterfactual, based on observed characteristics, to assess the net impacts of improved dairy cow adoption. All estimates were tested for robustness and sensitivity to variations in observable and unobservable confounders. Results based on the matched samples showed that households adopting improved dairy cows significantly increased milk yield-by over 200% on average. This resulted in higher milk sales and milk intakes, demonstrating the potential of this agricultural technology to both integrate households into modern value chains and increase households' access to animal source foods. Use of improved dairy cows increased household food expenditures by about 16%. Although undernutrition was widely prevalent in the study sample and in matched households, the adoption of improved dairy cows was associated with lower child stunting in adopter household. In scale terms, results also showed that holding larger farms tends to support adoption, but that this also stimulates the household's ability to achieve gains from adoption, which can translate into enhanced nutrition.

  16. Mastitis vaccines in dairy cows: Recent developments and recommendations of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review article was to summarize the most recent clinical field trials that have been published evaluating the use of different types of vaccines against mastitis pathogens in dairy cows. Mastitis is one of the most common and economically important diseases in dairy cows in the world. The disease is considered an important welfare issue facing the dairy industry in addition to the loss of production and premature removal or death of affected cows. Losses are also related to high cost of veterinary medicines and the cost of unsalable milk of treated cows. Mastitis can be caused by either contagious or environmental pathogens both of which are best prevented rather than treated. In addition to the application of best management practices in the parlor during milking, vaccination against common udder pathogens is widely practiced in many dairy farms to prevent or reduce the severity of clinical mastitis. In this review, the most recent clinical field studies that evaluated the use of different types of vaccines in dairy cows are summarized.

  17. MILK PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAIT CAUSED BY LOC514211 GENE MUTATION IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Anggraeni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The SNP (rs 42688595 in LOC514211 is uncharacterized gene and located in chromosome 13 in Bos taurus, had significant effects on milk yield and milk quality that have been identified from Chinese and British dairy cows using GWAS (Genome-wide Association Study based on 60k SNP-Chip in the previous study. The objective of this study was to confirm the effects of the SNP in LOC514211 on productive traits in another population of Chinese Holstein dairy cow. Four hundred and seventy dairy cows were use in this study, genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of dairy cow, PCR-RFLP was applied to genotype of these DNA samples. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was performed by the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of SAS 9.13 to identify the association of SNP with milk and reproductive traits. Results showed that SNP in LOC514211 was polymorphic in this herd of dairy cow and was in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, and had significant differences among genotype in milk yield, milk quality and reproductive traits, which were similar with the results of previous GWAS study based SNP-Chips. Inconclusion, indicated that this SNP in LOC514211 might be potential markers for both milk and reproductive traits.

  18. On-farm feeding interventions to increase milk production in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, Metha; Foiklang, Suban; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Paoinn, Chainarong; Ampapon, Thiwakorn; Norrapoke, Thitima; Kang, Sungchhang

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of tropical legume (Phaseolus calcaratus) mixed with ruzi grass feeding on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Eighty-eight lactating dairy cows from 22 smallholder dairy farms northeast of Thailand were assigned to respective dietary treatments according to a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD). Four cows were selected from each farm and were allocated into two different feeding groups as follows: ruzi grass and P. calcaratus mixed with ruzi grass (1:1 ratio), respectively. All cows were fed with roughage ad libitum with 1:2 ratio of concentrate diet to milk yield. The results revealed that total dry matter intake, ruminal volatile fatty acids, and ammonia nitrogen concentration were enhanced when cows were fed with P. calcaratus mixed with ruzi grass (P milk production and milk protein in this study. Importantly, an economical assessment showed that milk income and the profit from milk sale were significantly greater in cows fed the mixture of roughage than those from the non-mixed group. This study concluded that high-quality roughage as tropical legume mixed with ruzi grass at the ratio of 1:1 brought out the remarkable and practical implementation for smallholder dairy farms, and the intervention was practical and deserving of more on-farm intervention.

  19. Role of antioxidant vitamins and trace elements in mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is associated with release of free radicals, increased total oxidant capacity and decreased total antioxidants capacity in milk. Antioxidant vitamins and minerals protect the body from free radicals either by directly scavenging free radicals or by inhibiting the activity of oxidizing enzymes. The supplementation of mastitic dairy cows with antioxidant vitamins as vitamin A (VA and β-carotene (BC, vitamin C (VC, vitamin E (VE, and antioxidant minerals as selenium (Se, Zinc (Zn and copper (Cu is very important to help the animal recover early. The aim of this review was to discuss the oxidative stress in dairy cows’ mastitis, and the roles of VA and BC, VC, VE, Se, Zn, and Cu in mastitis of dairy cows. Before deciding to supplement dairy cow rations with the levels of vitamins and minerals, dairy farmers should have their animal feeds tested and their rations evaluated by a competent dairy cow nutritionist and a trustworthy laboratory to be sure what levels of supplementation may be warranted. While inadequate intake and absorption of certain nutrients may result in a weakened immune system and perhaps more mastitis during the lactation period, unjustified supplementation can be expensive and lead to other animal health problems.

  20. Plasma metabolic profiling of dairy cows affected with clinical ketosis using LC/MS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Xu, C; Xia, C; Zhang, Hy; Sun, Lw; Gao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Ketosis in dairy cattle is an important metabolic disorder. Currently, the plasma metabolic profile of ketosis as determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has not been reported. To investigate plasma metabolic profiles from cows with clinical ketosis in comparison to control cows. Twenty Holstein dairy cows were divided into two groups based on clinical signs and plasma β-hydroxybutyric acid and glucose concentrations 7-21 days postpartum: clinical ketosis and control cows. Plasma metabolic profiles were analyzed using LC/MS. Data were processed using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Compared to control cows, the levels of valine, glycine, glycocholic, tetradecenoic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased significantly in clinical ketosis. On the other hand, the levels of arginine, aminobutyric acid, leucine/isoleucine, tryptophan, creatinine, lysine, norcotinine, and undecanoic acid decreased markedly. Our results showed that the metabolic changes in cows with clinical ketosis involve complex metabolic networks and signal transduction. These results are important for future studies elucidating the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prevention of clinical ketosis in dairy cows.

  1. Comparative efficacy of three dry-cow antibiotic formulations in spring-calving New Zealand dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, T J; Vermunt, J J; Merrall, M

    2000-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a dry-cow antibiotic preparation containing cloxacillin plus ampicillin in a formulation that gives a 10-week duration of action, in comparison to products containing cephalonium (10-week action) or cloxacillin alone (7-week action). A total of 493 cows were selected from 6 spring-calving dairy herds in the Manawatu region of New Zealand, according to the criteria of the SAMM plan, to receive intramammary antibiotic therapy at the end of lactation (drying off). Cows were randomly allocated to receive 1 of the 3 dry-cow antibiotic products under investigation. Cows were examined twice during the dry period and twice daily during the first 10 days of their subsequent lactation for the presence of mastitis. Milk samples were collected from individual quarters at the time of drying off and at 7 and 28-35 days after calving, for determination of milk somatic cell counts (SCC). Bacteriology was carried out on milk samples taken from cows that developed mastitis during the first 10 days after calving. No cows developed mastitis during the dry period. Sixteen cows developed clinical mastitis within 10 days of calving; there was no difference in incidence between treatments. Streptococcus uberis was the most commonly isolated organism. Mean SCC on Day 7 were lower (p = 0.019) in cephalonium-treated quarters (189.9+/-28.4 x 10(3) cells/ml) than in cloxacillin-treated quarters (388.7+/-71.2 x 10(3) cells/ml); values in quarters receiving cloxacillin plus ampicillin were intermediate (252.0+/-47.0 x 10(3) cells/ml). SCC were similar between treatment groups on Day 28-35. The use of a combination of cloxacillin plus ampicillin was effective for the prevention of mastitis during the dry and peri-calving-periods in pastured dairy cattle.

  2. Recent developments in oestrous synchronization of postpartum dairy cows with and without ovarian disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yániz, J L; Murugavel, K; López-Gatius, F

    2004-04-01

    This report reviews the most recent developments in prostaglandin-based oestrous synchronization programmes for postpartum dairy cows and addresses the efficiency of controlled breeding protocols based on such developments for cows with abnormal ovarian conditions. A double prostaglandin protocol applied 11-14 days apart seems to be capable of bringing most cows to oestrus. Because of varying oestrus onset times, improved conception rates are obtained following artificial insemination (AI) at detected oestrus rather than fixed-time AI in prostaglandin-treated cows. The administration of oestradiol or human chorionic gonadotrophin, or both these hormones, after prostaglandin treatment, improves the synchrony of oestrus yet does not enhance the conception rate. Progesterone-based treatments for oestrous synchronization are considered the most appropriate for non-cyclic or anoestrous postpartum dairy cows; prostaglandin alone being ineffective because of the absence of a mature corpus luteum in these cows. Improved oestrus synchrony and fertility rate have been reported using short-term progesterone treatment regimes (7-9 days) with or without oestradiol benzoate combined with the use of a luteolytic agent given 1 day before, or at the time of, progesterone withdrawal. The ovulation synchronization (Ovsynch) protocol, based on the use of gonadotrophin releasing hormone and prostaglandin, was developed to coordinate follicular recruitment, CL regression and the time of ovulation. This protocol allows fixed time insemination and has proved effective in improving reproductive management in postpartum dairy cows. However, timed AI following Ovsynch seems to have no beneficial effects in heifers, because of an inconsistent follicle wave pattern, and in anoestrous cows, given their lack of prostaglandin responsive CL. To date, there are several prostaglandin based, fixed-time insemination oestrous synchronization protocols for use in early postpartum dairy cows with ovarian

  3. Effect of Supplemental Feeding with Glycerol or Propylene Glycol in Early Lactation on the Fertility of Swedish Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Frössling, J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol (GLY) or propylene glycol (PG) during early lactation on the fertility of Swedish dairy cows. Within 17 commercial dairy herds, 798 cows were randomized to three groups that were daily fed supplements...

  4. Measurement method for urine puddle depth in dairy cow houses as input variable for ammonia emission modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, J.W.; Stigter, J.D.; Ogink, Nico; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cow houses are a major contributor to ammonia (NH3) emission in many European countries. To understand and predict NH3 emissions from cubicle dairy cow houses a mechanistic model was developed and a sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the contribution to NH3 emission of each input

  5. Relationship between proteolysis in the silo and efficiency of utilization of dietary protein by lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensiling is used widely to conserve forages for feeding to dairy cows. However, the protein in hay-crop silages is particularly susceptible to microbial breakdown in the rumen, and utilization of protein in alfalfa and grass silages by dairy cows is particularly poor. Dependent on maturity, hay-crop...

  6. Effects of grass silage quality and level of feed intake on enteric methane production in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, D.; Bannink, A.; Hatew, B.; Laar, van H.; Dijkstra, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of level of feed intake and quality of ryegrass silage as well as their interaction on enteric methane (CH4) emission from dairy cows. In a randomized block design, 56 lactating dairy cows received a diet of grass silage, corn silage, and a

  7. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Hatew, B.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4

  8. Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Jorjong, S.; Fievez, V.; Kemp, B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period

  9. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2009-01-01

    Based on individual cow live weight gain, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems, and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH), and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). The objective of the present...... paper was to examine the milk yield obtained in response to three feeding strategies. The interrelationship between feed intake and live weight changes is presented in a companion paper. Cows were stalled in a loose-housing system based on automatic milking, automatic recording of feed intake...... and automatic weighing of the cows. All cows had 3 kg of individually separately offered concentrate (ISC) in addition to a mixed ration (MR). Cows were either allowed a medium energy MR during whole lactation (strategy MR1) or a high energy MR during early lactation, which was reduced to a low energy MR either...

  10. Test accuracy of metabolic indicators in predicting decreased fertility in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Svensson, C

    2012-01-01

    Negative energy balance is a known risk factor for decreased fertility in dairy cows. This study evaluated the accuracy of plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)—factors related to negative energy balance......—in predicting decreased fertility. One plasma sample per cow was collected from 480 cows in 12 herds during the period from d 4 to 21 in milk and analyzed for NEFA, BHBA, and IGF-1. For each cow, data on breed, parity, calving date, gynecological examinations, and insemination dates were obtained. Milk samples...... from 241 cows in 7 of the participating herds were analyzed for progesterone concentration to define the first day of luteal activity. The diagnostic sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) at different cut-off concentrations of NEFA, BHBA, or IGF-1 were calculated and related to individual cow fertility...

  11. Isolating the cow-specific part of residual energy intake in lactating dairy cows using random regressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A; Friggens, N C; Berry, D P; Faverdin, P

    2017-12-11

    The ability to properly assess and accurately phenotype true differences in feed efficiency among dairy cows is key to the development of breeding programs for improving feed efficiency. The variability among individuals in feed efficiency is commonly characterised by the residual intake approach. Residual feed intake is represented by the residuals of a linear regression of intake on the corresponding quantities of the biological functions that consume (or release) energy. However, the residuals include both, model fitting and measurement errors as well as any variability in cow efficiency. The objective of this study was to isolate the individual animal variability in feed efficiency from the residual component. Two separate models were fitted, in one the standard residual energy intake (REI) was calculated as the residual of a multiple linear regression of lactation average net energy intake (NEI) on lactation average milk energy output, average metabolic BW, as well as lactation loss and gain of body condition score. In the other, a linear mixed model was used to simultaneously fit fixed linear regressions and random cow levels on the biological traits and intercept using fortnight repeated measures for the variables. This method split the predicted NEI in two parts: one quantifying the population mean intercept and coefficients, and one quantifying cow-specific deviations in the intercept and coefficients. The cow-specific part of predicted NEI was assumed to isolate true differences in feed efficiency among cows. NEI and associated energy expenditure phenotypes were available for the first 17 fortnights of lactation from 119 Holstein cows; all fed a constant energy-rich diet. Mixed models fitting cow-specific intercept and coefficients to different combinations of the aforementioned energy expenditure traits, calculated on a fortnightly basis, were compared. The variance of REI estimated with the lactation average model represented only 8% of the variance of

  12. Prepartum behavior and dry matter intake identify dairy cows at risk for metritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzzey, J M; Veira, D M; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2007-07-01

    Metritis is a disease of particular concern after calving because of its profound negative effects on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Cows at risk for metritis have shorter feeding times in the days before calving but prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) and water intake may also be useful in identifying cows at risk for this disease. Feeding, drinking, and intake measures may also be affected by social interactions among group-housed cows. The objective of this study, therefore, was to measure intake, feeding, drinking, and social behavior to determine which measures could identify cows at risk for metritis after calving. Feeding and drinking behavior and intake measures were collected from 101 Holstein dairy cows from 2 wk before until 3 wk after calving using an electronic monitoring system. Social behavior at the feed bunk was assessed from video recordings. Metritis severity was diagnosed based on daily rectal body temperature as well as condition of vaginal discharge that was assessed every 3 d after calving until d +21. In this study, 12% of cows were classified as severely metritic and 27% as mildly metritic. Prepartum feeding time and DMI were best able to identify cows at risk for metritis. Cows that developed severe metritis spent less time feeding and consumed less feed compared with healthy cows beginning 2 wk before the observation of clinical signs of infection. For every 10-min decrease in average daily feeding time during the week before calving, the odds of severe metritis increased by 1.72, and for every 1-kg decrease in DMI during this period, cows were nearly 3 times more likely to be diagnosed with this disorder. During the week before calving, cows that were later diagnosed with severe metritis had lower DMI and feeding times during the hours following fresh feed delivery. During this period these cows also engaged in fewer aggressive interactions at the feed bins compared with cows that remained healthy. This research is the first

  13. The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2018-01-01

    . Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access......In order to improve animal welfare it is recommended that dairy farmers move calving cows from the herd to individual pens when calving is imminent. However, the practicality of moving cows has proven a challenge and may lead to disturbance of the cows rather than easing the process of calving. One...... solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving...

  14. Exploring relationships between Dairy Herd Improvement monitors of performance and the Transition Cow Index in Wisconsin dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, K K; Bennett, T B; Nordlund, K V; Döpfer, D; Cook, N B

    2016-09-01

    Transition cow management has been tracked via the Transition Cow Index (TCI; AgSource Cooperative Services, Verona, WI) since 2006. Transition Cow Index was developed to measure the difference between actual and predicted milk yield at first test day to evaluate the relative success of the transition period program. This project aimed to assess TCI in relation to all commonly used Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) metrics available through AgSource Cooperative Services. Regression analysis was used to isolate variables that were relevant to TCI, and then principal components analysis and network analysis were used to determine the relative strength and relatedness among variables. Finally, cluster analysis was used to segregate herds based on similarity of relevant variables. The DHI data were obtained from 2,131 Wisconsin dairy herds with test-day mean ≥30 cows, which were tested ≥10 times throughout the 2014 calendar year. The original list of 940 DHI variables was reduced through expert-driven selection and regression analysis to 23 variables. The K-means cluster analysis produced 5 distinct clusters. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the 23 variables per cluster grouping. Using principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and network analysis, 4 parameters were isolated as most relevant to TCI; these were energy-corrected milk, 3 measures of intramammary infection (dry cow cure rate, linear somatic cell count score in primiparous cows, and new infection rate), peak ratio, and days in milk at peak milk production. These variables together with cow and newborn calf survival measures form a group of metrics that can be used to assist in the evaluation of overall transition period performance. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Oriental theileriosis in dairy cows causes a significant milk production loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by members of the Theileria orientalis-complex. Recent outbreaks of this disease in eastern Australia have caused major concerns to the dairy and beef farming communities, but there are no published studies of the economic impact of this disease. On a farm in Victoria, Australia, we assessed whether oriental theileriosis has an impact on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Methods Blood samples collected from all 662 cows on the farm were tested using an established molecular test. For individual cows, milk production and reproductive performance data were collected. A clinical assessment of individual cows was performed. Based on clinical findings and molecular test results, the following groups of cows were classified: group 1, with cardinal clinical signs of oriental theileriosis and molecular test-positive for T. orientalis; group 2, with mild or suspected signs of theileriosis and test-positive; group 3, with no clinical signs and test-positive; and group 4, with no clinical signs and test-negative. Milk production and reproductive performance data for groups 1, 2 and 3 were each compared with those for group 4 using linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Results At 100 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (288 l; P = 0.001), milk fat (16.8 kg; P cows produced significantly less milk (624 l; P = 0.004), milk fat (42.9 kg; P cows. Group 2 cows also produced significantly less milk fat (21.2 kg; P = 0.033) at this lactation point. No statistically significant difference in reproductive performance was found upon pairwise comparisons of groups 1–3 with group 4 cows. Conclusions The present findings demonstrate that clinical oriental theileriosis can cause significant milk production losses in dairy cattle. PMID:24552213

  16. On the Art Career Track: Behold... the Cow as Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterer, Irv

    2011-01-01

    Cows have been a favorite subject for many artists, including Canadian artist Joe Fafard. In this article, grade 11 graphic-design students do a series of exercises in their sketchbooks using the cow motif. Each exercise was designed to have students move from traditional pictures of the dairy cow to more eclectic visual solutions. Eight…

  17. Track way distance and cover as risk factors for lameness in Danish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Rousing, Tine

    2014-01-01

    with prepared cover (asphalt, gravel, slag, concrete, rubber) compared to no prepared cover (sand, soil and/or grass) would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows in grazing herds. In total, 2084 dairy cows from 36 herds, grazing their dairy cows during summer, were individually assessed...... way was categorised as (1) prepared (asphalt, gravel, slag, concrete, and/or rubber), (2) partly prepared or (3) not prepared (soil, sand, grass) for the surface of the majority of tracks used. The effect of track way distance and cover was evaluated for their impact on lameness using logistic...... analysis with a multi-level model structure. The probability for lameness did not change with track distance but increased with no (odds 4.0 times higher) or only partly prepared (odds 3.8 times higher) cover compared to prepared cover. In conclusion, we found that having a cover on the track way...

  18. Sward and milk production response to early turnout of dairy cows to pasture in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VIRKAJÄRVI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The timing of turnout is an important factor affecting the grazing management of dairy cows. However,its consequences are not well known in the short grazing season of northern Europe. Thus, the effect of the turnout date of dairy cows to pasture on sward regrowth, herbage mass production and milk production was studied in two experiments,1a grazing trial with 16 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows and 2a plot trial where the treatments simulated the grazing trial.The treatments were early turnout (1 Juneand normal turnout (6 June.Early turnout decreased the annual herbage mass (HM production in the plot trial (P =0.005,but due to a higher average organic matter (OMdigestibility (P 0.05. Although early turnout had no effect on milk yields it meant easier management of pastures.;

  19. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (p<0.01), milk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  20. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width......, and body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes...

  1. INFLUENCE OF LIMB DISEASES ON PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Čengić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, cow breeding is production-oriented and focused at achieving the utmost in the shortest time with little extra working hours, food and finances.Healthy extremities are the preconditions for proper conceive and the highiest production in dairy cow. The study included 20 Holstein-Frisean cows with moderate to severe pathological changes in the musculosceletal system, between the first and fifth lactation. In 70% of the cases, pathological changes affected the rear limbs, while in 55% of the cases only a single limb. Out of the total number of udder quarters, 28,75% were suspicious for subclinical mastitis, while the average length of a service period was 144 days. Adequate protection of the hoofs should reduce the frequency of lameness and inflammation as well as direct and indirect losses.Key words: limb diseases, dairy cow, production, reproduction

  2. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were ...

  3. Impact of dietary starch concentration formulated with two types of corn silage on methane and ammonia emissions in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions of lactating dairy cows fed different starch level and corn silage type. After the completion of an 8-wk production study, 48 Holstein cows were allocated to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers (2 cows/chamber) for...

  4. Risk factors for interdigital dermatitis and heel erosion in dairy cows kept in cubicle houses in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, J.G.C.J.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Risk factors concerning both the pasture and housing seasons for interdigital dermatitis and heel-horn erosion (IDHE) were studied in dairy cows in a cross-sectional study in The Netherlands. The study population included 2326 cows (41 herds) and 2751 cows (46 herds) for the pasture and housing

  5. Evaluation of different feed intake models for dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizsan, S J; Sairanen, A; Höjer, A; Huhtanen, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate feed intake prediction models of varying complexity using individual observations of lactating cows subjected to experimental dietary treatments in periodic sequences (i.e., change-over trials). Observed or previous period animal data were combined with the current period feed data in the evaluations of the different feed intake prediction models. This would illustrate the situation and amount of available data when formulating rations for dairy cows in practice and test the robustness of the models when milk yield is used in feed intake predictions. The models to be evaluated in the current study were chosen based on the input data required in the models and the applicability to Nordic conditions. A data set comprising 2,161 total individual observations was constructed from 24 trials conducted at research barns in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Prediction models were evaluated by residual analysis using mixed and simple model regression. Great variation in animal and feed factors was observed in the data set, with ranges in total dry matter intake (DMI) from 10.4 to 30.8kg/d, forage DMI from 4.1 to 23.0kg/d, and milk yield from 8.4 to 51.1kg/d. The mean biases of DMI predictions for the National Research Council, the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, the British, Finnish, and Scandinavian models were -1.71, 0.67, 2.80, 0.83, -0.60kg/d with prediction errors of 2.33, 1.71, 3.19, 1.62, and 2.03kg/d, respectively, when observed milk yield was used in the predictions. The performance of the models were ranked the same, using either mixed or simple model regression analysis, but generally the random contribution to the prediction error increased with simple rather than mixed model regression analysis. The prediction error of all models was generally greater when using previous period data compared with the observed milk yield. When the average milk yield over all periods was used in the predictions

  6. Frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in high and low- yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Jafari Dehkordi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiography (ECG may be used to recognize cardiac disorders. Levels of milk production may change the serum electrolytes which its imbalance has a role in cardiac arrhythmia. Fifty high yielding and fifty low yielding Holstein dairy cows were used in this study. Electrocardiography was recorded by base-apex lead and blood samples were collected from jugular vein for measurement of serum elements such as sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, iron and magnesium. Cardiac dysrhythmias were detected more frequent in low yielding Holstein cows (62.00% compared to high yielding Holstein cows (46.00%. The cardiac dysrhythmias that were observed in low yielding Holstein cows included sinus arrhythmia (34.70%, wandering pacemaker (22.45 %, bradycardia (18.37%, tachycardia (10.20%, atrial premature beat (2.04%, sinoatrial block (2.04%, atrial fibrillation (8.16% and atrial tachycardia (2.04%. The cardiac dysrhythmias were observed in high yielding Holstein cows including, sinus arrhythmia (86.95% and wandering pacemaker (13.05%. Also, notched P wave was observed to be 30% and 14% in high- and low- yielding Holstein cows respectively. The serum calcium concentration of low yielding Holstein cows was significantly lower than that of high yielding Holstein cows. There was not any detectable significant difference in other serum elements between high- and low- yielding Holstein cows. Based on the result of present study, could be concluded that low serum concentration of calcium results to more frequent dysrhythmias in low yielding Holstein cows.

  7. Effect of puerperal metritis on reproductive and productive performance in dairy cows in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, M; Romero, G; Veneranda, G; Castello, E; Romero, D; Balzarini, M; Bó, G A

    2016-03-15

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproductive and productive performance of dairy cows with and without puerperal metritis and to evaluate the effectiveness of using a long-acting ceftiofur preparation. Dairy cows in one dairy farm, calving from July 2009 to January 2010, were examined between 3 and 14 days postpartum and classified on the basis of vaginal discharge into three groups: cows with normal discharge (control; C); cows with a bloody mucus purulent or pathologic nonfetid discharge (PnFD), and cows with bloody mucopurulent or purulent fetid discharge (PFD). Cows in C and PnFD groups were not treated, whereas those in the PFD group were randomly allocated to receive 2.2 mg/kg of ceftiofur subcutaneously behind the ear (PFD-T) or remain untreated (PFD-No T). From the 640 cows examined, 58.2% formed the C group, 13.4% formed the PnFD group, and 28.4% formed the PFD group. Survival curves differed between cows in the C group and PFD-No T group (P = 0.0013) and between PFD-No T versus PFD-T group (P = 0.0006). Survival curves of PnFD were intermediate and did not differ from those in the C group (P = 0.2) and PFD-T group (P = 0.1) but tended to be different from the PFD-No T group (P = 0.056). The postpartum interval to achieve a 25% pregnancy rate was 72 days for cows in the C group, 73 days for the PFD-T group, 83 days for PnFD group, and 95 days for the PFD-No T group. The chance of pregnancy in a cow in the C group was 1.98 times higher (95% confidence interval = 1.33, 3.08) and in cows in the PFD-T group was 2.16 times higher (95% confidence interval = 1.37, 3.50) than that in the PFD-No T group. Finally, the chance of pregnancy in cows in the PnFD group tended to be higher (P = 0.08) than that in the PFD-No T group but did not differ from the other two groups. Cumulative 305-day milk production was higher (P metritis affects the reproductive and productive performance of dairy cows and the treatment with ceftiofur was effective in

  8. The Relationship between Residual Feed Intake, Dry Matter Intake, and Reproductive Performance in Holstein Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Cayford, Eleonor Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    Feed represents a large portion of input costs for dairy operations. Decreasing the feed consumed, measured here as dry matter intake (DMI), would therefore be advantageous to producers. However, this decrease could result in cows that do not supply the necessary energy to maintain high production, growth, and reproduction. Measures of feed efficiency try to capture important energy expenditures to ensure that cows consume less while maintaining production. Feed efficiency in this study is me...

  9. Plasma Progesterone Concentrations in Dairy Cows with Cystic Ovaries and Clinical Responses Following Treatment with Fenprostalene

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie, K. E.; Bosu, W. T. K.

    1983-01-01

    Sixty-two dairy cows diagnosed as having cystic ovarian degeneration were used to study the correlation between rectal palpation findings and plasma progesterone concentrations and the response of cysts to treatment using fenprostalene, a luteolytic agent. Rectal palpation accurately determined the presence of luteal cysts as confirmed by plasma progesterone concentrations of 3 ng/mL or more. Treatment with fenprostalene was very effective for luteal cysts: a high percentage of treated cows e...

  10. Breeding and management of dairy cows to increase profit and reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of changing a range of biological traits on farm profit and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG; expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent, CO2-eq.) for dairy cows in Northern Ireland, and also in the whole of the UK. An average cow was modelled for each population of animals, using average values from milk recording records. Previous work developed a dynamic model, to include nutrient partitioning to allow investigation of GHG abatement options over an ...

