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Sample records for canadian case-control study

  1. Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli John J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10 were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases and 1506 population based controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to fit statistical models. Results Based on conditional logistic regression modeling, the following factors independently increased the risk of NHL: farmer and machinist as long held occupations; constant exposure to diesel exhaust fumes; constant exposure to ionizing radiation (radium; and personal history of another cancer. Men who had worked for 20 years or more as farmer and machinist were the most likely to develop NHL. Conclusion An increased risk of developing NHL is associated with the following: long held occupations of faer and machinist; exposure to diesel fumes; and exposure to ionizing radiation (radium. The risk of NHL increased with the duration of employment as a farmer or machinist.

  2. Spatiotemporal air pollution exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystad, Perry; Demers, Paul A; Johnson, Kenneth C; Brook, Jeff; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lamsal, Lok; Martin, Randall; Brauer, Michael

    2012-04-04

    Few epidemiological studies of air pollution have used residential histories to develop long-term retrospective exposure estimates for multiple ambient air pollutants and vehicle and industrial emissions. We present such an exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study of 8353 individuals using self-reported residential histories from 1975 to 1994. We also examine the implications of disregarding and/or improperly accounting for residential mobility in long-term exposure assessments. National spatial surfaces of ambient air pollution were compiled from recent satellite-based estimates (for PM2.5 and NO2) and a chemical transport model (for O3). The surfaces were adjusted with historical annual air pollution monitoring data, using either spatiotemporal interpolation or linear regression. Model evaluation was conducted using an independent ten percent subset of monitoring data per year. Proximity to major roads, incorporating a temporal weighting factor based on Canadian mobile-source emission estimates, was used to estimate exposure to vehicle emissions. A comprehensive inventory of geocoded industries was used to estimate proximity to major and minor industrial emissions. Calibration of the national PM2.5 surface using annual spatiotemporal interpolation predicted historical PM2.5 measurement data best (R2 = 0.51), while linear regression incorporating the national surfaces, a time-trend and population density best predicted historical concentrations of NO2 (R2 = 0.38) and O3 (R2 = 0.56). Applying the models to study participants residential histories between 1975 and 1994 resulted in mean PM2.5, NO2 and O3 exposures of 11.3 μg/m3 (SD = 2.6), 17.7 ppb (4.1), and 26.4 ppb (3.4) respectively. On average, individuals lived within 300 m of a highway for 2.9 years (15% of exposure-years) and within 3 km of a major industrial emitter for 6.4 years (32% of exposure-years). Approximately 50% of individuals were classified into a

  3. Spatiotemporal air pollution exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hystad Perry

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few epidemiological studies of air pollution have used residential histories to develop long-term retrospective exposure estimates for multiple ambient air pollutants and vehicle and industrial emissions. We present such an exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study of 8353 individuals using self-reported residential histories from 1975 to 1994. We also examine the implications of disregarding and/or improperly accounting for residential mobility in long-term exposure assessments. Methods National spatial surfaces of ambient air pollution were compiled from recent satellite-based estimates (for PM2.5 and NO2 and a chemical transport model (for O3. The surfaces were adjusted with historical annual air pollution monitoring data, using either spatiotemporal interpolation or linear regression. Model evaluation was conducted using an independent ten percent subset of monitoring data per year. Proximity to major roads, incorporating a temporal weighting factor based on Canadian mobile-source emission estimates, was used to estimate exposure to vehicle emissions. A comprehensive inventory of geocoded industries was used to estimate proximity to major and minor industrial emissions. Results Calibration of the national PM2.5 surface using annual spatiotemporal interpolation predicted historical PM2.5 measurement data best (R2 = 0.51, while linear regression incorporating the national surfaces, a time-trend and population density best predicted historical concentrations of NO2 (R2 = 0.38 and O3 (R2 = 0.56. Applying the models to study participants residential histories between 1975 and 1994 resulted in mean PM2.5, NO2 and O3 exposures of 11.3 μg/m3 (SD = 2.6, 17.7 ppb (4.1, and 26.4 ppb (3.4 respectively. On average, individuals lived within 300 m of a highway for 2.9 years (15% of exposure-years and within 3 km of a major industrial emitter for 6.4 years (32% of exposure-years. Approximately 50

  4. An epidemiological investigation of the early phase of the porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) outbreak in Canadian swine herds in 2014: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Amanda M; Poljak, Zvonimir; Dewey, Cate; Harding, John C S; O'Sullivan, Terri L

    2018-02-01

    The first case of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in Canada was diagnosed in January 2014 in Ontario, approximately 9 months after PED emerged in the United States. An early investigation of the Canadian outbreak suspected that the probable source of the virus was contaminated feed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of feed and other possible factors in the early phase of the PED outbreak in Canadian swine herds. The study period of interest for this case-control study was January 22nd to March 1st, 2014. A case herd was defined as a swine herd with a confirmed positive laboratory diagnostic test (RT-PCR) results for PED virus, along with pigs exhibiting typical clinical signs at the herd level during the study period. A questionnaire was administered to participating producers from the 22 Canadian swine herds enrolled (n = 9 case and n = 13 control herds). Case herd producers were asked to provide information from the initial day of onset of clinical signs and 30 days prior to that day. Control herds were matched to a case herd on the basis of province, herd type and approximate size. The period of interest for a control herd was matched to the initial day of clinical signs of PED for the case herd, along with the 30 days prior to this day. The questionnaire questions focused on herd demographics, biosecurity protocols, live animal movements onto and off sites, deadstock movements, feed and people movements for both the case and control herds. The questionnaire for control herds were based on their matched case's period of interest, and together with case herds formed a matched stratum. Multivariable exact conditional logistic regression and mixed multivariable logistic regression models, with the matched stratum as a random effect, were used to assess the association between various risk factors and the odds of PED introduction into a herd. After adjusting for biosecurity practices, the odds of a PED occurrence was 38.1 (95% CI: 2

  5. Nested case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernster, V L

    1994-09-01

    The nested case-control study design (or the case-control in a cohort study) is described here and compared with other designs, including the classic case-control and cohort studies and the case-cohort study. In the nested case-control study, cases of a disease that occur in a defined cohort are identified and, for each, a specified number of matched controls is selected from among those in the cohort who have not developed the disease by the time of disease occurrence in the case. For many research questions, the nested case-control design potentially offers impressive reductions in costs and efforts of data collection and analysis compared with the full cohort approach, with relatively minor loss in statistical efficiency. The nested case-control design is particularly advantageous for studies of biologic precursors of disease. To advance its prevention research agenda, NIH might be encouraged to maintain a registry of new and existing cohorts, with an inventory of data collected for each; to foster the development of specimen banks; and to serve as a clearinghouse for information about optimal storage conditions for various types of specimens.

  6. A case-control study regarding relative factors for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia at a Canadian regional long-term extended care facility: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Minoru; Chan, Peter; Donnelly, Martha; McKenna, Mario; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kishimoto, Takuji; Ganesan, Soma

    2014-03-01

    Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are prevalent and have an impact on the care of persons with dementia. Previous studies regarding predisposing factors have included pharmacotherapy, but other factors may not have been sufficiently studied. We hypothesized that psychotropic medications, past history, comorbid psychiatric disorders and other factors may be relevant factors related to BPSD. Data were collected from patients' medical charts at an extended care facility over a 2-year period from 1 May 2008 to 30 April 2010. Information obtained included the presence of BPSD, gender, age, marital status, past history, comorbid psychiatric disorder and medication use. Patients were divided into two groups: a group with BPSD (n = 29) and a group without BPSD (n = 10). A binomial logistic regression analysis was performed for the above factors. Comorbid major depression was linked to BPSD (odds ratio = 12.57, 95% confidence interval: 1.31-120.74) as well as to the use of antidepressants (odds ratio = 6.49, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-41.25). There was a trend towards statistical significance in the relationship between greater use of antidepressants for the patients with comorbid major depression and the presence of BPSD. Past history of depression (Fisher's exact test; P = 0.03) and cerebral vascular accident (degrees of freedom = 1, χ(2) = 4.44, P = 0.04) were linked to the presence of BPSD and comorbid major depression. Accurate evaluation and treatment of comorbid major depression may affect BPSD. In order to reduce the burden of BPSD on patients and caregivers, there should be a careful and thoughtful diagnosis of comorbid major depression in patients with dementia. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  7. Early pyloric stenosis: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demian, Marie; Nguyen, Son; Emil, Sherif

    2009-12-01

    Pyloric stenosis (PS) is rare in the first 2 weeks of life, often leading to delays in diagnosis and treatment. We conducted a case control study to delineate the characteristics of patients with early PS (EPS). In addition, we tested the hypothesis that patients with EPS present with a smaller pylorus than older patients. A database of all patients presenting with PS to a children's hospital over a 5-year period (2002-2006) was obtained. Each patient admitted during the first 2 weeks of life (subject) was matched to a patient admitted after 4 weeks of age (control), with the same gender, electrolyte status, and treating surgeon. A single pediatric radiologist, blinded to patient age, reviewed all available ultrasounds retrospectively. Demographic, clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic, and outcome data were compared. During the study period, 278 pyloromyotomies were performed for PS. Sixteen patients (5.8%) presented with EPS between 2 and 14 days of life. EPS patients had a higher prevalence of positive family history (31 vs. 0%, P = 0.043), and breast milk feeding (75 vs. 31%, P = 0.045). Sonographic measurements showed a pylorus that was of significantly less length (17.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 20.5 +/- 0.9 mm, P = 0.006) and muscle thickness (3.5 +/- 0.2 vs. 4.9 +/- 0.2 mm, P < 0.001) in patients with EPS. Hospital stay was significantly longer for EPS patients (4.3 +/- 0.9 vs. 2.0 +/- 0.1 days, P = 0.19). Babies presenting with EPS are more likely to be breast fed and to have a positive family history. EPS is associated with a longer hospital stay. Use of sonographic diagnostic measurements specific to this age group may prevent delays in diagnosis and treatment, and improve outcomes.

  8. Case-control studies in diabetes. Do they really use a case-control design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Analía; Mendoza, Lilian Cristina; Rabasa, Fernanda; Bolíbar, Ignasi; Puig, Teresa; Corcoy, Rosa

    2017-07-01

    Studies defined as case-control do not always use this design. We aimed to estimate the frequency of mislabelled case-control studies in published articles in the area of diabetes and to identify the predictors of incorrect labelling. We searched Medline and Web of Science for articles with "diabetes" and "case control" in title and filtered for language (English/Romance) and period (January 2010-December 2014). Inclusion criteria were: (1) statement to use a case-control design in title, (2) to be a final full-length publication and (3) to have original data in the area of diabetes. Three independent reviewers went through titles, looked for full texts and reviewed them. Discrepancies were settled with a fourth reviewer. Expert epidemiologist advice was requested in case of doubt. case-control mislabelling; addressed predictors: publication year, journal impact factor and journal subject. proportion of mislabelled CC articles and assessment of predictors by multivariate logistic regression analysis. We retrieved 362 articles, 251 of them fulfilling inclusion criteria. The proportion of mislabelled CC studies was 43.8% (confidence interval 95% 37.7-50.0%). Most mislabelled studies had a cross-sectional design (82.7%). Predictors of mislabelling were publication year, journal impact factor and journal area. A relevant subset of studies defined as case-control in the area of diabetes correspond to mislabelled cross-sectional studies. Incorrect labelling misleads readers regarding the interpretation of results and the cause-effect hypothesis. Researchers, reviewers and editors should be aware of and commit to settle this issue.

  9. Case-Control Studies - An Efficient Observational Study Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.

    2010-01-01

    Case-control studies are an efficient research method for investigating risk factors of a disease. The method involves the comparison of the odds of exposure in a patient group with that of the odds of exposure in a control group. As only a minority of the population is included in the study, less

  10. Childhood trauma in multiple sclerosis: a case-control study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Carsten; Bouchain, Miriam; Winkler, Liza Y; Wingenfeld, Katja; Gold, Stefan M; Grabe, Hans Joergen; Barnow, Sven; Otte, Christian; Heesen, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the association between childhood trauma and multiple sclerosis (MS) by comparing histories of child abuse and neglect between patients with MS and adults from the general population in a cross-sectional case-control study...

  11. The Glioma International Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, E. Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N; Zhou, Renke

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have established only a few etiological factors for glioma, which is a rare and highly fatal brain cancer. Common methodological challenges among glioma studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of tumor subtypes, and retrospective exposure assessment. Here, we briefly...

  12. Determinants of podoconiosis, a case control study | Feleke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Podoconiosis is a non-filarial swelling of lower extremity endemic in tropical regions, North America and India. The etiology and pathophysiology of the disease remain unknown. The objective of this study was to identify the determinants of Podoconiosis. Methods: Unmatched case control study design was ...

  13. Statistics in epimiological research: the case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Bullón, Luz; Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública. Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM

    2013-01-01

    The most common problems in epidemiological research use appropriate study design. Statistics has contributed to conceptualisation, development and success of these studies. This paper presents the case-control study, its relationship with cohort study and its important contribution in the past 50 years in public health and biomedicine. It also discusses the way of measuring the association between risk factor and disease using the odds ratio and the Mantel and Haenszel’s contribution. Los...

  14. Case-control study of multiple myeloma and farming.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, N. E.; Smith, A. H.; Howard, J. K.; Sheppard, R. A.; Giles, H. J.; Teague, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    A previous case-control study which utilised the occupational information available on the New Zealand Cancer Registry found an increased risk of multiple myeloma in agricultural workers consistent with previous findings in the United States. The findings are now presented for the second phase of the study which involved interviewing 76 cases of multiple myeloma (who had been included in the previous study) together with 315 controls with other types of cancer. The previous finding on an exce...

  15. Biochemical factors in the lens opacities. Case-control study. The Lens Opacities Case-Control Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leske, M C; Wu, S Y; Hyman, L; Sperduto, R; Underwood, B; Chylack, L T; Milton, R C; Srivastava, S; Ansari, N

    1995-09-01

    To evaluate associations with biochemical indicators of nutritional and other risk factors in the Lens Opacities Case-Control Study. Case-control study. The Lens Opacities Case-Control Study determined risk factors for cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular opacities among 1380 participants aged 40 to 79 years. Vitamin E, selenium, and biochemistry profile determinations were performed on all patients; red blood cell enzymes and amino acids were measured in systematic samples of about 25% of the Lens Opacities Case-Control Study population. Laboratory test values in cases and controls were compared and expressed as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. In polychotomous logistic regression analyses controlling for age and sex, the risk of opacities was reduced to less than one half in persons with higher levels of vitamin E (odds ratio, 0.44 for nuclear opacities), albumin-globulin ratio (odds ratio, 0.41 for mixed opacities), or iron (odds ratio, 0.43 for cortical opacities); higher uric acid levels increased risk (odds ratio, 1.74 for mixed opacities). Persons with opacities were twice as likely to have high glutathione reductase activity (with flavin adenine dinucleotide), which suggests low riboflavin status (odds ratio, 2.13). Most odds ratios for amino acids were under unity and were significantly decreased for glycine (0.36) and aspartic acid (0.31). Lens opacities were associated with lower levels of riboflavin, vitamin E, iron, and protein nutritional status. Higher levels of uric acid increased risk of mixed opacities. The findings for riboflavin, vitamin E, iron, and uric acid are compatible with the dietary intake and medical history results of the Lens Opacities Case-Control Study.

  16. Bayesian Variable Selection Methods for Matched Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asafu-Adjei, Josephine; Mahlet, G Tadesse; Coull, Brent; Balasubramanian, Raji; Lev, Michael; Schwamm, Lee; Betensky, Rebecca

    2017-01-31

    Matched case-control designs are currently used in many biomedical applications. To ensure high efficiency and statistical power in identifying features that best discriminate cases from controls, it is important to account for the use of matched designs. However, in the setting of high dimensional data, few variable selection methods account for matching. Bayesian approaches to variable selection have several advantages, including the fact that such approaches visit a wider range of model subsets. In this paper, we propose a variable selection method to account for case-control matching in a Bayesian context and apply it using simulation studies, a matched brain imaging study conducted at Massachusetts General Hospital, and a matched cardiovascular biomarker study conducted by the High Risk Plaque Initiative.

  17. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Norberg, Karen; Thomsen, Maria

    , James D. Risk factors at medical school for subsequent professional misconduct: multicenter retrospective case-control study. BMJ 2010;340:c2040. Evans DE, Alstead EM, Brown J. Applying your clinical skills to students and trainees in academic difficulty. Clin Teach 2010;7(4):230-235. Yao DC, Wright SM....... The challenge of problem residents. J Gen Intern Med 2001;16:486-492. Papadakis MA, Hodgson CS, Theherani A, Kohatsu ND. Unprofessional behavior in medical school is associated with subsequent disciplinary action by a state medical board. Acad Med 2004;79:244-249. Ringsted C, Hodges B, Scherpbier A. ‘The...... seemed to predict struggling in postgraduate education if any. The study design is rooted in epidemiological methodology. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case-control study. It has been reported in the international literature, that around 3-10% of doctors in post-garduate specialist...

  18. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  19. Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; Xiao, Sheng-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi’an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis wa...

  20. Risk factors for preeclampsia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Biru; Ma, Xiao

    2013-11-01

    To explore the risk factors of preeclampsia and provide information for prevention of preeclampsia among obstetrical patients. A case-control study was designed to find the risk factors of preeclampsia among obstetrical patients by logistic regression analysis. The risk factors for pregnant women were older gestational age, increasing body mass index, living in the countryside or small towns, fewer antenatal visits, and cold seasons. Health education should be emphasized to encourage women to have children at a relatively younger age and control weight during pregnancy. Special measures should be taken to improve the living condition and prenatal care in the countryside and small towns.

  1. Genetic Polymorphisms of Infectious Diseases in Case-Control Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G. Pacheco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, genetic epidemiological analyses in infectious diseases have increased drastically since the publication of human genome and all the subsequent projects analyzing human diversity at molecular level. The great majority of studies use classical epidemiological designs applied to genetic data, and more than 80% of published studies use population-based case-control designs with widely spread genetic markers in human genome, like short tandem repeats (STR or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, in genes chosen by their physiological association with the disease (candidate genes. Even though genetic data is less prone to several bias issues inherent to case-control studies, some care has to be taken when designing, performing, analyzing and interpreting results from such studies. Here we discuss some basic concepts of genetics and epidemiology as a departure to evaluate and review every step that should be followed to design, conduct, analyze, interpret and present data from those studies, using particularities of infectious diseases, especially leprosy and tuberculosis as models.

  2. Non neurologic burst thoracolumbar fractures fixation: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelot, Aymeric; Cristini, Joseph; Moles, Alexis; Salaud, Celine; Hamel, Olivier; Bord, Eric; Buffenoir, Kevin

    2017-10-01

    Burst fractures not associated with any neurological deficits are frequent but not therapeutic agreement on their management is available to date. This case-control study was conducted to try to help guide therapeutic decision in the treatment of such fractures. This case-control study includes consecutive retrospective evaluation of 25 case-patients treated by posterior short-segment fixation associated with kyphoplasty (SFK) in the treatment of A3 thoracolumbar unstable fractures, as compared to a control-group composed of 82 patients treated by long-segment (LF) pedicle screws. SFK patients bled significantly less than the LF patients (p=0.04). Assessment of deformation progression, vertebral height restoration and reduction of the regional kyphotic angle in the SFK and LF groups revealed no statistically significant superiority of one approach on another. In contrast, the height of endplates was significantly increased in the SFK group (p=0.006). The patients' pain levels were significantly improved in the SFK group (p=0.002). However, patients from the SFK group stood earlier postoperatively (1.7 vs 3.7days, p=0.001). We believe that SFK in vertebral fractures is as efficient as LF for bone consolidation and spine stabilization. In addition, SFK patients may use fewer analgesics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pilot case-control study of paediatric falls from windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Brian D; Quistberg, D Alexander; Shandro, Jamie R; Partridge, Rebecca L; Song, Hyun Rae; Ebel, Beth E

    2011-12-01

    Unintentional falls from windows are an important cause of paediatric morbidity. There have been no controlled studies to identify modifiable environmental risk factors for window falls in young children. The authors have piloted a case-control study to test procedures for case identification, subject enrolment, and environmental data collection. Case windows were identified when a child 0-9 years old presented for care after a fall from that window. Control windows were identified (1) from the child's home and (2) from the home of an age- and gender-matched child seeking care for an injury diagnosis not related to a window fall. Study staff visited enrolled homes to collect window measurements and conduct window screen performance tests. The authors enrolled and collected data on 18 case windows, 18 in-home controls, and 14 matched community controls. Six potential community controls were contacted for every one enrolled. Families who completed the home visit viewed study procedures positively. Case windows were more likely than community controls to be horizontal sliders (100% vs 50%), to have deeper sills (6.28 vs 4.31 inches), to be higher above the exterior surface (183 vs 82 inches), and to have screens that failed below a threshold derived from the static pressure of a 3-year-old leaning against the mesh (60.0% vs 16.7%). Case windows varied very little from in-home controls. Case-control methodology can be used to study risk factors for paediatric falls from windows. Recruitment of community controls is challenging but essential, because in-home controls tend to be over-matched on important variables. A home visit allows direct measurement of window type, height, sill depth, and screen performance. These variables should all be investigated in subsequent, larger studies covering major housing markets.

  4. A case-control study of Alzheimer's disease in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broe, G A; Henderson, A S; Creasey, H; McCusker, E; Korten, A E; Jorm, A F; Longley, W; Anthony, J C

    1990-11-01

    We conducted a case-control study of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) on 170 cases aged 52 to 96 years, and 170 controls matched for age, sex and, where possible, the general practice of origin. Trained lay interviewers naive to the hypotheses and to the clinical status of the elderly person carried out risk-factor interviews with informants. Significant odds ratios were found for 4 variables: a history of either dementia, probable AD, or Down's syndrome in a 1st-degree relative, and underactivity as a behavioral trait in both the recent and more distant past. Previously reported or suggested associations not confirmed by this study include head injury, starvation, thyroid disease, analgesic abuse, antacid use (aluminum exposure), alcohol abuse, smoking, and being left-handed.

  5. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. METHODS: The study included 177 incident cases and 377 controls recruited among female visitors. Three different models of control group composition were compared: Model 1, with all selected visitors; Model 2, excluding women visiting relatives with breast cancer; and Model 3, excluding all women visiting relatives with any type of cancer. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to test the associations. RESULTS: Age-adjusted OR for breast cancer associated with risk factors other than family history of cancer, except smoking and breast size, were similar in the three models. Regarding family history of all cancers, except for breast cancer, there was a decreased risk in Models 1 and 2, while in Model 3 there was an increased risk, but not statistically significant. Family history of breast cancer was a risk factor in Models 2 and 3, but no association was found in Model 1. In multivariate analysis a significant risk of breast cancer was found when there was a family history of breast cancer in Models 2 and 3 but not in Model 1. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that while investigating risk factors unrelated to family history of cancer, the use of hospital visitors as controls may be a valid and feasible alternative.

  6. Functional Impairment in Adult Sleepwalkers: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. Participants: There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Citation: Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in

  7. Leptospira Exposure and Gardeners: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospira can be found in soil. However, it is unclear whether occupational exposure to soil may represent a risk for Leptospira infection in humans. Therefore, we sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of gardener, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of gardeners associated with Leptospira exposure. Methods We performed a case-control study in 168 gardeners and 168 age- and gender-matched control subjects without gardening occupation in Durango City, Mexico. The seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies in cases and controls was determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of Leptospira exposure and the characteristics of the gardeners. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6%) of 168 gardeners and in 15 (8.9%) of 168 control subjects (odds ratio (OR): 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28 - 1.48; P = 0.40). Multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira seropositivity was positively associated with female gender (OR: 5.82; 95% CI: 1.11 - 30.46; P = 0.03), and negatively associated with eating while working (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05 - 0.87; P = 0.03). In addition, multivariate analysis showed that high anti-Leptospira levels were associated with consumption of boar meat (OR: 28.00; 95% CI: 1.20 - 648.80; P = 0.03). Conclusions This is the first case-control study of Leptospira exposure in gardeners. Results do not support an association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of gardener. However, further studies to confirm the lack of this association are needed. The potential role of consumption of boar meat in Leptospira infection deserves further investigation. PMID:26668679

  8. Urinary bladder cancer risk factors: a Lebanese case- control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissi, Loulou Hassan; Yassine, Ibrahim Adnan; Jabbour, Michel Elias; Moussa, Mohamad Ahmad; Dhaini, Hassan Rida

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most incident malignancy among Lebanese men. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential risk factors associated with this observed high incidence. A case-control study (54 cases and 105 hospital-based controls) was conducted in two major hospitals in Beirut. Cases were randomly selected from patients diagnosed in the period of 2002-2008. Controls were conveniently selected from the same settings. Data were collected using interview questionnaire and blood analysis. Exposure data were collected using a structured face-to-face interview questionnaire. Blood samples were collected to determine N-acetyltransferase1 (NAT1) genotype by PCR-RFLP. Analyses revolved around univariate, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression, along with checks for effect modification. The odds of having bladder cancer among smokers was 1.02 times significantly higher in cases vs. controls. The odds of exposure to occupational diesel or fuel combustion fumes were 4.1 times significantly higher in cases vs controls. The odds of prostate-related morbidity were 5.6 times significantly higher in cases vs controls. Cases and controls showed different clustering patterns of NAT1 alleles. No significant differences between cases and controls were found for consumption of alcohol, coffee, tea, or artificial sweeteners. This is the first case-control study investigating bladder cancer risk factors in the Lebanese context. Results confirmed established risk factors in the literature, particularly smoking and occupational exposure to diesel. The herein observed associations should be used to develop appropriate prevention policies and intervention strategies, in order to control this alarming disease in Lebanon.

  9. Robust tests for matched case-control genetic association studies

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    Fung Wing

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cochran-Armitage trend test (CATT is powerful in detecting association between a susceptible marker and a disease. This test, however, may suffer from a substantial loss of power when the underlying genetic model is unknown and incorrectly specified. Thus, it is useful to derive tests obtaining the plausible power against all common genetic models. For this purpose, the genetic model selection (GMS and genetic model exclusion (GME methods were proposed recently. Simulation results showed that GMS and GME can obtain the plausible power against three common genetic models while the overall type I error is well controlled. Results Although GMS and GME are powerful statistically, they could be seriously affected by known confounding factors such as gender, age and race. Therefore, in this paper, via comparing the difference of Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium coefficients between the cases and the controls within each sub-population, we propose the stratified genetic model selection (SGMS and exclusion (SGME methods which could eliminate the effect of confounding factors by adopting a matching framework. Our goal in this paper is to investigate the robustness of the proposed statistics and compare them with other commonly used efficiency robust tests such as MAX3 and χ2 with 2 degrees of freedom (df test in matched case-control association designs through simulation studies. Conclusion Simulation results showed that if the mean genetic effect of the heterozygous genotype is between those of the two homozygous genotypes, then the proposed tests and MAX3 are preferred. Otherwise, χ2 with 2 df test may be used. To illustrate the robust procedures, the proposed tests are applied to a real matched pair case-control etiologic study of sarcoidosis.

  10. CASID and Canadian Journal of Development Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CASID and Canadian Journal of Development Studies : Organizational Strengthening 2007-2010. The Canadian Association for the Study of International Development (CASID) is a national, bilingual, multidisciplinary and pluralistic association devoted to the study of international development in all parts of the world.

  11. Reproductive Risk Factors for Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshram II

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is second most important cancer among Indian women. Although risk factors are not much prevalent as in western countries, incidence rate is increasing in India. The study was undertaken to study various risk factors associated with breast cancer. Methods: A hospital based group matched case control study was undertaken to identify risk factors. The study consisted of 105 hospitalized cases confirmed on histopathology and 210 group matched controls selected from urban field practice area, Sadar, without any malignancy. Bivariate analyses included odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval (CI for odds ratio. Results: Earlier age at menarche ≤ 12 years of age, late age at first full term delivery, nulliparity, Lack of breast-feeding were found to be significantly associated with the risk of breast cancer in both pre menopausal & post menopausal women while age at menopause at or after 50 years was significantly associated with the risk in post menopausal women. Conclusions: Study suggests that the changes in menstrual and reproductive patterns among women i.e. early age at menarche and late age at first childbirth and some environmental factors in Central India may have contributed to the increase in breast cancer risk, particularly among younger women.

  12. Risk Factors For Ectopic Pregnancy : A Case Control Study

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    Deshmukh J.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Which are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy . Objective: To study the strength of association between hypothesised risk factors and ectopic pregnancy. Study design: Unmatched case- control study. Setting: Government Medical College, Hospital, Nagpur. Participants: 133 cases of ectopic pregnancy and equal number of controls (non pregnant women admitted to study hospital. Study variables : Pelvic inflammatory diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, IUD use at conception , past use of IUD, prior ectopic pregnancy, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of OC pills, induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, infertility and pelvic and abdominal surgery. Statistical analysis: Odds ratios & their 95% CI, Pearson’s chi square test, unconditional logistic regression analysis and population attributable risk proportion. Results : Use of IUD at conception, prior ectopic pregnancy , pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of IUD and induced abortion were found to be significantly associated with ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Identification of these risk factors for etopic pregnancy shall help in early detection and appropriate management in an individual case and it may help in devising a comprehensive preventive strategy for ectopic pregnancy

  13. Aortic aneurysm association with SLE - a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, A; Tiosano, S; Comaneshter, D; Tekes-Manova, D; Shovman, O; Cohen, A D; Amital, H

    2016-08-01

    Aortic aneurysm is a life threatening cardiovascular complication in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between SLE and occurrence of aortic aneurysms. Patients with SLE were compared with age- and sex-matched controls regarding the proportion of aortic aneurysm in a case-control study. Chi-square and t-tests were used for univariate analysis and a logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. The study was performed utilizing the medical database of Clalit Health Services. The study included 5018 patients with SLE and 25,090 age- and sex-matched controls. The proportion of aortic aneurysm in patients with SLE was increased compared with the proportion in controls (0.6% and 0.1%, respectively, p SLE was associated with the coexistence of aortic aneurysms (odds ratio 2.06, 95% confidence interval 1.21-3.51). Patients with SLE have a higher proportion of aortic aneurysms as compared with matched controls. Therefore, physicians treating patients with SLE should be aware of this life threatening association. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Baldness and testicular cancer: the EPSAM case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirano, G; Zugna, D; Grasso, C; Lista, P; Ciuffreda, L; Segnan, N; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of testicular cancer is largely unexplained. Research has mainly focused on prenatal exposures, especially to sex hormones, while less attention has been paid to exposures that may act also postnatally. As baldness has been previously associated with testicular cancer risk we focused on baldness and body hairiness, which are both associated with androgen activity. We used data of the Postnatal Exposures and Male Health (EPSAM) study, a case-control study on testicular cancer conducted in the Province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires. Analyses included 255 cases and 459 controls. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs to estimate testicular cancer risk among those who developed baldness and among those with body hairiness. We found an inverse association between testicular cancer and baldness (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.98) and body hairiness (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.53-1.16), although the latter had wider CIs. The inverse association between baldness and testicular cancer is consistent with the results from previous studies. These results suggest that androgens activity may influence testicular cancer risk. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. Case-control study of mesothelioma in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, D; Myers, J E; Goodman, K; Fourie, E; Blignaut, C; Chapman, R; Bachmann, M O

    1999-03-01

    South Africa has, uniquely, mined, transported, and used crocidolite, amosite, and chrysotile. A multicenter case-control study was done in South Africa to examine the details of asbestos exposure in cases and controls, and to calculate relative risks for level of certainty of asbestos exposure, nature of exposure (e.g., environmental, occupational) and fiber type. Cases and controls (one cancer and one medical per case) were collected by six study centers from referral hospitals, and exposure information was collected by interviewing cases and controls in life. One hundred and twenty-three cases were accepted into the study. None had purely chrysotile exposure. Twenty-three cases had mined Cape crocidolite; three had mined amosite; and three Transvaal crocidolite plus amosite. A minimum of 22 of the cases had exclusively environmental exposure, 20 were from the NW Cape crocidolite mining area. The relative risks associated with environmental exposure in the NW Cape (crocidolite) were larger than for environmental exposure in the NE Transvaal (amosite and crocidolite): 21.9 vs. 7.1 and 50.9 vs. 12.0 for the cancer control and medical control datasets, respectively. The results confirm the importance of environmental exposure in the Cape crocidolite mining area, the relative paucity of cases linked to amosite, the rarity of chrysotile cases and are consistent with a fiber gradient in mesotheliomagenic potential for South African asbestos with crocidolite > amosite > chrysotile.

  16. Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraei Mahdi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression. Methods In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality. Results Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, Conclusion In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.

  17. Abortion and breast cancer: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Milena; Vlajinac, Hristina; Marinkovic, Jelena; Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if certain aspects of a woman's experience of abortion might be associated with the risk of breast cancer. The case-control study was conducted in Kragujevac (Serbia) during the period 2004-2005. The case group (191 women) consisted of patients with newly diagnosed first primary breast cancer, which was histologically confirmed. The control group (191 women), individually matched by age (± 2 years), hospital admittance and place of residence (rural/urban) to the respective cases, was selected from female patients admitted for other diseases. The analysis was restricted to parous women (168 cases and 171 controls). Breast cancer risk was reduced among women who had a history of any abortion (adjusted OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24-0.88). The protective effect was found for both induced abortion (adjusted OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.25-0.90) and spontaneous abortion (adjusted OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10-0.98). It seems that these associations did not depend on the number of abortions, age at first abortion, or gestational age at first aborted pregnancy. Our study suggests that even short pregnancies ending in abortion add to the protection against breast cancer.

  18. Hypothyroidism among SLE patients: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watad, Abdulla; Mahroum, Naim; Whitby, Aaron; Gertel, Smadar; Comaneshter, Doron; Cohen, Arnon D; Amital, Howard

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of hypothyroidism in SLE patients varies considerably and early reports were mainly based on small cohorts. To investigate the association between SLE and hypothyroidism. Patients with SLE were compared with age and sex-matched controls regarding the proportion of hypothyroidism in a case-control study. Chi-square and t-tests were used for univariate analysis and a logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. The study was performed utilizing the medical database of Clalit Health Services. The study included 5018 patients with SLE and 25,090 age and sex-matched controls. The proportion of hypothyroidism in patients with SLE was increased compared with the prevalence in controls (15.58% and 5.75%, respectively, Phypothyroidism (odds ratio 2.644, 95% confidence interval 2.405-2.908). Patients with SLE have a greater proportion of hypothyroidism than matched controls. Therefore, physicians treating patients with SLE should be aware of the possibility of thyroid dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microglia activation in sepsis: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozemuller Annemiek JM

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background infection induces an acute phase response that is accompanied by non-specific symptoms collectively named sickness behavior. Recent observations suggest that microglial cells play a role in mediating behavioral changes in systemic infections. In animal models for sepsis it has been shown that after inducing lipopolysaccharide, LPS, microglia in the brain were activated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether activation of microglia can be detected in patients who died of sepsis. Methods in a case-control study brain tissue of 13 patients who died with sepsis was compared with that of 17 controls. Activated microglia were identified by expression of MHC-class II antigens and CD68. Microglia activation was analyzed by a semiquantitative score combining both the number of the immunoreactive cells and their morphology. Results in patients who died with sepsis there was a significant increase in activated microglia in the grey matter when stained with CD68 compared to controls. This effect was independent of the effect of age. Conclusion this study shows for the first time in human brain tissue an association between a systemic infection and activation of microglia in the brain. Activated microglia during sepsis could play a role in behavioral changes associated with systemic infection.

  20. Canadian Council for Area Studies Learned Societies - 2007-2008 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCASLS) provides a shared secretariat for four area studies associations: the Canadian Association of African Studies (CAAS); the Canadian Asian Studies Association (CASA): the Canadian Association of Latin American and Caribbean Studies ...

  1. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ruiz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20–24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, ‘green sheet’ questionnaire on environmental exposures. Results: Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional ‘gender-related violence’ (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7 and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.3. Conclusions: Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus.

  2. Violence against women and gastroschisis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-García, Juan Antonio; Soldin, Offie P; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel Felipe; Cánovas-Conesa, Alicia; Gomaríz-Peñalver, Virtudes; Jaimes-Vega, Diana Carolina; Perales, Joseph E; Cárceles-Alvarez, Alberto; Martínez-Ros, Maria Teresa; Ruiz, Daniel

    2013-10-17

    Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20-24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, 'green sheet' questionnaire on environmental exposures. Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional 'gender-related violence' (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7) and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.3). Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus.

  3. Anxiety during pregnancy and preeclampsia: a case - control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Kordi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Preeclampsia is the common and dangerous complication of pregnancy with unknown reason. Multiple causes such as depression, psychological and physical stress may be involved in its development. This study was performed to determine the relationship between anxiety during pregnancy and the incidence of preeclampsia. Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 150 pregnant women with preeclampsia and 150 healthy pregnant women referred to health centers and academic hospitals of Mashhad in 2014. The diagnosis of preeclampsia was made by systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg accompanied with urinary protein excretion more than 300 mg per 24 hours. The cutoff point for the presence of anxiety was the score of ≥8; the score of 8-9 was mild anxiety and the score of 20 was very severe anxiety. Data collection tools included the form of demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory signs of preeclampsia, and depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS 21. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 16 and independent t-test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, and logistic regressions model. P Results: We found significant relationship between anxiety and preeclampsia (P

  4. Risk factors for cataract: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ughade Suresh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed as a hospital-based, group-matched, case-control investigation into the risk factors associated with age-related cataract in central India. The study included 262 cases of age-related cataract and an equal number of controls. A total of 21 risk factors were evaluated: namely, low socioeconomic status (SES, illiteracy, marital status, history of diarrhoea, history of diabetes, glaucoma, use of cholinesterase inhibitors, steroids, spironolactone, nifedipine, analgesics, myopia early in life, renal failure, heavy smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, hypertension, low body mass index (BMI, use of cheaper cooking fuel, working in direct sunlight, family history of cataract, and occupational exposure. In univariate analysis, except marital status, low BMI, renal failure, use of steroids, spironolactone, analgesics, and occupational exposure, all 14 other risk factors were found significantly associated with age-related cataract. Unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the significance of low SES, illiteracy, history of diarrhoea, diabetes, glaucoma, myopia, smoking, hypertension and cheap cooking fuel. The etiological role of these risk factors in the outcome of cataract is confirmed by the estimates of attributable risk proportion. The estimates of population attributable risk proportion for these factors highlight the impact of elimination of these risk factors on the reduction of cataract in this population.

  5. A CASE-CONTROL EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩美玲; 潘凌亚; 吴葆桢; 边旭明

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study involving 203 cases of pelvic endometriosis seen from 1987-1989,and 406 randomly selected and age-matched community controls was conducted in order to provide information relevant to effective prophylxaix of the disease.The diagnosis was confirmed by pathology from laparotomy and/or laproscopy.A questionnaire focused on menstrual,marital and reproductive status,professional exposurs and physical activities,and the results were analyzed by a conditional logistic regression model.Women characterized by earlier menarche (≤12 years)and longer period(≥8 days)were found to be saaociated with an elevated incurring risk,and a trend of increasing risk associated with primary dysmenorrhea(RR=2.1 for mild to moderate and RR=5.2 for severe dysmenorrhea),energetic physical activity during menstruation(RR=2.1),and allergic diathesis (RR=1.8)was seen.An inverse relationship was observed between the number of pregnancies and risk of endometrio-sis,and the protective effect was most significant when only the number of full-term pregnancies was counted.The risk factors of endometriosis are discussed,and intensive treatment of primary dysmenorrhea and avoidance of strenuous exercise during menstruation are identified as important as important measures in the prevention of endometriosis.

  6. [Risk factors associated with preeclampsia: case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Ortiz, Fred; Calderón-Lara, Sergio Alberto; Martínez-Félix, Jesús Israel; González-Beltrán, Aurelio; Quevedo-Castro, Everardo

    2010-03-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the most frequent and serious complication of pregnancy characterized by systemic perfusion reduction generated by vasospasm and activation of coagulation systems. To evaluate the association between preeclampsia sociodemographics and obstetrics antecedents. An unmatched case-control study was carried out in which all the clinical registries of patients with preeclampsia (cases: n = 196) assisted in the period 2003-2007 in the Hospital Civil of Culiacan, Sinaloa State of Mexico were analyzed. As controls the clinical registries of patients assisted during the same period were selected at random but that they didn't show up preeclampsia (n = 470). The association of preeclampsia with socioeconomic level, tobacco use, alcohol use, gynecologic and obstetric antecedents (sexual partners, pregnancies, deliveries and abortions number, prenatal control, contraceptive method) and previous pregnancy with preeclampsia were analyzed. There were not association between tobacco use (OR: 3.05; 95% CI: 0.81-11.48), beginning of sexual activity (p = 0.1509), number of sexual partners (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.83-1.83; p = 0.3009) and sexual cohabitation less than 12 months (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.63-1.27). The alcoholism (OR: 5.77; 95% CI: 1.48-22.53), socioeconomic level (p alcoholism, low socioeconomic level and pregnancy previous with preeclampsia.

  7. Association between diabetes and tuberculosis: case-control study

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    Susan Martins Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To test the association between diabetes and tuberculosis. METHODS It is a case-control study, matched by age and sex. We included 323 new cases of tuberculosis with positive results for bacilloscopy. The controls were 323 respiratory symptomatic patients with negative bacilloscopy, from the same health services, such as: ambulatory cases from three referral hospitals and six basic health units responsible for the notifications of new cases of tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia. Data collection occurred between 2008 and 2010. The instruments used were structured interview, including clinical data, capillary blood glucose (during fasting or postprandial, and the CAGE questionnaire for screening of abusive consumption of alcohol. Descriptive, exploratory, and multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS The average age of the cases was 38.5 (SD = 14.2 years and of the controls, 38.5 (SD = 14.3 years. Among cases and controls, most subjects (61% were male. In univariate analysis we found association between the occurrence of diabetes and tuberculosis (OR = 2.37; 95%CI 1.04–5.42, which remained statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders (OR = 3.12; 95%CI 1.12–7.94. CONCLUSIONS The association between diabetes and tuberculosis can hinder the control of tuberculosis, contributing to the maintainance of the disease burden. The situation demands increasing early detection of diabetes among people with tuberculosis, in an attempt to improve disease control strategies.

  8. Ovarian endometriomas and IVF: a retrospective case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    We performed this retrospective case-control study analyzing 428 first-attempt in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, among which 254 involved women with a previous or present diagnosis of ovarian endometriosis. First, the results of these 254 cycles were compared with 174 cycles involving patients with proven non-endometriotic tubal infertility having similar age and body mass index. Women with ovarian endometriosis had a significantly higher cancellation rate, but similar pregnancy, implantation and delivery rates as patients with tubal infertility. Second, among the women with ovarian endometriosis, the women with a history of laparoscopic surgery for ovarian endometriomas prior to IVF and no visual endometriosis at ovum pick-up (n = 112) were compared with the non-operated women and visual endometriomas at ovum pick-up (n = 142). Patients who underwent ovarian surgery before IVF had significantly shorter period, lower antral follicle count and required higher gonadotropin doses than patients with non-operated endometriomas. The two groups of women with a previous or present ovarian endometriosis did, however, have similar pregnancy, implantation and live birth rates. In conclusion, ovarian endometriosis does not reduce IVF outcome compared with tubal factor. Furthermore, laparoscopic removal of endometriomas does not improve IVF results, but may cause a decrease of ovarian responsiveness to gonadotropins. PMID:21679474

  9. A case-control study of visual acuity in onychocryptosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many theories surrounding the etiology of ingrown toenails (IGTN). Few factors have been formally assessed, but it is widely accepted that a poor nail cutting technique has a causative role. AIM: To investigate the hypothesis that decreased visual acuity may lead to inadequate nail cutting and the formation of IGTN. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was performed. Near and distance visual acuity were tested on a population with IGTN (n = 19) and compared with that of an age- and sex-matched control cohort (n = 24) who underwent epidermal cyst excision in the same tertiary referral center. Comparisons of visual acuity were made between groups by Mann-Whitney U-test. Differences were taken to be significant if P < 0.05. Institutional Review Board approval was sought and granted. RESULTS: No significant difference in visual acuity (near or distance) was demonstrated between patients with IGTN and the control group (P = 0.33). CONCLUSION: Visual acuity does not appear to play a significant role in the development of IGTN.

  10. [Occupational risks for laryngeal cancer: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Sergio Guerra; Eluf-Neto, José; Travier, Noemie; Wünsch Filho, Victor; Arcuri, Arline Sydneia Abel; Kowalski, Luís Paulo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    The most solidly established risk factors for laryngeal cancer are tobacco and alcohol. As for occupational factors, the only established carcinogen is exposure to strong inorganic acid mists. However, asbestos, pesticides, paints, gasoline, diesel engine emissions, dusts, and other factors have been reported in the literature as occupational agents that increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to investigate occupational risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Detailed data on smoking, alcohol consumption, and occupational history were collected for 122 laryngeal cancers and 187 controls matched by frequency (according to sex and age). Laryngeal cancer was associated with exposure to respirable free crystalline silica (OR = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.00-3.36), soot (from coal, coke, fuel oil, or wood) (odds ratio - OR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval - 95%CI: 1.03-3.03), fumes (OR = 2.55; 95%CI: 1.14-5.67), and live animals (OR = 1.80; 95%CI: 1.02-3.19).

  11. Behavioral Problems in Iranian Epileptic Children; A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Aludari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders in childhood, prevalence of which is increasing. Unpredictable and chronic nature of the disease affects physical, social and mental functions of the children and their family. This study was aimed to compare behavioral problems in epileptic children group versus healthy control group. Materials and Methods This study is a case-control one conducted from January 2013 to June 2016 in Tehran, Iran. The epileptic children in age of 7-10 years old that were diagnosed by neurologist referred to the researcher for further process. Their parents were provided with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL to be completed. For matching by age and gender, the healthy group was sampled after the epilepsy group. Multivariate Analysis of Variance was used for statistical analysis. Results In this study 94 children with epilepsy and 83 healthy children in age of 7-10 years old were studied. The results indicated that there were significantly higher behavioral problems in the children with epilepsy than in control group in nine categories of seclusiveness, physical complaints, anxiety and depression, social problems, thought problems, attention problems, delinquent behaviors, aggressive behaviors, and other problems. Comparison of two generalized and partial epilepsy groups indicated that there was a significant difference only in attention problems (p = 0.024. Conclusion The present study indicates that the children with epilepsy have more behavioral problems as compared to control group. Therefore, educational and psychological interventions are necessary for supporting desirable psychosocial growth and development of such children.

  12. Risk Factors For Coronary Heart Disease : A Case Control Study

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    Zodpey Sanjay P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the role of different risk factors in causation of CHD. Objective: To identify the risk factors contributing to the outcome of CHD. Design: Pair matched case-control study. Setting: Government Medical college, Nagpur, India, a tertiary care hospital. Participants: The study included 294 incident cases of CHD diagnosed by standard criteria. Each case was pair matched with one control for age and sex. Controls were selected from subjects attending the hospital for conditions other than CHD. Main Outcome Measure: CHD. Study variable: Socio-economic status (SES, physical inactivity (PI, family history of CHD, type A personality (TAP, cigarette smoking (CS, alcohol consumption (AC, obesity, oral contraceptive use (OC use, diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension (HT and total serum cholesterol TSC. Results: On univariate analysis all the 11 risk factors were significantly associated with CHD. Conditional multiple logistic regression identified significant association of SES (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.28-3.73, PI (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.56-2.62, OC use (OR 3.96, 95% CI 1.11-14.02, obesity (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.15-2.27, DM (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.13-4.13, HT (OR 4.23, 95% CI 2.56-6399, TSC (OR 3.84, 95% CI 2.58-5.72 and CHD. Estimates of attributable risk proportion and population attributable risk proportion for the significant factors confirmed their etiological role and impact of these factors on the development of CHD in this population. Conclusion: This study identified significance of SES, PI, OC use, obesity, DM, HT and TSC in multivariate environment in the outcome of CHD.

  13. [Oxidative stress and longevity; a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenguer Varea, Ángel; Mohamed Abdelaziz, Kheira; Avellana Zaragoza, Juan Antonio; Borrás Blasco, Consuelo; Sanchis Aguilar, Paula; Viña Ribes, José

    2015-01-01

    Human longevity is a complex issue influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Oxidative stress (OE) could play an important role in this process. Succesful aging could be related with the organism ability facing OE. In the present study we compared malondialdehyde (MDA) and oxidized proteins (OP) plasma levels, in elderly people older than 97 years and 70-80 years old, to better understand the effects of OE on human longevity. Population-based case control study. We considered as cases patients who were born and live on la Ribera county in Valencia (Spain) older than 97 years old and who accepted to participate in the study. Controls were from the same poblational base, chosen randomly, and 70-80 years old. We made a descriptive analysis of sociodemographic, clinic and functional variables; an odds ratio (OR) estimation of being centenarian by OP and MDA quartiles; and a tendency analysis by Mantel-Haenszel test. Twenty eight cases and 31 controls were included. Functional state and robust percentage were worse in cases. MDA (1,44±0,45 vs 1,84±0,59, p=0,005), and OP (64,29±15,73 vs. 76,52±13,44, p=0,002) levels, were significantly lower in cases. The OR of being centenarian in lower/higher quartile were 3,8 for MDA and 5,7 for OP, with a Mantel-Haenszel signification of 0,029 and 0,044 respectively. In our study OE level were lower in centenarians than in younger elderly, and the lower the OE grade, the higher were the likelihood of being centenarian. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  14. Sexual Dysfunction in Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study

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    Mandana Ebrahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dysfunction in breast cancer patients is considered as a common and distressing problem. Considering the increasing number of breast cancer survivors living for longer periods of time with the disease and the importance of their quality of life, we conducted the present study to compare the sexual functioning in breast cancer patients with their healthy counterparts.Methods: In this case-control study, breast cancer patients who completed their treatment protocol and were followed up for at least six months were included. The controls were healthy women with normal clinical breast examinations. All subjects filled-in the Persian version of Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire.Results: A total of 165 subjects including 71 breast cancer patients and 94 healthy women were studied. The frequency of sexual dysfunction in cases and controls was 52.6% and 47.4%, respectively (P = 0.09. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding domain scores, except for vaginal lubrication (P = 0.045. Logistic regression analysis indicated that significant determinants of sexual dysfunction in breast cancer group was patients' age (OR = 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3 – 11.5, P = 0.01 and age of the spouse (OR= 9.8, 95% CI: 1.8-51.9, P= 0.007, while in controls, only emotional relationship with the husband was the significant predictive factor (OR = 6.3, 95%CI: 1.9 – 20.5, P = 0.002.Conclusions: Our findings indicated that sexual dysfunction is prevalent in Iranian women regardless of their physical health status. The frequency of vaginal dryness in breast cancer patients was significantly higher than controls. Age of the patient and the spouse (>40 were the only significant predictors of sexual dysfunction among women with breast cancer. Preventive strategies, sexual education and access to effective treatment should be planned in supportive care of breast cancer patients.

  15. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

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    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer.DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively.Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  16. Aetiological Classification of Stillbirths: A Case Control Study.

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    Kumbhare, Sonal A; Maitra, Nandita K

    2016-12-01

    Antepartum stillbirths are a major contributor to perinatal mortality. This study was undertaken to assess the role of the ReCoDe (relevant condition at birth) classification system in evaluation of stillbirths in a tertiary teaching hospital in Central Gujarat. To determine etiology of stillbirths using the ReCoDe classification system. This was a prospective case control study over a period of 1 year from September 1st, 2012 to August 31st, 2013. Sample size was calculated as 243 cases and 486 controls. Two controls (live births) per case were matched for gestational age and birth weight. Odd's ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. Maternal age and parity that appeared to be highly significant factors on univariate analysis were not found to be independent risk factors with multivariate logistic regression. Gestational age and birth weight were not statistically significant risk factors. Other risk factors like previous stillbirth (26.13; 95 % CI 3.23-211.29), antepartum hemorrhage (11.63; 95 % CI 3.83-35.30), and hypertensive disorders (2.09; 95 % CI 1.20-3.63) were found to be highly significant independent risk factors. Major congenital anomaly (P < 0.001), birth asphyxia (P = 0.0037), cord accidents (P = 0.0037), and rupture uterus (P = 0.001) were also highly significant. The stillbirth rate was 87.83 per 1000 live births. The ReCoDe primary classification system enabled 74.1 % of the cases to be assigned a relevant condition, leaving only 25.9 % as unexplained. The single largest condition associated was fetal growth restriction (25.9 %).

  17. Ticagrelor and bradycardia: a nested case-control study.

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    Turgeon, Ricky D; Fernandes, Kimberly A; Juurlink, David; Tu, Jack V; Mamdani, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    Ticagrelor increases serum adenosine concentrations, slowing conduction and possibly leading to bradycardia. Clinical trial data have shown numerically, though not statistically significantly, higher rates of bradyarrhythmias with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel. Additionally, recent case reports have further raised concerns for this adverse effect. We explored the association between ticagrelor and hospitalization for bradycardia in a real-world setting. We conducted a population-based, nested case-control study of Ontario residents, 66 years of age or older, discharged after a first acute coronary syndrome by linking multiple healthcare databases. Cases included patients hospitalized for bradycardia within 1 year of starting a P2Y12 inhibitor. For each case, we identified 4 controls matched on age, sex, index date, and current use of a P2Y12 inhibitor. The exposure of interest was a prescription for ticagrelor within 90 days, with clopidogrel use as the reference group. From April 2012 to March 2014, we identified 140 cases and 560 controls who met the study criteria. We found no significant association between bradycardia and exposure to ticagrelor relative to clopidogrel in the previous 90 days prior to the index date (adjusted odds ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 0.65-2.21). Further adjustment for potential confounders also did not identify a significant association. Among older patients with a first acute coronary syndrome, use of ticagrelor was not associated with a greater risk of admission for bradycardia relative to clopidogrel. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study*

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    Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; Xiao, Sheng-xiang

    2011-01-01

    Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi’an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to analyze the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex infestation, and to identify the risk factors of Demodex infestation. The results showed that total detection rate of Demodex was 43.0%. Patients aged above 30 years had higher odds of Demodex infestation than those under 30 years. Compared to patients with neutral skin, patients with mixed, oily, or dry skin were more likely to be infested with Demodex (odds ratios (ORs) were 2.5, 2.4, and 1.6, respectively). Moreover, Demodex infestation was found to be statistically associated with rosacea (OR=8.1), steroid-induced dermatitis (OR=2.7), seborrheic dermatitis (OR=2.2), and primary irritation dermatitis (OR=2.1). In particular, ORs calculated from the severe infestation (≥5 mites/cm2) rate were significantly higher than those of the total rate. Therefore, we concluded that Demodex is associated with rosacea, steroid-induced dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and primary irritation dermatitis. The rate of severe infestation is found to be more correlated with various dermatosis than the total infestation rate. The risk factors of Demodex infestation, age, and skin types were identified. Our study also suggested that good hygiene practice might reduce the chances of demodicosis and Demodex infestation. PMID:22135150

  19. Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; Xiao, Sheng-xiang

    2011-12-01

    Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi'an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to analyze the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex infestation, and to identify the risk factors of Demodex infestation. The results showed that total detection rate of Demodex was 43.0%. Patients aged above 30 years had higher odds of Demodex infestation than those under 30 years. Compared to patients with neutral skin, patients with mixed, oily, or dry skin were more likely to be infested with Demodex (odds ratios (ORs) were 2.5, 2.4, and 1.6, respectively). Moreover, Demodex infestation was found to be statistically associated with rosacea (OR=8.1), steroid-induced dermatitis (OR=2.7), seborrheic dermatitis (OR=2.2), and primary irritation dermatitis (OR=2.1). In particular, ORs calculated from the severe infestation (≥5 mites/cm(2)) rate were significantly higher than those of the total rate. Therefore, we concluded that Demodex is associated with rosacea, steroid-induced dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and primary irritation dermatitis. The rate of severe infestation is found to be more correlated with various dermatosis than the total infestation rate. The risk factors of Demodex infestation, age, and skin types were identified. Our study also suggested that good hygiene practice might reduce the chances of demodicosis and Demodex infestation.

  20. Hypertensive/Microvascular Disease and COPD: a Case Control Study

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    Sky KH Chew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have more small vessel disease and more severe disease than an age- and gender- matched hospital patient comparison group. Methods: This was a single centre, case-control study of 151 individuals with COPD (FEV1/VC Results: Patients with COPD had more microvascular retinopathy (121, 80% and 76, 50%; OR 3.98, 95%CI 2.39 to 6.64 and more severe disease (42, 28% and 18, 12%; OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.55 to 5.23 than other hospital patients. COPD remained an independent determinant of microvascular retinopathy (OR 4.56, 95%CI 2.49 to 8.36 after adjusting for gender, hypertension, smoking, and diabetes duration. Retinal arterioles and venules were wider in patients with COPD than other hospital patients (mean difference +6.5µm, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 11.6; and +17.4µm, 95%CI 9.4 to 25.5, respectively. Larger venules were more common in younger individuals (+0.6 µm, 0.1 to 1.17 with more cigarette exposure (+0.3 µm, 0.2 to 0.5 or a lower serum albumin (+23.0 µm, 6.0 to 40.0. Venular calibre was not different in current and former smokers (p=0.77. There were trends for venules to be larger with more severe COPD (lower FEV1/VC, p=0.09 and with CT-demonstrated emphysema (p=0.06. Conclusions: Hypertensive/microvascular disease is more common and more severe in patients with COPD. This is likely to contribute to the associated increase in cardiac risk.

  1. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Vilma Costa; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; de Frias, Paulo Germano; Romaguera, Luciana Maria Delgado; Caires, Silvana de Fátima Ferreira; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors related to the occurrence of syphilis in women treated at public maternity hospitals. METHODS This is a case-control study (239 cases and 322 controls) with women admitted to seven maternity hospitals in the municipality of Recife, Brazil, from July 2013 to July 2014. Eligible women were recruited after the result of the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) under any titration. The selection of cases and controls was based on the result of the serology for syphilis using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The independent variables were grouped into: sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and obstetric history, and health care in prenatal care and maternity hospital. Information was obtained by interview, during hospitalization, with the application of a questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression to identify the predicting factors of the variable to be explained. RESULTS The logistic regression analysis identified as determinant factors for gestational syphilis: education level of incomplete basic education or illiterate (OR = 2.02), lack of access to telephone (OR = 2.4), catholic religion (OR = 1.70 ), four or more pregnancies (OR = 2.2), three or more sexual partners in the last year (OR = 3.1), use of illicit drugs before the age of 18 (OR = 3.0), and use of illicit drugs by the current partner (OR = 1.7). Only one to three prenatal appointments (OR = 3.5) and a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 9.7) were also identified as determinant factors. CONCLUSIONS Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis in women and should be taken into account in the elaboration of universal strategies aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis, but with a focus on situations of greater vulnerability. PMID:28832758

  2. Comorbidities in rotator cuff disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titchener, Andrew G; White, Jonathan J E; Hinchliffe, Sally R; Tambe, Amol A; Hubbard, Richard B; Clark, David I

    2014-09-01

    Rotator cuff disease is a common condition in the general population, but relatively little is known about its associated risk factors. We have undertaken a large case-control study using The Health Improvement Network database to assess and to quantify the relative contributions of some constitutional and environmental risk factors for rotator cuff disease in the community. Our data set included 5000 patients with rotator cuff disease who were individually matched with a single control by age, sex, and general practice (primary care practice). The median age at diagnosis was 55 years (interquartile range, 44-65 years). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with rotator cuff disease were Achilles tendinitis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.78), trigger finger (OR = 1.99), lateral epicondylitis (OR = 1.71), and carpal tunnel syndrome (OR = 1.55). Oral corticosteroid therapy (OR = 2.03), oral antidiabetic use (OR = 1.66), insulin use (OR = 1.77), and "overweight" body mass index of 25.1 to 30 (OR = 1.15) were also significantly associated. Current or previous smoking history, body mass index of greater than 30, any alcohol intake, medial epicondylitis, de Quervain syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis were not found to be associated with rotator cuff disease. We have identified a number of comorbidities and risk factors for rotator cuff disease. These include lateral epicondylitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger finger, Achilles tendinitis, oral corticosteroid use, and diabetes mellitus. The findings should alert the clinician to comorbid pathologic processes and guide future research into the etiology of this condition. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Androgens and hyperemesis gravidarum: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helseth, Ragnhild; Ravlo, Merethe; Carlsen, Sven M; Vanky, E Eszter

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is probably multifactorial, involving several hormones. Androgen concentrations are reported to correlate positively with emesis gravidarum. Hypothesizing a continuum between emesis gravidarum and HG, we investigated androgen concentrations in women with HG. In a case-control study, 32 women hospitalized for HG were compared with 29 control women scheduled for elective surgical abortion. Control women were matched for age, gestational length, body mass index (BMI) and parity. Patient characteristics and concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), androstenedione, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free testosterone index (FTI), androstanediol glucuronide (ADG), progesterone, TSH, free T3 and T4, beta-hCG, ferritin, insulin, estradiol and estriol were compared using Mann-Whitney tests and multivariate linear regression analyses. Women with HG had higher concentrations of ADG (8.49±4.19 vs. 6.19±1.77pmol/L; p=0.015), estradiol (2.39±1.36 vs. 1.60±9.30nmol/L; p=0.009) and ferritin (186±138 vs. 117±94pmol/L; p=0.040) compared with control women. Androstenedione (5.34±2.82 vs. 6.86±2.67; p=0.004) and insulin (63.7±35.0 vs. 75.3±25.8; p=0.050) concentrations were lower in women with HG. DHEAS, testosterone, FTI, SHBG, estriol, progesterone, beta-hCG, TSH, free T3 and free T4 concentrations did not differ between the groups. In multivariate regression analyses HG was associated with high concentrations of ADG (p=0.026) and low concentrations of androstenedione (p=0.018). Steroid hormone homeostasis may be altered in women with HG. HG may be associated with high ADG and low androstenedione concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Case-control study of gastric cancer screening in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, P; Oliver, W E; Parkin, D M; Alvarez, N; Vivas, J

    1994-06-01

    A screening programme for early gastric cancer was introduced in the state of Tachira, Venezuela, in 1980. Screening was performed by photofluorography, using two mobile units. The efficacy of this programme in reducing mortality from stomach cancer was evaluated by means of a case-control study. Cases were 241 individuals who died from stomach cancer in the period 1985-89. Ten live controls per case were drawn from the electoral rolls, matched by sex, age and residence. Exposure to the screening examination of cases and controls was assessed through individual linkage with the programme's centralised database. After the exclusion of examinations occurring within the 6 months preceding the case's diagnosis, the odds ratio (OR) of dying from stomach cancer for those screened was 1.26 (CI 0.83-1.91) and the OR in females was lower than in males: 0.77 (CI 0.33-1.78) and 1.52 (CI 0.94-2.47) respectively. Odds ratios associated with years since last test and number of tests did not differ significantly from 1. These results show the inefficacy of the programme in reducing mortality from gastric cancer in the area. In an attempt to determine whether this result was due to selection bias, an analysis restricted to subjects who had been screened at least once was performed. When examinations occurring after an index date at various intervals before the case's diagnosis were excluded, the screening test appeared to protect from death, although confidence intervals of the odds ratios are large, for example OR = 0.47 (CI 0.24-0.98) when excluding tests within 1 month.

  5. Diet and pancreatic cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norell, S E; Ahlbom, A; Erwald, R; Jacobson, G; Lindberg-Navier, I; Olin, R; Törnberg, B; Wiechel, K L

    1986-12-01

    In a population-based case-control study carried out in Sweden in 1982-1984, the authors examined the association of pancreatic cancer with several dietary factors, coffee, alcohol, and tobacco. Analyses were based on 99 cases, 138 population controls, and 163 hospital controls. The cases were persons aged 40-79 years diagnosed with cancer of the exocrine pancreas at three surgical departments in Stockholm and Uppsala. The risk increased with higher consumption frequency of fried and grilled meat in the comparison with each series of controls (e.g., relative risk (RR) = 1.7 (90% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-2.7) for weekly intake and RR = 13.4 (90% CI = 2.4-74.7) for almost daily intake, in the comparison with population controls). Furthermore, associations were found with other fried or grilled foods, but not with meat other than fried or grilled. The risk also increased with the intake of margarine (e.g., RR = 9.7 (90% CI = 3.1-30.2) for 15+ g of margarine on a slice of bread, in the comparison with population controls). In contrast, no excess risk was associated with high intake of butter. A low risk was associated with frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables, particularly carrots (RR = 0.3 (90% CI = 0.2-0.7)) and citrus fruits (RR = 0.5 (90% CI = 0.3-0.9)) for almost daily intake. No consistent associations were found with coffee, artificial sweeteners or alcohol consumption, but a threefold increase in risk was associated with smoking at least one pack of cigarettes per day.

  6. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study

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    Vilma Costa de Macêdo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors related to the occurrence of syphilis in women treated at public maternity hospitals. METHODS This is a case-control study (239 cases and 322 controls with women admitted to seven maternity hospitals in the municipality of Recife, Brazil, from July 2013 to July 2014. Eligible women were recruited after the result of the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory under any titration. The selection of cases and controls was based on the result of the serology for syphilis using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The independent variables were grouped into: sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and obstetric history, and health care in prenatal care and maternity hospital. Information was obtained by interview, during hospitalization, with the application of a questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression to identify the predicting factors of the variable to be explained. RESULTS The logistic regression analysis identified as determinant factors for gestational syphilis: education level of incomplete basic education or illiterate (OR = 2.02, lack of access to telephone (OR = 2.4, catholic religion (OR = 1.70 , four or more pregnancies (OR = 2.2, three or more sexual partners in the last year (OR = 3.1, use of illicit drugs before the age of 18 (OR = 3.0, and use of illicit drugs by the current partner (OR = 1.7. Only one to three prenatal appointments (OR = 3.5 and a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 9.7 were also identified as determinant factors. CONCLUSIONS Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis in women and should be taken into account in the elaboration of universal strategies aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis, but with a focus on situations of greater vulnerability.

  7. Hepatic dysfunction in asphyxiated neonates: prospective case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Mukesh; Sharma, Deepak; Dabi, Dhanraj; Lamba, Mamta; Pandita, Aakash; Shastri, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the occurrence of hypoxic hepatitis in full-term neonates after perinatal asphyxia and to correlate between the rise in enzymes and severity of asphyxia with Apgar score and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) grading of the neonates. This prospective case-controlled study was conducted in a tertiary-level hospital in India for a period of 12 months. The study group A comprised 70 newborns suffering from birth asphyxia, while 30 healthy neonates were included in group B (control). All biochemical parameters of liver function, ie, serum alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein, serum albumin, bilirubin (total and direct), and international normalized ratio (INR), were measured on postnatal days 1, 3, and 10 in both study and control groups. In group A, 22.8% newborns had severe (Apgar score 0-3), 47.1% had moderate (Apgar score 4-5), and 30% had mild (Apgar score 6-7) birth asphyxia at five minutes. In all, 14.28% babies were in HIE stage I, 25.73% babies were in HIE stage II, and 11.42% babies were in HIE stage III. The rest of the newborns, 48.57%, were normal. The prevalence of liver function impairment was seen in 42.85% of asphyxiated neonates. On day 1, ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, PT, and INR were significantly higher, and total protein and serum albumin were significantly lower in group A than in group B. However, ALT and AST correlated well with increasing severity of HIE score. On day 3, there was a rising trend observed in the concentration of mean LDH as HIE staging of neonates progressed from stage 0 to stage III, and among various HIE stages, the difference in LDH was statistically significant. We concluded that AST, ALT at 24 hours, and LDH at 72 hours of animation can be a utilitarian diagnostic tool to differentiate asphyxiated neonates from non-asphyxiated neonates and to discover the severity of perinatal asphyxia because of easy

  8. The Misconception of Case-Control Studies in the Plastic Surgery Literature: A Literature Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchell, Alexandra C; Farrokhyar, Forough; Choi, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Case-control study designs are commonly used. However, many published case-control studies are not true case-controls and are in fact mislabeled. The purpose of this study was to identify all case-control studies published in the top three plastic surgery journals over the past 10 years, assess which were truly case-control studies, clarify the actual design of the articles, and address common misconceptions. MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for case-control studies in the three highest-impact factor plastic surgery journals (2005 to 2015). Two independent reviewers screened the resulting titles, abstracts, and methods, if applicable, to identify articles labeled as case-control studies. These articles were appraised and classified as true case-control studies or non-case-control studies. The authors found 28 articles labeled as case-control studies. However, only six of these articles (21 percent) were truly case-control designs. Of the 22 incorrectly labeled studies, one (5 percent) was a randomized controlled trial, three (14 percent) were nonrandomized trials, two (9 percent) were prospective comparative cohort designs, 14 (64 percent) were retrospective comparative cohort designs, and two (9 percent) were cross-sectional designs. The mislabeling was worse in recent years, despite increases in evidence-based medicine awareness. The majority of published case-control studies are not in fact case-control studies. This misunderstanding is worsening with time. Most of these studies are actually comparative cohort designs. However, some studies are truly clinical trials and thus a higher level of evidence than originally proposed.

  9. Spatial analysis of childhood cancer: a case/control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ramis

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL. Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors.The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge.We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05.We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters.The variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the

  10. Hepatic Dysfunction in Asphyxiated Neonates: Prospective Case-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was performed to determine the occurrence of hypoxic hepatitis in full-term neonates after perinatal asphyxia and to correlate between the rise in enzymes and severity of asphyxia with Apgar score and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE grading of the neonates. Method and Material This prospective case-controlled study was conducted in a tertiary-level hospital in India for a period of 12 months. The study group A comprised 70 newborns suffering from birth asphyxia, while 30 healthy neonates were included in group B (control. All biochemical parameters of liver function, ie, serum alanine transferase (ALT, aspartate transferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, total protein, serum albumin, bilirubin (total and direct, and international normalized ratio (INR, were measured on postnatal days 1, 3, and 10 in both study and control groups. Results In group A, 22.8% newborns had severe (Apgar score 0–3, 47.1% had moderate (Apgar score 4–5, and 30% had mild (Apgar score 6–7 birth asphyxia at five minutes. In all, 14.28% babies were in HIE stage I, 25.73% babies were in HIE stage II, and 11.42% babies were in HIE stage III. The rest of the newborns, 48.57%, were normal. The prevalence of liver function impairment was seen in 42.85% of asphyxiated neonates. On day 1, ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, PT, and INR were significantly higher, and total protein and serum albumin were significantly lower in group A than in group B. However, ALT and AST correlated well with increasing severity of HIE score. On day 3, there was a rising trend observed in the concentration of mean LDH as HIE staging of neonates progressed from stage 0 to stage III, and among various HIE stages, the difference in LDH was statistically significant. Conclusion We concluded that AST, ALT at 24 hours, and LDH at 72 hours of animation can be a utilitarian diagnostic tool to differentiate asphyxiated neonates from non-asphyxiated neonates and

  11. Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight; Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Önal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW (defined as a birth weight of less than 2500 grams is associated with fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, impaired cognitive development, and the advent of chronic diseases in later life. The global incidence of LBW is around 15,5%. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for low birthweight in the centre of Denizli province. A case-control study was carried out and mothers of 295 newborns with birthweight between 1500-2499 g (cases and 302 newborns with birthweight between 2500-4000 g (controls were analyzed. The questionnare was applied to women using face to face technics between July,2009 and June,2010 . The questionnare included birth weight and birth lenght of newborn, the date of last pregnacy and type of last delivery, profile of mother, anthropometric measures, life styles, habits, addictions, sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of mother and father of newborn. Analysis included frequency and percent distributions, means, standart deviations. In group comparisions for categorical variable, chi square test and odds ratio (OR was used. Logistic regression model was performed for some selected risk factors. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program, Version 10 was used for data entry and analysis. When backward logistic regression model was performed for some selected factors in relation to low birth weight, there was a positive relationship between multiple pregnancy [OR(95%CI 18.50 (8.54, 40.39], BMI lower than 20 kg/m2 of mother before pregnancy andemployment status [OR(95%CI 1.98 (1.23, 3.19], weight gain of 7 kg and under during pregnanacy [OR(95%CI 2.49 (1.56, 3.96], a history of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 3.44 (1.69, 7.02], first- degree and second- degree relative’s histories of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 4.28 (2.61, 6.94], X- ray exposure in the three months before and

  12. UK case control study of brain tumours in children, teenagers and young adults: a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feltbower, Richard G; Fleming, Sarah J; Picton, Susan V; Alston, Robert D; Morgan, Diana; Achilles, Janice; McKinney, Patricia A; Birch, Jillian M

    2014-01-01

    ...) and represent a major diagnostic group in 15-24 year olds. The pilot case-control study aimed to establish methodologies for a future comprehensive aetiological investigation among children and young adults...

  13. Association between diabetes and tuberculosis: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susan Martins; Araújo, Gleide Santos de; Santos, Carlos Antônio de Souza Teles; Oliveira, Maeli Gomes de; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2016-12-22

    To test the association between diabetes and tuberculosis. It is a case-control study, matched by age and sex. We included 323 new cases of tuberculosis with positive results for bacilloscopy. The controls were 323 respiratory symptomatic patients with negative bacilloscopy, from the same health services, such as: ambulatory cases from three referral hospitals and six basic health units responsible for the notifications of new cases of tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia. Data collection occurred between 2008 and 2010. The instruments used were structured interview, including clinical data, capillary blood glucose (during fasting or postprandial), and the CAGE questionnaire for screening of abusive consumption of alcohol. Descriptive, exploratory, and multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. The average age of the cases was 38.5 (SD = 14.2) years and of the controls, 38.5 (SD = 14.3) years. Among cases and controls, most subjects (61%) were male. In univariate analysis we found association between the occurrence of diabetes and tuberculosis (OR = 2.37; 95%CI 1.04-5.42), which remained statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders (OR = 3.12; 95%CI 1.12-7.94). The association between diabetes and tuberculosis can hinder the control of tuberculosis, contributing to the maintainance of the disease burden. The situation demands increasing early detection of diabetes among people with tuberculosis, in an attempt to improve disease control strategies. Testar a associação entre diabetes e tuberculose. Trata-se de estudo caso-controle, pareado por idade e sexo. Foram incluídos 323 casos novos de tuberculose com resultados positivos à baciloscopia. Os controles foram 323 sintomáticos respiratórios com baciloscopia negativa, oriundos dos mesmos serviços de saúde dos casos: ambulatórios de três hospitais de referência e seis unidades básicas de saúde responsáveis pelas notificações dos casos novos de

  14. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, Vilma Costa de; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de; Frias, Paulo Germano de; Romaguera, Luciana Maria Delgado; Caires, Silvana de Fátima Ferreira; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar

    2017-08-17

    To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors related to the occurrence of syphilis in women treated at public maternity hospitals. This is a case-control study (239 cases and 322 controls) with women admitted to seven maternity hospitals in the municipality of Recife, Brazil, from July 2013 to July 2014. Eligible women were recruited after the result of the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) under any titration. The selection of cases and controls was based on the result of the serology for syphilis using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The independent variables were grouped into: sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and obstetric history, and health care in prenatal care and maternity hospital. Information was obtained by interview, during hospitalization, with the application of a questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression to identify the predicting factors of the variable to be explained. The logistic regression analysis identified as determinant factors for gestational syphilis: education level of incomplete basic education or illiterate (OR = 2.02), lack of access to telephone (OR = 2.4), catholic religion (OR = 1.70 ), four or more pregnancies (OR = 2.2), three or more sexual partners in the last year (OR = 3.1), use of illicit drugs before the age of 18 (OR = 3.0), and use of illicit drugs by the current partner (OR = 1.7). Only one to three prenatal appointments (OR = 3.5) and a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 9.7) were also identified as determinant factors. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis in women and should be taken into account in the elaboration of universal strategies aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis, but with a focus on situations of greater vulnerability. Determinar os fatores sociodemográficos, comportamentais e de assistência à sa

  15. Allowing for Genotyping Error in Analysis of Unmatched Case-Control Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rice K.M; Holmans P

    2003-01-01

    ... (an unmatched case-control study). A drawback of such a study is that it is impossible to detect genotyping errors, and few methods have been developed to allow for the presence of undetected genotyping errors...

  16. Experiencing Online Pedagogy: A Canadian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Heather E.; Barnett, John

    2010-01-01

    This case study explored the educational experiences of Canadian preservice teachers in a course designed to teach about online teaching. Students gained experience in course design and delivery, and safe and ethical behavior related to technology. Findings indicated that projects in which students actively applied their knowledge were more…

  17. Study designs and potential biases in sports injury research. The case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, M; Powell, J W; Torner, J C

    1994-07-01

    Several different epidemiological study designs can be used for aetiological investigations of potential risk factors for the occurrence of sports injuries. The case-control study is an example of a retrospective design in which the investigator starts with the classification of injury status (case or control) and obtains information regarding prior exposure to risk factors. Several decisions need to be made when designing case-control studies. Firstly, the source of the study participants needs to be considered. Cases and controls need to be identified from the same source, i.e. same sport or clinic. Secondly, the same eligibility criteria need to be applied to potential cases and controls. Thirdly, when an injury occurred must be established. The fourth issue concerns the status of cases (incident or prevalent cases). Finally, the number and size of the control groups needs to be determined. Strengths of the case-control study design are the high level of information obtained, the relatively low cost and its usefulness for studying rare sports injuries. The higher susceptibility to bias is one of the limitations of case-control studies. Bias in a case-control study can lead to over or underestimation of the true association between an alleged risk factor and the occurrence of sports injuries. Three types of bias have been distinguished: (i) selection bias; (ii) information bias; and (iii) confounding. Furthermore, the applicability of this type of design is limited to risk factors that remain relatively stable after the occurrence of an injury. The effect of changeable risk factors, such as quadriceps strength and range of motion, is difficult to assess since in many cases data at the time of injury are unavailable.

  18. Metabolic syndrome in migraine headache: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrzad Salmasi; Laya Amini; Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard; Mohammad Saadatnia

    2014-01-01

    Background: The correlation of metabolic syndrome and migraine headache was evaluated in some previous studies. However there is no study that compared the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the patients with and without migraine. Control of coincidental factors such as metabolic syndrome reduces therapeutic resistance in migrainous patients. The aim of this study was to compare prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with and without migraine headache. Materials and Methods: 200 migrai...

  19. Association of leptin and insulin resistance in PCOS: A case-controlled study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bahia Namavar Jahromi; Mohammad Hassan Dabaghmanesh; Mohammad Ebrahim Parsanezhad; Faranak Fatehpoor

    2017-01-01

    ...) and to evaluate the association between leptin and IR in PCOS group. Materials and methods: This Case-controlled study performed on 189 infertile women referred to Shiraz Mother and Child Hospital during 2012-2015...

  20. Mental Disorders and Suicide Among Young Rural Chinese: A Case-Control Psychological Autopsy Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Jie; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Zhou, Liang

    2010-01-01

    .... MethodIn this case-control psychological autopsy study, face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect information from proxy informants for 392 suicide victims and 416 living comparison subjects...

  1. Cancer preceding Wegener's granulomatosis: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Sorensen, Inge J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with WG have an increased risk of malignancies prior to and/or around the time of the vasculitis diagnosis, as suggested by previous studies. METHODS: A total of 293 WG patients were included in the study. Ten gender- and age-matched controls were select...

  2. Metabolic syndrome in migraine headache: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Mehrzad; Amini, Laya; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Saadatnia, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The correlation of metabolic syndrome and migraine headache was evaluated in some previous studies. However there is no study that compared the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the patients with and without migraine. Control of coincidental factors such as metabolic syndrome reduces therapeutic resistance in migrainous patients. The aim of this study was to compare prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with and without migraine headache. 200 migrainous patients diagnosed according to International Headache Society and 200 healthy controls without migraine enrolled in this study. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to ATP III criteria in these two groups and compared with each other. In this study, 17% (34) of migrainous patients and 15% (30) of healthy control without migraine had metabolic syndrome. (P = 0.585). Of the metabolic syndrome components, body mass index (P = 0.05) and waist circumference in migrainous (P = 0.03) were significantly more frequent. Our results demonstrate that metabolic syndrome and migraine headache had not significant correlation; however, higher body mass index and waist circumference as metabolic syndrome components had correlated with migraine headache.

  3. Metabolic syndrome in migraine headache: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Salmasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correlation of metabolic syndrome and migraine headache was evaluated in some previous studies. However there is no study that compared the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the patients with and without migraine. Control of coincidental factors such as metabolic syndrome reduces therapeutic resistance in migrainous patients. The aim of this study was to compare prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with and without migraine headache. Materials and Methods: 200 migrainous patients diagnosed according to International Headache Society and 200 healthy controls without migraine enrolled in this study. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to ATP III criteria in these two groups and compared with each other. Results: In this study, 17% (34 of migrainous patients and 15% (30 of healthy control without migraine had metabolic syndrome. (P = 0.585. Of the metabolic syndrome components, body mass index (P = 0.05 and waist circumference in migrainous (P = 0.03 were significantly more frequent. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that metabolic syndrome and migraine headache had not significant correlation; however, higher body mass index and waist circumference as metabolic syndrome components had correlated with migraine headache.

  4. Spirituality of chronic orofacial pain patients: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago-Rizzardi, Camilla Domingues; de Siqueira, Jose Tadeu T; de Siqueira, Silvia Regina D T

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate spirituality and blood parameters associated with stress in patients with facial musculoskeletal pain. Twenty-four women with chronic facial musculoskeletal pain (CFMP) and 24 healthy women were evaluated with a protocol for orofacial characteristics, research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders and the Spiritual Perspective Scale. Blood samples were collected to analyze blood count, cortisol, ACTH, C3, C4, thyroid hormones, total immunoglobulin, C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor. The study group was more spiritualized than control group. Individuals with a high score of spirituality had less myofascial pain, less bruxism and fewer complaints. They also had lower levels of ACTH and IgE. Spirituality was higher in the study group and can be considered an important tool for coping with CFMP.

  5. Case control study of episiotomy in the University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and identify the factors influencing the practice of episiotomy during delivery in the University Teaching Hospital, Yaounde. It is a retrospective review of all vaginal deliveries conducted in this hospital between January 2001 and December 2002 was undertaken to identify ...

  6. A case control study of ophthalmia Neonatorum in Kaduna II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lated in this study was Staphylococcus aureus, both in cases. (69.7%) and in ... mitted disease agents in pregnant women.3 Incidence of 1 -. 24 per 100 live births .... Kanamycin (30ug) 78 70 33. Gentamicin (30ug) 77 62 67. Table 3 Percentage sensitivity of isolated bacteria from eyes of control babies. Staph. aureus E.coli.

  7. A case-control study in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-03

    ., 2003) which suggests that the frequency of ZZ carriers are quite low in different parts of the world. The data of prevalence of COPD in. Asian countries is patchy and the disease burden is high. Studies on COPD in the Indian ...

  8. Consanguinity and multiple sclerosis susceptibility: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghzi, Helia; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Minagar, Alireza; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Maghzi, Amir-Hadi

    2016-11-01

    Several lines of evidence point towards the importance of genetic risk factors in the susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to compare the rates of consanguineous marriages between first cousins among parents of MS patients and a healthy unrelated control group. This study is a cross-sectional hospital registry based study, which was performed by analyzing the clinical records of patients registered with the Kashani hospital database, and also a control group of randomly selected healthy individuals. MS patients were significantly less an offspring of a consanguineous union than the control group (MS patients=26.1%, vs Control=32.7%, p=0.03; OR=0.730 95%CI: 0.55-0.97) CONCLUSION: Offspring of consanguineous unions seems to have a lower risk of MS compared to offspring of unrelated parents. This may have implications for inheritance mode of protective alleles in MS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Child abuse in Tlaxcala: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrada-Huidobro, A; Nazar-Beutelspacher, A; Cassaball-Núñez, M; Vega-Ramos, R; Nava-Cruz, C B

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study about child abuse was carried out in the Hospitals of the Tlaxcala Secretariat of Health, Mexico. The information was obtained from hospitalized children's charts between January first and November 30, 1991. The charts included were those belonging to zero to 14 year old children with injuries, poisoning, and II-III degrees of malnutrition. Four child-abuse criteria were established: physical, sexual, non organic malnutrition and mixed (physical and non organic malnutrition). Two control groups were defined. Different patterns were observed between accidental and non accidental injuries, malnutrition and poisoning among the case and the control groups. The study provides useful information for the integral diagnosis of child abuse in hospitalized children.

  10. CHOLESTEROL LEVELS AND SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Nikhil

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In modern psychiatry, there is a movement to understand mental health, not solely based on behaviors and subjective report, but also based on objective markers of illness. Several studies have focused on a relationship between serum cholesterol levels and aggressive behaviors including suicide. AIM: To identify a potential link between cholesterol and suicidal behavior. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 150 patients with psychiatry diagnosis were divided into three equal g...

  11. Metabolic syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis: case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostom, Samira; Mengat, Mariam; Lahlou, Racha; Hari, Asmaa; Bahiri, Rachid; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2013-04-26

    Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of classical cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of metabolic syndrome (MS) in RA patients, and to evaluate the relationships between metabolic syndrome and RA. The study was conducted on 120 RA patients according to the 1987 revised American College of Rheumatology classification criteria, and 100 age and sex matched apparently healthy controls. The frequency of metabolic syndrome was assessed using six Metabolic Syndrome definitions (Joint Consensus 2009, National Cholesterol Education Programme 2004 and 2001, International Diabetes Federation, World Health Organisation and European Group for Study of Insulin Resistance). Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of metabolic Syndrome. The frequency of metabolic syndrome varied from 18 to 48.6% in RA according to the definition used and was significantly higher than controls (for all definitions p<0.05). In multivariate analysis, higher ESR was independently associated with the presence of Met S (OR =1.36; CI: 1.18-2.12; p = 0.03). Glucocorticoid use, but not other disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), values remained significant independent predictors of the presence of metabolic syndrome in RA patients (OR = 1.45; CI: 1.12-2.14; p = 0.04). In summary, the frequency of metabolic syndrome in RA varies according to the definition used and was significantly higher compared to controls (for all definitions p<0.05). Higher systemic inflammatory marker, and glucocorticoids use were independent predictors associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with RA. These findings suggest that physicians should screen for metabolic syndrome in patients with RA to control its components and therefore reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in these patients.

  12. The outcome of menorrhagia: a retrospective case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Peter C.

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and three women who were known to have complained of menorrhagia at some time in their lives were compared with a control group drawn from the practice's age-sex index. The results indicated that the women in the menorrhagia group were more likely to have had antidepressant medication prescribed for them at some time in their lives than the women in the control group. Furthermore, their case folders were thicker than those of the controls. The age at which menorrhagia was first reported was the only factor studied which was associated with increased likelihood of hysterectomy. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3. PMID:6644677

  13. Pregnancy outcome in hyperthyroidism: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarawal, Neelam; Suri, Vanita; Singla, Rimpi; Chopra, Seema; Sikka, Pooja; Shah, Viral N; Bhansali, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Data comparing pregnancy outcome in hyperthyroid women with euthyroid women are scarce. Hence, this study was carried out to assess the maternal and fetal outcome in pregnant women with hyperthyroidism to ascertain the effect of disease on pregnancy. This retrospective study was conducted over a period of 28 years. We compared the maternal and fetal outcomes of 208 hyperthyroid women with 403 healthy controls, between women with well-controlled and uncontrolled disease and amongst women diagnosed with hyperthyroidism before and during pregnancy. Maternal outcome: women with hyperthyroidism were at increased risk for preeclampsia (OR = 3.94), intrauterine growth restriction (OR = 2.16), spontaneous preterm labor (OR = 1.73), preterm birth (OR = 1.7), gestational diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.8), and cesarean delivery (OR = 1.47). Hyperthyroid women required induction of labor more frequently (OR = 3.61). Fetal outcome: newborns of hyperthyroid mothers had lower birth weight than normal ones (p = 0.0001). Women with uncontrolled disease had higher odds for still birth (OR = 8.42; 95% CI: 2.01-35.2) and lower birth weight (p = 0.0001). Obstetrical complications were higher in women with hyperthyroidism than normal women. Outcome was worsened by uncontrolled disease. Women with pregestational hyperthyroidism had better outcomes than those diagnosed with it during pregnancy. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Risk factors of multiple sclerosis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzon, M; Zivadinov, R; Nasuelli, D; Dolfini, P; Bosco, A; Bratina, A; Tommasi, M A; Locatelli, L; Cazzato, G

    2003-11-01

    We assessed the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) associated with a series of putative risk factors. We studied 140 patients (90 women) with MS (mean age, 42.1 years; SD= 10.2 years; disease duration, 10.9 years, SD= 7.5 years) and 131 sex-and age-matched controls. Using a structured questionnaire, we collected information related to demographic data, socio-economic status, education, ethnicity, changes of domiciles, migration, occupation, environmental, nutritional and hormonal factors, exposure to various bacterial and viral agents, vaccinations, and family history of diseases. In multiple logistic regression analysis, we found independent risk factors of MS to be: familiarity for MS (OR= 12.1; 95% CI, 1.3-110.7), autoimmune diseases (OR= 3.8; 95% CI, 2.0-7.1) and migraine (OR= 8.7; 95% CI, 1.0-75.4); comorbidity with autoimmune disease (OR= 6.8; 95% CI, 1.4-32.0) and migraine (OR= 13.5; 95% CI, 1.5-116.6); and vaccination against measles (OR= 92.2; 95%, 12.1-700.2). Familial susceptibility to MS, autoimmune diseases and migraine, and vaccination to measles are associated with an increased risk of MS. The data collected in this study are confirmatory and support the hypothesis that etiology of MS constitutes the effect of interplay between genetic and environmental risk factors. However, the relatively small number of cases and controls prevents firm conclusions.

  15. Avascular necrosis in HIV patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, G G; Herbert, S; Copas, A; Gilson, R; Ainsworth, J G

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the association of avascular necrosis (AVN) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals with possible risk factors, including antiretroviral therapy. Clinic records of all AVN cases diagnosed up to July 2009 in HIV-positive patients attending North Middlesex Hospital, London, UK were retrospectively reviewed. For each case, one control was randomly selected, matched for gender, age, nadir CD4 count and date of HIV diagnosis. Of 15 symptomatic AVN cases identified, eight were in women. Univariate analysis demonstrated significant associations between AVN and a history of systemic steroid use (p = 0.004) and cumulative exposure to protease inhibitor (p = 0.03). Physicians should be aware of the risk of AVN with steroid use, the importance of early diagnosis and avoidance of other risk factors in order to prevent further joint involvement if possible.

  16. Trachoma and Relative Poverty: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtamu, Esmael; Wondie, Tariku; Aweke, Sintayehu; Tadesse, Zerihun; Zerihun, Mulat; Zewdie, Zebideru; Callahan, Kelly; Emerson, Paul M.; Kuper, Hannah; Bailey, Robin L.; Mabey, David C. W.; Rajak, Saul N.; Polack, Sarah; Weiss, Helen A.; Burton, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trachoma is widely considered a disease of poverty. Although there are many epidemiological studies linking trachoma to factors normally associated with poverty, formal quantitative data linking trachoma to household economic poverty within endemic communities is very limited. Methodology/Principal Findings Two hundred people with trachomatous trichiasis were recruited through community-based screening in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. These were individually matched by age and gender to 200 controls without trichiasis, selected randomly from the same sub-village as the case. Household economic poverty was measured through (a) A broad set of asset-based wealth indicators and relative household economic poverty determined by principal component analysis (PCA, (b) Self-rated wealth, and (c) Peer-rated wealth. Activity participation data were collected using a modified ‘Stylised Activity List’ developed for the World Bank’s Living Standards Measurement Survey. Trichiasis cases were more likely to belong to poorer households by all measures: asset-based analysis (OR = 2.79; 95%CI: 2.06–3.78; pimpairment and other health problems, more likely to report difficulty in performing activities and more likely to receive assistance in performing productive activities. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrated a strong association between trachomatous trichiasis and relative poverty, suggesting a bidirectional causative relationship possibly may exist between poverty and trachoma. Implementation of the full SAFE strategy in the context of general improvements might lead to a virtuous cycle of improving health and wealth. Trachoma is a good proxy of inequality within communities and it could be used to target and evaluate interventions for health and poverty alleviation. PMID:26600211

  17. Alcoholic and postoperative delirium: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaković, Milan; Dejanović, Slavica Đukić; Marić-Burmazević, Joana; Dakić, Zoran; Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    Delirium is an urgent condition in psychiatry and it occurs after long-lasting alcohol abuse, in surgical procedures and other organic mental syndromes with deprivation of interpersonal and social stimulations. The aim was to evaluate of sociodemographical and psychopathological differences in delirium patients with alcoholand surgical genesis, studied in period from January 1(st) 2003 to December 31(st) 2012 in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Subjects were divided into two groups: alcoholics (N=75) and surgical patients (N=75) and multicentric, prospective study was performed in B&H. The following instruments have been used: list of general data (according to MCD-10 criteria), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Becks test of anxiety (BAI), Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale (HDRS) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Descriptive and analytical statistical processing of patients has been performed (alpha level: 0.001). Patients from alcohol group showed, with statistical significance p=0.001, the following: unemployment (OR=0.657, CI 0.540-670), ruined marriage (OR=0.570, CI 0.650-710), alcohol abuse (OR=0.179, CI 0.860-0.990), on represented expressed psychoticism, (OR=0.635, CI 0.550-0.715) in EPQ test, HDRS total was more frequent (OR=0.925, CI 0.870-1.120) and on MMSE test, total score was more frequent (OR=0.560, CI 0.570-810). Postoperative patients were older p=0.001 (OR=1.120, CI 1.082-1.159) with acutestress: (OR=0.735, CI 0.650-0.910) and showed neuroticism (OR=-0.660, CI 0.575-0.715). Discriminative function confirms the differences between alcohol and surgical groups of delirium patients: Canonical Fcn: r=0.771; Wilkin's lambda (λnj)=0.773 Student's test=57.551 and significance p=0.001; OR=0.760, CI 0.550-0.870. Delirium lasts longer in alcohol group with higher disalienation, depression of cognitive functions with organic lesions of cerebral functions. In surgical patients, delirium is the consequence of older age, acute stress, multi

  18. Trachoma and Relative Poverty: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmael Habtamu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma is widely considered a disease of poverty. Although there are many epidemiological studies linking trachoma to factors normally associated with poverty, formal quantitative data linking trachoma to household economic poverty within endemic communities is very limited.Two hundred people with trachomatous trichiasis were recruited through community-based screening in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. These were individually matched by age and gender to 200 controls without trichiasis, selected randomly from the same sub-village as the case. Household economic poverty was measured through (a A broad set of asset-based wealth indicators and relative household economic poverty determined by principal component analysis (PCA, (b Self-rated wealth, and (c Peer-rated wealth. Activity participation data were collected using a modified 'Stylised Activity List' developed for the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Survey. Trichiasis cases were more likely to belong to poorer households by all measures: asset-based analysis (OR = 2.79; 95%CI: 2.06-3.78; p<0.0001, self-rated wealth (OR, 4.41, 95%CI, 2.75-7.07; p<0.0001 and peer-rated wealth (OR, 8.22, 95% CI, 4.59-14.72; p<0.0001. Cases had less access to latrines (57% v 76.5%, p = <0.0001 and higher person-to-room density (4.0 v 3.31; P = 0.0204 than the controls. Compared to controls, cases were significantly less likely to participate in economically productive activities regardless of visual impairment and other health problems, more likely to report difficulty in performing activities and more likely to receive assistance in performing productive activities.This study demonstrated a strong association between trachomatous trichiasis and relative poverty, suggesting a bidirectional causative relationship possibly may exist between poverty and trachoma. Implementation of the full SAFE strategy in the context of general improvements might lead to a virtuous cycle of improving health and wealth

  19. Trachoma and Relative Poverty: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtamu, Esmael; Wondie, Tariku; Aweke, Sintayehu; Tadesse, Zerihun; Zerihun, Mulat; Zewdie, Zebideru; Callahan, Kelly; Emerson, Paul M; Kuper, Hannah; Bailey, Robin L; Mabey, David C W; Rajak, Saul N; Polack, Sarah; Weiss, Helen A; Burton, Matthew J

    2015-11-01

    Trachoma is widely considered a disease of poverty. Although there are many epidemiological studies linking trachoma to factors normally associated with poverty, formal quantitative data linking trachoma to household economic poverty within endemic communities is very limited. Two hundred people with trachomatous trichiasis were recruited through community-based screening in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. These were individually matched by age and gender to 200 controls without trichiasis, selected randomly from the same sub-village as the case. Household economic poverty was measured through (a) A broad set of asset-based wealth indicators and relative household economic poverty determined by principal component analysis (PCA, (b) Self-rated wealth, and (c) Peer-rated wealth. Activity participation data were collected using a modified 'Stylised Activity List' developed for the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Survey. Trichiasis cases were more likely to belong to poorer households by all measures: asset-based analysis (OR = 2.79; 95%CI: 2.06-3.78; ppoverty, suggesting a bidirectional causative relationship possibly may exist between poverty and trachoma. Implementation of the full SAFE strategy in the context of general improvements might lead to a virtuous cycle of improving health and wealth. Trachoma is a good proxy of inequality within communities and it could be used to target and evaluate interventions for health and poverty alleviation.

  20. Rosacea and Chronic Rhinosinusitis: A Case-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balbeesi, Amal O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between rosacea, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and the clinical presentation of rosacea. Subjects and Method Twenty-eight female Saudi patients diagnosed with rosacea at the Dermatology Clinic, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between September 2011 and September 2012 and 20 age- and sex-matched control patients were included in the study. Paranasal sinus X-rays and assessments of the serum concentration of IgE (ImmunoCAP test; Phadia Laboratory Systems) were performed in both groups. Result The rosacea patients had significantly more radiological evidence of CRS than the patients without rosacea [19 (67.9%) vs. 4 (20%), p = 0.003]. The median IgE concentration was similar in both groups (225.4 vs. 223.1 kU/l). Nine rosacea patients (32.1%) without radiological evidence of CRS did not have a significantly different median concentration of IgE compared with those who had radiological evidence of CRS (190.5 vs. 111.5 kU/l, p = 0.859). Erythematotelangiectatic severity was significantly associated with CRS (p = 0.038). Serum IgE did not correlate with the severity of the facial condition. Conclusion Patients with rosacea and CRS manifested severe erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. There was enough evidence to suggest an association between rosacea and CRS. Clinical and radiological assessments of the paranasal sinuses are recommended. PMID:25060422

  1. Muscle dysmorphia in male weightlifters: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivardia, R; Pope, H G; Hudson, J I

    2000-08-01

    Muscle dysmorphia is a form of body dysmorphic disorder in which individuals develop a pathological preoccupation with their muscularity. The authors interviewed 24 men with muscle dysmorphia and 30 normal comparison weightlifters, recruited from gymnasiums in the Boston area, using a battery of demographic, psychiatric, and physical measures. The men with muscle dysmorphia differed significantly from the normal comparison weightlifters on numerous measures, including body dissatisfaction, eating attitudes, prevalence of anabolic steroid use, and lifetime prevalence of DSM-IV mood, anxiety, and eating disorders. The men with muscle dysmorphia frequently described shame, embarrassment, and impairment of social and occupational functioning in association with their condition. By contrast, normal weightlifters displayed little pathology. Indeed, in an a posteriori analysis, the normal weightlifters proved closely comparable to a group of male college students recruited as a normal comparison group in an earlier study. Muscle dysmorphia appears to be a valid diagnostic entity, possibly related to a larger group of disorders, and is associated with striking and stereotypical features. Men with muscle dysmorphia differ sharply from normal weightlifters, most of whom display little psychopathology. Further research is necessary to characterize the nosology and potential treatment of this syndrome.

  2. Case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deapen, D.M.; Henderson, B.E.

    1986-05-01

    The authors conducted a study of 518 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients identified between 1977 and 1979 and 518 controls to investigate putative risk factors for this disease. Occupations at risk of electrical exposure were reported more often by patients (odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-13.0) as were electrical shocks producing unconsciousness (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.0-9.9). Although an overall excess of physical trauma associated with unconsciousness was observed in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.4), the effect was inversely associated with duration of the unconscious episodes, suggesting an effect of recall bias. Only slight differences were found for surgical traumata to the nervous system. Parkinsonism was reported more often among first degree relatives of cases (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-7.6). The frequencies of prior poliomyelitis or other central nervous system diseases were similar for patients and controls. Occupational exposure to selected toxic substances was similar for patients and controls except for the manufacture of plastics (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.0-20.5), although few details of these exposures were provided. No differences in occupations with exposure to animal skins or hides were observed.

  3. Depression in Parkinson's disease: A case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Wu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the association between Parkinson's disease (PD prognosis and the patient's onset of depression.A total of 353 patients with newly-diagnosed PD and a history of depression were enrolled. On the basis of the onset of depression before or after PD diagnosis, we divided participants into PD patients with pre- or post-diagnostic depression. Cox's regression analysis was used to detect risks between the onset of depression and outcomes (including death, accidental injury, dementia, and aspiration pneumonia. The association between the onset of depression and levodopa equivalent dosage (LED and cumulative equivalent dosage of antidepressants were assessed.PD patients with post-diagnostic depression were associated with significantly higher risks of dementia (adjusted HR = 2·01, p = 0·015, and were older (58·5 ± 17·7 vs. 53·7 ± 18·6, p = 0·020 at the time of PD diagnosis than PD patients with pre-diagnostic depression. The higher incident rate of accidental injury was also noted in PD patients with post-diagnostic depression (48·1 vs. 31·3/1000 person-years, HR = 1·60, p = 0·041, but no statistical significance was observed in the adjusted hazard ratio (HR (HR = 1·52, p = 0·069. Otherwise, mortality, motor condition and severity of depression revealed no significant difference between PD patients with pre-diagnostic and post-diagnostic depression.PD patients with post-diagnostic depression had higher incidence of dementia, implying different onset time of depression could be associated with different subtypes and spreading routes which should be examined in follow-up studies.

  4. Somatosensory abnormalities in atypical odontalgia: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Thomas; Leijon, Göran; Svensson, Peter

    2008-10-15

    Somatosensory function in patients with persistent idiopathic types of orofacial pain like atypical odontalgia (AO) is not well described. This study tested the hypothesis that AO patients have significantly more somatosensory abnormalities than age- and sex-matched controls. Forty-six AO patients and 35 controls participated. Inclusion criteria for AO were pain in a region where a tooth had been endodontically or surgically treated, persistent pain >6 months, and lack of clinical and radiological findings. The examination included qualitative tests and a battery of intraoral quantitative sensory testing (QST). Most AO patients (85%) had qualitative somatosensory abnormality compared with few controls (14%). The most common qualitative abnormalities in AO patients were found with pin-prick 67.4%, cold 47.8%, and touch 46.5% compared with 11.4%, 8.6%, and 2.9%, respectively, in the control group (P<0.001). Between-group differences were seen for many intraoral QST: mechanical detection threshold, mechanical pain threshold (pinprick), dynamic mechanical allodynia (brush), dynamic mechanical allodynia (vibration), wind-up ratio, and pressure pain threshold (P<0.01). In the trigeminal area, between-group differences in thermal thresholds were nonsignificant while differences in cold detection at the thenar eminence were significant. Individual somatosensory profiles revealed complex patterns with hyper- and hyposensitivity to intraoral QST. Between-group differences in pressure pain thresholds (P<0.02) were observed at the thenar eminence. In conclusion, significant abnormalities in intraoral somatosensory function were observed in AO, which may reflect peripheral and central sensitization of trigeminal pathways. More generalized sensitization of the nociceptive system may also be part of AO pathophysiology.

  5. The Canadian Association for the Study of International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Canadian Association for the Study of International Development (CASID) was founded in 1989 to provide a forum for Canadian scholars, policymakers, and civil society to meet and exchange views. It is the only Canadian learned society devoted to the study of international development. The Association's journal, the ...

  6. Quantity and quality of retrograde menstruation: a case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that menstruation is associated with a higher concentration of endometrial cells in peritoneal fluid(PF) and with increased white and red blood cell concentration in PF when compared to nonmenstrual phases of the cycle. Methods PF was obtained at laparoscopy from 107 women with endometriosis (n = 59) and controls with a normal pelvis (n = 48) during the luteal (n = 46), follicular (n = 38) or menstrual (n = 23) phase of the cycle. Endometriosis was classified according to the classification of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (rAFS into minimal (n = 25), mild(n = 20), moderate(n = 6) and severe(n = 8) disease. Cell counts (leucocytes, erythrocytes, thrombocytes) were determined on a cell counter. In a subset of 32 patients (13 controls and 19 women with endometriosis), PF was fixed, processed and thinlayers were prepared and stained with Papanicolaou method and with immunocytochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against cytokeratin 7(CK 7), CK 8/18, Ber-Ep4, vimentin, calretinin and CD68. Ber-Ep4 is a marker for cells with epithelial origin (in some cases for mesothelial cells as well). CD68 is specific for cells from monocyte/macrophage lineage; CK7 and CK8/18 are markers for both endometrial epithelial and mesothelial cells, whereas calretinin and vimentin are markers for both endometrial stromal and mesothelial cells. Results In comparison with the nonmenstrual phase of the cycle, analysis of PF during menstruation showed an increased concentration of leucocytes (3.3 × 109/L vs 0.8 × 109/L, P = 0.03), erythrocytes (0.3 × 1012/L vs 0.02 × 1012/L, P = 0.006), hematocrit (0.03 L/L vs 0.003 L/L, P = 0.01) and hemoglobin (0.8 g/dL vs 0.1 g/dL, P = 0.01). Mesothelial cells stained positively with CK7, CK8/18, vimentin, and calretinin. Cells positive for Ber-Ep4 were not observed, except in 2 patients with endometriosis investigated during menses. In all patients 50-98% of single cells

  7. CD271+ stem cell expression correlates with melanoma development and relapse in a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Switten Nielsen, Patricia; Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Steiniche, Torben

    CD271+ stem cell expression correlates with melanoma development and relapse in a case-control study......CD271+ stem cell expression correlates with melanoma development and relapse in a case-control study...

  8. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies: Data collection, analysis and reporting results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verani, Jennifer R; Baqui, Abdullah H; Broome, Claire V; Cherian, Thomas; Cohen, Cheryl; Farrar, Jennifer L; Feikin, Daniel R; Groome, Michelle J; Hajjeh, Rana A; Johnson, Hope L; Madhi, Shabir A; Mulholland, Kim; O'Brien, Katherine L; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M; Rodrigues, Laura C; Santosham, Mathuram; Scott, J Anthony; Smith, Peter G; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tate, Jacqueline E; Victor, J Chris; Whitney, Cynthia G; Zaidi, Anita K; Zell, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-05

    The case-control methodology is frequently used to evaluate vaccine effectiveness post-licensure. The results of such studies provide important insight into the level of protection afforded by vaccines in a 'real world' context, and are commonly used to guide vaccine policy decisions. However, the potential for bias and confounding are important limitations to this method, and the results of a poorly conducted or incorrectly interpreted case-control study can mislead policies. In 2012, a group of experts met to review recent experience with case-control studies evaluating vaccine effectiveness; we summarize the recommendations of that group regarding best practices for data collection, analysis, and presentation of the results of case-control vaccine effectiveness studies. Vaccination status is the primary exposure of interest, but can be challenging to assess accurately and with minimal bias. Investigators should understand factors associated with vaccination as well as the availability of documented vaccination status in the study context; case-control studies may not be a valid method for evaluating vaccine effectiveness in settings where many children lack a documented immunization history. To avoid bias, it is essential to use the same methods and effort gathering vaccination data from cases and controls. Variables that may confound the association between illness and vaccination are also important to capture as completely as possible, and where relevant, adjust for in the analysis according to the analytic plan. In presenting results from case-control vaccine effectiveness studies, investigators should describe enrollment among eligible cases and controls as well as the proportion with no documented vaccine history. Emphasis should be placed on confidence intervals, rather than point estimates, of vaccine effectiveness. Case-control studies are a useful approach for evaluating vaccine effectiveness; however careful attention must be paid to the collection

  9. The case-control study: a primer for the obstetrician-gynecologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipert, J F; Grimes, D A

    1994-07-01

    Case-control studies begin at the end. Two groups of patients, those with disease (cases) and those without (controls), are compared to determine the degree of exposure to a presumed risk factor. This research method is commonly used to study rare diseases or diseases that take years to develop. If a higher proportion of cases than controls has the exposure of interest, the exposure may be associated with illness. The strength of this association is measured by an "odds ratio," which is a good proxy for a relative risk when the illness in question is infrequent. Although some case-control studies are easy to do, all are easy to do poorly, especially because of selection bias in the choice of controls. A greater familiarity with the case-control study should enable obstetrician-gynecologists to evaluate critically published studies using this research method.

  10. General practitioner notes as a source of information for case-control studies in young women. UK National Case-Control Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilvers, C E; Pike, M C; Taylor, C N; Hermon, C; Crossley, B; Smith, S J

    1994-02-01

    The UK National Case-Control Study was carried out to investigate the relationship between oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk. This study investigates whether general practitioner notes could be used as the sole data source for epidemiological studies of young women and what the effect would be on non-response and recall bias. Case-control study with data on gynaecological, obstetric, and contraceptive history collected at interview and from general practitioners' notes. Information from these two sources was compared. This was a population-based study. Altogether 755 women with breast cancer aged under 36 years at diagnosis, each with an age-matched control, participated in the study. Response rates at interview were 72% and 89% for cases and controls but GP data were available for 90% of the 1049 case and first-selected control pairs. There was generally good agreement between the two data sources with respect to obstetric history and gynaecological procedures (hysterectomy, oophorectomy, and tubal ligation). The use of intra-uterine devices, or diaphragm, and partner's vasectomy were not reliably recorded in the GP's notes. The overall results of the UK study would have been qualitatively the same with respect to the relationship between oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk if GP notes only had been used, in spite of the fact that only about half of all oral contraceptive usage was recorded in the notes. Response rates would have been higher, recall bias eliminated, and the cost of the study halved. When planning case-control studies in young women, the possibility of using GP notes as the primary data source should be considered. Lack of data on potential confounding factors is a possible drawback to such use. The practice of destroying GP's notes shortly after the death of patients seriously restricts the possibility of using these notes when studying rapidly fatal conditions.

  11. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer - I. Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negri, E; Ron, E; Franceschi, S; Dal Maso, L; Mark, SD; Preston-Martin, S; McTiernan, A; Kolonel, L; Kleinerman, R; Land, C; Jin, F; Wingren, G; Galanti, MR; Hallquist, A; Glattre, E; Lund, E; Levi, F; Linos, D; Braga, C; La Vecchia, C

    Objective. Because the etiology of thyroid cancer is not well described, we conducted a pooled analysis of all published case-control studies, as well as two identified unpublished studies. This paper describes the major characteristics of the 14 studies included in the analysis, as well as the

  12. High prevalence of eating disorders in narcolepsy with cataplexy: a case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuyn, H.A.; Swinkels, S.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Renier, W.O.; Furer, J.W.; Rijnders, C.A.; Hodiamont, P.P.; Overeem, S.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of and symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy. DESIGN: We performed a case-control study comparing symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy versus healthy population controls, using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in

  13. High prevalence of eating disorders in narcolepsy with cataplexy: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Renier, W.O.; Furer, J.W.; Rijnders, C.A.T.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Overeem, S.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To study the prevalence of and symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy. Design: We performed a case-control study comparing symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy versus healthy population controls, using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment

  14. Anorexia nervosa versus bulimia nervosa : differences based on retrospective correlates in a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, Barbara C.; Goncalves, Sonia F.; Martins, Carla; Brandao, Isabel; Roma-Torres, Antonio; Hoek, Hans W.; Machado, Paulo P.

    This study is the result of two Portuguese case-control studies that examined the replication of retrospective correlates and preceding life events in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) development. This study aims to identify retrospective correlates that distinguish AN and BN A

  15. Population-based case control study of the safety of sulfasalazine use during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente; Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.

    2001-01-01

    Background: We studied the human teratogenic risk of sulfasalazine because this drug interferes with folate metabolism. Methods: Case control study within the Hungarian Case Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980–1996; based on 22 865 new-born infants or foetuses with congenital...... abnormalities, and 38 151 babies without any detected congenital abnormalities (control group). Results: Seventeen pregnant women (0.07%) were treated with sulfasalazine in the case group, and 26 (0.07%) in the control group. The overall adjusted adds ratio of congenital abnormalities after sulfasalazine...

  16. Placental histology in spontaneous and indicated preterm birth: A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Tobias A. J.; van Vliet, Elvira O. G.; Benders, Manon J. N.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Franx, Arie; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; Oudijk, Martijn A.

    2016-01-01

    Placental pathology is an important contributor in preterm birth, both spontaneous and indicated. The aim of this study was to describe and compare placental histological features of spontaneous preterm birth versus indicated preterm birth. A case control study was performed at the University

  17. Predictors for failure of vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Corine J M; Nuij, Chelly; Janssen-Rolf, Christel R M; Schuit, Ewoud; Bais, Joke M J; Oei, S. Guid; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify potential predictors for failed vacuum-assisted delivery. Study design Retrospective case-control study conducted in two perinatal centers in the Netherlands. Cases were women who underwent a failed vacuum-assisted delivery between 1997 and 2011. A failed vacuum extraction was

  18. Agreement between oral contraceptive users and prescribers: implications for case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.E. van Leeuwen; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); M.H. Camps; B.A. Kempers; M.F. Mentjens; H.B. Mulder; E.G. Schouten (Evert); R.M.L. Zwijsen; M.A. Rookus (Matti)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractCase-control studies examining the effects of oral contraceptives (OC) are prone to misclassification bias due to errors in assessment of OC use. Concern about inaccurate exposure histories has increased since current studies require women to recall OC use over prolonged periods of time.

  19. Placental histology in spontaneous and indicated preterm birth : A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Tobias A J; van Vliet, Elvira O G; Benders, Manon J N|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185214266; Mol, Ben Willem J; Franx, Arie; Nikkels, Peter G J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074234692; Oudijk, Martijn A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/246958898

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Placental pathology is an important contributor in preterm birth, both spontaneous and indicated. The aim of this study was to describe and compare placental histological features of spontaneous preterm birth versus indicated preterm birth. METHODS: A case control study was performed

  20. National Case-Control Study of Homicide Offending and Methamphetamine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretesky, Paul B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between methamphetamine use and homicide. To carry out this study, data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities were combined to create a case-control design. The main exposure measure is methamphetamine use and the…

  1. Exposure to bacterial products lipopolysaccharide and flagellin and hepatocellular carcinoma : A nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedirko, Veronika; Tran, Hao Quang; Gewirtz, Andrew T.; Stepien, Magdalena; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Carbonnel, Franck; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Castaño, José María Huerta; Barricarte, Aurelio; Sánchez, María José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J. Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sjöberg, Klas; Ohlsson, Bodil; Hemmingsson, Oskar; Werner, Mårten; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Aune, Dagfinn; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda

    2017-01-01

    Background: Leakage of bacterial products across the gut barrier may play a role in liver diseases which often precede the development of liver cancer. However, human studies, particularly from prospective settings, are lacking. Methods: We used a case-control study design nested within a large

  2. Psychosocial and Psychiatric Factors Associated with Adolescent Suicide: A Case-Control Psychological Autopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portzky, Gwendolyn; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors of adolescent suicide by means of a case-control psychological autopsy study. Relatives and other informants of 19 suicide victims and 19 matched psychiatric controls were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview schedule. Psychiatric controls included…

  3. Macrosomia: a case-control study of risk factors and outcome | Anya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Macrosomia is associated with increased risk of maternal and perinatal morbidity. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors and assess impact of macrosomia on maternal and perinatal outcome. Methods: A five-year retrospective case-control study was undertaken at a referral centre. Macrosomia was ...