  11. a note on tntensive weaner calf production fro]ii dairy cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion. Naudd (1964) reported that out cf a total of 9l dairy herds investigated in the Republic of South Africa. only 3l e; of the herds suckled calves. ln 869oof the cases only one calf per cow was suckled. This differs conl- pletely from the practice in Britain where more than one calf per cow is raised in 90eo of the cases (Jobst.

  12. Influence of estrus on rumination, activity, feed and water intake of dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Reith, Stefanie Rosemarie

    2016-01-01

    The detection of estrus is one of the major factors affecting the reproductive performance of dairy cows, especially in farms using AI. Failure to detect estrous behaviors and false positive results leads to missed inseminations and, thus, economic losses. Technical methods providing detailed information and continuous monitoring of the individual cow have been developed to support herd managers in determining the onset of estrus. Whereas increased activity behavior is regarded as indicative ...

  13. Reproductive Management of Dairy Cows with Particular Reference to Organic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Diskin, Michel G.; Kelly, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive efficiency is a major factor affecting production and economic efficiency indairy herds. In seasonally calving herds the requirement of good reproductive performance is of greater importance than in other production systems in order to maximally exploit the use of grazed grass in the diet of the cow. Reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows worldwide has declined over the past 30 years in association with selection for milk yield. There is increasing and consistent ev...

  14. Comparison of claw health and milk yield in dairy cows on elastic or concrete flooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, P V; Nueske, S; Scholz, A M; Foerster, M

    2007-10-01

    This article reports on the effects of elastic (rubber) flooring compared with concrete flooring on claw health and milk yield in dairy cows. Milk yield and activity data of 53 complete lactations from 49 cows were recorded by an automatic milking system in the University of Munich Livestock Center dairy herd. Cows were kept in a loose housing system on concrete-slatted or rubber-matted slatted flooring. Claws were trimmed and measured linearly in combination with claw lesion diagnosis 3 times during one lactation period (including the transition phase). An automatic milking system recorded milk yield and activity. The net horn growth of the claws increased on elastic flooring. Therefore, correct and frequent claw trimming is at least as important for claw health in dairy herds kept on rubber flooring as for those on concrete-slatted flooring. Cows housed on rubber had an increased incidence of sole ulcers. Sole hemorrhages (except for hemorrhages associated with sole ulcers) occurred less frequently on rubber than on concrete. Results concerning digital dermatitis were difficult to assess, because manual manure scraping on rubber required sprinkling the flooring twice daily, which additionally moistened the digital skin of the cows. This might explain the greater incidence of digital dermatitis on elastic flooring. The incidence of clinically lame cows did not differ between flooring types. Cows showed greater activity on rubber, most likely caused by the more comfortable walking surface compared with the concrete-slatted flooring. The greater activity may indicate better overall health of high-yielding dairy cows on rubber flooring. Milk yield, however, did not differ between flooring types.

  15. Ovarian cysts in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braw-Tal, R; Pen, S; Roth, Z

    2009-09-15

    We examined the hormonal and morphologic changes associated with ovarian cyst formation in high-yielding dairy cows. Follicle fluid was aspirated from 90 cysts and 15 preovulatory and 18 subordinate follicles and used for hormonal determination. Pieces of cystic wall were subjected to morphologic and immunohistochemical evaluation. Cysts were characterized by low concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and glucose and high activity of IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). Insulin and IGF-I levels were (mean+/-SEM) 205+/-22 pg/mL and 146+/-42 ng/mL in preovulatory follicles and 3+/-1 pg/mL and 61+/-6 ng/mL in cysts, respectively (Pcysts than in preovulatory follicles. Cysts were classified into three types according to their estradiol-to-progesterone (E/P) ratio. Type 1 cysts (n=23) exhibited the highest E/P ratio (10.8+/-2.3), partial loss of granulosa cells, and severe morphologic changes in the theca interna. Expression of P(450) side-chain cleavage and P(450) 17 alpha-hydroxylase was noted in theca cells and expression of inhibin-alpha in granulosa cells. Type 2 cysts (n=35) had a low E/P ratio (0.07+/-0.02), and patches of luteal-like tissue in the cystic wall. Type 3 cysts (n=32) had an E/P ratio of 0.91+/-0.17, and no recognizable granulosa or theca cells. In summary, intrafollicular steroid levels as expressed by E/P ratio, together with IGF-I and insulin levels and morphologic changes in the follicular wall, may serve as accurate cyst-classification parameters. Because IGF-I and/or insulin play an essential role in the final stage of follicle development, it can be speculated that abnormal levels of these metabolic hormones might lead to follicle dysfunction, resulting in follicular regression or cyst formation.

  16. Faba beans (Vicia faba) in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rosanna Scipioni; Maurizio Moschini; Domenico Pietro Lo Fiego; Francesco Masoero; Michele Comellini; Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked) faba beans appears interesting for dairy cow diet. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked faba beans as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Regg...

  17. A REVIEW ON ACID BASE STATUS IN DAIRY COWS: IMPLICATIONS OF DIETARY CATION-ANION BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Afzaal, M. Nisa, M. A. Khan and M. Sarwar

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The acid base status of a dairy cow is maintained within a narrow range. The key mechanisms involving blood, cells and lungs, perform this function. Although other minerals have an impact on acid base metabolism, the minerals used in dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB namely sodium (Na, potassium (K and chloride (Cl have the greatest effect. Hence, acid base status implicates other biological functions of dairy cows. Low DCAB prepartum reduces the incidence of milk fever and increases the productivity by simmering down the severity of hypocalcaemia. High DCAB diets have proved to increase dry mater and water intake and production and to mitigate the effects of heat stress.

  18. Invited review: The impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cow management, behavior, health, and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J A; Siegford, J M

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 100 yr, the dairy industry has incorporated technology to maximize yield and profit. Pressure to maximize efficiency and lower inputs has resulted in novel approaches to managing and milking dairy herds, including implementation of automatic milking systems (AMS) to reduce labor associated with milking. Although AMS have been used for almost 20 yr in Europe, they have only recently become more popular in North America. Automatic milking systems have the potential to increase milk production by up to 12%, decrease labor by as much as 18%, and simultaneously improve dairy cow welfare by allowing cows to choose when to be milked. However, producers using AMS may not fully realize these anticipated benefits for a variety of reasons. For example, producers may not see a reduction in labor because some cows do not milk voluntarily or because they have not fully or efficiently incorporated the AMS into their management routines. Following the introduction of AMS on the market in the 1990s, research has been conducted examining AMS systems versus conventional parlors focusing primarily on cow health, milk yield, and milk quality, as well as on some of the economic and social factors related to AMS adoption. Additionally, because AMS rely on cows milking themselves voluntarily, research has also been conducted on the behavior of cows in AMS facilities, with particular attention paid to cow traffic around AMS, cow use of AMS, and cows' motivation to enter the milking stall. However, the sometimes contradictory findings resulting from different studies on the same aspect of AMS suggest that differences in management and farm-level variables may be more important to AMS efficiency and milk production than features of the milking system itself. Furthermore, some of the recommendations that have been made regarding AMS facility design and management should be scientifically tested to demonstrate their validity, as not all may work as intended. As updated AMS

  19. A field study on the effects of dietary monensin on milk production and milk composition in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Dubuc, Jocelyn; DuTremblay, Denis; Baril, Jean; Bagg, Randy; Brodeur, Marcel; Duffield, Todd; DesCôteaux, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of 16 ppm of dietary monensin on milk production and composition of dairy cows, and to investigate factors having a potential impact on this effect. Data were generated from a total of 3577 Holstein dairy cows (47 herds) in Quebec enrolled in a herd-level, randomized clinical trial investigating the effects of monensin supplementation. Milk production and composition data were collected from monthly dairy herd improvement (DHI) testing....

  20. Integrated Metabolomics Study of the Milk of Heat-stressed Lactating Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, He; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Weiyu; Cheng, Jianbo; Li, Songli; Zhang, Yangdong; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-04-06

    Heat stress (HS) damages the global dairy industry by reducing milk yields and quality, harming health, and damaging the reproduction of dairy cows, causing huge economic losses each year. However, an understanding of the physiological mechanism of HS lactating dairy cows remains elusive. Here, a metabolomics study using LC-MS and (1)H NMR spectroscopy was performed to analyze the metabolomic differences in the milk between HS-free and HS dairy cows, and discover diagnostic biomarkers and changes in the metabolic pathway. A total of 53 discriminating metabolites were significantly up- or down-regulated in the HS group compared with the HS-free group (P plasma, significant correlations between the levels of lactate, pyruvate, creatine, acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate, trimethylamine, oleic acid, linoleic acid, lysophosphatidylcholine 16:0, and phosphatidylcholine 42:2 in milk and plasma were found, indicating that the blood-milk barrier became leaky and the levels of these 10 biomarkers in milk can reflect HS-induced metabolomic alterations in blood. These novel findings can support more in-depth research to elucidate the milk-based changes in metabolic pathways in HS lactating dairy cows.

  1. Effects of seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum on culling in dairy cattle in four Canadian provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani; VanLeeuwen, John A; Dohoo, Ian R; Stryhn, Henrik; Keefe, Greg P; Haddad, Joao P

    2005-08-30

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of seropositivity for exposure to bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and Neospora caninum (NC) on overall and reason-specific culling in Canadian dairy cattle. Serum samples from, approximately, 30 randomly selected cows from 134 herds were tested for antibodies against BLV, MAP and NC using commercially available ELISA test kits, while 5 unvaccinated cattle over 6 months of age were tested for antibodies to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). For analyzing the time (in days) to culling of cows after the blood testing, a two-step approach was utilized, non-parametric (Kaplan-Meier survival graphs) visualization and then semi-parametric survival modelling (Cox proportional hazards model), while controlling for confounding variables and adjusting for within herd clustering. For all reasons of culling, MAP-seropositive cows had a 1.38 (1.05-1.81, 95% C.I.) times increased hazard of culling compared to MAP-seronegative cows. Seropositivity for the other pathogens was not associated with an increased risk of overall culling. Among cows that were culled because of either decreased reproductive efficiency or decreased milk production or mastitis, MAP-seropositive cows were associated with 1.55 (1.12-2.15, 95% C.I.) times increased hazard compared to MAP-seronegative cows. Among cows that were culled because of reproductive inefficiency, NC-seropositive cows had a 1.43 (1.15-1.79, 95% C.I.) times greater hazard than NC-seronegative cows. Among cows that were culled because of decreased milk production, cows in BVDV-seropositive herds had a 1.86 (1.28-2.70, 95% C.I.) times increased hazard compared to cows in BVDV-seronegative herds. BLV-seropositive cows did not have an increased risk of reason-specific culling as compared to BLV-seronegative cows. No significant interaction on culling among seropositivity for the pathogens was

  2. Short communication: Behavioral evaluation of the analgesic effect of flunixin meglumine in lame dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S A; Young, J M; Tena, J K; Manning, B H

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of flunixin meglumine treatment on lameness pain in dairy cows. Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows were enrolled in the study based on visual observation of abnormal locomotion. The primary measurement endpoint was weight-shifting between the rear limbs. Weight-shifting was calculated as the standard deviation of the weight borne on the rear limbs over a 15 min period; this value correlates directly with lameness pain in dairy cows. After collecting baseline weight-bearing data, we randomly assigned cows to 1 of 2 treatment groups: 2.2 mg/kg body weight flunixin meglumine (2 mL/45 kg) or an equivalent volume of isotonic sterile saline solution. Weight-bearing data were collected from each cow at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after a single intravenous drug treatment. Mean locomotion scores over the 2 d before treatment were 2.38/5 in the flunixin-treated group and 2.43/5 in the saline-treated control group; these values were not significantly different. Weight-shifting values were also not significantly different on either pretreatment day. Cows treated with flunixin meglumine showed significantly less weight-shifting between the rear limbs at 6, 12, and 24 h after treatment compared with saline-treated controls, providing evidence that flunixin meglumine alleviates lameness-associated pain. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fresh-cow handling practices and methods for identification of health disorders on 45 dairy farms in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espadamala, A; Pallarés, P; Lago, A; Silva-Del-Río, N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe fresh-cow handling practices and techniques used during fresh cow evaluations to identify postpartum health disorders on 45 dairy farms in California ranging from 450 to 9,500 cows. Fresh cow practices were surveyed regarding (a) grouping and housing, (b) scheduling and work organization, (c) screening for health disorders, and (d) physical examination methods. Information was collected based on cow-side observations and responses from fresh cow evaluators. Cows were housed in the fresh cow pen for 3 to 14 (20%), 15 to 30 (49%), or >31 (31%) d in milk. Fresh cow evaluations were performed daily (78%), 6 times a week (11%), 2 to 5 times a week (9%), or were not routinely performed (2%). There was significant correlation between the duration of fresh cow evaluations and the number of cows housed in the fresh pen. Across all farms, the duration of evaluations ranged from 5 to 240 min, with an average of 16 s spent per cow. During fresh cow checks, evaluators always looked for abnormal vaginal discharge, retained fetal membranes, and down cows. Dairies evaluated appetite based on rumen fill (11%), reduction of feed in the feed bunk (20%), rumination sensors (2%), or a combination of these (29%). Milk yield was evaluated based on udder fill at fresh cow checks (40%), milk flow during milking (11%), milk yield records collected by milk meters (2%), or a combination of udder fill and milk meters (5%). Depressed attitude was evaluated on 64% of the dairies. Health-monitoring exams for early detection of metritis were implemented on 42% of the dairies based on rectal examination (13%), rectal temperature (22%), or both (7%). Dairies implementing health-monitoring exams took longer to perform fresh cow evaluations. Physical examination methods such as rectal examination, auscultation, rectal temperature evaluation, and cow-side ketosis tests were used on 76, 67, 38, and 9% of dairies, respectively. Across dairies, we found large

  4. Post-treatment sequential ultrasound imaging of follicular cyst in a crossbred dairy cow

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, F. A.; Khan, Muqtaza Manzoor; Prasad, Shiv

    2013-01-01

    Several studies in dairy cattle have investigated the final outcome of different treatment regimens in follicular cyst condition. However, sequential monitoring of the response of follicular cysts to these treatments is rather scanty. In this paper, we present the response of a large follicular cyst in a pluriparous crossbred dairy cow with prolonged conception failure to human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG (3,000 IU; day 0) and cloprostenol (500 μg; day 9) treatment. Using transrectal ultrason...

  5. Design and Experiment on Self-propelled Precise Feeding Equipment for Dairy Cow

    OpenAIRE

    Hewei Meng; Zhenjiang Gao; Xiaoling Luo; Za Kan; Hai Lin

    2013-01-01

    Designed a kind of self-propelled precise feeding machine for single dairy cow based on the technology of RFID, to achieve the automation,fine and intelligent of dairy farming.The computer was used as the information management platform, MCU was used as control platform, even using wireless transmission, RFID recognition, infrared detection technology and so on, which achievement the information data of wireless transmission,precise recognition and detection cattle position.It is applied to e...

  6. Intelligent milking systems : computerized dairy cows management and control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Munyoro, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to define an Intelligent Milking System as a modern technology and innovation in the dairy farming that allows farmers to use computerized machines to do diversified activities regarding their dairy cattle management and productions systems. This thesis will explain why Kenya should adopt the use of this milking system in its dairy sector. In addition, it will explore how this system works in a typical dairy farm and highlight important considerations that wi...

  7. Reproductive and Lactation Performance of Crossbreed Dairy Cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For several years, Ethiopia ranked first in cattle population in Africa. However, the dairy industry is not as developed as that of East African countries including Ethiopia. This study was conducted to assess the reproductive and lactation performance and factors affecting crossbreed dairy cattle in intensive dairy farm in ...

  8. Relationship between Escherichia coli virulence factors and postpartum metritis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassé, F N; Fairbrother, J M; Dubuc, J

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to report the prevalence of Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows before the onset of postpartum metritis (PPM) and to quantify their association with subsequent occurrence of PPM, to quantify the association between the presence of genes encoding E. coli virulence factors (VF) and PPM, and to determine the accuracy of using early postpartum uterine bacteriology results (bacteria and VF) to identify cows at risk of PPM. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 3 commercial dairy farms. Uterine swabs were collected from 371 Holstein dairy cows (3 commercial herds) at 1 to 7d in milk and submitted to the laboratory for identification of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and E. coli VF. A total of 40 VF were tested using the radioactive probe hybridization method. Postpartum metritis was defined as the presence of a fetid watery red-brown uterine discharge, associated with fever (rectal temperature >39.5°C), and systemic signs of illness (dullness, reduced appetite, and milk production). Surveillance of PPM was done by trained farmers blinded to laboratory results and cows were followed until 21d in milk. Statistical analyses were conducted using 2×2 tables and mixed logistical regression models. Prevalences of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and PPM were 42, 34, and 15%, respectively. A total of 32 VF were found in E. coli isolates. Most prevalent VF were extraintestinal pathogenic genes such as fimH (89%), hlyE (87%), and iss (70%). Cows positive for intrauterine E. coli were 3.2 times more likely to have subsequent PPM compared with bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF hra1 in their uterus were 2.7 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for hra1 and 5.9 times more likely than bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF kpsMTII in their uterus were 3.2 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for kpsMTII and 6.2 times more likely

  9. The effect of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on uterine involution in dairy cows evaluated by sonomicrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppelmann, Maike; Krach, Karoline; Krueger, Lars; Benz, Philipp; Herzog, Kathrin; Piechotta, Marion; Hoedemaker, Martina; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on reduction of uterine size in dairy cows using ultrasonography and sonomicrometry. Four piezoelectric crystals were implanted via laparotomy into the myometrium of the pregnant uterine horn of 12 pluriparous Holstein Friesian cows 3 weeks before the calculated calving date. Sonometric measurements were conducted daily from 2 days before parturition (= Day 0) until Day 14 after calving and then every other day until Day 28. Distances between adjacent crystals were expressed in relation to reference values obtained before calving. The diameter of the formerly pregnant uterine horn was measured using transrectal B-Mode sonography starting on Day 10. Cows were retrospectively divided into the following groups: cows without metritis (M-; n = 7), cows with metritis (M+; n = 5), cows with normocalcemia (SH-; Ca > 2.0 mmol/l on Days 1 to 3; n = 5) and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia (SH+; Ca Metritis did not affect (P > 0.05) sonometric measurements, but the diameter of the formerly pregnant horn was larger (P ≤ 0.05) between Days 15 and 21 in M+ cows than in M‒ cows. Reduction in uterine length in hypocalcemic cows was delayed (P ≤ 0.05) between Days 8 and 21 compared with normocalcemic cows, but the uterine horn diameter was not related to calcium status. In conclusion, both diseases affected reduction of uterine size until Day 28. Cows with metritis had a larger uterine diameter, possibly attributable to accumulation of lochia, and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia had delayed reduction of uterine length, presumably related to reduction of myometrial contractility.

  10. Molecular characteristics, antibiogram and prevalence of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA isolated from milk obtained from culled dairy cows and from cows with acute clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: MRSA carrying the mecA gene were isolated from mastitic milk from dairy cows in Jordan for the first time. MRSA may pose a potential health risk to the public, farm workers and veterinarians.

  11. Management and design of hospital pens relative to behavior of the compromised dairy cow: A questionnaire survey of Iowa dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Herskin, Mette S.; Gorden, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    management of hospital pens, as well as decisions concerning humane endpoints when euthanasiais considered. The survey was sent to 300 Iowa dairy farmers including organic, large (>500 cows) andordinary (≤500 cows) dairy farms, with overall response rate of 41%. Eighty-two percent of respondentshad...... on best prac-tices for housing and management of compromised cows. The purpose of this study was to providedescriptive information about management and husbandry practices of compromised cows on dairyfarms in Iowa. A questionnaire-based survey was designed to examine demographic information, designand...... that are soon to calve (35%), dry cows (15%), or other cattle (8%), including heifers, calvesand bulls. Half of the farms had standard management protocols for non-ambulatory cows. Calving diffi-culties, injury, milk fever, lameness and displaced abomasum were the most frequently cited conditionsfor moving cows...

  12. Sole ulcers in dairy cattle associations with season, cow characteristics, disease, and production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiological associations, expressed as odds ratios between variables obtained from dairy cow records and sole ulcer occurrence at claw trimmings were estimated with logistic regression analysis on data from 2204 and 1124 cows in lactation 1 and lactations 2 to 9, respectively. Sole ulcer in one...... foot or more than one foot occurred in 20.0 and 29.7% of cows in lactation 1 and in 23.5 and 24.7% of cows in lactations 2 to 9. The analysis revealed several complicated interactions. Trimming or calving in summer to fall was strongly associated with sole ulcer. Trimming later than 1 to 2 mo after...... calving was positively associated with sole ulcer depending on milk yield, body weight, or season of calving. If lactation 1 cows were treated for disease (limb, metabolic, digestive, or severe reproductive disorders), sole ulcer in more than one foot occurred earlier in lactation. Milk yield in early...

  13. Association of rumination time with subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, E I; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the relationship between rumination and subclinical ketosis (SCK) in transition dairy cows. A study was conducted on 4 commercial dairy farms in eastern Ontario, Canada. A total of 339 Holstein dairy cows (107 primiparous and 232 multiparous) were monitored for rumination activity and SCK from 14 d before calving until 28 d after calving. Rumination was recorded daily using an automated monitoring system. A blood sample was taken from the coccygeal vein of each cow for measurement of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) once weekly throughout the 6-wk observation period. Cows with BHB ≥1.2mmol/L in any of the 4 postpartum samples were considered to have SCK. Cases of retained placenta, metritis, milk fever, or mastitis during the study period were also recorded. Cows were categorized into 1 of 4 groups: healthy cows (HLT) that had no SCK or any other recorded health problem (n=139); cows treated for at least one health issue other than SCK (HLT+; n=50); cows with SCK (hyperketonemia; HYK) with no other health problems during transition (n=97); or cows (HYK+) that had SCK and one or more other health problems (n=53). Daily rumination time was summarized by week and comparisons were made between HLT and HYK and HYK+. From 2 wk before calving (wk -2) to 4 wk after calving (wk +4), there was no difference in rumination time (409±9.8min/d) among HLT, HYK, and HYK+ cows in their first lactation. Multiparous cows in HLT spent an average of 459±11.3min/d ruminating from wk -2 to wk +4. Multiparous HYK cows ruminated 25±12.8min/d less than HLT cows, whereas HYK+ cows ruminated 44±15.6min/d less than HLT cows. The largest differences in rumination time between HLT and HYK+ cows were seen during wk -1, +1, and +2, when HYK+ cows ruminated 48±17.2, 73±16.0, and 65±19.4min/d less than HLT cows, respectively. In multiparous cows, increased odds of HYK were associated with greater milk yield in the previous lactation, greater loss of

  14. Extended lactations may improve cow health, productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from organic dairy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The concept of extended lactation is a break with the tradition of getting one calf per cow per year that should improve cow health, increase productivity and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission per kg milk produced in high-yield organic dairy herds. These effects are achieved through fewer...... calvings per year and hence a production of fewer replacement heifers, which, in combination with fewer days dry per cow per year, will reduce the annual herd requirement for feed. Total herd feed use is a major determinant of GHG emission at farm gate. However, these effects also rely on the assumption...... will be able to produce milk for the same number of lactations and thus have longer, more productive lives. Additionally, cow health may be improved as the majority of diseases occur around calving. Increased productivity and improved cow health should also improve farm profitability, although fewer bull...

  15. Vitamin D3 synthesis in the entire skin surface of dairy cows despite hair coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2010-01-01

    synthesis in the skin during exposure to sunlight. Different scenarios have been suggested but never tested in cows; for example, that vitamin D3 is synthesized from sebum on the hair and ingested by cows during grooming or that body areas such as the udder and muzzle that have scant hair exclusively...... hair are not comparable with respect to prevention of vitamin D3 synthesis and that cows, like humans, synthesize vitamin D3 evenly over their body surface. That vitamin D3 should be synthesized from sebum on the hair and obtained by cows as a result of grooming is not supported by the findings......How hair-coated animals such as dairy cows synthesize endogenous vitamin D3 during exposure to summer sunlight has been unclear since vitamin D3 and its relation to sunlight was discovered. The fur of fur-bearing animals is thought to be comparable to clothing in humans, which prevents vitamin D3...

  16. Metabolism of early-lactation dairy cows as affected by dietary starch and monensin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Ryan, C M; Pelton, S H; Mechor, G D; Overton, T R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary starch content and monensin (MON) on metabolism of dairy cows during early lactation. Before parturition, primiparous (n=21) and multiparous (n=49) Holstein cows were fed a common controlled-energy close-up diet with a daily topdress of either 0 or 400mg/d monensin. From d 1 to 21 postpartum, cows were fed a high-starch (HS; 26.2% starch, 34.3% neutral detergent fiber, 22.7% acid detergent fiber, 15.5% crude protein) or low-starch (LS; 21.5% starch, 36.9% neutral detergent fiber, 25.2% acid detergent fiber, 15.4% crude protein) total mixed ration with a daily topdress of either 0mg/d monensin (CON) or 450mg/d monensin (MON), continuing with prepartum topdress assignment. From d 22 through 63 postpartum, all cows were fed HS and continued with the assigned topdress treatment until d 63. Cows fed HS had higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) than cows fed LS during d 1 to 21 postpartum. Cows fed LS had elevated early-lactation β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) compared with cows fed HS. Cows fed HS had greater insulin resistance and increased plasma haptoglobin in the early lactation period. There was no effect of MON on postpartum plasma NEFA. Cows fed MON had higher plasma glucose compared with CON cows, which was driven by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had greater plasma glucose concentrations than cows fed CON. Cows fed MON had lower plasma BHBA compared with CON, which was contributed to by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had lower BHBA concentrations than CON. Starch treatment had no effect on overall liver triglyceride content. Primiparous cows fed MON had increased liver triglyceride content compared with CON primiparous cows, and multiparous cows fed MON had decreased liver triglyceride content compared with CON cows. Multiparous cows fed LS with MON had higher liver glycogen content than multiparous

  17. Fate of cystic ovarian follicles and the subsequent fertility of early postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, M; Sasamoto, Y; Suzuki, T; Takahashi, Y; Yamada, Y

    2006-08-12

    The fate of cystic ovarian follicles that developed spontaneously during the early postpartum period of 50 lactating dairy cows was traced by ultrasonography to characterise the follicular dynamics in relation to the fertility of the cows. The absence of postpartum ovulations caused by repeated waves of anovulatory large follicles was also characterised and evaluated. Fifteen of the 50 cows developed cystic follicles, and these follicles became follicular cysts in five of the 15 cows. Most of the cystic follicles emerged before the first postpartum ovulation of the cows. The transition from cystic follicles to follicular cysts delayed the cows' first ovulation, oestrus and insemination, but had less influence on their fertility after they had recovered spontaneously. In addition to the 15 cows that developed cystic follicles or follicular cysts, six of the cows had five to 13 waves of follicles before their first ovulation. These repeated waves of follicles caused a more severe delay in the early postpartum reproductive events but did not affect the cows' fertility.

  18. Low cortisol levels in blood from dairy cows with ketosis: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Kristina B; Ljungvall, Orjan A; Jones, Bernt V

    2010-05-20

    An elevated plasma glucose concentration has been considered to be a potential risk factor in the pathogenesis of left-displaced abomasums (DA). Therefore the present study was performed to investigate if spontaneous disease (parturient paresis, metritis, ketosis etc) in dairy cows results in elevated concentrations of glucose and cortisol in blood as cortisol is the major regulator of glucose in ruminants. Cortisol, insulin, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), non esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and serum calcium were analyzed in blood serum and glucose, in whole blood, from 57 spontaneously diseased cows collected at different farms. The cows were grouped according to the disease; parturient paresis, recumbent for other reasons, mastitis, metritis, ketosis, inappetance and others. No elevated concentrations of cortisol or glucose were found in cows with metritis and mastitis but both cortisol and glucose were elevated in cows stressed by recumbency. Cows with ketonemia (BHBA > 1.5 mmol/l) did not have low concentration of glucose in blood but significantly low levels of cortisol. Some of these cows even had cortisol concentrations below the detection limit of the analysing method (ketosis, recommending glucocorticoids, insulin etc. However further studies of this problem are needed to understand why cows with ketosis have low levels of cortisol and normal levels of glucose. To what extent elevated cortisol and glucose levels in hypocalcemic and recumbent cows are involved in the ethiology and /or the pathogenesis of DA also will need further research.