  4. Intrauterine exposure to carbamazepine and specific congenital malformations : systematic review and case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, Janneke; Dolk, Helen; Loane, Maria A.; Morris, Joan K.; Wellesley, Diana; Garne, Ester; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify specific major congenital malformations associated with use of carbamazepine in the first trimester of pregnancy. Design A review of all published cohort studies to identify key indications and a population based case-control study to test these indications. Setting Review of

  5. Case-Control Genome-Wide Association Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah; Ripke, Stephan; Anney, Richard J. L.; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Kent, Lindsey; Holmans, Peter; Middleton, Frank; Thapar, Anita; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Daly, Mark; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Walitza, Susanne; Freitag, Christine; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Rothenberger, Aribert; Hawi, Ziarih; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are needed. Method: We used case-control analyses of 896 cases…

  6. A case-control study of risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in Henan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J Y; Wang, X; Han, S G; Zhuang, H

    1998-12-01

    A case-control study was carried out to investigate risk factors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Henan, China. A total of 152 patients with HCC and 115 control patients with nonhepatic disease were included in this study. The risk factor analysis indicated that individual history of liver disease (odds ratio [OR]=11.77; 95% confidence interval [CI]=3.94-35.18), family history of liver disease (OR=11.80, 95% CI=2.75-50.61), drinking of alcohol (OR=1.06, 95% CI=1.02-1.10), corn consumption (OR=19.43, 95% CI=3.67-102.98), peanut and peanut oil consumption (OR=13.75, 95% CI=3.69-51.16), and infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (OR=44.59, 95% CI=12.54-158.49) were significantly different between the case and control groups (P case-control study was performed. One hundred thirteen of 152 HCC patients were randomly selected to be pair-matched by sex and age (+/-5 years) with the controls with nonhepatic disease. The results from the 1:1 pair-matched case-control study were consistent with the results from the group-matched case-control study. The findings of this study suggest that hepatitis virus (HBV, HCV) infection, drinking of alcohol, and dietary exposure to aflatoxin are likely etiologic agents of HCC in Henan, China.

  7. Matched case-control studies: a review of reported statistical methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niven DJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Niven1, Luc R Berthiaume2, Gordon H Fick1, Kevin B Laupland11Department of Critical Care Medicine, Peter Lougheed Centre, Calgary, 2Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Case-control studies are a common and efficient means of studying rare diseases or illnesses with long latency periods. Matching of cases and controls is frequently employed to control the effects of known potential confounding variables. The analysis of matched data requires specific statistical methods.Methods: The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of published, peer reviewed matched case-control studies that used statistical methods appropriate for matched data. Using a comprehensive set of search criteria we identified 37 matched case-control studies for detailed analysis.Results: Among these 37 articles, only 16 studies were analyzed with proper statistical techniques (43%. Studies that were properly analyzed were more likely to have included case patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease compared to those that did not use proper statistics (10/16 or 63%, versus 5/21 or 24%, P = 0.02. They were also more likely to have matched multiple controls for each case (14/16 or 88%, versus 13/21 or 62%, P = 0.08. In addition, studies with properly analyzed data were more likely to have been published in a journal with an impact factor listed in the top 100 according to the Journal Citation Reports index (12/16 or 69%, versus 1/21 or 5%, P ≤ 0.0001.Conclusion: The findings of this study raise concern that the majority of matched case-control studies report results that are derived from improper statistical analyses. This may lead to errors in estimating the relationship between a disease and exposure, as well as the incorrect adaptation of emerging medical literature.Keywords: case-control, matched, dependent data, statistics

  8. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2015-01-01

    There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether body

  9. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether

  10. A case-control study of lung cancer nested in a cohort of European asphalt workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsson, A.; Kromhout, H.; Agostini, M.; Hansen, J.; Funch Lassen, C.; Johansen, C.; Kjaerheim, K.; Langard, S.; Stucker, I.; Ahrens, W.; Behrens, T.; Lindbohm, M-J.; Heikkila, P.; Heederik, D.; Portengen, L.; Shaham, J.; Ferro, G.; de Vocht, F.; Burstyn, I.; Boffetta, P.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of European asphalt workers in which an increase in lung cancer risk has been reported among workers exposed to airborne bitumen fume, although potential bias and confounding were not fully addressed. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the

  11. Microbial Characteristics of Peri-Implantitis : A Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Y C M; Eijsbouts, H V L C; Winkel, E G; van Winkelhoff, A J

    BACKGROUND: Aim of this case-control study was to compare oral microbiological characteristics of subjects with healthy peri-implant conditions and subjects with peri-implantitis and to explore the influence of various patient-related and implant-related factors on the microbiological

  12. Toxoplasmosis gondii and schizophrenia: a case control study in a low Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence Mexican population

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are conflicting reports concerning the association of T. gondii infection and schizophrenia. Therefore, we determined such association in a Mexican population of Mestizo ethnicity. Through a case-control study design, 50 schizophrenic patients and 150 control subjects matched by gender, age, r...

  13. A case-control study of blastocystis hominis among Iranian population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: A case-control study was conducted to investigate the epidemiology and clinical features of Blastocystis hominis among Iranian patients with and without GI symptoms. Methods: Six hundred and seventy patients with GI and Six hundred and seventy patients without GI symptoms were enrolled as cases and ...

  14. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. VI. Fish and shellfish consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosetti, C; Kolonel, L; Negri, E; Ron, E; Franceschi, S; Maso, LD; Galanti, MR; Mark, SD; Preston-Martin, S; McTiernan, A; Land, C; Jin, F; Wingren, G; Hallquist, A; Glattre, E; Lund, E; Levi, F; Linos, D; Vecchia, CL

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To better understand the role of fish and shellfish on thyroid cancer risk, we systematically re-analyzed the original data from 13 case-control studies conducted in the US, Japan, China, and Europe. Methods: A total of 2497 cases (2023 women, 474 men) and 4337 controls (3268 women, 1069

  15. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe-García, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have problems of food selectivity, implying risks of nutritional deficiencies. The aim was to compare intakes of macro and micronutrients and body mass index in ASD and typically developing (TD) children. In a case--control study, 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements were completed for ASD…

  16. Dientamoeba fragilis and chronic abdominal pain in children: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marin J.; Korterink, Judith J.; Benninga, Marc A.; Hilbink, Mirrian; Widdershoven, J.; Deckers-Kocken, Judith M.

    2014-01-01

    The association between Dientamoeba (D.) fragilis and the aetiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) in children is unclear. The aim of this retrospective case-control study is to clarify the clinical relevance of D. fragilis in children with chronic abdominal pain. From April 2011

  17. Case-Control Study Of Risk Factors For Breast Cancer In Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the risk factors for breast cancer among women in Midwestern and Southeastern Nigeria. Design: A case control study. Setting: University of Benin Teaching hospital, Benin City and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt in Nigeria. Subjects: Fifty one women with diagnosis of ...

  18. Exposure to antiepileptic drugs and the risk of hip fracture: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Andersen, Morten; Nymark, Tine

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increases the risk of hip fracture. METHODS: We performed a case-control study using data from the Funen County (population 2004: 475,000) hip fracture register. Cases (n = 7,557) were all patients admitted to county hospitals ...

  19. Chronic infection with Achromobacter xylosoxidans in cystic fibrosis patients; a retrospective case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne Hansen, Christine; Pressler, Tacjana; Høiby, Niels

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic infection of the airways with Achromobacter xylosoxidans have become more frequent. The pathogenic role of this is yet unclear. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study of all patients chronically infected with A. xylosoxidans for at least 3 years. 15...

  20. Risk factors for abdominal wound dehiscence in children: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. van Ramshorst (Gabrielle); N.E. Salu (Nathalie); N.M.A. Bax (Klaas); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); E. van Heurn (Ernst); D.C. Aronson (Daniel); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In the limited literature concerning abdominal wound dehiscence after laparotomy in children, reported incidences range between 0.2-1.2% with associated mortality rates of 8-45%. The goal of this retrospective case-control study was to identify major risk factors for

  1. Power for genetic association study of human longevity using the case-control design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of the popular case-control design in gene-longevity association studies needs to be verified because, different from a binary trait, longevity represents only the extreme end of the continuous life span distribution without a clear cutoff for defining the phenotype. In this paper...

  2. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Lenters, M.; Duijster, D.; Bruist, M.A.; Thijssen, J.; de Ruiter, C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and

  3. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-Lenters, M. de; Duijster, D.; Bruist, M.A.; Thijssen, J.; Ruiter, C. de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and

  4. Exposure assessment for a nested case-control study of lung cancer among European asphalt workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agostini, M.; Ferro, G.; Olsson, A.; Burstyn, I.; de Vocht, F.; Hansen, J.; Funch Lassen, C.; Johansen, C.; Kjaerheim, K.; Langard, S.; Stucker, I.; Ahrens, W.; Behrens, T.; Lindbohm, M-J.; Heikkila, P.; Heederik, D.; Portengen, L.; Shaham, J.; Boffetta, P.; Kromhout, H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Development of a method for retrospective assessment of exposure to bitumen fume, bitumen condensate, organic vapour, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and co-exposures to known or suspected lung carcinogens for a nested case-control study of lung cancer mortality among European asphalt

  5. Risk factors for abdominal wound dehiscence in children: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ramshorst, G.H.; Salu, N.E.; Bax, N.M.A.; Hop, W.C.J.; van Heurn, E.; Aronson, D.C.; Lange, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In the limited literature concerning abdominal wound dehiscence after laparotomy in children, reported incidences range between 0.2-1.2% with associated mortality rates of 8-45%. The goal of this retrospective case-control study was to identify major risk factors for abdominal wound

  6. Risk Factors for Abdominal Wound Dehiscence in Children: A Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ramshorst, Gabriëlle H.; Salu, Nathalie E.; Bax, Nikolaas M. A.; Hop, Wim C. J.; van Heurn, Ernst; Aronson, Daniel C.; Lange, Johan F.

    2009-01-01

    In the limited literature concerning abdominal wound dehiscence after laparotomy in children, reported incidences range between 0.2-1.2% with associated mortality rates of 8-45%. The goal of this retrospective case-control study was to identify major risk factors for abdominal wound dehiscence in

  7. Step performance in persons with rheumatoid arthritis: a case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, E.; Lankveld, W. van; Eggermont, F.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors that could lead to falls in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with RA (n=15) and age- and sex-matched controls (n=15; mean +/- SD age, 60.5 +/- 7.1y). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN

  8. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies: Preparation, design, and enrollment of cases and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verani, Jennifer R; Baqui, Abdullah H; Broome, Claire V; Cherian, Thomas; Cohen, Cheryl; Farrar, Jennifer L; Feikin, Daniel R; Groome, Michelle J; Hajjeh, Rana A; Johnson, Hope L; Madhi, Shabir A; Mulholland, Kim; O'Brien, Katherine L; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M; Rodrigues, Laura C; Santosham, Mathuram; Scott, J Anthony; Smith, Peter G; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tate, Jacqueline E; Victor, J Chris; Whitney, Cynthia G; Zaidi, Anita K; Zell, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-05

    Case-control studies are commonly used to evaluate effectiveness of licensed vaccines after deployment in public health programs. Such studies can provide policy-relevant data on vaccine performance under 'real world' conditions, contributing to the evidence base to support and sustain introduction of new vaccines. However, case-control studies do not measure the impact of vaccine introduction on disease at a population level, and are subject to bias and confounding, which may lead to inaccurate results that can misinform policy decisions. In 2012, a group of experts met to review recent experience with case-control studies evaluating the effectiveness of several vaccines; here we summarize the recommendations of that group regarding best practices for planning, design and enrollment of cases and controls. Rigorous planning and preparation should focus on understanding the study context including healthcare-seeking and vaccination practices. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies are best carried out soon after vaccine introduction because high coverage creates strong potential for confounding. Endpoints specific to the vaccine target are preferable to non-specific clinical syndromes since the proportion of non-specific outcomes preventable through vaccination may vary over time and place, leading to potentially confusing results. Controls should be representative of the source population from which cases arise, and are generally recruited from the community or health facilities where cases are enrolled. Matching of controls to cases for potential confounding factors is commonly used, although should be reserved for a limited number of key variables believed to be linked to both vaccination and disease. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies can provide information useful to guide policy decisions and vaccine development, however rigorous preparation and design is essential. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Excess relative risk as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chung Lee

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists often use ratio-type indices (rate ratio, risk ratio and odds ratio to quantify the association between exposure and disease. By comparison, less attention has been paid to effect measures on a difference scale (excess rate or excess risk. The excess relative risk (ERR used primarily by radiation epidemiologists is of peculiar interest here, in that it involves both difference and ratio operations. The ERR index (but not the difference-type indices is estimable in case-control studies. Using the theory of sufficient component cause model, the author shows that when there is no mechanistic interaction (no synergism in the sufficient cause sense between the exposure under study and the stratifying variable, the ERR index (but not the ratio-type indices in a rare-disease case-control setting should remain constant across strata and can therefore be regarded as a common effect parameter. By exploiting this homogeneity property, the related attributable fraction indices can also be estimated with greater precision. The author demonstrates the methodology (SAS codes provided using a case-control dataset, and shows that ERR preserves the logical properties of the ratio-type indices. In light of the many desirable properties of the ERR index, the author advocates its use as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

  10. Study designs may influence results: the problems with questionnaire-based case-control studies on the epidemiology of glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Christoffer; Schüz, Joachim; Andreasen, Anne-Marie Serena; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-03-28

    Glioma is a rare brain tumour with a very poor prognosis and the search for modifiable factors is intense. We reviewed the literature concerning risk factors for glioma obtained in case-control designed epidemiological studies in order to discuss the influence of this methodology on the observed results. When reviewing the association between three exposures, medical radiation, exogenous hormone use and allergy, we critically appraised the evidence from both case-control and cohort studies. For medical radiation and hormone replacement therapy (HRT), questionnaire-based case-control studies appeared to show an inverse association, whereas nested case-control and cohort studies showed no association. For allergies, the inverse association was observed irrespective of study design. We recommend that the questionnaire-based case-control design be placed lower in the hierarchy of studies for establishing cause-and-effect for diseases such as glioma. We suggest that a state-of-the-art case-control study should, as a minimum, be accompanied by extensive validation of the exposure assessment methods and the representativeness of the study sample with regard to the exposures of interest. Otherwise, such studies cannot be regarded as 'hypothesis testing' but only 'hypothesis generating'. We consider that this holds true for all questionnaire-based case-control studies on cancer and other chronic diseases, although perhaps not to the same extent for each exposure-outcome combination.

  11. Practical Approaches For Determination Of Sample Size In Paired Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Demirel, Neslihan; Ozlem EGE ORUC; Gurler, Selma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cross-over design or paired case control studies that are using in clinical studies are the methods of design of experiments which requires dependent samples. The problem of sample size determination is generally difficult step of planning the statistical design. The aim of this study is to provide the researchers a practical approach for determining the sample size in paired control studies. Material and Methods: In this study, determination of sample size is mentioned in detail i...

  12. Reducing selection bias in case-control studies from rare disease registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistry Pramod K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical research of rare diseases, where small patient numbers and disease heterogeneity limit study design options, registries are a valuable resource for demographic and outcome information. However, in contrast to prospective, randomized clinical trials, the observational design of registries is prone to introduce selection bias and negatively impact the validity of data analyses. The objective of the study was to demonstrate the utility of case-control matching and the risk-set method in order to control bias in data from a rare disease registry. Data from the International Collaborative Gaucher Group (ICGG Gaucher Registry were used as an example. Methods A case-control matching analysis using the risk-set method was conducted to identify two groups of patients with type 1 Gaucher disease in the ICGG Gaucher Registry: patients with avascular osteonecrosis (AVN and those without AVN. The frequency distributions of gender, decade of birth, treatment status, and splenectomy status were presented for cases and controls before and after matching. Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each variable before and after matching. Results The application of case-control matching methodology results in cohorts of cases (i.e., patients with AVN and controls (i.e., patients without AVN who have comparable distributions for four common parameters used in subject selection: gender, year of birth (age, treatment status, and splenectomy status. Matching resulted in odds ratios of approximately 1.00, indicating no bias. Conclusions We demonstrated bias in case-control selection in subjects from a prototype rare disease registry and used case-control matching to minimize this bias. Therefore, this approach appears useful to study cohorts of heterogeneous patients in rare disease registries.

  13. [Application of nested case-control study on safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yubin; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The nested case-control study design (or the case-control in a cohort study) is described here as a new study design used in safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection. In the nested case-control study, cases of a disease that occur in a defined cohort are identified and, for each, a specified number of matched controls is selected from among those in the cohort who have not developed the disease by the time of disease occurrence in the case. For many research questions, the nested case-control design potentially offers impressive reductions in costs and efforts of data collection and analysis compared with the full cohort approach, with relatively minor loss in statistical efficiency. The nested case-control design is particularly advantageous for studies in safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection. Some examples of the application of nested case-control study were given.

  14. Family History as a Risk for Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    A Safaee; Moghimi Dehkordi, B; Fatemi, SR; Maserat, E; Ghafarnejad, F; Zali, MR

    2011-01-01

    Background Although, family history of cancer is an important risk factor for upper gastrointestinal cancers development, but limited information is available on the upper gastrointestinal cancers associated with family history in Iran. The purpose of this study was to define upper gastrointestinal cancers risk associated with family history of cancer. Methods This study was conducted as a case control study. A total number of 1,010 cases of upper gastrointestinal cancer and 1,010 healthy con...

  15. Prognosis for patients diagnosed with pregnancy-associated breast cancer: a paired case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Wagner Brant; Brandão, Eduardo Carvalho; Soares, Aleida Nazareth; Lucena, Clécio Enio Murta de; Antunes, Carlos Maurício Figueiredo

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that the occurrence of pregnancy concomitantly with a diagnosis of breast cancer may affect the evolution of the neoplasia. The present study aimed to compare pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) patients with non-pregnant cancer patients (controls) in relation to the time taken to diagnose the disease, tumor characteristics and mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective, paired case-control study was conducted at the Hospital da...

  16. Evaluating the use of friend or family controls in epidemiologic case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Charlie; Cockburn, Myles; Cozen, Wendy; Voutsinas, Jenna; Lacey, James V; Luo, Jianning; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Bernstein, Leslie; Wang, Sophia S

    2017-02-01

    Traditional methodologies for identifying and recruiting controls in epidemiologic case-control studies, such as random digit dialing or neighborhood walk, suffer from declining response rates. Here, we revisit the feasibility and comparability of using alternative sources of controls, specifically friend and family controls. We recruited from a recently completed case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) among women in Los Angeles County where controls from the parent study were ascertained by neighborhood walk. We calculated participation rates and compared questionnaire responses between the friend/family controls and the original matched controls from the parent study. Of the 182 NHL case patients contacted, 111 (61%) agreed to participate in our feasibility study. 70 (63%) provided contact information for potential friend and/or family member controls. We were able to successfully contact and recruit a friend/family member for 92% of the case patients. This represented 46 friend controls and 54 family controls. Family controls significantly differed from original matched controls by sex and household income. Other characteristics were similar between friend controls and the original study's neighborhood controls. The apparent comparability of neighborhood controls to friend and family controls among respondents in this study suggests that these alternative methods of control identification can serve as a complementary source of eligible controls in epidemiologic case-control studies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Determinants of impaired growth among hospitalized children: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Marilia de Carvalho Lima; Maria Eugênia Farias Almeida Motta; Eliane Cavalcanti Santos; Gisélia Alves Pontes da Silva

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: Protein energy malnutrition constitutes a public health problem, especially in less affluent countries. The identification of amenable predictive risk factors is of major importance for policy makers to plan interventions to reduce infant malnutrition. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for protein energy malnutrition among hospitalized low-income children aged 6 to 24 months. TYPE OF STUDY: Case-control study. SETTING: Two public hospitals in Recife, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: The cases...

  18. Dietary folates and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Tavani, A; Malerba, S.; Pelucchi, C.; Dal Maso, L; Zucchetto, A; Serraino, D; Levi, F.; Montella, M.; De Franceschi, S.; Zambon, A.; La Vecchia, C

    2017-01-01

    Background Folate deficiency leads to DNA damage and inadequate repair, caused by a decreased synthesis of thymidylate and purines. We analyzed the relationship between dietary folate intake and the risk of several cancers. Patients and methods The study is based on a network of case-control studies conducted in Italy and Switzerland in 1991-2009. The odds ratios (ORs) for dietary folate intake were estimated by multiple logistic regression models, adjusted for major identified confounding fa...

  19. Campylobacteriosis in New Zealand: results of a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhart-Phillips, J.; Walker, N.; Garrett, N; Bell, D; Sinclair, D; Rainger, W; Bates, M.

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify and assess the contributions of major risk factors for campylobacteriosis in New Zealand. DESIGN: Case-control study. Home interviews were conducted over nine months using a standardised questionnaire to assess recent food consumption and other exposures. SETTING: Four centres in New Zealand with high notification rates of campylobacter infections--Auckland, Hamilton, Wellington, and Christchurch. PARTICIPANTS: Case patients were 621 people notified between 1 June...

  20. Association between Alcohol Consumption, Folate Intake, and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Winta Yellow; Bamlet, William R.; Ann L Oberg; Anderson, Kristin E.; Olson, Janet E.; Rashmi Sinha; Petersen, Gloria M.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Jansen, Rick J.

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal common cancers affecting both men and women, representing about 3% of all new cancer cases in the United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of pancreatic cancer risk with alcohol consumption as well as folate intake. We performed a case-control study of 384 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from May 2004 to December 2009 and 983 primary care healthy controls in a largely white population (>96%). Our findings sho...

  1. Dairy consumption and risk of stroke: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Khosravi-Boroujeni; Mohammad Saadatnia; Forough Shakeri; Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli; Parvane Saneei; Ahmad Esmaillzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: It remains controversial if dairy product intake is associated with risk of stroke. Limited information is available from Middle East countries in this regard. This case-control study was conducted to assess the relationship between dairy consumption and risk of stroke in Iranian adults. Methods: In this study, 195 stroke patients (recognized based on clinical findings and computed tomography scan) hospitalized in neurology ward of Alzahra University Hospital were enrolled. Co...

  2. Reproductive life disorders in Italian celiac women. A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Martinelli, Domenico; Fortunato, Francesca; Tafuri, Silvio; Germinario, Cinzia A; Prato, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study is to explore the association between celiac disease and menstrual cycle, gestation and puerperal disorders. Methods The association between celiac disease and menstrual cycle, gestation and puerperal disorders in a sample of 62 childbearing age women (15-49 age) was assessed within an age and town of residence matched case-control study conducted in 2008. Main outcome measures were the presence of one or more disorders in menstrual cycle and the pres...

  3. Nipple candidiasis among breastfeeding mothers. Case-control study of predisposing factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanguay, K. E.; McBean, M. R.; Jain, E.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors that predispose breastfeeding mothers to nipple candidiasis. DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study of women attending the Calgary Breastfeeding Clinic. SETTING: Ambulatory breastfeeding referral centre. PARTICIPANTS: All women (105) who attended the clinic during a 3.5-month study period. All were referred for problems with breastfeeding; 27 (the case group) had positive diagnostic criteria for nipple candidiasis. The other 78 formed a control group. MAI...

  4. Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis versus Bacterial Rhinosinusitis with Orbital Complications: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Patorn Piromchai; Sanguansak Thanaviratananich

    2013-01-01

    Background. Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis with orbital complications (IFSwOC) is a life-threatening condition. The incidence of mortality has been reported to be up to 80 percent. This study was conducted to determine the risk factors, presentations, clinical, and imaging findings that could help to manage this condition promptly. Methods. We conducted a case-control study of 100 patients suffering from rhinosinusitis with orbital complications. The risk factors, clinical presentations, radi...

  5. Analysis of Nested Case-Control Study Designs: Revisiting the Inverse Probability Weighting Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ryung S

    2013-11-01

    In nested case-control studies, the most common way to make inference under a proportional hazards model is the conditional logistic approach of Thomas (1977). Inclusion probability methods are more efficient than the conditional logistic approach of Thomas; however, the epidemiology research community has not accepted the methods as a replacement of the Thomas' method. This paper promotes the inverse probability weighting method originally proposed by Samuelsen (1997) in combination with an approximate jackknife standard error that can be easily computed using existing software. Simulation studies demonstrate that this approach yields valid type 1 errors and greater powers than the conditional logistic approach in nested case-control designs across various sample sizes and magnitudes of the hazard ratios. A generalization of the method is also made to incorporate additional matching and the stratified Cox model. The proposed method is illustrated with data from a cohort of children with Wilm's tumor to study the association between histological signatures and relapses.

  6. Canadian consumer battery baseline study : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    This report provided information about the estimated number of consumer and household batteries sold, re-used, stored, recycled, and disposed each year in Canada. The report discussed the ways in which different batteries posed risks to human health and the environment, and legislative trends were also reviewed. Data used in the report were obtained from a literature review as well as through a series of interviews. The study showed that alkaline batteries are the most common primary batteries used by Canadians, followed by zinc carbon batteries. However, lithium primary batteries are gaining in popularity, and silver oxide and zinc air button cell batteries are also used in applications requiring a flat voltage and high energy. Secondary batteries used in laptop computers, and cell phones are often made of nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal-hydroxide, and lithium ion. Small sealed lead batteries are also commonly used in emergency lighting and alarm systems. Annual consumption statistics for all types of batteries were provided. Results of the study showed that the primary battery market is expected to decline. Total units of secondary batteries are expected to increase to 38.6 million units by 2010. The report also used a spreadsheet model to estimate the flow of consumer batteries through the Canadian waste management system. An estimated 347 million consumer batteries were discarded in 2004. By 2010, it is expected that an estimated 494 million units will be discarded by consumers. The study also considered issues related to lead, cadmium, mercury, and nickel disposal and the potential for groundwater contamination. It was concluded that neither Canada nor its provinces or territories have initiated legislative or producer responsibility programs targeting primary or secondary consumer batteries. 79 refs., 37 tabs., 1 fig.

  7. What does the odds ratio estimate in a case-control study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, N

    1993-12-01

    The use of the term 'odds ratio' in reporting the findings of case-control studies is technically correct, but is often misleading. The meaning of the odds ratio estimates obtained in a case-control study differs according to whether controls are selected from person-time at risk (the study base), persons at risk (the base-population at risk at the beginning of follow-up), or survivors (the population at risk at the end of follow-up). These three methods of control selection correspond to estimating the rate ratio, risk ratio, or the odds ratio respectively, by means of calculating the odds ratio in the subjects actually studied. None of these estimation procedures depends on any rare disease assumption. Where the rare disease assumption is relevant is whether the effect which is estimated (e.g. the odds ratio) is approximately equal to some other effect measure of interest (e.g. the risk ratio or rate ratio) in the underlying study base. To avoid confusion on this issue, authors should be encouraged to not only specify the manner in which controls have been selected (e.g. by density sampling) but also the corresponding effect measure which is being estimated (e.g. the rate ratio) by the 'odds ratio' which is obtained in a case-control analysis.

  8. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. Methods We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93. For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83 and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74 for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61 and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47 for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94 and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82 for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63 and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79 for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. Conclusions The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  9. Risk factors for neural tube defects in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Mustafa A M; Murshid, Waleed R; Mohamed, Ashry Gad; Ignacio, Lena C; de Jesus, Julie E; Baabbad, Rubana; El Bushra, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Both genetic and non-genetic environmental factors are involved in the etiology of neural tube defects (NTD) which affect 0.5-2/1000 pregnancies worldwide. This study aimed to explore the risk factors for the development of NTD in Saudi population, and highlight identifiable and preventable causes. Similar studies are scarce in similar populations ofthe Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. This is an unmatched concurrent case-control study including NTD cases born at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh during a 4-year period (2002-2006). The case-control study included 25 cases and 125 controls (case: control ratio of 1:5). Years of formal education, employment, household environment (including availability of air conditioning) and rate of parental consanguinity did not differ between mothers of cases and controls. Significantly higher proportion of mothers of cases had history of stillbirth compared to control mothers (16% vs 4.1%, P=0.02). Also family history of hydrocephalus and congenital anomalies were more prevalent in cases than controls (P values=0.0000 and 0.003, respectively). There was significant protective effect of periconceptional folic acid consumption both prior to conception (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.00-0.07) and during the first 6 weeks of conception (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04-0.39). Further research, including a larger cohort, is required to enable ascertainment of gene-nutrient and gene environment interactions associated with NTD in Saudi Arabia.

  10. A score test for determining sample size in matched case-control studies with categorical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Samiran; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2006-02-01

    The paper considers the problem of determining the number of matched sets in 1 : M matched case-control studies with a categorical exposure having k + 1 categories, k > or = 1. The basic interest lies in constructing a test statistic to test whether the exposure is associated with the disease. Estimates of the k odds ratios for 1 : M matched case-control studies with dichotomous exposure and for 1 : 1 matched case-control studies with exposure at several levels are presented in Breslow and Day (1980), but results holding in full generality were not available so far. We propose a score test for testing the hypothesis of no association between disease and the polychotomous exposure. We exploit the power function of this test statistic to calculate the required number of matched sets to detect specific departures from the null hypothesis of no association. We also consider the situation when there is a natural ordering among the levels of the exposure variable. For ordinal exposure variables, we propose a test for detecting trend in disease risk with increasing levels of the exposure variable. Our methods are illustrated with two datasets, one is a real dataset on colorectal cancer in rats and the other a simulated dataset for studying disease-gene association.

  11. Case-control study of intrapartum care, cerebral palsy, and perinatal death.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffney, G; Sellers, S; Flavell, V; Squier, M.; A Johnson

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between suboptimal intrapartum obstetric care and cerebral palsy or death. DESIGN--Case-control study. SETTING--Oxford Regional Health Authority. SUBJECTS--141 babies who subsequently developed cerebral palsy and 62 who died intrapartum or neonatally, 1984-7. All subjects were born at term of singleton pregnancies and had no congenital anomaly. Two controls, matched for place and time of birth, were selected for each index case. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Ad...

  12. Implant failure and history of failed endodontic treatment: A retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulos, Georgios S; Wolff, Larry F

    2017-11-01

    Residual bacterial biofilm and/or bacteria in planktonic form may be survived in the bone following an extraction of an infected tooth that was endodontically treated unsuccessfully Failed endodontic treatment may be associated with failure of implants to osseointegrate in the same sites. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective case-control study is to examine the risk of implant failure in previous failed endodontic sites. This retrospective case-control study is based on 94 dental records of implants placed at the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry. Dental records of patients who received an implant in sites with previously failed endodontic therapy in the dental school were identified from the electronic database, while control subjects were obtained from the same pool of patients with the requirement to have received an implant in a site that was not endodontically treated. The mean age of the population was 62.89±14.17 years with 57.4% of the sample being females and 42.6% of them being males. In regards to the socio-economic status and dental insurance, 84.0% of this population was classified as low socio-economic status and 68.1% had dental insurance. Tobacco use was self-reported by 9.6% and hypercholesterolemia was the most prevalent systemic medical condition. Dental implant failure was identified in two of the included records (2.1%), both of which were placed in sites with a history of failed endodontic treatment. Within the limitations of this retrospective case-control study, further investigation with a larger population group into implant failure of sites that previously had unsuccessful endodontic treatment would be warranted. Implant failure may be associated with a history of failed endodontic treatment. Key words:Implantology, endodontics, osseointegration, treatment outcome, case-control study.

  13. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, J.; Le, Q. H.; Duong, B. H.; Sun, P.; Pham, H. T.; Ta, V. T.; Kotsopoulos, J.; Narod, S. A.; Ginsburg, O.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK), Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and path...

  14. Association between Alcohol Consumption and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Farah Rahman; Michelle Cotterchio; Cleary, Sean P; Steven Gallinger

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Evidence is inconsistent regarding alcohol and pancreatic cancer risk, although heavy drinking may increase risk. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted using 345 pancreas cancer cases diagnosed 2011?2012 and 1,285 frequency-matched controls from Ontario, Canada. Logistic regression was used to evaluate alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk; data was also stratified by sex and smoking status to assess interaction. Results Alcohol consumption was not assoc...

  15. A case-control study of lung cancer nested in a cohort of European asphalt workers.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Olsson; Kromhout, H; Agostini, M.; Hansen, J.; Funch Lassen, C.; Johansen, C.; Kjaerheim, K.; Langard, S; Stucker, I; Ahrens, W; Behrens, T.; Lindbohm, M-J.; Heikkila, P.; Heederik, D.; Portengen, L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of European asphalt workers in which an increase in lung cancer risk has been reported among workers exposed to airborne bitumen fume, although potential bias and confounding were not fully addressed. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the contribution of exposure to bitumen, other occupational agents, and tobacco smoking to the risk of lung cancer among asphalt workers. METHODS: Cases were cohort members in Denmark, Finland, France, Ge...

  16. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected fro...

  17. Patterned genital injury in cases of rape - A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Ravn, Pernille; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange

    2013-01-01

    A pattern of genital injury that separates trauma seen in sexual assault cases from trauma seen following consensual sexual intercourse has been a matter of debate. This study aimed at clarifying the question by eliminating as many confounders as possible in a prospective, case-control setup...... for detection of genital lesions using the three most commonly used techniques is provided. These results will aid in the interpretation of findings seen when examining sexual assault victims....

  18. Toxoplasmosis and mental retardation: report of a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Caiaffa,Waleska T.; Clea A. Chiari; Figueiredo, Ana R. P.; Fernando Orefice; Antunes,Carlos M.F.

    1993-01-01

    A case-control study evaluating the association between mental retardation and toxoplasmosis was conducted among 845 school children in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Cases (450) were mentally retarded children attending a public school for special education. Controls (395) were children from the regular public school system. Clinical and anthropometric examinations and interviews were carried out to determine risk factors for toxoplasmosis and mental retardation. Diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii ...

  19. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk among women in northern Tanzania: a case?control study

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Irmgard; Hebestreit, Antje; Swai, Britta; Michael B. Krawinkel

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. It was tested within a case?control study in this region whether a specific dietary pattern impacts on the breast cancer risk. Methods A validated semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intake of 115 female breast cancer patients and 230 healthy age-matched women living in the same districts. A logistic regression was performed to estimate breast ...

  20. Arsenic exposure is associated with pediatric pneumonia in rural Bangladesh: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    George, Christine Marie; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Graziano, Joseph H.; Bareng A S Nonyane; Hossain, Lokman; Goswami, Doli; Zaman, Khalequzzaman; Yunus, Mohammad; Khan, Al Fazal; Jahan, Yasmin; Ahmed, Dilruba; Slavkovich, Vesna; Higdon, Melissa; Deloria-Knoll, Maria; O’ Brien, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is the leading cause of death for children under 5 years of age globally, making research on modifiable risk factors for childhood pneumonia important for reducing this disease burden. Millions of children globally are exposed to elevated levels of arsenic in drinking water. However, there is limited data on the association between arsenic exposure and respiratory infections, particularly among pediatric populations. Methods This case control study of 153 pneumonia cases ...

  1. Using cumulative sums of martingale residuals for model checking in nested case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgan, Ørnulf; Zhang, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Standard use of Cox regression requires collection of covariate information for all individuals in a cohort even when only a small fraction of them experiences the event of interest (fail). This may be very expensive for large cohorts. Further in biomarker studies, it will imply a waste of valuable biological material that one may want to save for future studies. A nested case-control study offers a useful alternative. For this design, covariate information is only needed for the failing individuals (cases) and a sample of controls selected from the cases' at-risk sets. Methods based on martingale residuals are useful for checking the fit of Cox's regression model for cohort data. But similar methods have so far not been developed for nested case-control data. In this article, it is described how one may define martingale residuals for nested case-control data, and it is shown how plots and tests based on cumulative sums of martingale residuals may be used to check model fit. The plots and tests may be obtained using available software. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  2. Multiple sclerosis and dental amalgam: case-control study in Ferrara, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casetta, I; Invernizzi, M; Granieri, E

    2001-05-01

    Dental amalgam fillings containing mercury have been suggested as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). In the context of a wider program of investigation into environmental risk factors and MS, we conducted a case-control comparison to investigate the alleged association between MS, dental caries, and amalgam fillings. We included 132 MS patients with onset during the last 16 years and 423 controls, matched to cases for sex, age and residence. Data were collected by a personal interview conducted by trained doctors. Cases and controls gave informed consent. Although we report a trend toward a higher number of dental fillings in cases than controls, odds ratios for subjects with exposures of different duration and with different numbers of amalgam fillings were not statistically significant. This case-control study failed to demonstrate an association between either the number of dental amalgam fillings or the duration of exposure to mercury amalgam and MS. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. CanWEA Pan-Canadian wind integration study paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Martin [GL Garrad Hassan Canada Inc, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gardner, Paul [GL Garrad Hassan and Partners, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Price, Doug; Le, Don [GL Garrad Hassan America, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    GL Garrad Hassan has been contracted by CanWEA to undertake a scoping study for a future Pan-Canadian Wide-Scale Wind Integration Study. The scoping study provides the methodology and the rationale on which the actual wind integration study and request for proposals will be based on. Major system operators and owners of each Canadian Province along with experts involved in major US wind integration studies have been consulted and contributed to the decisional process. This paper provides a summary of the factors considered in the study and outline the actual methodology that was adopted for the future Pan-Canadian wind integration study. (orig.)

  4. Quantifying the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a case-control study of mobile phone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Richardson, Lesley; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2009-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a multinational case-control study of mobile phone use and brain tumor.......To quantitatively assess the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a multinational case-control study of mobile phone use and brain tumor....

  5. The efficacy of Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Henan, China: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, D; Yin, H; Xili, L; Song, J; Wang, Z

    1994-12-01

    A population based case-control study to evaluate Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine efficacy was carried out in Gusi County, Henan Province, China from June to September in 1991. This study showed that the JE vaccine had a strong protective effect. The estimate of the vaccine efficacy was 78% (95% CI = 16-94%). An unimmunized child was at 4.54 times greater risk of developing JE than were fully immunized children during the study period. The present study may have underestimated the vaccine efficacy due to evaluation based on routine vaccination which might have been affected by vaccination management and the local cold chain system.

  6. Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Lee, Chan Wha; Lee, Jeonghee; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Hyeon Suk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although the incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea has rapidly increased over the past decade, few studies have investigated its risk factors. This study examined the risk factors for thyroid cancer in Korean adults. Materials and Methods The study design was a hospital-based case-control study. Between August 2002 and December 2011, a total of 802 thyroid cancer cases out of 34,211 patients screened from the Cancer Screenee. Cohort of the National Cancer Center in South Korea were inc...

  7. Statistical analysis for haplotype-based matched case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Zheng, G; Li, Z

    2006-12-01

    Using unphased genotype data, we studied statistical inference for association between a disease and a haplotype in matched case-control studies. Statistical inference for haplotype data is complicated due to ambiguity of genotype phases. An estimating equation-based method is developed for estimating odds ratios and testing disease-haplotype association. The method potentially can also be applied to testing haplotype-environment interaction. Simulation studies show that the proposed method has good performance. The performance of the method in the presence of departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is also studied.

  8. Testing Hardy-Weinberg proportions in a frequency-matched case-control genetic association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Shete, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    In case-control genetic association studies, cases are subjects with the disease and controls are subjects without the disease. At the time of case-control data collection, information about secondary phenotypes is also collected. In addition to studies of primary diseases, there has been some interest in studying genetic variants associated with secondary phenotypes. In genetic association studies, the deviation from Hardy-Weinberg proportion (HWP) of each genetic marker is assessed as an initial quality check to identify questionable genotypes. Generally, HWP tests are performed based on the controls for the primary disease or secondary phenotype. However, when the disease or phenotype of interest is common, the controls do not represent the general population. Therefore, using only controls for testing HWP can result in a highly inflated type I error rate for the disease- and/or phenotype-associated variants. Recently, two approaches, the likelihood ratio test (LRT) approach and the mixture HWP (mHWP) exact test were proposed for testing HWP in samples from case-control studies. Here, we show that these two approaches result in inflated type I error rates and could lead to the removal from further analysis of potential causal genetic variants associated with the primary disease and/or secondary phenotype when the study of primary disease is frequency-matched on the secondary phenotype. Therefore, we proposed alternative approaches, which extend the LRT and mHWP approaches, for assessing HWP that account for frequency matching. The goal was to maintain more (possible causative) single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the sample for further analysis. Our simulation results showed that both extended approaches could control type I error probabilities. We also applied the proposed approaches to test HWP for SNPs from a genome-wide association study of lung cancer that was frequency-matched on smoking status and found that the proposed approaches can keep more genetic

  9. Challenges in Recruiting Aging Women Holocaust Survivors to a Case Control Study of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shai; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are underrepresented in medical research for many reasons, including recruitment difficulties. Recruitment of older adults for research studies is often a time-consuming process and can be more challenging when the study involves older adults with unique exposures to traumatic events and from minority groups. The current article provides a brief overview of (a) challenges encountered while recruiting aging women Holocaust survivors for a case control study and (b) strategies used for meeting those challenges. The case group comprised women Holocaust survivors who were recently diagnosed with breast cancer and the control group comprised healthy women from a Holocaust-survivor community in Israel. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Effectiveness of reactive oral cholera vaccination in rural Haiti: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Louise C; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Teng, Jessica E; Almazor, Charles P; Jerome, J Gregory; Ternier, Ralph; Boncy, Jacques; Buteau, Josiane; Murray, Megan B; Harris, Jason B; Franke, Molly F

    2015-01-01

    Background Between April and June 2012, a reactive cholera vaccination campaign was conducted in Haiti using an oral inactivated bivalent whole-cell vaccine (BivWC). Methods We conducted a case-control study to estimate field effectiveness of the vaccine. Cases had acute watery diarrhea, sought treatment at one of three participating cholera treatment units from October 24, 2012 through March 9, 2014, and had a stool sample positive for cholera by culture. For each case, four controls (individuals who did not seek treatment for acute watery diarrhea) were matched by location of residence, calendar time, and age. We also conducted a bias-indicator case-control study to assess the likelihood of bias in the vaccine effectiveness (VE) study. Findings During the study period, 114 eligible individuals presented with acute watery diarrhea and were enrolled. 47 were analyzed as cases in the VE case-control study and 42 as cases in the bias-indicator study. In multivariable analyses, VE was 63% [95% confidence interval (CI): 8%–85%] by self-reported vaccination and 58% [95% CI: 13%–80%] for verified vaccination. Neither self-reported nor verified vaccination was significantly associated with non-cholera diarrhea (VE: 18% [95% CI: −208%–−78%] by self-report and −21% [95%CI: −238%–57%] for verified vaccination). Interpretation BivWC oral cholera vaccine was effective in protecting against cholera in Haiti during the study period –from 4 through 24 months after vaccination. Vaccination is an important component of epidemic cholera control efforts. Funding National Institutes of Health, Delivering Oral Vaccines Effectively project, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. PMID:25701994

  11. A case-control study: occupational cooking and the risk of uveal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marr Anja

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A European-wide population based case-control study (European rare cancer study undertaken in nine European countries examined risk factors for uveal melanoma. They found a positive association between cooks and the risk of uveal melanoma. In our study we examine whether cooks or people who worked in cook related jobs have an increased uveal melanoma risk. Methods We conducted a case-control study during 2002 and 2005. Overall, 1653 eligible subjects (age range: 20-74 years, living in Germany participated. Interviews were conducted with 459 incident uveal melanoma cases, 827 population controls, 180 ophthalmologist controls and 187 sibling controls. Data on occupational exposure were obtained from a self-administered postal questionnaire and a computer-assisted telephone interview. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios adjusting for the matching factors. Results Overall, we did not observe an increased risk of uveal melanoma among people who worked as cooks or who worked in cook related jobs. When we restricted the source population of our study to the population of the Federal State of Northrhine-Westphalia, we observed an increased risk among subjects who were categorized as cooks in the cases-control analysis. Conclusion Our results are in conflict with former results of the European rare cancer study. Considering the rarity of the disease laboratory in vitro studies of human uveal melanoma cell lines should be done to analyze potential exposure risk factors like radiation from microwaves, strong light from incandescent ovens, or infrared radiation.

  12. Eczema in early childhood, sociodemographic factors and lifestyle habits are associated with food allergy: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; Soller, Lianne; Harrington, Daniel W; Knoll, Megan; La Vieille, Sebastian; Fragapane, Joseph; Joseph, Lawrence; St Pierre, Yvan; Wilson, Kathie; Elliott, Susan J; Clarke, Ann E

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest an increase in food allergy prevalence over the last decade, but the contributing factors remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the most common food allergies and atopic history, sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits. We conducted a case-control study nested within the SPAACE study (Surveying Prevalence of Food Allergy in All Canadian Environments) – a cross-Canada, random telephone survey. Cases consisted of individuals with probable food allergy (self-report of convincing symptoms and/or physician diagnosis) to milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, shellfish, fish, wheat, soy, or sesame. Controls consisted of nonallergic individuals, matched for age. Cases and controls were queried on personal and family history of atopy, sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between atopy, sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits with probable food allergy. Between September 2010 and September 2011, 480 cases and 4,950 controls completed the questionnaire. For all 9 allergens, factors associated with a higher risk of probable allergy were as follows: (1) personal history of eczema (in the first 2 years of life), asthma or hay fever (odds ratio, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.5; OR 2.8, 95% CI 2.2-3.6, and OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-3.0, respectively), (2) maternal, paternal or sibling's food allergy (OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.5-5.6; OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.8-5.1, and OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.2-4.2), (3) high household income (top 20%; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0). Males and older individuals were less likely to have food allergy (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.9, and OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-1.00). Eczema in the first 2 years of life was the strongest risk factor for egg, peanut, tree nut and fish allergy. This is the largest population-based nested case-control study exploring factors associated with food allergies. Our results reveal that, in addition to previously reported

  13. A Case-Control Study of Prenatal Thallium Exposure and Low Birth Weight in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Du, Xiaofu; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin; Li, Yuanyuan; Bassig, Bryan A; Zhou, Aifen; Wang, Youjie; Xiong, Chao; Li, Zhengkuan; Yao, Yuanxiang; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Yanqiu; Liu, Juan; Xue, Weiyan; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xinyun; Peng, Yang; Xu, Shunqing

    2016-01-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely present in the environment. Case reports have suggested that maternal exposure to high levels of Tl during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), but epidemiological data are limited. This study was designed to evaluate whether prenatal Tl exposure is associated with an increased risk of LBW. This case-control study involving 816 study participants (204 LBW cases and 612 matched controls) was conducted in Hubei Province, China, in 2012-2014. Tl concentrations were measured in maternal urine collected at delivery, and associations with LBW were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. Higher maternal urinary Tl levels were significantly associated with increased risk of LBW [crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.30 for the highest vs. lowest tertile], and the association was similarly elevated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Stratified analyses showed slightly higher risk estimates for LBW associated with higher Tl levels for mothers case-control study to investigate the association between prenatal Tl exposure and LBW. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to high levels of Tl may be associated with an increased risk of LBW. Xia W, Du X, Zheng T, Zhang B, Li Y, Bassig BA, Zhou A, Wang Y, Xiong C, Li Z, Yao Y, Hu J, Zhou Y, Liu J, Xue W, Ma Y, Pan X, Peng Y, Xu S. 2016. A case-control study of prenatal thallium exposure and low birth weight in China. Environ Health Perspect 124:164-169; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409202.

  14. An alternative experimental case-control design for genetic association studies on bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffani, S; Del Corvo, M; Capoferri, R; Pedretti, A; Luini, M; Williams, J L; Pagnacco, G; Minvielle, F; Minozzi, G

    2017-04-01

    The possibility of using genetic control strategies to increase disease resistance to infectious diseases relies on the identification of markers to include in the breeding plans. Possible incomplete exposure of mastitis-free (control) animals, however, is a major issue to find relevant markers in genetic association studies for infectious diseases. Usually, designs based on elite dairy sires are used in association studies, but an epidemiological case-control strategy, based on cows repeatedly field-tested could be an alternative for disease traits. To test this hypothesis, genetic association results obtained in the present work from a cohort of Italian Holstein cows tested for mastitis over time were compared with those from a previous genome-wide scan on Italian Holstein sires genotyped with 50k single nucleotide polymorphisms for de-regressed estimated breeding values for somatic cell counts (SCCs) on Bos taurus autosome (BTA6) and BTA14. A total of 1121 cows were selected for the case-control approach (cases=550, controls=571), on a combination of herd level of SCC incidence and of within herd individual level of SCC. The association study was conducted on nine previously identified markers, six on BTA6 and four on BTA14, using the R statistical environment with the 'qtscore' function of the GenABEL package, on high/low adjusted linear score as a binomial trait. The results obtained in the cow cohort selected on epidemiological information were in agreement with those obtained from the previous sire genome-wide association study (GWAS). Six out of the nine markers showed significant association, four on BTA14 (rs109146371, rs109234250, rs109421300, rs109162116) and two on BTA6 (rs110527224 and rs42766480). Most importantly, using mastitis as a case study, the current work further validated the alternative use of historical field disease data in case-control designs for genetic analysis of infectious diseases in livestock.

  15. Risk factors for femicide-suicide in abusive relationships: results from a multisite case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol-McLain, Jane; Webster, Daniel; McFarlane, Judith; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Ulrich, Yvonne; Glass, Nancy; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2006-02-01

    The killing of women by men who then take their own lives (femicide-suicide) is the most common form of homicide-suicide. This study identified femicide-suicide risk factors in an 11-city case-control study of femicide in the United States. Perpetrator, victim, relationship, and incident characteristics were analyzed for femicide-suicide cases (n = 67) and controls (n = 356, women living in the community with nonfatal physical abuse) using logistic regression modeling. Two risk factors emerged that were unique to femicide-suicides cases compared to overall femicide risk analyses: prior perpetrator suicide threats and victims having ever been married to the perpetrator.

  16. Iron Status and Febrile Seizure- A Case Control Study in Children Less Than 3 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour SADEGHZADEH; KHOSHNEVIS ASL, Parisa; Esrafil MAHBOUBI

    2012-01-01

     How to cite this article: Sadeghzadeh M, Khoshnevis P, Mahboubi E. Iron Status and Febrile Seizure- A Case Control Study in Children Less Than 3 Years. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4):27-31.Abstract Objective: Febrile seizure is one of the most common neurological conditions of childhood. Several theories, such as iron deficiency anemia have been proposed as the pathogenesis of this condition. The aim of this study was to find the association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile ...

  17. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabroe Svend

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since updated population registers do not exist in many countries it is often difficult to sample valid population controls from the study base to a case-control study. Use of patient controls is an alternative option if the exposure experience under study for these patients are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors. Methods The study was conducted from 1995 to 1997. Incident colon cancer controls (N = 428 aged 35–69 years with a histological verified diagnosis and population controls (N = 583 were selected. Altogether 254 (59% of the colon cancer controls and 320 (55% of the population controls were interviewed about occupational, medical and life style conditions. Results No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure to pesticides among colon cancer controls. Conclusions Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming.

  18. Association between smoking habits and acne vulgaris. A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: acne vulgaris, is one of the most common skin disorder. Previous studies about the role of smoke in the pathogenesis of acne reported contradictory results. The aim of this study was to conduct a case-control study investigating the relationship between tobacco smoking and acne.

    Methods: a case-control study was performed during the period September 2009 - February 2010. A questionnaire was administrated to each participant, to assess the association acne - smoke. Cases were outpatients of the Dermatologic Ambulatory of the “Fiorini” Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy. Controls were age and gender-matched to the cases. The ratio cases-controls was 1:2. A univariate and a multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted; Odds Ratio (OR and the relative 95% confidence interval (95%CI were assessed. The statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

    Results: crude OR for the association acne - smoke was 7.26 (IC=2.27-23.18; adjusted OR for sex and age was 5.47 (IC=1.67-17.97. Of 93 cases, 6 had a severe grade of acne (6.5%, 19 had an intermediate grade of acne (20.4%, and 68 had a mild grade of acne (73.1%. No one of the smokers had a severe grade of acne, one had an intermediate grade of acne and 11 had mild acne; these differences are not statistically significant.

    Conclusions: the association between acne and smoke shows an increased risk (OR=7.26 with a statistically significant CI. Moreover, people ≥ 18 years of age have twice the risk compared to persons < 18 years of age (OR=2.31.

  19. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Koenig, Karen L; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Jonas, Saran; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Wójcik, Oktawia P; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine's main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women's Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples of 241 stroke cases and 479 matched controls. There was no statistically significant association between serum taurine and stroke risk in the overall study population. The adjusted ORs for stroke were 1.0 (reference), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.59-1.28), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.69-1.54) in increasing tertiles of taurine (64.3-126.6, 126.7-152.9, and 153.0-308.5 nmol/mL, respectively). A significant inverse association between serum taurine and stroke risk was observed among never smokers, with an adjusted OR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.37-1.18) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.26-0.94) for the second and third tertile, respectively (p for trend = 0.01), but not among past or current smokers (p for interaction taurine and stroke risk, although a protective effect was observed in never smokers, which requires further investigation. Taurine, Stroke, Epidemiology, Prospective, Case-control study, NYUWHS.

  20. Hard Contact Lens Wear and the Risk of Acquired Blepharoptosis: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kitazawa, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Since there are increasing numbers of patients with blepharoptosis who have a history of wearing contact lenses, we attempted to estimate the risk of developing ptosis from wearing hard contact lenses. Methods: In an age-matched case-control study that was performed in a hospital in Japan, we compared the rate of hard contact lens users in ptosis cases with that in a control group and then estimated the odds ratio. Results: The history of wearing hard contact lenses was significan...

  1. Case-control study on uveal melanoma (RIFA: rational and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt-Pokrzywniak Andrea

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a rare disease, uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with an incidence rate of up to 1.0 per 100,000 persons per year in Europe. Only a few consistent risk factors have been identified for this disease. We present the study design of an ongoing incident case-control study on uveal melanoma (acronym: RIFA study that focuses on radiofrequency radiation as transmitted by radio sets and wireless telephones, occupational risk factors, phenotypical characteristics, and UV radiation. Methods/Design We conduct a case-control study to identify the role of different exposures in the development of uveal melanoma. The cases of uveal melanoma were identified at the Division of Ophthalmology, University of Essen, a referral centre for tumours of the eye. We recruit three control groups: population controls, controls sampled from those ophthalmologists who referred cases to the Division of Ophthalmology, University of Duisburg-Essen, and sibling controls. For each case the controls are matched on sex and age (five year groups, except for sibling controls. The data are collected from the study participants by short self-administered questionnaire and by telephone interview. During and at the end of the field phase, the data are quality-checked. To estimate the effect of exposures on uveal melanoma risk, we will use conditional logistic regression that accounts for the matching factors and allows to control for potential confounding.

  2. Fetal growth and schizophrenia: a nested case-control and case-sibling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Philip Rising; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Dalman, Christina; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Pedersen, Marianne Giørtz; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Agerbo, Esben

    2013-11-01

    The association between low birth weight and schizophrenia has been suggested by many studies. Small for gestational age (SGA) is a measure used as a proxy for intrauterine growth restriction. We aim to examine if children who are born SGA are at increased risk of developing schizophrenia and whether an association may be explained by factors shared among siblings. We linked 3 population-based registers: the Danish National Medical Birth Register, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish Civil Registration register to identify all persons born between 1978 and 2000. A nested case-control study and a case-sibling study design were used. There were 4650 cases of schizophrenia. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. SGA was defined as the lowest 10th birth weight percentile for a given sex and gestational age. SGA was associated with an IRR of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.11-1.37) for schizophrenia in the case-control study. An IRR of 1.28 (95% CI: 0.97-1.68) was found in the case-sibling study. There is a modest association between SGA and schizophrenia. Our results indicate that this association is due to an independent effect of factors associated with low birth weight for gestational age per se, rather than other factors shared by siblings.

  3. Risk Factors for Contact Lens-Related Microbial Keratitis: A Case-Control Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Arnaud; Meyer, Nicolas; Bourcier, Tristan

    2016-05-01

    The most feared complication of contact lens (CL) wear is microbial keratitis (MK), even though its incidence remains low. This study aimed to identify the risk factors of CL-related MK in a large, prospective, multicenter case-control study. A multicenter case-control study was designed. The CL-related MK subpopulation (Case) was compared with healthy CL wearers (Control) using a 52-item anonymous questionnaire designed to determine subject demographics and lens wear history. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to compare both groups. The study enrolled 499 cases and 508 controls. The risk factors associated with the greatest increased odds of CL-related MK were as follows: using disinfecting solution more than 3 months (odds ratio [OR]=1.94), cosmetic CL wear and use of multipurpose disinfection solution (1.37 each), overnight wear, and soft lens use (OR=1.24 each). The protective factors associated with the greatest reduction in OR were fitting by an ophthalmologist (OR=0.73) and hyperopia versus myopia (OR=0.75). The infectious determinants were linked to the type of lenses, hygiene routine, CL handling, disinfecting solution, and storage case. This study aimed to highlight the increasingly CL-related MK, which likely occurs because of lack of patient information regarding basic rules of hygiene and CL care and handling.

  4. [Risk factors for contact lens-related microbial keratitis: A multicenter case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becmeur, P H; Abry, F; Bourcier, T; Meyer, N; Sauer, A

    2017-03-01

    Currently, the most feared complication by ophthalmologists of contact lens (CL) wear is microbial keratitis (MK), even though its incidence remains low. It is also a significant financial burden for society. This study aimed to identify the risk factors for CL-related MK especially with regard to hygiene and pattern of use, in a large, prospective, multicenter, case-control study. A multicenter retrospective case-control study was designed. The CL-related MK subpopulation (case) was compared with healthy CL wearers (control) using a 52-item anonymous questionnaire designed to determine subject demographics, lens wear history, lens type and disinfection solution, fitting, patient education, hygiene and maintenance of contact lenses, and patient history. Univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to compare both groups. The study included 497 cases and 364 controls. The risk factors associated with the greatest increased odds of CL-related MK were as follows: extended wear (OR=2.96 [1.65-5.33], Plens use (OR=6.37 [4,55-8.90], Pcontact lens (OR=4.47 [2.27-8.77], Pcontact lens wear, fitting by an ophthalmologist, written and verbal instruction, and daily case maintenance. The knowledge of these risks factors incentivizes action at all levels to reduce the incidence of MK, from the prescriber to the patient, including the type of CL, case and contact lens solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [Relations between extraction of wisdom teeth and temporomandibular disorders: a case/control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Florian; Leroux, Agathe; Bertaud, Valérie; Meary, Fleur; Le Padellec, Clément; Refuveille, Laura; Lemaire, Arnaud; Sorel, Olivier; Chauvel-Lebret, Dominique

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of extraction of third molars on the occurrence of temporo-mandibular disorders (TMD). A review of the literature and a case-control study have been conducted. The case-control study compares the frequency of extraction of third molars between the sample with TMD (case) and the sample without TMD (control). The proportion of patients who had undergone extractions of wisdom teeth was higher in the case group than in the control group. The difference was statistically significant when patients had undergone extraction of all four wisdom teeth or when the extraction of four wisdom teeth underwent in one sitting or under general anesthesia. The study of patients in case sample shows that all signs of TMD were more common in patients who had undergone extractions in several sessions and under local anesthesia. The temporomandibular joint sounds are significantly more frequent with local anesthesia. In the case group, 85 to 92% of patients have parafunctions and 5 to 11% have malocclusion. This demonstrates the multifactorial etiology of temporomandibular disorders. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2015.

  6. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem. It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. INTERHEART, a global case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries (29,972 participants), identified nine modifiable risk factors that accounted for >90% ...... samples are obtained from cases and controls. Study Significance: An effective global strategy to reduce the risk of stroke mandates systematic measurement of the contribution of the major vascular risk factors within defined ethnic groups and geographical locations.......-income countries is inadequate, where a very large burden of stroke occurs. Accordingly, a similar epidemiological study is required for stroke, to inform effective population-based strategies to reduce the risk of stroke. Methods: INTERSTROKE is an international, multicenter case-control study. Cases are patients...... years). A questionnaire (cases and controls) is used to acquire information on known and proposed risk factors for stroke. Cardiovascular (e.g. blood pressure) and anthropometric (e.g. waist-to-hip ratio) measurements are obtained at the time of interview. Nonfasting blood samples and random urine...

  7. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Salivary Gland Cancer in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Yi Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effect of various lifestyle risk factors on the risk of salivary gland cancer in Canada using data from a population-based case-control study. Methods. Data from a population-based case-control study of 132 incident cases of salivary gland cancer and 3076 population controls were collected through self-administered questionnaire and analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Results. Four or more servings/week of processed meat product was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (OR and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI of 1.62 (1.02–2.58. Nonsignificantly increased ORs were also related to obesity, >7 drinks/week of alcohol consumption, and occupational exposure to radiation. Furthermore, nonsignificantly decreased ORs were found to be associated with high education level (>12 years (OR=0.65, high consumption of spinach/squash (OR=0.62 and all vegetables/vegetable juices (OR=0.75, and >30 sessions/month of recreational physical activity (OR=0.78. Conclusions. This study suggests positive associations with consumption of processed meat, smoking, obesity, alcohol drinking, and occupational exposure to radiation as well as negative associations with higher education, consumption of spinach/squash, and physical activity, which suggest a role of lifestyle factors in the etiology of salivary gland cancer. However, these findings were based on small number of cases and were nonsignificant. Further larger studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  8. Leptospira Exposure and Patients with Liver Diseases: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra; Alberto Guido-Arreola, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in patients suffering from liver disease has been poorly studied. Information about risk factors associated with infection in liver disease patients may help in the optimal planning of preventive measures. We sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence and patients with liver diseases, and to determine the characteristics of the patients with Leptospira exposure. We performed a case-control study of 75 patients suffering from liver diseases and 150 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Diagnoses of liver disease included liver cirrhosis, steatosis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, and amoebic liver abscess. Sera of participants were analyzed for the presence of anti- Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 17 (22.7%) of 75 patients and in 15 (10.0%) of 150 control subjects (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.09-4.94; P=0.03). This is the first age- and gender-matched case control study about Leptospira seroprevalence in patients with liver diseases. Results indicate that Leptospira infection is associated with chronic and acute liver diseases. Results warrants for additional studies on the role of Leptospira exposure in chronic liver disease. PMID:27493589

  9. Control selection methods in recent case-control studies conducted as part of infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldram, Alison; McKerr, Caoimhe; Gobin, Maya; Adak, Goutam; Stuart, James M; Cleary, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Successful investigation of national outbreaks of communicable disease relies on rapid identification of the source. Case-control methodologies are commonly used to achieve this. We assessed control selection methods used in recently published case-control studies for methodological and resource issues to determine if a standard approach could be identified. Neighbourhood controls were the most frequently used method in 53 studies of a range of different sizes, infections and settings. The most commonly used method of data collection was face to face interview. Control selection issues were identified in four areas: method of identification of controls, appropriateness of controls, ease of recruitment of controls, and resource requirements. Potential biases arising from the method of control selection were identified in half of the studies assessed. There is a need to develop new ways of selecting controls in a rapid, random and representative manner to improve the accuracy and timeliness of epidemiological investigations and maximise the effectiveness of public health interventions. Innovative methods such as prior recruitment of controls could improve timeliness and representativeness of control selection.

  10. Association between bullous pemphigoid and neurologic diseases: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-de-la-Asunción, E; Ruano-Ruiz, J; Rodríguez-Martín, A M; Vélez García-Nieto, A; Moreno-Giménez, J C

    2014-11-01

    In the past 10 years, bullous pemphigoid has been associated with other comorbidities and neurologic and psychiatric conditions in particular. Case series, small case-control studies, and large population-based studies in different Asian populations, mainland Europe, and the United Kingdom have confirmed this association. However, no data are available for the Spanish population. This was an observational, retrospective, case-control study with 1:2 matching. Fifty-four patients with bullous pemphigoid were selected. We compared the percentage of patients in each group with concurrent neurologic conditions, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and solid tumors using univariate logistic regression. An association model was constructed with conditional multiple logistic regression. The case group had a significantly higher percentage of patients with cerebrovascular accident and/or transient ischemic attack (odds ratio [OR], 3.06; 95% CI, 1.19-7.87], dementia (OR, 5.52; 95% CI, 2.19-13.93), and Parkinson disease (OR, 5; 95% CI, 1.57-15.94). A significantly higher percentage of cases had neurologic conditions (OR, 6.34; 95% CI, 2.89-13.91). Dementia and Parkinson disease were independently associated with bullous pemphigoid in the multivariate analysis. Patients with bullous pemphigoid have a higher frequency of neurologic conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  11. Attributing Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium to population stratification and genetic association in case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Vaneeta K; Cole, David E C; Hamilton, David C

    2010-01-01

    Loci exhibiting Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (HWD) are often excluded from association studies, because HWD may indicate genotyping error, population stratification or selection bias. For case-control studies, HWD can result from a genetic effect at the locus. We extend the modelling to accommodate both stratification and genetic effects. Theoretical genotype frequencies and HWD coefficients are derived under a general genetic model for a population with two strata. Maximum likelihood is used to estimate model parameters and a test for lack of fit identifies the models most consistent with the data. Simulations were used to assess the method. The technique was applied to a group of ethnically and clinically heterogeneous kidney stone formers and controls, both exhibiting HWD for the R990G SNP of the CASR gene. Results indicate the best fitting model incorporates both stratification and genetic association. The ability of our method to apportion HWD to stratification and genetic effects may well be a significant advance in dealing with heterogeneity in case-control genetic association studies.

  12. Magnetic field exposure assessment in a case-control study of childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinerman, R A; Linet, M S; Hatch, E E; Wacholder, S; Tarone, R E; Severson, R K; Kaune, W T; Friedman, D R; Haines, C M; Muirhead, C R; Boice, J D; Robison, L L

    1997-09-01

    Epidemiologic evaluation of the relation between magnetic field exposures and cancer depends critically on study design, particularly the methods used for exposure assessment. We incorporated a complex magnetic field exposure assessment protocol into a large incident case-control study of childhood leukemia. We measured residential magnetic fields using a standard protocol in current and former homes of 638 cases and 620 controls and determined wire codes for 414 case-control pairs. We chose a time-weighted average of magnetic field measurements in each eligible home, weighted by the time the subject lived in each home as the main exposure metric for each subject. We found that 24-hour bedroom magnetic field measurements adequately characterize children's residential exposure and that measuring other rooms contributes only slightly to the estimate of average residential exposure to magnetic fields. Front door measured fields provide useful exposure information when interior measurements are missing. If feasible, measuring multiple homes in which the subject has resided is preferable to measuring a single home. A similar distribution of wire codes for controls agreeing or refusing to participate in our study implies that risk estimates derived from wire code data will not be influenced by response bias.

  13. Association of dyslipidemia with renal cell carcinoma: a 1∶2 matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfang Zhang

    Full Text Available Abnormal serum lipid profiles are associated with the risk of some cancers, but the direction and magnitude of the association with renal cell carcinoma is unclear. We explore the relationship between serum lipids and renal cell carcinoma via a matched case-control study. A 1∶2-matched case-control study design was applied, where one renal cell carcinoma patient was matched to two non-renal-cell-carcinoma residents with respect to age (±0 year and gender. Cases (n = 248 were inpatients with a primary diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma, confirmed by pathology after operations. Controls were sampled from a community survey database matched on age and gender with cases, 2 controls for each case. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to obtain hazard ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals of lipids level and dyslipidemia for the risk of renal cell carcinoma. Elevated serum cholesterol (p<0.001, LDL cholesterol (p<0.001, and HDL cholesterol (p = 0.003 are associated with decreased hazard of renal cell carcinoma, adjusting for obesity, smoke, hypertension and diabetes. However, risk caused by hTG showed no statistical significance (p = 0.263. This study indicates that abnormal lipid profile influences the risk of renal cell carcinoma.

  14. Anorexia nervosa versus bulimia nervosa: differences based on retrospective correlates in a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Bárbara C; Gonçalves, Sónia F; Martins, Carla; Brandão, Isabel; Roma-Torres, António; Hoek, Hans W; Machado, Paulo P

    2016-06-01

    This study is the result of two Portuguese case-control studies that examined the replication of retrospective correlates and preceding life events in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) development. This study aims to identify retrospective correlates that distinguish AN and BN METHOD: A case-control design was used to compare a group of women who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for AN (N = 98) and BN (N = 79) with healthy controls (N = 86) and with other psychiatric disorders (N = 68). Each control group was matched with AN patients regarding age and parental social categories. Risk factors were assessed by interviewing each person with the Oxford Risk Factor Interview. Compared to AN, women with BN reported significantly higher rates of paternal high expectations, excessive family importance placed on fitness/keeping in shape, and negative consequences due to adolescent overweight and adolescent objective overweight. Overweight during adolescence emerged as the most relevant retrospective correlate in the distinction between BN and AN participants. Family expectations and the importance placed on keeping in shape were also significant retrospective correlates in the BN group.

  15. Validity of using ad hoc methods to analyze secondary traits in case-control association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Godwin; Lin, Xihong

    2016-12-01

    Case-control association studies often collect from their subjects information on secondary phenotypes. Reusing the data and studying the association between genes and secondary phenotypes provide an attractive and cost-effective approach that can lead to discovery of new genetic associations. A number of approaches have been proposed, including simple and computationally efficient ad hoc methods that ignore ascertainment or stratify on case-control status. Justification for these approaches relies on the assumption of no covariates and the correct specification of the primary disease model as a logistic model. Both might not be true in practice, for example, in the presence of population stratification or the primary disease model following a probit model. In this paper, we investigate the validity of ad hoc methods in the presence of covariates and possible disease model misspecification. We show that in taking an ad hoc approach, it may be desirable to include covariates that affect the primary disease in the secondary phenotype model, even though these covariates are not necessarily associated with the secondary phenotype. We also show that when the disease is rare, ad hoc methods can lead to severely biased estimation and inference if the true disease model follows a probit model instead of a logistic model. Our results are justified theoretically and via simulations. Applied to real data analysis of genetic associations with cigarette smoking, ad hoc methods collectively identified as highly significant (Pstudies of smoking cessation. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  16. Misclassification of outcome in case-control studies: Methods for sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Rebecca; Martin, Richard M; Donovan, Jenny; Lane, J Athene; Hamdy, Freddie; Neal, David E; Metcalfe, Chris

    2016-10-01

    Case-control studies are potentially open to misclassification of disease outcome which may be unrelated to risk factor exposure (non-differential), thus underestimating associations, or related to risk factor exposure (differential), thus causing more serious bias.We conducted a systematic literature review for methods of adjusting for outcome misclassification in case-control studies. We also applied methods to simulated data with known outcome misclassification to assess performance of these methods. Finally, real data from the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial gauged the usefulness of these methods.Adjustment methods range from recalculating cell frequencies to probabilistic sensitivity modelling and Bayesian models, which incorporate uncertainty in sensitivity and specificity estimates. Simulated data indicated that substantial bias in either direction resulted from differential misclassification. More sophisticated methods, incorporating uncertainty into estimates of misclassification, provided appropriately wide confidence intervals for corrected estimates of risk factor-disease association.Method choice depends on whether the objective is to assess if an observed association can be explained by bias, or to provide a 'corrected' estimate for the primary analysis. Accurate estimation of the degree of misclassification is important for the latter; otherwise further bias may be introduced. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Leukemia and brain tumors in Norwegian railway workers, a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynes, T; Jynge, H; Vistnes, A I

    1994-04-01

    In an attempt to assess whether exposure to electromagnetic fields on Norwegian railways induces brain tumors or leukemia, the authors conducted a nested case-control study of railway workers based on incident cases from the Cancer Registry of Norway in a cohort of 13,030 male Norwegian railway workers who had worked on either electric or non-electric railways. The cohort comprised railway line, outdoor station, and electricity workers. The case series comprised 39 men with brain tumors and 52 men with leukemia (follow-up, 1958-1990). Each case was matched on age with four or five controls selected from the same cohort. The exposure of each study subject to electric and magnetic fields was evaluated from cumulative exposure measures based on present measurements and historical data. Limited information on potential confounders such as creosote, solvents, and herbicides was also collected; information on whether the subject had smoked was obtained by interviews with the subjects or work colleagues. The case-control analysis showed that men employed on electric railways, compared with non-electric ones, had an odds ratio for leukemia of 0.70 (adjusted for smoking) and an odds ratio for brain tumor of 0.87. No significant trend was shown for exposure to either magnetic or electric fields. These results do not support an association between exposure to 16 2/3-Hertz electric or magnetic fields and the risk for leukemia or brain tumors.

  18. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors Associated to Intravertebral Spinal Disc Degeneration in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liva Eleni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Few data exist concerning the natural history of degenerative spinal osteoarthritis (OA and its associated risk factors. The aim of this Greek case-control study is to examine risk factors that have been previously shown or hypothesized to be correlated to spinal intravertebral disc degeneration (IDD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2009 to December 2012, 818 matched pairs (cases and controls were recruited and participated in the case-control study. All clinical data were collected through a detailed interview and meticulous clinical and radiological evaluation. The severity of disease was determined by radiological Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L grades and Lanes scores. RESULTS: Female gender (p=0.001, old age, BMI (p=0.06, heavy bodily fatigue (p=0.031, lower educational level (p=0.019 and osteopenia or osteoporosis (p=0.005 and p=0.0005, respectively were significantly associated to increased risk of spinal intravertebral disc degeneration. In the female subgroup population, menopause was a significant risk factor (p=0.012 breast feeding, on the contrary, was protective and associated to a decreased probability of IDD (p=0.013. No significant difference was found between the two groups as far as smoking status was concerned. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic risk factors play a role in the aetiology of spinal IDD in Greece. Female sex, overweight, heavy bodily fatigue, lower educational level and decreased bone density statuses are strongly associated with the diagnosis of symptomatic disease.

  19. Subclinical atherosclerotic vascular disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Prospective hospital-based case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Chindhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is an important non-communicable disease worldwide with a rising global incidence. COPD is associated with multiple co-morbidities. Patients with COPD are at increased risk of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in COPD. The present case-control study was designed to assess the relationship between sub-clinical atherosclerotic vascular diseases with COPD. Methods: It was a prospective case-control blinded observational study. There were 142 COPD patients and 124 age-and sex-matched controls without COPD and cardiovascular diseases. Frequency of sub-clinical atherosclerosis was assessed by the carotid B-mode duplex ultrasonography assessment of carotid wall intima medial thickness (IMT. Plaque was defined as IMT of more than 1.2 mm. Results: Prevalence of carotid plaqing was significantly higher amongst patients of COPD (38.7% compared to controls (13.7% , odds ratio 3.9, P < 0.0001. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed COPD as an independent predictor of carotid plaqing (r = 0.85, P < 0.023. Conclusion: The frequency of carotid plaqing is high in COPD patients. Carotid plaqing may be due to shared risk factors or the presence of low-grade systemic inflammation. Presence of increased CIMT and carotid plaqing in COPD patients identifies early atherosclerotic changes and future cardiovascular risk. Hence screening of CIMT should be a part of cardiovascular assessment in patients with COPD.

  20. Anorectal malformations and pregnancy-related disorders : a registry-based case-control study in 17 European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, C. H. W.; van Rooij, I. A. L. M.; Bakker, M. K.; Marcelis, C. L. M.; Addor, M. C.; Barisic, I.; Beres, J.; Bianca, S.; Bianchi, F.; Calzolari, E.; Greenlees, R.; Lelong, N.; Latos-Bielenska, A.; Dias, C. M.; McDonnell, R.; Mullaney, C.; Nelen, V.; O'Mahony, M.; Queisser-Luft, A.; Rankin, J.; Zymak-Zakutnia, N.; de Blaauw, I.; Roeleveld, N.; de Walle, H. E. K.

    Objective To identify pregnancy-related risk factors for different manifestations of congenital anorectal malformations (ARMs). Design A population-based case-control study. Setting Seventeen EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) registries, 1980-2008. Population The study

  1. Shrinkage Estimators for Robust and Efficient Inference in Haplotype-Based Case-Control Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yi-Hau

    2009-03-01

    Case-control association studies often aim to investigate the role of genes and gene-environment interactions in terms of the underlying haplotypes (i.e., the combinations of alleles at multiple genetic loci along chromosomal regions). The goal of this article is to develop robust but efficient approaches to the estimation of disease odds-ratio parameters associated with haplotypes and haplotype-environment interactions. We consider "shrinkage" estimation techniques that can adaptively relax the model assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium and gene-environment independence required by recently proposed efficient "retrospective" methods. Our proposal involves first development of a novel retrospective approach to the analysis of case-control data, one that is robust to the nature of the gene-environment distribution in the underlying population. Next, it involves shrinkage of the robust retrospective estimator toward a more precise, but model-dependent, retrospective estimator using novel empirical Bayes and penalized regression techniques. Methods for variance estimation are proposed based on asymptotic theories. Simulations and two data examples illustrate both the robustness and efficiency of the proposed methods.

  2. Pilot age and geographic region of commuter and air taxi crashes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebok, George W; Qiang, Yandong; Baker, Susan P; Li, Guohua

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies of major airline and general aviation crashes have identified a host of risk factors. We examined risk factors related to crashes involving commuter air carrier and air taxi flights. A matched case-control design was applied to assess the association of pilot age, total flight time, and geographic region with commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes (14 CFR Part 135) from 1983-2002 in the United States. A total of 2033 commuter air carrier or air taxi crashes from the National Transportation Safety Board aviation crash database were identified as eligible cases. Controls were randomly selected incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) aviation incident database coded under Part 135 operation. Relative to controls, commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes were less likely to occur in pilots under 30 yr of age (adjusted odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.88) after adjusting for geographic region and total flight time. With adjustment for pilot age and total flight time, the commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes with pilot error were nearly 13 times as likely to be in Alaska as their matched controls (adjusted odds ratio 12.84, 95% confidence interval 5.24-31.45). These results suggest that pilot age may be associated with risk of crash involvement in Part 135 operations. The excess crash risk in Alaska with or without pilot error underscores the importance of environmental hazards in flight safety.

  3. German case control study on childhood leukaemia--basic considerations, methodology and summary of the results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatsch, P; Kaletsch, U; Meinert, R; Miesner, A; Hoisl, M; Schüz, J; Michaelis, J

    1998-01-01

    In order to explore potential risk factors of childhood leukaemia, a case control study was performed including all incident cases from 1992 to 1994. The study was based on the German Childhood Cancer Registry. It was restricted to cases from West Germany and extended retrospectively until 1980 for children who were living in regions covered by a previous incidence study on nuclear installations (21). The study was conducted in close correspondence with a preceding case control study in Lower Saxony (13). Results of this study and of others published in the literature were used to define explicit hypotheses for the present study. This paper presents the methodology of the study and gives an overview of some basic results. More detailed analyses of the investigated potential risk factors will be published elsewhere. The study comprised a total of 2358 cases (leukaemias, lymphomas, selected tumours) and 2588 controls. Response rates were 81% for cases and 67% for controls. For leukaemias, the main results regarding maternal factors, pregnancy, birth, immune system, ionising radiation, parental occupation and environmental factors were as follows: Positive associations were observed between childhood leukaemias and young maternal age at birth, high birth weight, tonsillectomy and use of pesticides. Some results suggest a protective effect for allergies and vaccinations. A negative association was observed with maternal smoking and childhood leukaemia. No associations were found with frequency of stillbirths, maternal alcohol consumption, parental exposure to benzene and use of wood preservatives. X-ray examinations in early childhood and parental radiation exposure did not show any consistent associations with leukaemia. Potential risk factors were not reported more frequently by cases and controls living in 114 communities with increased incidence rates. The strength of our study lies in the large number of participating families and in the population-based approach.

  4. Association between Alcohol Consumption, Folate Intake, and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winta Yellow

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal common cancers affecting both men and women, representing about 3% of all new cancer cases in the United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of pancreatic cancer risk with alcohol consumption as well as folate intake. We performed a case-control study of 384 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from May 2004 to December 2009 and 983 primary care healthy controls in a largely white population (>96%. Our findings showed no significant association between risk of pancreatic cancer and either overall alcohol consumption or type of alcohol consumed (drinks/day. Our study showed dietary folate intake had a modest effect size, but was significantly inversely associated with pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR = 0.99, p < 0.0001. The current study supports the hypothesis that pancreatic cancer risk is reduced with higher food-based folate intake.

  5. A case-control study of Alzheimer's disease in Japan--significance of life-styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K; Niino, M; Shido, K

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study of Alzheimer's disease was conducted in Japan; it involved 60 cases matched for sex and age with two resident controls each. Life-style was particularly highlighted in this study. Among many factors, 5 were accepted as significant risk factors: psychosocial inactivity, physical inactivity, head injury, loss of teeth and low education. A multiple logistic model was applied in order to evaluate synergism of major factors. Compared with those who have none of the factors, those who have all were 934.5 times more liable to develop Alzheimer's disease. Risk factors are not only useful for etiological studies but they give clues to identify high-risk individuals, and by eliminating these factors, the studies may also be applicable in the primary and the secondary prevention of this tragic disease.

  6. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajenga E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal groups with OR 10.04 and 12.1, respectively. In addition, nulliparity is associated with higher risk while abortion did not indicate any influence in the multivariate model. The findings from this study have shown that reproductive and menstrual variables are significant predictors of breast cancer risk in Albanian women, as seen in studies of other western countries.

  7. Robust ranks of true associations in genome-wide case-control association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gang; Joo, Jungnam; Lin, Jing-Ping; Stylianou, Mario; Waclawiw, Myron A; Geller, Nancy L

    2007-01-01

    In whole-genome association studies, at the first stage, all markers are tested for association and their test statistics or p-values are ranked. At the second stage, some most significant markers are further analyzed by more powerful statistical methods. This helps reduce the number of hypotheses to be corrected for in multiple testing. Ranks of true associations in genome-wide scans using a single test statistic have been studied. In a case-control design for association, the trend test has been proposed. However, three different trend tests, optimal for the recessive, additive, and dominant models, respectively, are available for each marker. Because the true genetic model is unknown, we rank markers based on multiple test statistics or test statistics robust to model mis-specification. We studied this problem with application to Problem 3 of Genetic Analysis Workshop 15. An independent simulation study was also conducted to further evaluate the proposed procedure.

  8. Investigating Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in case-control or cohort studies or meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Andreas; Van Steen, Kristel; Wellek, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    Yu et al. (Breast Cancer Res Treat 117:675-677, 2009) recently stated that testing for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) is necessary to identify systematic genotyping errors in case-control studies. They criticized a meta-analytic study for the deviation from HWE in the case group of one study. The aim of this article is twofold. First, we derive recommendations on how to test for deviations from HWE in different study designs. Second, we develop a meta-analytic framework for assessing compatibility with HWE or measuring deviation from HWE. The authors sketch the possible reasons behind deviation from HWE and provide guidelines for proper investigation of HWE deviations in different study designs. The authors argue that the standard HWE χ² lack of fit test is logically flawed and provide a logically unflawed approach for measuring deviation from HWE using confidence intervals. The proposed method is applicable to meta-analyses of both case-control or cohort association studies. The proposed approach is illustrated using the meta-analysis criticized by Yu et al. Heterogeneity between studies can be assessed. The critique of Yu et al. to the article of Frank et al. (Breast Cancer Res Treat 111:139-144, 2008) can be refuted. Even more, validity of HWE can be proven for the pooled control sample. The authors advocate the use of a confidence interval-based approach to assess HWE. The latter should only be investigated in control populations. In multicenter studies or meta-analysis, deviation from HWE should be analyzed using a meta-analytic approach.

  9. A review of the data quality and comparability of case-control studies of low-level exposure to benzene in the petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B G; Fransman, W; Heederik, D; Hurley, J F; Kromhout, H; Fitzsimons, E

    2010-01-01

    Published case-control studies of risks of leukaemia following low exposures to benzene in the distribution of petroleum (gasoline) have not all identified the same level of risk, but the studies have had differences in cohort inclusion, case determination and availability of occupational and lifestyle data. We reviewed the quality and comparability of the data from three (of four) studies. Through site visits, discussions with the investigators and reading study reports, we reviewed and audited the methods used for selecting cases and controls, for estimating individual exposures and for analysing and interpreting the data. Case-control comparisons of exposures were examined using customized graphs. We found that there were no issues of subject selection, methods or general data quality that were likely to have distorted their internal comparisons; we could not check in detail whether the metric for exposure assessments was the same across the studies; the exposure assessments for the Australian study required the least backward estimation, and the Canadian, which also had fewest cases, the most; evidence of an increased risk at higher exposures in Australia was convincing. The findings are consistent with some effect of benzene at higher lifetime exposures. A proposed pooled analysis should improve quantification of any exposure-response relationship.

  10. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer: a case-control study based on direct interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, D T

    2001-01-01

    The etiology of pancreatic cancer is poorly understood, partly because of the inconsistency of findings among case-control studies of pancreatic cancer. Because of the unfavorable prognosis for pancreatic cancer, many case-control studies have been based largely on interviews with next of kin, who are known to report less reliable information on potential risk factors than original respondents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of speculative risk factors such as dietary/nutritional factors and alcohol drinking, as well as those of established risk factors such as cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, and family history of pancreatic cancer, on pancreatic cancer risk based solely on direct interviews. This investigation was a population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer diagnosed in Atlanta (GA), Detroit (MI), and ten New Jersey counties from August 1986 through April 1989. Direct interviews were conducted with 526 incident cases and 2,153 population controls. This study revealed a significant interaction between body mass index and caloric intake that was consistent by both race and gender. Subjects with elevated body mass index and caloric intake had increased risk, whereas those with elevated values for one of these factors but not the other experienced no increased risk. This finding suggests that energy balance may play a major role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Diabetes mellitus was also a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, as well as a possible complication of the tumor. Our data are consistent with a key role for hyperinsulinemia in pancreatic carcinogenesis, particularly among non-diabetics with an elevated body mass index. A three-fold risk of pancreatic cancer among first-degree relatives of affected individuals was apparent. An increased risk also was associated with a family history of colon, endometrial, ovary, and breast cancer, suggesting a possible link to hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer. Our findings support a

  11. Effectiveness of insecticidal nets on uncomplicated clinical malaria: a case-control study for operational evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damien, Georgia Barikissou; Djènontin, Armel; Chaffa, Evelyne; Yamadjako, Sandra; Drame, Papa Makhtar; Ndille, Emmanuel Elanga; Henry, Marie-Claire; Corbel, Vincent; Remoué, Franck; Rogier, Christophe

    2016-02-19

    In a context of large-scale implementation of malaria vector control tools, such as the distribution of long-lasting insecticide nets (LLIN), it is necessary to regularly assess whether strategies are progressing as expected and then evaluate their effectiveness. The present study used the case-control approach to evaluate the effectiveness of LLIN 42 months after national wide distribution. This study design offers an alternative to cohort study and randomized control trial as it permits to avoid many ethical issues inherent to them. From April to August 2011, a case-control study was conducted in two health districts in Benin; Ouidah-Kpomasse-Tori (OKT) in the south and Djougou-Copargo-Ouake (DCO) in the north. Children aged 0-60 months randomly selected from community were included. Cases were children with a high axillary temperature (≥37.5 °C) or a reported history of fever during the last 48 h with a positive rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Controls were children with neither fever nor signs suggesting malaria with a negative RDT. The necessary sample size was at least 396 cases and 1188 controls from each site. The main exposure variable was "sleeping every night under an LLIN for the 2 weeks before the survey" (SL). The protective effectiveness (PE) of LLIN was calculated as PE = 1 - odds ratio. The declared SL range was low, with 17.0 and 27.5 % in cases and controls in the OKT area, and 44.9 and 56.5 % in cases and controls, in the DCO area, respectively. The declared SL conferred 40.5 % (95 % CI 22.2-54.5 %) and 55.5 % (95 % CI 28.2-72.4 %) protection against uncomplicated malaria in the OKT and the DCO areas, respectively. Significant differences in PE were observed according to the mother's education level. In the context of a mass distribution of LLIN, their use still conferred protection in up to 55 % against the occurrence of clinical malaria cases in children. Social factors, the poor use and the poor condition of an LLIN can be in disfavour with

  12. Qat use and esophageal cancer in Ethiopia: A pilot case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E Leon

    Full Text Available Qat (Catha edulis chewing is reported to induce lesions in the buccal mucosa, irritation of the esophagus, and esophageal reflux. Case series suggest a possible etiological role in oral and esophageal cancers. This pilot study aimed to generate preliminary estimates of the magnitude and direction of the association between qat use and esophageal cancer (EC risk and to inform the logistics required to conduct a multi-center case-control study.Between May 2012 and May 2013, 73 EC cases (including 12 gastro-esophageal junction cases and 133 controls matched individually on sex, age, and residence were enrolled at two endoscopy clinics and a cancer treatment hospital in Addis Ababa. A face-to-face structured questionnaire was administered. Qat use was defined as ever having chewed qat once a week or more frequently for at least one year. Odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regression.Only 8% of cases resided in Addis Ababa. Qat use was more frequent in cases (36% than in controls (26%. A 2-fold elevation in EC risk was observed in ever qat chewers compared with never users in unadjusted conditional logistic regression (OR = 2.12; 95% CI = 0.94, 4.74, an association that disappeared after adjusting for differences in tobacco use, consumption of alcohol and green vegetables, education level, and religion (OR = 0.95; 0.22, 4.22. Among never tobacco users, however, a non-significant increase in EC risk was suggested in ever qat users also after adjustment. Increases in EC risk were observed with ever tobacco use, alcohol consumption, low consumption of green vegetables, a salty diet, illiteracy, and among Muslims; the four latter associations were significant.This pilot study generated EC risk estimates in association with a habit practiced by millions of people and never before studied in a case-control design. Results must be interpreted cautiously in light of possible selection bias, with some demographics such as education level

  13. Early life course risk factors for childhood obesity: the IDEFICS case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Bammann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The early life course is assumed to be a critical phase for childhood obesity; however the significance of single factors and their interplay is not well studied in childhood populations. OBJECTIVES: The investigation of pre-, peri- and postpartum risk factors on the risk of obesity at age 2 to 9. METHODS: A case-control study with 1,024 1:1-matched case-control pairs was nested in the baseline survey (09/2007-05/2008 of the IDEFICS study, a population-based intervention study on childhood obesity carried out in 8 European countries in pre- and primary school settings. Conditional logistic regression was used for identification of risk factors. RESULTS: For many of the investigated risk factors, we found a raw effect in our study. In multivariate models, we could establish an effect for gestational weight gain (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95%CI 1.00-1.04, smoking during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95%CI 1.08-2.01, Caesarian section (adjusted OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.10-1.74, and breastfeeding 4 to 11 months (adjusted OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.62-0.96. Birth weight was related to lean mass rather than to fat mass, the effect of smoking was found only in boys, but not in girls. After additional adjustment for parental BMI and parental educational status, only gestational weight gain remained statistically significant. Both, maternal as well as paternal BMI were the strongest risk factors in our study, and they confounded several of the investigated associations. CONCLUSIONS: Key risk factors of childhood obesity in our study are parental BMI and gestational weight gain; consequently prevention approaches should target not only children but also adults. The monitoring of gestational weight seems to be of particular importance for early prevention of childhood obesity.

  14. Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infections Following Neurosurgical Spinal Fusion Operations: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Thomas L; Querry, Ashley M; McCool, Sheila; Galdys, Alison L; Shutt, Kathleen A; Saul, Melissa I; Muto, Carlene A

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine risk factors for the development of surgical site infections (SSIs) in neurosurgery patients undergoing spinal fusion. DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. SETTING Large, academic, quaternary care center. PATIENTS The study population included all neurosurgery patients who underwent spinal fusion between August 1, 2009, and August 31, 2013. Cases were defined as patients in the study cohort who developed an SSI. Controls were patients in the study cohort who did not develop an SSI. METHODS To achieve 80% power with an ability to detect an odds ratio (OR) of 2, we performed an unmatched case-control study with equal numbers of cases and controls. RESULTS During the study period, 5,473 spinal fusion procedures were performed by neurosurgeons in our hospital. With 161 SSIs recorded during the study period, the incidence of SSIs associated with these procedures was 2.94%. While anterior surgical approach was found to be a protective factor (OR, 0.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08-0.52), duration of procedure (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.29-1.93), American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or 4 (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.00-3.18), and hospitalization within the prior 30 days (OR, 5.8; 95% CI, 1.37-24.57) were found in multivariate analysis to be independent predictors of SSI following spinal fusion. Prior methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nares colonization was highly associated with odds 20 times higher of SSI following spinal fusion (OR, 20.30; 95% CI, 4.64-8.78). CONCLUSIONS In additional to nonmodifiable risk factors, prior colonization with MRSA is a modifiable risk factor very strongly associated with development of SSI following spinal fusion. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:348-352.

  15. Early life course risk factors for childhood obesity: the IDEFICS case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bammann, Karin; Peplies, Jenny; De Henauw, Stefaan; Hunsberger, Monica; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; Tornaritis, Michael; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Siani, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The early life course is assumed to be a critical phase for childhood obesity; however the significance of single factors and their interplay is not well studied in childhood populations. The investigation of pre-, peri- and postpartum risk factors on the risk of obesity at age 2 to 9. A case-control study with 1,024 1:1-matched case-control pairs was nested in the baseline survey (09/2007-05/2008) of the IDEFICS study, a population-based intervention study on childhood obesity carried out in 8 European countries in pre- and primary school settings. Conditional logistic regression was used for identification of risk factors. For many of the investigated risk factors, we found a raw effect in our study. In multivariate models, we could establish an effect for gestational weight gain (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95%CI 1.00-1.04), smoking during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95%CI 1.08-2.01), Caesarian section (adjusted OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.10-1.74), and breastfeeding 4 to 11 months (adjusted OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.62-0.96). Birth weight was related to lean mass rather than to fat mass, the effect of smoking was found only in boys, but not in girls. After additional adjustment for parental BMI and parental educational status, only gestational weight gain remained statistically significant. Both, maternal as well as paternal BMI were the strongest risk factors in our study, and they confounded several of the investigated associations. Key risk factors of childhood obesity in our study are parental BMI and gestational weight gain; consequently prevention approaches should target not only children but also adults. The monitoring of gestational weight seems to be of particular importance for early prevention of childhood obesity.

  16. Multilocus Heterozygosity and Coronary Heart Disease: Nested Case-Control Studies in Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Jensen, Majken K.; Pers, Tune Hannes

    2015-01-01

    genome scans in parallel case-control studies of coronary heart disease (CHD) nested in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Nurses' Health Study. We examined ∼ 700,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 435 men with incident CHD and 878 matched controls and 435 women with incident CHD......Background: Generalized allelic heterozygosity has been proposed to improve reproductive fitness and has been associated with higher blood pressure, but its association with chronic disease is not well characterized. Methods: Using the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human 6.0 array, we performed whole...... to risk of CHD in either men or women (adjusted odds ratios per 2000 heterozygous SNPs 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.91-1.13] in women and 0.94 [0.84-1.06] in men). We also found no consistent associations of genome-wide heterozygosity with levels of lipids, inflammatory markers, adhesion molecules...

  17. [A case-control study on relationship between hepatitis C infection and primary liver cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z Q; Zhou, G Y; Huang, T R

    1994-09-01

    All the cases and controls emerged from a cohort study held in the past years. They were male, more than 20 years of age at the time of their enrollment into the cohort study, with serum specimens taken and kept at -20 degrees C. Every death of primary liver cancer (PLC), occurred since then, as a 'case' (78 in total), was compared with no more than 4 matched controls chosen from cohort members who were still alive until the last follow-up. ELISA technique was used to test anti-HCV antibodies in the stored serum specimens of the cases and controls. The Results showed that anti-HCV prevalence rates were 33.3% (26/78) of the cases and 15.3% (40/262) of their matched controls, respectively (chi 2 = 11.86, P case-control studies.

  18. [Scleroderma and occupational factors: a case-control study and analysis of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betta, A; Tommasini, M; Bovenzi, M; Barbone, F; Versini, W; Romeo, L

    1994-01-01

    The scientific literature concerning occupational factors associated with scleroderma consists mostly of case report type studies. We therefore undertook a case-control study in the Province of Trento using as data source the Hospital Records System. The annual rate of scleroderma incidence in the period considered (1976-1991) was 5.8 per million in females and 1.5 per million in males. A statistically significant association was observed (OR = 9.28, p = 0.039) in the population under study for occupational exposure to solvents. Also, an excess risk was observed in male subjects exposed to silica dust, even though the simultaneous exposure to other risk factors, such as hand-arm vibrations, makes it difficult to establish the specific contribution of silica dust exposure.

  19. Splenectomy Correlates With Increased Risk of Acute Pancreatitis: A Case-Control Study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-09-05

    The objective of the study was to investigate the association between splenectomy and acute pancreatitis. We conducted a case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. We included 7666 subjects aged 20-84 years with first-time acute pancreatitis during the period of 1998-2011 as cases and 30 664 randomly selected subjects without acute pancreatitis as controls. Both cases and controls were matched for sex, age, and index year of acute pancreatitis diagnosis. The association of acute pancreatitis with splenectomy was examined using a multivariable unconditional logistic regression model and reported as an odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval (CI). After adjustment for covariables, the adjusted odds ratio of acute pancreatitis was 2.90 for subjects with splenectomy (95% CI, 1.39-6.05) compared with subjects without splenectomy. Splenectomy is associated with acute pancreatitis. Further studies are necessary to clarify the underlying mechanism.

  20. Association between Alcohol Consumption, Folate Intake, and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow, Winta; Bamlet, William R; Oberg, Ann L; Anderson, Kristin E; Olson, Janet E; Sinha, Rashmi; Petersen, Gloria M; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Jansen, Rick J

    2017-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal common cancers affecting both men and women, representing about 3% of all new cancer cases in the United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of pancreatic cancer risk with alcohol consumption as well as folate intake. We performed a case-control study of 384 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from May 2004 to December 2009 and 983 primary care healthy controls in a largely white population (>96%). Our findings showed no significant association between risk of pancreatic cancer and either overall alcohol consumption or type of alcohol consumed (drinks/day). Our study showed dietary folate intake had a modest effect size, but was significantly inversely associated with pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 0.99, p pancreatic cancer risk is reduced with higher food-based folate intake.

  1. Novel Oral Anticoagulants and the Risk of Major Hemorrhage in Elderly Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Ziv; Mamdani, Muhammad; Juurlink, David N; Garg, Amit X; Wald, Ron; Yao, Zhan; Gomes, Tara

    2016-08-01

    The novel oral anticoagulants, including dabigatran and rivaroxaban, differ in their degree of renal excretion. We conducted a population-based nested case-control study in patients 66 years and older with chronic kidney disease (CKD) (excluding patients undergoing chronic dialysis) who received an oral anticoagulant between April 2006 and March 2013. We calculated odds ratios for hospitalization with a major hemorrhagic event and receipt of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or warfarin in the preceding 60 days. We also performed a sensitivity analysis to investigate whether a relationship exists between major hemorrhage and advanced age (age elderly patients with CKD, exposure to dabigatran or rivaroxaban was not associated with a statistically significant increased risk of major hemorrhagic events compared with exposure to warfarin. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cigarette smoking and pancreas cancer: a case-control study based on direct interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, D T; Dunn, J A; Hoover, R N; Schiffman, M; Lillemoe, K D; Schoenberg, J B; Brown, L M; Greenberg, R S; Hayes, R B; Swanson, G M

    1994-10-19

    Cigarette smoking is the most consistently reported risk factor for pancreas cancer, yet the dose-response relationship in many pancreas cancer studies is weak. Because of the poor prognosis for pancreas cancer, many case-control studies have been based largely on interviews with proxy respondents, who are known to report less reliable information on detailed smoking habits than original subjects. Our purpose was to evaluate cigarette smoking as a risk factor for pancreas cancer based on data obtained only from direct interviews and to estimate the effects of quitting smoking and of switching from nonfiltered to filtered cigarettes on risk. Our objective also was to estimate the contribution of cigarette smoking toward explaining the higher pancreas cancer incidence experienced by black Americans compared with white Americans. A population-based, case-control study of pancreas cancer was conducted during 1986-1989 in Atlanta, Ga., Detroit, Mich., and 10 counties in New Jersey. Direct interviews were successfully completed with 526 case patients and 2153 control subjects aged 30-79 years, making this the largest population-based, case-control study of pancreas cancer to date based only on direct interviews. Cigarette smokers had a significant, 70% increased risk of pancreas cancer compared with the risk in nonsmokers. A significant, positive trend in risk with increasing duration smoked was apparent (P or = 40 years) smokers experiencing a modest 2.1-fold risk. We also observed a negative trend in risk with increasing years quit smoking. Smokers who quit for more than 10 years experienced about a 30% reduction in risk relative to current smokers; quitters of 10 years or less experienced no risk reduction. Switching from nonfiltered to filtered cigarettes did not appear to decrease risk. Compared with nonsmokers, subjects who smoked only filtered cigarettes had a 50% elevated risk and those who smoked only nonfiltered cigarettes had a 40% elevated risk. The

  3. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Wu

    Full Text Available Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine's main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation.We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women's Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples of 241 stroke cases and 479 matched controls.There was no statistically significant association between serum taurine and stroke risk in the overall study population. The adjusted ORs for stroke were 1.0 (reference, 0.87 (95% CI, 0.59-1.28, and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.69-1.54 in increasing tertiles of taurine (64.3-126.6, 126.7-152.9, and 153.0-308.5 nmol/mL, respectively. A significant inverse association between serum taurine and stroke risk was observed among never smokers, with an adjusted OR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.37-1.18 and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.26-0.94 for the second and third tertile, respectively (p for trend = 0.01, but not among past or current smokers (p for interaction < 0.01.We observed no overall association between serum taurine and stroke risk, although a protective effect was observed in never smokers, which requires further investigation. Taurine, Stroke, Epidemiology, Prospective, Case-control study, NYUWHS.

  4. A case-control study assessing depression in patients with periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyamali Sundararajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting structures of the tooth. One of the important non-oral risk factors for periodontitis is psychosocial stress and depression. Depression affects oral health by affecting the immune system through its effects on hypothalamic pituitary axis system. Periodontal inflammatory surface area (PISA is a system used to assess inflammatory burden in the periodontal tissue. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between PISA and depression. Settings and Design: The design of the study is case-control study. Materials and Methods: The study design is a case-control study with forty patients each in case and control groups. The periodontal inflammatory level was assessed by PISA system and the levels of depression was assessed by using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Statistical Analysis: Student's t-test was used to compare PISA and BDI scores. The BDI score (mean ± standard deviation [SD] for controls was 12.75 ± 6.82 compared to 22.73 ± 4.40 for the cases. The comparison (t = 7.78 was statistically significant at P < 0.0001. The PISA score (mean ± SD for controls was 210.47 ± 76.80 compared to the PISA score of 1069.50 ± 204.21 for cases which was statistically significant (t = 24.90; P < 0.0001. Results: Significantly higher BDI scores were observed in patients with chronic periodontitis than healthy controls. Conclusion: This study clearly reveals a significant association between the severity of depression and inflammatory burden.

  5. A Case-Control Study of the Role of Cold Symptoms and other Historical Triggering Factors in Asthma Exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Tarlo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations can be provoked by many triggers such as allergens, respiratory irritants and viral infections. The relative importance of these has not been prospectively documented in a case-control study.

  6. Exposure to residential radon and lung cancer in Spain: a population-based case-control study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Barreiro, María Amparo; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2002-01-01

    ... exposure display inconsistencies. The authors therefore decided to conduct a population-based case-control study in northwest Spain to determine the risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to residential radon...

  7. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis – Study protocol of a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillon Bertil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA is one of the frequent and functionally impairing disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In the literature, a number of occupational risk factors are discussed as being related to the development and progress of knee joint diseases, e.g. working in kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying of heavy weights. The importance of the single risk factors and the possibility of prevention are currently under discussion. Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important, too. The distinction between work-related factors and individual factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. In existing studies, the occupational stress is determined mainly by surveys in employees and/or by making assumptions about individual occupations. Direct evaluation of occupational exposure has been performed only exceptionally. The aim of the research project ArGon is the assessment of different occupational factors in relation to individual factors (e.g. constitutional factors, leisure time activities, sports, which might influence the development and/or progression of knee (OA. The project is designed as a case control study. Methods/Design To raise valid data about the physical stress associated with occupational and leisure time activities, patients with and without knee OA are questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire and an interview. The required sample size was estimated to 800 cases and an equal number of controls. The degree and localisation of the knee cartilage or joint damages in the cases are documented on the basis of radiological, arthroscopic and/or operative findings in a patient record. Furthermore, occupational exposure is analysed at selected workplaces. To evaluate the answers provided in the questionnaire, work analysis is performed. Discussion In this research project, specific information on the

  8. Age discrimination in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest care: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiel, Eric; Di Pompéo, Christophe; Segal, Nicolas; Luc, Gérald; Marc, Jean-Baptiste; Vanderstraeten, Carine; El Khoury, Carlos; Escutnaire, Joséphine; Tazarourte, Karim; Gueugniaud, Pierre-Yves; Hubert, Hervé

    2017-12-01

    Although some studies have questioned whether cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in older people could be futile, age is not considered an essential out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) prognostic factor. However, in the daily clinical practice of mobile medical teams (MMTs), age seems to be an important factor affecting OHCA care. The purpose of this study was to compare OHCA care and outcomes between young patients (<65 years old) and older patients. We performed a case-control study based on data extracted from the French National Cardiac Arrest (CA) registry. All adult patients with CA recorded between July 2011 and May 2014 were included. Each older patient was matched on three criteria: sex, initial cardiac rhythm and no-flow duration. We studied 4347 pairs. We found significantly less basic life support initiation, shorter advanced cardiac life support duration, less MMT automated chest compression, less MMT ventilation and less MMT epinephrine injection in the older patients. Significant differences were also observed for return of spontaneous circulation (odds ratio (OR)=0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-0.92, p<0.001), transport to hospital (OR=0.58, 95% CI 0.51-0.61, p<0.001), vital status at hospital admission (OR=0.55, 95% CI 0.50-0.60, p<0.001) and vital status 30 days after CA (OR=0.42, 95% CI 0.35-0.50, p<0.001). All OHCA guidelines, ethical statements and clinical procedures do not propose age as a discrimination criterion in OHCA care. However, in our case-control study, we notice a shorter duration and less intensive care among older patients. This finding may partly explain the lower survival rate compared with younger people.

  9. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were analyzed for anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Data of meat workers were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of Leptospira exposure with the characteristics of meat workers was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 22 (17.7%) of 124 meat workers and in eight (6.5%) of 124 controls (OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.33 - 7.33; P = 0.006). Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection was similar between male butchers (17.6%) and female butchers (18.2%) (P = 1.00). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, work and behavioral variables showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with duration in the activity, rural residence, and consumption of snake meat and unwashed raw fruits. Conclusions This is the first case-control study of the association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of meat worker. Results indicate that meat workers represent a risk group for Leptospira exposure. Risk factors for Leptospira exposure found in this study may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26858797

  10. Replication of Prostate Cancer Risk Variants in a Danish Case-Control Association Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, Diem Nguyen; Nyegaard, Mette; Børglum, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is one of the main causes for cancer morbidity and mortality in Western countries. Recently, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with prostate cancer have been identified in genome-wide association studies and multiple variant models have been...... developed to predict prostate cancer risk. The association between genetic markers and clinico-pathological tumor variables has, however, been inconsistent. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 previously identified prostate cancer-associated risk SNPs were genotyped in 648 prostate cancer cases and 526 age...... assays and associations between SNPs, prostate cancer risk, and clinico-pathological variables were assessed. Results: Seventeen SNPs were successfully replicated in our case-control study and the association estimates were consistent with previous reports. Four markers were excluded from further...

  11. Association between joint hypermobility syndrome and panic disorder: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Campayo, Javier; Asso, Elena; Alda, Marta; Andres, Eva Maria; Sobradiel, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    A significant association between joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) and panic disorder was observed in a sample of rheumatology outpatients. The aim of this study was to assess whether JHS is more frequent in panic-disorder than in control subjects. The authors conducted a case-control study comparing 55 untreated patients with panic disorder and three matched-control groups: psychiatric patients, fibromyalgia patients, and healthy persons. JHS was more frequent among panic-disorder than among psychiatric patients, the healthy group, or the fibromyalgia group. In the panic-disorder group, there was a significant correlation between severity of JHS and anxiety. The strong association between JHS and panic disorder points to a genetic association. There is also a possibility that JHS and mitral valve prolapse, another condition frequently associated with panic disorder, share a common pathophysiological mechanism.

  12. Risk Factors for Inhibitor Formation in Hemophilia: A Prevalent Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, Margaret V.; Ojeifo, Oluseyi; Feng, Jinong; Yan, Jin; Hill, Kathleen A.; Sommer, Steve S.; Trucco, Massimo N.; Brambilla, Donald J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Inhibitor formation is a major complication of hemophilia treatment. Aim In a prevalent case-control study, we evaluated blood product exposure, genotype, and HLA type on hemophilia A inhibitor formation. Methods Product exposure was extracted from medical records. Genotype was determined on stored DNA samples by detection of virtually all mutations-SSCP (DOVAM-S) and subcycling PCR. HLA typing was performed by PCR amplification and exonuclease-released fluorescence. Results Cases experienced higher intensity factor, 455 vs. 200 U per exposure, p0.100. Genotype was not associated with race. Time to immune tolerance was shorter for titers 0.50. Conclusions Inhibitor formation is associated with high intensity product exposure, CNS bleeding, African-American race, and low frequency of missense mutations. The ideal time to initiate prophylaxis to reduce CNS bleeding and inhibitor formation will require prospective studies. PMID:19563499

  13. Systemic inflammation in acute intermittent porphyria: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storjord, E; Dahl, J A; Landsem, A; Fure, H; Ludviksen, J K; Goldbeck-Wood, S; Karlsen, B O; Berg, K S; Mollnes, T E; W Nielsen, E; Brekke, O-L

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to examine whether acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is associated with systemic inflammation and whether the inflammation correlates with disease activity. A case-control study with 50 AIP cases and age-, sex- and place of residence-matched controls was performed. Plasma cytokines, insulin and C-peptide were analysed after an overnight fast using multiplex assay. Long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) and complement activation products (C3bc and TCC) were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Urine porphobilinogen ratio (U-PBG, µmol/mmol creatinine), haematological and biochemical tests were performed using routine methods. Questionnaires were used to register AIP symptoms, medication and other diseases. All 27 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors investigated were increased significantly in symptomatic AIP cases compared with controls (P inflammation. Decreased C-peptide levels in symptomatic AIP cases indicate that reduced insulin release is associated with enhanced disease activity and reduced kidney function. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  14. Retrospective exposure assessment and quality control in an international multi-centre case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinnerberg, H; Heikkilä, P; Huici-Montagud, A

    2003-01-01

    of the assessors, as Cohen's kappa and as overall proportion of the agreements. The reassessment of the exposures changed the exposure statuses significantly, when compared with the original cohort. Harmonization of the exposure criteria increased the conformity of the assessments. The prevalence of exposure......The paper presents the exposure assessment method and quality control procedure used in an international, multi-centre case-control study within a joint Nordic and Italian cohort. This study was conducted to evaluate whether occupational exposure to carcinogens influenced the predictivity of high...... frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in peripheral lymphocytes for increased cancer risk. Occupational hygienists assessed exposures in each participating country: Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway and Sweden. The exposure status to a carcinogen or a clastogen was coded in the cohort according...

  15. Tea consumption and the risk of oral cancer incidence: a case-control study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jin-Ye; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Luo, Jian-Feng; Zhong, Lai-Ping; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the relation of tea consumption with the risk of oral cancer incidence. A multicenter case-control study based on hospitalized population was conducted for evaluating the association of tea consumption with oral cancer risk in China. Black tea and green tea were separately analyzed. 723 cases and 857 controls were included. Unconditional multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of oral cancer for tea consumption. The ORs for green tea consumption⩾8g/day compared withconsumption⩾6g/day compared withconsumption was associated with decreased oral cancer risk. The results of this study indicated that green tea consumption may decrease the risk of oral cancer in men especially for those smoking heavily. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prolonged outbreak of Serratia marcescens in Tartu University Hospital: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Vivika; Mitt, Piret; Pisarev, Heti; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Telling, Kaidi; Naaber, Paul; Maimets, Matti

    2012-10-31

    The aim of our study was to investigate and control an outbreak and identify risk factors for colonization and infection with Serratia marcescens in two departments in Tartu University Hospital. The retrospective case-control study was conducted from July 2005 to December 2006. Molecular typing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis was used to confirm the relatedness of Serratia marcescens strains. Samples from the environment and from the hands of personnel were cultured. The outbreak involved 210 patients, 61 (29%) developed an infection, among them 16 were invasive infections. Multivariate analysis identified gestational age, arterial catheter use and antibiotic treatment as independent risk factors for colonization and infection with Serratia marcescens. Molecular typing was performed on 83 Serratia marcescens strains, 81 of them were identical and 2 strains were different. Given the occasionally severe consequences of Serratia marcescens in infants, early implementation of aggressive infection control measures involving patients and mothers as well as the personnel is of utmost importance.

  17. A population-based case-control teratologic study of ampicillin treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This was a study of the association between ampicillin treatment during pregnancy and prevalence of different congenital abnormalities. Study Design: The paired analysis of case patients with congenital abnormalities and matched population control subjects was performed in the population......-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities between 1980 and 1996. Of 38,151 pregnant women who had babies without any defects (population control group), 2632 (6.9%) had been treated with ampicillin. Of 22,865 pregnant women who had offspring with congenital abnormalities (case patients......), 1643 (7.2%) had been treated with ampicillin (crude odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.2). Of 812 mothers who were delivered of babies affected by Down syndrome (patient control subjects), 61 (7.5%) had ampicillin treatment, and these were also compared with the case group. Results...

  18. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and gastrointestinal bleeding: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Carvajal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs have been associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding. Given their worldwide use, even small risks account for a large number of cases. This study has been conducted with carefully collected information to further investigate the relationship between SSRIs and upper GI bleeding. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in hospitals in Spain and in Italy. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute upper GI bleeding diagnosed by endoscopy; three controls were matched by sex, age, date of admission (within 3 months and hospital among patients who were admitted for elective surgery for non-painful disorders. Exposures to SSRIs, other antidepressants and other drugs were defined as any use of these drugs in the 7 days before the day on which upper gastrointestinal bleeding started (index day. RESULTS: 581 cases of upper GI bleeding and 1358 controls were considered eligible for the study; no differences in age or sex distribution were observed between cases and controls after matching. Overall, 4.0% of the cases and 3.3% of controls used an SSRI antidepressant in the week before the index day. No significant risk of upper GI bleeding was encountered for SSRI antidepressants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57-1.96 or for whichever other grouping of antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this case-control study showed no significant increase in upper GI bleeding with SSRIs and provide good evidence that the magnitude of any increase in risk is not greater than 2.

  19. Results of case-control studies support the association between contact lens use and Acanthamoeba keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacella E

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Elena Pacella,1 Giuseppe La Torre,2 Maria De Giusti,2 Chiara Brillante,1 Anna Maria Lombardi,2 Gianpaolo Smaldone,1 Tommaso Lenzi,1 Fernanda Pacella11Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, ItalyBackground: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK is ever more frequently reported in industrialized countries. The loss of the corneal surface integrity consequent to secondary microtrauma produced by the use of contact lens (CL favors the penetration of the parasite into the corneal tissue.Objectives: A scientific review was performed to investigate the association of CL wear as an Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK risk factor.Methods: A computerized screening of 7834 Medline articles (4623 from PubMed; 3211 from Scopus used a strict selection criteria of case-control studies involving CL wear and/or trauma.Results: The search yielded five case-control studies published from 1995 to 2012. All studies included showed a statistically significant positive association between AK and CL use, with a combined odds ratio (OR of 10.21 (95%, confidence intervals [CI]; 3.57–27.64.Statistical analysis: All studies included showed a statistically significant positive association between AK and CL use, though with differing OR values.Conclusion: Though rare, AK should be held in higher consideration when ophthalmologists are faced with CL users exhibiting simplex-like lesions associated with circular stromal infiltrates and disproportionate ocular pain in respect to the objective clinical picture.Keywords: keratitis, contact lens, Acanthamoeba

  20. Dietary food groups intake and cooking methods associations with pancreatic cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Zeinab; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Zinab, Hassan Eini; Farrokhzad, Solmaz; Rahimi, Roya; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2015-05-01

    The role of dietary habits in the etiology of pancreatic cancer (PC) has not yet been well elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of the frequency of different food groups' intake and their cooking methods with PC risk based on a well-designed case-control study. A case-control study including 307 PC patients and 322 controls referred to four tertiary endosonography centers was conducted from January 2011 to January 2014 to compare the frequency intake of different food items and their cooking methods between cases and controls. After adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, years of education, diabetes and alcohol history, smoking status, and opium use, a significant direct relationship was observed between PC risk and intake frequency (time/week) of bread (OR = 1.50; 95 % CI 1.05-2.13; p-value 0.024), rice (OR = 2.10; 95 % CI 1.15-3.82; p for trend 0.034), and red meat (OR = 2.25; 95 % CI 1.22-4.14; p for trend 0.033) (time/day), when comparing the highest category of intake frequency with the lowest, while increasing frequency of fish consumption was associated with a lower risk of PC (OR = 0.93; 95 % CI0.59-1.47; p for trend 0.009). Increasing consumption of barbecuing red meat and deep fried vegetables was associated with 67 % and 70 % increased risk of PC (p-value 0.025 and 0.006, respectively). Our results indicate that increased frequency of intake of bread, rice, and red meat (especially barbecued) and deep fried vegetables can aggregate PC risk, while increased frequency of fish consumption can protect against PC. However, more studies are still needed.