  19. A validation of technologies monitoring dairy cow feeding, ruminating, and lying behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, M R; Chang, Y M; Tsai, I C; Wadsworth, B A; Bewley, J M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate commercially available precision dairy technologies against direct visual observations of feeding, rumination, and lying behaviors. Primiparous (n=24) and multiparous (n=24) lactating Holstein dairy cattle (mean ± standard deviation; 223.4±117.8 d in milk, producing 29.2±8.2kg of milk/d) were fitted with 6 different triaxial accelerometer technologies evaluating cow behaviors at or before freshening. The AfiAct Pedometer Plus (Afimilk, Kibbutz Afikim, Israel) was used to monitor lying time. The CowManager SensOor (Agis, Harmelen, Netherlands) monitored rumination and feeding time. The HOBO Data Logger (HOBO Pendant G Acceleration Data Logger, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) monitored lying time. The CowAlert IceQube (IceRobotics Ltd., Edinburgh, Scotland) monitored lying time. The Smartbow (Smartbow GmbH, Jutogasse, Austria) monitored rumination time. The Track A Cow (ENGS, Rosh Pina, Israel) monitored lying time and time spent around feeding areas for the calculation of feeding time. Over 8 d, 6 cows per day were visually observed for feeding, rumination, and lying behaviors for 2 h after morning and evening milking. The time of day was recorded when each behavior began and ended. These times were used to generate the length of time behaviors were visually observed. Pearson correlations (r; calculated using the CORR procedure of SAS Version 9.3, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), and concordance correlations (CCC; calculated using the epiR package of R version 3.1.0, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) evaluated association between visual observations and technology-recorded behaviors. Visually recorded feeding behaviors were moderately correlated with the CowManager SensOor (r=0.88, CCC=0.82) and Track A Cow (r=0.93, CCC=0.79) monitors. Visually recorded rumination behaviors were strongly correlated with the Smartbow (r=0.97, CCC=0.96), and weakly correlated with the CowManager SensOor (r=0

  20. Artificial Induction of Lactation in Nonbreeder Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Jewell, Tracy Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-four cows (26 Holsteins and 8 Jerseys) were subjected to an estrous synchronization protocol administering 2 PGF2Æ Ã injections 11 d apart prior to beginning the lactation-induction protocol. Artificial induction of lactation yielded a 92% success rate for Holstein cows with success defined as achieving >9 kg milk/d, and a 88% success rate for Jersey cows with success defined as achieving > 5 kg milk/d. Mean accumulated milk yield for induced cows at 150 DIM was 65% of mean yield fo...

  1. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    for all feeding strategies, but the decline was most marked for the control cows. Milk protein concentration increased for all groups as the amount of supplement increased, but was greater for FGM, PMRL, and PMRH cows than control cows. It is concluded that when supplements are fed to grazing dairy cows, inclusion of corn grain and canola meal can increase milk production even at similar metabolizable energy intakes, and that it does not matter whether these supplements are fed as a PMR or in the parlor and paddock. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Short communication: Relationship between natural antibodies and postpartum uterine health in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, V S; Bicalho, M L S; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2014-12-01

    Postpartum uterine diseases of dairy cows compromise animal welfare and may result in early removal from the herd or impaired reproductive performance. The relationship between poor immune status around calving and uterine diseases is well established; however, that between natural antibodies (NAb) and uterine health has not yet been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of circulating NAb levels around parturition with puerperal metritis, clinical endometritis, and the intrauterine presence of the Escherichia coli virulence factor FimH. One hundred six pregnant heifers were enrolled; NAb in serum samples collected at 30 ± 3 d prepartum and at 2 ± 1 and 35 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) were measured by ELISA. Puerperal metritis was defined as the presence of fetid, watery, red-brown uterine discharge and rectal temperature >39.5°C at 6 ± 1 DIM. Clinical endometritis was defined as presence of pus in the uterine lavage sample collected at 35 ± 3 DIM. The intrauterine presence of the fimH gene at 2 ± 1 DIM was evaluated by PCR. The overall optical density (wavelength of 650 nm) of ELISA-detected serum NAb was lower for cows diagnosed with puerperal metritis than for cows that did not have puerperal metritis. Additionally, cows diagnosed with clinical endometritis tended to have lower levels of NAb than did cows without clinical endometritis. Finally, FimH-positive cows had lower overall levels of serum NAb compared with FimH-negative cows. In conclusion, NAb detected in serum around parturition was associated with uterine health of dairy cows. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The dopamine antagonist domperidone increases prolactin concentration and enhances milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, P; Ollier, S

    2015-11-01

    In previous studies, our team showed that the inhibition of prolactin (PRL) secretion by the dopamine agonist quinagolide reduces milk production in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of administration of a dopamine antagonist on basal and milking-induced PRL concentrations in blood and on milk production during positive energy balance and feed restriction in dairy cows. Eighteen mid-lactation Holstein cows received daily s.c. injections of either domperidone (300 mg, DOMP, n=9) or the vehicle, canola oil (CTL, n=9), for 5 wk. During wk 5, all cows were fed at 65% of their dry matter intake in the previous week. Blood and milk samples were collected before (for blood) and during (for milk) the a.m. milking thrice weekly from d -9 to 41 (8d after the last injection). In addition, blood samples were collected during the a.m. milking on d -1 (before the first injection), and on d 1, 28, and 34. Basal PRL concentration was similar in both groups before the start of the treatments. Domperidone injections caused a gradual increase in basal PRL concentration. Feed restriction reduced basal PRL concentration in both the CTL and DOMP cows, but PRL concentration remained higher in the DOMP cows. Prolactin concentration remained elevated in the DOMP cows 7d after the last injection. The milk concentration of PRL increased during the DOMP treatment, but the increase was smaller than that observed in serum. In the CTL cows, the milking-induced PRL release above the premilking concentration was similar on d -1, 1, and 28 but was reduced during feed restriction. In the DOMP cows, the milking-induced PRL release was similar on d -1 and 1 but was reduced on d 28 and 34. Milk production was similar for both groups before the treatments started but was greater in the DOMP cows during the treatment period, at 2.9 ± 0.6 and 2.4 ± 0.6 kg/d greater during wk 3 and 4 of treatment, respectively. Milk production declined in both groups during feed

  4. Dairy cow preferences for soft or hard flooring when standing or walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telezhenko, E; Lidfors, L; Bergsten, C

    2007-08-01

    Concrete is the most commonly used alley flooring in confined dairy herds because of its qualities of construction and ease of cleaning. Nevertheless, the hardness, abrasiveness, and slipperiness of concrete floors have adverse effects on animal well-being and health, and yielding rubber flooring is becoming popular as a way of improving the flooring conditions on walkways. The aim of this study was to investigate preferences of dairy cows for rubber compared with concrete flooring under the conditions of a commercial dairy farm. The study was conducted in an organic dairy herd with free-stall housing. Floor preference was tested on groups of standing cows in a 120-m2 holding pen before milking, and 1 yr later on a 12- x 3-m walkway. The holding pen and the walkway were divided lengthwise into 2 identical sections. Two types of solid rubber mats (soft and extra soft) were tested against solid concrete in the holding pen. Slatted and solid rubber mats were tested against slatted concrete in the walkway. Each floor type was tested over 4 d on the left side and 4 d on the right side of the holding pen and the walkway, respectively. Concrete flooring on both sides of the sections was tested as a control before the testing of different section materials. All observations of the distribution of cows in the sections were made from video recordings captured in association with the afternoon milking. The number of cows on each section was recorded approximately every 7 min in the holding pen, and continuously on the walkway. A significantly higher proportion of cows stood on the side with the soft and extra soft rubber mats (65.1 +/- 2.7 and 69.3 +/- 2.6%, respectively, mean +/- SEM) compared with the control distribution when only the solid concrete was available (50.9 +/- 3.9%). A significantly higher proportion of nonlame cows walked exclusively on the side with the slatted (64.5 +/- 5.4%, d 4) or solid rubber mats (68.2 +/- 5.1%, d 4) compared with controls (28.9 +/- 4

  5. Using plant wax markers to estimate the diet composition of grazing Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heublein, C; Südekum, K-H; Gill, F L; Dohme-Meier, F; Schori, F

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether diet selection of dairy cows under grazing conditions could be estimated using plant wax markers. Furthermore, differences between 2 cow strains and the effect of concentrate supplementation on plant species selection were investigated. The experiment was a study with a crossover design performed on an organic farm with 12 Swiss Holstein cows and 12 New Zealand Holstein cows. Both experimental periods consisted of a 21-d adaptation and a 7-d measurement period. All cows grazed full time in a rotational stocking system and received either no concentrate or 6 kg/d of a commercial cereal-grain mix. Representative herbage samples of each grazed paddock were taken and botanical composition of subsamples was manually determined. The average proportions of the plant species were 27.8% Lolium perenne, 6.1% Dactylis glomerata, 10.4% Trifolium repens, and 9.0% Taraxacum officinale. Other grass species were merged as "other grass" (38.2%) and other forb species as "other forbs" (8.5%). n-Alkanes, long-chain fatty acids, and long-chain alcohols (LCOH) were analyzed in the samples of plant species, concentrate, and feces from each cow. A linear discriminant analysis indicated that diet components were differentiated best with LCOH (96%) and worst with the combination of all marker groups together (12%). For each marker, the fecal marker recovery (FR) relative to dosed ytterbium was determined in 2 ways. Estimation of diet composition was performed with the software "EatWhat," and results were compared with botanical composition with the Aitchison distance. The results indicate that the diet composition of grazing dairy cows can be estimated using plant wax markers. Additionally, the calculation of FR led to mostly reliable results, yet this approach needs further validation. The most accurate estimation was achieved with the marker combination of n-alkanes and LCOH with a correction for FR. Less accurate estimations were achieved

  6. Alternatives to linear analysis of energy balance data from lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; France, J.; Agnew, R.E.; Yan, T.; Dhanoa, M.S.; Dijkstra, J.; Beever, D.E.; Reynolds, C.K.

    2003-01-01

    The current energy requirements system used in the United Kingdom for lactating dairy cows utilizes key parameters such as metabolizable energy intake (MEI) at maintenance (MEm), the efficiency of utilization of MEI for 1) maintenance, 2) milk production (k(l)), 3) growth (k(g)), and the efficiency

  7. Factors affecting energy and nitrogen efficiency of dairy cows: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, H.N.; Friggens, N.C.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Schmidely, P.

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to explore the correlation between energy and nitrogen efficiency of dairy cows, and to study nutritional and animal factors that influence these efficiencies, as well as their relationship. Treatment mean values were extracted from 68 peer-reviewed studies, including

  8. WASmith The genetic potential of dairy cows has increased to such

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic potential of dairy cows has increased to such an extent that the higher energy requirements ..... depression in fibre digestibility when WCS was included at levels of up to 30% of the diet This implies that total .... 12% whole sunflower seeds in the ration DM depressed DM intake, milk yield, fat and protein content.

  9. Protein and fat mobilization and associations with serum beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, S. G. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959544; Houweling, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/094875642; Schonewille, J. T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185364306; Tielens, A. G. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069043035; Jorritsma, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/24462013X

    The objective of this study was to obtain information on variation between dairy cows in muscle and fat tissue mobilization around parturition and to study the association between protein and fat mobilization and serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations (hyperketonemia) in this period.

  10. Milk yield and quality of crossbred dairy cows fed with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk yield and quality of crossbred dairy cows fed with different levels of vetch ( Vicia dasycarpa ) hay and concentrate on a basal diet of fresh cut napier grass ... and T5 concentrate mix (55% wheat bran, 43% noug seed cake (Gizotia abysinica) and 2% salt) was supplemented at the rate of 0.5 kg per liter of milk produced.

  11. Protein biomarker-based screening for detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin abuse in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, S.K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is a 22 kDa proteohormone, which can be used to increase milk production in dairy cows. It has been marketed since 1994 and while its use in food production is approved in several countries, such as the US, it is banned in the EU since 2000. To enforce the ban

  12. Distribution of Penicillin G Residues in Culled Dairy Cow Muscles: Implications for Residue Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which type of muscle should be analyzed. In order to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type, 7 culled dairy cows were dosed with Penicillin G (Pen G) from ...

  13. Association of leptin gene polymorphisms with serum leptin concentration in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefers, S.C.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Chilliard, C.; Delavaud, C.; Gerritsen, R.; Lende, van der T.

    2003-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone produced by adipocytes, and its expression is regulated by body fatness and energy balance. This study describes the association of four leptin gene polymorphisms in dairy cows (R4C, A59V, RFLP1, and BM1500) with circulating leptin concentrations during the periparturient period.

  14. Cultivar effects of perennial ryegrass on herbage intake by grazing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass is the most abundant grass species in temperate climates. An increased herbage intake of dairy cows by breeding new cultivars could have a large potential impact on agriculture. The effects of cultivars on sward structure, nutritive value, physical characteristics and disease

  15. Methane production and digestion of different physical forms of rapeseed as fat supplements in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of the physical form of rapeseed fat on methane (CH4) mitigation properties, feed digestion, and rumen fermentation. Four lactating ruminal-, duodenal-, and ileal-cannulated Danish Holstein dairy cows (143 d in milk, milk yield of 34.3 kg) we...

  16. Pre- and postpartum effects of starch and fat in dairy cows: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alain Useni

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... However, studies on the pre- and postpartum effects of starch- or fat-based diets on dairy cow reproduction parameters .... diets is usually achieved by adding bulky lower-quality forages such as chopped wheat straw or oat hay, .... From this brief review, it appears that the brain, GIT, body reverses, foetus.

  17. Effect of starch on the bioavailability of glutamine and leucine in the dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.A.L.; Bontempo, V.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Meulen, van der J.

    1997-01-01

    This experiment was designed to quantify changes in utilization of Gln and Leu by the gut wall as a result of changes in the starch supply to the duodenum. Four dairy cows fitted with cannulas in the rumen and the distal duodenum were adapted for 3 wk to starch infusion, either into the rumen (600

  18. Genetic parameters for level and change of body condition score and body weight in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    (Co)variance components for body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), BCS change, BW change, and milk yield traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 6646 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, and(or) milk yield at different stages of lactation from 74 dairy herds

  19. Lifetime productivity of dairy cows in smallholder farming systems of the Central highlands of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rufino, M.C.; Herrero, M.; Wijk, van M.T.; Hemerik, L.; Ridder, de N.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of lifetime productivity is sensible to target interventions for improving productivity of smallholder dairy systems in the highlands of East Africa, because cows are normally not disposed of based on productive reasons. Feeding strategies and involuntary culling may have long-term

  20. Genetics and genomics to improve fertility in high producing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Beerda, B.

    2007-01-01

    Improving dairy cow fertility by means of genetic selection is likely to become increasingly important, since it is now well established that declining fertility cannot only be arrested by improved management. Profit margins per kg milk produced are decreasing, therefore farmers need to reduce cost

  1. Harnessing the genetics of the modern dairy cow to continue improvements in feed efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeHaar, M.J.; Armentano, L.E.; Weigel, K.; Spurlock, D.M.; Tempelman, R.J.; Veerkamp, R.

    2016-01-01

    Feed efficiency, as defined by the fraction of feed energy or dry matter captured in products, has more than doubled for the US dairy industry in the past 100 yr. This increased feed efficiency was the result of increased milk production per cow achieved through genetic selection, nutrition, and

  2. On the influence of the alternation of two different cooling systems on dairy cow daily activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona M.C. Porto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the causes that influence cow welfare, heat stress induced by microclimatic conditions is one of the most relevant and many studies have investigated the efficacy of different cooling systems on animal health status. Nevertheless, the direct influence of the cooling systems on possible modifications of dairy cow behaviour has been addressed in a few studies and the related results were affected by the presence of a paddock, which gave a refuge from hot temperature. Since an alteration of the daily time budget spent by dairy cows in their usual activities can be associated with changes in their health status, this study investigated the effects of the alternation of two different cooling systems on lying, standing, and feeding behaviour of a group of dairy cows bred in a free-stall dairy house where animals had no access to a paddock. The barn was equipped with a fogging system associated with forced ventilation installed in the resting area and a sprinkler system associated with forced ventilation installed in the feeding area. The two systems were activated alternately. The results demonstrated that the management of the two cooling systems affected the analysed behaviours. Though the activation of the cooling system installed in the resting area encouraged the decubitus of animals in the stalls, the activation of that one of the feeding alley could not be able to influence the standing behaviour and had only a moderate positive influence on the feeding activity.

  3. Host-rumen microbe interactions may be leveraged to improve the productivity of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle rumen serves as a digestive bioreactor for the dairy cow, yet our knowledge of the microbial contents, ecology, and host selection within the rumen is only precursory. This is despite the knowledge that the volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial crude protein (MCP) produced by rumen mic...

  4. Lysis of mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy cow milk samples by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To avoid the use of broad spectrum antibiotics which can induce antibiotic resistance, we developed a recombinant lysostaphin with high purity against mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy cow milk. The gene encoding for mature lysostaphin peptide was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression systems, pET28a, ...

  5. Heat Stress in Tunisia: Effects on dairy cows and potential means ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tunisia has a Mediterranean climate characterized by high ambient temperatures for a long period. Thus, one of the challenges to dairy producers is heat stress. The objectives of this work were to characterize the environmental conditions to which Holstein cows are exposed in Tunisia using the Temperature Humidity ...

  6. Metagenomic analysis of the bovine hindgut from Salmonella Kentucky and Cerro-shedding dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars Kentucky and Cerro are frequently isolated from dairy cows that appear asymptomatic. Although they are not major contributors to the salmonellosis burden, these serovars have been implicated in human clinical cases in recent years. To...

  7. Noninvasive detection of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows with calibrated ultrasonographic image analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starke, A.; Haudum, A.; Weijers, G.; Herzog, K.; Wohlsein, P.; Beyerbach, M.; Korte, C.L. de; Thijssen, J.M.; Rehage, J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to test the accuracy of calibrated digital analysis of ultrasonographic hepatic images for diagnosing fatty liver in dairy cows. Digital analysis was performed by means of a novel method, computer-aided ultrasound diagnosis (CAUS), previously published by the authors. This method implies

  8. Effect of carbohydrate source and rumen pH on enteric methane from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to measure the enteric methane emissions in dairy cows fed diets rich in starch or sugar with and without manipulation of rumen pH. The rations were based on grass-clover silage supplemented with either wheat (W), NaOH treated wheat (WNaOH), sugar beet molasses (M...

  9. Prevalence of claw disorders in Dutch dairy cows exposed to several floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, J.G.C.J.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Claw health was examined in an observational study on Dutch dairy farms with either a slatted floor (SL), slatted floor with manure scraper (SL-SCR), solid concrete floor (SCF), a straw yard (SY), or a zero-grazing feeding system (ZG). Hooves of cows' hind legs were examined for the presence and

  10. Bio-economic modeling to support insemination decisions in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.

    2011-01-01

    To achieve the optimal economic profit, the effort to increase milk production in a dairy cow has been generated. As a consequence of an increased milk production, it appears that the conception rate has been reported to decline during the last decade worldwide. For the optimal economics and to

  11. Dietary Energy Source in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation: Energy Partitioning and Milk Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Straalen, van W.M.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Tamminga, S.; Kemp, B.

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic problems related to negative energy balance suggest a role for the balance in supply of lipogenic and glucogenic nutrients. To test the effect of lipogenic and glucogenic nutrients on energy partitioning, energy balance and nitrogen balance of 16 lactating dairy cows were determined by

  12. Heat stress and seasonal effects on reproduction in the dairy cow--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rensis, Fabio; Scaramuzzi, Rex John

    2003-10-01

    In dairy cows inseminated during the hot months of the year, there is a decrease in fertility. Different factors contribute to this situation; the most important are a consequence of increased temperature and humidity that result in a decreased expression of overt estrus and a reduction in appetite and dry matter intake. Heat stress reduces the degree of dominance of the selected follicle and this can be seen as reduced steroidogenic capacity of its theca and granulosa cells and a fall in blood estradiol concentrations. Plasma progesterone levels can be increased or decreased depending on whether the heat stress is acute or chronic, and on the metabolic state of the animal. These endocrine changes reduce follicular activity and alter the ovulatory mechanism, leading to a decrease in oocyte and embryo quality. The uterine environment is also modified, reducing the likelihood of embryo implantation. Appetite and dry matter intake are both reduced by heat stress thus prolonging the postpartum period of negative energy balance and increasing the calving-conception interval, particularly in high producing dairy cows. The utilization of cooling systems may have a beneficial effect on fertility but dairy cows cooled in this way are still unable to match the fertility achieved in winter. Recent studies suggest that the use of gonadotropins to induce follicular development and ovulation can decrease the severity of seasonal postpartum infertility in dairy cows.

  13. A new nordic structure evaluation system for diets fed to dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.; Volden, H.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the Norfor structure system was to establish a model for prediction of eating- (EI), ruminating- (RI) and total chewing index (CI) for feeds and total rations fed to dairy cows. The model was predicted from a Meta analysis of more than 100 published experiments including results ...

  14. Relationships between uterine health and metabolism in dairy cows with different dry period lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Soede, N.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to evaluate effects of dry period (DP) length and dietary energy source on ovarian activity, uterine health status, pregnancy rate, and days open in dairy cows in the second subsequent lactation after implementation of DP length and dietary treatments. The

  15. Passage of 13C-labelled feed components through the digestive tract of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellikaan, W.F.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: fractional passage rate, grass, silage, 13 C-isotope, internal markers, dairy cowsThe main aim of this thesis was to acquire knowledge on the feed specific fractional passage rates of feedstuffs and feed components through different compartments of the

  16. Energy evaluation of fresh grass in the diets of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Zom, R.L.G.; Valk, H.

    2002-01-01

    The discrepancy between the estimated feeding value of fresh grass and the output per kg grass in terms of milk and maintenance was studied by evaluating 12 experiments with grass-fed dairy cows. The percentage grass in the diets varied between 40 and 90. Intake and milk production were recorded

  17. The impact of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows on greenhouse gas emissions of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, P.F.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the impact of subclinical ketosis (SCK) and related diseases in dairy cows on greenhouse gas
    (GHG) emissions of milk production. A dynamic stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model was developed and combined
    with life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the impact

  18. Identification of novel pathways in pathogenesis of ketosis in dairy cows via iTRAQ/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Shi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To identify novel pathways involved in the pathogenesis of ketosis, an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation/mass spectrometry was used to define differences in protein expression profiles between healthy dairy cows and those with clinical or subclinical ketosis.

  19. Flunixin urine residues in culled dairy cows and its relevance to food safety and environmental concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flunixin is a US-FDA approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent; it is prominent due to violative meat residues detected by the US-FSIS in dairy cows. The effects of route of administration (2.2 mg/kg) and endotoxin challenge on flunixin elimination and residues were investigated. High urinary ...

  20. Subacute Ruminal Acidosis and Evaluation of Blood Gas Analysis in Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Gianesella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA corresponds to an imbalance between lactate-producing bacteria and lactate-using bacteria, which results in a change in ruminal pH associated with a prevalent consumption of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates. In our study, 216 primiparus and multiparus dairy cows were selected from 20 Italian intensive dairy herds and were divided into three groups based on the risk of SARA. All the dairy cows had high average milk production. After blood sampling, a complete blood gas analysis was performed. One-way ANOVA was performed to compare the three groups. O2 Cont, PCO2, blood pH, O2Hb, urinary pH, and rumen pH were significantly lower in cows with rumen pH<5.5. These results indicate that blood gas analysis is a valuable tool to diagnose acidosis in dairy cows because it provides good assessment of acidosis while being less invasive than rumen pH analysis.

  1. Cellular Mechanisms in Regulating Mammary Cell Turnover During Lactation and Dry Period in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J V; Theil, P K; Sørensen, M T

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in regulating mammary cell turnover during the pregnancy-lactaion cycle in dairy cows are unclear. The objective of present experiment was to describe expression of genes encoding proteins known to be involved in pathways regulating mammary cell proliferation, apoptosis, d...

  2. Rumen-protected rice bran to induce the adaptation of calcium metabolism in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martín-Tereso López, J.

    2010-01-01

    Dairy cows suffer from hypocalcaemia in the days around calving, which may result in a condition generally known as milk fever. Calcium metabolism sharply shifts at the start of lactation, because Ca needs suddenly become much greater than at the end of gestation. Calcium metabolism is able to adapt

  3. Gene-based mapping and pathway analysis of metabolic traits in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Thuy Ha

    Full Text Available The metabolic adaptation of dairy cows during the transition period has been studied intensively in the last decades. However, until now, only few studies have paid attention to the genetic aspects of this process. Here, we present the results of a gene-based mapping and pathway analysis with the measurements of three key metabolites, (1 non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, (2 beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA and (3 glucose, characterizing the metabolic adaptability of dairy cows before and after calving. In contrast to the conventional single-marker approach, we identify 99 significant and biologically sensible genes associated with at least one of the considered phenotypes and thus giving evidence for a genetic basis of the metabolic adaptability. Moreover, our results strongly suggest three pathways involved in the metabolism of steroids and lipids are potential candidates for the adaptive regulation of dairy cows in their early lactation. From our perspective, a closer investigation of our findings will lead to a step forward in understanding the variability in the metabolic adaptability of dairy cows in their early lactation.

  4. Short communication: Genetic study of methane production predicted from milk fat composition in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, van S.; Bovenhuis, H.; Dijkstra, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cows produce enteric methane, a greenhouse gas with 25 times the global warming potential of CO2. Breeding could make a permanent, cumulative, and long-term contribution to methane reduction. Due to a lack of accurate, repeatable, individual methane measurements needed for breeding, indicators

  5. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation in dairy cows, 1990-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch protocol for the national inventory estimates the methane emission of the average Dutch dairy cow based on a Tier 3 approach. A dynamic, mechanistic model is used to represent the enteric fermentation processes, using annual national statistics on feed intake and feed composition as model

  6. The effect of vaccination on foot and mouth disease virus transmission among dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Dekker, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of a single vaccination of dairy cows on foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) transmission. To estimate if vaccination could significantly reduce virus transmission, we performed two replicates of a transmission experiment with one group of vaccinated

  7. Replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal improves production and efficiency of lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) is used more efficiently than CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We tested whether dietary CP content influenced relative effectiveness of equal supplemental CP from either CM or SBM. Fifty lactating H...

  8. Nutritive value of maize silage in relation to dairy cow performance and milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang; Ali, Mubarak; Cone, John W; Hendriks, Wouter H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298620936

    Maize silage has become the major forage component in the ration of dairy cows over the last few decades. This review provides information on the mean content and variability in chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) profile and ensiling quality of maize silages, and discusses the major factors which

  9. Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate and isoproterenol on lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from periparturient dairy cows and cows with clinical ketosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, S. G. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959544; Everts, R. R.; Houweling, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/094875642; van Leengoed, L. A. M. G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073994979; Stegeman, J. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137144040; Tielens, A. G. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069043035; Jorritsma, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/24462013X

    An in vitro model was used to investigate effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate and isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic receptor agonist) on lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from late pregnant and recently calved dairy cows (n = 5) and cows with clinical ketosis (n =3). Incubation with 3.0 mmol/L

  10. Detection of bovine herpesvirus type 4 antibodies and bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus in New Zealand dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, M W; Zheng, T; Buddle, B M; McDougall, S

    2014-11-01

    To detect the presence of bovine herpesvirus (BoHV) type 4 in New Zealand dairy cows with clinical metritis. Serum samples taken from 92 dairy cows with clinical metritis, each from a different farm, were tested for the presence of antibodies against BoHV-4 using a commercially available, indirect ELISA. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected from 10 BoHV-4 seropositive cows, and PBMC were examined by a pan-herpesvirus nested PCR to detect herpesvirus. PCR products were sequenced directly and a proportion of the PCR products were cloned and sequenced to identify the virus present. Antibodies to BoHV-4 were detected in 23/92 (25%) serum samples. The pan-herpesvirus PCR was positive in 8/10 PBMC samples. Cloning and sequencing identified that all of the eight PCR-positive PBMC contained bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus (BLHV); no BoHV-4 DNA was detected. This study reports the finding of the presence of apparent antibodies to BoHV-4, and BLHV DNA in New Zealand dairy cows affected by metritis. Bovine herpesvirus type 4 and BLHV are reported to have the potential to cause reproduction failure in cows. This is the first report of apparent BoHV-4 antibodies, and BLHV in New Zealand. The importance and epidemiology of these viruses in cattle in New Zealand requires further investigation.