  1. Externalizing behavior and impulsivity in the children of alcoholics: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyanar Sugaparaneetharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Reduced behavioural inhibition, characterized by impulsivity and disruptive behaviour disorders, has been identified as a developmental precursor of alcoholism with a considerable genetic component. Aims: The present study aimed to assess whether children of fathers with alcohol dependence have high impulsivity and externalizing behaviours. Setting and Design: Observational case-control study, done in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Southern India. Materials and Methods: The present case-control study recruited 50 children aged 7 to 14 years of fathers with alcohol dependence and 50 age- and gender-matched children of fathers without alcohol dependence. The two groups were compared using the DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics used to summarise the study findings. Cases and controls were compared on BIS and CBCL scores using a general linear model (GLM. All analyses were two tailed and test P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The children of fathers with alcohol dependence were more likely to meet criteria for ADHD (30% versus 10%, χ2 = 6.250, P = 0.012. After controlling for age and gender, impulsivity scores on the BIS tended to be higher in the cases (F = 2.410, P = 0.055 than controls, mainly in the non-planning domains (F = 3.650, P = 0.008. Similarly, externalizing behaviours on CBCL were more common in the cases than controls (F = 2.817, P = 0.029. Conclusions: Children of fathers with alcohol dependence had greater impulsivity and externalizing behaviours. This may represent a behavioural phenotype as well as a potential target for early intervention.

  2. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Alfonso; Ortega, Sara; Del Olmo, Lourdes; Vidal, Xavier; Aguirre, Carmelo; Ruiz, Borja; Conforti, Anita; Leone, Roberto; López-Vázquez, Paula; Figueiras, Adolfo; Ibáñez, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Background Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Given their worldwide use, even small risks account for a large number of cases. This study has been conducted with carefully collected information to further investigate the relationship between SSRIs and upper GI bleeding. Methods We conducted a case-control study in hospitals in Spain and in Italy. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute upper GI bleeding diagnosed by endoscopy; three controls were matched by sex, age, date of admission (within 3 months) and hospital among patients who were admitted for elective surgery for non-painful disorders. Exposures to SSRIs, other antidepressants and other drugs were defined as any use of these drugs in the 7 days before the day on which upper gastrointestinal bleeding started (index day). Results 581 cases of upper GI bleeding and 1358 controls were considered eligible for the study; no differences in age or sex distribution were observed between cases and controls after matching. Overall, 4.0% of the cases and 3.3% of controls used an SSRI antidepressant in the week before the index day. No significant risk of upper GI bleeding was encountered for SSRI antidepressants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57–1.96) or for whichever other grouping of antidepressants. Conclusions The results of this case-control study showed no significant increase in upper GI bleeding with SSRIs and provide good evidence that the magnitude of any increase in risk is not greater than 2. PMID:21625637

  3. Risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among tuberculosis patients: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Workicho A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdulhalik Workicho, Wondwosen Kassahun, Fessahaye Alemseged Department of Epidemiology, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB did not receive major attention until recently in sub-Saharan Africa where the tuberculosis incidence and risk factors are highest. Factors leading to development of drug resistance need to be understood to develop appropriate control strategies for national programs. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for MDR-TB among tuberculosis patients. Methods: A case-control study was conducted to assess sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical risk factors using a structured questionnaire and clinical record reviewing. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS windows version 16. Descriptive analysis was done to generate summary values for the variables and those significant variables in the bivariate analysis at p-value less than 0.25 were entered to multivariable logistic regression to identify independent determinants. Statistical significance was declared at p-value less than or equal to 0.05. Results: A total of 90 cases and 90 controls were included in the study. Age of respondents (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.6–24.5, living in a household with only one room (AOR=5; 95%CI: 1.68–15.38, history of previous treatment (AOR=21; 95% CI: 17.8–28 and being HIV infected (AOR=3.1; 95%CI: 1.02–9.4 were found to be independent predictors of MDR-TB. Conclusion: In light of these findings, the strategies in controlling MDR-TB should emphasize on patients with HIV coinfection, young patients, those who have a history of previous treatment, and those living in crowded places. Keywords: MDR-TB, risk factors, case-control study, St. Peter’s TB Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia

  4. UK case control study of brain tumours in children, teenagers and young adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltbower, Richard G; Fleming, Sarah J; Picton, Susan V; Alston, Robert D; Morgan, Diana; Achilles, Janice; McKinney, Patricia A; Birch, Jillian M

    2014-01-08

    Tumours of the central nervous system are the second most common group of childhood cancers in 0-14 year olds (24% of total cancers) and represent a major diagnostic group in 15-24 year olds. The pilot case-control study aimed to establish methodologies for a future comprehensive aetiological investigation among children and young adults. Eligible cases were newly diagnosed with an intracranial tumour of neuroepithelial tissue aged 0-24 years. The pilot recruited patients through Leeds and Manchester Principal Treatment Centres. Controls were drawn from general practice lists. Controls were frequency matched by age and gender. We interviewed 49 cases and 78 controls comprising 85% of the target sample size. Response rates were 52% for cases and 32% for controls. Completion of the questionnaire was successful, with a very small proportion of missing data being reported (5-10%). The age distribution of cases and controls was similar with around three-quarters of interviewed subjects aged 0-14. Half of cases and almost two-thirds of controls reported using a mobile phone with the majority starting between 10-14 years of age. Prevalence of breastfeeding was lower in cases than controls (Odds Ratio 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-1.2), whilst cases were more likely to be delivered by caesarean section (OR 1.6; 95% CI 0.6-4.4). Cases were significantly more likely to have a birthweight > 3.5 kg compared to controls. Cases were also more likely to come from a family with 3 or more siblings than controls (OR 3.0; 95% CI 0.7-13.6). The majority of participants (>80%) were in favour of taking either blood or saliva to aid molecular epidemiological research. Successful methods were established for identifying and recruiting a high proportion of case subjects, exploiting strong links with the clinical teams at the treatment centres. Control procedures proved more difficult to implement. However, working closely with national clinical and professional research networks will enable improved

  5. Nasal Airway Microbiota Profile and Severe Bronchiolitis in Infants: A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Linnemann, Rachel W; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Ajami, Nadim J; Espinola, Janice A; Petrosino, Joseph F; Piedra, Pedro A; Stevenson, Michelle D; Sullivan, Ashley F; Thompson, Amy D; Camargo, Carlos A

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about the relationship of airway microbiota with bronchiolitis in infants. We aimed to identify nasal airway microbiota profiles and to determine their association with the likelihood of bronchiolitis in infants. A case-control study was conducted. As a part of a multicenter prospective study, we collected nasal airway samples from 40 infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis. We concurrently enrolled 110 age-matched healthy controls. By applying 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and an unbiased clustering approach to these 150 nasal samples, we identified microbiota profiles and determined the association of microbiota profiles with likelihood of bronchiolitis. Overall, the median age was 3 months and 56% were male. Unbiased clustering of airway microbiota identified 4 distinct profiles: Moraxella-dominant profile (37%), Corynebacterium/Dolosigranulum-dominant profile (27%), Staphylococcus-dominant profile (15%) and mixed profile (20%). Proportion of bronchiolitis was lowest in infants with Moraxella-dominant profile (14%) and highest in those with Staphylococcus-dominant profile (57%), corresponding to an odds ratio of 7.80 (95% confidence interval, 2.64-24.9; P bronchiolitis persisted (odds ratio for comparison with Moraxella-dominant profile, 5.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-22.9; P = 0.03). By contrast, Corynebacterium/Dolosigranulum-dominant profile group had low proportion of infants with bronchiolitis (17%); the likelihood of bronchiolitis in this group did not significantly differ from those with Moraxella-dominant profile in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. In this case-control study, we identified 4 distinct nasal airway microbiota profiles in infants. Moraxella-dominant and Corynebacterium/Dolosigranulum-dominant profiles were associated with low likelihood of bronchiolitis, while Staphylococcus-dominant profile was associated with high likelihood of bronchiolitis.

  6. Case-control study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and residential radon exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, J H; Linet, M S; Boice, J D; Buckley, J; Conrath, S M; Hatch, E E; Kleinerman, R A; Tarone, R E; Wacholder, S; Robison, L L

    1998-02-18

    Several ecologic analyses have shown significant positive associations between mean indoor radon concentrations and risk of leukemia at all ages (acute myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and for children (all leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL]). As part of an age-matched, case-control study of childhood ALL in the United States, we investigated the association between the incidence of ALL in children under age 15 years and indoor radon exposure. Radon detectors were placed in current and previous homes of subjects where they resided for 6 months or longer. Children were included in analyses if radon measurements covered 70% or more of the 5-year period prior to diagnosis for case subjects (or from birth for case subjects under age 5 years) and the corresponding reference dates for control subjects. Radon levels could be estimated for 97% of the exposure period for the eligible 505 case subjects and 443 control subjects. Mean radon concentration was lower for case subjects (65.4 becquerels per cubic meter [Bqm(-3)]) than for control subjects (79.1 Bqm(-3)). For categories less than 37, 37-73, 74-147, and 148 or more Bqm(-3) of radon exposure, relative risks based on matched case-control pairs were 1.00, 1.22, 0.82, and 1.02, respectively, and were similar to results from an unmatched analysis. There was no association between ALL and radon exposure within subgroups defined by categories of age, income, birth order, birth weight, sex, type of residence, magnetic field exposure, parental age at the subject's birth, parental occupation, or parental smoking habits. In contrast to prior ecologic studies, the results from this analytic study provide no evidence for an association between indoor radon exposure and childhood ALL.

  7. Statin use and risk of endometrial cancer: a nationwide registry-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Cecilie D; Verdoodt, Freija; Friis, Søren; Dehlendorff, Christian; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2017-02-01

    Laboratory and epidemiological evidence have suggested that statin use may protect against the development of certain cancers, including endometrial cancer. In a nationwide registry-based case-control study, we examined the association between statin use and risk of endometrial cancer. Cases were female residents of Denmark with a primary diagnosis of endometrial cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected 15 female population controls matched on date of birth (±one month) using risk-set sampling. Ever use of statin was defined as two or more prescriptions on separate dates. Conditional logistic regressions were used to estimate age-matched (by design) and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for endometrial cancer associated with statin use. The multivariable-adjusted models included parity, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), obesity, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and education. We evaluated whether the association between statin use and endometrial cancer varied with duration and intensity of statin use, type of endometrial cancer or patient characteristics. The study population comprised 5382 endometrial cancer cases and 72 127 population controls. We observed no association between ever use of statins and endometrial cancer risk (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.94-1.14). In addition, endometrial cancer risk did not vary substantially with duration or intensity of statin use. Stratification by type of endometrial cancer also yielded neutral ORs. In our nationwide case-control study, we found no association between statin use and risk of endometrial cancer. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Clinical features of adolescents with deliberate self-harm: A case control study in Lisbon, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo F Guerreiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Diogo F Guerreiro, Ema L Neves, Rita Navarro, Raquel Mendes, Ana Prioste, Diana Ribeiro, Tiago Lila, António Neves, Mónica Salgado, Nazaré Santos, Daniel SampaioYouth Suicide Study Group (NES, The Hospital Santa Maria, Psychiatry Department, Lisbon Faculty of Medicine, PortugalAbstract: Deliberate self-harm (DSH among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolescents with DSH according to our local context (Lisbon, Portugal, using easily available information from clinical settings. A case control study was constructed from a sample of 100 adolescents (aged 12 to 21 years. The sample was divided into two groups: adolescents with and without DSH. Case files were examined and data was completed by clinical interviews. Demographic, psychosocial, and psychopathological data were assessed and compared. Ninety-eight subjects completed the protocol. The DSH group was associated with the following: suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior as consultation motive, emergency room referral, previous follow-up attempts, suicidal ideation, psychosocial difficulties, or lack of therapeutic goals. There was a nonsignificant trend towards diagnosis of depression in the DSH group. These results reflect our clinical practice with adolescents and add data about teenagers who self-harm to the literature. Prevention and early recognition of DSH (and frequently associated depression in adolescents are essential and could be life-saving measures. An integrated approach, which takes into account psychosocial difficulties, family dysfunction, and negative expectations, seems to be of great importance.Keywords: deliberate self-harm, suicide, adolescents, suicide risk, case control

  9. Benzodiazepines and hip fractures in elderly people: case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierfitte, Corinne; Macouillard, Gerard; Thicoïpe, Michel; Chaslerie, Anicet; Pehourcq, Fabienne; Aïssou, Myriam; Martinez, Béatrice; Lagnaoui, Rajaa; Fourrier, Annie; Bégaud, Bernard; Dangoumau, Jacques; Moore, Nicholas

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine whether benzodiazepines are associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. Design Case-control study. Participants All incident cases of hip fracture not related to traffic accidents or cancer in patients over 65 years of age. 245 cases were matched to 817 controls. Setting Emergency department of a university hospital. Main outcome measures Exposure to benzodiazepines and other potential risk or protective factors or lifestyle items. Results The use of benzodiazepines as determined from questionnaires, medical records, or plasma samples at admission to hospital was not associated with an increased risk of hip fracture (odds ratio 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.5 to 1.5). Hip fracture was, however, associated with the use of two or more benzodiazepines, as determined from questionnaires or medical records but not from plasma samples. Of the individual drugs, only lorazepam was significantly associated with an increased risk of hip fracture (1.8, 1.1 to 3.1). Conclusion Except for lorazepam, the presence of benzodiazepines in plasma was not associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. The method used to ascertain exposure could influence the results of case-control studies. What is already known on this topicBenzodiazepines increase the risk of elderly people falling in a dose dependent wayTheir role in hip fracture remains disputed, with increased risk sometimes attributed to drugs with a longer half life or those used to induce sleepWhat this study addsBenzodiazepines were not associated with hip fracture either as a group or according to half life or to characterisation as hypnotic or anxiolyticPatients using two or more benzodiazepines may be at higher riskPatients using lorazepam or certain other benzodiazepines may also be at a higher risk of fracture PMID:11264208

  10. Tubal ligation, hysterectomy and epithelial ovarian cancer in the New England Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Megan S; Murphy, Megan A; Vitonis, Allison F; Cramer, Daniel W; Titus, Linda J; Tworoger, Shelley S; Terry, Kathryn L

    2013-11-15

    Previous studies have observed that tubal ligation and hysterectomy are associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer; however, little is known about whether these associations vary by surgical characteristics, individual characteristics or tumor histology. We used logistic regression to examine tubal ligation, simple hysterectomy and hysterectomy with unilateral oophorectomy in relation to risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in the New England Case-Control Study. Our primary analysis included 2,265 cases and 2,333 controls. Overall, tubal ligation was associated with a lower risk of epithelial ovarian cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.97], especially for endometrioid tumors (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.29-0.69). The inverse association between tubal ligation and ovarian cancer risk was stronger for women who had undergone the procedure at the time of last delivery (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.84) rather than at a later time (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.75-1.15). Overall, simple hysterectomy was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.83-1.42), although it was associated with a nonsignificant decreased risk of ovarian cancer among women who underwent the procedure at age 45 or older (RR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.40-1.02) or within the last 10 years (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.38-1.13). Overall, women who had a hysterectomy with a unilateral oophorectomy had significantly lower risk of ovarian cancer (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.45-0.94). In summary, tubal ligation and hysterectomy with unilateral oophorectomy were inversely associated with ovarian cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Additional research is necessary to understand the potential biologic mechanisms by which these procedures may reduce ovarian cancer risk. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  11. An ongoing case-control study to evaluate the NHS breast screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massat, Nathalie J; Sasieni, Peter D; Parmar, Dharmishta; Duffy, Stephen W

    2013-12-13

    In England, a national breast screening programme (NHSBSP) has been in place since 1988, and assessment of its impact on breast cancer incidence and mortality is essential to ensure that the programme is indeed doing more good than harm. This article describes large observation studies designed to estimate the effects of the current programme in terms of the benefits on breast cancer incidence and mortality and detrimental effect in terms of overdiagnosis. The case-control design of the cervical screening programme evaluation was highly effective in informing policy on screening intervals and age ranges. We propose innovative selection of cases and controls and gathering of additional variables to address new outcomes of interest and develop new methodologies to control for potential sources of bias. Traditional case-control evaluation of breast screening uses women who have died from breast cancer as cases, and women known to be alive at the time of case death as controls. Breast screening histories prior to the cases' date of first diagnosis are compared. If breast screening is preventing mortality from breast cancer, cases will be characterised by a lesser screening history than controls. All deaths and incident cases of primary breast cancer in England within each 2-year study period will be included in this ongoing evaluation. Cases will be age- and area-matched to controls and variables related to cancer treatment and breast tumour pathology will be obtained to investigate the interplay between screening and treatment, and the effect of screening on incidence of advanced stage disease. Screening attendance at other national screening programmes will also be collected to derive superior adjustment for self-selection bias.The study is registered and has received full ethics approval.

  12. Combinations of SNP genotypes from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Study of bipolar patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Dam, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    of these combinations in their genome. Conclusion: Clusters of combinations of genetic variants can be considered general risk factors for polygenic disorders, whereas accumulation of combinations from the clusters in the genome of a patient can be considered a personal risk factor....... mining tools were used to scan The Wellcome Trust data set for combinations. Results: Two clusters of combinations were significantly associated with bipolar disorder. One cluster contained 68 combinations, each of which included five SNP genotypes. Of the 1998 patients, 305 had combinations from......Objectives: Combinations of genetic variants are the basis for polygenic disorders. We examined combinations of SNP genotypes taken from the 446 729 SNPs in The Wellcome Trust Case Control Study of bipolar patients. Methods: Parallel computing by graphics processing units, cloud computing, and data...

  13. Gut microbiota diversity and T1DM onset: Preliminary data of a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Traversi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type-1 diabetes incidence is increasing during the last decades. Recently, a role of microbiota alteration is proposed as pre-diabetic and diabetic risk factor. A bicentric case-control study is in progress in Northern Italy. Here preliminary results are shown. The microbiome clusterization showed a division between cases and controls even if fingerprint profiles are heterogenic. Methanobrevibacter smithii is highly present only in few patients. The diversity index and the microorganism sequenced in cases and controls, seems to be quite dissimilar. The conclusive results could show a significant predictive value for the bio-indicators evaluated. Keywords: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Microbiota, Children, Methanobrevibacter smithii, qRT-PCR

  14. Sleep problems and suicide attempts among adolescents: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyawala, Neel; Stevens, Jack; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M; Cannon, Elizabeth A; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    This study used a case-control design to compare sleep disturbances in 40 adolescents who attempted suicide with 40 never-suicidal adolescents. Using hierarchical logistic regression analyses, we found that self-reported nighttime awakenings were significantly associated with attempted suicide, after controlling for antidepressant use, antipsychotic use, affective problems, and being bullied. In a separate regression analysis, the parent-reported total sleep problems score also predicted suicide attempt status, controlling for key covariates. No associations were found between suicide attempts and other distinct sleep problems, including falling asleep at bedtime, sleeping a lot during the day, trouble waking up in the morning, sleep duration, and parent-reported nightmares. Clinicians should be aware of sleep problems as potential risk factors for suicide attempts for adolescents.

  15. Peri-implantitis and extracellular matrix antibodies: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Piero; Di Carlo, Stefano; Rosella, Daniele; De Angelis, Francesca; Capogreco, Mario; Pompa, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to compare patients with a healthy peri-implant environment and patients affected by peri-implantitis, evaluating the occurrence of antibodies to extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. The authors hypothesized the presence of ECM autoantibodies in serum of peri-implantitis patients. Patients were divided into two groups: one with dental implants with a diagnosis of peri-implantitis and one control group with implants classified as being "healthy." Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed on patients' sera to detect human antibodies to type I, III, IV, and V collagens, laminin, and fibronectin. Fisher exact test was performed to evaluate statistical association, with a significant P implantitis.

  16. Occupational risk factors for renal cell carcinoma: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aupérin, A; Benhamou, S; Ory-Paoletti, C; Flamant, R

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study of 196 histologically proved cases of renal cell carcinoma and 347 controls matched for age at interview, sex, hospital, and interviewer was conducted in France between 1987 and 1991. A complete occupational history was recorded for each patient and occupations were coded blindly according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations. In women, none of the risks were significant. Among men, after adjustment for the educational level, cigarette smoking, and Quetelet index before diagnosis, significantly increased matched odds ratios (ORs) were found for sales workers (OR = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2-4.0), managers (OR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.2-8.9), and textile workers and tailors (OR = 6.2, 95% CI 1.1-33.7). For this last occupational group, an increase in risk was found with an increased duration of exposure. PMID:8044236

  17. Risk Factors for Farmers' Suicides in Central Rural India: Matched Case-control Psychological Autopsy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhise, Manik Changoji; Behere, Prakash Balkrushna

    2016-01-01

    Despite more than two decades since recognition of suicides by farmers in India, systematic studies comparing various risk factors are lacking. This is major hurdle for the formulation of strategies for farmers' suicide prevention. To identify socioeconomic and psychological risk factors and their relative contribution in suicides by farmers. A matched case-control psychological autopsy was done on 98 farmers' suicide victims and 98 controls in Central India. Economic problems, psychiatric illness, and stressful life events were found to be important contributors to farmers' suicides. Important economic risk factors were procurement of debt, especially from multiple sources and for nonagricultural reasons and leasing out farms. Psychiatric illness was present significantly in higher proportion among cases than controls. Crop failure, interpersonal problems, medical illness, and marriage of female family member were significant stressful life events. There are socioeconomic and psychological risk factors for suicide by farmers which can be targets of prevention policy.

  18. Case-control study of possible causative factors in mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuyp, E.; Burgoyne, A.; Aitchison, T.; MacKie, R.

    1987-02-01

    A detailed case control study was carried out on 53 patients (33 males and 20 females) with histologically proven mycosis fungoides and on an age- and sex-matched control population. Possible causative factors investigated included occupation, recreation, and exposure to petrochemicals, pesticides, insecticides, and potential carcinogens. Exposure to plants of the Compositae family, tanning history, and chronic sun exposure were also investigated, as were smoking history, drug ingestion history, and other skin disease. Personal and family histories of other malignancies were also investigated. The only statistically significant difference to emerge was that the patients with mycosis fungoides had significantly more family history of atopic dermatitis. In view of the absence of any significant difference between patients and controls with regard to personal history of atopic dermatitis, this difference may be the result of multiple statistical testing rather than a phenomenon of true biological significance.

  19. Mallory Weiss syndrome is not associated with hiatal hernia: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Juan E; Keihanian, Tara; Kröner, Paul T; Dauer, Ryan; Lukens, Frank J; Sussman, Daniel A

    2017-04-01

    Hiatal hernia is considered to be a predisposing factor to develop Mallory-Weiss Syndrome (MWS). No large case-control studies verifying this hypothesis have been conducted. We reviewed all esophagogastroduodenoscopies with findings of MWS (n = 2342) in a national database and compared with age and gender-matched controls (n = 9368). Demographics, endoscopic characteristics and presence of a hiatal hernia were compared between both groups. Average age was 56.7 ± 18.6 years, and 72.4% were male. Hiatal hernia was more common in controls, and no significant difference was seen in a multivariate analysis. Dynamic changes inducing mucosal tension are more relevant determinants to develop MWS than gastro-esophageal junction location alone.

  20. Diet and colorectal adenomas: a case-control study in Majorca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, E; Cabeza, E; Moreno, V; Obrador, A; Bosch, F X

    1993-09-09

    A case-control study on dietary factors and colorectal adenomas was conducted in the island of Majorca, Spain, from April 1987 to February 1990. Subjects were interviewed using a food frequency questionnaire. Nutrient and caloric intake was estimated using local food composition tables. The risk of colorectal adenomas was related to the consumption of sugar and pastries. Consumption of vegetables was highly protective, irrespective of the cooking procedures. Analyses by nutrients identified as protective factors fiber from fruits and vegetables, magnesium and zinc, and vitamins C, B6 and folic acid. No excess risk was found for alcohol drinking, intake of saturated fats or animal protein. Of the non-dietary factors, sedentariness in the work-place and urban residence were the only risk factors identified.

  1. Diet and cancer of the prostate: a case-control study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzonou, A; Signorello, L B; Lagiou, P; Wuu, J; Trichopoulos, D; Trichopoulou, A

    1999-03-01

    The nutritional aetiology of prostate cancer was evaluated in Athens, Greece, through a case-control study that included 320 patients with histologically confirmed incident prostate cancer and 246 controls without history or symptomatology of benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer, treated in the same hospital as the cases for minor diseases or conditions. Among major food groups, milk and dairy products as well as added lipids were marginally positively associated with risk for prostate cancer. Among added lipids, seed oils were significantly and butter and margarine non-significantly positively associated with prostate cancer risk, whereas olive oil was unrelated to this risk. Cooked tomatoes and to a lesser extent raw tomatoes were inversely associated with the risk for prostate cancer. In analyses focusing on nutrients, rather than foods, polyunsaturated fats were positively and vitamin E inversely associated with prostate cancer. We conclude that several nutrition-related processes jointly contribute to prostate carcinogenesis.

  2. A retrospective likelihood approach for efficient integration of multiple omics factors in case-control association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliu, Brunilda; Tsonaka, Roula; Boehringer, Stefan; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine

    2015-03-01

    Integrative omics, the joint analysis of outcome and multiple types of omics data, such as genomics, epigenomics, and transcriptomics data, constitute a promising approach for powerful and biologically relevant association studies. These studies often employ a case-control design, and often include nonomics covariates, such as age and gender, that may modify the underlying omics risk factors. An open question is how to best integrate multiple omics and nonomics information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals based on the phenotype. Recent work on integrative omics have used prospective approaches, modeling case-control status conditional on omics, and nonomics risk factors. Compared to univariate approaches, jointly analyzing multiple risk factors with a prospective approach increases power in nonascertained cohorts. However, these prospective approaches often lose power in case-control studies. In this article, we propose a novel statistical method for integrating multiple omics and nonomics factors in case-control association studies. Our method is based on a retrospective likelihood function that models the joint distribution of omics and nonomics factors conditional on case-control status. The new method provides accurate control of Type I error rate and has increased efficiency over prospective approaches in both simulated and real data. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Sexual habits before multiple sclerosis: a national case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Svendsen, Anne Louise

    2008-01-01

    The trigging off agent for multiple sclerosis (MS) is despite intensive epidemiological and biomedical research still unknown. The disease is typically diagnosed in reproductive age and recent findings have suggested that MS could be a sexually transmitted disease. To assess the influence of different sexual practices in young age on the risk of developing MS, and specifically to explore the possible impact of oral sex and oral sperm exposure on this risk. National case-control study. Inclusion: Danish women with a first time MS discharge diagnosis from a neurological department at most 40 years old during the period 1998-2005, and an age and geographically matched control group. The response rate to our postal questionnaires was 75% for cases and 61% for controls. A total of 604/619 completed case/control questionnaires were included in the analysis. Data underwent logistic regression analysis. We found no difference between women with and without MS for years of schooling, oral herpes infections, genital herpes, blood transfusions, age at sexual debut, age at coital debut, number of sexual partners before and after age 20 years, anal sex, condyloma attack or chlamydia infections. Family disposition with an affected father, mother or sibling, increased the risk of MS 9.1, 6.9 and 4.1 times, respectively. A total of 68% of cases and of 72% of controls had oral sex sometimes or often before their 20th year. Among women entertaining oral sex, 53%, respectively, 54% had experienced oral sperm exposure. Also oral sex after 20 years was similar in women with and without MS. Neither oral sex in early reproductive age, oral sperm exposure, oral sex after 20 years, sexual debut, nor number of sexual partners had any association to the risk of later developing MS. This study does not support the hypothesis that MS is a sexually transmitted or acquired disease.

  4. Association between colonic diverticulosis and bowel symptoms: A case-control study of 1629 Asian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Niikura, Ryota; Aoki, Tomonori; Shimbo, Takuro; Sekine, Katsunori; Okubo, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakurai, Toshiyuki; Yokoi, Chizu; Yanase, Mikio; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2015-08-01

    It remains unclear whether diverticulosis, absent inflammation, is responsible for chronic bowel symptoms. We examined the association between bowel symptoms and asymptomatic diverticulosis. This case-control study included 543 patients with diverticulosis and 1086 age and sex-matched controls (1:2) without diverticulosis on screening colonoscopy. Eleven symptoms (abdominal discomfort, hunger discomfort, borborygmus, abdominal distension, flatus, constipation, diarrhea, loose stools, hard stools, fecal urgency, and incomplete evacuation) were evaluated using a gastrointestinal symptoms rating scale (GSRS) at baseline and second questionnaire. Associations between diverticulosis and symptoms were estimated using odds ratios (ORs) and 95 confidence interval (CI). In multivariate analysis, constipation (OR, 0.85 [0.78-0.93]) and hard stools (OR, 0.86 [0.78-0.94]) were negatively associated with diverticulosis. The other nine symptoms showed no association with diverticulosis. Diverticulosis was negatively associated with constipation (OR, 0.93 [0.74-0.93]), hard stools (OR, 0.85 [0.76-0.96]), and incomplete evacuation (OR, 0.88 [0.79-0.99]) in males, and positively associated with diarrhea (OR, 1.39 [1.14-1.69]) and loose stools (OR, 1.28 [1.05-1.55]) in females. No bowel symptoms were positively associated with any of right-sided, left-sided, or bilateral diverticulosis. Test-retest reliability of GSRS (mean interval, 4.4 months) was moderate (Mean Kappa, 0.568) in males and good (Mean Kappa, 0.652) in females. This large, colonoscopy-based, case-control study demonstrated that neither constipation nor hard stools were associated with an increased risk of diverticulosis, regardless of diverticulum location. In females, but not males, diarrhea and loose stools were positively associated with diverticulosis. Long-term test-retest reliability suggested that these symptoms remain consistent over a given period. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

  5. Dental x-rays and the risk of thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memon, Anjum (Div. of Primary Care and Public Health, Brighton and Sussex Medical School (United Kingdom)), E-mail: a.memon@bsms.ac.uk; Godward, Sara (Dept. of Public Health and Primary Care, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Williams, Dillwyn (Thyroid Carcinogenesis Research Group, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Siddique, Iqbal (Dept. of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait)); Al-Saleh, Khalid (Kuwait Cancer Control Centre, Ministry of Health (Kuwait))

    2010-05-15

    The thyroid gland is highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis and exposure to high-dose ionising radiation is the only established cause of thyroid cancer. Dental radiography, a common source of low-dose diagnostic radiation exposure in the general population, is often overlooked as a radiation hazard to the gland and may be associated with the risk of thyroid cancer. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has been reported in dentists, dental assistants, and x-ray workers; and exposure to dental x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of meningiomas and salivary tumours. Methods. To examine whether exposure to dental x-rays was associated with the risk of thyroid cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control interview study among 313 patients with thyroid cancer and a similar number of individually matched (year of birth +- three years, gender, nationality, district of residence) control subjects in Kuwait. Results. Conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for other upper-body x-rays, showed that exposure to dental x-rays was significantly associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.1) (p=0.001) with a dose-response pattern (p for trend <0.0001). The association did not vary appreciably by age, gender, nationality, level of education, or parity. Discussion. These findings, based on self-report by cases/controls, provide some support to the hypothesis that exposure to dental x-rays, particularly multiple exposures, may be associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer; and warrant further study in settings where historical dental x-ray records may be available.

  6. Dietary total antioxidant capacity and colorectal cancer: a large case-control study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano; Serafini, Mauro; Parpinel, Maria; Bellocco, Rino; Galeone, Carlotta; Bosetti, Cristina; Zucchetto, Antonella; Polesel, Jerry; Lagiou, Pagona; Negri, Eva; Rossi, Marta

    2013-09-15

    A favorable role of fruit and vegetables on colorectal cancer risk has been related to the antioxidant properties of their components. We used data from an Italian case-control study including 1,953 patients with incident, histologically confirmed colorectal cancer (1,225 colon and 728 rectal cancers). Controls were 4,154 patients admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic conditions. A reproducible and valid food frequency questionnaire was used to assess subjects' usual diet. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured using Italian food composition tables in terms of ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) through multiple logistic regression models, including terms for potential confounding factors, and energy intake. TAC was inversely related with colorectal cancer risk: the OR for the highest versus the lowest quintile was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.57-0.82) for FRAP, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.57-0.83) for TEAC and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.57-0.83) for TRAP. Corresponding values, excluding TAC deriving from coffee, were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.61-0.93) for FRAP, 0.76 (95% CI, 0.61-0.93) for TEAC and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.57-0.89) for TRAP. The inverse association was apparently-though not significantly-stronger for rectal than for colon cancer. This is the first case-control study indicating consistent inverse relations between dietary TAC and colorectal cancer risk. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  7. Risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after Wenchuan earthquake: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yongzhong; Wang, Fang; Wen, Jin; Shi, Yingkang

    2014-01-01

    Few clues were found in the literature about the independent risk factors for PTSD among earthquake survivors in Sichuan province three years after the 2008 earthquake. Ours was the first case-control study with matching factors of age and distance from the epicenter among survivors age 16 years or older, three years after the catastrophe. To identify independent risk factors for PTSD among earthquake survivors. We performed a population-based matched case-control study. The cases were drawn from earthquake areas three years after the Wenchuan earthquake, including 113 cases who met positive criteria for PTSD symptoms according to the PCL-C (PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version) score and 452 controls who did not meet the criteria. Cases and controls were matched individually by birth year (+ three years) and the town they lived in when the earthquake occurred. Independent risk factors for PTSD symptoms included two-week disease prevalence (odds ratio [OR],1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.18-3.13), witnessing someone being killed in the earthquake (OR, 2.04;95%CI, 1.17-3.58), having no regular income after the earthquake (OR, 0.52; 95%CI, 0.28-0.98), receiving mental health support only one time after the earthquake (OR, 2.43; 95%CI, 1.09-5.42) and lower social support (lower PSSS score) (OR, 0.95; 95%CI, 0.93-0.97). Earthquake experience, suffering from physical illnesses, lack of stable income, and lower social support were associated with PTSD symptoms.

  8. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lopez-del Burgo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–1.51. No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82–1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84–1.64 was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women’s fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.

  9. Use of oral cholera vaccines in an outbreak in Vietnam: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Duc Anh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Killed oral cholera vaccines (OCVs are available but not used routinely for cholera control except in Vietnam, which produces its own vaccine. In 2007-2008, unprecedented cholera outbreaks occurred in the capital, Hanoi, prompting immunization in two districts. In an outbreak investigation, we assessed the effectiveness of killed OCV use after a cholera outbreak began. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 16 to 28 January 2008, vaccination campaigns with the Vietnamese killed OCV were held in two districts of Hanoi. No cholera cases were detected from 5 February to 4 March 2008, after which cases were again identified. Beginning 8 April 2008, residents of four districts of Hanoi admitted to one of five hospitals for acute diarrhea with onset after 5 March 2008 were recruited for a matched, hospital-based, case-control outbreak investigation. Cases were matched by hospital, admission date, district, gender, and age to controls admitted for non-diarrheal conditions. Subjects from the two vaccinated districts were evaluated to determine vaccine effectiveness. 54 case-control pairs from the vaccinated districts were included in the analysis. There were 8 (15% and 16 (30% vaccine recipients among cases and controls, respectively. The vaccine was 76% protective against cholera in this setting (95% CI 5% to 94%, P = 0.042 after adjusting for intake of dog meat or raw vegetables and not drinking boiled or bottled water most of the time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to explore the effectiveness of the reactive use of killed OCVs during a cholera outbreak. Our findings suggest that killed OCVs may have a role in controlling cholera outbreaks.

  10. [Oral contraceptives and cerebral thromboembolism. A Danish case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidegaard, O

    1993-11-01

    A retrospective case control study was carried out in order to assess the risk of developing cerebral thromboembolism by use of low dose oral contraceptives (OC). The subjects were all the 794 women in Denmark aged 15-44 who had suffered a cerebral thromboembolic attack (CTA) during the period 1985-1989, and an age-matched randomly selected control population of 1588 women. CTA included occlusion of precerebral arteria (ICD 432), cerebral thrombosis (ICD 433), cerebral embolism (ICD 434), transitory cerebral ischaemia (TCI; ICD 435) and the unspecified group apoplexia cerebri (ICD 436). Of 692/1584 case/control questionnaires sent out, 590/1396 (85.1/88.1%) were returned. Among the cases, 15 refused to participate, 69 had a revised or unreliable diagnosis, 40 had previously had thromboembolic disease, 13 were pregnant, and 152 had a disease predisposing them for CTA, leaving 323 without known predisposition, of whom 320 reported use/non-use of OC. Among 1396 controls, eight either refused to participate, were mentally retarded or resident in foreign countries; 18 returned an uncompleted questionnaire, 17 had previously had thromboembolic disease, 31 were pregnant, and 130 had a disease predisposing them to CTA. Thus, 1198 non-predisposed controls were provided, among whom 1197 reported use/non-use of OC. Among 320 cases, 116 (36.3%) were OC users at the time of the CTA, vs. 191 users (16.0%) among 1197 controls, corresponding to a crude odds ratio (OR) of 3.00.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. [Influencing factors for oral-maxillofacial benign tumors: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangping; He, Baochang; Chen, Fa; Huang, Jiangfeng; Yan, Lingjun; Hu, Zhijian; Lin, Lisong; He, Fei; Cai, Lin

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the clinical influence factors of oral-maxillofacial benign tumors. We conducted a case-control study with 113 cases newly diagnosed primary oral-maxillofacial benign tumors and 584 cases controls from a hospital in Fujian from September 2010 to January 2015. Epidemiological data were collected by in-person interviews using a standard questionnaire. The contents of the questionnaire included demography character, history of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, dietary habits, oral hygiene status, family history of cancer, etc. Unconditional logistic regression was used to research the relationship between the factors and oral-maxillofacial benign tumors. Multivariable analysis showed that risk factors of oral-maxillofacial benign tumors included: cigarette smoking index above 1 000, passive smoking before the age of 18, age of wearing bad prosthesis between 33 to 55 years old and high blood pressure; the corresponding OR (95% CI) values were 14.63 (3.88-55.13), 2.34 (1.19-4.62), 2.35 (1.17-4.73), 3.46 (1.71-7.00), respectively; Protective factors included: regularly intake of meat above 1 time/day, fruits, health care products and vitamin tablets, brushing teeth above 1 time per day and oral examination above 5 years/time, the corresponding OR (95% CI) values were 0.22 (0.07-0.70), 0.18 (0.08-0.41), 0.32 (0.11-0.88), 0.22 (0.07-0.73), 0.28 (0.16-0.48), 0.28 (0.13-0.60), respectively. Abstinence from tobacco smoking, reduce passive smoking before the age of 18, regularly intake of meat, fruits, health care products and vitamin tablets, and oral examination at regular time might have impact on the incidence of oral-maxillofacial benign tumors to a certain extent.

  12. Design, methodological issues and participation in a multiple sclerosis case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D M; Marrie, R A; Ashley-Koch, A; Schiffer, R; Trottier, J; Wagner, L

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) was associated with certain environmental exposures or genetic factors previously reported to influence MS risk. This paper describes the methodological issues, study design and characteristics of the study population. Individuals with definite MS were identified from a prevalence study conducted in three geographic areas. The target number of cases was not reached, so an additional study area was added. Identifying clinic controls was inefficient, so controls were recruited using random digit dialing. All study participants completed a detailed questionnaire regarding environmental exposures using computer-assisted telephone interviewing, and blood was collected for genetic analysis. In total, 276 cases and 590 controls participated, but participation rates were low, ranging from 28.4% to 38.9%. Only one-third (33.6%) of individuals identified in the prevalence study agreed to participate in the case-control study. Cases were more likely to be non-Hispanic white and older than their source populations as identified in the preceding prevalence study (P issues arise in every study, and investigators need to be able to detect, respond to and correct problems in a timely and scientifically valid manner. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Vitamin C Intake and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Published Case-Control and Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yong-Fei; Wang, Gao-Qing; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Jing; Chen, Guo-Chong; Lu, Cai-De

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies inconsistently reported the relationship between vitamin C intake and risk of pancreatic cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis of published case-control and cohort studies to quantify the association. Potentially eligible studies were found on PubMed and EMBASE databases through May 31, 2015. A random-effects model was assigned to compute summary point estimates with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were also performed to explore sources of heterogeneity. Our final analyses included 20 observational studies comprising nearly 5 thousand cases of pancreatic cancer. When comparing the highest with the lowest categories of vitamin C intake, the summary odds ratio/relative risk for case-control studies (14 studies), cohort studies (6 studies) and all studies combined was 0.58 (95% CI: 0.52-0.66), 0.93 (95% CI: 0.78-1.11) and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.58-0.75), respectively. The difference in the findings between case-control and cohort studies was statistically significant (P studies. There is insufficient evidence to conclude any relationship between vitamin C intake and risk of pancreatic cancer. The strong inverse association observed in case-control studies may be affected by biases (eg, recall and selection biases) that particularly affect case-control studies and/or potential publication bias. Future prospective studies of vitamin C intake and pancreatic cancer are needed.

  14. Breast Cancer Association with Cytomegalo Virus-A Tertiary Center Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Anilkumar; Chisthi, Meer M

    2017-12-18

    Cytomegalo virus is a ubiquitous virus often associated with congenital infections. Some studied have claimed an association between infection with this virus and development of breast cancer. The aim of this prospective research was to study the difference in Cytomegalo virus sero-positivity among patients with breast cancer and benign breast diseases, and thereby to prove any association. This was a hospital based Case-Control study conducted at the General Surgery wards of our hospital, a tertiary level public sector health care institution. This study was done on 130 patients with breast swellings who underwent surgical excision of their lumps over a 1-year period. Patients with histologically proven malignancies were selected as cases while proven benign cases were deemed to be the controls. IgG and IgM antibodies to Cytomegalo virus were checked in the patients from both groups. All of the studied patients turned out to be positive for Immunoglobulin G against Cytomegalo virus while all the patients were found to be negative for Immunoglobulin M. There was no difference in the antibody titers among the benign and malignant cases in the study. Logistic regression calculation was also carried out including the study parameters and other known risk factors. We conclude that there is no association between Cytomegalo virus sero-positivity and breast cancer. Another conclusion is that the studied adult population has been exposed to Cytomegalo virus in some point of their lives. Further studies of a larger magnitude are essential to confirm our results.

  15. Psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors for suicide: Case--control psychological autopsy study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CHENG, ANDREW T. A; CHEN, TONY H. H; CHEN, CHWEN-CHEN; JENKINS, RACHEL

    2000-01-01

    .... To do so in a representative sample of suicides. A case-control psychological autopsy was conducted among 113 consecutive suicides and 226 living controls matched for age, gender, ethnicity and area of residence in Taiwan...

  16. Risk factors for prostate cancer: An hospital-based case-control study from Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, B; Saoba, Sushama L; Sarade, Monika N; Pinjari, Suvarna V

    2011-07-01

    In India, prostate cancer is one of the five leading sites of cancers among males in all the registries. Very little is known about risk factors for prostate cancer among the Indian population. The present study aims to study the association of lifestyle factors like chewing (betel leaf with or without tobacco, pan masala, gutka), smoking (bidi, cigarette), comorbid conditions, diet, body mass index (BMI), family history, vasectomy with prostate cancer. This an unmatched hospital-based case-control study, comprised of 123 histologically proven prostate 'cancer cases' and 167 'normal controls. Univariate and regression analysis were applied for obtaining the odds ratio for risk factors. The study revealed that there was no significant excess risk for chewers, alcohol drinkers, tea and coffee drinkers, family history of cancer, diabetes, vasectomy and dietary factors. However, patients with BMI >25 (OR = 2.1), those with hypertension history (OR = 2.5) and age >55 years (OR = 19.3) had enhanced risk for prostate cancer. In the present study age, BMI and hypertension emerged as risk factors for prostate cancer. The findings of this study could be useful to conduct larger studies in a more detailed manner which in turn can be useful for public interest domain.

  17. Risk factors for prostate cancer: An hospital-based case-control study from Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ganesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In India, prostate cancer is one of the five leading sites of cancers among males in all the registries. Very little is known about risk factors for prostate cancer among the Indian population. Objectives : The present study aims to study the association of lifestyle factors like chewing (betel leaf with or without tobacco, pan masala, gutka, smoking (bidi, cigarette, comorbid conditions, diet, body mass index (BMI, family history, vasectomy with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods : This an unmatched hospital-based case-control study, comprised of 123 histologically proven prostate ′cancer cases′ and 167 ′normal controls. Univariate and regression analysis were applied for obtaining the odds ratio for risk factors. Results : The study revealed that there was no significant excess risk for chewers, alcohol drinkers, tea and coffee drinkers, family history of cancer, diabetes, vasectomy and dietary factors. However, patients with BMI >25 (OR = 2.1, those with hypertension history (OR = 2.5 and age >55 years (OR = 19.3 had enhanced risk for prostate cancer. Conclusions : In the present study age, BMI and hypertension emerged as risk factors for prostate cancer. The findings of this study could be useful to conduct larger studies in a more detailed manner which in turn can be useful for public interest domain.

  18. Comparing epidemiology and baseline characteristic of multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Moghadasi, Abdorreza Naser; Azimi, Amir Reza; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2017-02-01

    Autoimmune syndromes such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) are chronic, demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system which usually affect young adults. Both environmental risk factors and genetic susceptibility have been proposed to explain the etiology of these diseases. The aim of this study was to compare epidemiology and possible risk factors in MS and NMO in Tehran, Iran. A population-based incident case-control study was performed in Tehran based on a study conducted on1513 MS patients from Iranian MS Society registry center of Tehran, from 2014 to 2015, and 83 NMO patients diagnosed with NMO in 2015 at Sina hospital, a tertiary care referral center in Tehran. The random digit dialing (RDD) methods were established to select 400 population-based controls. A checklist was designed to cover the epidemiological variables to estimate the possible risk factors for MS and NMO based on a questionnaire designed for multinational case-control studies of environmental risk factors in multiple sclerosis. Structured face to face interviews with cases, and telephone interviews with controls were conducted by trained interviewers to collect data. The multiple logistic regression analysis was done via SPSS package. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimate of MS for females compared to males was (OR =1.47; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.95), and it was (OR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.02) for people aged 18-27 years compared to younger ones aged 28-37 years. The adjusted OR estimate of NMO for people aged over 48 years compared to those aged 28-37 years was (OR=3.49; 95% CI: 1.59, 7.64). The point estimates were greater than eight-fold increased risk associated with MS among patients with a positive familial history 8.80 (95% CI: 4.10, 18.90). The results of this study reveal that the risk of MS is significantly higher in female and younger people in comparison to NMO. Having positive family history of MS can increase the risk of MS substantially. The findings of the

  19. High Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Narcolepsy with Cataplexy: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuyn, Hal A. Droogleever; Swinkels, Sofie; Buitelaar, Jan; Renier, Wily O.; Furer, Joop W.; Rijnders, Cees A.; Hodiamont, Paul P.; Overeem, Sabastiaan

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To study the prevalence of and symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy. Design: We performed a case-control study comparing symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy versus healthy population controls, using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN 2.1). To study whether an increased body mass index (BMI) could be responsible for symptoms of an eating disorder, we also compared patients with BMI-matched controls, using the SCAN as well as the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. Setting: University hospital. Patients and participants: Patients with narcolepsy/cataplexy (n = 60) were recruited from specialized sleep centers. Healthy controls (n = 120) were drawn from a population study previously performed in the Netherlands. Separately, 32 BMI-matched controls were recruited. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: In total, 23.3% of the patients fulfilled the criteria for a clinical eating disorder, as opposed to none of the control subjects. Most of these were classified as Eating Disorder—Not Otherwise Specified, with an incomplete form of binge eating disorder. On the symptom level, half of the patients reported a persistent craving for food, as well as binge eating. Twenty-five percent of patients even reported binging twice a week or more often. When compared with BMI-matched controls, the significant increases persisted in symptoms of eating disorders among patients with narcolepsy. Except for a higher level of interference in daily activities due to eating problems in patients using antidepressants, medication use did not influence our findings. Conclusions: The majority of patients with narcolepsy experience a number of symptoms of eating disorders, with an irresistible craving for food and binge eating as the most prominent features. Eating disorder symptomatology interfered with daily activities. These findings justify more attention for eating disorders in the

  20. Sleep disturbances in fibromyalgia: A meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Lin; Chang, Ling-Yin; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Fang, Su-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2017-05-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in fibromyalgia, but the features of sleep disturbances are not well understood. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies to compare the sleep outcomes of individuals with fibromyalgia and healthy controls. We systematically searched eight databases (PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Airiti Library and Wanfang Data) for articles published before April 2016. Twenty-five case-controlled studies and a total of 2086 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Sleep was assessed using polysomnography and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. When sleep was assessed using polysomnography (19 studies), significant differences were observed in wake time after sleep onset (g=0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-1.41), total sleep time (g=-0.78, 95% CI=-1.34 to -0.15), sleep efficiency (g=-0.78, 95% CI=-1.23 to -0.32), percentage of stage 1 sleep (g=0.55, 95% CI=0.15-0.95), and percentage of slow-wave sleep (g=-0.66, 95% CI=-1.21 to -0.12) between participants with fibromyalgia and healthy controls. When sleep was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (7 studies), significant differences were observed in global scores (g=2.19, 95% CI 1.58-2.79), sleep onset latency (g=1.75, 95% CI 0.80-2.70), and sleep efficiency (g=-1.08, 95% CI -1.65 to -0.51) between participants with fibromyalgia and healthy controls. Individuals with fibromyalgia experience lower sleep quality and sleep efficiency; longer wake time after sleep onset, short sleep duration, and light sleep when objectively assessed and more difficulty in initiating sleep when subjectively assessed. Sleep difficulties in fibromyalgia appear to be more when reported subjectively than when assessed objectively. This study received no funding from any source. All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors

  1. Medication exposure and spontaneous abortion: a case-control study using a French medical database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, D; Hurault-Delarue, C; Damase-Michel, C; Montastruc, J L; Lacroix, I

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted to investigate drug effects on spontaneous abortion risk. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential association between first trimester drug exposure and spontaneous abortion occurrence. The authors performed a nested case-control study using data from TERAPPEL, a French medical database. Cases were the women who had a spontaneous abortion (before the 22nd week of amenorrhea) and controls were women who gave birth to a child. Analyzed variables were: maternal age, obstetric history, tobacco, and alcohol and drug consumption during the first trimester of pregnancy. For comparison of drug exposures between cases and controls, the authors calculated odds ratios (ORs) by means of multivariate logistic regressions adjusted on age and on other drug exposures. The study included 838 cases and 4,508 controls that were identified in the database. In adjusted analyses, cases were more exposed than controls to "non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors" [OR=2.2 (CI 95% 1.5-3.3)], "antiprotozoals" [OR = 1.6 (CI 95% 1.1 - 2.5)] and "centrally acting antiobesity products" [OR = 3.4 (CI 95% 1.9 - 6.2)]. Conversely, controls were more exposed than cases to H1 antihistamines [OR = 0.6 (CI 95% 0.4 - 0.9)]. This exploratory study highlights some potential associations between first trimester drug exposure and risk of spontaneous abortion. Further studies have to be carried out to investigate these findings.

  2. Analgesics use and ESRD in younger age: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moehner Sabine

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ad hoc peer-review committee was jointly appointed by Drug Authorities and Industry in Germany, Austria and Switzerland in 1999/2000 to review the evidence for a causal relation between phenacetin-free analgesics and nephropathy. The committee found the evidence as inconclusive and requested a new case-control study of adequate design. Methods We performed a population-based case-control study with incident cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD under the age of 50 years and four age and sex-matched neighborhood controls in 170 dialysis centers (153 in Germany, and 17 in Austria from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2004. Data on lifetime medical history, risk factors, treatment, job exposure and intake of analgesics were obtained in a standardized face-to-face interview using memory aids to enhance accuracy. Study design, study performance, analysis plan, and study report were approved by an independent international advisory committee and by the Drug Authorities involved. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The analysis included 907 cases and 3,622 controls who had never used phenacetin-containing analgesics in their lifetime. The use of high cumulative lifetime dose (3rd tertile of analgesics in the period up to five years before dialysis was not associated with later ESRD. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were 0.8 (0.7 – 1.0 and 1.0 (0.8 – 1.3 for ever- compared with no or low use and high use compared with low use, respectively. The same results were found for all analgesics and for mono-, and combination preparations with and without caffeine. No increased risk was shown in analyses stratifying for dose and duration. Dose-response analyses showed that analgesic use was not associated with an increased risk for ESRD up to 3.5 kg cumulative lifetime dose (98 % of the cases with ESRD. While the large subgroup of users with a lifetime dose up to 0.5 kg (278 cases and

  3. The prediction of discharge from in-patient psychiatric rehabilitation: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mountain Debbie A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At any time, about 1% of people with severe and enduring mental illness such as schizophrenia require in-patient psychiatric rehabilitation. In-patient rehabilitation enables individuals with the most challenging difficulties to be discharged to successful and stable community living. However, the length of rehabilitation admission that is required is highly variable and the reasons for this are poorly understood. There are very few case-control studies of predictors of outcome following hospitalisation. None have been carried out for in-patient rehabilitation. We aimed to identify the factors that are associated with achieving discharge from in-patient rehabilitation by carrying out a case-control study. Methods We compared two groups: 34 people who were admitted to the Rehabilitation Service at the Royal Edinburgh Hospital and discharged within a six year study period, and 31 people who were admitted in the same period, but not discharged. We compared the groups on demographic, illness, treatment and risk variables that were present at the point of their admission to rehabilitation. We used independent t tests and Pearson Chi-Square tests to compare the two groups. Results We found that serious self harm and suicide attempts, treatment with high dose antipsychotics, antipsychotic polypharmacy and previous care in forensic psychiatric services were all significantly associated with non-discharge. The non-discharged group were admitted significantly later in the six year study period and had already spent significantly longer in hospital. People who were admitted to rehabilitation within the first ten years of developing psychosis were more likely to have achieved discharge. Conclusions People admitted later in the study period required longer rehabilitation admissions and had higher rates of serious self harm and treatment resistant illness. They were also more likely to have had previous contact with forensic services. This

  4. Predictors of delayed recovery following pediatric sports-related concussion: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph H; Gill, Clarence; Kuhn, Elizabeth N; Rocque, Brandon G; Menendez, Joshua Y; O'Neill, Jilian A; Agee, Bonita S; Brown, Steven T; Crowther, Marshall; Davis, R Drew; Ferguson, Drew; Johnston, James M

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Pediatric sports-related concussions are a growing public health concern. The factors that determine injury severity and time to recovery following these concussions are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that initial symptom severity and diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are predictors of prolonged recovery (> 28 days) after pediatric sports-related concussions. Further analysis of baseline patient characteristics may allow for a more accurate prediction of which patients are at risk for delayed recovery after a sports-related concussion. METHODS The authors performed a single-center retrospective case-control study involving patients cared for at the multidisciplinary Concussion Clinic at Children's of Alabama between August 2011 and January 2013. Patient demographic data, medical history, sport concussion assessment tool 2 (SCAT2) and symptom severity scores, injury characteristics, and patient balance assessments were analyzed for each outcome group. The control group consisted of patients whose symptoms resolved within 28 days. The case group included patients whose symptoms persisted for more than 28 days. The presence or absence of the SCAT2 assessment had a modifying effect on the risk for delayed recovery; therefore, stratum-specific analyses were conducted for patients with recorded SCAT2 scores and for patients without SCAT2 scores. Unadjusted ORs and adjusted ORs (aORs) for an association of delayed recovery outcome with specific risk factors were calculated with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS A total of 294 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study. The case and control groups did not statistically significantly differ in age (p = 0.7). For the patients who had received SCAT2 assessments, a previous history of concussion (aOR 3.67, 95% CI 1.51-8.95), presenting SCAT2 score playing a nonhelmet sport were also associated with a higher risk for prolonged symptoms in patients with and without SCAT2

  5. Interaction association analysis of imputed SNPs in case-control and follow-up studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirana, Isaac; González, Juan R

    2015-03-01

    A new method is described to assess the interactions of imputed SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in case-control and follow-up studies, properly incorporating SNP imputation uncertainty in the likelihood model. Using simulation studies and analysis of real data obtained from the Framingham study cohort, we compare the performance of this new method to DOSAGE and NAIVE (also known as Best-Guess) methods, developed and commonly used in the context of single SNP and extended to SNP-by-SNP interaction. The results show that only our new method is unbiased under all examined scenarios regarding allele frequencies, imputation uncertainty degree, and interaction effect size. In addition, our method achieves at least as much power as the other two, and exceeds their statistical power in certain follow-up analysis situations. This method is fast enough to perform Genome Wide Interaction Studies (GWIS) with hundreds of thousands of interactions. By performing an exhaustive simulation study let us to provide recommendations for selecting the most appropriated method depending on MAF, interaction effect size, and uncertainty degree. In general, DOSAGE and our proposed method are recommended in most situations being our method more powerful and accurate when uncertainty and effect increase. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dietary inflammatory index and ovarian cancer risk in a New Jersey case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R; Paddock, Lisa E; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Olson, Sara H; Bandera, Elisa V

    2018-02-01

    Diet may influence the development of ovarian cancer. Although it has been shown that inflammation plays an important etiologic role in ovarian carcinogenesis, little is known about the influence of the inflammatory potential of food consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a proinflammatory diet, as indicated by a high dietary inflammatory index (DII ® ) score, on ovarian cancer risk, in a New Jersey population. Data from a case-control study conducted in New Jersey were used to estimate the relation between DII score and the risk for ovarian cancer. The study consisted of 205 cases with incident, histologically confirmed ovarian cancer, and 390 controls identified by random-digit dialing, based on Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Service lists, and area sampling. Computation of the DII was based on the intake of selected dietary factors assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for potential covariates. Although there was no significant association observed in pre- and perimenopausal women, a significant association was observed between the most proinflammatory DII scores and ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women (OR Quartile4 vs1 , 1.89; 95% CI, 1.02-3.52; P trend  = 0.03). Findings from the present study suggested that a proinflammatory diet may increase risk for ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women, and warrants further study to confirm this association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

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    Danny Salazar-Pousada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10 and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS, respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P<.05. Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P=.03 and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P=.004 related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged.