  11. Mycoplasmal mastitis in dairy cows in the Moghan region of Ardabil State, Iran : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ghazaei

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are an important and economically significant cause of mastitis in dairy cows in various parts of the world. The organisms are highly contagious, with the main reservoir of infection originating from cows with subclinical mastitis. In 1998 the 1st cases of bovine mastitis due to Mycoplasma bovis were diagnosed in Ardabil State, Iran. An investigation was carried out with the aim of establishing the extent of mycoplasma infections in dairy cows in Ardabil State. Milk samples obtained from 80 cows with clinical mastitis were cultured in the laboratory for the presence of mycoplasmas. Similarly, 48 bulk-tank milk samples were examined for the presence of mycoplasmas. A modified Hayflick broth was used to isolate the mycoplasmas and an immunoperoxidase test used for the species identification of the isolates. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from 39 (48.75 % of the clinical mastitis samples and from 48 of the bulk-tank milk samples tested. This indicated that mycoplasma udder infections were more prevalent in dairy cows in Ardabil State than previously thought.

  12. Interactions between negative energy balance, metabolic diseases, uterine health and immune response in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Giulia; Irons, Pete C; Webb, Edward C; Chapwanya, Aspinas

    2014-01-30

    The biological cycles of milk production and reproduction determine dairying profitability thus making management decisions dynamic and time-dependent. Diseases also negatively impact on net earnings of a dairy enterprise. Transition cows in particular face the challenge of negative energy balance (NEB) and/or disproportional energy metabolism (fatty liver, ketosis, subacute, acute ruminal acidosis); disturbed mineral utilization (milk fever, sub-clinical hypocalcemia); and perturbed immune function (retained placenta, metritis, mastitis). Consequently NEB and reduced dry matter intake are aggravated. The combined effects of all these challenges are reduced fertility and milk production resulting in diminishing profits. Risk factors such as NEB, inflammation and impairment of the immune response are highly cause-and-effect related. Thus, managing cows during the transition period should be geared toward reducing NEB or feeding specially formulated diets to improve immunity. Given that all cows experience a reduced feed intake and body condition, infection and inflammation of the uterus after calving, there is a need for further research on the immunology of transition dairy cows. Integrative approaches at the molecular, cellular and animal level may unravel the complex interactions between disturbed metabolism and immune function that predispose cows to periparturient diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Production performance of lactating dairy cows at pasture fed concentrate supplemented with licuri oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano dos Santos Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimal level of licuri oil to use in the concentrate of lactating dairy cows on pasture, through growth performance, feed conversion and cost of the supplementation. A total of 16 dairy cows, Holstein × Zebu crossbreed, were kept on Tanzania grass pasture. Cows were divided into four Latin squares, 4 × 4, formed by four experimental periods of 21 days, divided into 17 days for adaptation and four days for data collection. Cows received three kg of concentrate per day at the time of milking, and the treatments consisted of four diets containing licuri oil at levels of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of the concentrated dry matter. There was a linear increase in the daily milk yield, corrected to 3.5% fat, and an improvement in the feed conversion of the dry matter and neutral detergent fiber with the inclusion of the licuri oil. The optimal level of licuri oil was 1.5% of the concentrated DM for dairy cows on pasture, whose level has the best profit sale of milk, with positive results in the corrected daily milk production and conversion of the feed nutrients.

  14. Factors determining the carcass value of culled dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Stokvisch, P.E.; Korver, S.; Oldenbroek, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Data from 763 cows culled during the period September 1973–May 1982 on two experimental farms have been analysed. The carcass value of each individual cow was adjusted for seasonal fluctuations in price per kilogram carcass weight. The grade was assessed through in vivo scoring by experts of a

  15. Derivation of standard lactation curves for South African dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African cows displayed more variation in yields compared to those of Holstein cows in the Netherlands and Ireland. Season of calving had a pronounced effect on the shape of the Standard Lactation Curve, while the combination of calving age and lactation affected both the shape and level of the curves. Expected ...

  16. Laryngeal obstruction caused by lymphoma in an adult dairy cow

    OpenAIRE

    Lardé, Hélène; Nichols, Sylvain; Babkine, Marie; Chénier, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    A Holstein cow was presented for inspiratory dyspnea. Endoscopic evaluation revealed swollen arytenoids and a presumptive diagnosis of bilateral arytenoidal chondritis was made. A partial arytenoidectomy was performed, the right arytenoid was submitted for histopathology, and a diagnosis of laryngeal lymphoma was made. Due to the poor prognosis, the cow was euthanized.

  17. Economic evaluation of stall stocking density of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Albert; Dechassa, Hailegziabher; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    An increase in stall stocking density (SSD), as measured by the number of lactating cows per stall in a freestall barn, reduces cow performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but may increase farm profitability. Our objectives were to calculate effects of varying SSD on profit per stall for a

  18. Detection of Staphylococcus Aureus and Streptococcus Agalactiae: Subclinical Mastitis Causes in Dairy Cow and Dairy Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Ratna Winata, Lucia Ratna Winata

    2017-01-01

    - Abstract This study aims to detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aereus) and Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in subclinical mastitis infection in dairy cows and buffalo in Enrekang (region in South Sulawesi). Subclinical mastitis was pre-examined using California Mastitis Test (CMT) reagent and 33 samples were positively detected. The positive samples were then isolated with culture test on the Baird Parker Agar media (BPA), identified with catalyst, Gram...

  19. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, W; Hogeveen, H

    2015-01-01

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are used on dairy farms, and the reasons why farmers invest or not in sensor systems are unclear. The first objective of this study was to give an overview of the sensor systems currently used in the Netherlands. The second objective was to investigate the reasons for investing or not investing in sensor systems. The third objective was to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. A survey was developed to investigate first, the reasons for investing or not in sensor systems and, then, how the sensor systems are used in daily cow management. The survey was sent to 1,672 Dutch dairy farmers. The final data set consisted of 512 dairy farms (response rate of 30.6%); 202 farms indicated that they had sensor systems and 310 farms indicated that they did not have sensor systems. A wide variety of sensor systems was used on Dutch dairy farms; those for mastitis detection and estrus detection were the most-used sensor systems. The use of sensor systems was different for farms using an automatic milking system (AMS) and a conventional milking system (CMS). Reasons for investing were different for different sensor systems. For sensor systems attached to the AMS, the farmers made no conscious decision to invest: they answered that the sensors were standard in the AMS or were bought for reduced cost with the AMS. The main reasons for investing in estrus detection sensor systems were improving detection rates, gaining insights into the fertility level of the herd, improving profitability of the farm, and reducing labor. Main reasons for not investing in sensor systems were economically related. It was very difficult to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. Farms

  20. Epidemiological Studies on Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy cows in Assiut Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-Rady

    Full Text Available In this investigation, some epidemiological studies were run on subclinical mastitis for totally 350 dairy cows of different breeds, ages and distributed in different villages in Assiut governorate, Assiut, Egypt, along a whole year (during the period from June 2006 till July 2007 through field screening surveys by using of the California mastitis test (CMT for each quarter milk sample followed by bacteriological examination to identify the major causative agents of intramammary infection (IMI. The dairy cows were differed from the breed point of view as 230 Holstein Friesian breed and 120 native breed. Also, they were differed from the age point of view as a group of 95 cows aged from 2 to 4 years old and another group of 255 cow aged from 5 to 8 years old. All dairy cows were apparently healthy with clinically sound udder secreting apparently normal milk. All the cows lived nearly under the same conditions of breeding from the habitat, hygiene and feeding systems. The obtained results revealed that 67 cows (19.14% had 80 infected quarters (5.71%. It was found that the most frequently major causative agents isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli from the positive CMT samples with prevalence 52.5, 31.25 and 16.25%, respectively. With studying the breed factor, it was found Friesian breed was sensitive towards infection (20.43% at the cow level and 6.09% at the quarter level than of native breed (16.67% at the cow level and 5% at the quarter level. It was also noticed that the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in hot weather as during summer (9.14% at the cow level and 2.64% at the quarter level and during spring (4.86% at the cow level and 1.36% at the quarter level was higher than in cold weather as during winter (2% at the cow level and 0.64% at the quarter level and during autumn (3.14% at the cow level and 1.07% at the quarter level. In relation to age susceptibility, 5-8 years old cows (15.43% at

  1. Technical note: Validation of a commercial system for the continuous and automated monitoring of dairy cow activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullo, E; Fontana, I; Gottardo, D; Sloth, K H; Guarino, M

    2016-09-01

    Current farm sizes do not allow the precise identification and tracking of individual cows and their health and behavioral records. Currently, the application of information technology within intensive dairy farming takes a key role in proper routine management to improve animal welfare and to enhance the comfort of dairy cows. An existing application based on information technology is represented by the GEA CowView system (GEA Farm Technologies, Bönen, Germany). This system is able to detect and monitor animal behavioral activities based on positioning, through the creation of a virtual map of the barn that outlines all the areas where cows have access. The aim of this study was to validate the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of data provided by the CowView system. The validation was performed by comparing data automatically obtained from the CowView system with those obtained by a manual labeling procedure performed on video recordings. Data used for the comparisons were represented by the zone-related activities performed by the selected dairy cows and were classified into 2 categories: activity and localization. The duration in seconds of each of the activities/localizations detected both with the manual labeling and with the automated system were used to evaluate the correlation coefficients among data; and subsequently the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the automated monitoring system were calculated. The results of this validation study showed that the CowView automated monitoring system is able to identify the cow localization/position (alley, trough, cubicles) with high reliability in relation to the zone-related activities performed by dairy cows (accuracy higher than 95%). The results obtained support the CowView system as an innovative potential solution for the easier management of dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cow genotyping strategies for genomic selection in a small dairy cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenko, J; Wiggans, G R; Cooper, T A; Eaglen, S A E; Luff, W G de L; Bichard, M; Pong-Wong, R; Woolliams, J A

    2017-01-01

    This study compares how different cow genotyping strategies increase the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (EBV) in dairy cattle breeds with low numbers. In these breeds, few sires have progeny records, and genotyping cows can improve the accuracy of genomic EBV. The Guernsey breed is a small dairy cattle breed with approximately 14,000 recorded individuals worldwide. Predictions of phenotypes of milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, and calving interval were made for Guernsey cows from England and Guernsey Island using genomic EBV, with training sets including 197 de-regressed proofs of genotyped bulls, with cows selected from among 1,440 genotyped cows using different genotyping strategies. Accuracies of predictions were tested using 10-fold cross-validation among the cows. Genomic EBV were predicted using 4 different methods: (1) pedigree BLUP, (2) genomic BLUP using only bulls, (3) univariate genomic BLUP using bulls and cows, and (4) bivariate genomic BLUP. Genotyping cows with phenotypes and using their data for the prediction of single nucleotide polymorphism effects increased the correlation between genomic EBV and phenotypes compared with using only bulls by 0.163±0.022 for milk yield, 0.111±0.021 for fat yield, and 0.113±0.018 for protein yield; a decrease of 0.014±0.010 for calving interval from a low base was the only exception. Genetic correlation between phenotypes from bulls and cows were approximately 0.6 for all yield traits and significantly different from 1. Only a very small change occurred in correlation between genomic EBV and phenotypes when using the bivariate model. It was always better to genotype all the cows, but when only half of the cows were genotyped, a divergent selection strategy was better compared with the random or directional selection approach. Divergent selection of 30% of the cows remained superior for the yield traits in 8 of 10 folds. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  3. Reevaluation of vitamin E supplementation of dairy cows: bioavailability, animal health and milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, I

    2012-09-01

    Although vitamin E has been known as an essential nutrient for almost 80 years, we are far from a complete understanding of all the aspects related to bioavailability and its effects on health and milk quality in dairy cows. Vitamin E is a generic descriptor for two families of lipid-soluble compounds, the tocopherols and the tocotrienols, of which α-tocopherol has the highest biological activity. Commercially available α-tocopherol supplements for dairy cows contain either the natural RRR form or the synthetic (all-rac) form, which contains all the eight possible stereoisomers (four possessing the 2R and four possessing the 2S configuration) in equimolar amounts. Recent data clearly suggest that an almost complete discrimination against the 2S isomers occurs in dairy cows. Thus, 1 g of the all-rac form is essentially equivalent to 0.5 g of the RRR form. With respect to the effect of vitamin E supplementation of dairy cows on health and milk quality, the majority of published studies suggests that vitamin E supplementation at the level 1000 to 4000 IU/cow per day during the dry period reduces both the frequency of intramammary infection and that of clinical mastitis and improves milk quality, as shown by a reduction in the levels of somatic cell count (SCC)/ml in milk, decreased plasmin activity and increased oxidative stability of milk. However, a recent study from the Netherlands suggested that vitamin E supplementation at the 3000 IU/cow per day level during the dry period when combined with high levels of plasma vitamin E at dry-off (>14.5 μmol/l) increases the incidence of mastitis. Data from previously unpublished survey studies and those from published vitamin E feeding trials, in which high levels of blood vitamin E were observed, were reanalyzed. All farms selected for the analysis implemented oral administration of vitamin E at the 3000 IU/cow per day level throughout or during the late dry period (4 weeks before the expected day of parturition). Dairy

  4. Effect of selenium on the development of selected indicators of fertility in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balicka-Ramisz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine selenium (Se concentration in the blood serum of dairy cows and to establish its influence on the level of production and reproduction traits. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on the farm located in Western Pomerania - Poland and involved 120 cows, which were selected using the analog method on the basis of their physiological state, lactation number, milk yield, age, and genotype. The following indices were analyzed in individual groups: Calving interval, gestation interval, insemination index, standstill of placenta. Se concentration in the blood serum was determined with the spectrofluorometric method. Results: The mean serum Se concentration was in cows 0.038 μg/ml. The use of Se preparations has raised fertility, which was documented statistically. Conclusion: The study revealed that the problem of Se deficiency is still present in some dairy cattle herds in Western Pomerania - Poland.

  5. Sensory profiling of textural properties of meat from dairy cows exposed to a compensatory finishing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therkildsen, Margrethe; Stolzenbach, Sandra; Byrne, Derek V

    2011-01-01

    A compensatory finishing strategy was evaluated to improve the quality of meat from dairy cows. The experiment included ten pairs of Holstein Friesian dairy cows. Each pair was the progeny of the same sire, in the same parity, and approximately at the same number of days in lactation before entering the experiment. Within each pair, one cow was allocated to a compensatory finishing strategy, dried off for 4 days, and further restricted in energy intake for another 17 days followed by 6 weeks of ad libitum feeding. The strategy improved the sensory texture and flavour of both M. longissimus dorsi (LD) and M. semimembranosus (SM). This was supported by lower shear force in both muscles (PIMF plays a significant role, whereas in SM an increased protein turnover is suggested to be the dominating factor. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using activity-based monitoring systems to detect dairy cows in oestrus: a field evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rue, B T; Kamphuis, C; Burke, C R; Jago, J G

    2014-03-01

    To assess the use and performance of activity-based oestrus detection systems (ODS) on two commercial dairy farms using a gold standard based on profiles of concentrations of progesterone in milk, artificial insemination (AI) records and pregnancy diagnosis results. Two activity-based ODS were evaluated in mature cows on two large pasture-grazed dairy farms (>500 cows) over the first 3 weeks of AI. Farm 1 (n=286 cows) used a leg-mounted device and cows were drafted automatically based on activity alerts. Decisions regarding AI were then made based on tail-paint and cow history for these cows. Farm 2 (n=345 cows) used a collar-mounted device and activity alerts were used in conjunction with other information, before the farmer manually selected cows for AI. The gold standard to define the timing of oestrus was based on profiles of concentrations of progesterone in milk measured twice-weekly, used in conjunction with AI records and pregnancy diagnosis results. Sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated for the activity-based ODS data only, and then for AI decisions, against the gold standard. Farm 1 had 195 confirmed oestrus events and 209 activity alerts were generated. The sensitivity of the activity-based ODS was 89.2% with a PPV of 83.3%. Using tail-paint and cow history to confirm activity-based alerts 175 cows were inseminated, resulting in a sensitivity of 89.2% and an improved PPV of 99.4%. Farm 2 had 343 confirmed oestrus events, and 726 alerts were generated by the activity-based ODS, giving a sensitivity of 69.7% with a PPV of 32.9%. A total of 386 cows had AI records, giving a sensitivity of 81.3% and PPV of 72.3%. The two activity-based ODS were used differently on-farm; one automatically selecting cows and the other supporting the manual selection of cows in oestrus. Only one achieved a performance level suggested to be acceptable as a stand-alone ODS. Use of additional tools, such as observation of tail paint to confirm activity

  7. Uncertainty assessment of the breath methane concentration method to determine methane production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liansun; Koerkamp, Peter W G Groot; Ogink, Nico

    2017-11-15

    The breath methane concentration method uses the methane concentrations in the cow's breath during feed bin visits as a proxy for the methane production rate. The objective of this study was to assess the uncertainty of a breath methane concentration method in a feeder and its capability to measure and rank cows' methane production. A range of controlled methane fluxes from a so-called artificial reference cow were dosed in a feed bin, and its exhaled air was sampled by a tube inside the feeder and analyzed. The artificial reference cow simulates the lungs, respiratory tract, and rumen of a cow and releases a variable methane flux to generate a concentration pattern in the exhaled breath that closely resembles a real cow's pattern. The strength of the relation between the controlled methane release rates of the artificial reference cow and the measured methane concentrations was analyzed by linear regression, using the coefficient of determination (R2) and the residual standard error as performance indicators. The effect of error sources (source-sampling distance, air turbulence, and cow's head movement) on this relation was experimentally investigated, both under laboratory and barn conditions. From the laboratory to the dairy barn at the 30-cm sampling distance, the R2-value decreased from 0.97 to 0.37 and the residual standard error increased from 75 to 86 ppm as a result of barn air turbulence, the latter increasing to a theoretical 94 ppm if modeled variability due to cow's head movement was accounted for as well. In practice, the effect of these random errors can be compensated by sampling strategies including repeated measurements on each cow over time, thus increasing the distinctive power between cows. However, systematic errors that may disturb the relation between concentration and production rate, such as cow variation in air exhalation rate and air flow patterns around sampling locations that differ between barns, cannot be compensated by repeated

  8. A stochastic estimate of the economic impact of oral calcium supplementation in postparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Oetzel, G R

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to develop stochastic models to estimate the economic impact in the first 30 d in milk of oral calcium supplementation to multiparous postparturient dairy cows using 4 different strategies: (1) supplementation of cows with a high previous lactation mature-equivalent milk yield, (2) supplementation of lame cows, (3) supplementation of both cows that have a high previous lactation mature-equivalent milk yield and cows that are lame, and (4) supplementation of all cows. Data from current literature were used to model input variables associated with the costs and risks related to milk production, postparturient disease, and culling. The mean net herd impact per 1,000 calvings for each of the 4 supplementation strategies was $4,425, $5,812, $8,313, and $3,065, respectively. Postpartum supplementation of multiparous lame cows had the highest return on investment at 6.5 to 1, followed by supplementation of multiparous high milk yield and lame cows, multiparous high milk yield cows only, and supplementation of all multiparous postpartum cows with returns of 1.8 to 1, 1.1 to 1, and 0.3 to 1, respectively. A herd's average milk yield at first test had the highest influence on the net impact of oral calcium supplementation to all multiparous cows and accounted for 30% of the variation, followed by the decrease in risk of health events in lame cows given oral calcium at 22%, a herd's prevalence of lameness at calving at 13%, and the price of milk at 10%. Each of the remaining stochastic variables contributed to less than 5% of the variation in net herd financial impact of oral calcium administration. Whereas supplementation of all postpartum multiparous cows returned a positive net herd impact approximately 80% of the time, if a herd was willing to devote time to mature-equivalent milk yield calculations and locomotion scoring, supplementation of this subpopulation of postpartum cows with oral calcium was estimated to have a positive economic impact in all

  9. Nutrition of dairy cows in various stages meantime, focusing on assessing the impact of nutrition on milk production and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Horký, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the nutrition of dairy cows at various interim phases, with a focus on assessing the impact of nutrition on milk quality and production. At the Kojčice agricultural cooperative in the village of Krasíkovice, I monitored nutrition and production parameters in Czech pied dairy cows over the course of one year. In the first section of the work, I focused on the technique and feeding of the dairy cows, the feed ration, and assessment of the feed itself. The corn silage which ...

  10. Moderate summer heat stress does not modify immunological parameters of Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Ronchi, Bruno; Scalia, Daniela; Nardone, Alessandro

    2002-02-01

    The study was undertaken during spring and summer months in a territory representative of the Mediterranean climate to assess the effects of season on some immunological parameters of dairy cows. Twenty Holstein cows were used. Eleven of those cows gave birth during spring; the remaining nine cows gave birth in summer. The two groups of cows were homogeneous for parity. Values of air temperatures and relative humidity were recorded both during spring and summer, and were utilized to calculate the temperature humidity index (THI). One week before the expected calving, rectal temperatures and respiratory rates of the cows were recorded (1500 hours), and cell-mediated immunity was assessed by measuring the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Within 3 h of calving, one colostrum sample was taken from each cow and analysed to determine content of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1, IgG2, IgM and IgA. At 48 h after birth, passive immunization of the calves was assessed by measuring total serum IgG. During summer, daytime (0900-2000 hours) THI values were above the upper critical value of 72 [75.2, (SD 2.6)] indicating conditions that could represent moderate heat stress. That THI values were able to predict heat stress was confirmed by the values of rectal temperatures and respiratory rates, which were higher ( P cows. Results indicated that moderate heat stress due to the hot Mediterranean summer does not modify cell-mediated immunity, the protective value of colostrum and passive immunization of the offspring in dairy cows.

  11. Effects of Increased Vigilance for Locomotion Disorders on Lameness and Production in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Hoedemaker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the influence of weekly locomotion scoring and, thus, early detection and treatment of lame cows by a veterinarian on lameness prevalence, incidence, duration of lameness, fertility and milk yield on one dairy farm in Northern Germany. Cows were distributed to two groups. Cows in Group A (n = 99 with a locomotion score (LS > 1 were examined and treated. In Group B (n = 99, it was solely in the hands of the farmer to detect lame cows and to decide which cows received treatment. Four weeks after the beginning of the experimental period, the prevalence of cows with LS = 1 was higher in Group A compared with Group B. Prevalence of lame cows (LS > 1 increased in Group B (47.6% in Week 2 to 84.0% in Week 40 and decreased in Group A from Week 2 to Week 40 (50% to 14.4%; P < 0.05. Within groups, the monthly lameness incidence did not differ. The average duration of lameness for newly lame cows was 3.7 weeks in Group A and 10.4 weeks in Group B (P < 0.001. There was no effect on fertility and incidence of puerperal disorders. The 100-day milk yield was calculated from cows having their first four Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI test day results during the experimental period. The mean 100-day milk yield tended to be higher in Group A compared with Group B (3,386 kg vs. 3,359 kg; P = 0.084.

  12. Propionibacteria fed to dairy cows: effects on energy balance, plasma metabolites and hormones, and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, C C; Chamberlain, C S; Waldner, D N; Wettemann, R P; Spicer, L J

    2002-07-01

    To determine the effect of feeding Propionibacteria on energy balance, milk yield, and composition, metabolites and hormones of early-lactating dairy cows, multiparous Holstein cows were individually fed a total mixed ration from -2 to 12 wk postpartum with no addition (control, n = 10) or with an additional 17 g of Propionibacteria culture daily (Treated, n = 9). Daily feed intake and milk production were recorded. Plasma cholesterol, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), leptin, insulin, glucose, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP), and progesterone concentrations were measured up to twice weekly. Cows fed supplemental Propionibacteria had improved energy balance at wk 1 of lactation and had lower DMI per kg of body weight than control cows on wk 3 to 7, 10, and 12. Cows fed Propionibacteria had a greater percentage of milk protein and solids-not-fat and plasma NEFA concentrations than did control cows only at wk 1 of lactation. Treatment did not affect milk production or percentage of milk fat and lactose. Leptin levels were greater in treated than control cows throughout the study. Plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, IGFBP-3, and IGF-I concentrations were not affected by feeding Propionibacteria, but those variables increased with week postpartum. Plasma IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-5 levels decreased with week postpartum. Measures of reproductive and ovarian function did not differ between Propionibacteria-treated and control cows. Feeding Propionibacteria culture to transition and early lactating dairy cows may hold potential for improved milk protein production and metabolic efficiency during early lactation, without affecting reproductive function.

  13. Low doses of bovine somatotropin enhance conceptus development and fertility in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Eduardo S; Bruno, Ralph G S; Farias, Alexandre M; Hernández-Rivera, Juan A; Gomes, Gabriel C; Surjus, Ricardo; Becker, Luis F V; Birt, Alyssa; Ott, Troy L; Branen, Josh R; Sasser, R Garth; Keisler, Duane H; Thatcher, William W; Bilby, Todd R; Santos, José E P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives were to evaluate the effects of administering either one or two low doses of slow-release recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST) on hormone concentrations, conceptus development, and fertility in dairy cows. Cows from two farms were detected in estrus on or after 50 days postpartum (n = 1483), inseminated, and enrolled in the study (Day 0). Within farm, cows were blocked by parity and assigned randomly to receive a single placebo injection at insemination (control), a single injection with 325 mg of bST at insemination (S-bST), or two injections with 325 mg of bST administered on Days 0 and 14 (T-bST). From a subset of cows, blood was collected twice weekly from Day 0 to 42 for determination of hormone concentrations and on Day 19 for isolation of leucocytes and analysis of transcript abundance of selected interferon-stimulated genes. Pregnancy was diagnosed on Days 31 and 66, and ultrasonographic morphometry of the conceptus was performed on Days 34 and 48 in a subset of cows. Cows that received T-bST had increased plasma concentrations of GH and IGF1 for 4 wk, increased mRNA expression of ISG15 and RTP4 in leukocytes, earlier rise in the pregnancy-specific protein B in plasma of pregnant cows, increased conceptus size, and enhanced fertility. Cows that received S-bST had increased concentrations of GH and IGF1 for only 2 wk and it was insufficient to alter conceptus development and fertility. In conclusion, supplementation with low doses of bST during the pre- and peri-implantation periods enhanced conceptus development, reduced embryonic losses, and improved fertility in dairy cows.

  14. OMASAL MORPHOLOGY OF DAIRY COWS FED WITH HIGH OR LOW GRAIN CONTENT DIET PRIOR PARTURITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo de Oliveira Rocha Bhering Santoro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Little is known about the morphological response of the omasum in dairy cows that consume a high-energy diet pre-partum. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a transitional diet with high grain content is able to induce changes in omasum morphology. Six weeks before the expected calving, four Holstein cows were fed a standardization diet, and four weeks before delivery, the cows were fed a diet with high grain content (HGC or low (LGC grain content. After calving, all of the cows were fed a high energy lactation diet. The cows that were fed the HGC diet pre-partum had higher dry matter and nutrient intake than the cows that were fed the LGC diet. The mitotic index of the omasum epithelium was higher than the mitotic index in the rumen, but apparently the response to the diet stimuli was slower. In the cows that were fed the HGC diet, the omasum papillae were taller one week before parturition and two weeks post-partum. Cows that were fed the HGC diet had a thinner epithelium due to thinner non-keratinized layers of the omasum epithelium. We conclude that the omasum mucosa of dairy cows responds to the stimuli of a pre-partum HGC diet, which was indicated by the greater height of the omasum papillae and by the reduced thickness of the omasum epithelium. It seems that the mitotic index responds a little more slowly, but the response to the diet stimuli is stronger in the omasum epithelium than in the rumen.