  8. Parental consanguinity and susceptibility to drug abuse among offspring, a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mostafa; Vakili-Ghartavol, Roghayyeh

    2010-11-30

    Consanguineous marriage is the union of individuals having at least one common ancestor. It is well established that consanguinity is a potential risk factor for many adverse health outcome of offspring. In the present case-control study we tested the hypothesis of an association between parental consanguinity marriages and risk of offspring substance abuse. The study was performed in Shiraz (Fars province, Iran). Here 156 male drug abusers (case group) and 264 randomly selected healthy blood donors, matched for age and gender as control group, were included in the study. The prevalence of parental consanguineous marriages in the studied sample was 39.1 and 28.0% among cases and controls, respectively. The difference was statistically significant. The substance abusers were more smokers and drinkers compared with the control group. There was significant negative linear trend between drug abuse and level of education. The participants stratified using drinking habits and then the analysis was carried out separately for drinker and non-drinker subjects. Among drinkers, neither before nor after adjusting for smoking status and educational level, parental consanguinity did not show association with risk of substance abuse. Among non-drinkers, after adjusting for smoking status and educational level, parental consanguineous marriage was significantly associated with increased risk of substance abuse. Our study supports a significant relationship between parental consanguinity and drug abuse among non-drinker subjects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vitamin D status in men with psoriatic arthritis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petho, Z; Kulcsar-Jakab, E; Kalina, E; Balogh, A; Pusztai, A; Gulyas, K; Horvath, A; Szekanecz, Z; Bhattoa, H P

    2015-07-01

    We determined hypovitaminosis D prevalence in men with psoriatic arthritis. This is a cross-sectional, analyst blinded, age- and sex-matched, case-control study. Men with psoriatic arthritis have significantly lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Men with psoriatic arthritis are at increased odds of suffering from hypovitaminosis D. Skeletal manifestations as a result of abrupted bone metabolism may be predominant in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Vitamin D plays a vital role in maintenance of skeletal health and is known to modulate the immune system in various autoimmune diseases including PsA. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in a treatment naïve, de novo psoriatic arthritis male cohort in a cross-sectional, analyst blinded, age- and sex-matched, case-control study. 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid (PTH), osteocalcin (OC) and C-terminal telopeptides of type-I collagen (CTx) levels, and lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density were compared between 53 PsA and controls. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D (25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels <75 nmol/L) was 81 and 57 % in the PsA and control groups, respectively. Compared to the healthy controls, 25OHD (67.2 (12-137) nmol/L vs. 51.9 (15-95) nmol/L; p = 0.001) was significantly lower, and osteocalcin (13.6 (5-33) μg/L vs. 18.2 (6-35) μg/L; p = 0.003) and C-terminal telopeptides of type-I collagen (0.20 (0.01-0.71) μg/L vs. 0.28 (0.06-0.69) μg/L; p = 0.008) were significantly higher in the PsA group. A significant association was found between hypovitaminosis D and PsA; the odds for patients with PsA of having hypovitaminosis D was 3.297 (95 % confidence interval 1.372 to 7.922). The results of this study suggest that men with PsA have significantly lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, and furthermore, men with PsA are at statistically significant increased odds of suffering from hypovitaminosis D.

  10. Food and dietary patterns and multiple sclerosis: a case-control study in Belgrade (Serbia

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    Tatjana D. Pekmezovic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS is unclear, but numerous studies suggest that different exogenous factors can lead to the development of the disease in genetically susceptible individuals. The objective of this case-control study was to determine the role of food and dietary patterns in patients with MS in the population of Belgrade (Serbia.

    Methods: In this matched case-control study, we included 110 cases with definite MS according to McDonald’s criteria, in whom the onset symptoms occurred up to 2 years prior to the interview, who were followed-up at the Institute of Neurology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade. The identical number of controls from the same institution, individually matched by sex, age and area of residence, was recruited from patients with various non-autoimmune neurological disorders. Dietary information was obtained by using a frequency history approach.

    Results: According to univariate conditional logistic regression analysis the following factors were significantly related to MS: body mass index (BMI less than 25 (OR=2.2, p=0.009, frequent consumption of beef (OR=1.7, p=0.043, chicken (OR=2.0, p=0.045, meat of the lamb (OR=2.1, p=0.013, butter (OR=1.7, p=0.056 and ice-cream (OR=1.8, p=0.031, with dose-response relationship. Consumption of majority of various fruit was more frequently reported by controls. According to multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, BMI less than 25 (OR=2.3, p=0.008, consumption (weekly of beef (OR=2.0, p=0.017 and butter (OR=1.9, p=0.027 was significantly related to MS, while regular consumption of cherry (OR=0.4, p=0.024 had protective role.

    Conclusions: This study might assist in potential defining of the dietary factors that could contribute to the risk of developing MS.

  11. The role of melatonin in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: A case-control study

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    Abbas Ghorbani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS and latitude gradient indicates the importance of environmental factors in MS susceptibility. Sunlight′s ultraviolet radiation, its ability to influence melatonin, and an imbalance of melatonin in the central nervous system (CNS may be involved in this process. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Isfahan MS Society (IMSS, Isfahan, Iran. Enrollment was limited to patients with MS referring to the MS clinic of Alzahra and Kashani hospital during January and February 2012. Results: Thirty-five patients with MS and 35 healthy individuals were included in our study. The melatonin levels were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits. There was no significant difference between saliva melatonin level of two groups (patients and healthy individuals (P = 0.417; however, after controlling the effect of age, a significant difference (P = 0.022 was found. Conclusions: In the present study, it is proposed that environmental conditions in Isfahan city might have increased the susceptibility to MS, but more studies in different parts of the world are needed to evaluate this claim.

  12. Perceived stress in patients with migraine: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hye-Jin; Seo, Jong-Geun; Park, Sung-Pa

    2017-12-01

    Perceived stress is the most common trigger for migraine. The objective of this study was to examine the clinical significance of perceived stress in migraine patients. This is a case-control study. Consecutive migraine patients who visited a tertiary care hospital were enrolled for this study. They completed self-reported questionnaires including Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), 12-item Allodynia Symptom Checklist (ASC-12), Migraine Disability Assessment Scale (MIDAS), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MSQ). Degree of perceived stress in migraine patients was measured and compared to that in healthy controls. Predictors for perceived stress and their impact on quality of life (QOL) of migraine patients were also determined. A total of 227 migraine patients were eligible for this study, including 103 (45.4%) who had chronic migraine (CM). Mean PSS score was significantly (p perceived stress. Perceived stress affects QOL of migraine patients.

  13. Does late onset depression predispose to dementia? A retrospective, case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohanna, Irit; Golander, Hava; Barak, Yoram

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests that there are clinical and biologic characteristics typical of late onset depression (LOD). Furthermore, evidence has been put forward that LOD may be a prodrome of dementia. This study aims to assess the association between LOD and the development of dementia. The study was conducted in a tertiary care, university-affiliated mental health center providing services for an urban catchment population of 800,000 subjects. A retrospective, case-controlled study was used. Fifty-one patients with LOD who developed dementia at least 1 year after diagnosis of LOD were defined as the index group: 18 males and 33 females, with a mean age of 75.4 ± 9.2 years. These were compared with 51 patients with LOD who did not develop dementia during a 10-year follow-up period. Dementia types were as follows: 73% Alzheimer disease, 24% vascular and mixed dementia, and 3% Parkinson dementia. Patients with LOD who developed dementia were significantly characterized by having longer hospitalization for their first depressive episode (P = .048), having a family history of dementia (P = .022), and having been exposed to the Holocaust as young adults (P = .013). Patients with a history of significant traumatic experience in early life and a prolonged onset of depression may be at particular risk of developing dementia. This issue requires further long-term prospective studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inflammatory potential of diet and risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivappa, Nitin; Zucchetto, Antonella; Montella, Maurizio; Serraino, Diego; Steck, Susan E; La Vecchia, Carlo; Hébert, James R

    2015-07-14

    Diet and inflammation have been suggested to be important risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we examined the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and the risk of CRC in a multi-centre case-control study conducted between 1992 and 1996 in Italy. The study included 1225 incident colon cancer cases, 728 incident rectal cancer cases and 4154 controls hospitalised for acute non-neoplastic diseases. The DII was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a validated seventy-eight-item FFQ that included assessment of alcohol intake. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR adjusted for age, sex, study centre, education, BMI, alcohol drinking, physical activity and family history of CRC. Energy intake was adjusted using the residual method. Subjects with higher DII scores (i.e. with a more pro-inflammatory diet) had a higher risk of CRC, with the DII being used both as a continuous variable (OR(continuous) 1.13, 95 % CI 1.09, 1.18) and as a categorical variable (OR(quintile 5 v. 1) 1.55, 95 % CI 1.29, 1.85; P for trend cancer cases. These results indicate that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with an increased risk of CRC.

  15. Role of survivor bias in pancreatic cancer case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen-Huan; Connett, John E; Yuan, Jian-Min; Anderson, Kristin E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of survivor bias on pancreatic cancer case-control studies. The authors constructed five case-loss scenarios based on the Iowa Women's Health Study cohort to reflect how case recruitment in population-based studies varies by case survival time. Risk factors for disease incidence included smoking, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, diabetes, and alcohol consumption. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by conditional logistic regression and quantitatively compared by the interactions between risk factors and 3-month survival time. Additionally, Kaplan-Meier estimates for overall survival were compared within the subset cohort of pancreatic cancer cases. BMI and waist circumference showed a significant inverse relationship with survival time. Decreasing trends in ORs for BMI and waist circumference were observed with increasing case survival time. The interaction between BMI and survival time based on a cutpoint of 3 months was significant (P < .01) as was the interaction between waist circumference and survival time (P < .01). The findings suggested that case losses could result in survivor bias causing underestimated odds ratios for both BMI and waist circumference, whereas other risk factors were not significantly affected by case losses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mortality of iron foundry workers. III. Lung cancer case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjelkovich, D A; Shy, C M; Brown, M H; Janszen, D B; Levine, R J; Richardson, R B

    1994-12-01

    A nested case-control study was undertaken to identify the determinants of lung cancer mortality in a cohort of 8147 foundry men among whom an excess of lung cancer deaths was previously observed. The present study consisted of all lung cancer deaths (N = 220) that occurred within this cohort between 1950 and 1989. both living and dead controls, matched on race and attained age, were selected in the ratio of 10:1 (N = 2200) by means of the incidence density sampling procedure. All cases and two controls per case, randomly selected from each case's 10 controls, were included in a smoking history survey. Basic smoking history information was obtained for about 71% of these study subjects. For the purpose of this study, formaldehyde exposure levels were categorized as high, medium, low, and none. Airborne silica exposure was categorized only as high, medium, and low levels, because all foundry workers were known to be exposed to silica. Conditional logistic regression analyses indicated that cigarette smoking was a strong predictor of lung cancer mortality in this cohort. Neither exposure to formaldehyde nor silica exposure level, nor employment in any of the six major work areas within the foundry, showed an association with lung cancer.

  17. Sinonasal cancer and wood dust exposure: results from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, A; Martinez Cortes, M; Gérin, M; Luce, D; Brugère, J

    1994-08-15

    A case-control study of occupational risk factors for sinonasal cancer was conducted in France in 1986-1988. The study included 207 histologically confirmed cases and 409 controls. Among the male cases were 59 men with squamous cell carcinoma and 82 with adenocarcinoma. The risk of sinonasal cancer in relation to wood dust exposure was studied in these two groups. The analysis was based on a case-by-case assessment of exposure by an industrial hygienist. Hardwood and softwood were distinguished. An approximate twofold increase in risk for squamous cell carcinomas was observed for cases whose first exposure to either hardwood or softwood occurred before 1945; however, the two types of exposure were highly correlated. An exposure to wood dust--from either hardwood alone or hardwood and other kinds of wood--was found for all but two of the 82 male cases with adenocarcinoma. The effects of different elements of exposure to hardwood (duration, level, period) were studied in detail with a logistic model. Two components of exposure--duration and average level--contributed independently to the overall very elevated risk. Additional exposure to wood other than hardwood did not increase the risk.

  18. Risk factors for lung cancer in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, I; Hamada, G S; Zamboni, M M; Cordeiro, P de B; Watanabe, S; Tsugane, S

    1994-09-01

    The association between the risk of lung cancer and tobacco smoking, dietary factors and occupational exposures was examined in a hospital-based case-control study. The study involved 123 consecutive cases and 123 controls, matched by age (+/- 3), sex, and race. In this first study of lung cancer risk in Brazil, we found that tobacco smoking is the strongest risk factor with an odds ratio (OR) for current and former smokers of 22 (CI, 6.5-76) and 7.7 (CI, 2.2-27), respectively. An OR of 2.8 (CI, 1.0-7.7) was found for users of black tobacco in the form of hand-rolled cigarettes) in combination with conventional cigarettes, after adjustment for life-time consumption of any kind of tobacco; users of conventional cigarettes only were considered as a reference group. Cessation of smoking had an important influence in reducing the lung cancer risk, whereas early initiation of smoking increased the risk. Among dietary factors, frequent consumption of meat (P study confirmed the association of lung cancer with smoking as the most important predictor of risk. It also indicates the increase in risk associated with the use of black tobacco in combination with conventional cigarettes.

  19. Lung cancer risk and welding--preliminary results from an ongoing case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jöckel, K H; Ahrens, W; Bolm-Audorff, U

    1994-06-01

    In a hospital-based case-control study, 391 male cases or primary lung cancer and the same number of controls--matched by sex, age, and region--were personally interviewed for their job and smoking histories. The data reported reflect the midpoint of a study aiming at a total of 1,000 cases. One objective of the study was to assess confounding by asbestos exposure in what was thought to be a welding-associated risk. While the odds ratios (OR) increased steeply with cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke and were raised also for lifelong asbestos exposure of over 4,100 working hours (OR = 1.91), the effect of welding exposure was reduced after adjustment for smoking and exposure to asbestos. Furthermore, no consistent dose-response relationship could be shown in relation to welding hours. Therefore the present study supports the hypothesis that some, if not all, of the excess risk of welders observed in the literature may be due to the exposure to asbestos. The finding that the subgroup of employees in the aircraft industry showed an increased odds ratio of 2.14 after adjustment for smoking and exposure to asbestos deserves further attention. This suggests the need for further research on the role of berryllium-containing alloys, which has been suggested by other authors.

  20. A case-control study of lung cancer among refinery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosamilia, K; Wong, O; Raabe, G K

    1999-12-01

    This case-control study examined the relationship between lung cancer and the work histories of male employees at a large Texas refinery. The study included 112 lung cancer deaths observed between 1946 and 1987 and 490 matched controls. Employment histories were obtained from personnel records, and smoking information was available from medical records. Both stratification methods and conditional logistic regression were used in data analyses. Overall employment in four general job categories (administrative, engineering/laboratory, process, maintenance/mechanical) was not associated with lung cancer mortality. Results by hire period (study do not support the hypothesis that work in maintenance/mechanical jobs increases lung cancer risk. On the basis of analyses in this study, it is unlikely that asbestos exposure contributed to excess lung cancer mortality. Additional analyses were conducted for specific maintenance jobs with potential exposure to asbestos and by duration in jobs with occasional or routine asbestos exposure. No significant increase in lung cancer was found in any subgroup. Furthermore, there was no significant trend toward lung cancer risk in relation to duration of employment in jobs with asbestos exposure.

  1. Case-control study of pneumonia patients with Streptococcus anginosus group bacteria in their sputum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Jun; Sakanashi, Daisuke; Haranaga, Shusaku; Kinjo, Takeshi; Hagihara, Mao; Kato, Hideo; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Yamagishi, Yuka; Fujita, Jiro; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG) bacteria are becoming increasingly recognized as important pneumonia-causing pathogens. Although several small studies have been reported, the features of SAG pneumonia remain unclear, because the identification of SAG from sputum cultures is not routinely performed in most microbiology laboratories. The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinical characteristics of SAG pneumonia. This was a retrospective case-control study utilizing data obtained in our hospital between September 2009 and June 2016. We investigated 31 patients with SAG pneumonia (PWP), and also assessed the difference between the 31 PWP and 37 patients without pneumonia (PWOP) in whose sputum SAG was detected. Seventy-one percent of the patients were men and the median age was 78 years in the PWP. Univariate analysis indicated that the PWP were significantly more often a bed-ridden (p pneumonia (NHCAP) was the more common type of pneumonia (54.8%). S. anginosus was detected significantly more frequently in sputum cultures of PWP than PWOP (p pneumonia, particularly among elderly patients with underlying disease associated with aspiration. NHCAP was the more common type of SAG pneumonia in this study. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk factors for the occurrence of undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type: A case-control study

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    Nešić Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Serbia is less than one per 100,000 citizens, which classifies it as a region with low incidence for this disease. Objective. The aim of this study was to test some hypotheses of the risk factors for undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT in the low incidence population. Methods. A case-control study was used for the research. The study included 45 cases with histopathological diagnosis of UCNT and 90 controls. Cases and the controls were individually matched by sex, age (±3 years, and place of residence (city-village. Data were gathered about sociodemographic characteristics, occupational exposure to harmful agents, habits, diet, personal history, and family history. In the analysis of the data, conditional univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied. Results. According to the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis UCNT was significantly positively associated with 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, frequent consumption of industrially manufactured food additives for enhancing flavour and frequent consumption of white bread. UCNT was significantly negatively associated with frequent consumption of margarine, olive oil and cornbread. Conclusion. In our low incidence population, an independent risk factor for the occurrence of UCNT was 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, use of industrially manufactured food with additives for enhancing flavour and consumption of white bread. Multicentric study enrolling a greater number of cases would be desirable.

  3. Reptiles, amphibians, and human Salmonella infection: a population-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermin, Jonathan; Hutwagner, Lori; Vugia, Duc; Shallow, Sue; Daily, Pamela; Bender, Jeffrey; Koehler, Jane; Marcus, Ruthanne; Angulo, Frederick J

    2004-04-15

    To estimate the burden of reptile- and amphibian-associated Salmonella infections, we conducted 2 case-control studies of human salmonellosis occurring during 1996-1997. The studies took place at 5 Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) surveillance areas: all of Minnesota and Oregon and selected counties in California, Connecticut, and Georgia. The first study included 463 patients with serogroup B or D Salmonella infection and 7618 population-based controls. The second study involved 38 patients with non-serogroup B or D Salmonella infection and 1429 controls from California only. Patients and controls were interviewed about contact with reptiles and amphibians. Reptile and amphibian contact was associated both with infection with serogroup B or D Salmonella (multivariable odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.2; Preptile or amphibian contact was 6% for all sporadic Salmonella infections and 11% among persons reptile and amphibian exposure is associated with approximately 74,000 Salmonella infections annually in the United States.

  4. Effect of diet and maternal education on allergies among preschool children: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrusaityte, Sandra; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Petraviciene, Inga

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased among children. This increase in prevalence might be related to dietary patterns. The present epidemiological study investigated the relationship between the consumption of fruit, vegetables, nuts, meat and fish, and the prevalence of wheeze, asthma, and eczema among preschool children. This nested case-control study included 1489 children aged 4-6 years and residing in Kaunas city, Lithuania. The subjects were recruited to the KANC newborn cohort study during 2007-2009. Parents' responses to questionnaires were used to collect information on allergic diseases, diet, and other variables. The association between dietary patterns and children's allergic diseases were tested by using logistic regressions, after adjustment for maternal education level, smoking during pregnancy, parental asthma, children's sex, parity, and antibiotic usage during the first year of life. In this study, 83.3% of all children consumed fresh fruit and/or vegetables at least three times per week. A significantly lower adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of wheeze was found among children who ate fruit than among those who did not (aOR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.22-0.96). The consumption of nuts was also associated with a lower 61% risk of eczema among 4-6 years old children. The results indicated a beneficial effect of a frequent consumption of fresh fruit and nuts on the prevalence of allergies among children. These results might have important implications for children's health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A case-control study evaluating relative risk factors for decompression sickness: a research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Naoko; Yagishita, Kazuyosi; Togawa, Seiichiro; Okazaki, Fumihiro; Shibayama, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Mano, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Factors contributing to the pathogenesis of decompression sickness (DCS) in divers have been described in many studies. However, relative importance of these factors has not been reported. In this case-control study, we compared the diving profiles of divers experiencing DCS with those of a control group. The DCS group comprised 35 recreational scuba divers who were diagnosed by physicians as having DCS. The control group consisted of 324 apparently healthy recreational divers. All divers conducted their dives from 2009 to 2011. The questionnaire consisted of 33 items about an individual's diving profile, physical condition and activities before, during and just after the dive. To simplify dive parameters, the dive site was limited to Izu Osezaki. Odds ratios and multiple logistic regression were used for the analysis. Odds ratios revealed several items as dive and health factors associated with DCS. The major items were as follows: shortness of breath after heavy exercise during the dive (OR = 12.12), dehydration (OR = 10.63), and maximum dive depth > 30 msw (OR = 7.18). Results of logistic regression were similar to those by odds ratio analysis. We assessed the relative weights of the surveyed dive and health factors associated with DCS. Because results of several factors conflict with previous studies, future studies are needed.

  6. Adipokines as Possible New Predictors of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Case Control Study

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    Laura Pala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The secretion of several adipocytokines, such as adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aFABP, and visfatin, is altered in subjects with abdominal adiposity; these endocrine alterations could contribute to increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship among adiponectin, RBP4, aFABP, and visfatin, and incident cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results. A case-control study, nested within a prospective cohort, on 2945 subjects enrolled for a diabetes screening program was performed. We studied 18 patients with incident fatal or nonfatal IHD (Ischemic Heart Disease or CVD (Cerebrovascular Disease, compared with 18 matched control subjects. Circulating adiponectin levels were significantly lower in cases of IHD with respect to controls. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD and decreased in IHD with respect to controls. Circulating aFABP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD, while no difference was associated with IHD. Circulating visfatin levels were significantly lower in cases of both CVD and IHD with respect to controls, while no difference was associated with CVD. Conclusions. The present study confirms that low adiponectin is associated with increased incidents of IHD, but not CVD, and suggests, for the first time, a major effect of visfatin, aFABP, and RBP4 in the development of cardiovascular disease.

  7. Case-control study of risk factors for hip fractures in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, R G; Klineberg, R J

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this population-based case-control study was to identify risk factors for hip fracture among elderly women and men, particularly factors during young and middle adult life. The study base comprised people aged 65 years and over living in a defined region in Sydney, Australia, during 1990-1991. Cases were recruited from 12 hospitals, and controls were selected using an area probability sampling method, with additional sampling from nursing homes. There were 416 subjects (209 cases and 207 controls); proxy respondents were needed for 27 percent of the subjects. Smoking, underweight in old age, overweight at age 20 years, and weight loss were associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. Consumption of dairy products, particularly at age 20 years, was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture in old age. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for quintiles of dairy product consumption at age 20 years were 1.0 (lowest quintile), 0.8, 1.8, 3.4, 2.9 (highest quintile). Caffeine and alcohol intake were not associated with hip fracture risk. Some of the results of this study were unanticipated and may be due to chance or bias. If confirmed by other studies, these results would challenge some current approaches to hip fracture prevention.

  8. Hepatitis B carrier state among SLE patients: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendelman, Omer; Mahroum, Naim; Comaneshter, Doron; Rotman-Pikielny, Pnina; Cohen, Arnon D; Amital, Howard; Sherf, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The association between hepatitis B and autoimmune disorders has been intriguing for decades. Many reports have speculated on the possible linkage between these two conditions, yet never before data driven from a large national database was utilized in order to investigate this issue. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between SLE and hepatitis B carrier state. Patients with SLE were compared with age- and sex-matched controls regarding the proportion of hepatitis B carrier state in a case-control study. Chi-square and t tests were used for univariate analysis, and a logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. The study was performed utilizing the medical database of Clalit Health Services. The study included 5018 lupus patients over the age of 20 years and 25,090 age- and sex-frequency-matched controls without SLE. The proportion of hepatitis B carriers was higher in SLE patients as compared to controls (0.9 and 0.56 %, respectively; p SLE was significantly associated with hepatitis B (OR = 1.828, 95 % CI = 1.291-2.590). Patients with SLE have a greater proportion of hepatitis B carrier state than matched controls.

  9. Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma in a southern Brazilian population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gon, Airton; Minelli, Lorivaldo

    2011-10-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer to occur in Caucasian populations, and its incidence is increasing. Despite its frequency, there is a paucity of data on risk factors for BCC in some regions. This study investigated the association between pigmentary characteristics, distinctive patterns of solar exposure, habits and lifestyle, and risk for BCC among patients attending a dermatology center in a region in southern Brazil. We conducted a hospital-based, case-control study that included 127 case patients with histologically confirmed BCC and 280 cancer-free control subjects with other dermatologic conditions, observed between January 2006 and December 2007. The study was conducted using a questionnaire and physical examination by a dermatologist. Relative risks were estimated using exposure odds ratios generated by cross-tabulation and logistic regression models. Risk for BCC was associated with family history of skin cancer, Fitzpatrick skin type I, and the presence of actinic keratoses, solar lentigines, leukoderma, and elastosis romboidalis nuchae. No effect was found for different patterns of solar exposure, eye, hair or skin color, exposure to non-solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), or lifestyle-related habits such as sunscreen use and cigarette smoking. The results of this study suggest that skin type and family history of skin cancer may be important in establishing risk for developing BCC. Additionally, the detection by clinical examination of skin markers related to UVR action is important in establishing which patients are more likely to develop BCC. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. Lung cancer and arsenic exposure in drinking water: a case-control study in northern Chile

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    Ferreccio Catterina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In some Chilean cities, levels of arsenic (As in drinking water reached 800 µg/L between 1950 and 1970, while current levels are 40 µg/L. To evaluate the causal role of this exposure in lung and bladder cancers, we conducted a case-control study in Regions I, II, and III of the country. From 1994 to 1996, cases diagnosed as lung cancer and two hospital controls were entered in the study; one control was a patient with a cancer, while the other was a patient without cancer, both conditions unrelated to As. Controls were matched with cases by age and sex. A standard survey containing questions about residence, employment, health history, was administered to study subjects. Data on As concentrations in water were obtained from records of the municipal water companies. A total of 151 lung cancer cases and 419 controls (167 with cancer and 242 without cancer were enrolled. Median level of lifetime As exposure was significantly higher among cases, with a clear dose-response relationship between mean As exposure levels, with an OR (95% CI of: 1, 1.7 (0.5-5.1, 3.9 (1.2-13.4, 5.5 (2.2-13.5, and 9.0 (3.6-22 for strata one to five respectively. This study provides new evidence that As in drinking water can cause internal cancers and gives an estimate of the form of this relationship.

  11. Identification of factors predicting scar outcome after burn in adults: A prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Hilary J; Fear, Mark W; Crowe, Margaret M; Martin, Lisa J; Wood, Fiona M

    2017-09-01

    This study examined influences on scarring after burn in a prospective study using a defined outcome measure: scar height measured by a modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS). A prospective case-control study was conducted among 616 adult subjects who sustained a burn in Western Australia. Patient factors influencing scar outcome including gender, Fitzpatrick skin type and selected co-morbidities were explored, as well as injury and clinical factors. A logistic regression model for raised scar after burn was developed which achieved an overall correct prediction rate of 81.1%; 74.8% for those with raised scar and 86.0% for those without raised scar. From this study, injury and clinical predictors for raised scar after adjustment for other variables are: increasing %TBSA, greater burn depth as indicated by level of surgical intervention, wound complications and prolonged hospital stay. Intrinsic patient predictors for raised scar in patients with comparable injuries are: young age (≤30 years), female gender and Fitzpatrick skin types 4-6. The strength of association statistics (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals) reported will be of practical benefit for clinical decision-making and counselling of patients, and plausible biological explanations for the findings support the validity of the results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. The efficacy of preopoerative instruction in reducing anxiety following gyneoncological surgery: a case control study

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    Gungor Tayfun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This is a quasi-experimental case control research focusing on the impact of systematic preoperative instruction on the level of postoperative anxiety in gyneoncologic patients. The population studied consists of the gyneoncologic surgery patients admitted to the Gynecologic Oncology Service at Zekai Tahir Burak Gynecology Training and Research Hospital from May to September 2010. Patients and methods Through a random sampling, 60 patients were recruited in each group. The study group was given a systematic preoperative instruction while the control group was given routine nursing care. Patients were interviewed in the postoperative period and anxiety was measured. The data-collecting tool consisted of the Individual Information Form and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The collected data were analyzed by using the SPSS Program to find the frequency, the percentage, the mean and the standard variables, and the hypothesis was tested with Chi-square, variance, and t-independent test. Results It was found that the incidence rates from the post-operative anxiety score of the study group were lower than those of the control group (p Conclusions Results of this study suggest that preoperative instruction programs aiming at informing gyneoncologic surgery patients at the preoperative stage should be organized in hospitals and have an essential role.

  13. Predictors of wound infection in elective colorectal surgery. Multicenter observational case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccalvieri, Doménico; Kreisler Moreno, Esther; Flor Lorente, Blas; Torres García, Antonio; Muñoz Calero, Alberto; Mateo Vallejo, Francisco; Biondo, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of Vicryl Plus(®) suture in reducing the rate of postoperative wound infection in elective colorectal surgery. A prospective case-control multicenter study with 480 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery was performed between 2006 and 2007. Patients were divided in 2 groups of equal sample size: group 1, closure of the abdominal wall using Vicryl Plus(®) and group 2 where PDS II(®) was used. The study involved 5 hospitals in the Spanish State. Wound infection was classified into superficial and deep. All patients diagnosed of wound infection during the hospital stay and up to 30 days after discharge were studied. For the statistical analysis Chi-square test and Fisher exact were used for bivariate analysis and logistic regression model for multivariate analysis. Wound infection rates were significantly lower in group 1: 14.6 vs. 29.2. Multivariate analysis showed that risk of wound infection was higher in patients with cancer, lung disease, anemia, operative time greater than 2 h, lack of second dose intra-operative prophylactic antibiotic and laparotomy closure with PDS suture II(®). The use of suture coated with triclosan can be an effective prophylactic tool in reducing wound infection rate in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary patterns and benign breast diseases: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiznobeyk, Zeinab; Sheikhi Mobarakeh, Zahra; Qorbani, Mostafa; Koohdani, Fariba; Sotoudeh, Gity; Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Khosravi, Shahla; Doostan, Farideh

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have investigated the relation between benign breast diseases (BBD) and food intake. However, dietary patterns of these patients have not been taken into consideration up to now. The aim of this study is to determine the association between dietary patterns and BBD. In this case-control study, ninety-six patients with BBD and seventy controls were selected from women attending the Iranian Center for Breast Cancer affiliated with Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research. Demographic, physical activity and semi-quantitative FFQ were completed. The main dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis. Two major dietary patterns emerged: Healthy dietary pattern including fish, poultry, eggs, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, legumes, nuts and seeds, whole grains, oil and mayonnaise, olives, fruits; and Unhealthy dietary pattern including red meats, organ and processed meats, high-fat dairy products, refined grains, sweets and desserts, animal and solid fats. After adjustment for age, BMI and energy intake, the participants in the highest tertile of Healthy dietary pattern (OR 0·44; 95 % CI 0·20, 0·99) were less likely to have BBD compared with those in the first tertile. After adjustment for other confounding variables, this relationship still remained close to significant level. However, higher consumption of Unhealthy dietary pattern was not associated with the risk of BBD. In conclusion, Healthy dietary pattern might be inversely associated with the risk of BBD; however, this result should be interpreted with caution. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  15. Organohalogen body burdens in a breast cancer case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petreas, M.; She, J.; Visita, P.; Winkler, J. [Hazardous Materials Lab., California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hurley, S.; Smith, D.; Reynolds, P. [Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Dept. of Health Services, Oakland, CA (United States); Jeffrey, S.; Mahoney, E. [Dept. of Surgery, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Due to their lipophilic properties, dioxins (PCDD/PCDFs) and other organohalogen compounds bioaccumulate in the food chain, with diet accounting for over 90% of non-occupational exposures. To date, few epidemiologic studies have examined the relationship between dioxins and breast cancer in human populations. Most have examined risks in occupational cohorts or in populations exposed to dioxins from the Seveso accident6-8. Results from these studies have been conflicting and have largely been limited by a lack of individual-level measures of exposure, small numbers of cases, and inability to account for established breast cancer risk factors. Very little is known about the potential health effects of low-level environmental dioxin contamination. We present data on PCDD/PCDFs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in adipose tissues of women participating in a breast cancer case-control study centered in the San Francisco Bay Area. In addition, we examine distributions of these chemicals in breast and abdominal adipose of women undergoing mastectomies with concurrent breast reconstruction. If concentrations were equivalent, use of abdominal adipose would greatly enhance the pool for controls for future epidemiological studies.

  16. Risk factors for the occurrence of undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesić, Vladimir; Sipetić, Sandra; Vlajinac, Hristina; Stosić-Divjak, Svetlana; Jesić, Snezana

    2010-01-01

    The incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Serbia is less than one per 100,000 citizens, which classifies it as a region with low incidence for this disease. The aim of this study was to test some hypotheses of the risk factors for undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT) in the low incidence population. A case-control study was used for the research. The study included 45 cases with histopathological diagnosis of UCNT and 90 controls. Cases and the controls were individually matched by sex, age (+/- 3 years), and place of residence (city-village). Data were gathered about sociodemographic characteristics, occupational exposure to harmful agents, habits, diet, personal history, and family history. In the analysis of the data, conditional univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied. According to the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis UCNT was significantly positively associated with "passive smoking" of tobacco in the family during childhood, frequent consumption of industrially manufactured food additives for enhancing flavour and frequent consumption of white bread. UCNT was significantly negatively associated with frequent consumption of margarine, olive oil and cornbread. In our low incidence population, an independent risk factor for the occurrence of UCNT was "passive smoking" of tobacco in the family during childhood, use of industrially manufactured food with additives for enhancing flavour and consumption of white bread. Multicentric study enrolling a greater number of cases would be desirable.

  17. The association between gall bladder mucoceles and hyperlipidaemia in dogs: a retrospective case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsunai, M; Kanemoto, H; Fukushima, K; Fujino, Y; Ohno, K; Tsujimoto, H

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of gall bladder mucoceles (GM) in dogs has become increasingly frequent in veterinary medicine. Primary breed-specific hyperlipidaemia is reported in Shetland Sheepdogs and Miniature Schnauzers, breeds in which GM are known to occur more frequently than in other breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between GM and hyperlipidaemia in dogs. The study design was a retrospective case control study. Medical records of dogs diagnosed with GM at the Veterinary Medical Centre of The University of Tokyo between 1 April 2007 and 31 March 2012, were reviewed. Fifty-eight dogs with GM and a record of either serum cholesterol, triglyceride, or glucose concentrations were included in the study. Hypercholesterolaemia (15/37 cases; odds ratio [OR]: 2.92; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-8.36) and hypertriglyceridaemia (13/24 cases; OR: 3.55; 95% CI:1.12-15.91) showed significant association with GM. Pomeranians (OR: 10.69), American Cocker Spaniels (OR: 8.94), Shetland Sheepdogs (OR: 6.21), Miniature Schnauzers (OR: 5.23), and Chihuahuas (OR: 3.06) were significantly predisposed to GM. Thirty-nine out of 58 cases had at least one concurrent disease, including pancreatitis (five cases), hyperadrenocorticism (two cases), and hypothyroidism (two cases). A significant association between GM and hyperlipidaemia was confirmed, suggesting that hyperlipidaemia may play a role in the pathogenesis of GM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adherence to thromboprophylaxis guidelines in elderly patients with hospital acquired venous thromboembolism: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Jason; Desai, Amishi; Desai, Anish; Cruz, Josephine Dela; Mariampillai, Anusiyanthan; Hindenburg, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains the number one preventable cause of hospital acquired mortality and morbidity. Each year, more than 12 million patients are at risk for VTE. The delivery of appropriate and timely VTE prophylaxis is still suboptimal in many healthcare institutions and can lead to increased readmissions, morbidity, as well as costs. To clarify this issue further, we performed a retrospective case control study at our institution to determine if poor adherence to the VTE prophylaxis guidelines could lead to an increase in VTE events. This was a retrospective case control study conducted at Winthrop-University Hospital from January 2007 to December 2011. Exclusion criteria were age < 18 and concurrent use of anticoagulant agents. Out of 322 cases of hospital acquired VTE or readmission with VTE within 30 days of discharge, 289 cases were selected for final analysis and paired with age and sex matched controls. Patients with a hospital acquired VTE or a readmission for VTE within 30 days of discharge had a significantly reduced rate of VTE prophylaxis when compared to the control group (54.0 vs. 79.2 %, p < 0.0001). The VTE risk assessment rate was also lower in the VTE group (77.2 vs. 85.5 %, p = 0.035). No difference was noted in the time to prophylaxis administration between the two groups (34.8 vs. 33.1 h, p = 0.34). Lastly, sequential compression device (SCD) documentation rate was not different: 68/116 (58.6 %) vs. 44/87 (50.6 %), p = 0.32, between the two arms. Low adherence to the American College of Chest Physician (ACCP) guidelines for VTE prophylaxis correlated with an increase in hospital acquired VTE. The decreased adherence may be linked to a lower VTE risk assessment rate, and other barriers including incorrect identification of contraindications to pharmacologic prophylaxis, and poor documentation of mechanical prophylaxis. There was no difference in SCD documentation rate and timeliness to

  19. Symptoms and sources of Yersinia enterocolitica-infection: a case-control study

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    Siitonen Anja

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia enterocolitica (YE is the causative agent of yersiniosis. YE encompass strains of diverse pathogenicity: YE biotypes 1B and 2-5 are considered pathogenic, whereas biotype 1A is in general considered nonvirulent. Also YE-like species, which can sometimes be misidentified as YE, are considered nonvirulent. Methods In order to study differences in clinical picture caused by different YE types and their possible sources a case-control study was conducted in 2006. In this case-control study, 295 case-patients with YE or YE-like finding and their 758 controls responded to the questionnaire about symptoms and possible sources of infection. Results Strains of pathogenic YE bio/serotypes 3-4/O:3 or 2/O:9 were found in 18%, YE biotype 1A in 65% and YE -like strains of 17% of the patients. Patients infected with the strains of pathogenic YE bio/serotypes were younger and had fever more often than those with BT 1A who suffered more from vomiting. Symptoms of reactive arthritis were reported by 10% of pathogenic YE infections, 3% of YE BT 1A, and 0.3% of the controls. Eating or tasting raw or medium done pork was a significant risk factor for pathogenic YE bio/serotype infection (OR 6.6; 95% CI 1.7-24.9 as well as eating in a canteen (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.6-7.9. Imported fruits and berries were associated with increased risk of YE BT 1A finding. Conclusions The symptoms of the patients with YE BT 1A differed from yersiniosis caused by the classic pathogenic YE bio/serotypes. In addition, the patients with YE BT 1A had more protracted gastrointestinal disorders and unspecific complaints. Small children were overrepresented in classic pathogenic bio/serotypes while in BT 1A or YE-like species were not found among children younger than two years. This suggests the lacking virulence of the BT 1A strains. We can not, however, rule out the possibility that some strains of genetically heterogeneous group of BT 1A may cause an illness.

  20. Depression and Anxiety Disorders among Patients with Psoriasis: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study

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    Masoud Golpour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psoriasis is a common, genetically determined inflammatory and proliferative disease of the skin. Psychological stress can exacerbate the disease. This study sought to investigate the depression and anxiety disorders among patients with psoriasis and control group. Method. In this hospital-based case-control study, One hundred patients with psoriasis (case referred to the dermatology department and 100 patients with otolaryngology problems and dermatological healthy volunteers (control who referred to the Otolaryngology Department of Bouali Sina Hospital in Sari, Iran, in 2007 were studied. Demographic characteristics were recorded. Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale I-II were administered to the patients in both groups. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software and descriptive statistical tests. Results. From One-hundred patients in each group, 44 (45% were men. Depression score was 67% and 12% in psoriatic patients and control, respectively. The Beck depression scores of patients with psoriasis were significantly higher than scores of the control group (<0.05. Based on Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale, anxiety was found in 45% of patients in case group and 18% of controls. Conclusion. The results revealed that psoriatic patients reported significantly higher degrees of depression and anxiety than controls. In addition, psoriatic women were more depressed than psoriatic men.

  1. Case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in a rural population of Faisalabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Muhammad Naeem; Malik, Muhammad Akram

    2015-01-01

    The effects of diet on epidemiology of prostate cancer are inconclusive. Therefore a hospital- based, case-control study was conducted in a rural population of Faisalabad, Pakistan, to examine the impact of dietary factors on risk of cancer development. This study was based on 102 confirmed cases of prostate cancer and 204 normal controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for odds ratios to evaluate the relationship between prostate cancer and diet. Consumption of red meat and fat items significantly increased the prostate cancer risk having odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of 3.41; 1.46-7.96 and 2.45; 1.17-5.15, respectively. On the other hand, more consumption of vegetables, fluid intake and fruit significantly decreased the prostate cancer risk (odd ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals of 0.21; 0.10-0.44, 0.10; 0.05- 0.19 and 0.09; 0.03- 0.23, respectively. The present study supports the hypothesis that frequent consumption of red meat and fat items may increase prostate cancer risk while more intake of fruit, vegetables and fluid intake may protect against prostate cancer in the relatively low risk group in rural Pakistan.

  2. Efficacy of carboxymethyl beta-glucan in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a retrospective, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentella, Patrizia; Biamonti, Alberto; Carraro, Carlo; Inghirami, Paolo; Mancino, Pasquale; Pietrangeli, Daniela; Votano, Sergio; Lazzari, Paola; DE Medici, Caterina

    2017-10-01

    Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection constitutes the principal risk factor for the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. For this reason, new drugs have been studied to support the host immune system against the HPV infection. The aim of this retrospective, case-control study was to detect the efficacy and safety of carboxymethyl β-glucan (Colpofix®) gel as adjuvant therapy in HPV infection. The medical records of patients attending the Colposcopy Service of four hospitals in Rome from 2011 to 2013 were collected. Case arm consisted of patients submitted to local therapy with Colpofix®. Control arm comprised patients who did not receive this therapy. A total of 999 patients were included, divided into four groups, according to their cytological and histological specimens, colposcopy and subsequent management. Local therapy with Colpofix® gel resulted effective with respect to no therapy for the regression of low-grade CIN (CIN1) in patients submitted to follow up (P=0.0204), while it was no effective for the regression of CIN1 submitted to ablative therapy and high-grade CIN (CIN 2+) (P value not significant). In conclusion, Colpofix® gel represents a valid alternative to "wait and see" strategy in patients affected by CIN1. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these results.

  3. MRI ankle and subtalar characteristics in haemochromatosis arthropathy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstob, A; Ejindu, V; Heron, C W; Kiely, P D W

    2017-11-07

    To examine the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the ankle and subtalar joints that might distinguish genetic haemochromatosis (GH). The present study was a retrospective case-control study comparing 30 MRI studies of GH patients with ankle or subtalar arthropathy with 30 matched controls with ankle pain. Anonymised images were scored using a semi-quantative tool adapted from the MRI osteoarthritis knee score. Scores were generated for bone marrow lesions size, number, and distinguishing the proportion of each lesion consisting of subchondral cyst versus oedema. Articular cartilage loss and osteophytes were documented. The primary comparator was bone marrow lesion size. Paired Student's t-test and the chi-squared test were utilised to compare outcomes. Bone marrow lesion/cyst size and number, presence and extent of full-thickness cartilage loss, and osteophyte scores were significantly higher in ankle joints of GH cases (p<0.01). In the middle subtalar articulation, there were significantly higher scores for full-thickness cartilage loss and extent and osteophytes in GH cases (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the posterior subtalar articulation. The finding of both numerous and large cysts on ankle MRI should raise suspicion of GH. Other MRI features of potential diagnostic value include large osteophytes and the presence of extensive full-thickness cartilage loss in the ankle joint and middle subtalar articulation. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

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    J. Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK, Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and pathology data was centrally reported at the National Cancer Hospital of Vietnam, in Hanoi. Results. Our analysis included 294 matched pairs. Mean age at diagnosis was 46.7 years. Lower mean parity, older age at first parity, increasing weight and BMI at age 18, and increasing BMI at diagnosis were positively correlated with breast cancer cases compared to controls. Age at first menarche and duration of breastfeeding were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions. In this study we demonstrate that breast cancer in Vietnam is associated with some but not all of the published risk factors from Western populations. Our data is consistent with other studies of breast cancer in Asian populations.

  5. Free radicals and antioxidant status in chronic osteomyelitis patients: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Abha; Singh, Saurababh; Mukhopadhyay, Bedabrata; Gavel, Roshni; Mishra, Surendra Pratap

    2015-04-01

    Osteomyelitis (OM) is a local or generalized infection of the bone and bone marrow which may be multifactorial in its causation. Chronic infection is characterised by sequestrum and involucrum formation. The present study has been carried out for assessing the oxidative stress in chronic OM by measurement of serum oxidants {such as malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), nitrite} and the serum antioxidants {such as ascorbic acid, superoxide dismutase (SOD), ceruloplasmin (Cp), blood glutathione} by spectrophotometric method. This was a case control study. About 5 ml of venous blood was collected for the estimation of biochemical parameters. This study comprised of 50 OM patients diagnosed at SSLH Hospital, Varanasi and 50 healthy ages (15-35 y) and sex matched individuals. Significantly increased (p<0.0001) levels of serum oxidants and significantly decreased (p<0.0001) levels of all serum antioxidants except ceruloplasmin indicated significantly increased (p<0.0001) levels in response to infections in chronic OM patients as compared to the healthy controls. These results suggest that there occurs an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants, especially an increase in oxidative stress, as measured by the levels of the parameters: serum MDA, serum protein carbonyl and serum nitrite.

  6. Platelet function in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf, Hoda Ahmed; Sadek, Samiaa Hamdy; Nafady, Asmaa Abdel Hakim

    2018-01-01

    The effect of association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes (DM) on platelet function has not been studied before. To evaluate the effect of the association between COPD and DM on platelet function and C reactive protein (CRP). This case control study was carried out on 110 stable COPD patients who were classified into diabetic and nondiabetic groups. In addition, 40 apparently healthy, age and sex-matched individuals were included in this study as a control group. Chest X-ray, pulmonary function testing and arterial blood gases were done for COPD patients. CRP and complete blood count (CBC) were measured in both patient and control groups. Mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), platelet crit (PCT) and CRP were significantly higher in COPD patients either nondiabetic or diabetic compared to control group. Moreover, MPV and CRP markers were significantly higher in COPD diabetic patients compared to nondiabetic. There was no significant difference in various laboratory data among different stages of COPD either diabetic or nondiabetic (P > 0.05). In COPD patients, MPV was a significantly positively correlated with CRP and PDW (r = 0.346, P diabetic. Platelet function may be modified by the systemic inflammation that associated with COPD. Platelet activation as a prothrombotic sequence of this disease may be used as novel therapeutic target. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Proanthocyanidins and other flavonoids in relation to pancreatic cancer: a case-control study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M; Lugo, A; Lagiou, P; Zucchetto, A; Polesel, J; Serraino, D; Negri, E; Trichopoulos, D; La Vecchia, C

    2012-06-01

    Four cohort studies have examined the relation between flavonoids and pancreatic cancer risk providing inconsistent results. We conducted a case-control study between 1991 and 2008 in Northern Italy. Subjects were 326 cases with incident pancreatic cancer and 652 frequency-matched controls (admitted to the same hospitals as cases for acute non-neoplastic conditions) who answered a reproducible and valid food-frequency questionnaire. We computed odds ratios (ORs) using logistic regression models conditioned on gender, age and study center, and adjusted for education, history of diabetes, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and energy intake. Proanthocyanidins with three or more mers were inversely related to pancreatic cancer risk. The ORs were similar in all classes of polymers with three or more mers and in their combination (OR for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake, 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.69), and did not substantially change after adjustment for fruit and vegetable consumption, and for vitamin C and folate intakes. Eating an additional portion of fruits rich in proanthocyanidins every day reduced the risk of pancreatic cancer by 25%. Dietary proanthocyanidins-mostly present in apples, pears and pulses-may convey some protection against pancreatic cancer risk.

  8. Anxiety, depression and self-esteem levels in obese children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Seda; Orhon, Filiz Şimşek; Tayfun, Meltem; Uçaktürk, Seyit Ahmet; Demirel, Fatma

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a global health problem affecting all age groups. Childhood obesity, which may cause chronic diseases including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer, etc., deserves more attention. However, few studies highlight the association between childhood obesity and psychological diseases. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the psychological condition in obese children. One hundred and sixty-seven obese (body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile) and 200 normal weight children (BMI between 5th and 85th percentile) aged 9-16 years were enrolled into this case-control study. In order to assess the self-concept, anxiety and depression levels: the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS), state and trait anxiety inventory for children (STAI-C) and the children depression inventory (CDI) were administered both obese and control groups. There were significant differences among obese and control groups in terms of the total score of PHCSCS [55 (22-69) versus 65 (57-74)], STAI-C [37 (20-55) versus 28 (20-42)], and CDI [12 (4-39)] versus [8 (3-19)]; respectively (pchildren may experience psychiatric disorders more than normal-weight peers.

  9. Serum uric acid level as a determinant of the metabolic syndrome: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khichar, Satyendra; Choudhary, Shyama; Singh, Veer Bahadur; Tater, Priyanka; Arvinda, R V; Ujjawal, Vivek

    To determine whether elevations of uric acid levels are associated with the cluster of disorders described in metabolic syndrome and to evaluate whether hyperuricemia may be considered a component of this syndrome. One year case-control study was conducted in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India from January to December 2013. The study population consisted of 200 subjects, 100 with metabolic syndrome (case) and 100 without metabolic syndrome (control) aged between 18 and 80 years, attending OPD at PBM Hospital were studied. Controls were age and sex matched to the cases. Blood tests and all physical variables were examined using standard methods. Subjects were divided into 6 groups according to their possession of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 components of the metabolic syndrome. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA, linear regression analysis and multivariate linear regression model. Mean serum UA level was significantly associated with all components of metabolic syndrome (pmetabolic factors increased showing a highly significant trend (pmetabolic syndrome. The current multivariate regression analysis clearly infers that uric acid can be considered as a marker and potential modifier of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Case-controlled study of the epidemiological risk factors for breast cancer in Nigeria.

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    Adebamowo, C A; Adekunle, O O

    1999-05-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide, more rapidly in societies that hitherto enjoyed a low incidence of the disease, such as most African countries. Most of the epidemiological data on breast cancer from Africa have been retrospective studies with propensity for bias. This was a case-controlled study of 250 consecutive patients with breast cancer diagnosed between April 1992 and December 1995. An age- and sex-matched control group of patients with non-oncological and non-endocrine diseases was compared. The peak age incidence of breast cancer in the sample studied was 43 years. There was a statistically significant difference in the height and weight of the patients compared with the controls. Patients also tended to be older at first pregnancy and at first lactation, and had a higher mean number of pregnancies. The patients also tended to be of an early birth order, to have lactated less often, to have used contraceptives and to have abused alcohol compared with the controls. The incidence of breast cancer in this environment is increasing. This is partly a result of the changing demographic profile, acquisition of 'western' lifestyle, and the changing socioeconomic profile of the country.

  11. Leukemia risk among U.S. white male coal miners. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, P A; Ames, R G; McCawley, M A

    1985-09-01

    The relevance of occupational exposure to electrical and magnetic fields (EMF) in the etiology of leukemia has been raised in several studies. Underground coal miners represent an occupational group with situationally determined EMF exposure, as high-voltage power distribution lines are strung overhead in the mines and converters and step-down transformers provide power to mining equipment. Risk in occupational exposure to EMF was examined in a case-control study of 40 leukemia decedents and 160 control subjects who died of causes other than cancer or accident and who were matched on age at death. The control subjects were selected from a group of 6,066 persons whose deaths were reported in four National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health cohort mortality follow-up studies. Based on these data, 25 or more years of underground mining, a surrogate of EMF exposure, was found to pose a statistically significant risk for leukemia (International Classification of Diseases [ICD] codes 204 through 207, eighth revision), myelogenous leukemia (ICD 205), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (ICD 204.1). Accumulative exposure to chemical agents probably poses a risk for acute myelogenous leukemia, although this relationship fell short of being statistically significant. Although CLL has not previously been attributed to environmental agents, these data suggest a possible CLL risk from prolonged exposure to EMF.

  12. Dietary factors and endometrial cancer risk. Results of a case-control study in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Martinez, E; Lazcano-Ponce, E; Sanchez-Zamorano, L M; Gonzalez-Lira, G; Escudero-DE Los Rios, P; Hernandez-Avila, M

    2005-01-01

    Daily diet factors that could potentially be related to endometrial cancer (EC) in Mexico are still unknown. This study aims to evaluate the association between EC and Mexican dietary factors. A case-control study in Mexico City was conducted during 1995-1997 in a social security hospital, using 85 incident cases of EC and 629 controls. A validated questionnaire with 116 items about the frequency and type of food intake was used. The analysis of nutrients was performed using the residual method, adjusting by predictor variables through logistic regression methods. In addition, partitional models estimated total caloric intake for other sources. We found no association between EC risk and consumption of animal or vegetable proteins, saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fat, although high intake of nutrients such as lactose (odds ratio [OR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-1.01, P for trend = 0.004), vitamin D (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.18-0.82, P= 0.003), and calcium (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.17-0.89, P= 0.02) were inversely associated with EC. Our results suggest that dietary vitamin D and calcium play an important role in the development of EC, although the mechanisms postulated should be explained with additional studies with large populations.

  13. Prolactin and prostate hypertrophy: a pilot observational, prospective, case-control study in men with prolactinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colao, Annamaria; Vitale, Giovanni; Di Sarno, Antonella; Spiezia, Stefano; Guerra, Ermelinda; Ciccarelli, Antonio; Lombardi, Gaetano

    2004-06-01

    In experimental models, prolactin (PRL) displays independent hypertrophic effects on the prostate. To investigate whether hyperprolactinemia is associated with prostate enlargement in humans, we designed this open, prospective, case-control study enrolling 20 men with prolactinoma (aged 34 +/- 10 yr) and 20 age-matched healthy men. The endocrine profile and prostate transrectal ultrasonography were performed before and after 12 and 24 months of cabergoline treatment in the patients and at study entry and after 24 months in the controls. The patients had lower serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and IGF-I levels and prostate volume (15.4 +/- 3.5 vs. 19.6 +/- 5.1 ml; P prostate-specific antigen density than controls. There was no difference in prostate and transitional zone volumes between patients with normoandrogenemia (n = 8) or hypoandrogenemia (n = 12). After 12 and 24 months of treatment, PRL, testosterone, and DHT levels were normal in all cases, as were IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 levels. After 24 months, prostate volume was comparable to that in controls (21.7 +/- 4.5 vs. 22.5 +/- 4.7 ml). There were no changes in prostate structure throughout the study period in either the patients or the controls. In conclusion, in young men with prolactinoma PRL excess is unlikely to have effects on the prostate per se, because it is accompanied by low testosterone and DHT levels that produce the major effects.

  14. Role of calcium deficiency in development of nutritional rickets in Indian children: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Varun; Seth, Anju; Aneja, Satinder; Sharma, Bhawna; Sonkar, Pitamber; Singh, Satveer; Marwaha, Raman K

    2012-10-01

    Nutritional rickets is usually attributed to vitamin D deficiency. Studies from some tropical countries have postulated low dietary intake of calcium as the cause of nutritional rickets. Both vitamin D and dietary calcium deficiency are highly prevalent in India. Information on their relative contribution in the development of rickets in Indian children is limited. The aim was to study the role of calcium and vitamin D deficiency in causation of nutritional rickets in young Indian children. In a case-control study, 67 children with nutritional rickets and 68 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were compared for demographic factors, nutritional status, sun exposure (UV score), dietary calcium and phytate intake (for subjects not breast-fed at presentation), and biochemical parameters [serum calcium, inorganic phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and PTH]. Mean intake of calcium (204±129 vs. 453±234 mg/d; Prickets, significant negative correlations were seen between dietary calcium intake and radiological score (r=-0.28; P=0.03) and PTH (r=-0.26; P=0.02). No correlation was found between serum 25OHD level and radiological score or biochemical parameters of rickets. Rickets develops when low dietary calcium intake coexists with a low or borderline vitamin D nutrition status.

  15. The Association between Some Nutrients and Adult Gliomas: A Case-Control Study of Adult Gliomas

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    M Shayanfar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abestract Background & aim: It has been estimated that about 30–40 percent of all cancers could be prevented by diet and lifestyle. In the present study, associations between food groups and some nutrients were studied in adult glioma. Methods: In the present hospital-based case-control study which took place in Tehran, Iran, from 2010 to 2012, socio-economic information, demographics, lifestyle factors, health and dietary intakes of 128 patients with glioma as cases, and 256 healthy controls, were collected through interviews and questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. SPSS version 19 was used for all statistical analyses. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, inverse associations between calcium intake and adult glioma and vitamin C were observed. (Highest tertile versus lowest: OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.87-0.46, P for trend = 0.001 and vitamin C (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.15-0.76, P for trend = 0.002. In addition, we observed elevated ORs for highest vs. lowest tertile of cholesterol intake (OR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.29-5.99, P for trend = 0.061. We observed no significant associations with adult glioma for intakes of total fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin A, vitamin E and beta carotene. Conclusion: the results showed that intake of calcium and vitamin C may possibly prevent glioma in adults. Key words: Gliomas, Adult, Ca, Vitamin C

  16. Sociocultural factors that reduce risks of homicide in Dar es Salaam: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibusi, Stephen Matthew; Ohnishi, Mayumi; Outwater, Anne; Seino, Kaoruko; Kizuki, Masashi; Takano, Takehito

    2013-10-01

    This study was performed to examine the potential contributions of sociocultural activities to reduce risks of death by homicide. This study was designed as a case control study. Relatives of 90 adult homicide victims in Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania, in 2005 were interviewed. As controls, 211 participants matched for sex and 5-year age group were randomly selected from the same region and interviewed regarding the same contents. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between victims and controls regarding educational status, occupation, family structure, frequent heavy drinking, hard drug use and religious attendance. Conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that the following factors were significantly related to not becoming victims of homicide: being in employment (unskilled labour: OR=0.04, skilled labour: OR=0.07, others: OR=0.04), higher educational status (OR=0.02), residence in Dar es Salaam after becoming an adult (compared with those who have resided in Dar es Salaam since birth: OR=3.95), living with another person (OR=0.07), not drinking alcohol frequently (OR=0.15) and frequent religious service attendance (OR=0.12). Frequent religious service attendance, living in the same place for a long time and living with another person were shown to be factors that contribute to preventing death by homicide, regardless of place of residence and neighbourhood environment. Existing non-structural community resources and social cohesive networks strengthen individual and community resilience against violence.