  15. Effects of supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid on reproduction of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinedino, Letícia D P; Honda, Paula M; Souza, Letícia R L; Lock, Adam L; Boland, Maurice P; Staples, Charles R; Thatcher, William W; Santos, José E P

    2017-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplementing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich algae on reproduction of dairy cows. Holstein cows were assigned randomly to either a control (n = 373) or the same diet supplemented daily with 100 g/cow of an algae product containing 10% DHA (algae, n = 366) from 27 to 147 days postpartum. Measurements included yields of milk and milk components, fatty acids (FA) profiles in milk fat and plasma phospholipids, resumption of ovulation by 57 days postpartum, pregnancy per artificial insemination (AI) and expression of interferon-stimulated genes in leukocytes. Feeding algae increased resumption of estrous cyclicity (77.6 vs 65.9%) and pregnancy at first AI (47.6 vs 32.8%) in primiparous cows. Algae increased pregnancy per AI in all AI in both primiparous and multiparous cows (41.6 vs 30.7%), which reduced days to pregnancy by 22 days (102 vs 124 days) compared with control cows. Pregnant cows fed algae had greater expression of RTP4 in blood leukocytes compared with those in pregnant control cows. Feeding algae increased the incorporation of DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid, conjugated linoleic acid isomers cis-9 trans-11, trans-10 cis-12 and total n-3 FA in phospholipids in plasma and milk fat. Yields of milk and true protein increased by 1.1 kg/day and 30 g/day respectively, whereas fat yield decreased 40 g/day in algae compared with that in control. Supplementing DHA-rich algae altered the FA composition of lipid fractions and improved reproduction in dairy cows. The benefits on reproduction might be mediated by enhanced embryo development based on changes in interferon-stimulated gene expression. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  16. Prevalence of mastitis pathogens and their resistance against antimicrobial agents in dairy cows in Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhagen, B-A; Köster, G; Wallmann, J; Heuwieser, W

    2006-07-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine management practices concerning mastitis in Brandenburg, Germany, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows, and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. A further objective was to study the potential effect of parity and stage of lactation on the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates against ampicillin. Milk samples for microbiological culture were collected from 4 groups of clinically healthy cows (first lactation, >1 lactation, >50 d in milk, and >250 d in milk; 8 cows/group) in 80 dairy herds. Resistance of gram-positive pathogens against 6 antimicrobial agents was tested using the broth microdilution method. Mastitis pathogens were isolated from 26.4% of the milk samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, 9.1% of quarters) and Corynebacterium bovis (7.3%) were the pathogens most frequently isolated. Among the major pathogens, Staph. aureus (5.7%) and Streptococcus uberis (1.0%) had the highest prevalence. Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in samples from 29% of the herds. Although the prevalence of most pathogens was higher in older cows, the prevalence of CNS was higher in primiparous cows. Results of the mastitis control questionnaire showed that cows with clinical mastitis were transferred to a sick cow pen in 70% of the herds. Cephalosporins were the drug of first choice for treatment of clinical mastitis cases followed by fixed combinations of antimicrobial agents, beta-lactamase-resistant penicillins, and penicillin. Most farmers treated cows 3 to 4 times per case. Cloxacillin, alone or in combination, and penicillin were most often used for dry-cow therapy. Antimicrobial resistance of the pathogens was within the range of other reports. Resistance of Staph. aureus to ampicillin increased significantly during the first lactation. Further research is required to determine the factors that lead to the selection of Staph. aureus strains that are resistant to ampicillin

  17. Survey of quality defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls sold through livestock auction markets in the Western United States: I. Incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, J K; Foster, H A; Vanoverbeke, D L; Jensen, K S; Wilson, R L; Glaze, J B; Fife, T E; Gray, C W; Nash, S A; Panting, R R; Rimbey, N R

    2011-05-01

    A survey was conducted to quantify incidence of Beef Quality Assurance (BQA)-related defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls selling at auction during 2 seasons in 2008. Twenty-three BQA-related traits were evaluated by 9 trained personnel during sales at 10 livestock auction markets in Idaho (n = 5; beef and dairy), California, (n = 4; dairy only), and Utah (n = 1; beef and dairy). Overall, 18,949 unique lots (8,213 beef cows, 1,036 beef bulls, 9,177 dairy cows, and 523 dairy bulls,) consisting of 23,479 animals (9,299 beef cows, 1,091 beef bulls, 12,429 dairy cows, and 660 dairy bulls) were evaluated during 125 sales (64 spring, 61 fall) for dairy and 79 sales (40 spring, 39 fall) for beef. The majority of market beef cows and bulls (60.9 and 71.3%, respectively) were predominantly black-hided, and the Holstein hide pattern was observed in 95.4 and 93.6% of market dairy cows and bulls, respectively. Market cattle weighed 548 ± 103.6 kg (beef cows), 751 ± 176.1 kg (beef bulls), 658 ± 129.7 kg (dairy cows), and 731 ± 150.8 kg (dairy bulls). Most beef cows (79.6%) weighed 455 to 726 kg, and most beef bulls (73.8%) weighed 545 to 954 kg, respectively. Among market beef cattle, 16.0% of cows and 14.5% of bulls weighed less than 455 and 545 kg, respectively, and 63.7% of dairy cows and 81.5% of dairy bulls weighed 545 to 817 kg or 545 to 954 kg, respectively. However, 19.5% of dairy cows and 13.1% of dairy bulls weighed less than 545 kg. Mean BCS for beef cattle (9-point scale) was 4.7 ± 1.2 (cows) and 5.3 ± 0.9 (bulls), and for dairy cattle (5-point scale) was 2.6 ± 0.8 (cows) and 2.9 ± 0.6 (bulls). Some 16.5% of beef cows and 4.1% of beef bulls had a BCS of 1 to 3, whereas 34.8% of dairy cows and 10.4% of dairy bulls had a BCS of 2 or less. Emaciation (beef BCS = 1, dairy BCS = 1.0) or near-emaciation (beef BCS = 2, dairy BCS = 1.5) was observed in 13.3% of dairy cows and 3.9% of beef cows. Among beef cattle, 15.1% of cows and 15.4% of bulls were

  18. Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows from Activity and Lying Data using on-line Individual Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2011-01-01

    -line from data to cope with behaviours of individuals. Performance is validated on 18 sequences of data where definite proof of prior oestrus was available in form of subsequent pregnancy. These data were extracted from data sequences from 44 dairy cows over an 8 months period. The results show sensitivity......Automated monitoring and detection of oestrus in dairy cows is attractive for reasons of economy in dairy farming. While high performance detection has been shown possible using high-priced progesterone measurements, detection results were less reliable when only low-cost sensor data were available....... Aiming at improving detection scheme reliability with the use of low-cost sensor data, this study combines information from step count and leg tilt sensors. Introducing a lying balance for the individual animal, a novel change detection scheme is derived from observed distributions of the step count data...

  19. THE EFFECTS OF ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF PROPYLENE GLYCOL AND CALCIUM PROPIONATE IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GAVAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of the oral administration of propylene glycol and calcium propionate on performance of dairy cows. Treatments were 10 l water (control, 10 l water+300 ml propylene glycol (GP and 10 l water+500 g calcium propionate (CP. Animals were mainly of Holstein breeds and were fed and managed in a commercial setting. The cows were divided randomly into an experimental group, n=24 (n=12 with PG and n=12 with CP and a control group, n=11. Cows received the assigned treatment within 10 hours of calving and 24 hours after calving. Health events were recorded during calving and for the first 21 days in milk (DIM. Health examinations were performed on cows that appeared not well. The cows were milked three times daily and milk production was recorded electronically. Milk solid content and somatic cell score were determinate from three consecutive milking weekly till 20 DIM and than monthly till 110 DIM. Retained placenta, hypocalcaemia, displaced abomasums, ketosis and metritis were low in treatment groups (with PG and CP. The cows receiving PG had 2.8 Kg/day grater milk production than control group. The cows receiving CP had 1.7 kg/day grater milk production than control group. Prophylactic administration of PG and CP drenches to Holstein cows may be justified by potentially higher milk yields and reduced health complications.

  20. Mass spectral analysis of urine proteomic profiles of dairy cows suffering from clinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Shu, Shi; Xia, Cheng; Wang, Pengxian; Sun, Yuhang; Xu, Chuchu; Li, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    Ketosis is an important metabolic disorder in dairy cows during the transition period. The urine proteomics of ketosis has not been investigated using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). The aim is to determine differences between urine proteomic profiles of healthy cows and those with clinical ketosis, and facilitate studies of the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms that lead to liver pathology in ketosis. We analyzed the urine samples of 20 cows with clinical ketosis (group 1) and 20 control cows (group 2) using SELDI-TOF-MS. Thirty-nine peptide peaks differed between both groups. Polypeptides corresponding to 26 of these differential peptide peaks were identified using the SWISS-PROT protein database. We found that the peaks of 11 distinct polypeptides from the urine samples of the ketosis group were significantly reduced, compared with those of the control group as based on the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Among these were VGF (non-acronymic) protein, amyloid precursor protein, serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, C1INH, apolipoprotein C-III, cystatin C, transthyretin, hepcidin, human neutrophil peptides, and osteopontin. These proteins may represent novel biomarkers of the metabolic changes that occur in dairy cows with ketosis. Our results will help to better understand the physiological changes and pathogenesis observed in cows with ketosis. The SELDI-TOF-MS can be used to understand the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of ketosis and identify biomarkers of the disease.

  1. A note on effectiveness of dry cow therapy in New Zealand dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, J W; Barker, R M; Twomey, A; Duirs, G

    1982-04-01

    Two dry-cow therapy products were evaluated in seven factory-supply dairy herds in the Waikato area. A product containing neomycin sulphate and the benzathine salt of penicillin (Neopen D.C. White; Smith-Biolab) was used in five herds, and one containing benzathine cloxacillin (Orbenin, Beecham) was used in two herds. Non-treated control cows were included in each herd. Both products were effective in eliminating intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. Efficacy of dry-cow therapy against S. aureus was 83.8% and 85.2% respectively. Spontaneous cure rate among controls was 30.8% for S. aureus during the dry period. Spontaneous cure rate for Str. uberis was 50%, while dry-cow therapy eliminated 100% and 77.8%, respectively, for the two products. Dry-cow therapy with either product eliminated more than 90% of Str. agalactiae infections while spontaneous cure rate was only 28.6%. These results further support the effectiveness of dry-cow therapy in reducing the level of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds by shortening the duration of intramammary infections.

  2. Necropsy as a means to gain additional information about causes of dairy cow deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, P T; Dahl-Pedersen, K; Jensen, H E

    2012-10-01

    High mortality among dairy cows constitutes a problem both financially and in relation to animal welfare. Knowledge about causes of death is a fundamental step toward reducing cow mortality. Several studies have evaluated causes of dairy cow deaths. However, the vast majority of studies describing causes of death are based on questionnaires with farmers or veterinarians. It is uncertain to what degree such information is sufficient and reflects the true cause of death or euthanasia. In this study, proximate causes of death were evaluated based on a thorough necropsy of a random sample of 79 Danish dairy cows at an incineration plant. The necropsy was combined with information about the farmer's perception regarding the cause of death and information about disease treatments from the Danish Cattle Database. Pneumonia and locomotor disorders were found to be the most predominant proximate causes of death. Often the death occurred after a prolonged period during which the cow suffered several different disorders, even though this was often not noticed by the farmer. Causes of death stated by the farmers agreed with the necropsy results in 50 to 64% of cases. Information about disease treatments from the Danish Cattle Database agreed with the necropsy results in 34 to 39% of cases. All 3 sources of information about cause of death agreed in only 1 out of 4 cases, and even when the farmer and the disease recordings did agree with the necropsy results, the latter often gave additional information about the cause of death. In many situations, therefore, a necropsy may be a valuable tool when trying to control excessive cow mortality in a herd. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows from smallholder farms in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simbarashe Katsande

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-clinical if no apparent signs were present but they had a positive bacterial isolation and a somatic cell count of at least 300 x 103 cells/mL. Farm-level factors were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The association of mastitis and animal- and herd-level factors were analysed using logistic regression. A total of 584 animals from 73 farms were tested. Overall, 21.1%(123/584 had mastitis, 16.3%(95/584 had sub-clinical mastitis and 4.8% (28/584 had clinical mastitis. Herd-level prevalence was 49.3%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.6%,  Escherichia coli (25.2%,  Staphylococcus aureus(16.3%, Klebsiella spp. (15.5% and Streptococcus spp. (1.6% were the most common isolates. In individual cows, pure dairy herds (OR = 6.3 and dairy crosses (OR = 3.1 were more likely to have mastitis compared to Mashona cows. Farms that used pre-milking teat dipping were associated with reduced mastitis prevalence. Further research is needed on the prevalence of mastitis and a comparison of data for both smallholder and commercial dairy farms in all regions of Zimbabwe should be undertaken.

  4. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes: I: Feed intake and live weight changes during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Munksgaard, Lene

    2009-01-01

    Based on individual cow live weight changes, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH) and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). Cows were kept in a dairy system...... based on automatic milking (AMS). The objective was to examine the relationship between feed intake and live weight changes in response to the three feeding strategies examined. All cows were allowed a combination of a mixed ration (MR) and individually separately offered concentrate (ISC) in the AMS....... Cows were randomly assigned to one of three feeding strategies; MR1, MR2-E or MR2-L. Cows fed according to the MR1 strategy were allowed one medium energy ration during the whole lactation. Cows on the MR2 strategies were allowed a high energy ration during early lactation, followed by an early (MR2-E...

  5. Compressed baled alfalfa hay for primiparous and multiparous dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; Rode, L M

    1994-04-01

    Compressed baled alfalfa hay was fed to cows, and the effects on productivity, chewing activities, and digestion were measured using a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design. Cows received second-cutting alfalfa hay (20% CP; 40% NDF) from either compressed or standard small rectangular bales at two forage to concentrate ratios (35:65 and 65:35, DM basis). Compressed hay did not affect milk yield, although milk fat content was higher (2.90 vs. 2.68%). Higher concentrate diets increased milk yield (32.2 vs. 28.3 kg/d), lowered milk fat (2.66 vs. 2.91%), and increased milk protein (3.16 vs. 2.99%) and lactose (5.06 vs. 4.99%) with no interaction between concentrate proportion and hay type. Cows fed compressed bales spent less time eating per kilogram of DM and NDF consumed than cows fed standard bales, but rumination time was unaffected by forage processing. For cows fed both types of hay, digestibilities of DM, ADF, and NDF were similar; ruminal liquid outflow rates also were similar, but rate of particulate passage from the reticulo-rumen was greater for cows receiving compressed hay. Compressing alfalfa hay did not adversely affect forage quality but increased the ease of shipping and handling and minimized storage space requirements. This process may be beneficial when higher milk fat content is desirable or when cows have limited time to consume forage.

  6. A comparative field trial of cephalonium and cloxacillin for dry cow therapy for mastitis in Australian dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, R W; Burman, S; Marcun, P

    2004-10-01

    To investigate and compare the therapeutic efficacy of dry cow agents containing either cephalonium or cloxacillin within Australian dairy herds. A treatment-control trial. Milk from infected quarters of cows with high somatic cell counts in milk on eight Australian dairy farms was cultured to identify bacterial pathogens. Cows were randomly assigned to treatment groups and one group was treated with cephalonium at drying off and the other group was treated with cloxacillin at drying off. Milk samples from infected quarters were collected immediately after calving and were cultured for pathogens. The effect of treatment on bacteriological cure was examined and somatic cell counts from infected cows from the first two herd tests after calving were examined for a treatment effect. On four farms, milk samples were collected for culture from all cases of clinical mastitis identified within the first 7 days after calving. The effect of treatment upon incidence of clinical mastitis after calving was examined. There was no significant difference between treatments on quarter cure rates for new infections, for chronic infections and for infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus uberis. Infected quarters treated with cephalonium had a significantly higher cure rate than quarters treated with cloxacillin when Corynebacterium bovis and Staphylococcus epidermids were included as pathogens combined (80.3% versus 70.7%). There was no significant difference between the treatments on somatic cell counts of infected cows at the first two herd tests after calving. There was no difference between treatments on the incidence of clinical mastitis in the first 7 days after calving.

  7. Weekly excretion of the mammalian lignan enterolactone in milk of dairy cows fed flaxseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Nathalie; Côrtes, Cristiano; Petit, Hélène V

    2009-11-01

    Flaxseed meal (FM) is rich in the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) which is converted to the mammalian lignans enterodiol and enterolactone (EL) by ruminal microbiota. Feeding FM to dairy cows increases linearly EL concentration in milk but enterodiol is not detected. The objectives of the study were to determine the length of time to obtain peak EL concentration in the milk of dairy cows fed 20% FM and the length of time to return to EL baseline level in milk when cows are switched from high to low intake of flax SDG. A total of 12 multiparous lactating Holstein cows were assigned randomly to one of two feeding regimens: the control (CO) diet was fed for 6 weeks or the FM diet was fed from week 0 to 3 inclusive and then cows were switched to the control diet from week 3 to 6 inclusive. Milk samples were taken weekly for EL analysis. There was a significant interaction between feeding regimen and week for milk concentration of EL as a result of higher concentration of EL from week 1 to 3 for cows on the FM regimen compared with those on the CO regimen. Concentrations of milk EL on the FM regimen maintained uniform high levels from week 1 to 3 and they decreased significantly from week 3 to 4 when the CO diet was reintroduced in week 3. This study suggests that the conversion of SDG to the mammalian lignan EL and the transfer of EL to the mammary gland are well established after one week of feeding 20% FM in the diet of dairy cows and that milk concentration of EL returns to baseline level after one week of FM deprivation.

  8. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding corn DDGS to the dairy cow diet as well as the bedding types (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) on manure fugitive CH4 emissions. The incorporation of DDGS in the diet has increased manure methane emission by 15% and the use of peat moss as bedding has increased manure methane emission by 27%. Abstract The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH4 emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH4 emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH4 emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH4 emissions. PMID:26479012

  9. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayasari, N; Chen, J; Ferrari, A; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; Parmentier, H K; van Knegsel, A T M; Trevisi, E

    2017-06-01

    Negative energy balance in dairy cows in early lactation has been associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress in these cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period (DP) length and dietary energy source on inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress in dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 107 multiparous) were assigned randomly to a 3 × 2 factorial design with 3 DP length (0, 30, or 60 d) and 2 early lactation rations (glucogenic or lipogenic). Cows were fed a glucogenic or lipogenic ration from 10 d before the expected calving date. Blood was collected in wk -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, and 4 relative to calving. Dry period length affected inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress, especially in wk 1 and 2 after calving. Cows with a 0-d DP had higher levels of ceruloplasmin, cholesterol, and reactive oxygen metabolites, and they tended to have higher haptoglobin levels compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d DP. Cows with a 0-d DP had a lower plasma paraoxonase and bilirubin in the first 2 wk after calving and a lower liver functionality index compared with cows with a 60-d DP. Cows of parity >3 fed a glucogenic ration had higher cholesterol levels compared with cows of parity >3 fed a lipogenic ration. No interaction between DP length and ration was present for inflammatory biomarkers or oxidative stress variables. Plasma bilirubin levels for cows with a 0-d DP were negatively related to energy balance and metabolic status in these cows. Moreover, occurrence of clinical health problems (fever, mastitis, metritis, and retained placenta) was 41, 27, and 30% for cows with 0-, 30-, and 60-d DP, respectively. High levels of ceruloplasmin, cholesterol, and reactive oxygen metabolites in cows with 0-d DP were related to the occurrence of health problems in these cows. In conclusion, omitting the DP increased levels of ceruloplasmin, cholesterol, and reactive oxygen metabolites, and decreased levels of

  10. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Is it worth it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouted grains have gained renewed interest among grazing dairy farmers in response to high grain prices, grain scarcity (in the organic dairy sector) and challenges in producing high-quality forages. This interest has been spurred by high-profile advertising by companies selling the systems, as we...

  11. Analysis of reproductive performance of lactating cows on large dairy farms using machine learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraviello, D Z; Weigel, K A; Craven, M; Gianola, D; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K V; Fricke, P M; Wiltbank, M C

    2006-12-01

    The fertility of lactating dairy cows is economically important, but the mean reproductive performance of Holstein cows has declined during the past 3 decades. Traits such as first-service conception rate and pregnancy status at 150 d in milk (DIM) are influenced by numerous explanatory factors common to specific farms or individual cows on these farms. Machine learning algorithms offer great flexibility with regard to problems of multicollinearity, missing values, or complex interactions among variables. The objective of this study was to use machine learning algorithms to identify factors affecting the reproductive performance of lactating Holstein cows on large dairy farms. This study used data from farms in the Alta Genetics Advantage progeny-testing program. Production and reproductive records from 153 farms were obtained from on-farm DHI-Plus, Dairy Comp 305, or PCDART herd management software. A survey regarding management, facilities, labor, nutrition, reproduction, genetic selection, climate, and milk production was completed by managers of 103 farms; body condition scores were measured by a single evaluator on 63 farms; and temperature data were obtained from nearby weather stations. The edited data consisted of 31,076 lactation records, 14,804 cows, and 317 explanatory variables for first-service conception rate and 17,587 lactation records, 9,516 cows, and 341 explanatory variables for pregnancy status at 150 DIM. An alternating decision tree algorithm for first-service conception rate classified 75.6% of records correctly and identified the frequency of hoof trimming maintenance, type of bedding in the dry cow pen, type of cow restraint system, and duration of the voluntary waiting period as key explanatory variables. An alternating decision tree algorithm for pregnancy status at 150 DIM classified 71.4% of records correctly and identified bunk space per cow, temperature for thawing semen, percentage of cows with low body condition scores, number of

  12. Feeding a higher forage diet prepartum decreases incidences of subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, L A; Weary, D M; Veira, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2013-02-01

    A common feeding practice during the dry period is to switch dairy cows to an energy-dense diet 3 wk prepartum, but this practice may lead to the overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of metabolic disease postpartum. The aim of this trial was to compare the metabolic status of transition Holstein dairy cows fed a 77% forage diet (77F; NEl = 1.46 Mcal/kg; NDF = 41%) vs. those fed an 87% forage diet (87F; NEl = 1.41 Mcal/kg; 48% NDF). Approximately 60 d before calving, cows were dried off, housed in a free stall barn, and fed the 87F diet. Three weeks before expected calving, cows were randomly assigned to either the 77F treatment and switched to this diet (n = 45) or assigned to the 87F treatment and stayed on the dry cow ration until parturition (n = 42). After parturition, all cows were fed a common lactation diet (NEl = 1.59 Mcal/kg; 36% NDF). Dry matter intake was measured daily from 2 wk before to 2 wk after calving. Blood was sampled daily for 10 d postpartum. Subclinical ketosis was diagnosed using a threshold of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) ≥ 1.0 mmol/L after calving. The percentage of cows pregnant and odds of being pregnant for each treatment group were determined at 60, 90, and 120 d in milk through ultrasound by the herd veterinarian. Cows on the 87F diet consumed less DM prepartum than those on the 77F diet (12.7 ± 0.3 kg/d vs. 15.4 ± 0.3 kg/d, P ketosis (SCK; 49% vs. 17%; P = 0.001). Milk production tended to be less for cows fed the 87F diet prepartum (47.3 ± 0.4 kg/d vs. 48.8 ± 0.4 kg/d; P = 0.10) for the first 22 wk of lactation, which was significant for d 7 to 28 of lactation (44.6 ± 1.1 kg/d vs. 47.6 ± 1.0 kg/d; P = 0.05). Although sample size was small to draw strong conclusions on reproductive performance, at 120 d in milk, cows on the 87F diet were 0.3 times more likely to be pregnant (P = 0.03). These results indicate that feeding an 87F diet before calving can reduce rates of SCK in transition dairy cows.

  13. Effect of milk production on the incidence of double ovulation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, P M; Wiltbank, M C

    1999-11-01

    To determine the effect of parity and milk production on the incidence of double ovulation, the synchronization of ovulation, using GnRH and prostaglandin F2 alpha followed by timed AI (Ovsynch), was initiated at a random stage of the estrous cycle in lactating Holstein cows (n = 237). Ovulatory response at 48 h after the second GnRH injection and conception rate at 28 d post AI were determined by transrectal ultrasonography. Ovulation was synchronized in 84% of cows receiving the Ovsynch protocol. Of the synchronized cows, 14.1% exhibited a double ovulation and 47.6% conceived. Conception rate tended to be greater (P = 0.08) for cows exhibiting double (64.0%) rather than single ovulation (45.2%). To determine the effect of milk production on the incidence of double ovulation, cows were classified into low ( 40 kg/d) milk production groups based on the average milk production of 40.5 +/- 0.8 kg/d collected 2 d before AI. Although the incidence of double ovulation tended to increase linearly (P = 0.09) with increasing parity, the incidence of double ovulation was nearly 3-fold greater (P milk production group. Furthermore, the increase in the incidence of double ovulation with parity apparently occurred because, within a parity group, the proportion of cows with high milk production was greater for the older cows. Twinning rate of cows that calved (n = 58) was 5.2%. In a secondary objective, cows were retrospectively classified as cystic or normal based on ultrasonographic ovarian morphology at the time of the second GnRH injection. Incidence of ovarian cysts was 11%, and the synchronization and conception rate of cows classified as cystic was 73.1 and 36.8%, respectively, which did not differ from that of normal cows. We conclude that milk production is the primary factor affecting the incidence of double ovulation in lactating dairy cows and may explain the effect of parity on twinning rate. In addition, Ovsynch appears to be an effective method for establishing

  14. Effects of feeding rumen-degradable valine on milk production in late-lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultquist, Kayla M; Casper, David P

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to determine if feeding the rumen-degradable AA Val can increase milk production comparable to recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST). Eight multiparous late-lactating (255±26.4 d in milk) Holstein dairy cows were blocked by milk yield (34.1±8.25 kg/d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods (7 d for dietary adaptation and 14 d for data collection). Treatments were control (CON), a single injection of recombinant bST (rbST), and Val fed at 40 (V40) and 80 g/d (V80). Cows were fed a total mixed ration with a distillers dried grains carrier at 113.4 g/d containing none or added AA. Dry matter intake (21.3, 22.0, 22.8, and 21.5 kg/d for CON, rbST, V40, and V80, respectively) was similar among treatments, except cows receiving V40 had greater dry matter intake than cows receiving V80. Milk yield (22.0, 26.1, 25.2, and 24.9 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (22.1, 25.4, 24.4, and 24.3 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (22.7, 26.1, 25.1, and 24.9 kg/d) were increased at similar amounts for cows receiving rbST, V40, and V80 compared with CON cows. Milk fat percentages (3.51, 3.36, 3.32, and 3.38%) were greatest for CON cows compared with cows receiving V40, whereas cows receiving other treatments were intermediate and similar. Milk protein percentages (3.20, 3.12, 3.15, and 3.13%) were greater for CON cows compared with cows receiving rbST and V40, whereas cows receiving V80 were intermediate and similar. Ruminal isobutyrate (1.19, 1.24, 1.44, and 1.74 mol/100 mol) concentrations were increased for cows receiving V40 and V80 compared with CON and rbST cows, with cows receiving V80 having greater concentrations than cows receiving V40. Plasma growth hormone concentrations (1.78, 1.99, 1.55, and 1.45 ng/mL) were greater for cows receiving rbST compared with cows receiving V40 and V80, whereas CON cows were intermediate and similar. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations (60.4, 106

  15. Dietary cation-anion difference and the health and production of pasture-fed dairy cows. 1. Dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Dalley, D; Moate, P; Grainger, C; Rath, M; O'Mara, F

    2003-03-01

    Diets offered to lactating dairy cows in the pasture-based dairy systems in southeastern Australia can vary in their dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) from 0 to +76 mEq/100 g. The effects of such a range of DCAD on the health and production of cows, on a predominantly pasture-based diet, were examined in an indoor feeding experiment. Four groups of five cows were offered a diet of 5 kg of barley and ad libitum pasture, which is a diet representative of what is offered to cows in early lactation in the region. The cows were supplemented twice daily, with varying levels of salt combinations to alter the DCAD, which ranged from +21 to +127 mEq/100 g. Although a reduction in DCAD to +21 mEq/100 g caused a nonrespiratory systemic acidosis, there was a threshold value, above which blood and urine pH did not appear affected, although the strong ion difference of blood and urine and the blood bicarbonate concentration increased linearly (P < 0.05, 0.001, and 0.01, respectively). A DCAD above +21 mEq/100 g linearly reduced dry matter intake (P < 0.1), average daily bodyweight gain (P < 0.05), and milk protein yield (P < 0.05) but did not have a significant effect on the concentration of fat, protein, or lactose in milk. Although data were consistent with a tendency for milk yield to decrease as dietary cation-anion differences increased, this trend was not statistically significant. Urine hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio increased (P < 0.001) as dietary cation-anion difference increased, possibly suggesting an increased rate of uterine involution. It is concluded that a range in the dietary cation-anion difference, above +52 mEq/100 g, may have deleterious effects on dry matter intake and milk production.

  16. Prevalence of subclinical ketosis and relationships with postpartum diseases in European dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, V S; Canelas-Raposo, J; Deniz, A; Heuwieser, W

    2013-05-01

    Subclinical ketosis (SCK) is defined as concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) ≥ 1.2 to 1.4 mmol/L and it is considered a gateway condition for other metabolic and infectious disorders such as metritis, mastitis, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum. Reported prevalence rates range from 6.9 to 43% in the first 2 mo of lactation. However, there is a dearth of information on prevalence rates considering the diversity of European dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine prevalence of SCK, (2) identify thresholds of BHBA, and (3) study their relationships with postpartum metritis, clinical ketosis, displaced abomasum, lameness, and mastitis in European dairy farms. From May to October 2011, a convenience sample of 528 dairy herds from Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, and Turkey was studied. β-Hydroxybutyrate levels were measured in 5,884 cows with a handheld meter within 2 to 15 d in milk (DIM). On average, 11 cows were enrolled per farm and relevant information (e.g., DIM, postpartum diseases, herd size) was recorded. Using receiver operator characteristic curve analyses, blood BHBA thresholds were determined for the occurrence of metritis, mastitis, clinical ketosis, displaced abomasum, and lameness. Multivariate binary logistic regression models were built for each disease, considering cow as the experimental unit and herd as a random effect. Overall prevalence of SCK (i.e., blood BHBA ≥ 1.2 mmol/L) within 10 countries was 21.8%, ranging from 11.2 to 36.6%. Cows with SCK had 1.5, 9.5, and 5.0 times greater odds of developing metritis, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum, respectively. Multivariate binary logistic regression models demonstrated that cows with blood BHBA levels of ≥ 1.4, ≥ 1.1 and ≥ 1.7 mmol/L during 2 to 15 DIM had 1.7, 10.5, and 6.9 times greater odds of developing metritis, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum, respectively, compared with cows with lower

  17. Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Refaai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bovine mastitis and lameness are the most common production diseases affecting dairy farms worldwide resulting in huge economic impact and impaired animal welfare. The objective of this field study was to investigate the association of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders with the occurrence of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs diagnosed by California mastitis test (CMT in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 dairy cows were included in this field study. Subclinical IMI was diagnosed by CMT on all lactating quarters of cows. A cow was considered to have subclinical IMI if it had at least one subclinically infected quarter (=3. Cows were inspected carefully for claw disorders that recorded based on type and site. Locomotion and body condition scores were also recorded for each cow in addition to the limb affected. The association between the CMT and other explanatory variables was tested by Fisher's exact test. Results: The prevalence of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders was 81.4% (35/43 and 32.6% (14/43, respectively. Digital dermatitis (DD and heel horn erosion were the most prevalent infectious type with 79% (34/43 and 58% (25/43, respectively, while wall fissure was the most identified non-infectious one 11.6% (5/43. The prevalence of claw disorders in hind limbs was 88.4% (38/43 and 11.6% (5/43 in the forelimbs. Infectious claw disorders were significantly associated with the subclinical IMI diagnosed by CMT (p<0.05. Non-infectious claw affections, locomotion score, body condition score, and the affected limb had no association with the occurrence of subclinical IMI. Conclusion: DD is the highest prevalent claw disorder observed in dairy cows in Egypt. The hind limbs are more susceptible to claw disorders than the forelimbs. Infectious type of claw disorders is significantly associated with subclinical IMI diagnosed by CMT in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions indicating

  18. Effect of concentrate feed level on methane emissions from grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, H P; Dale, A J; Carson, A F; Murray, S; Gordon, A W; Ferris, C P

    2014-11-01

    Although the effect of nutrition on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from confined dairy cattle has been extensively examined, less information is available on factors influencing CH4 emissions from grazing dairy cattle. In the present experiment, 40 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (12 primiparous and 28 multiparous) were used to examine the effect of concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/cow per day; fresh basis) on enteric CH4 emissions from cows grazing perennial ryegrass-based swards (10 cows per treatment). Methane emissions were measured on 4 occasions during the grazing period (one 4-d measurement period and three 5-d measurement periods) using the sulfur hexafluoride technique. Milk yield, liveweight, and milk composition for each cow was recorded daily during each CH4 measurement period, whereas daily herbage dry matter intake (DMI) was estimated for each cow from performance data, using the back-calculation approach. Total DMI, milk yield, and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased with increasing concentrate feed level. Within each of the 4 measurement periods, daily CH4 production (g/d) was unaffected by concentrate level, whereas CH4/DMI decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in period 4, and CH4/ECM yield decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in periods 2 and 4. When emissions data were combined across all 4 measurement periods, concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/d; fresh basis) had no effect on daily CH4 emissions (287, 273, 272, and 277 g/d, respectively), whereas CH4/DMI (20.0, 19.3, 17.7, and 18.1g/kg, respectively) and CH4-E/gross energy intake (0.059, 0.057, 0.053, and 0.054, respectively) decreased with increasing concentrate feed levels. A range of prediction equations for CH4 emissions were developed using liveweight, DMI, ECM yield, and energy intake, with the strongest relationship found between ECM yield and CH4/ECM yield (coefficient of determination = 0.50). These results demonstrate that

  19. Views on contentious practices in dairy farming: the case of early cow-calf separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, B A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Schuppli, C A; Weary, D M

    2013-09-01

    The public has become increasingly interested in the welfare of food animals, but the food animal industries possess few mechanisms for public engagement. Here we present results from a web-based forum designed to allow stakeholders to share views on controversial issues in dairying. In response to the question "Should dairy calves be separated from the cow within the first few hours after birth?" participants were able to indicate "yes," "no," or "neutral" and either write a reason in support of their view or select reasons provided by other participants. Four independent groups of participants were recruited (a total of 163 people); 31% said they had no involvement in the dairy industry; the remaining 69% (with some involvement in the industry) were students or teachers (33%), animal advocates (13%), producers (11%), veterinarians (9%) and other dairy industry professionals (3%). Overall, little consensus existed among participants across groups; 44% chose "yes," 48% "no," and 9% "neutral." Responses varied with demographics, with opposition to early separation higher among females, animal advocates, and those with no involvement with the dairy industry. A fifth group was recruited at a dairy industry conference (an additional 28 participants); 46% chose "yes," 32% "no," and 21% "neutral." Across all 5 groups, opponents and supporters often referenced similar issues in the reasons they provided. Opponents of early separation contended that it is emotionally stressful for the calf and cow, it compromises calf and cow health, it is unnatural, and the industry can and should accommodate cow-calf pairs. In contrast, supporters of early separation reasoned that emotional distress is minimized by separating before bonds develop, that it promotes calf and cow health, and that the industry is limited in its ability to accommodate cow-calf pairs. These results illustrate the potential of web-based forums to identify areas of agreement and conflict among stakeholders

  20. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T; Otten, N D; Sørensen, J T

    2013-05-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality® inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than during full-time winter housing. Furthermore, we expected improved welfare with an increase in daily summer grazing hours. In total, 41 herds have been visited once in the winter and once in the summer of 2010 to assess their welfare status with 17 different animal- and resource-based welfare measures. A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well as relevance of the measures in relation to each other. A welfare index (WI; possible range 0 to 5400) was calculated for each herd and season with a higher index indicating poorer welfare. The within-herd comparison of summer grazing v. winter housing considered all the 17 measures. The mean WI in summer was significantly lower (better) than in winter (mean 2926 v. 3330; paired t-test P = 0.0001) based on a better state of the integument, claw conformation and better access to water and

  1. Biological mechanisms related to differences in residual feed intake in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Y M; Wu, F; Zhao, D Q; Yang, Z; Li, L; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2016-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and expected feed intake over a specific period, is an inheritable character of feed conversion efficiency in dairy cows. Research has shown that a lower RFI could improve the profitability of milk production. This study explored variation in RFI by comparing the differences in body size, milk performance, feeding behavior, and serum metabolites in 29 Holstein cows in mid lactation. The cows were selected from a total of 84 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests. Selected cows were ranked into high RFI (RFI >1 SD above the mean, n=14) and low RFI (RFImilk. The milk : feed ratio was higher for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group (Pmilk protein (Pmilk urea nitrogen was lower (Pfeeding duration was shorter for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group (Pmilk protein metabolism and fat mobilization.

  2. Reproductive performance of dairy cows affected by endometritis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moraima

    2015-07-15

    Jul 15, 2015 ... divided into two categories: multiparous cows, with an average milk production of 26.7± 3.6 kg milk/day, and primiparous cows, with an average milk production of 20.4 ± 2.8 Kg milk/day. ... cloprostenol (Croniben®, Biogénesis-Bagó), 300 UI equine chorionic gonadotropin (Folligon®, Intervet International ...

  3. Performance traits of dairy cows stabled in tie stalls

    OpenAIRE

    Marková, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was the evaluation of fertility and production traits stabled in tie stalls. 50 pure-bred Holstein cows were monitored and those traits were evaluated: interval of insemination, service period, calving interval, milk yield and content of milk protein and fat. All monitored cows finished standard lactation period (305 days) in year 2012. The evaluation was performed in relation to lactation order. Nearly all of fertility traits were evaluated as bad. The average interval...

  4. Prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows in milk shed areas of Odisha state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Sangram; Nayak, Dhruba Charan; Sardar, Kautuk Kumar

    2016-11-01

    The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows in dairy herds, milksheds, and mixed population of milk cows selected randomly in milkshed areas of Odisha state, India. The investigation was conducted in 280 private dairy herds with variable herd size of 10-15 cows comprising crossbred Jersey cows (CBJ), crossbred Holstein Friesian (CHF) cows, and indigenous local breeds. The analysis of urine (Rothera's test), milk (Ross test), and blood samples of 2760 test cows were conducted through qualitative assessment by Rothera's test and Ross test, respectively, for the presence of ketone bodies to screen the ketotic animals. Cut-points have been decided based on β-hydroxybutyric acid level (≥1.2-1.4 mmol/L) in milk. We noted positive cases of ketosis with a prevalence rate of 36.7% (1014/2760) entailing 27.2% in clinical ketosis and 9.6% in subclinical ketosis. The breed wise incident rate was recorded to be the highest (38.0%) in CBJs. The age-wise prevalence rate was found to be the highest (40.8%) in the age group of 5.5-6.5 years. The season wise prevalence rate in 5(th) calver was recorded to be the highest (38.6%) in summer season as compared to other seasons. The prevalence of ketosis was observed to be the highest at 56.7% on the first stage of lactation at the 1(st) month after 2 weeks. The incidence rates for clinical and subclinical ketosis were found to be 25.2%; 12.2%, 26.6%; 11.2% and 30.3%; 2.9% in CBJ, CHF and indigenous cows, respectively. The breed wise overall prevalence rate was recorded to be 38.0% in CBJ, 37.8% in CHF, and 33.2% in indigenous cows. Ketosis and subclinical ketosis is highly prevalent metabolic disorder and has severe effect on the production status of affected animal and needs to be prevented, rather than treated, by maintaining cows in good and healthy conditions. We have attempted to give great attention for diagnosis, management, and control of this disease during risk stage to prevent

  5. Prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows in milk shed areas of Odisha state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangram Biswal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows in dairy herds, milksheds, and mixed population of milk cows selected randomly in milkshed areas of Odisha state, India. Materials and Methods: The investigation was conducted in 280 private dairy herds with variable herd size of 10-15 cows comprising crossbred Jersey cows (CBJ, crossbred Holstein Friesian (CHF cows, and indigenous local breeds. The analysis of urine (Rothera’s test, milk (Ross test, and blood samples of 2760 test cows were conducted through qualitative assessment by Rothera’s test and Ross test, respectively, for the presence of ketone bodies to screen the ketotic animals. Cut-points have been decided based on β-hydroxybutyric acid level (≥1.2-1.4 mmol/L in milk. Results: We noted positive cases of ketosis with a prevalence rate of 36.7% (1014/2760 entailing 27.2% in clinical ketosis and 9.6% in subclinical ketosis. The breed wise incident rate was recorded to be the highest (38.0% in CBJs. The age-wise prevalence rate was found to be the highest (40.8% in the age group of 5.5-6.5 years. The season wise prevalence rate in 5th calver was recorded to be the highest (38.6% in summer season as compared to other seasons. The prevalence of ketosis was observed to be the highest at 56.7% on the first stage of lactation at the 1st month after 2 weeks. The incidence rates for clinical and subclinical ketosis were found to be 25.2%; 12.2%, 26.6%; 11.2% and 30.3%; 2.9% in CBJ, CHF and indigenous cows, respectively. The breed wise overall prevalence rate was recorded to be 38.0% in CBJ, 37.8% in CHF, and 33.2% in indigenous cows. Conclusion: Ketosis and subclinical ketosis is highly prevalent metabolic disorder and has severe effect on the production status of affected animal and needs to be prevented, rather than treated, by maintaining cows in good and healthy conditions. We have attempted to give great attention for diagnosis, management

  6. The effects of building design on hazard of first service in Norwegian dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A D; Kielland, C; Nelson, S T; Østerås, O

    2015-12-01

    Reproductive inefficiency is one of the major production and economic constraints on modern dairy farms. The environment affects onset of ovarian activity in a cow postcalving and influences estrus behavior, which in turn affects a stockperson's ability to inseminate her at the correct time. This study used survival analysis to investigate effects of building design and animal factors on the postpartum hazard of first service (HFS) in freestall-housed Norwegian Red cows. The study was performed on 232 Norwegian dairy farms between 2004 and 2007. Data were obtained through on farm measurements and by accessing the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System. The final data set contained data on 38,436 calvings and 27,127 services. Univariate Cox proportional hazard analyses showed that herd size and milk yield were positively associated with HFS. Total free accessible area and free accessible area available per cow year were positively associated with the HFS, as was the number of freestalls available per cow. Cows housed on slatted floors had a lower HFS than those housed on solid floors. Conversely, cows housed on rubber floors had a higher HFS than cows on concrete floors. Dead-ending alleyways reduced the hazard of AI after calving. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, accounting for herd management by including a frailty term for herd, showed relationships between hazard of postpartum service and explanatory variables. Animals in herds with more than 50 cows had a higher HFS [hazard ratio (HR)=3.0] compared with those in smaller herds. The HFS was also higher (HR=4.3) if more than 8.8 m(2) of space was available per cow year compared with herds in which animals had less space. The HFS after calving increased with parity (parity 2 HR=0.5, parity ≥3 HR=1.7), and was reduced if a lactation began with dystocia (HR=0.82) or was a breed other than Norwegian Red (HR=0.2). The frailty term, herd, was large and highly significant indicating a significant

  7. Oats (Avena strigosa) as winter forage for dairy cows in Vietnam: an on-farm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Paulo; Thang, Vu Q; Thu, Tran V; Trach, Nguyen X; Cuong, Vu C; Lecomte, Philippe; Richard, Didier

    2013-02-01

    In North Vietnam, during winter, alternative forage resources are needed to balance the feed ration of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oat forage as a component of traditional winter roughage diets on feed intake, milk production and feeding cost in dairy cows. The study was conducted on-farm using 24 mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows. The feeding experiment consisted of two successive periods and two dietary treatments per period. Traditional basal diets included fresh tropical grasses, maize silage and hay. The oat forage had no effect on the dry matter intake of the basal diet, but the total crude protein intake was higher in cows fed with oat diets than in those fed with control diets. The yield of butterfat-corrected milk (FCM) was not significantly different between diets during period 1, but there was a trend (P = 0.078) of higher FCM yields in cows fed with the oat diet compared to those with control diet during period 2 (17.3 vs. 16.3 kg/day). The decline rate in milk yield was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in cows fed with control diets than in those fed with oat diets in both experimental periods. The total feeding cost of cows fed with oat diets was on average 12 % lower than those fed with control diets (P < 0.01). So, the oat forage is an important winter resource for cows in North Vietnam allowing higher milk yield whilst reducing feeding cost, compared to traditional roughage diets.

  8. Short communication: Detection and monitoring of metritis in dairy cows using an automated grooming device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, R; Nicol, C J; Whay, H R; Klement, E

    2017-07-01

    Metritis, a prevalent disease on dairy farms, is negatively associated with reproduction, milk production, and the welfare of cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of monitoring low-resilience activities (i.e., behaviors that typically decrease when energy resources are limited or when the cost involved in the activity increases; e.g., brush usage) in the early detection of metritis. Data on daily brush usage (i.e., proportion of cows using the brush and the duration of usage) were collected from 28 metritic and 60 control cows 28 d postpartum using an automated monitoring system developed for the purpose of this study. During the first week following partum (before clinical diagnosis), we found no differences in brush usage between sick and control cows. However, 8 to 21 d postpartum (the week of clinical diagnosis and the first week of medical treatment), a lower proportion of metritic cows used the brush compared with control cows (0.49 compared with 0.64, respectively, at brushes installed away from the feed bunk). In addition, the daily duration of brush usage was 50% lower among cows diagnosed with metritis compared with control cows 8 to 28 d postpartum (44 s/d compared with 88 s/d, respectively). The results of this study suggest that on-farm monitoring of low-resilience behaviors, combined with existing systems that monitor core behaviors (e.g., activity and rumination), may serve as an improved method for detecting events that compromise the welfare of animals. The slow recovery of low-resilience behaviors following medical treatment (wk 4) might serve as a particularly useful indicator of progress of recovery from disease. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Coxiella burnetii seropositivity is highly stable throughout gestation in lactating high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; Almería, S; López-Gatius, F

    2011-12-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse, in high-producing dairy cows, plasma Coxiella burnetii antibody titres and seroconversion throughout gestation, along with possible factors affecting such titres. The study was performed on 65 lactating pregnant non-aborting animals in a commercial Holstein-Friesian dairy herd in northeastern Spain. Blood samples for antibody determinations were collected on days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 of gestation. By General Linear Model (GLM) repeated measures analysis of variance, the effects of milk production and reproductive variables as well as Neospora caninum-seropositivity on C. burnetii antibody levels for all animals and for seropositive animals were established. Significant effects were observed of day of gestation, parity and N. caninum-seropositivity (between subject effects) on the C. burnetii antibody levels recorded for the whole population of animals throughout the gestation period. C. burnetii antibody levels were higher in primiparous than in multiparous cows, with titres in primiparous cows diminishing during the post-partum period. In seropositive cows, significant effects were observed of milk production and inseminating bull on gestational C. burnetii antibody levels. When the data were subjected to binary logistic regression considering C. burnetii-seropositivity as the dependent variable, the resultant odds ratios indicated that the likelihood of C. burnetii-seropositivity was lower in N. caninum-seropositive animals (OR 0.12) compared to N. caninum-seronegative animals, and in multiparous cows (OR 0.12) compared to primiparous cows. In conclusion, Coxiella-infected dams remained seropositive during the whole gestation period, though primiparous cows showed a drop in antibody titres post-partum. No seronegative cow suffered seroconversion. Presence of both, N. caninum and C. burnetii antibodies in the same animal, was associated with a decrease in antibody titres against C. burnetii, perhaps indicating some

  10. Evaluation of tea tree oil for controlling Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazinatto Boito, Jhonatan; Santos, Roberto C; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Machado, Gustavo; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-07-30

    Our research aimed to test the effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (pure and in nanocapsules) in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cattle. For this purpose, the in vivo studies used 15 cows distributed in three different groups with the same number of animals. Five cows remained untreated (Group A), representing the control group; other five cows were sprayed with TTO (at 5%) in its pure form (Group B); and five cows were sprayed with nanocapsules of TTO (at 0.75%) (Group C). On days 1 and 4 post-treatments (PT), all cows had their ticks counted. On day 1 PT, two ticks from each cow were collected to evaluate the effect of the treatment on ticḱs reproduction (in vitro assays). The pure form of TTO caused a significant reduction (Pticks from the Group B compared to the Group A on day 4 PT. However, there was no significant difference in the number of ticks on cows from Groups A and C after treatment (P>0.05). Treatment with TTO in nanocapsules (Group C) interfered with R. microplus reproduction, leading to lower oviposition by female ticks and hatchability (34.5% of efficacy). On the other hand, TTO oil (Group B) did not interfere on ticḱs reproduction, i.e. showed higher hatchability than the control group. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that pure TTO has an acaricidal effect in dairy cows, in addition to an effect on ticḱs reproduction when used its nanocapsulated form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations of insulin resistance later in lactation on fertility of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruselli, P S; Vieira, L M; Sá Filho, M F; Mingoti, R D; Ferreira, R M; Chiaratti, M R; Oliveira, L H; Sales, J N; Sartori, R

    2016-07-01

    The challenge of getting dairy cows pregnant during early lactation is a well-described, worldwide problem. However, specifically in farms with poor reproductive, nutritional, and environmental conditions/management, a low pregnancy rate during early lactation is followed inevitably by an increased number of nonpregnant cows after 150 days in milk, with even more difficulties to achieve pregnancy. Therefore, several studies were designed to understand and develop strategies to mitigate reduced fertility of cows during late lactation. Experiments were performed under tropical regions to determine metabolic status during lactation and association of stage of lactation on oocyte quality and fertility. Lactating cows with extended days not pregnant (e.g.,>150 days in milk) often had systemic metabolic alterations, including development of peripheral insulin resistance and various oocyte alterations, including reduced expression of genes encoding glucose transport proteins, reduced amounts of mtDNA, increased expression of mitochondria-related genes, and increased expression of apoptosis-related genes. Additionally, in vitro embryo production and pregnancy per AI were lower in late- versus early-lactation cows in some but not all studies. Notwithstanding, when a normal embryo was transferred to a cow in late lactation, the pregnancy per transfer was reasonable, reinforcing the assertion that fertility problems in late-lactation cows may be associated with oocyte quality, fertilization, and/or failure of early embryo development. In conclusion, insulin resistance may reduce oocyte competence and consequently fertility in late-lactation dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Tibial nerve paresis in eight dairy cows: symptomatic therapy with a synthetic resin cast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garz, B

    2011-01-01

    Tibial paresis is commonly seen in bovine practice as a sequel to dystocia. The tibial nerve supplies the extensor muscles of the hock joint and the flexor muscles of the digits; affected cows are lame and have a dropped hock and knuckling of the fetlock. Complete functional recovery occurs not consistently after a conservative "wait and see" approach. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of a cast applied to the lower portion of the affected limb as a supportive treatment of tibial nerve paresis in cows. Eight dairy cows with tibial nerve paresis from different farms were presented for treatment. Seven cows had unilateral tibial nerve paresis and one cow, which was barely able to stand, had bilateral tibial paresis. The affected legs of the seven cows with unilateral paresis and the more severely affected leg of the remaining cow were stabilized using a cast made of synthetic resin. The claws and the skin of the affected limbs were cleaned and a thick layer of cotton was applied to pad the leg from the foot to the hock. A cast was then applied with the foot and metatarsus aligned in a straight line. The cast included the entire foot and extended to the hock. The cast was removed after 4 weeks. All of the eight cows could be kept in their normal environment. They were able to walk well with the cast and were only mildly lame. Feed intake and milk yield increased. After removal of the cast, seven of the eight cows walked normally, including the cow of which both legs had been affected. One cow was slightly lame with a dropped hock after cast removal but showed a normal gait 3 weeks later. In cows with tibial paresis, casting of the lower portion of the leg was a useful supportive treatment that resulted in restoration of normal gait. In seven of eight treated cows limb function was normal after 4 weeks, and in one cow after 7 weeks. This supportive therapeutic procedure is straightforward, minimizes aftercare and allows the cow to be kept in her

  13. Intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to dietary cation-anion difference by lactating dairy cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iwaniuk, M E; Erdman, R A

    2015-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses of the effects of dietary cation anion difference (DCAD; mEq/kg; Na + K - Cl - S) in lactating dairy cow diets used studies conducted after the development of the DCAD concept...

  14. Comparative antibiogram of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) associated with subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bansal, B K; Gupta, D K; Shafi, T A; Sharma, S

    2015-01-01

    ...) strains isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis in dairy cows. Antibiotic sensitivity profile will be helpful to recommend early therapy at the field level prior to availability of CST results...

  15. Relationships among ketosis, serum metabolites, body condition, and reproductive outcomes in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun-Kyung; Jeong, Jae-Kwan; Choi, In-Soo; Kang, Hyun-Gu; Hur, Tai-Young; Jung, Young-Hun; Kim, Ill-Hwa

    2015-07-15

    We determined the relationships among ketosis, serum metabolites, body condition, and reproductive disorders and performance in dairy cows. Blood samples from 213 dairy cows were collected at 4 and 2 weeks prepartum, just after calving, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postpartum to measure serum β-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), glucose, total cholesterol, urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, and progesterone concentrations. Cows were grouped on the basis of the β-hydroxybutyrate concentration at 1 and/or 2 weeks postpartum into two groups: the ketotic group (≥1200 μmol/L, n = 59) and the nonketotic group (50% pus), and subclinical endometritis was diagnosed by evaluation of uterine cytology (>18% neutrophils) at 4 weeks postpartum. Ovarian cysts were diagnosed by ultrasonography, and resumption of postpartum cyclicity was evaluated by progesterone concentrations (≥1 ng/mL) at 4, 6, and 8 weeks postpartum. In the ketotic group, NEFA levels were higher (P ≤ 0.0005), whereas glucose (P ketosis, increased reproductive disorders, and decreased reproductive performance in dairy cows. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison between Serum and Saliva Biochemical Constituents in Dairy Cows during Lactation and Dry Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud R. Abd Ellah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to compare serum and salivary biochemical constituents during lactation and dry period in dairy cows. Also, the present study evaluated for the first time the salivary biochemical constituents in dairy cows. The study was carried out using 45 healthy multiparous Holstein cows maintained in dairy farms located in Morioka city (Iwate prefecture, Japan. Cows were classified into groups based on the month of lactation. Serum, saliva and milk samples were collected and analyzed. Data were statistically analyzed and the variation in serum and salivary biochemical constituents during lactation and dry period were discussed. From the present study, it could be concluded that the 1st month of lactation has the highest levels for serum free fatty acids (FFA, β- Hydroxy butyric acid (BHBA and aceto Acetic acid (ACAC. The dry period has the highest serum glucose level and the lowest serum FFA, BHBA and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Both serum and salivary FFA showed the highest value during the 1st month of lactation. Saliva contains a high level of gamma glutamyl transferase. The level of ammonia in saliva is higher than its serum level during all months of lactation and dry period. Most of the biochemical constituents in saliva change in different way from serum during lactation and dry period. Milk protein/fat ratio of 0.7 may be not indicative for subclinical ketosis.

  17. Multivariate approach to milk production and some physiological traits of crossbred dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Andréa Evangelista Façanha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in physiological responses and serum biochemical panel in crossbred dairy cow populations kept in a hot climate environment. We used a population of 384 dairy cows of genetic groups ½Holstein × ½Guzerá (n = 105 and ¾Holstein × ¼Guzerá (n = 279 derived from the Brazilian semiarid region. The physiological responses analyzed were: respiratory rate (RR, movements/minute, rectal temperature (RT, °C, free thyroxine (T4, µg/mL and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, µUI/mL. The values of RR, RT, T4, TSH and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, total protein, urea and creatinine were determined and correlated with milk production for 305 days, correlation lying only with TSH. Significant differences were observed just in milk production, RR and TSH comparing the genetic groups ½Holstein × ½Guzerá and ¾Holstein × ¼Guzerá. In conclusion, ¾Holstein × ¼Guzerá cows showed higher thyroid activity and milk production than ½Holstein × ½Guzerá cows, and may therefore be a better option for dairy production systems in semiarid regions.

  18. Evaluation of Acute Phase Proteins in Clinically Healthy Dairy Cows in Perinatal Period and During Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dębski, B; Nowicki, T; Zalewski, W; Ochota, M; Mrowiec, J; Twardoń, J

    2016-09-01

    The estimation of acute phase proteins (APP), which are recognized as inflammation markers is a good method for animal health monitoring. Several factors such as obesity, age and sex are also known to modulate APP status. We evaluated the influence of pregnancy and lactation in 65 clinically healthy dairy Holstein-Friesian dairy cows, 2nd÷4th lactation, chosen from 3 different dairy farms located in South West part of Poland. Bovine C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin and fibrinogen were assayed using commercial ELISA kits. The highest values of CRP and haptoglobin were observed in cows during the first month after calving. The highest concentrations of fibrinogen was found in a group of cows prior to expected date of parturition and the level of this protein in blood plasma was decreasing during lactation. The significant differences of analyzed APPs among cows before delivery, during first month after calving and in lactation (1-3 months after delivery) suggested that factors like pregnancy and stage of lactation would have an influence on their concentration.

  19. Quarter and cow risk factors associated with the occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, J E; Green, M J; Bradley, A J

    2009-06-01

    Quarter and cow risk factors associated with the development of clinical mastitis (CM) during lactation were investigated during a 12-mo longitudinal study on 8 commercial Holstein-Friesian dairy farms in the southwest of England. The individual risk factors studied on 1,677 cows included assessments of udder and leg hygiene, teat-end callosity, and hyperkeratosis; body condition score; and measurements of monthly milk quality and yield. Several outcome variables for CM were used for statistical analysis, which included use of generalized linear mixed models. Significant covariates associated with an increased risk of CM were increasing parity, decreasing month of lactation, cows with very dirty udders, and quarters with only very severe hyperkeratosis of the teat-end. Thin and moderate smooth teat-end callosity scores were not associated with an increased risk for CM. Cows that recorded a somatic cell count >199,000 cells/mL and a milk protein percentage cow body condition score and incidence of CM. Of the cases of CM available for culture, 171 (26.7%) were confirmed as being caused by Escherichia coli and 121 (18.9%) confirmed as being caused by Streptococcus uberis. Quarters with moderate and very severe hyperkeratosis of the teat-end were at significantly increased risk of clinical E. coli mastitis before the next visit. Quarters with very severe hyperkeratosis of the teat-end were significantly more likely to develop clinical Strep. uberis mastitis before the next visit. There were strong trends within the data to suggest an association between very dirty udders (an increased risk of clinical E. coli mastitis) and teat-ends with no callosity ring present (an increased risk of clinical Strep. uberis mastitis). These results highlight the importance of individual quarter- and cow-level risk factors in determining the risk of CM associated with environmental pathogens during lactation.