  17. Dairy Consumption and Risk of Stroke: A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroujeni, Hossein Khosravi; Saadatnia, Mohammad; Shakeri, Forough; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    It remains controversial if dairy product intake is associated with risk of stroke. Limited information is available from Middle East countries in this regard. This case-control study was conducted to assess the relationship between dairy consumption and risk of stroke in Iranian adults. In this study, 195 stroke patients (recognized based on clinical findings and computed tomography scan) hospitalized in neurology ward of Alzahra University Hospital were enrolled. Controls (n = 195) were selected with convenience nonrandom sampling procedure from other wards of this hospital. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess participants' usual dietary intakes. Data on other variables were collected by the use of questionnaires. Patients with stroke were older (P dairy had a significantly decreased risk of stroke (odds ratio [OR]: 0.58; 95% of confidence interval [CI]: 0.34-0.99), while those with the highest intake of high-fat dairy had a 2-fold increased risk of stroke. The association between high-fat dairy consumption and stroke even persisted after additional adjustments for physical activity, smoking and dietary variables (OR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.02-4.02); but the association between low-fat dairy intake and stroke disappeared after these adjustments (OR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.44-1.58). We found a significant positive association between high-fat dairy consumption and risk of stroke. Further prospective studies are required to confirm this finding.

  18. Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in coastal region of india: A case-control study

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    Vinay Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various studies have shown that people of Indian origin have an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD compared with most other ethnic groups. This increased risk has been attributed to multiple risk factors related to lifestyle. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 cases and 100 age and sex-matched controls were taken into this prospective case-control study from Intensive Coronary Care Unit. Prevalence of the following risk factors for myocardial infarction: Age, sex, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, history of hypertension, history of diabetes mellitus, and lipid profile were studied. Patient data were extracted from the medical records department and by interview. Results: The most important predictor of acute myocardial infarction (AMI was high low-density lipoprotein (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.124, confidence interval [CI]: 1.44-11.73, P = 0.008 history of hypertension and of overt diabetes mellitus were also independent risk factors (OR: 2, CI: 1.4-3 and OR: 2.29, CI: 1.5-3.5, respectively. Low high-density lipoprotein was found to have no significant association with AMI. Heavy drinkers were found to have a high-risk (OR: 68, while moderate drinkers were found to have protection (OR: 1. Conclusion: Smoking and heavy drinking cessation, treatment of hypertension and reduction in blood glucose, correction of abnormal lipid profile either through use of statins or by dietary modification may be important in preventing IHD in Asian Indians.

  19. Sociocultural factors that reduce risks of homicide in Dar es Salaam: a case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibusi, Stephen Matthew; Ohnishi, Mayumi; Outwater, Anne; Seino, Kaoruko; Kizuki, Masashi; Takano, Takehito

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to examine the potential contributions of sociocultural activities to reduce risks of death by homicide. Methods This study was designed as a case control study. Relatives of 90 adult homicide victims in Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania, in 2005 were interviewed. As controls, 211 participants matched for sex and 5-year age group were randomly selected from the same region and interviewed regarding the same contents. Results Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between victims and controls regarding educational status, occupation, family structure, frequent heavy drinking, hard drug use and religious attendance. Conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that the following factors were significantly related to not becoming victims of homicide: being in employment (unskilled labour: OR=0.04, skilled labour: OR=0.07, others: OR=0.04), higher educational status (OR=0.02), residence in Dar es Salaam after becoming an adult (compared with those who have resided in Dar es Salaam since birth: OR=3.95), living with another person (OR=0.07), not drinking alcohol frequently (OR=0.15) and frequent religious service attendance (OR=0.12). Conclusions Frequent religious service attendance, living in the same place for a long time and living with another person were shown to be factors that contribute to preventing death by homicide, regardless of place of residence and neighbourhood environment. Existing non-structural community resources and social cohesive networks strengthen individual and community resilience against violence. PMID:23322260

  20. A case-controlled study of Dientamoeba fragilis infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, G R; Barratt, J L N; Marriott, D; Harkness, J; Ellis, J T; Stark, D

    2011-06-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a pathogenic protozoan parasite that is implicated as a cause of human diarrhoea. A case-controlled study was conducted to determine the clinical signs associated with D. fragilis infection in children presenting to a Sydney Hospital. Treatment options are also discussed. Stool specimens were collected from children aged 15 years or younger and analysed for the presence of D. fragilis. In total, 41 children were included in the study along with a control group. Laboratory diagnosis was performed by microscopy of permanently stained, fixed faecal smears and by real-time PCR. Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 40/41 (98%) of these children with dientamoebiasis, with diarrhoea (71%) and abdominal pain (29%) the most common clinical signs. Chronic gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 2% of cases. The most common anti-microbial used for treatment was metronidazole (n=41), with complete resolution of symptoms and clearance of parasite occurring in 85% of cases. A treatment failure rate occurred in 15% of those treated with metronidazole. Follow-up treatment comprised of an additional course of metronidazole or iodoquinol was needed in order to achieve complete resolution of infection and symptoms in this group. This study demonstrates the pathogenic potential of D. fragilis in children and as such it is recommended that all laboratories must routinely test for this organism and treat if detected.

  1. Antiviral immunity following smallpox virus infection: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Erika; Lewis, Matthew W; Hanifin, Jon M; Mori, Motomi; Koudelka, Caroline W; Slifka, Mark K

    2010-12-01

    Outbreaks of smallpox (i.e., caused by variola virus) resulted in up to 30% mortality, but those who survived smallpox infection were regarded as immune for life. Early studies described the levels of neutralizing antibodies induced after infection, but smallpox was eradicated before contemporary methods for quantifying T-cell memory were developed. To better understand the levels and duration of immunity after smallpox infection, we performed a case-control study comparing antiviral CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses and neutralizing antibody levels of 24 smallpox survivors with the antiviral immunity observed in 60 smallpox-vaccinated (i.e., vaccinia virus-immune) control subjects. We found that the duration of immunity following smallpox infection was remarkably similar to that observed after smallpox vaccination, with antiviral T-cell responses that declined slowly over time and antiviral antibody responses that remained stable for decades after recovery from infection. These results indicate that severe, potentially life-threatening disease is not required for the development of sustainable long-term immunity. This study shows that the levels of immunity induced following smallpox vaccination are comparable in magnitude to that achieved through natural variola virus infection, and this may explain the notable success of vaccination in eradicating smallpox, one of the world's most lethal diseases.

  2. Determinants of Internet Addiction among Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

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    Artemis Tsitsika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Addiction (IA is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric interview with two independent examiners. The control group consisted of 43 adolescents without IA, frequency matched for age and gender with case group participants. The study findings indicated that adolescents with IA were significantly more likely to have divorced parents (p = 0.012 and/or dysfunctional familial relationships (p < 0.0001. The proportion of adolescents with poor academic performance (p < 0.0001 and unexcused school absences (p = 0.004 was greater among those with IA. Moreover, approximately two-thirds of the adolescents with IA were engaged in high-risk behaviors (p < 0.0001. Finally, adolescents with IA were 3.89 times more likely to present with comorbid psychiatric conditions (CI 95%: 1.19–12.70, including depression (10.5 vs. 0%; p = 0.022. Adolescent IA is associated with deterred familial functions, poor academic performance, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and an augmented likelihood for depression.

  3. Lung cancer and occupation in nonsmokers: a multicenter case-control study in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeka, Ariana; Mannetje, Andrea't; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Cassidy, Adrian; Janout, Vladimir; Travier, Noemie; Fevotte, Joelle; Fletcher, Tony; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Tobacco smoking is the main cause for lung cancer worldwide, making it difficult to examine the carcinogenic role of other risk factors because of possible confounding by smoking. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the association between lung cancer and occupation independent of smoking. A case-control study of lung cancer was carried out between March 1998 and January 2002 in 16 centers from 7 European countries, including 223 never-smoking cases and 1039 controls. Information on lifestyle and occupation was obtained through detailed questionnaires. Job and industries were classified as entailing exposure to known or suspected carcinogens; in addition, expert assessment provided exposure estimates to specific agents. The odds ratio of lung cancer among women employed for more than 12 years in suspected high-risk occupations was 1.75 (95% confidence interval = 0.63-4.85). A comparable increase in risk was not detected for employment in established high-risk occupations or among men. Increased risk of lung cancer was suggested among individuals exposed to nonferrous metal dust and fumes, crystalline silica, and organic solvents. Occupations were found to play a limited role in lung cancer risk among never-smokers. Jobs entailing exposure to suspected lung carcinogens should receive priority in future studies among women. Nonferrous metal dust and fumes and silica may exert a carcinogenic effect independently from smoking.

  4. Molecular and epidemiological characterization of canine Pseudomonas otitis using a prospective case-control study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Daniel O; Davis, Meghan F; Palmeiro, Brian S; O'Shea, Kathleen; Rankin, Shelley C

    2017-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen of the canine ear canal and occupies aquatic habitats in the environment. Nosocomial and zoonotic transmission of P. aeruginosa have been documented, including clonal outbreaks. The primary objective of this study was to assess various environmental exposures as potential risk factors for canine Pseudomonas otitis. It was hypothesized that isolates derived from infected ears would be clonal to isolates derived from household water sources and the mouths of human and animal companions of the study subjects. Seventy seven privately owned dogs with otitis were enrolled, along with their human and animal household companions, in a case-control design. Data on potential risk factors for Pseudomonas otitis were collected. Oral cavities of all study subjects, their human and animal companions, and household water sources were sampled. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was used to estimate clonal relatedness of P. aeruginosa isolates. In a multivariate model, visiting a dog park was associated with 77% increased odds of case status (P = 0.048). Strains clonal to the infection isolates were obtained from subjects' mouths (n = 18), companion pets' mouths (n = 5), pet owners' mouths (n = 2), water bowls (n = 7) and water taps (n = 2). Clonally related P. aeruginosa isolates were obtained from dogs that had no clear epidemiological link. Genetic homology between otic and environmental isolates is consistent with a waterborne source for some dogs, and cross-contamination with other human and animal members within some households. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  5. Risk factors for buruli ulcer: a case control study in Cameroon.

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    Régis Pouillot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease involving the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. This disease is associated with areas where the water is slow-flowing or stagnant. However, the exact mechanism of transmission of the bacillus and the development of the disease through human activities is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A case-control study to identify Buruli ulcer risk factors in Cameroon compared case-patients with community-matched controls on one hand and family-matched controls on the other hand. Risk factors identified by the community-matched study (including 163 pairs were: having a low level of education, swamp wading, wearing short, lower-body clothing while farming, living near a cocoa plantation or woods, using adhesive bandages when hurt, and using mosquito coils. Protective factors were: using bed nets, washing clothes, and using leaves as traditional treatment or rubbing alcohol when hurt. The family-matched study (including 118 pairs corroborated the significance of education level, use of bed nets, and treatment with leaves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Covering limbs during farming activities is confirmed as a protective factor guarding against Buruli ulcer disease, but newly identified factors including wound treatment and use of bed nets may provide new insight into the unknown mode of transmission of M. ulcerans or the development of the disease.

  6. Non food-related risk factors of campylobacteriosis in Canada: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, André; Pintar, Katarina; Nesbitt, Andrea; Pollari, Frank

    2016-09-27

    Campylobacteriosis is a prominent bacterial gastrointestinal infection worldwide with several transmission pathways. Its non-foodborne routes have been less documented and quantified. The study aimed to quantitatively explore the role of potential risk factors not directly associated with food for sporadic cases of C. jejuni infection in Canada. This retrospective matched case-control study was built on an enhanced campylobacteriosis surveillance system and on a survey of healthy people and their behaviour with regards to potential risk factors for gastrointestinal infections that occurred in the same area in Canada. Eighty-five cases were individually matched by age and season to 170 controls. Through conditional logistic regression, risk factors were found only among water-related factors (drinking untreated water, using tap filter, drinking water from well and swimming in natural water), whereas drinking bottled water was protective. Among the 32 non-water related factors explored, 12 were surprisingly 'protective' factors without relevant explanation for that effect (for example gardening, attending a barbecue, eating food from a fast-food restaurant), suggesting that human infection by Campylobacter may be more frequently acquired at home than outside the home. This study confirms and quantifies the importance of the waterborne transmission of campylobacteriosis. People are encouraged to drink only treated water and to avoid the ingestion of natural water as much as possible while swimming or playing in water. Globally, general hygiene and proper food handling and cooking practices at home should continue to be encouraged.

  7. Exposure to bacterial products lipopolysaccharide and flagellin and hepatocellular carcinoma: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedirko, Veronika; Tran, Hao Quang; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Stepien, Magdalena; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Carbonnel, Franck; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Castaño, José María Huerta; Barricarte, Aurelio; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sjöberg, Klas; Ohlsson, Bodil; Hemmingsson, Oskar; Werner, Mårten; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Aune, Dagfinn; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda

    2017-04-04

    Leakage of bacterial products across the gut barrier may play a role in liver diseases which often precede the development of liver cancer. However, human studies, particularly from prospective settings, are lacking. We used a case-control study design nested within a large prospective cohort to assess the association between circulating levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and anti-flagellin immunoglobulin A (IgA) and G (IgG) (reflecting long-term exposures to LPS and flagellin, respectively) and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. A total of 139 men and women diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma between 1992 and 2010 were matched to 139 control subjects. Multivariable rate ratios (RRs), including adjustment for potential confounders, hepatitis B/C positivity, and degree of liver dysfunction, were calculated with conditional logistic regression. Antibody response to LPS and flagellin was associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (highest vs. lowest quartile: RR = 11.76, 95% confidence interval = 1.70-81.40; P trend = 0.021). This finding did not vary substantially by time from enrollment to diagnosis, and did not change after adjustment for chronic infection with hepatitis B and C viruses. These novel findings, based on exposures up to several years prior to diagnosis, support a role for gut-derived bacterial products in hepatocellular carcinoma development. Further study into the role of gut barrier failure and exposure to bacterial products in liver diseases is warranted.

  8. Histopathologic features of melanoma in difficult-to-diagnose lesions: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Manuel Lora; Young, Eric D; Bush, James; McKenzie, Katelyn; Hunt, Edgar; Tonkovic-Capin, Viseslav; Jacobs, Melissa; Kucenic, Michael; Fraga, Garth R

    2017-09-01

    Dermatopathology is considered the gold standard for melanoma diagnosis, but a subset of cases is difficult to diagnose by histopathology. The goals of this study were to measure the accuracy of histopathologic features in difficult-to-diagnose melanocytic tumors and the interobserver agreement of those features. This is a case-control study of histopathologic features of melanoma in 100 difficult-to-diagnose melanocytic neoplasms (40 melanomas and 60 nevi). Slides were blindly evaluated by 5 dermatopathologists. Frequencies, predictive values, and interobserver agreement were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the most influential features in arriving at a diagnosis of melanoma. Asymmetry, single-cell melanocytosis, solar elastosis, pagetoid melanocytosis, and broad surface diameter were most influential in arriving at a diagnosis of melanoma. Asymmetry and single-cell melanocytosis were most predictive of melanoma. Fleiss kappa was melanoma. This study is limited by the small sample size, selection bias, and binary classification of melanocytic lesions. Our results indicate histopathologic features of melanoma in difficult-to-diagnose lesions vary in accuracy and reproducibility. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlation of Serum Zinc Level with Simple Febrile Seizures: A Hospital based Prospective Case Control Study

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    Imran Gattoo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile seizures are one of the most common neurological conditions of childhood. It seems that zinc deficiency is associated with increased risk of febrile seizures.Aim: To estimate the serum Zinc level in children with simple Febrile seizures and to find the correlation between serum zinc level and simple Febrile seizures.Materials and Methods: The proposed study was a hospital based prospective case control study which included infants and children aged between 6 months to 5 years, at Post Graduate Department of Pediatrics, (SMGS Hospital, GMC Jammu, northern India. A total of 200 infants and children fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included. Patients were divided into 100(cases in Group A with simple febrile seizure and 100(controls in Group B of children with acute febrile illness without seizure. All patients were subjected to detailed history and thorough clinical examination followed by relevant investigations.Results: Our study had slight male prepondance of 62% in cases and 58% in controls . Mean serum zinc level in cases was 61.53±15.87 ugm/dl and in controls it was 71.90+18.50 ugm/dl .Serum zinc level was found significantly low in cases of simple febrile seizures as compaired to controls ,with p value of

  10. Consanguinity and epilepsy in Oran, Algeria: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentouf, Amina; Talhi, Randa; Dahdouh, Aicha; Benbihi, Latifa; Benilha, Soumia; Oubaiche, Mohand Laid; Chaouch, Malika

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this case-control study was to identify the significance of consanguinity and other risk factors for epilepsy in Oran, Algeria. Unrelated epileptic patients upwards of 16 years, who attended the Neurology Department between October 2013 and March 2014 were included in the study. Controls, matched for age and sex, were selected among non-epileptic patients attending the same department during the same period. The risk factors evaluated were: consanguinity, family history of epilepsy, perinatal complications, infection of the central nervous system, mental retardation, neurological impairment, history of febrile seizures, severe head trauma, cerebrovascular diseases, and addiction. 101 cases and 202 controls participated in the study. Multivariate logistic regression identified five factors significantly associated with epilepsy: first-degree of consanguinity (odds ratio (OR)=2.15), history of epilepsy in first-degree relatives (OR=4.03), antecedent of febrile seizures (OR=5.38), severe head injury (OR=2.94) and mental retardation (OR=9.32). Consanguinity, family history of epilepsy, history of febrile seizures, severe head trauma and mental retardation are risk factors for epilepsy. The implementation of a strategy for prevention and awareness of the impact of consanguineous marriages as well as genetic counseling for couples with a family history of epilepsy are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Case-control study on risk factors of laryngeal cancer in Heilongjiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Qiuying; Wang, Yu; Feng, Jiapeng; Yao, Hongchao; Xiao, Hui

    2011-12-01

    To study the incentives of laryngeal cancer in Heilongjiang province. A 1:One matched case control study was used to study the risk factors of laryngeal cancer in Heilongjiang province, distributing all tested staff by the same gender, age, urban and rural. Logistic regression models were used to analysis the relationship. In single Logistic regression models, such habit as high levels of education, frequently consumption of sauerkraut, BBQ food, processed meats, the less physical activity, a relatively short time, smoking, irascible, and other factors would increase the risk of suffering from laryngeal cancer. But regular consumption of fresh vegetables, coarse grains, eggs, milk, and regular physical activity would reduce the risk of suffering from laryngeal cancer. The odds ratios (OR) were calculated using multiple Logistic regression models, ORs for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake were 15.502 0 for high levels of education. 8.012 0 for smoking frequently. 7. 2680 for eating sauerkraut. 2.904 0 for eating BBQ food. 0.408 0 for exercise in protective factors. Potential risk factors for laryngeal cancer were eating sauerkraut. BBQ food and smoking frequently, but proper exercise may reduce the risk of laryngeal cancer.

  12. Assessment of vitamin K2 levels in osteoporotic patients: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Akram; Lashkari, Mahin; Oveisi, Sonia; Khair Khah, Mohamad Reza; Zargar, Ali

    2014-07-14

    The aim of this study was to measure the level of Vitamin K2 (Vit K2) in osteoporotic patients and individuals with normal bone density as controls. This case-control study was done in Outpatient Department of Rheumatology at Qazvin Boo-ali Sina Hospital in 2013. Participants were 50 patients with osteoporotic densitometry measured by DEXA (T score? -2.5) who were matched with 48 persons in control group with normal bone density (T score> -1). The level of Vit K2 in samples was measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square test. The level of Vit K2 in patients with osteoporosis was not significantly different from the control group (Median: 75.95 vs. 71.35 nmol/L, respectively; P-value: 0.709). The authors determined cut-offs 75 percentile of vitamin K2 in all participants that was 85 nmol/L and percentages of persons in two groups were similar. Although Vit K2 level in patients with osteoporosis was not significantly different from the control group, further studies are necessary to confirm the association of osteoporosis and Vit K2.

  13. Air Pollution and the Risk of Cardiac Defects: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bing-Fang; Lee, Yungling Leo; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2015-11-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have assessed the role of the exposure to ambient air pollution in the development of cardiac birth defects, but they have provided somewhat inconsistent results. To assess the associations between exposure to ambient air pollutants and the risk of cardiac defects, a population-based case-control study was conducted using 1087 cases of cardiac defects and a random sample of 10,870 controls from 1,533,748 Taiwanese newborns in 2001 to 2007.Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios for 10 ppb increases in O3 and 10 μg/m increases in PM10. In addition, we compared the risk of cardiac defects in 4 categories-high exposure (>75th percentile); medium exposure (75th to 50th percentile); low exposure (percentile); reference (percentile) based on the distribution of each pollutant. The risks of ventricular septal defects (VSD), atrial septal defects (ASD), and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) were associated with 10 ppb increases in O3 exposure during the first 3 gestational months among term and preterm babies. In comparison between high PM10 exposure and reference category, there were statistically significant elevations in the effect estimates of ASD for all and terms births. In addition, there was a negative or weak association between SO2, NO2, CO, and cardiac defects.The study proved that exposure to outdoor air O3 and PM10 during the first trimester of gestation may increase the risk of VSD, ASD, and PDA.

  14. A case control study of cardiovascular health in chemical war disabled Iranian victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, Atoosheh; Akbari, Vahid; Moghadam, Fatemeh Tabesh

    2010-07-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkylating chemical warfare agent that was widely used during Iran-Iraq war between 1983 and 1988. SM exposure leads to various late complications. The aim of this study was to determine the late cardiovascular effects of SM in war-disabled Iranian victims. This was a retrospective cohort case control study on 50 patients with symptoms of SM exposure and 50 cases who had been in Iran-Iraq war, without chemical injury. We performed exercise stress test and echocardiography for all of patients. The study group comprised 100 males of mean age 45.6 ± 6.2 years. In chemical war injury group, two patients (4%) had positive exercise stress test. On coronary angiography, they were found to have coronary artery disease. One patient had severe mitral regurgitation and normal coronary angiography; he was referred for mitral valve replacement. Left ventricular (LV) diastolic abnormality was detected in 23% of these subjects. In another group, 5% had LV diastolic abnormality (P = 0.02) and all of them had normal stress test. Cardiovascular abnormalities are another late complication in chemical war disabled Iranian victims. Diastolic dysfunction was the most common abnormality in both groups of patients.

  15. Amiodarone use and risk of acute pancreatitis: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Lin, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    There is still lack of strong evidence, based on systematic studies, that support the relationship between amiodarone use and the risk of acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between amiodarone use and the risk of acute pancreatitis in Taiwan. This case-control study was based on the analysis of the claim data from Taiwan's national health insurance program from 2000 to 2011. There were 4986 subjects aged 20-84 years with a first episode of acute pancreatitis as the case group and 19,944 randomly selected subjects without acute pancreatitis matched for sex, age, and index year as the control group. Amiodarone use was defined as "current," "recent," or "past" if the most recent amiodarone prescription was filled within 3 months, between 3 and 6 months, or >6 months before the date of acute pancreatitis diagnosis, respectively. The relative risk of acute pancreatitis associated with amiodarone use was measured by the odds ratio with 95% confidence interval using the multivariable unconditional logistic regression model. After adjustment for confounding factors, current use of amiodarone was positively associated with acute pancreatitis (adjusted odds ratio 5.21; 95% confidence interval 3.22-8.43). There was no significant association between recent or past amiodarone use and acute pancreatitis. People with current use of amiodarone are at an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. Physicians should be more cautious about acute pancreatitis risk when prescribing amiodarone. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Partially Linear Single Index Cox Regression Model in Nested Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Shulian; Liu, Mengling; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Clendenen, Tess V; Krogh, Vittorio; Hallmans, Goran; Lu, Wenbin

    2013-11-01

    The nested case-control (NCC) design is widely used in epidemiologic studies as a cost-effective subcohort sampling method to study the association between a disease and its potential risk factors. NCC data are commonly analyzed using Thomas' partial likelihood approach under the Cox proportional hazards model assumption. However, the linear modeling form in the Cox model may be insufficient for practical applications, especially when there are a large number of risk factors under investigation. In this paper, we consider a partially linear single index proportional hazard model, which includes a linear component for covariates of interest to yield easily interpretable results and a nonparametric single index component to adjust for multiple confounders effectively. We propose to approximate the nonparametric single index function by polynomial splines and estimate the parameters of interest using an iterative algorithm based on the partial likelihood. Asymptotic properties of the resulting estimators are established. The proposed methods are evaluated using simulations and applied to an NCC study of ovarian cancer.

  17. Decreased placental thickness and impaired Doppler indices in idiopathic polyhydramnios: a prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgündüz, Engin; Erkılınç, Selçuk; Tokmak, Aytekin; Güzel, Ali İrfan; Özer, İrfan; Danışman, Nuri

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate placental thickness, Doppler velocimetry, biophysical profile and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by idiopathic polyhydramnios. This prospective case-control study was conducted on 139 pregnant women, of these 70 patients with idiopathic polyhydramnios comprised the study group and 60 pregnant women comprised the control group. Risk factors recorded were; age, parity, body mass index (BMI), gestational weeks, amniotic fluid index (AFI), biophysical profiles (BPP), placental thickness, middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA PI), umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry (Umb A S/D) values and perinatal outcomes. Sixty-nine of the cases had mild-moderate (AFI: 250-450 mm) polyhydramnios (%98.5) and one of the cases had severe polyhydramnios (>450 mm) in study group. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of age, parity, BMI, gestational weeks, fetal birth weights and BPP (p > 0.05). Placental thickness, MCA PI and UA S/D values showed statistically significant difference between the groups (p polyhydramnios is associated with decreased placental thickness, impaired uterine, umbilical and middle cerebral artery flow.

  18. Risk Factors Profile of Shoulder Dystocia in Oman: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M. Al-Khaduri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk factor profile of shoulder dystocia and associated neonatal complications in Oman, a developing Arab country. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 111 cases with dystocia and 111 controls, identified during 1994-2006 period in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Controls were randomly selected among women who did not have dystocia, and were matched to cases on the day of delivery. Data related to potential risk factors, delivery, and obstetric complications were collected. Results: Dystocia was significantly associated with older maternal age, higher parity, larger BMI, diabetes, and previous record of dystocia. In addition, dystocia was associated more with vacuum and forceps deliveries. Routine traction (51% was the most used manoeuvre. Among dystocia cases, 13% were associated with fetal complications of which Erb’s Palsy was the most prevalent (79%. Conclusion: Our finding of significant associations with risk factors lays out the ground to develop a predictability index for shoulder dystocia, which would help in making it preventable. Further prospective studies are required to confirm the obtained results.

  19. Fibromyalgia as a cause of uncontrolled asthma: a case-control multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Moragon, Eva; Plaza, Vicente; Torres, Isabel; Rosado, Ana; Urrutia, Isabel; Casas, Xavier; Hinojosa, Belen; Blanco-Aparicio, Marina; Delgado, Julio; Quirce, Santiago; Sabadell, Carles; Cebollero, Pilar; Muñoz-Fernández, Ana

    2017-12-01

    Fibromyalgia can affect the control of asthma when both diseases are present in a single patient. To characterize asthma in patients with concomitant fibromyalgia to assess whether fibromyalgia is an independent factor of asthma severity that influences poor asthma control. We also evaluated how dyspnea is perceived by patients in order to demonstrate that alterations in the perception of airway obstruction may be responsible for poor asthma control. This was a cross-sectional case-control multicenter study, in which 56 patients in the asthma and fibromyalgia group were matched to 36 asthmatics by sex, approximate age, and asthma severity level. All patients were women. Study variables included the Asthma Control Test (ACT), the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniAQLQ), the Nijmegen hyperventilation syndrome questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and perception of dyspnea after acute bronchoconstriction. Although patients in both study groups showed similar asthma severity and use of anti-asthmatic drugs, patients in the asthma and fibromyalgia group showed lower scores on the ACT and MiniAQLQ questionnaires, and higher scores of anxiety and depression as well as hyperventilation compared to asthma patients without fibromyalgia. All these differences were statistically significant. Fibromyalgia in patients with asthma influences poor control of the respiratory disease and is associated with altered perception of dyspnea, hyperventilation syndrome, high prevalence of depression and anxiety, and impaired quality of life. Fibromyalgia may be considered a risk factor for uncontrolled asthma in patients suffering from asthma and fibromyalgia concomitantly.

  20. The expression of Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) in testicular cancer: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapouri, Farnaz; Saeidi, Shaghayegh; Ashrafi Kakhki, Sara; Pouyan, Omid; Amirchaghmaghi, Elham; Aflatoonian, Reza

    2013-11-01

    It has been suggested that malfunction of immune system may causes testicular cancer. Recently, our understanding of innate immune system has been expanded, by discovery of "Toll-Like Receptors" (TLRs). Some studies have shown that polymorphisms of TLR2 and 4 may affect on the risk of cancer. Also, the role of TLRs 3 and 9 have been shown in apoptosis and metastasis of cancer cells in animal models. Little information is available about the influence of innate immunity on testicular malignancy. Therefore, expression of TLRs 2, 3, 4 and 9 as main components of innate immunity has been investigated in this study. In this case control study, TLRs gene expression was examined by RT-PCR in normal testis and testicular cancer tissues. Real time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis was used to compare the relative expression of TLRs between the samples. mRNAs of TLR 2, 3, 4 and 9 were expressed in all normal and cancer samples. Q-PCR reveals that cancer samples had stronger expression of these genes compared with normal ones. It seems that the different TLRs expression in testicular cancer cells may contribute to extensive signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis.

  1. Delirium markers in older fallers: a case-control study

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    Doherty K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kelly Doherty,1 Elizabeth Archambault,1 Brittany Kelly,1,2 James L Rudolph1,3,4 1Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA; 2School of Nursing, Science & Health Professions, Regis College, Boston, MA, USA; 3Division of Aging, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 4Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Background: When a hospitalized older patient falls or develops delirium, there are significant consequences for the patient and the health care system. Assessments of inattention and altered consciousness, markers for delirium, were analyzed to determine if they were also associated with falls. Methods: This retrospective case-control study from a regional tertiary Veterans Affairs referral center identified falls and delirium risk factors from quality databases from 2010 to 2012. Older fallers with complete delirium risk assessments prior to falling were identified. As a control, non-fallers were matched at a 3:1 ratio. Admission risk factors that were compared in fallers and non-fallers included altered consciousness, cognitive performance, attention, sensory deficits, and dehydration. Odds ratio (OR was reported (95% confidence interval [CI]. Results: After identifying 67 fallers, the control population (n=201 was matched on age (74.4±9.8 years and ward (83.6% medical; 16.4% intensive care unit. Inattention as assessed by the Months of the Year Backward test was more common in fallers (67.2% versus 50.8%, OR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.1–3.7. Fallers tended to have altered consciousness prior to falling (28.4% versus 12.4%, OR=2.8; 95% CI: 1.3–5.8. Conclusion: In this case-control study, alterations in consciousness and inattention, assessed prior to falling, were more common in patients who fell. Brief assessments of consciousness and attention should be considered for inclusion in fall prediction. Keywords: geriatrics, patient centered outcomes research, patient safety

  2. Case-control study of sudden infant death syndrome in Lithuania, 1997-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnaitiene, Vilija; Kalediene, Ramune; Kevalas, Rimantas

    2005-11-13

    To identify risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome relevant in Lithuania. A nationwide case-control study surveying parents of 35 infants who died from sudden infant death syndrome during the period of 1997-2000 and parents of 145 control infants matched with SIDS infants for date of birth and for region of birth was carried out. Deaths incidence was greater in the warm period (60%) vs. cold period (40%). Prone and side sleeping positions both carried no increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome compared with supine because of a rare prone sleeping (4.1% of controls vs. 0% of dead infants) and more prevalent side than supine sleeping (84.8% of controls vs. 94.3% of dead infants) in the controls as well as the cases. Bed sharing for the whole night as a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome has not been confirmed, either, as bed sharing was common only for the controls (13.8% of controls vs. 0% of dead infants). Routine sleeping environment factors such as heavy wrapping (> or =4 togs) of an infant (odds ratio 8.49; 95% confidence interval 2.38 to 30.32), sleeping in a bassinet (4.22; 1.16 to 15.38) and maternal factors such as maternal education or =2 previous live births (3.90; 1.00 to 15.10) were significantly associated with sudden infant death syndrome on multivariate analysis. The results of this first population-based case-control study have shed some light on the epidemiology of the syndrome in Lithuania. Although the mortality of sudden infant death syndrome in Lithuania is not high, it might be lowered moreover by public informing about sudden infant death syndrome and related risk factors. Special attention must be paid to mothers with low education on potentially modifiable risk factors such as routine heavy wrapping of an infant during sleep, routine sleeping in a bassinet and unplanned pregnancy.

  3. Artificial sweeteners and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, S; Scotti, L; Negri, E; Talamini, R; Franceschi, S; Montella, M; Giacosa, A; Dal Maso, L; La Vecchia, C

    2007-01-01

    The role of sweeteners on cancer risk has been widely debated over the last few decades. To provide additional information on saccharin and other sweeteners (mainly aspartame), we considered data from a large network of case-control studies. An integrated network of case-control studies has been conducted between 1991 and 2004 in Italy. Cases were 598 patients with incident, histologically confirmed cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, 304 of the oesophagus, 1225 of the colon, 728 of the rectum, 460 of the larynx, 2569 of the breast, 1031 of the ovary, 1294 of the prostate and 767 of the kidney (renal cell carcinoma). Controls were 7028 patients (3301 men and 3727 women) admitted to the same hospitals as cases for acute, non-neoplastic disorders. Odds ratios (ORs), and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were derived by unconditional logistic regression models. The ORs for consumption of saccharin were 0.83 (95% CI 0.30-2.29) for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, 1.58 (95% CI 0.59-4.25) for oesophageal, 0.95 (95% CI 0.67-1.35) for colon, 0.93 (95% CI 0.60-1.45) for rectal, 1.55 (95% CI 0.76-3.16) for laryngeal, 1.01 (95% CI 0.77-1.33) for breast, 0.46 (95% CI 0.29-0.74) for ovarian, 0.91 (95% CI 0.59-1.40) for prostate and 0.79 (95% CI 0.49-1.28) for kidney cancer. The ORs for consumption of other sweeteners, mainly aspartame, were 0.77 (95% CI 0.39-1.53) for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, 0.77 (95% CI 0.34-1.75) for oesophageal, 0.90 (95% CI 0.70-1.16) for colon, 0.71 (95% CI 0.50-1.02) for rectal, 1.62 (95% CI 0.84-3.14) for laryngeal, 0.80 (95% CI 0.65-0.97) for breast, 0.75 (95% CI 0.56-1.00) for ovarian, 1.23 (95% CI 0.86-1.76) for prostate and 1.03 (95% CI 0.73-1.46) for kidney cancer. A significant inverse trend in risk for increasing categories of total sweeteners was found for breast and ovarian cancer, and a direct one for laryngeal cancer. The present work indicates a lack of association between saccharin, aspartame and

  4. Case-control study of sudden infant death syndrome in Lithuania, 1997–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kėvalas Rimantas

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome relevant in Lithuania. Methods A nationwide case-control study surveying parents of 35 infants who died from sudden infant death syndrome during the period of 1997–2000 and parents of 145 control infants matched with SIDS infants for date of birth and for region of birth was carried out. Results Deaths incidence was greater in the warm period (60% vs. cold period (40%. Prone and side sleeping positions both carried no increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome compared with supine because of a rare prone sleeping (4.1% of controls vs. 0% of dead infants and more prevalent side than supine sleeping (84.8% of controls vs. 94.3% of dead infants in the controls as well as the cases. Bed sharing for the whole night as a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome has not been confirmed, either, as bed sharing was common only for the controls (13.8% of controls vs. 0% of dead infants. Routine sleeping environment factors such as heavy wrapping (≥4 togs of an infant (odds ratio 8.49; 95% confidence interval 2.38 to 30.32, sleeping in a bassinet (4.22; 1.16 to 15.38 and maternal factors such as maternal education ≤12 years (4.48; 1.34 to 14.94, unplanned pregnancy (5.22; 1.49 to 18.18 and ≥2 previous live births (3.90; 1.00 to 15.10 were significantly associated with sudden infant death syndrome on multivariate analysis. Conclusion The results of this first population-based case-control study have shed some light on the epidemiology of the syndrome in Lithuania. Although the mortality of sudden infant death syndrome in Lithuania is not high, it might be lowered moreover by public informing about sudden infant death syndrome and related risk factors. Special attention must be paid to mothers with low education on potentially modifiable risk factors such as routine heavy wrapping of an infant during sleep, routine sleeping in a bassinet and unplanned pregnancy.

  5. [Using nested case-control study to appraise the effectiveness of Chinese medicines in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-lan; Li, Qing; Mu, Yu-jie; Gao, Ying; Liu, Jian-ping

    2012-09-01

    A nested case-control study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of Chinese medicines in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, so as to explore the feasibility of using nested case-control study on effect assessment of Chinese medicine. Nested case-control study was applied and the participants were enrolled from the subjects recruited in a cohort study. The cases and the controls were matched by 1 to 4 in age, gender, nationality and the stage of diabetic nephropathy when recruited in the cohort study. The EpiData 3.1 software was used for inputting data and SAS system was used for data analysis. Conditional logistic regress was applied to analyze the relationship between treatment and the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The study power was estimated and the sample sizes for case-control study and cohort study were recalculated based on the data from the cohort study. Eight cases and 32 controls were recruited in this study. The education level, ratio of drug withdrawal, change of therapy, syndrome differentiation and treatment were not significantly different in case and control groups. The progression of diabetic nephropathy was not significantly related with the treatment and the odds ratio (OR) value was 0.725 with a 95% confidence interval from 0.174 to 3.030. The statistical power of the study was 5%. To achieve the statistical power of 80%, 1 350 (270:1 080) participants were needed for 1:4 matched case-control study, 880 (440:440) for 1:1 paired case-control study, and 1 020 (510:510) for 1:1 control study. The treatment method is not significantly related with the progress of diabetic nephropathy. The nested case-control study is applicable in the therapeutic effect evaluation of Chinese medicine. Basic studies such as cross-sectional studies should be carried out to supply fundamental information for other types of studies including case-control study, cohort study and randomized clinical trials. Large sample size studies were needed to

  6. Association of Meloxicam Use with the Risk of Acute Pancreatitis: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2015-10-01

    No sufficient research has focused on the relationship between meloxicam use and acute pancreatitis. This study aimed to explore this issue in Taiwan. This case-control study was conducted using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. In all, there were 6780 cases aged 20-84 years who were newly diagnosed with acute pancreatitis during the period 1998-2011, and 21,393 control subjects without acute pancreatitis. Cases and controls were matched for sex, age and comorbidities. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were measured to explore the associations between acute pancreatitis, meloxicam use and comorbidities, using a multivariable unconditional logistic regression model. After controlling for potential confounding factors, the adjusted OR for acute pancreatitis was 1.76 (95% CI 1.30-2.40) for subjects with current use of meloxicam, in comparison with subjects who had never used meloxicam. The adjusted OR decreased to 1.29 (95% CI 0.82-2.03) for subjects with late use of meloxicam, but without statistical significance. Current use of meloxicam is associated with increased odds of acute pancreatitis. Clinicians should consider the potential risk of acute pancreatitis when prescribing meloxicam.

  7. Rubella outbreak investigation, Gokwe North District, Midlands province, Zimbabwe, 2014 - a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Annamercy Chenaimoyo; Chemhuru, Milton; Bangure, Donewell; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta

    2015-01-01

    Rubella is a contagious disease, caused by rubella virus and transmitted via the respiratory route. Rubella in pregnancy may cause Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS), characterized by multiple defects to the brain, heart, eyes and ears. Gokwe North experienced an increase in rubella cases from 6 cases (24 June 2014) to 374 cases (12 August 2014). The study was conducted to determine risk factors associated with contracting rubella. A 1:1 unmatched case control study was conducted. A case was a child 3 children in a household (AOR 2.59; 95%CI (1.23-5.42)). Only 10.2% and 6.8% of the caregivers' cases and controls respectively, knew rubella is spread through contact with an infected person (p = 0.57). Majority of caregivers (97.8%) reported to the health facility within two days of onset of rash. Outbreak was driven by contact at school and was spread into the community through school children. Screening and isolation of the sick controlled the outbreak. Routine rubella vaccination could be considered to prevent similar outbreaks.

  8. Case-control study of disease determinants for non-typhoidal Salmonella infections among Michigan children

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    Davies Herbert D

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with Salmonella serotypes continue to be a significant global public health problem. In addition to contaminated foods, several other sources contribute to infections with Salmonella serotypes. We have assessed the role of socioeconomic factors, exposure to food, and environmental sources in the etiology of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in Michigan children. Findings A case-control study among Michigan children aged ≤ 10 years was conducted. A total of 123 cases of children with laboratory-confirmed Salmonella infections and 139 control children, who had not experienced symptoms of gastrointestinal illness during the month prior to the interviews, were enrolled. The cases and controls were matched on age-category (Salmonella infections were significantly associated with attendance of a daycare center (adjusted matched odds ratio = 5.00, 95% CI: 1.51 - 16.58, contact with cats (MOR = 2.53, 95% CI: 1.14 - 5.88, and contact with reptiles (MOR = 7.90, 95% CI: 1.52 - 41.01, during the 3 days prior to the onset of child's illness. Conclusions Study results suggest that exposure to environmental sources may play an important role in sporadic infections with Salmonella serotypes in children. Additional efforts are needed to educate parents and caretakers about the risk of Salmonella transmission to children from these sources.

  9. A case-control study on excessive daytime sleepiness in chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanti, Piero; Aurilia, Cinzia; Egeo, Gabriella; Fofi, Luisa; Vanacore, Nicola

    2013-03-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness is a major clinical and health concern that can have varied and sometimes harmful consequences. Findings from uncontrolled studies suggest a high prevalence in patients with chronic migraine. In a case-control study, we compared frequency data for excessive daytime sleepiness in 100 patients with chronic migraine and 100 healthy controls paired for sex and age, and assessed risk factors including lifestyle, sleep quality, anxiety, depression, concomitant disease and medications. The frequency of excessive daytime sleepiness was higher in migraineurs (especially in those with medication overuse) than in controls (20% versus 6%; odds ratio 3.92, 95% CI 1.5-10.22), but was lower than previously reported and correlated with poor quality sleep and anxiolytic and antidepressant use. Again confirming that disability in chronic migraine is multifactorial in origin, excessive daytime sleepiness, especially in migraineurs who overuse medications, adds to the multiple factors known to impair social and working function. Patients with chronic migraine might benefit from diagnostic interviews focussing also on sleep problems and from targeted psychoactive drug prescribing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Psoriasis and comorbidities in a southern Brazilian population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegon, Dóris B; Pereira, Ana G; Camerin, Anna C; Cestari, Tania

    2014-11-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic disease with worldwide prevalences of 0.6-4.8%. Its inherent chronic inflammatory component predisposes patients to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of psoriasis with comorbidities and health risk factors such as smoking and alcohol intake, and to examine demographic differences in its occurrence in a southern Brazil population. A case-control study was conducted at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre between April 2009 and March 2011. The sample comprised 350 patients with psoriasis and 346 healthy control subjects. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Tobacco load and alcohol consumption per person were investigated. Physical examination included blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI) calculation. Clinical evaluation investigated whether psoriasis was localized or widespread and the percentage of body surface area (BSA) affected. Psoriasis patients exhibited an increased WC (P 20% of BSA revealed significant differences in prevalences of hypertension (P = 0.03) and diabetes (P 20% of BSA affected were 1.69 times more likely to have hypertension and 2.9 times more likely to have diabetes. Healthcare providers should be alert to the increased cardiovascular risk and metabolic specificities of patients with psoriasis. Appropriate information on healthy lifestyle habits, including maintenance of a healthy weight and participation in physical exercise, and avoidance of alcohol and smoking are fundamental. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Dietary folates and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, A; Malerba, S; Pelucchi, C; Dal Maso, L; Zucchetto, A; Serraino, D; Levi, F; Montella, M; Franceschi, S; Zambon, A; La Vecchia, C

    2012-10-01

    Folate deficiency leads to DNA damage and inadequate repair, caused by a decreased synthesis of thymidylate and purines. We analyzed the relationship between dietary folate intake and the risk of several cancers. The study is based on a network of case-control studies conducted in Italy and Switzerland in 1991-2009. The odds ratios (ORs) for dietary folate intake were estimated by multiple logistic regression models, adjusted for major identified confounding factors. For a few cancer sites, we found a significant inverse relation, with ORs for an increment of 100 μg/day of dietary folate of 0.65 for oropharyngeal (1467 cases), 0.58 for esophageal (505 cases), 0.83 for colorectal (2390 cases), 0.72 for pancreatic (326 cases), 0.67 for laryngeal (851 cases) and 0.87 for breast (3034 cases) cancers. The risk estimates were below unity, although not significantly, for cancers of the endometrium (OR = 0.87, 454 cases), ovary (OR = 0.86, 1031 cases), prostate (OR = 0.91, 1468 cases) and kidney (OR = 0.88, 767 cases), and was 1.00 for stomach cancer (230 cases). No material heterogeneity was found in strata of sex, age, smoking and alcohol drinking. Our data support a real inverse association of dietary folate intake with the risk of several common cancers.

  12. [A case-control study on risk factors for nosocomial infection of epilepsy in hospitalized children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Neng-feng; Yang, Liu-qing; Huang, Yong-quan

    2003-09-01

    To determine the incidence and risk factors for nosocomial infection in child epilepsy. A retrospective study was conducted among all (292 cases) hospitalized children epilepsy patients in First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University from 1996 to 2000 in Fuzhou city. With all patients with nosocomial infection as cases and all patients without nosocomial infection as controls, a case-control study on risk factors for nosocomial infection was carried out. Available data were analyzed by one-way Chi-square test and unconditional logistic multiple regression model. One hundred fourteen cases of nosocomial infection were identified among 292 cases with epilepsy with an incidence of 39.0% (114/292). The one-way Chi-square test showed that nosocomial infection was significantly associated with age below 3 years (OR = 2.55, P length of hospitalization over 14 days (OR = 4.75, P length of hospitalization over 14 days (OR = 4.30, OR 95% CI: 2.48 - 7.46, P stay in the hospital with more kinds of antibiotic used and more gastrogarage they used, the greater the risk of nosocomial infection was. Data suggested that occurrence of the nosocomial infection of children epilepsy patients was correlated with the length of hospitalization over 14 days, unreasonable using antibiotic, using gastrogarage and low intelligence.

  13. Rh factor, family history and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Stoll, Mario; De Stéfani, Eduardo; Maisonneuve, Juan E; Mendoza, Beatriz A; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    To explore possible relationships among blood factors, family history of breast cancer (BC) and the risk of the disease, a case-control study was carried out in Montevideo, Uruguay. Eight hundred and one patients were interviewed, including 252 certified cases of BC and 549 frequency-matched controls. Blood groups (ABO, Rh) were obtained from medical records. Multivariate analyses were performed, adjusting for age, selected menstrual and reproductive factors, and family history of BC as well as of other cancers. We found that the absence of Rh factor (Rh-) was positively associated with the risk of BC (adjusted Odds Ratio [OR]=1.49, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.05-2.11). Stratified analyses by family history of BC showed a strong association for Rh- with a positive history of first degree relatives (OR=3.17, 95% CI 1.06-9.47). Also stratified analyses by family history of other cancers showed a positive association for Rh- with a positive history of first degree relatives (OR=2.08, 95% CI 1.05-4.11). Regarding the implications of an inherited factor like Rh and its associations with the family history of BC, it might increase the probability to generate high-risk individuals if further studies confirm the present preliminary findings.

  14. A shrinkage method for testing the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yong; Yuan, Ying

    2013-11-01

    Testing for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) is often used as an initial step for checking the quality of genotyping. When testing the HWE for case-control data, the impact of a potential genetic association between the marker and the disease must be controlled for otherwise the results may be biased. Li and Li [2008] proposed a likelihood ratio test (LRT) that accounts for this potential genetic association and it is more powerful than the commonly used control-only χ² test. However, the LRT is not efficient when the marker is independent of the disease, and also requires numerical optimization to calculate the test statistic. In this article, we propose a novel shrinkage test for assessing the HWE. The proposed shrinkage test yields higher statistical power than the LRT when the marker is independent of or weakly associated with the disease, and converges to the LRT when the marker is strongly associated with the disease. In addition, the proposed shrinkage test has a closed form and can be easily used to test the HWE for large datasets that result from genome-wide association studies. We compare the performance of the shrinkage test with existing methods using simulation studies, and apply the shrinkage test to a genome-wide association dataset for Alzheimer's disease. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  15. Pain perception in major depressive disorder: a neurophysiological case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambito Marsala, Sandro; Pistacchi, Michele; Tocco, Pierluigi; Gioulis, Manuela; Fabris, Federico; Brigo, Francesco; Tinazzi, Michele

    2015-10-15

    Depression and pain may sometimes be related conditions. Occasionally, depression may be associated with physical symptoms, such as back pain and headache. Moreover, depression may impair the subjective response to pain and is likely to influence the pain feeling. Conversely, chronic pain may represent an emotional condition as well as physical sensation, and can influence both the mood and behaviour. To better understand the relationship between pain and depression, we therefore assessed the pain threshold and the tolerance pain threshold in patients with depressive disorders. We conducted a case-control study and selected patients who had recently received a diagnosis of major depression (DSM-IV), before treatment, and without any significant pain complaints. Age- and sex-matched healthy controls were also included. Tactile and pain thresholds were assessed in all subjects through an electrical stimulation test. All results were compared between the groups. 27 patients and 27 age-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Tactile, pain and tolerance thresholds were evaluated in all subjects. The pain threshold and pain tolerance were lower in patients with major depression than controls. All differences were statistically significant (pdepressive disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sleep quality and the risk of work injury: a Swiss case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehli, Katrin; Miedinger, David; Bingisser, Roland; Dürr, Selina; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Maier, Sabrina; Mehta, Amar J; Müller, Roland; Schindler, Christian; Zogg, Stefanie; Künzli, Nino; Leuppi, Jörg D

    2014-10-01

    Sleep problems are a well-known risk factor for work injuries, but less is known about which vulnerable populations are most at risk. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between sleep quality and the risk of work injury and to identify factors that may modify the association. A case-control study including 180 cases and 551 controls was conducted at the University Hospital in Basel, Switzerland, from 1 December 2009 to 30 June 2011. Data on work injuries and sleep quality were collected. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the association between sleep quality and work injury were estimated in multivariable logistic regression analyses and were stratified by hypothesized effect modifiers (age, gender, job risk, shift work, sleep duration and working hours). Poor sleep quality was associated significantly with work injury of any type (P work injury was significantly higher for workers older than 30 years (odds ratio>30 1.30 versus odds ratio≤30 0.91, P 7 0.79, P working 50 h or more per week (odds ratio≥50 1.79 versus odd ratioWork injury risk increased with increasing severity of sleep problems (P work injury frequency increased with decreasing sleep quality (P working hours may enhance the risk of work injuries associated with sleep quality. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. Case-Control Study of Injury Intervention for Preschool Children in Henggang, Shenzhen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Liu, Yi-Xin; Deng, Wen-Jiao; Yang, Wei-Jian; Wang, Fang

    2015-10-01

    To explore effective interventions for child accidental injury prevention and to reduce the incidence of injury. Cluster random sampling method was adopted, and children in 19 kindergartens in Henggang, Shenzhen and their parents were selected as the objects of study. Nineteen kindergartens were randomly divided into intervention group and control group to carry out the injury intervention case-control study. Through a series of interventions, there were certain effects. After the end of the project, the injury incidence rates of the intervention group and the control group were 4.91%, 10.64%, and the difference was significant; the average costs of treatment for injuries of the intervention group and the control group were 168.4 Yuan and 206.8 Yuan, and the difference was statistically significant; compared with before the implementation of the project, the rate of various types of injuries after the end of the project declined, in which, the rate of mechanical injury, pet bites, accidental falls, burns, and traffic accidents decreased significantly. The differences were significant. Injury interventions can effectively prevent and control the occurrence of injury.

  18. A case-control study of airways obstruction among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement, John; Welch, Laura; Ringen, Knut; Quinn, Patricia; Chen, Anna; Haas, Scott

    2015-10-01

    While smoking is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) increase COPD risk. This case-control study estimated the risk of COPD attributable to occupational exposures among construction workers. The study population included 834 cases and 1243 controls participating in a national medical screening program for older construction workers between 1997 and 2013. Qualitative exposure indices were developed based on lifetime work and exposure histories. Approximately 18% (95% CI = 2-24%) of COPD risk can be attributed to construction-related exposures, which are additive to the risk contributed by smoking. A measure of all VGDF exposures combined was a strong predictor of COPD risk. Construction workers are at increased risk of COPD as a result of broad and complex effects of many exposures acting independently or interactively. Control methods should be implemented to prevent worker exposures, and smoking cessation should be promoted. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Cerebellar Microstructural Organization is Altered by Complications of Premature Birth: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Poretti, Andrea; Murnick, Jonathan; Bouyssi-Kobar, Marine; McCarter, Robert; du Plessis, Adre J; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2017-03-01

    To compare regional cerebellar microstructure, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), between preterm infants at term-equivalent age and healthy term-born control neonates, and to explore associations between DTI findings and clinical risk factors. In this case-control study, DTI studies were performed in 73 premature infants born ≤32 weeks and ≤1500 g birth weight and 73 full-term-born controls from healthy pregnancies. Using a region of interest approach, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were extracted in 7 cerebellar regions including the anterior vermis, the right/left superior cerebellar peduncles, the middle cerebellar peduncle, and the dentate nuclei. To validate further our DTI measurements, we measured FA and MD in the genu of the corpus callosum and splenium. FA and MD were compared between groups using analyses of multiple linear regression models. Preterm infants at term-equivalent age presented with higher FA in the dentate nuclei (premature birth are associated with altered cerebellar microstructural organization when compared with term-born control infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Contact with armadillos increases the risk of leprosy in Brazil: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deps P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycobacterium leprae infection has recently been detected in wild armadillos in Brazil. Leprosy is still endemic in Brazil and although its transmission is mostly by person-to-person contact, many cases report no history of previously known leprosy contact. It has been suggested that other sources of M. leprae may contribute to the transmission of leprosy in some areas. Aim: Our objective was to investigate whether contact with armadillos is associated with leprosy. Methods: A case-control study was carried out in Brazil. Data was collected from 506 leprosy patients and 594 controls on exposure to armadillos and age, sex, place of birth and living conditions. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression were conducted to investigate whether leprosy was associated with exposure to armadillos. Results: Direct armadillo exposure was reported by 68% of leprosy cases and by 48% of controls (P < 0.001 roughly doubling the risk of leprosy, with odds ratio (OR 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI [1.36-2.99]. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that direct exposure to armadillos is a risk factor for leprosy in Brazil.

  1. The cost of infection in hip arthroplasty: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vélez, A E; Romero-Martín, M; Villanueva-Orbaiz, R; Díaz-Agero-Pérez, C; Robustillo-Rodela, A; Monge-Jodra, V

    2016-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) represents 30% of all causes of health care-associated infection (HAI) and is one of the most dreaded complications in surgical patients. We estimated the excess direct costs of SSI using a matched nested case-control study in acute-term care at Ramon y Cajal University Hospital in Spain. Cases were patients who developed a first episode of SSI according to the criteria established by the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network. Controls were matched to cases in 1:1 ratio taking into account the American Society of Anesthesiologists score, age, sex, surgery date, and principal diagnosis. This study found that infection in hip replacement increased direct costs by 134%. Likewise, the excess cost due to the infections caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 69% higher than the excess cost attributable to infections caused by other microorganisms. SSI after hip replacement continues to be a costly complication from the hospital perspective. Costs due to SSI can be used to prioritise preventive interventions to monitor and control HAI. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. What Is the Real Impact of Urinary Incontinence on Female Sexual Dysfunction? A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippe, Mariana Rhein; Zambon, Joao Paulo; Girotti, Marcia Eli; Burti, Juliana Schulze; Hacad, Claudia Rosenblatt; Cadamuro, Lina; Almeida, Fernando

    2017-03-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) has been associated with negative effects on women's sexuality. Women's sexuality and sexual function are a complex issue, and the role of UI is not completely clear. To assess the impact of UI on female sexual function by comparing this population with a control group of continent women. We performed a case-control study from August 2012 to September 2013. We evaluated continent and incontinent women (age range = 30-70 years) for their sexuality. All patients were evaluated by anamnesis, physical examination, and self-report quality-of-life questionnaires. In addition, incontinent women underwent a 1-hour pad test. Patients without sexual activity were evaluated for the role of UI in their sexual abstinence. Sexual abstinence was defined as the absence of sexual activity for more than 6 months. All sexually active women completed the self-report Sexuality Quotient-Female Version (SQ-F) questionnaire. A total of 356 women were included in the study (incontinent, n = 243; continent, n = 113). Sexual abstinence was found in 162 women (45%). Incontinent women presented a higher prevalence (P 11 g) had the worst sexual function (SQ-F) score. Women with UI were more likely to be sexual abstinent than continent women. Furthermore, women with UI showed less sexual desire, sexual comfort, and sexual satisfaction than their counterparts despite having a similar frequency of sexual activity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nipple candidiasis among breastfeeding mothers. Case-control study of predisposing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, K E; McBean, M R; Jain, E

    1994-08-01

    To investigate factors that predispose breastfeeding mothers to nipple candidiasis. A retrospective case-control study of women attending the Calgary Breastfeeding Clinic. Ambulatory breastfeeding referral centre. All women (105) who attended the clinic during a 3.5-month study period. All were referred for problems with breastfeeding; 27 (the case group) had positive diagnostic criteria for nipple candidiasis. The other 78 formed a control group. A patient information sheet, completed while taking a medical history, recorded the presence or absence of four possible predisposing factors. Two infant variables were also noted on physical examination. Patients were diagnosed as having or not having nipple candidiasis on the basis of specific clinical criteria, and statistics on other variables were compared for those with positive and with negative diagnoses. A statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05) was found between nipple candidiasis and three factors: vaginal candidiasis (P = 0.001), previous antibiotic use (P = 0.036), and nipple trauma (P = 0.001). Further research is required to establish clear causality. However, we recommend that physicians be suspicious of nipple candidiasis; avoid antibiotics or use the shortest effective course; treat yeast vaginitis during the third trimester and after delivery aggressively; and treat mothers for nipple yeast if babies have oral or diaper candidiasis. Breastfeeding mothers can also be counseled in preventive measures.