  20. An automatic system for the detection of dairy cows lying behaviour in free-stall barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona M.C. Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for the automatic detection of dairy cow lying behaviour in free-stall barns is proposed. A computer visionbased system (CVBS composed of a video-recording system and a cow lying behaviour detector based on the Viola Jones algorithm was developed. The CVBS performance was tested in a head-to-head free stall barn. Two classifiers were implemented in the software component of the CVBS to obtain the cow lying behaviour detector. The CVBS was validated by comparing its detection results with those generated from visual recognition. This comparison allowed the following accuracy indices to be calculated: the branching factor (BF, the miss factor (MF, the sensitivity, and the quality percentage (QP. The MF value of approximately 0.09 showed that the CVBS missed one cow every 11 well detected cows. Conversely, the BF value of approximately 0.08 indicated that one false positive was detected every 13 well detected cows. The high value of approximately 0.92 obtained for the sensitivity index and that obtained for QP of about 0.85 revealed the ability of the proposed system to detect cows lying in the stalls.

  1. RELATIONS BETWEEN SELECTED INDICATORS OF BLOOD AND MILK OF DAIRY COWS WITH METABOLIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Kováčik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to monitor the relations between selected indicators of technological properties of milk and blood biochemical parameters of dairy cows with metabolic disorders. Thirty-two cows were chosen, which were divided into 3 groups: first group - cows with metabolic problems of acidosis, second group - cows with metabolic problems of alkalosis, third group - healthy cows. Blood, urine and milk samples were collected. Urea, total lipids, total proteins, glucose and calcium was determined in the blood serum. Pure acidobasic forms, pH and density of urine were determined. Proteins, lactose, non-fat-solids, somatic cells count, calcium, urea, titratable acidity, fermentability, rennetability and thermostability were determined in samples of milk. Significant negative dependences were observed in the group of cows with metabolic problems of acidosis between urea in blood and in milk (r = -0.694, P <0.05, between calcium in blood and in milk (r = -0.653, P <0, 05, and between calcium in milk and glucose in blood (r = -0.648, P <0.05. In the group of cows with alkalosis, statistically significant correlation between total lipids in blood and fat in milk was found (r = -0.879, P <0.05.

  2. Oriental theileriosis in dairy cows causes a significant milk production loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Piyumali K; Gasser, Robin B; Firestone, Simon M; Anderson, Garry A; Malmo, Jakob; Davis, Gerry; Beggs, David S; Jabbar, Abdul

    2014-02-19

    Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by members of the Theileria orientalis-complex. Recent outbreaks of this disease in eastern Australia have caused major concerns to the dairy and beef farming communities, but there are no published studies of the economic impact of this disease. On a farm in Victoria, Australia, we assessed whether oriental theileriosis has an impact on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Blood samples collected from all 662 cows on the farm were tested using an established molecular test. For individual cows, milk production and reproductive performance data were collected. A clinical assessment of individual cows was performed. Based on clinical findings and molecular test results, the following groups of cows were classified: group 1, with cardinal clinical signs of oriental theileriosis and molecular test-positive for T. orientalis; group 2, with mild or suspected signs of theileriosis and test-positive; group 3, with no clinical signs and test-positive; and group 4, with no clinical signs and test-negative. Milk production and reproductive performance data for groups 1, 2 and 3 were each compared with those for group 4 using linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. At 100 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (288 l; P = 0.001), milk fat (16.8 kg; P milk protein (12.6 kg; P milk fat (13.6 kg; P = 0.002) and milk protein (8.6 kg; P = 0.005) than group 4. At 305 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (624 l; P = 0.004), milk fat (42.9 kg; P milk protein (26.0 kg; P cows. Group 2 cows also produced significantly less milk fat (21.2 kg; P = 0.033) at this lactation point. No statistically significant difference in reproductive performance was found upon pairwise comparisons of groups 1-3 with group 4 cows. The present findings demonstrate that clinical oriental theileriosis can cause significant milk production losses

  3. Long-acting insulins alter milk composition and metabolism of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, L A; Overton, T R

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of 2 different types of long-acting insulin on milk production, milk composition, and metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Multiparous cows (n=30) averaging 88 d in milk were assigned to one of 3 treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of control (C), Humulin-N (H; Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN), and insulin glargine (L). The H and L treatments were administered twice daily at 12-h intervals via subcutaneous injection for 10d. Cows were milked twice daily, and milk composition was determined every other day. Mammary biopsies were conducted on d 11, and mammary proteins extracted from the biopsies were analyzed by Western blot for components of insulin and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake or milk yield. Treatment with both forms of long-acting insulin increased milk protein content and tended to increase milk protein yield over the 10-d treatment period. Analysis of milk N fractions from samples collected on d 10 of treatment suggested that cows administered L tended to have higher yields of milk protein fractions than cows administered H. Milk fat content and yield tended to be increased for cows administered long-acting insulins. Lactose content and yields were decreased by treatment with long-acting insulins. Administration of long-acting insulins, particularly L, tended to shift milk fatty acid composition toward increased short- and medium-chain fatty acids and decreased long-chain fatty acids. Plasma concentrations of glucose and urea N were lower for cows administered long-acting insulins; interactions of treatment and sampling time were indicative of more pronounced effects of L than H on these metabolites. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and insulin were increased in cows administered long-acting insulins. Decreased concentrations of urea N in both plasma and milk suggested more efficient use of N in cows

  4. Effects of dietary supplementation of active dried yeast on fecal methanogenic archaea diversity in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dingxing; Kang, Kun; Wang, Hongze; Wang, Zhisheng; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi; Xu, Feng; Peng, Quanhui

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of different dosages of active dried yeast (ADY) on the fecal methanogenic archaea community of dairy cattle. Twelve multiparous, healthy, mid-lactating Holstein dairy cows (body weight: 584 ± 23.2 kg, milk produced: 26.3 ± 1.22 kg/d) were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (control, ADY2, and ADY4) according to body weight with four replicates per treatment. Cows in the control group were fed conventional rations without ADY supplementation, while cows in the ADY2 and ADY4 group were fed rations supplemented with ADY at 2 or 4 g/d/head. Real-time PCR analysis showed the populations of total methanogens in the feces were significantly decreased (P  0.05) on the abundances of genera unclassified, Candidatus Nitrososphaera, and Halalkalicoccus. In conclusion, supplementation of ADY to the rations of dairy cattle could alter the population sizes and composition of fecal methanogenic archaea in the feces of dairy cattle. The decrease in Methanobrevibacter happened with a commensurate increase in the genera Methanocorpusculum and Thermoplasma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of a polyherbal topical aerosol spray as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasamy Selvam; Ganapa Sureshbabu; Marimuthu Saravanakumar; D'Souza Prashanth

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal topical aerosol spray Wisprec and reg; Advanced (M/S. Natural Remedies Private Limited, India) as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis in dairy cows. A total of 41 dairy cows suffering from clinical mastitis were selected, and Wisprec and reg; Advanced was sprayed on mastitis affected quarters of udder two times a day along with a parenteral antibiotic till complete recovery. The rectal temperature, pain on palpation of udder, sw...

  6. TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM: Nutrigenomics in dairy cows: Nutrients, transcription factors, and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bionaz, M; Osorio, J; Loor, J J

    2015-12-01

    Nutrigenomics in dairy cows is a relatively new area of research. It is defined as the study of the genomewide influences of nutrition altering the expression of genes. Dietary compounds affect gene expression directly or indirectly via interactions with transcription factors. Among those, the most relevant for nutrigenomics are ligand-dependent nuclear receptors, especially peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and liver X receptor. Among other transcription factors, a prominent nutrigenomic role is played by the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1). Data from studies on dairy cows using gene expression and gene reporters among the main molecular methods used to study nutrigenomics in dairy cows are indicative of a network of multiple transcription factors at play in controlling the nutrigenomic responses. Fatty acids, AA, and level of feed and energy intake have the strongest nutrigenomic potential. The effect of 10,12 CLA on depressing milk fat synthesis via inhibition of SREBP1 was among the first and likely the best-known nutrigenomic example in dairy cows. Although long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are clearly the most potent, a nutrigenomic role for short-chain fatty acids is emerging. Available data indicate that saturated compared with unsaturated LCFA have a more potent nutrigenomic effect in vitro, likely through PPAR. In vivo, the effect of saturated LCFA is more modest, with contrasting effects among tissues. Nutrigenomic effects of AA are emerging, particularly for the regulation of milk protein synthesis-associated genes. The level of energy in the diet has a strong and broad nutrigenomic effect and appears to "prime" tissue metabolism, particularly liver. We are at the frontier of the nutrigenomics era in ruminants and initial data strongly indicate that this scientific branch (and spinoffs such as nutriepigenomics) can play a critical role in future strategies to better feed dairy cattle.

  7. Short communication: Automatic washing of hooves can help control digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter T; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop and test a system for automatic washing of the hooves of dairy cows and to evaluate the effect of frequent automatic washing on the prevalence of digital dermatitis (DD). An automatic hoof washer was developed in an experimental dairy herd and tested in 6 commercial dairy herds in 2 experiments (1 and 2). In the experimental herd, automatic hoof washing resulted in cleaner hooves. In experiments 1 and 2, cows were washed after each milking on the left side only, leaving the right side unwashed as a within-cow control. In experiment 1, hooves were washed with a water and 0.4% soap solution. In experiment 2, hooves were washed with water only. In each experiment, DD was scored in a hoof-trimming chute approximately 60 d after the start of hoof washing. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. The outcome was the DD status of each leg (DD positive or DD negative). Herd and cow within herd were included as random effects, and treatment (washing or control) was included as a fixed effect. The statistical analyses showed that the odds ratio of having DD was 1.48 in the control leg compared with the washed leg in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the odds ratio of having DD was 1.27 in the control leg compared with the washed leg. We concluded that automatic washing of hooves with water and soap can help decrease the prevalence of DD in commercial dairy herds. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Why are dairy cows not able to cope with the subacute ruminal acidosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, A M; Sloniewski, K; Oprzadek, J; Sobiech, P; Kowalski, Z M

    2013-01-01

    One of the largest challenges for the dairy industry is to provide cows with a diet which is highly energetic but does not negatively affect their rumens' functions. In highly productive dairy cows, feeding diets rich in readily fermentable carbohydrates provides energy precursors needed for maximum milk production, but simultaneously decreases ruminal pH, leading to a widespread prevalence of subacute ruminal acidosis. Maximizing milk production without triggering rumen acidosis still challenges dairy farmers, who try to prevent prolonged bouts of low ruminal pH mainly by proper nutrition and management practices. The animals try to avoid overeating fermentable feeds, as it causes negative consequences by disturbing digestive processes. The results of several experiments show that ruminants, including sheep and beef cattle, are able to modify some aspects of feeding behaviour in order to adjust nutrient intake to their needs and simultaneously prevent physiological disturbances. Particularly, such changes (e.g., increased preference for fibrous feeds, reduced intake of concentrates) were observed in animals, which were trying to prevent the excessive drop of rumen fluid pH. Thanks to a specific mechanism called "the postingestive feedback", animals should be able to work out such a balance in intake, so they do not suffer either from hunger or from negative effects of over-ingesting the fermentable carbohydrates. This way, an acidosis should not be a frequent problem in ruminants. However, prolonged periods of excessively decreased rumen pH are still a concern in dairy cows. It raises a question, why the regulation of feed intake by postingestive feedback does not help to maintain stable rumen environment in dairy cows?

  9. Processed grains as a supplement to lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tothi, R.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: heat treatment, maize, barley, starch, protein, in sacco, in vivo, dairy, perennial ryegrass, grazing, supplementation, ruminal fermentation, VFA, rumen, degradability, synchrony.In this thesis the effect of different ways of thermal processing (pelleting, expanding, toasting) of barley

  10. Synchronisation of ovulation for management of reproduction in dairy cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Santos, J E P

    2014-01-01

    Important developments have occurred in the last two decades, since the advent of the Ovsynch protocol, on the understanding and use of synchronisation programmes for management of reproduction in dairy herds...

  11. Adaptive Test Schemes for Control of Paratuberculosis in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Græsbøll, Kaare; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2016-01-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection that in dairy cattle causes reduced milk yield, weight loss, and ultimately fatal diarrhea. Subclinical animals can excrete bacteria (Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, MAP) in feces and infect other animals. Farmers identify the infectious animals...

  12. Assessing fresh urine puddle physics in commercial dairy cow houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, Dennis J.W.; Stigter, Hans; Blaauw, Sam K.; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G.; Ogink, Nico W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia emission from dairy barns can be reduced by measures that improve removal of urine from floors. Information characterizing physical and chemical properties of urine puddles on floors are essential to improve mitigation measures, however information representative for practical barn

  13. Effect of cooling heat-stressed dairy cows during the dry period on insulin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S; Thompson, I M; Monteiro, A P A; Hayen, M J; Young, L J; Dahl, G E

    2012-09-01

    affect the insulin responses to GTT and IC during the transition period and glucose responses to GTT and IC at -14 and 28 DRC were not affected by treatments. At 7 DRC, CL cows tended to have slower glucose clearance to GTT and weaker glucose response to IC relative to HT cows. Cows from the cooling treatment had stronger nonesterified fatty acid responses to IC postpartum but not prepartum compared with HT. In conclusion, cooling heat-stressed dairy cows in the dry period reduced insulin effects on peripheral tissues in early lactation but not in the dry period. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Short communication: Influence of subclinical endometritis on the reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Barrio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of subclinical endometritis (SE on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Ninety-four dairy cows of parity 1 to 8, distributed in 25 herds, were examined once between 30 and 45 days in milk using transrectal palpation, vaginoscopy and ultrasonography. A cytological sample of the endometrium was taken only from cows with an apparent healthy uterus (n=65. Serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total proteins, albumin, urea and hepatic enzymes were analyzed. Reproductive indexes were recorded during the next 11 months. Endometrial cytology was considered indicative of SE if percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils was superior to 5% of all cells present in the smear, except erythrocytes. Results indicated that 14.9% of the cows sampled for uterine cytology had SE, and that healthy cows become pregnant significantly before than those with SE (hazard ratio=2.35; 95% confidece interval: 1.05-5.3. From all the metabolic and productive variables analyzed, only triglycerides affected negatively to reproduction; serum albumin concentration, body condition score and milk production had positive effects on the reproductive performance. In conclusion, our results indicate that SE has a negative impact on reproductive performance and uterine cytology is necessary to diagnose it since almost 15% of the affected animals were not detected by other diagnosis methods.

  15. Effects of alternative protein sources on rumen microbes and productivity of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of various protein sources on digestibility, rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. Four Holstein Friesian native crossbred cows in early lactating were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments containing different protein sources in concentrate diets were soybean meal (SBM, cassava hay (CH, Leucaena leucocephala (LL and yeast-fermented cassava chips (YEFECAP, with ad libitum intake of urea-treated rice straw. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was not different among treatments (P>0.05 while CP digestibility was highest (P<0.05 in CH and YEFECAP supplemented groups. Ruminal NH3-N and BUN concentrations varied among protein sources and were highest in SBM and LL fed groups (P<0.05. Ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA and propionic acid were found highest in cows receiving CH and YEFECAP (P<0.05. Ruminal fungi, proteolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were highest when YEFECAP was supplemented. Milk fat and milk protein were significantly increased (P<0.05 in cows fed with CH and YEFECAP. Based on this study, it was concluded that providing CH or YEFECAP as protein source in concentrate diets could improve rumen fermentation and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed on rice straw.

  16. Effect of abomasal ferrous lactate infusion on phosphorus absorption in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X; Knowlton, K F; Dietrich, A D; Duncan, S

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ferrous lactate infusion on postruminal P absorption in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with 14 d per period. Cows were fed a basal diet containing 0.39% P, providing 100% of the calculated P requirement. On d 8 to 14 of each period, each cow was infused with 0, 200, 500, or 1,250mg of Fe/d in the form of ferrous lactate solution (ferrous lactate in 1L of double-distilled water) into the abomasum. Infusate was formulated to approximate 0, 2, 5, or 12.5mg of Fe/L in drinking water with 100L of water intake/d. Total fecal collection was conducted in the last 4 d of each period to measure nutrient digestion and excretion. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Digestibility of DM, NDF, and nitrogen decreased linearly with increasing ferrous lactate infusion. Infusion of ferrous lactate did not affect intake and digestibility of total P, inorganic P, or phytate P. In lactating cows, P absorption was not negatively influenced by abomasally infused ferrous lactate up to 1,250mg of Fe/d. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High levels of whole raw soya beans in dairy cow diets: digestibility and animal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Freitas Junior, J E; Verdurico, L C; Mingoti, R D; Bettero, V P; Benevento, B C; Vilela, F G; Rennó, F P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high levels of whole raw soya beans in the diets of lactating cows. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used, randomized in three 4 ×  4 balanced and contemporary Latin squares and fed the following diets: (i) control (C), without including whole raw soya beans; (ii) 80 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G80); (iii) 160 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G160); and (iv) 240 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G240). There was significant reduction (p cows supplemented with G240 compared with C (23.8 vs. 25.3 respectively). G240 diets presented lower crude protein digestibility (g/kg) (p cows receiving control diet, compared to other diets. G240 diet resulted in significantly lower milk and protein yield (p dairy cow diets improves the unsaturated fatty acid profile in milk, and the diets (G80 and G160) led to minor alterations in the digestive processes and animal metabolism. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Feeding dairy cows with soybean by-products: effects on metabolic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Marilia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean by-products are currently used in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, as a source of protein in dairy cows. However, the high protein breakdown of this feed source in the rumen causes loss of the intrinsic quality of the protein and increases plasma urea with deleterious consequences to animal metabolism. Thermal treatment of soybean can overcome this limitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolism of dairy cows fed with thermally treated soybean and raw soybean, through the analyses of the metabolic profile of plasma and milk. Twelve Holstein cows in mid-lactation period were studied using four treatments: commercial concentrated of protein, soybean meal, raw soybean and roasted soybean. Protein and urea levels in milk were measured in morning and afternoon samples. Data were arranged in a Latin square design (4 treatments and 3 animals in each square. There were no significant differences in glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations among treatments. Cows consuming raw and thermally treated soybean had higher levels of plasma cholesterol. Cows consuming roasted soybean had lower level of plasma and milk urea in the morning. Afternoon milk samples had higher levels of urea than morning samples. It is suggested that thermally treated soybean was effective in diminishing the breakdown of protein in the rumen. It is better to employ morning milk samples to evaluate metabolic profile than afternoon samples.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae from dairy cows with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, S; Hussein, H; Petrovski, K

    2014-03-01

    To determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of antimicrobials for common mastitis pathogens from dairy cows in New Zealand; and to assess the effect of source of the isolates, i.e. commercial veterinary laboratories or collected as part of research studies; the clinical status of the cow, i.e. subclinical or clinical mastitis; cow age and herd on the distribution of the MIC. Minimal inhibitory concentrations for Staphylococcus aureus (n=364), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n=65) and Streptococcus uberis (n=102) isolated from milk samples from dairy cows were determined for a variety of antimicrobials using broth microdilution. Isolates of S. aureus were sourced from research studies from both subclinically (n=161) and clinically (n=104) affected cows, as well as from commercial veterinary laboratories (n=101); while all the streptococcal isolates were from commercial laboratories. Resistance was defined using the cut-points provided by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The distribution of MIC varied among the bacterial species for every antimicrobial tested (pStreptococcus isolates; therefore microbial identification and sensitivity testing would be beneficial when assessing treatment options. The source of the isolates affected the estimated MIC, suggesting that selection of isolates for monitoring of resistance requires care and that use of routine submissions to commercial laboratories to assess antimicrobial resistance patterns may result in biased estimates of prevalence of resistance.

  20. Serum Non-Esterified Fatty Acids and Beta-Hydroxybutyrate in Dairy Cows with Retained Placenta

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    Turan Civelek*, Ibrahim Aydin1, C. Cagri Cingi, Oktay Yilmaz2 and Mustafa Kabu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA in postpartum retained placenta in cattle. Moreover, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, cholesterol (CHOL, triglycerides (TG, total proteins (TP, albumin (ALB, glucose (GLU and blood urea nitrogen (BUN levels were evaluated. Blood samples were obtained from multiparous Holstein dairy cows (n=38 with retained placenta between 12 to 24 hours after calving (Group 2. Clinically healthy multiparous Holstein dairy cows (n=6 calved approximately 7 days prior to the study served as control (Group 1. Concentration of TG, LDL, VLDL, ALB, BUN, CHOL and GLU did not vary between groups. Cows with retained placenta (Group 2 had higher level of BHBA (P=0.041 and NEFA (P=0.05 than control group. HDL and TP serum levels in cows with retained placenta were significantly lower than control cows. It was concluded that retained placenta could be associated with energy metabolism imbalance and postpartum negative-energy balance.

  1. Influence of subclinical endometritis on the reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, M.; Vigo, M.; Quintela, L.A.; Becerra, J.J.; García-Herradón, P.J.; Martínez-Bello, D.; Fernandez-Sanchez, F.I.; Prieto, A.; Cainzos, J.; Peña, A.I.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of subclinical endometritis (SE) on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Ninety-four dairy cows of parity 1 to 8, distributed in 25 herds, were examined once between 30 and 45 days in milk using transrectal palpation, vaginoscopy and ultrasonography. A cytological sample of the endometrium was taken only from cows with an apparent healthy uterus (n=65). Serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total proteins, albumin, urea and hepatic enzymes were analyzed. Reproductive indexes were recorded during the next 11 months. Endometrial cytology was considered indicative of SE if percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils was superior to 5% of all cells present in the smear, except erythrocytes. Results indicated that 14.9% of the cows sampled for uterine cytology had SE, and that healthy cows become pregnant significantly before than those with SE (hazard ratio=2.35; 95% confidece interval: 1.05-5.3). From all the metabolic and productive variables analyzed, only triglycerides affected negatively to reproduction; serum albumin concentration, body condition score and milk production had positive effects on the reproductive performance. In conclusion, our results indicate that SE has a negative impact on reproductive performance and uterine cytology is necessary to diagnose it since almost 15% of the affected animals were not detected by other diagnosis methods. (Author)

  2. Variation among individual dairy cows in methane measurements made on farm during milking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnsworthy, P C; Craigon, J; Hernandez-Medrano, J H; Saunders, N

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify on-farm variation between and within cows in methane emissions measured during milking, and to determine which factors are related to this variation. Methane emission rate during milking (MERm) was recorded at milking using methane analyzers installed in automatic (robotic) milking stations for 215 cows over a period of 5 mo. Between-cow variation in MERm (mean 2.07, SD 0.629 g/min), was greater than within-cow variation and was related to variation in body weight, milk yield, parity, and week of lactation. Estimation of daily methane emissions from MERm data, using an equation derived from comparisons with respiration chamber data, produced estimates that ranged from 278 to 456 g of CH₄/d and were commensurate with values predicted from metabolizable energy requirements for observed body weight and milk yield. It is concluded that methane emissions vary considerably between dairy cows housed under commercial conditions. This variation needs to be taken into account when performing inventories or testing mitigation strategies, but it might offer opportunities for genetic selection. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis

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    Rajesh Rathore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: Twelve cases of clinical mastitis in cross-bred cows were selected based on physical examination of udder and milk, California Mastitis Test (CMT, Somatic Cell Count (SCC and confirmation by bacteriological examination of milk and requisite biochemical tests. Twelve lactating cows showing negative CMT reaction and SCC <2x105 cells/ml were considered as healthy control. Antioxidant parameters measured in blood were superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase activities and reduced glutathione (GSH concentration. Erythrocytic lipid peroxidation (LPO was measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA production. Results: Significant (P<0.05 decrease in blood SOD and catalase activities, GSH concentration and an increase in erythrocytic lipid peroxides was observed in cows with clinical mastitis. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is a compromise in antioxidant defense of the body in dairy cows with clinical mastitis resulting in oxidative damage, therefore, necessitate the use of antioxidants and other protective compounds along with conventional therapy for mastitis control. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 271-273

  4. Supplementing lactating dairy cows fed high-quality pasture with black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) tannin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, W M; Clark, C E F; Clark, D A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-11-01

    A reduction in urinary nitrogen (N) excretion from dairy cows fed pasture containing a high N concentration in the dry matter (DM) will have environmental benefits, because losses to soil water and air by leachate and nitrous oxides (N2O) will be reduced. Condensed tannins (CT) reduce digestion of N, and provision as a dietary additive could have nutritional benefits for production, but the amount required and the responses to different sources of CT on milk production have not been defined. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of supplementation with CT extracted from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) on milk production and faecal N concentration by lactating dairy cows grazing a vegetative Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)-based pasture. In one experiment, CT was administered as a drench, twice daily, to 38 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows assigned to four treatments; control (CONT, 0 g/day), low CT (LCT, 111 g/day), medium CT (MCT, 222 g/day) and high CT (HCT, 444 g/day), grazing as a single group. The CT supplementation affected milk yield (P 0.05). The diet of cows fed pellets with CT contained about 1.2% CT in the DM but neither milk constituents nor MUN were affected by CT-supplemented grain (P > 0.05). These findings demonstrate beneficial effects for production of low concentrations (c. 0.6% DM) of CT from black wattle when given to cows grazing pasture with an N concentration of 3.8%, and suggest a diversion of N from urine, but when CT exceeded about 1.4% of dietary DM, milk production was depressed. The value of supplementing a pasture diet for lactating dairy cows with black wattle tannin extract will depend on costs of supplementation, returns from milk production and liabilities associated with N losses to urine.

  5. Management of heat stress to improve fertility in dairy cows in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamenbaum, Israel; Galon, Nadav

    2010-01-01

    Israel has about 100,000 dairy cows mostly all of Israeli-Holstein-breed, kept in close to 1000 dairy farms. Most farms are distributed along the Mediterranean Sea coast and in the hot internal valleys. According to the Israeli Herd book the average annual milk production, per cow in 2008 was 11,460 kg, with 3.7% fat and 3.2% protein. Israel's climate is considered "subtropical dry" or Mediterranean, characterized by warm and dry summer with day temperatures above 30 C and relative humidity ranging from 50 to 90%. Climatic limitations brought dairy farmers to develop and implement new technologies and management practices that would enable high milk production and reproduction in summers. In the last three decades the Ministry of Agriculture research units, the extension service and dairy farmers conducted a series of trials and surveys in order to develop an efficient cooling system that will obtain and maintain high milk yield and good reproduction during the hot and humid summer. The cooling system commonly used in Israel is based on a combination of frequent direct watering of the cows, followed by forced ventilation air blowing onto the cows. The system was developed in Israel nearly 30 years ago. A typical cycle is five minutes long and consists of 30 sec of watering followed by 4.5 min of forced ventilation. Providing the cows with 5-7 cooling sessions per day, 30-45 min each, allowed cows, producing 25-30 kg of milk per day to maintain their body temperature below 39.0 C, throughout the day time, on a typical Israeli summer day. At the same time, non-cooled cows had high body temperatures (above 39.5 C), during some part of the daytime and returned to normal body temperatures (below 39.0 C), only for a few hours late at night. In an experiment conducted in 1985-86, conception rate (CR) of cows, cooled as described above, was significantly higher than of non-cooled cows (59 vs. 17% and 57 vs. 17%), for first insemination and for all inseminations

  6. Associations between dairy intake and metabolic risk parameters in a healthy French-Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Marine S; Julien, Pierre; Couture, Patrick; Lemieux, Simone; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Rudkowska, Iwona

    2014-12-01

    Observational studies support that dairy product intake is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes; however, several clinical studies report conflicting results on the association between dairy product consumption and metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine associations between dairy product consumption and metabolic profile. Dietary data, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and fasting blood samples were collected from 233 French Canadians. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FA) concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. Subjects consumed 2.5 ± 1.4 portions of dairy products daily, including 1.6 ± 1.3 portions of low-fat (LF) and 0.90 ± 0.70 portions of high-fat (HF) dairy products. Trans-palmitoleic acid level in plasma PL was related to HF dairy consumption (r = 0.15; p = 0.04). Total (r = -0.21; p = 0.001) and LF dairy (r = -0.20; p = 0.003) intakes were inversely correlated with fasting plasma glucose level. Total dairy intake was inversely associated to systolic blood pressure (r = -0.17; p = 0.008) and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.14; p = 0.03). LF dairy intake was also inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.17; p = 0.009). Total dairy intake was correlated with plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.15; p = 0.03). No association was found between HF dairy consumption and the risk factors studied. In conclusion, dairy intake is inversely associated with glycaemia and blood pressure; yet, it may modify CRP levels. Moreover, trans-palmitoleic FA levels in plasma PL may be potentially used to assess full-fat dairy consumption.

  7. The effect of metritis on luteal function in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strüve, Klaas; Herzog, Kathrin; Magata, Fumie; Piechotta, Marion; Shirasuna, Koumei; Miyamoto, Akio; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2013-12-04

    Disturbed uterine involution impairs ovarian function in the first weeks after calving. This study analyzed the long-term effect of metritis on luteal function of 47 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows during the first four postpartum estrous cycles. Cows with abnormal uterine enlargement and malodorous lochia were classified as having metritis (group M, n = 18), and all others were considered healthy (group H, n = 29). Luteal size was measured once between days 9 and 13 of the first (group H, n = 11; group M, n = 12), second (group H, n = 23; group M, n = 18) and fourth (group H, n = 11; group M, n = 7) postpartum luteal phases. Serum progesterone concentration was measured at the same time. Sixteen cows (group H, n = 9; group M, n = 7) underwent transvaginal luteal biopsy for gene expression analysis of steroidogenic regulatory proteins during the second and fourth cycles. Cows with persistence of the corpus luteum (CL) underwent determination of luteal size, luteal biopsy and serum progesterone measurement once between days 29 and 33, followed by prostaglandin treatment to induce luteolysis. The same procedures were repeated once between days 9 and 13 of the induced cycle. The cows in group M had smaller first-cycle CLs than the cows in group H (p = 0.04), but progesterone concentrations did not differ between groups. Luteal size, progesterone concentration and gene expression did not differ between the two groups during the second and fourth cycles. Compared with healthy cows (10%), there was a trend (p = 0.07) toward a higher prevalence of persistent CLs in cows with metritis (33%). Persistent CLs were limited to the first cycle. Persistent CLs and the induced cyclic CLs did not differ with regard to the variables investigated. An effect of metritis on luteal activity was apparent in the first postpartum estrous cycle. However, after the first postpartum cycle, no differences occurred in analyzed parameters between

  8. Analysis of factors influencing estrus cycle in dairy cows

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    Jovičin Milovan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of interestrus intervals between two inseminations during two annual period, from 1. 4. 2001 - 31. 3. 2003, on a farm with 500 Holstein-Frisian cows and milk production of 5500-6000 kg was analyzed. Periods of 1½ months of estrus cycles were presented by histograms for pregnant, nonpregnant and culled cows. Normal and multiple cycles indicate estrus detection errors, and were recorded in 26.70% / 22.73% and 33.25% / 33.77% cows, in the first and second analyzed periods, respectively. Short and prolonged estrus cycles were noted in 12.22% / 4.34%, and 10.07% / 7.36% cows, in the first and second analyzed periods respectively, and indicate nutritional disturbances and embryonal mortality. Disturbed estrus periods were found in 41.31% and 43.10% cows and heifers and were a consequence of other cumulate factors in herd sterility. Herd fertility improvement may be achieved with systematic work on prevention of ovarial dysfunction and proper records management.

  9. Cow Effects and Estimation of Success of First and Following Inseminations in Dutch Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101 297 insemination records in 51 525 lactations of different cows from

  10. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean. Journal of

  11. Contextual herd factors associated with cow culling risk in Québec dairy herds: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, Denis; Delgado, Hector; Cue, Roger; Sewalem, Asheber; Wade, Kevin; Lacroix, René; Lefebvre, Daniel; Arsenault, Julie; Bouchard, Émile; Dubuc, Jocelyn

    2017-09-01

    Several health disorders, such as milk fever, displaced abomasum, and mastitis, as well as impaired reproductive performance, are known risk factors for the removal of affected cows from a dairy herd. While cow-level risk factors are well documented in the literature, herd-level associations have been less frequently investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cow- and herd-level determinants on variations in culling risk in Québec dairy herds: whether herd influences a cow's culling risk. For this, we assessed the influence of herd membership on cow culling risk according to displaced abomasum, milk fever, and retained placenta. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted on data from dairy herds in the Province of Québec, Canada, by extracting health information events from the dairy herd health management software used by most Québec dairy producers and their veterinarians. Data were extracted for all lactations starting between January 1st and December 31st, 2010. Using multilevel logistic regression, we analysed a total of 10,529 cows from 201 herds that met the inclusion criteria. Milk fever and displaced abomasum were demonstrated to increase the cow culling risk. A minor general herd effect was found for the culling risk (i.e. an intra-class correlation of 1.0% and median odds ratio [MOR] of 1.20). The proportion of first lactation cows was responsible for this significant, but weak herd effect on individual cow culling risk, after taking into account the cow-level factors. On the other hand, the herd's average milk production was a protective factor. The planning and management of forthcoming replacement animals has to be taken into consideration when assessing cow culling risks and herd culling rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of the effects of lameness on production and reproduction in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Bellet i Elias, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Póster Lameness incidence have greats variability and the third cause of economic losses in dairy farms, after mastitis and reproductive inefficiency (Weaver et al., 2005). The major cause of lameness is subclinical rumen acidosis, and it alters the follicular phase forming ovarian cysts (Blowey, 1998). The rest of the cow and hooves trimming of the cows 2 - 3 times per year, reduces the incidence of lameness (Mill and Ward, 1994; Manske et al., 2002). The aim of this study is to determine...

  13. The influence of elevated feed stalls on feeding behaviour of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Benz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance level of high yielding cows can only be guaranteed by high quality forage and high feed intake. An about 15–20 cm elevated and 160 cm long feed stall with rubber flooring doesn’t only offer undisturbed meals but also a yielding and dry standing surface. In a pilot stable with 130 dairy cows (German Simmental the feeding alley was subsequently equipped with elevated feed stalls. The results show that animals frequented the feeding barn less often while the duration of single meals prolonged. The specific behavioural changes differed depending on milk yield and number of lactation.

  14. IMPACT OF LACTATION STAGE ON MILK FAT FATTY ACIDS PROFILE IN GRAZING DAIRY COWS

    OpenAIRE

    Katarína Kirchnerová; Vladimír Foltys; Jiří Špička

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to extend the knowledge about correlation of current fatty acids (FAs) profile of cow milk fat at herds of cows (n=134) at summer pasture period in mountain dairy farms in Slovakia to milk production and quality parameters. The FAs composition of individual milk was determined by GC-MS, where 54 FAs were identified. Saturated fatty acids (SAFA) (70.48 ± 4.04% in the milk fat) show in the first third of lactation highly significant positive correlation coefficients (r>...

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN HEALTHY AND DAIRY COWS WITH SUBCLINICAL KETOSIS

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    Gülşah Akgül

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented study is to compare beta-hydroxy butyric acid (BHBA, glucose (GLU gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, phosphorus (P, calcium (Ca, and albumin (Alb values of healthy animals and animals suffering from subclinical ketosis. The material in this study consisted of 15 healthy cows and 15 cows with subclinical ketosis on a commercial dairy farm located in Bursa (Turkey. Significant differences (p<0.001 were observed in BHBA, GLU, and Ca between the two groups. Results of this study might indicate the importance of calcium metabolism in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangar, Yogesh Chandrakant; Singh, Bishwambhar; Dohare, Amit Kumar; Verma, Med Ram

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide the pooled estimate of the prevalence of subclinical mastitis among dairy cows in India and to examine the consistency of those estimates between published studies. We have conducted a systematic review of prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows for the period 1995-2014 using electronic and non-electronic databases. Meta-analysis of 28 studies was done under random effects model using Metaprop package in R software. The pooled estimate of prevalence of subclinical mastitis on cow-basis was obtained using 6344 cows from 25 studies and was found to be 46.35 % (95 % CI 39.38; 53.46). Meta-analysis for quarter-wise prevalence of subclinical mastitis was carried out using 18,721 udder quarters of dairy cows from 23 studies, and the pooled estimate of prevalence of subclinical mastitis on quarter-basis was found to be 23.25 % (95 % CI 18.15; 29.27). Meta-analysis showed that there is statistically high heterogeneity for the prevalence estimates between published studies. The present study reported that there is high prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in India, which might be responsible for low productivity in lactating cows in India over the years and needs to be controlled by adopting scientific, managemental, and therapeutic measures. Dairy farmers can reduce incidence and economic losses due to subclinical mastitis under the guidance of field veterinarians.

  17. The decline in digestive efficiency of US dairy cows from 1970 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, S B; Shaughness, M; Erdman, R A

    2017-07-01

    Since the year 1970, US milk production per cow has more than doubled, in part because of large increases in feed intake. It is well established that increasing feed intake reduces diet digestibility in dairy cattle. Our objective was to determine whether the digestive efficiency of US dairy cows had also changed. We assembled a data set consisting of diet digestibility measured either by total collection of feces or by use of indigestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in lactating dairy cow studies published in the Journal of Dairy Science from July 1970 to July 2014. The data set contained 575 treatment means from 154 individual research trials conducted at 26 US institutions. Based on regression analysis, mean milk yield and dry matter intake (DMI) between 1970 and 2014 increased by 19.7 and 10.3 kg/d, respectively. Temporal effects on digestibility [dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and NDF] were determined using the regression model Yi = YEAR1970i + CPi + NDFi + ei, where YEAR1970i is the publication year minus 1970, CPi and NDFi are diet constituents (% of diet DM) that were included to account for their known effects on digestibility, and ei is the residual error. Dry matter digestibility decreased 0.07 percentage units/yr for a total reduction of 3.08 percentage units since 1970. Furthermore, CP and NDF digestibilities decreased 0.04 and 0.17 percentage units/yr, respectively. To account for the potential effect of feed intake on digestibility, DMI as a percentage of body weight was added to the regression model. With DMI as a percentage of body weight in the model, temporal changes in DM, CP, and NDF digestibilities were no longer significant. This suggested that the apparent decline in DM digestibility could be mostly accounted for by simultaneous increases in level of feed intake. Despite lower apparent digestive efficiency, the modern dairy cow has greater production efficiency than the 1970s dairy cow because she produces more milk per unit of feed

  18. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows...... was affected by the site of a previous calving. Ten multiparous cows moved to 1 of 2 group pens 11 (range = 4–27) d before calving were included. Each pen consisted of an open area (9 × 9 m) connected to 6 secluded areas (4.5 × 3 m each), where cows could move freely between all areas. Time of calving......, location of the breaking of the amniotic sac, as well as the place of birth were recorded. In all but 1 case cows calved within a distance of 1 cow length from where the previous calving took place, suggesting that the cows did not select calving site at random. These preliminary observations indicate...

  19. Associations between housing and management practices and the prevalence of lameness, hock lesions, and thin cows on US dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A E; Lombard, J E; Fossler, C P; Román-Muñiz, I N; Kopral, C A

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association among different housing and management practices on the prevalence of lameness, hock lesions, and thin cows on US dairy operations. This study was conducted as part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2014 study, which included dairy operations in 17 states. Size categories were assigned as follows: small (30-99 cows), medium (100-499 cows), and large (≥500 cows). Trained assessors visited 191 dairy operations from March through July 2014 and recorded locomotion and hock scores (on a 3-point scale), and the number of thin cows (body condition score ≤2.25) from a total of 22,622 cows (average 118 cows per farm). The majority of cows (90.4%) were considered to be sound (locomotion score = 1), 6.9% were mild/moderately lame (locomotion score = 2), and 2.7% were severely lame (locomotion score = 3). Similarly, most cows (87.3%) had no hock lesions (hock score = 1), 10.1% had mild lesions (hock score = 2), and 2.6% had severe hock lesions (hock score = 3). A low percentage of cows (4.2%) were thin. Univariate comparisons were performed using PROC LOGLINK, which accounts for study design and weighting. Variables meeting the univariate screening criterion of P < 0.20 were eligible for entry into multivariable models. Statistical significance in the multivariable models was declared at P < 0.05. Large operations had a lower within-herd prevalence of cows with locomotion score ≥2 and locomotion score = 3 compared with small or medium-sized operations. Operations on which cows were kept primarily on pasture had a lower percentage of locomotion score = 3 than those housed in freestall or open/dry lot operations. The use of sand bedding was associated with a lower within-herd prevalence of locomotion score ≥2 than straw/hay or dry/composted manure as the primary bedding material. Sand bedding was also associated with a lower within-herd prevalence of locomotion score = 3 than other bedding

  20. A Dairy Herd Case Investigation with Very Low Dietary Cation–Anion Difference in Prepartum Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Melendez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the periparturient period, subclinical hypocalcemia (total plasma Ca concentration <2.0 mmol/l is a potential problem for the dairy cow; consequently, its prevention is essential for success of fertility and productive performance. Dietary cation–anion difference (DCAD has been defined as the difference in milliequivalents of cations (Na, K and anions (Cl, S per kilogram of dry matter (DM and has a direct impact on blood acid–base metabolism. Diets rich in K and Na induce metabolic alkalosis, interfering with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone, and diets rich in Cl and S (anionic salts cause metabolic acidosis, reducing the risk of hypocalcemia. Consequently, the use of anionic salts has become a popular method to prevent hypocalcemia in dairy cattle. Monitoring diets with anionic salts can be done by measuring urine pH, with optimal values between 6.2 and 6.8 for Holstein cows. The objective of this report is to present a herd case investigation involving a dairy farm feeding a very low DCAD (−143 mEq/kg DM, expecting improved Ca homeostasis. The diet of −143 mEq/kg (urine pH 5.2–5.8 was changed to a diet with −53 mEq/kg DM (urine pH 6.2–6.8. Blood samples were taken at the time of calving for 10 cows that calved before and then for 10 cows that calved after changing the diet. Cows with extremely low DCAD had Ca concentrations of 2.11 ± 0.22 mmol/l and cows with a more moderated DCAD, 2.11 ± 0.16 mmol/l (P > 0.05. Several other blood metabolites (P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, albumin, globulins, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and GGT were also similar between groups. This very low DCAD during the prepartum period may severely compromise animal physiology unnecessarily, with little advantage over normal calcium concentrations at parturition, when compared with a less negative DCAD (−53 mEq/kg DM. Feeding a less negative DCAD ration (−53 mEq/kg DM did not decrease plasma Ca levels right after

  1. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  2. The effect of metritis on luteal function in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Strüve, K; Herzog, K.; Magata, F. (Frederick); Piechotta, M.; Shirasuna, K; Miyamoto, A.; Bollwein, H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disturbed uterine involution impairs ovarian function in the first weeks after calving. This study analyzed the long-term effect of metritis on luteal function of 47 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows during the first four postpartum estrous cycles. Cows with abnormal uterine enlargement and malodorous lochia were classified as having metritis (group M, n = 18), and all others were considered healthy (group H, n = 29). Luteal size was measured once between days 9 and 13 of the first...

  3. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayasari, N.; Chen, J.; Ferrari, A.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Kemp, B.; Parmentier, H.K.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Trevisi, E.

    2017-01-01

    Negative energy balance in dairy cows in early lactation has been associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress in these cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period (DP) length and dietary energy source on inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress

  4. Effect of milk yield characteristics, breed, and parity on success of the first insemination in Dutch dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Hogeveen, H.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Jorritsma, R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of a successful first insemination (SFI). The investigation was performed with 51,791 lactations from 1,396 herds obtained from the Dutch dairy cow database of the Cattle Improvement Co-operative (CRV).

  5. Effect of dietary crude protein and forage contents on enteric methane emissions and nitrogen excretion from dairy cows simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study aimed to examine, simultaneously, the effects of changing dietary forage and crude protein (CP) contents on methane (CH4) emissions and nitrogen (N) excretion from lactating dairy cows. Twelve post-peak lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 4 treatments from a 2×2 factorial arr...

  6. Bayesian integration of sensor information and a multivariate dynamic linear model for prediction of dairy cow mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Dan B.; Hogeveen, Henk; Vries, de Albert

    2016-01-01

    Rapid detection of dairy cow mastitis is important so corrective action can be taken as soon as possible. Automatically collected sensor data used to monitor the performance and the health state of the cow could be useful for rapid detection of mastitis while reducing the labor needs for

  7. Impact of dietary starch concentration formulated with two types corn silage on the performance of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study explored the effect of feeding different starch concentrations and conventional or brown midrib corn silage on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Forty-eight Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets using a randomized complete block design with a 2-wk covariate period followed by...

  8. Exploration of the genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic basis underlying variation in feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. A genome-wide association study was performed for residual feed intake (RFI) and related traits using a large data set, consisting of nearly 5,000 cows. It wa...

  9. Evaluation of a lysostaphin-fusion protein as a dry-cow therapy for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a lysostaphin-fusion protein (Lyso-PTD) as a dry-cow therapy for the treatment of experimentally-induced chronic, subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Twenty-two Holstein dairy cows were experimentally infected with Staph. aureus in a single pair of diago...

  10. Modification of immune responses and digestive system microbiota of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine(R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) fed to Holstein and Jersey dairy cows during late lactation (average DIM = 202.44 days on wk-0). Cows were randomized to treatment g...

  11. The effects of high levels of rumen degradable protein on rumen pH and histamine concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakom, C.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the supplementation of crude protein (CP) results in rumen acidosis and increased histamine concentrations in dairy cows. Six ruminally fistulated, non-pregnant dry cows were fed three experimental rations in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square

  12. Abomasal amino acid infusion in postpartum dairy cows: Effect on whole-body, splanchnic, and mammary glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galindo, C; Larsen, Mogens; Ouellet, D R

    2015-01-01

    -OH-butyrate (BHBA) in postpartum dairy cows according to a generalized randomized incomplete block design with repeated measures in time. At calving, cows were blocked according to parity (second and third or greater) and were allocated to 2 treatments: abomasal infusion of water (n=4) or abomasal infusion of free...

  13. Effect of feeding a reduced-starch diet with or without amylase addition on lactation performance in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gencoglu, H.; Shaver, R.D.; Steinberg, W.; Ensink, J.; Ferraretto, L.F.; Bertics, S.J.; Lopes, J.C.; Akins, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine lactation performance responses of high-producing dairy cows to a reduced-starch diet compared with a normal-starch diet and to the addition of exogenous amylase to the reduced-starch diet. Thirty-six multiparous Holstein cows (51 +/- 22 DIM and 643 +/-

  14. Synchronization and resynchronization of inseminations in lactating dairy cows with the CIDR insert and the Ovsynch protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartolome, J.A.; Leeuwen, van J.J.J.; Thieme, M.; Sa'filho, O.G.; Melendez, P.; Archbald, L.F.; Thatcher, W.W.

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy per artificial insemination (AI) was evaluated in dairy cows (Bos taurus) subjected to synchronization and resynchronization for timed AI (TAI). Cows (n = 718) received prostaglandin F2a (PGF) on Days –38 and –24 (Days 39 and 53 postpartum), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on Day

  15. Changes in milk urea around insemination are negatively associated with conception success in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaaj, A; Foucras, G; Raboisson, D

    2017-04-01

    Dietary protein levels are a risk factor for poor reproductive performance. Conception is particularly impaired in cases of high blood or milk urea. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between conception and low milk urea or changes in milk urea around artificial insemination (AI). Data were obtained from the French Milk Control Program for a 4-yr period (2009-2012). Milk urea values between 250 and 450 mg/kg (4.3 and 7.7 mM) were considered intermediate (I), and values ≤150 mg/kg (2.6 mM) were considered low (L). Milk urea values before and after each AI were allocated into 4 classes representing the dynamics of milk urea (before-after; I-I, I-L, L-I, and L-L). Subclinical ketosis was defined using milk fat and protein contents before AI as proxies. A logistic regression with a Poisson correction and herd as a random variable was then performed on data from Holstein or all breeds of cows. The success of conception was decreased [relative risk (95% confidence interval) = 0.96 (0.94-0.99)] in low-urea cows compared with intermediate-urea cows after AI; no significant association was found for urea levels before AI. When combining data on urea before and after AI, I-L urea cows exhibited a 5 to 9% decrease in conception compared with I-I urea cows, and L-I urea cows showed no difference in conception success compared with I-I urea cows. A decreased conception success for L-L urea cows compared with I-I urea cows was observed for the analysis with cows of all breeds. This work revealed that a decrease in urea from intermediate (before AI) to low (after AI) is a risk factor for conception failure. Surveys of variation in milk urea in dairy cows close to breeding are highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Does Dietary Mitigation of Enteric Methane Production Affect Rumen Function and Animal Productivity in Dairy Cows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneman, Jolien B; Muetzel, Stefan; Hart, Kenton J; Faulkner, Catherine L; Moorby, Jon M; Perdok, Hink B; Newbold, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the rumen microbiome and rumen function might be disrupted if methane production in the rumen is decreased. Furthermore concerns have been voiced that geography and management might influence the underlying microbial population and hence the response of the rumen to mitigation strategies. Here we report the effect of the dietary additives: linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and the rumen microbiome in two experiments from New Zealand (Dairy 1) and the UK (Dairy 2). Dairy 1 was a randomized block design with 18 multiparous lactating cows. Dairy 2 was a complete replicated 3 x 3 Latin Square using 6 rumen cannulated, lactating dairy cows. Treatments consisted of a control total mixed ration (TMR), supplementation with linseed oil (4% of feed DM) and supplementation with nitrate (2% of feed DM) in both experiments. Methane emissions were measured in open circuit respiration chambers and rumen samples were analyzed for rumen fermentation parameters and microbial population structure using qPCR and next generation sequencing (NGS). Supplementation with nitrate, but not linseed oil, decreased methane yield (g/kg DMI; Pmethane emissions can be significantly decreased with nitrate supplementation with only minor, but consistent, effects on the rumen microbial population and its function, with no evidence that the response to dietary additives differed due to geography and different underlying microbial populations.

  17. Transition diseases in grazing dairy cows are related to serum cholesterol and other analytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Sepúlveda-Varas

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of postpartum disease and to evaluate the association with serum cholesterol concentrations during the first 3 weeks after calving in grazing dairy cows. The association between non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA, calcium and postpartum diseases was also evaluated. A total of 307 Holstein dairy cows from 6 commercial grazing herds in Osorno, Chile, were monitored from calving until 21 days in milk. Cases of retained placenta, clinical hypocalcemia and clinical mastitis were recorded by the farmer using established definitions. Twice weekly, cows were evaluated for metritis by the same veterinarian based on vaginal discharge and body temperature. Postpartum blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for serum concentrations of cholesterol, NEFA, BHBA and calcium. Cows were considered as having subclinical ketosis if BHBA >1.2 mmol/L, and subclinical hypocalcemia if calcium <2.0 mmol/L in any of the 3 weekly samples. Overall, 56% of the cows studied developed at least one clinical or subclinical disease after calving. Incidence of individual diseases was 8.8% for retained placenta, 4.2% for clinical hypocalcemia, 11.7% for clinical mastitis, 41.1% for metritis, 19.9% for subclinical hypocalcemia and 16.6% for subclinical ketosis. Lower postpartum cholesterol in cows was associated with developing severe metritis or having more than one clinical disease after calving. For every 0.4 mmol/L decrease in serum cholesterol cows were nearly twice as likely to be diagnosed with multiple clinical diseases after calving. Higher BHBA concentrations and lower calcium concentrations during week 1 were associated with severe cases of metritis. Low serum calcium concentration during week 1 was also associated with developing more than one clinical disorder after calving. In conclusion, the incidence of postpartum diseases can be high even in grazing herds and lower serum

  18. Cow- and farm-level risk factors for lameness on dairy farms with automated milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, R; Vaughan, A; de Passillé, A M; DeVries, T J; Pajor, E A; Pellerin, D; Siegford, J M; Witaifi, A; Vasseur, E; Rushen, J

    2016-05-01

    Lameness is a major concern to animal health and welfare within the dairy industry. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of lameness in high-producing cows on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) and to identify the main risk factors for lameness at the animal and farm level. We visited 36 AMS farms across Canada and Michigan. Farm-level factors related to stall design, bedding use, flooring, and stocking rates were recorded by trained observers. Cows were scored for lameness, leg injuries, body condition (BCS), and body size (hip width and rump height; n=1,378; 25-40 cows/farm). Mean herd prevalence of clinical lameness was 15% (range=2.5-46%). Stall width relative to cow size and parity was found to be the most important factor associated with lameness. Not fitting the average stall width increased the odds of being lame 3.7 times in primiparous cows. A narrow feed alley [<430cm; odds ratio (OR)=1.9], obstructed lunge space (OR=1.7), a low BCS (OR=2.1 for BCS ≤2.25 compared with BCS 2.75-3.0), and presence of hock lesions (OR=1.6) were also identified as important risk factors for lameness. Only 1 of 36 farms had stalls of adequate width and length for the cows on their farm. For lameness prevention, it can be concluded that more emphasis needs be placed on either building stalls of appropriate width or selecting for smaller-framed cows that fit the existing stalls. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Transition diseases in grazing dairy cows are related to serum cholesterol and other analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Varas, Pilar; Weary, Daniel M; Noro, Mirela; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of postpartum disease and to evaluate the association with serum cholesterol concentrations during the first 3 weeks after calving in grazing dairy cows. The association between non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), calcium and postpartum diseases was also evaluated. A total of 307 Holstein dairy cows from 6 commercial grazing herds in Osorno, Chile, were monitored from calving until 21 days in milk. Cases of retained placenta, clinical hypocalcemia and clinical mastitis were recorded by the farmer using established definitions. Twice weekly, cows were evaluated for metritis by the same veterinarian based on vaginal discharge and body temperature. Postpartum blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for serum concentrations of cholesterol, NEFA, BHBA and calcium. Cows were considered as having subclinical ketosis if BHBA >1.2 mmol/L, and subclinical hypocalcemia if calcium cows studied developed at least one clinical or subclinical disease after calving. Incidence of individual diseases was 8.8% for retained placenta, 4.2% for clinical hypocalcemia, 11.7% for clinical mastitis, 41.1% for metritis, 19.9% for subclinical hypocalcemia and 16.6% for subclinical ketosis. Lower postpartum cholesterol in cows was associated with developing severe metritis or having more than one clinical disease after calving. For every 0.4 mmol/L decrease in serum cholesterol cows were nearly twice as likely to be diagnosed with multiple clinical diseases after calving. Higher BHBA concentrations and lower calcium concentrations during week 1 were associated with severe cases of metritis. Low serum calcium concentration during week 1 was also associated with developing more than one clinical disorder after calving. In conclusion, the incidence of postpartum diseases can be high even in grazing herds and lower serum cholesterol concentrations were associated with occurrence of clinical postpatum

  20. Effect of Supplemental Dietary Fat and Processed Barley Grain on Performance of Lactating Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A Alijoo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of barley grain processing and source of supplemental fat on performance of lactating dairy cows were studied in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods and a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Eight Holstein cows with mean body weight (BW of 572 ± 71 kg and 45 ± 10 days in milk were allocated to 4 dietary treatments including 1 ground barley with cottonseed 2 pelleted barley with cottonseed 3 ground barley with canola seed 4 pelleted barley with canola seed. The nitrogen intake and fecal N were higher in cows fed ground barley in comparison with those fed pelleted barley. Source of supplemental fat or barley processing had no effect on milk fat and milk protein contents. Milk SNF yield was higher in cows fed canola as supplemental fat source and ground barley (P < 0.05. Milk yield was affected by method of barley grain processing and was 0.64 to 1.9 kg/d higher in cows fed ground barley compared with those fed pelleted barley (P = 0.04. Plasma concentrations of glucose, NEFA, BHBA, cholesterol, triglycerides and blood urea nitrogen were similar in all treatments. Dry matter intake was affected by barley grain processing. The cows fed ground barley consuming 1.15 to 2.18 kg/d more DM compared with those fed pelleted barley (P = 0.04.Total tract digestibilities of DM, crude fat, ADF, NDF and OM were not affected by the barley grain processing as well as source of oilseed. The results indicated that interactions between barley grain processing and source of supplemental dietary fat can improve the performance of lactating dairy cows, However, more detailed studies are required