  4. Leprosy and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus in Uganda; a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawuma, H J; Bwire, R; Adatu-Engwau, F

    1994-12-01

    Both leprosy and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are endemic in Uganda. Various speculations about a possible interaction between the two infections have been put forward but not confirmed. A case-control study involving 189 new leprosy patients and 481 matched controls, resident in eight Ugandan districts, was carried out to investigate if any relationship exists between leprosy and infection with HIV-1 in Uganda. Serum samples from 23 (12.2%) of the 189 leprosy patients tested positive for HIV-1 antibodies as compared to 88 (18.3%) of the 481 control sera. The two proportions of HIV seropositivity are not different statistically. A stratified analysis of the data by districts was done and showed a negative relationship between leprosy and HIV infection in the case of Rakai District (0.04 studies seeking to observe the clinical progress of dually infected patients might help to reveal new knowledge about a possible relationship between HIV and leprosy and about the immunology of leprosy in general.

  5. Lung cancer and cigarette smoking in women: a case-control study in Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, A; Barnadas, A; Pallares, C; Martinez, I; Fabregat, X; Rosello, J; Estape, J; Planas, J; Gonzalez, C A

    1994-10-15

    A case-control study on lung cancer and the habit of cigarette smoking was carried out in Barcelona (Spain). Cases were 103 women newly diagnosed with primary lung cancer in 10 hospitals from the study area. Histologic confirmation was given in 101 cases, of which 53 were adenocarcinoma, 19 squamous-cell carcinoma, 9 small-cell carcinoma and 20 other types. Two controls per case were selected, matched by age, residence and hospital. Compared with the never-smokers, the odds ratios (OR), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI), were 1.61 (0.4 to 6.9) for ex-smokers and 3.61 (1.6 to 8.3) for current smokers. The risk of lung cancer showed a good dose-response relationship with duration of the habit, average number of cigarettes smoked daily and cumulative cigarette consumption. The risk of lung cancer increased by 62% for each 10 pack-years. Depth of inhalation also showed a remarkable effect, independently of the intensity of the habit. Although mortality and incidence rates of lung cancer among women in Spain are lower than in other developed countries, the risk of lung cancer is that which would be expected according to the pattern of the smoking habit in Spanish women.

  6. Diseases preceding colon cancer. A case-control study among veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A D; Sonnenberg, A; Wasserman, I H

    1994-11-01

    Patients with regular use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) appear to have a reduced mortality from colon cancer. As NSAID use is associated with gastrointestinal bleeding, endoscopic exploration of patients on NSAID may lead to more efficient screening and frequent detection of colon cancer. A case-control study was conducted among 12,304 veterans with a colon cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 1992. Four controls were matched by age, sex, and race to each case. The frequency distributions of previous discharge diagnoses in cases and controls were compared. Arterial embolism and thrombosis, spondylosis, peripheral vascular disease, angina, osteoarthrosis, and ischemic heart disease protected against future development of colon cancer. On the other hand, atrial fibrillation and flutter, as well as phlebitis and thrombophlebitis, were associated an increased occurrence of colon cancer after 5-10 years. The study contrasts diseases that are treated with aspirin with those that are treated with other anticoagulants. Both cause bleeding, but the reduced risk of colon cancer was seen only in conditions treated with aspirin. The difference between the two disease groups from the same VA patient population suggests that chronic use of NSAID truly protects against future development of colon cancer.

  7. Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun

    2014-08-01

    This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

  8. Mass screening-based case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Changchun, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Meng; Li, Jiang; Tsuji, Ichiro; Nakaya, Naoki; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Zhao, Xue-Jian

    2008-07-01

    To investigate possible correlation factors for prostate cancer by a population-based case-control study in China. We carried out a mass screening of prostate cancer in Changchun, China, using a prostate-specific antigen assisted by Japan International Cooperation Agency. From June 1998 to December 2000, 3 940 men over 50 years old were screened. Of these, 29 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. We selected 28 cases and matched them with controls of low prostate-specific antigen value (different days had a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-1.12). In addition, men who consumed soybean products more than once per day had a multivariate OR of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11-0.79) compared with men who consumed soybean products less than once per week. The P for trend was 0.02, which showed significant difference. There was no significant difference in P trend for any dairy food. Even when we matched the cases and controls by other criteria, we found that soybean food was the only preventive factor associated with prostate cancer. Our study suggests that consumption of soybeans, one of the most popular foods in Asia, would decrease the risk of prostate cancer.

  9. Postural changes in women with chronic pelvic pain: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Antonio A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pelvic pain (CPP is a lower abdominal pain lasting at least 6 months, occurring continuously or intermittently and not associated exclusively with menstruation or intercourse. Although the musculoskeletal system has been found to be involved in CPP, few studies have assessed the contribution of posture in women with CPP. We aimed to determine if the frequency of postural changes was higher in women with CPP than healthy subjects. Methods A case-control study included 108 women with CPP of more than 6 months' duration (CPP group who consecutively attended at the Hospital of the University of São Paulo and 48 healthy female volunteers (control group. Postural assessment was noninvasive and performed in the standing position, with the reference points of Kendall used as normal parameters. Factors associated with CPP were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results Logistic regression showed that the independent factors associated with CPP were postural changes in the cervical spine (OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.6–10.7; p Conclusion Musculoskeletal changes were associated with CPP in 34% of women. These findings suggest that a more detailed assessment of women with CPP is necessary for better diagnosis and for more effective treatment.

  10. A Case Control Study of Lung Cancer Among Workers in Dagang Oil Field, Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaguang FAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective To investigate the risk factors of lung cancer among the employees who had worked in Dagang oil field, Tianjin, China. Methods A matched case control study was conducted to analyse the association between some exposures and lung cancer risk by univariate and multiple Logistic regression method. ResultsAccording to the results from univariate and multiple analysis, smoking and previous lung disease increase lung cancer risk with adjusted OR of 1.52 (95%CI: 1.18-1.94 and 3.37 (95%CI: 1.88-7.16 respectively, while the adjusted OR for occupational chemical toxic substance and dust exposure is 0.73 (95%CI: 0.69-1.30 and 0.84 (95%CI: 0.62-1.15 respectively, and there is no significant association between family history of cancer and lung cancer risk in this study.Conclusion Smoking and previous lung disease are the independent risk factors for lung cancer among workers in Dagang oil field, yet due to some potential epidemiological bias, the association between occupational exposure and lung cancer needs further investigation.

  11. Caesarean Delivery and Postpartum Maternal Mortality: A Population-Based Case Control Study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Saucedo, Monica; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2016-01-01

    Cesarean delivery rates continue to increase worldwide and reached 57% in Brazil in 2014. Although the safety of this surgery has improved in the last decades, this trend is a concern because it carries potential risks to women's health and may be a modifiable risk factor of maternal mortality. This paper aims to investigate the risk of postpartum maternal death directly associated with cesarean delivery in comparison to vaginal delivery in Brazil. This was a population-based case-control study performed in eight Brazilian states. To control for indication bias, deaths due to antenatal morbidity were excluded. We included 73 cases of postpartum maternal deaths from 2009-2012. Controls were selected from the Birth in Brazil Study, a 2011 nationwide survey including 9,221 postpartum women. We examined the association of cesarean section and postpartum maternal death by multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for confounders. After controlling for indication bias and confounders, the risk of postpartum maternal death was almost three-fold higher with cesarean than vaginal delivery (OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.63-5.06), mainly due to deaths from postpartum hemorrhage and complications of anesthesia. Cesarean delivery is an independent risk factor of postpartum maternal death. Clinicians and patients should consider this fact in balancing the benefits and risks of the procedure.

  12. Predictors of Nursing Staff Voluntary Termination in Nursing Homes: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; Gore, Rebecca

    2017-08-01

    Workforce instability in the long-term care sector has raised wide attention about nursing staff turnover. Most attention has been devoted to understanding the relationship between facility's characteristics and organizational turnover. This case-control study examined the contribution of work characteristics to individual staff turnover. Surveys were collected with nursing staff in 18 for-profit nursing homes on up to five occasions between 2006 and 2012. A list of nursing staff voluntarily terminating jobs was provided by the company. Cases and controls (628 of each) were selected from survey respondents by matching on age, job category, and survey occasion. Multiple predictor conditional logistic regression models showed that evening shift work (hazards ratio [HR] = 2.00, p 8 hr (HR = 1.42, p < .05) were contributing factors to voluntary termination. This study provides different perspectives of nursing staff voluntary termination in nursing homes. Future qualitative research would be valuable to explore and understand nursing staff turnover in the health care industry.

  13. Allergic rhinitis as a possible risk factor for malocclusion: a case-control study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzi, Valeria; Ierardo, Gaetano; Viscogliosi, Annamaria; Fabbrizi, Miriam; Consoli, Giuliana; Vozza, Iole; Vestri, Annarita; Polimeni, Antonella

    2013-07-01

    Prolonged oral respiration is known to cause postural alterations, which can lead to dental malocclusions. Allergic rhinitis, a common cause of upper airway obstruction in children, must therefore be seen as a possible risk factor in the development of malocclusions. Aim of this study was to investigate the association between allergic rhinitis and malocclusions in primary and early-mixed dentition. A case-control study was carried out involving 275 Italian children aged 5-9. The case group and the control group were composed of 125 individuals affected by malocclusions and by 150 healthy patients, respectively. Through a questionnaire, we assessed the presence of professionally diagnosed allergic rhinitis. Data were analysed to identify associations between these variables and the presence of malocclusions. Children with a history of allergic rhinitis had a threefold increased risk to develop one or more dento-skeletal alterations [OR = 3.16; 95% CI (1.79-5.58), P allergic rhinitis and the development of posterior crossbite and increased overjet. No significant association was found for anterior openbite. Allergic rhinitis is a significant risk factor for the development of malocclusions in general and is associated with the development of posterior crossbite and increased overjet. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, BSPD and IAPD.

  14. Consultation for Small-Sized Penis in the Egyptian Males: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Nader

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to report penile dimensions in adult Egyptian males consulting for small-sized penis (SSP) and describe their demographics and andrological profile. A case control study was designed through retrospective data analysis of patients (n = 239) seeking advice for SSP and a control group (n = 59). This included sociodemographics, other andrological complaints, and penile dimensions (pendulous length [PL], penopubic or total length [TL], and circumference [CF]) at flaccid and erect states and the size of the prepubic fatty pad. The results reported that most patients were single, students, and smokers and had not completed a university education. Several patients reported falsely premature ejaculation (PE), penile curvature (PC), and small-sized testes. Most penile dimensions of the patients (mean, cm) were significantly lower than those of the controls, whether in flaccid (PL: 7.4 vs. 8.05, p = .008; CF: 8.7 vs. 8.98, p = .026) or erect state (PL: 11.8 vs. 13, p = .000; TL: 14.2 vs. 15, p = .000; CF: 11.3 vs. 11.8, p = .003). However, no patient presented with a pendulous penile length <4 cm in flaccid or <7 cm in erect state. In conclusion, Egyptian men consulting for SSP did not have true small organs, but their penile dimensions were slightly smaller than those of men without such complaint. The proper sexual education program is highly advisable in these situations to avoid the myths and misconceptions about sexuality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. A case-control study of bladder cancer in the United States rubber and tyre industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkoway, H; Smith, A H; McMichael, A J; Jones, F S; Monson, R R; Tyroler, H A

    1981-01-01

    A case-control study of bladder cancer was conducted in five United States rubber and tyre companies to determine if there were high-risk jobs and work areas within the industry. The study included 220 male cases of bladder cancer, of whom 107 were identified from hospital record reviews and 113 from death certificates. Each case was matched individually with two industry controls by sex, race, year of birth, and company. One control was matched additionally by year of hire and duration of employment. Comparisons of cases and controls not matched by year of hire and age of hire showed no differences for those variables, which suggests that age and calendar period of first exposure to the industry were not risk determinants. When the work histories of both cases and controls were contrasted it was found that cases were more likely than controls to have worked in milling (odds ratio (OR) = 1.91) and calender operation (OR = 2.21) jobs. The relative risk estimates for milling and calender operation both exhibited linear trends of increase with duration of exposure. Milling and calender operation jobs entail potential exposures to volatilised reaction products from heated rubber stock. A better understanding of aetiological associations with job type will require more detailed characterisation of the work environment with regard to the sources and levels of aromatic amines and other suspected bladder carcinogens. PMID:7272236

  16. Serum Fatty Acids and Risk of Cutaneous Melanoma: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Vinceti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Some observational studies have suggested that excess dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid increases cutaneous melanoma risk. We aimed at examining the association between serum fatty acids and melanoma risk by conducting a population-based case-control study in a northern Italy community. Methods. The percentage composition of 12 fatty acids was determined in 51 newly diagnosed melanoma patients and 51 age- and sex-matched population controls by extracting total lipids from serum samples using thin layer and gas chromatography. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk of melanoma associated with tertiles of percentage composition of each fatty acid as well as groupings including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results. We found a slightly increased melanoma risk for stearic and arachidic acids proportion, with and without adjustment for potential confounders. For an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosapentaenoic acid, we found a male-specific direct association with melanoma risk. No other associations emerged for the other saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, individually or grouped by type. Conclusions. These findings do not suggest a major role of fatty acids, including linoleic acid, on risk of cutaneous melanoma, though their evaluation is limited by the small sample size.

  17. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa among Saudi Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: A Case-Control Study

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    Yousry A. Hawash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that chronic renal failure (CRF predisposes patients to infection with intestinal protozoa. We tested this hypothesis with a matched case-control study to determine the prevalence of these protozoa and their diarrhea associated symptoms among 50 patients with CRF (cases from Taif, western Saudi Arabia. Fifty diarrheal patients without CRF were recruited in the study as controls. Participants were interviewed by a structured questionnaire and stool samples were collected. Samples were thoroughly examined with microscopy and three coproantigens detection kits. Enteric protozoa were detected in 21 cases and 14 controls. Blastocystis spp. were the most predominant parasite (16% in cases versus 8% in controls, followed by Giardia duodenalis (10% in cases versus 12% in controls and Cryptosporidium spp. (10% in cases versus 6% in controls. Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified in two cases, while Entamoeba histolytica was described in one case and one control. Intestinal parasitism was positively associated with the male gender, urban residence, and travel history. Clinical symptoms of nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain were significantly varied between the parasitized cases and controls (P value ≤ 0.05. Given the results, we recommend screening all diarrheal feces for intestinal protozoa in the study’s population, particularly those with CRF.

  18. Treatment compliance in patients with aggressive periodontitis - a retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Carolina; Abadji, Denise; Adler, Lottie; Jansson, Leif

    2017-03-01

    To investigate if differences according to discontinuation of treatment could be identified between patients with aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis at two specialist clinics of periodontology irrespective of the effects of background factors. This is a retrospective case-control study. The variables were registered from dental records. The population consisted of patients referred to two specialist clinics of periodontology during three years. A study group was included consisting of 234 patients with a diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis. A control group with a diagnosis of chronic periodontitis was randomly selected. In total, 234 patients (4% of the referrals) with a diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis were referred to the two periodontal clinics during a period of three years. Forty-two per cent of the non-compliant patients were smokers compared to 31% for the compliers and this difference was statistically significant. Patients with aggressive periodontitis interrupted their periodontal treatment significantly more frequently (46%) compared to those patients with chronic periodontitis (34%). The non-compliant patients had significantly deeper periodontal pockets at baseline as well as significantly more sites with bleeding at probing. In a stepwise logistic regression analysis, aggressive periodontitis, smoking and the relative frequency of sites with periodontal pockets >4 mm at baseline were the remaining variables with a significant influence on the incidence of interrupting ongoing periodontal treatment. The patient group with aggressive periodontitis interrupted the periodontal treatment significantly more often irrespective of background factors and risk factors, which may be regarded as a major health problem.

  19. A case-control study of stomach cancer in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D Nagaraj; Ganesh, Balasubramaniam; Dinshaw, Ketayun A; Mohandas, K Mallath

    2002-06-10

    Stomach cancer incidence rates are much lower in India than elsewhere, but the stomach remains one of the 10 leading sites of cancer in both sexes in most of the metropolitan registries. This is an unmatched case-control study of stomach cancer carried out at Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH), Mumbai. Our purpose was to identify the association of tobacco and alcohol use, occupational hazards, diet, consumption of beverages like tea and coffee, the living environment, cooking media and literacy with stomach cancer. Our study included 170 stomach cancer cases and 2,184 hospital controls interviewed during the period 1988-1992. Tobacco chewing, bidi or cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking did not emerge as high risk factors for stomach cancer. Consumption of dry fish at least once a week compared to never or once a every 2 weeks showed a 12-fold excess risk (OR = 12.4, 95% CI 7.0-22.1, p < 0.0001) for stomach cancer among the nonvegetarian food items considered. A protective effect of tea consumption (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9, p = 0.03), showing 59% reduction in risk, was identified, which could be of use for possible control and prevention of this cancer. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Evoked response audiometry in scrub typhus: prospective, randomised, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, J S; Mohindroo, N K; Sharma, D R; Soni, K; Kaushal, S S

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the hypothesis of cochlear and retrocochlear damage in scrub typhus, using evoked response audiometry. Prospective, randomised, case-control study. The study included 25 patients with scrub typhus and 25 controls with other febrile illnesses not known to cause hearing loss. Controls were age- and sex-matched. All subjects underwent pure tone audiometry and evoked response audiometry before commencing treatment. Six patients presented with hearing loss, although a total of 23 patients had evidence of symmetrical high frequency loss on pure tone audiometry. Evoked response audiometry found significant prolongation of absolute latencies of wave I, III, V, and wave I-III interpeak latency. Two cases with normal hearing had increased interpeak latencies. These findings constitute level 3b evidence. Findings were suggestive of retrocochlear pathology in two cases with normal hearing. In other patients, high frequency hearing loss may have led to altered evoked response results. Although scrub typhus appears to cause middle ear cochlear and retrocochlear damage, the presence of such damage could not be fully confirmed by evoked response audiometry.

  1. Risk factors for plantar talalgia in nonathletes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Nemegyei, J; Negreros-Castillo, A

    2000-08-01

    A variety of factors have been considered as contributing to plantar talalgia pain syndromes. This study was designed to explore a series of possible contributors to the etiology of plantar talalgia (PT) specifically in nonathletes. The influence of body mass index (BMI), SCFP thickness and compressibility index, plantar and heel surface area, BMI/heel area ratio, heel-lifting device utilization, a standing job, heel malalignment, and a calcaneal spur (CS) over the risk of developing PT was analyzed by a case-control design. Eighty-five cases were compared with 58 controls of similar age and sex. After logistic regression analysis, only CS (relative risk 2.5 95%, CI 1.1-6) associated with PT, whereas other biomechanical, lifestyle, and clinical variables were not as clearly associated with PT risk in those nonathletes studied here. Our results suggest that a reappraisal of some factors previously thought to increase risk or suggest therapeutic manipulations for plantar talalgia in nonathletes is needed.

  2. Sleep duration, vital exhaustion, and odds of spontaneous preterm birth: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Sanchez, Sixto E; Gelaye, Bizu; Qiu, Chunfang; Barrios, Yasmin V; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-09-27

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, resulting in a pressing need to identify risk factors leading to effective interventions. Limited evidence suggests potential relationships between maternal sleep or vital exhaustion and preterm birth, yet the literature is generally inconclusive. We examined the relationship between maternal sleep duration and vital exhaustion in the first six months of pregnancy and spontaneous (non-medically indicated) preterm birth among 479 Peruvian women who delivered a preterm singleton infant (exhaustion were ascertained through in-person interviews. Spontaneous preterm birth cases were further categorized as those following either spontaneous preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. In addition, cases were categorized as very (exhaustion was also associated with increased odds of preterm birth (aOR = 2.41; 95% CI 1.79-3.23) compared to no exhaustion (Ptrend exhaustion on the odds of spontaneous preterm birth. The results of this case-control study suggest maternal sleep duration, particularly short sleep duration, and vital exhaustion may be risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth. These findings call for increased clinical attention to maternal sleep and the study of potential intervention strategies to improve sleep in early pregnancy with the aim of decreasing risk of preterm birth.

  3. A Case-Control Study on the Oxidative Balance of 50% Autologous Serum Eye Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ioschpe Gus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Autologous serum (AS eye drops are recommended for severe dry eye in patients with ocular surface disease. No description of the antioxidant balance of AS eye drops has been reported in the literature. Objective. This study sought to evaluate the total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP and concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS in samples of 50% AS eye drops and their correlations with the demographic characteristics and lifestyle habits of patients with ocular surface disease and healthy controls. Design. This was a case-control study with a 3-month follow-up period. Participants. 16 patients with severe dry eye disease of different etiologies and 17 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and race were included. Results. TRAP and ROS were detected at all evaluated times. There were no differences in the mean ROS (p=0.429 or TRAP (p=0.475 levels between cases and controls. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of ROS or TRAPs were found at 0, 15, or 30 days (p for ROS = 0.087 and p for TRAP = 0.93. Neither the demographic characteristics nor the lifestyle habits were correlated with the oxidative balance of the 50% AS eye drops. Conclusions and Relevance. Both fresh and frozen 50% AS eye drops present antioxidant capacities and ROS in an apparently stable balance. Moreover, patients with ocular surface disease and normal controls produce equivalent AS eye drops in terms of oxidative properties.

  4. High Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Colorectal Cancer in Hispanics: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul D. Bernabe-Dones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in colorectal carcinogenesis remains elusive. Based on the high incidence of HPV-associated malignancies among Puerto Rican Hispanics, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and viral integration in colorectal tissues in order to evaluate its putative role in colorectal cancer (CRC. In this case-control study, the prevalence of HPV infection in CRC (cases n = 45 and normal colon mucosa from cancer-free subjects (controls n = 36 was assessed by a nested PCR strategy. HPV-16 genotyping was performed in HPV-positive tissues and the physical status of the HPV-16 genome was determined by E2 detection. HPV was detected in 19 of 45 (42.2% CRC cases (mean age 61.1 ± 10.7 years, 24 males and in 1 of 36 (2.8% controls (mean age 60.9 ± 9.6 years, 24 males with an OR = 25.58 (95% CI 3.21 to 203.49. HPV-16 was detected in 63.2% of the HPV-positive colorectal tumors; genome integration was observed in all HPV-16 positive cases. This is the first report showing the high prevalence of HPV infections in Caribbean Hispanic colorectal tumors. Despite evidence of HPV integration into the host genome, further mechanistic analysis examining HPV oncoprotein expression and the putative role of these oncoproteins in colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted.

  5. Psychiatric disorders in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mireille C; Claudino, Denise A; Grigolon, Ruth B; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Claudino, Angélica M

    2018-02-01

    To study the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes, the factors associated with its presence, and to test the reliability of a screening tool for use in clinical settings. Eighty-one adolescents were enrolled in this case-control study, including 36 diabetic participants and 45 controls. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected and psychiatric symptoms and diagnoses were obtained from adolescents and their parents using a screening tool (Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire) and a semi-structured interview (Development and Well-Being Assessment). Psychiatric disorders were identified in 22.2% of the sample (30.56% among diabetic adolescents vs. 15.56% of controls: OR = 2.39, 95%CI 0.82-6.99; p = 0.11). Overweight (body mass index percentile ≥ 85) was the only factor associated with psychiatric disorder (OR = 3.07; 95%CI 1.03-9.14; p = 0.04). Compared to the semi-structured interview, the screening instrument showed 80% sensitivity, 96% specificity, 88.9% positive predictive value and 92.3% negative predictive value for the presence of psychiatric diagnoses in adolescents. Psychiatric morbidity was high in this sample of adolescents, especially among those with diabetes. Routine use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire can help with early detection of psychiatric disorders in this at-risk group.

  6. Reproductive life disorders in Italian celiac women. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Domenico; Fortunato, Francesca; Tafuri, Silvio; Germinario, Cinzia A; Prato, Rosa

    2010-08-06

    The aim of this study is to explore the association between celiac disease and menstrual cycle, gestation and puerperal disorders. The association between celiac disease and menstrual cycle, gestation and puerperal disorders in a sample of 62 childbearing age women (15-49 age) was assessed within an age and town of residence matched case-control study conducted in 2008. Main outcome measures were the presence of one or more disorders in menstrual cycle and the presence of one or more complication during pregnancy. 62 celiac women (median age: 31.5, range: 17-49) and 186 healthy control (median age: 32.5, range: 15-49) were interviewed. A higher percentage of menstrual cycle disorders has been observed in celiac women. 19.4% frequency of amenorrhea was reported among celiac women versus 2.2% among healthy controls (OR = 33, 95% CI = 7.17-151.8;, p = 0.000). An association has been observed between celiac disease and oligomenorrhea, hypomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea and metrorrhagia (p celiac women than in healthy women (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2-8.6, p = 0.000). A significant correlation has emerged for celiac disease and threatened abortion, gestational hypertension, placenta abruption, severe anaemia, uterine hyperkinesia, intrauterine growth restriction (p celiac women together with a lower birth weight of celiac women babies (p celiac disease and reproductive disorders could suggest to consider celiac disease diagnostic procedures (serological screening) in women affected by these disorders.

  7. Reproductive life disorders in Italian celiac women. A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinelli Domenico

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to explore the association between celiac disease and menstrual cycle, gestation and puerperal disorders. Methods The association between celiac disease and menstrual cycle, gestation and puerperal disorders in a sample of 62 childbearing age women (15-49 age was assessed within an age and town of residence matched case-control study conducted in 2008. Main outcome measures were the presence of one or more disorders in menstrual cycle and the presence of one or more complication during pregnancy. Results 62 celiac women (median age: 31.5, range: 17-49 and 186 healthy control (median age: 32.5, range: 15-49 were interviewed. A higher percentage of menstrual cycle disorders has been observed in celiac women. 19.4% frequency of amenorrhea was reported among celiac women versus 2.2% among healthy controls (OR = 33, 95% CI = 7.17-151.8;, p = 0.000. An association has been observed between celiac disease and oligomenorrhea, hypomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea and metrorrhagia (p Conclusions The occurrence of a significant correlation between celiac disease and reproductive disorders could suggest to consider celiac disease diagnostic procedures (serological screening in women affected by these disorders.

  8. Predictors of pressure ulcer risk in adult intensive care patients: A retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Medeiros, Ana Beatriz; da Conceição Dias Fernandes, Maria Isabel; de Sá Tinôco, Jéssica Dantas; Cossi, Marcelly Santos; de Oliveira Lopes, Marcos Venicios; de Carvalho Lira, Ana Luisa Brandão

    2017-12-06

    To evaluate the predictive power of risk factors for pressure ulcers in adult intensive care patients. A retrospective case-control study was performed utilising a heterogeneous sample group allocated into a case group with pressure ulcers (n=90) and a control group without pressure ulcers (n=90). The analysis explored the predictive power of risk factors for pressure ulcers using a hierarchical logistic regression model. The risk factors that predicted pressure ulcers were friction (OR=5.97), previous history of pressure ulcers (OR=5.43), prolonged intensive care unit stay (OR=3.92), dehydration (OR=3.18), elevated skin temperature by 1-2°C (OR=3.12) and treatment of other comorbidities (OR=2.79). Adult intensive care patients have an increased risk of developing a pressure ulcer. These risk factors are regarded as strong predictors for pressure ulceration. This study advances nursing knowledge in that it investigates additional risk factors for the development of pressure ulcers and it identifies a set of factors that best predict their occurrence, which may contribute to the nurses' diagnostic reasoning in the intensive care unit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Case-control Study of Diphtheria in the High Incidence City of Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ramesh Reddy; Uthappa, Chengappa Kechamada; Duerst, Rebecca; Sorley, Evan; Udaragudi, Prasada Rao; Kampa, Shankar; Dworkin, Mark S

    2016-03-01

    India accounts for approximately 72% of reported diphtheria cases globally, the majority of which occur in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The aim of this study is to better understand lack of knowledge on diphtheria vaccination and to determine factors associated with diphtheria and low knowledge and negative attitudes. We performed a 1:1 case-control study of hospitalized diphtheria cases in Hyderabad. Eligible case patients were 10 years of age or older, resided within the city of Hyderabad and were diagnosed with diphtheria per the case definition. Patients admitted to the hospital for nonrespiratory communicable diseases and residing in the same geographic region as that of cases were eligible for enrolment as controls : There were no statistical differences in disease outcome by gender, education, economic status and mean room per person sleeping in the house in case and control subjects. Not having heard of diphtheria (adjusted odds ratio: 3.56; 95% confidence intervals: 1.58-8.04] and not believing that vaccines can prevent people from getting diseases (adjusted odds ratio: 3.99; 95% confidence intervals: 1.18-13.45) remained significantly associated with diphtheria on multivariate analysis. To reduce the burden of diphtheria in India, further efforts to educate the public about diphtheria should be considered.

  10. Breast cancer risk and genetic ancestry: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Bertoni, Bernardo; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Artagaveytia, Nora; Ackermann, Elizabeth; Barreto, Isabel; Cancela, Paula; Cappetta, Mónica; Egaña, Ana; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Heinzen, Silvina; Hooker, Stanley; Román, Estela; Sans, Mónica; Kittles, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay exhibits one of the highest rates of breast cancer in Latin America, similar to those of developed nations, the reasons for which are not completely understood. In this study we investigated the effect that ancestral background has on breast cancer susceptibility among Uruguayan women. We carried out a case-control study of 328 (164 cases, 164 controls) women enrolled in public hospitals and private clinics across the country. We estimated ancestral proportions using a panel of nuclear and mitochondrial ancestry informative markers (AIMs) and tested their association with breast cancer risk. Nuclear individual ancestry in cases was (mean ± SD) 9.8 ± 7.6% African, 13.2 ± 10.2% Native American and 77.1 ± 13.1% European, and in controls 9.1 ± 7.5% African, 14.7 ± 11.2% Native American and 76.2 ± 14.2% European. There was no evidence of a difference in nuclear or mitochondrial ancestry between cases and controls. However, European mitochondrial haplogroup H was associated with breast cancer (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.5). We have not found evidence that overall genetic ancestry differs between breast cancer patients and controls in Uruguay but we detected an association of the disease with a European mitochondrial lineage, which warrants further investigation.

  11. [Juvenile paradental cysts in children after mandible distraction: case-control study and clinical cases presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolenkova, M V

    2015-01-01

    Seventy-five children aged 6-17 years (mean age 9.8±4.1 years) that received mandible distraction (MD) at the age of 0-17 years (mean age at MD 6.1±4.3) were included in the study. Indication for MD were hemifacial microsomia (n=41), Goldenhar syndrome (n=4), Robin sequence (n=10), Treacher, Collins syndrome (n=7) or acquired mandible underdevelopment (n=13). Control groups consisted of 22 children aged 5-14 years (mean age 7.0±3.7 years) with mandible underdevelopment of similar origin (hemifacial microsomia (n=15), Goldenhar syndrome (n=2), Robin sequence (n=4), Treacher, Collins syndrome (n=1)) with no history of MD and 80 healthy children aged 6-10 years (mean age 7.1±2.2 years). Case-control study results proved MD to be the risk factor for juvenile paradental cysts (JPCs) with the risk more prominent in early MD cases. JPCs often do not manifest clinically and may resolve spontaneously but in refractory cases lesion curettage without endodontic treatment is an adequate approach, as JPCs are usually not associated with pulp necrosis.

  12. Lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugg, William G; Lewis, Mark; Juette, Arne; Cahir, John G; Toms, Andoni P

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures. In this retrospective case-control study we compare the angle of lumbar lordosis and the angle of the S1 vertebral endplate (as a measure of pelvic tilt) in patients with bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with age- and sex-matched control cases with normal MRI examinations of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine cases of bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with matched control-cases were identified on MRI (16 male, 13 female, age 9-63 years). The angle of lordosis was measured between the inferior L4 and superior S1 vertebral endplates on a standing lateral lumbar spine radiograph for both groups. The mean angle of lordosis about the L5 vertebra was 36.9° (SD = 6.5°) in the pars interarticularis fracture group, and 30.1° (SD = 6.4°) in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (mean difference 6.8°, Student's t test: P pars defects. The difference in the means of 14.2° was statistically significantly different (P pars fractures at L5. Steep angulation of the first sacral vertebral segment maybe the predisposing biomechanical factor that leads to pincer-like impingement of the pars interarticularis and then spondylolysis.

  13. Relationships between obesity, bipolar spectrum features, and personality traits: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, D; Siwek, M; Jaeschke, R; Dembińska-Kieć, A; Arciszewska, A; Hebal, F; Matłok, M; Major, P; Malczewska-Malec, M; Wnęk, D; Pilecki, M; Rybakowski, J

    2015-11-01

    Recently there has been widening stream of research on the relationships between obesity and mental disorders. Patients with obesity seem to be prone to developing bipolar spectrum disorders and they present with specific personality traits. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between obesity, bipolarity features, and personality traits. A nested case-control study was performed. Patients with obesity constituted the sample of cases (N = 90), and healthy individuals were ascribed to the control group (N = 70). The lifetime presence of bipolarity features was analyzed with the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), while personality traits were assessed with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Bipolarity features were more prevalent in the patients with obesity, as compared to healthy individuals. Patients with obesity had both higher mean value of MDQ score (p = 0.01) and a higher proportion of subjects with MDQ score ≥ 7 points (p = 0.012) as well as lower score on the NEO-FFI openness to experience (p > 0.001), compared to control subjects. Using multivariate model, in patients with obesity, a significant positive correlation between bipolarity and neuroticism, and negative with agreeableness and conscientiousness was established. Such relationship was not observed in control subjects. In the population of patients with obesity, there is a specific combination between bipolarity and personality traits (high-trait neuroticism, low-trait conscientiousness, and low-trait agreeableness). This may have some consequences for both pharmacological and psychological management of such patients.

  14. Methotrexate treatment for ectopic pregnancy after assisted reproductive technology: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, A; Crochet, P; Courbiere, B; Gnisci, A; Agostini, A

    2016-06-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) occurs in 2% to 5.6% of pregnancies achieved by assisted reproductive technology (ART). EP treatment options include medical treatment by uses of methotrexate (MTX) systemic injection. The objective of this study was to compare MTX treatment effectiveness for EP occurring spontaneously or following ART. A case-control study performed in the department of obstetrics and gynecology at a tertiary health care center in France. Twenty EP achieved by ART (ART group) and 60 spontaneous EP (SEP group) received MTX treatment between January 2002 and May 2012. The main outcome measures were MTX treatment failure rates, number of MTX injections administered and recovery time. MTX treatment failure rates observed in ART and SEP groups were similar (3/20 [15%] versus 10/60 [17%]: OR=0.88 [0.22-3.58]). Mean duration of recovery time in patients with successful MTX treatment did not differ between ART and SEP groups (33±14 days versus 28±13 days, P=0.39). A second MTX injection was required more frequently in ART group than in SEP group (10/20 [50%] versus 10/60 [17%]: OR=5 [1.65-15.15]). It is concluded that MTX treatment is equally effective for spontaneous EP and EP achieved by ART, two injections of MTX being more frequently required in case of ART. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Hyperthyroidism association with SLE, lessons from real-life data--A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watad, Abdulla; Cohen, Arnon D; Comaneshter, Doron; Tekes-Manova, Dorit; Amital, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Despite the frequently encountered association between thyroid disease and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is well known, it is of surprise that only several reports compromised of small population size support this observation. To investigate the association of comorbid SLE and hyperthyroidism. Using the database of the largest health maintenance organization (HMO) in Israel, the Clalit Health Services, we searched for the co-existence of SLE and hyperthyroidism. Patients with SLE were compared with age- and sex-matched controls regarding the prevalence of hyperthyroidism in a case-control study. Chi-square and t-tests were used for univariate analysis and a logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. The study included 5018 patients with SLE and 25,090 age- and sex- matched controls. The prevalence of hyperthyroidism in patients with SLE was increased compared with the prevalence in controls (2.59% and 0.91%, respectively, p hyperthyroidism (odds ratio 2.52, 95% confidence interval 2.028-3.137). Patients with SLE have a greater prevalence of hyperthyroidism than matched controls. Therefore, physicians treating patients with SLE should be aware of this possibility of this thyroid dysfunction.

  16. Examining Maternal Psychopathology, Family Functioning and Coping Skills in Childhood Obesity: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Miriam; Sepulveda, Ana R; Lacruz, Tatiana; Parks, Melissa; Real, Beatriz; Martin-Peinador, Yolanda; Román, Francisco J

    2017-09-01

    The shared family environment is an important risk factor in the development of childhood obesity. This study aims to examine differences in maternal psychopathology, family functioning, expressed emotion and coping skills between families of a child with obesity and those with a normal-weight child. This case-control study consisted of 50 mothers with a child (age 8-12 years) with obesity (p ≥ 97) and a control group of 50 mothers of a child with normal weight (p coping skills. Structural equation modelling revealed that the mothers' psychopathology predicted children's body mass index (BMI) z-scores through expressed emotion and maladaptive coping scores. There were significant direct and indirect relations among maternal BMI, psychopathology, expressed emotion and coping, which all together explained 26.5% of variance of children's BMI z-scores. Considering this relation between maternal variables and child weight status, childhood obesity intervention programs may benefit from targeting maternal BMI, psychopathology, expressed emotion and coping skills. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  17. Zinc Status Biomarkers and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metabolic Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika P. S. Freitas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS involves pathophysiological alterations that might compromise zinc status. The aim of this study was to evaluate zinc status biomarkers and their associations with cardiometabolic factors in patients with MS. Our case control study included 88 patients with MS and 37 controls. We performed clinical and anthropometric assessments and obtained lipid, glycemic, and inflammatory profiles. We also evaluated zinc intake, plasma zinc, erythrocyte zinc, and 24-h urinary zinc excretion. The average zinc intake was significantly lower in the MS group (p < 0.001. Regression models indicated no significant differences in plasma zinc concentration (all p > 0.05 between the two groups. We found significantly higher erythrocyte zinc concentration in the MS group (p < 0.001 independent from co-variable adjustments. Twenty-four hour urinary zinc excretion was significantly higher in the MS group (p = 0.008, and adjustments for age and sex explained 21% of the difference (R2 = 0.21, p < 0.001. There were significant associations between zincuria and fasting blood glucose concentration (r = 0.479, waist circumference (r = 0.253, triglyceride concentration (r = 0.360, glycated hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.250, homeostatic model assessment—insulin resistance (r = 0.223, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration (r = 0.427 (all p < 0.05 in the MS group. Patients with MS had alterations in zinc metabolism mainly characterized by an increase in erythrocyte zinc and higher zincuria.

  18. Vegetarian diet and reduced uterine fibroids risk: A case-control study in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Wu, Yanting; Lu, Qing; Ren, Mulan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a vegetarian diet correlates with a potential reduced risk of uterine fibroids. We used data from a case-control study conducted in Southeast University Zhongda Hospital between February 2010 and December 2014. Cases included 600 Chinese Han women with uterine fibroids (case group) whose clinical diagnosis dated back no more than 1 year. Controls were 600 patients without uterine fibroids as well as healthy volunteers (control group). All of the information gathered through the questionnaire survey was analyzed for the risk factors of the uterine fibroids pathogenesis. The multifactor analysis showed that women with uterine fibroids reported a less frequent consumption of broccoli (odds ratio [OR]: 0.552; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.316-0.964), cabbage (OR: 0.446; 95%CI: 0.211-0.943), Chinese cabbage (OR: 0.311; 95%CI: 0.102-0.946), tomato (OR: 0.453; 95%CI: 0.241-0.853), and apple (OR: 0.416; 95%CI: 0.213-0.814) (P < 0.05). The original evidence from this epidemiological investigation shows that a high consumption of broccoli, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, tomato and apple seems to be a protective factor for uterine fibroids. We suggest that greater intake of fresh fruits and cruciferous vegetables may be able to reduce the incidence of uterine fibroids. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Assessment of risk factors in laryngeal cancer in India: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Umesh; Singh, Preeti; Bahadur, Sudhir; Dwivedi, Sada Nand; Singh, Rajvir; Shukla, Nk

    2005-01-01

    Cancer of the larynx is fourteenth most common cancer in the world. Limited data are available from India on associations with risk factors and hence the present hospital based matched case-control study was conducted. Three hundred and five laryngeal cancer patients and an equal number of healthy controls matched for their age within 2 years, sex and place of residence constituted the study population. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to each individual to elicit information on their socio-demographic profile, food habits and risk factors and dietary consumption patterns. Univariate logistic regression analysis and multivariate forward stepwise conditional logistic analysis were performed. In the univariate analysis a lower consumption of roots and tubers green leaf vegetable other vegetables and fruits, and higher consumption of milk, eggs, meat, tea, alcohol , smoking, consumption of betel leaf with tobacco as well as a preference for spicy and fried foods emerged as significant positive variables. After adjusting for education, years of use of alcohol, smoking, chewing of betel leaf with tobacco in the model, low green leafy vegetables and preference for spicy foods were found to be positively related to the risk of laryngeal cancer. There was a significant difference in the dietary consumption patterns of laryngeal cancer patients and controls, indicating a role for nutritional factors in the etiology of laryngeal cancer in the Indian population.

  20. Meat, fat and risk of laryngeal cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreggia, F; De Stefani, E; Boffetta, P; Brennan, P; Deneo-Pellegrini, H; Ronco, A L

    2001-02-01

    The effect of meat and fat in laryngeal carcinogenesis was examined in a case-control study carried out in Uruguay in the time period 1998-1999. One-hundred and forty patients with squamous cell laryngeal carcinoma and 420 hospitalized patients, afflicted with conditions not related with tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking or recent dietary changes comprised the cases and controls in this study. All patients were interviewed face-to-face in the hospitals with a detailed questionnaire which included queries on 64 food items. Red and total meat intakes were associated with strong increases in risk of laryngeal cancer (odds ratio [OR] for high total meat intake 3.32, 95% confidence interval [C.I.] 1.23-8.95). This effect disappeared after controlling for total fat intake. On the other hand, total fat intake displayed a strong association with risk of laryngeal cancer when red meat was included in the same model (OR for high fat intake 7.05, 95% C.I. 2.51-19.8). Total fat intake combines its effect multiplicatively with tobacco smoking.

  1. Efficacy of palivizumab prophylaxis among infants with congenital heart disease: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt, Abdullah; Narin, Nazmi; Baykan, Ali; Argun, Mustafa; Pamukcu, Ozge; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Sunkak, Suleyman; Uzum, Kazim

    2015-10-01

    Palivizumab prophylaxis for RSV has been consistently reported to reduce the risk of hospital admissions related to RSV infection in children with symptomatic cardiac disease. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of palivizumab prophylaxis among infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) in Turkey. A total of 91 infants with CHD who received palivizumab prophylaxis and 96 infants with CHD without prophylaxis (0-12 months:52; 12-24 months:44) were included in this single-center retrospective case control study. Data on patient characteristics, household environment, and LRTIs were evaluated. In patients without prophylaxis, the rate of overall lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) (P percentile (odds ratio (OR) 5.78, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.37; 24.4, P < 0.001) and concomitant chromosome abnormality (OR 4.01, 95% CI:1.01;16.45, P < 0.001) in patients with prophylaxis, while presence of a sibling <11 years of age (OR 3.38, 95% CI: 1.21; 9.46, P < 0.001) and congestive heart failure (OR 8.63, 95% CI: 2.81; 26.6, P < 0.001) in the control group were the significant correlates of LRTI-related hospitalization. Our findings revealed significantly lower rate of overall and complicated LRTIs, LRTI-related hospitalization and ICU admissions in infants with CHD via palivizumab prophylaxis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Risk factors for operated carpal tunnel syndrome: a multicenter population-based case-control study

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    Mandes Anna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a socially and economically relevant disease caused by compression or entrapment of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. This population-based case-control study aims to investigate occupational/non-occupational risk factors for surgically treated CTS. Methods Cases (n = 220 aged 18-65 years were randomly drawn from 13 administrative databases of citizens who were surgically treated with carpal tunnel release during 2001. Controls (n = 356 were randomly sampled from National Health Service registry records and were frequency matched by age-gender-specific CTS hospitalization rates. Results At multivariate analysis, risk factors were blue-collar/housewife status, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, sibling history of CTS and coexistence of trigger finger. Being relatively tall (cut-offs based on tertiles: women ≥165 cm; men ≥175 cm was associated with lower risk. Blue-collar work was a moderate/strong risk factor in both sexes. Raised risks were apparent for combinations of biomechanical risk factors that included frequent repetitivity and sustained force. Conclusion This study strongly underlines the relevance of biomechanical exposures in both non-industrial and industrial work as risk factors for surgically treated CTS.

  3. The Effects of Menorrhagia on Women's Quality of Life: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokyildiz, Sule; Aslan, Ergul; Beji, Nezihe Kizilkaya; Mecdi, Meltem

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study is to identify menstruation characteristics of the women and the effects of menorrhagia on women's quality of life. Methods. The study was designed as a descriptive, case-control one. Results. Of the women in the case group, 10.9% stated that their menstrual bleeding was severe and very severe before complaints while 73.2% described bleeding as severe or very severe after complaints. Among those who complained about menorrhagia, 46.7% pointed that they used hygienic products that are more protective than regular sanitary pads. Women also stated that their clothes, bed linens, and furniture got dirty parallel to the severity of the bleeding. In all subscales of SF-36 scale, quality of life of the women in the menorrhagia group was significantly lower than the ones in the control group (P Menorrhagia has negative effects on women's quality of life. Therefore, quality of life of the women consulting the clinics with menorrhagia complaint should be investigated and effective approaches should be designed. PMID:23970973

  4. Putative risk factors in developmental dyslexia: a case-control study of Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascheretti, Sara; Marino, Cecilia; Simone, Daniela; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Riva, Valentina; Cellino, Maria Rosaria; Maziade, Michel; Brombin, Chiara; Battaglia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Although dyslexia runs in families, several putative risk factors that cannot be immediately identified as genetic predict reading disability. Published studies analyzed one or a few risk factors at a time, with relatively inconsistent results. To assess the contribution of several putative risk factors to the development of dyslexia, we conducted a case-control study of 403 Italian children, 155 with dyslexia, by implementing a stepwise logistic regression applied to the entire sample, and then to boys and girls separately. Younger parental age at child's birth, lower parental education, and risk of miscarriage significantly increased the odds of belonging to the dyslexia group (19.5% of the variation). These associations were confirmed in the analyses conducted separately by sex, except for parental education, which significantly affected only males. These findings support reading disabilities as a multifactorial disorder and may bear some importance for the prevention and/or early detection of children at heightened risk for dyslexia. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  5. Robotic versus laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy for apical prolapse: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    CUCINELLA, G.; CALAGNA, G.; ROMANO, G.; DI BUONO, G.; GUGLIOTTA, G.; SAITTA, S.; ADILE, G.; MANZONE, M.; ACCARDI, G.; PERINO, A.; AGRUSA, A.

    2016-01-01

    The apical prolapse has always been considered the most complex of the defects of the pelvic floor, for both the difficulty of the surgical corrective technique and for the high post-surgical recurrence rate. Today, the laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy can be considered the standard treatment for apical prolapse. In the last years, several author performed robotic sacrocolpopexy, obtaining positive results. So, we developed a case-control study in order to compare the surgical outcome of robotic group with a control group of laparoscopic approach in patients with symptomatic apical pro-lapsed between January 2015 and December 2015 at University Hospital Policlinico “P. Giaccone” and Ospedali Riuniti “Villa Sofia-Cervello”, Palermo. Our experience shows that robotic sacrocolpopexy can be considered in positive way for clinical results obtained: all procedures were executed with no complications, we noted a lower intraoperative blood loss and a shorter hospital stay than in laparoscopic group. Although the mean operative time and the economic costs are higher in robotic surgery, this study demonstrates that the use of robotic platform for repairing of symptomatic apical vaginal prolapse is feasible, safe and associated with short-term satisfactory results, representing therefore a valid alternative to laparoscopic approach. PMID:27734794

  6. Parenting style and oral health practices in early childhood caries: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabawala, Suhel; Suprabha, Baranya S; Shenoy, Ramya; Rao, Arathi; Shah, Nachiket

    2017-03-01

    There is a need to carry out controlled investigations regarding risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC). To study the type of parenting style and oral health practices as risk factors among children with ECC in an Indian preschool population. Two hundred and eleven children with ECC and equal number of controls participated in this case-control study. A questionnaire was answered by parents regarding oral health practices such as oral hygiene methods, feeding habits, daily sugar intake, and dental attendance pattern along with socioeconomic and demographic status. The parenting style was determined using Parenting Styles Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ) index. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Risk factors associated with ECC were higher birth order, lower socioeconomic status, non-use of fluoridated toothpaste, breast/bottle feeding for more than one year, presence of formula milk or milk with sugar in the feeding bottle while falling asleep, higher sweet scores in the diet chart, and visiting dentist only when a problem was perceived. Majority of parents of children with and without ECC had authoritative parenting style. Improper oral health practices are the risk factors for ECC. The association of parenting style with ECC could not be confirmed. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Dietary acrylamide and pancreatic cancer risk in an Italian case--control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelucchi, C; Galeone, C; Talamini, R; Negri, E; Polesel, J; Serraino, D; La Vecchia, C

    2011-08-01

    Information on the relation between acrylamide exposure and risk of pancreatic cancer is scanty and inconsistent. We investigated the issue in a case-control study conducted from 1991 to 2008 in Northern Italy. Cases were 326 patients with incident pancreatic cancer, admitted to major teaching and general hospitals. Controls were 652 subjects admitted to the same hospitals with acute non-neoplastic conditions. Acrylamide mean content of various food items was derived from international databases and Italian sources. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of pancreatic cancer were derived using conditional logistic regression adjusted for several covariates, including energy intake. The ORs of pancreatic cancer for subsequent quintiles of acrylamide intake, as compared with the lowest one, were 1.48 (95% CI 0.88-2.50), 1.57 (95% CI 0.91-2.69), 1.70 (95% CI 0.98-2.96) and 1.49 (95% CI 0.83-2.70), with no trend in risk (P value 0.21). The OR for an increase in acrylamide intake of 10 μg/day was 1.01 (95% CI 0.92-1.10). No meaningful difference between ORs was found in strata of smoking habit, alcohol drinking, body mass index and other selected covariates. This study found no association between dietary acrylamide and pancreatic cancer in an Italian population.

  8. Drug consumption and additional risk factors associated with microscopic colitis: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagnozzi, Danila; Lucendo, Alfredo J; Angueira, Teresa; González-Castillo, Sonia; Tenías, José María

    2015-06-01

    Microscopic colitis has now emerged as a common cause of chronic diarrhoea, but its aetiology remains unknown. Some studies suggest that commonly prescribed drugs and other additional risk factors may be triggers. To evaluate the effects of drug intake and other risk factors on microscopic colitis patients. A prospective, case-control study with all consecutive adult patients referred to the Hospital General de Tomelloso (Ciudad Real, Spain) for chronic watery diarrhoea (from 2008 to 2011) was performed. Microscopic colitis was diagnosed following the commonly accepted histopathological criteria. 46 consecutive new cases of microscopic colitis and 317 chronic diarrhoea controls were recruited. Five independent risk factors significantly associated with microscopic colitis were identified: Abdominal pain (OR 3.25; 95%CI, 1.49-7.08), weight loss (OR 2.67; 95%CI, 1.16-6.15), celiac disease (OR 15.3; 95%CI, 3.70-63.5), topiramate intake (OR 13.6; 95%CI, 1.84- 100.8), and older age at diagnosis (OR 1 year increase 1.022; 95%CI, 1.002-1.042). Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was associated with microscopic colitis in the subgroup of patients who fulfilled irritable bowel syndrome criteria (38.5% vs. 10.8%; p Microscopic colitis is associated with autoimmune disease, an increased age at diagnosis, topiramate intake and only in a sub-group of irritable bowel disease patients with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  9. Nipple candidiasis among breastfeeding mothers. Case-control study of predisposing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, K. E.; McBean, M. R.; Jain, E.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors that predispose breastfeeding mothers to nipple candidiasis. DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study of women attending the Calgary Breastfeeding Clinic. SETTING: Ambulatory breastfeeding referral centre. PARTICIPANTS: All women (105) who attended the clinic during a 3.5-month study period. All were referred for problems with breastfeeding; 27 (the case group) had positive diagnostic criteria for nipple candidiasis. The other 78 formed a control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: A patient information sheet, completed while taking a medical history, recorded the presence or absence of four possible predisposing factors. Two infant variables were also noted on physical examination. Patients were diagnosed as having or not having nipple candidiasis on the basis of specific clinical criteria, and statistics on other variables were compared for those with positive and with negative diagnoses. RESULTS: A statistically significant correlation (P antibiotic use (P = 0.036), and nipple trauma (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Further research is required to establish clear causality. However, we recommend that physicians be suspicious of nipple candidiasis; avoid antibiotics or use the shortest effective course; treat yeast vaginitis during the third trimester and after delivery aggressively; and treat mothers for nipple yeast if babies have oral or diaper candidiasis. Breastfeeding mothers can also be counseled in preventive measures. PMID:8081120

  10. Hard contact lens wear and the risk of acquired blepharoptosis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Since there are increasing numbers of patients with blepharoptosis who have a history of wearing contact lenses, we attempted to estimate the risk of developing ptosis from wearing hard contact lenses. In an age-matched case-control study that was performed in a hospital in Japan, we compared the rate of hard contact lens users in ptosis cases with that in a control group and then estimated the odds ratio. The history of wearing hard contact lenses was significantly higher in patients (90.2%) versus controls (31.6%). Hard contact lens wearers had a 20 times increased risk of ptosis (odds ratio: 19.9; 95% confidence interval: 6.32-62.9) compared with the nonwearing subjects. This study indicated that there was a significant association between hard contact lenses and blepharoptosis. Because of both the prevalence of use and the aging of the population, contact lens-induced blepharoptosis is no longer just a problem for young and middle-aged people with myopia but also for the elderly population.

  11. Cancer of the nose and paranasal sinuses in the metal industry: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comba, P; Barbieri, P G; Battista, G; Belli, S; Ponterio, F; Zanetti, D; Axelson, O

    1992-03-01

    The association between nasal cancer and work in the metal industry was investigated in a case-control study located in the province of Brescia, north eastern Italy. Thirty five cases of malignant epithelial neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses who were resident in the province of Brescia and diagnosed or treated by the ear, nose, and throat department and the radiotherapy unit (Centro Alte Energie) of the Brescia Hospital in the years 1980-9 were included in the study. Controls (102) were patients affected by benign and malignant neoplasms of the head and neck who were resident in the Brescia Province and matched the cases by age and sex. All the subjects were interviewed by telephone. Metal workers showed an increased risk of nasal cancer (odds ratio (OR) 3.1; 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 0.48-20); a higher risk was associated with work in foundries (OR 5.9; 90 CI 0.77-46). Work in wood, leather, and textile industries was also associated with increased risk of nasal cancer.

  12. Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis versus bacterial rhinosinusitis with orbital complications: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piromchai, Patorn; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis with orbital complications (IFSwOC) is a life-threatening condition. The incidence of mortality has been reported to be up to 80 percent. This study was conducted to determine the risk factors, presentations, clinical, and imaging findings that could help to manage this condition promptly. We conducted a case-control study of 100 patients suffering from rhinosinusitis with orbital complications. The risk factors, clinical presentations, radiological findings, medical and surgical managements, durations of hospital stay, and mortality rate data were collected. Sixty-five patients were diagnosed with IFSwOC, while the other thirty-five patients composed the control group. The most important risk factor for IFSwOC was diabetes mellitus. Visual loss and diplopia were the significant symptom predictors. The significant clinical predictors were nasal crust, oculomotor nerve, and optic nerve involvement. The CT findings of IFSwOC were sinus wall erosion and hyperdensity lesions. The mortality rate was 25.71 percent in the IFSwOC group and 3.17 percent in the control group. Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis with orbital complications is symptomatic of a high mortality rate. The awareness of a patient's risk factors, the presenting symptoms, signs of fungal invasion, and aggressive management will determine the success of any treatment procedures.

  13. Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis versus Bacterial Rhinosinusitis with Orbital Complications: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patorn Piromchai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis with orbital complications (IFSwOC is a life-threatening condition. The incidence of mortality has been reported to be up to 80 percent. This study was conducted to determine the risk factors, presentations, clinical, and imaging findings that could help to manage this condition promptly. Methods. We conducted a case-control study of 100 patients suffering from rhinosinusitis with orbital complications. The risk factors, clinical presentations, radiological findings, medical and surgical managements, durations of hospital stay, and mortality rate data were collected. Results. Sixty-five patients were diagnosed with IFSwOC, while the other thirty-five patients composed the control group. The most important risk factor for IFSwOC was diabetes mellitus. Visual loss and diplopia were the significant symptom predictors. The significant clinical predictors were nasal crust, oculomotor nerve, and optic nerve involvement. The CT findings of IFSwOC were sinus wall erosion and hyperdensity lesions. The mortality rate was 25.71 percent in the IFSwOC group and 3.17 percent in the control group. Conclusions. Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis with orbital complications is symptomatic of a high mortality rate. The awareness of a patient’s risk factors, the presenting symptoms, signs of fungal invasion, and aggressive management will determine the success of any treatment procedures.

  14. [Genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer risk: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Massa, Ana E; Alonso-Sardón, Montserrat; Menacho-Miguel, José Antonio; Mirón-Canelo, José Antonio; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio

    2014-08-04

    The smoke fume, principal factor in the development of lung cancer, causes the expression of certain cytokines, including interleukin 4, 6, 8 and 10, which may act by inhibiting apoptosis and interfere cellular repair mechanisms and angiogenesis. To determine the possible relationship between gene polymorphisms of these cytokines and lung cancer. To achieve this objective we designed a case-control study, which included 400 patients who had come to the consultation for rapid diagnosis of lung cancer at the Pneumology Department, University Hospital of Salamanca, and whose main criterion exclusion was the lack of active contact with smoke fume. Patients were divided into 2 groups, each consisting of 200 patients: cases (patients diagnosed with lung cancer) and controls (patients without lung cancer). A percentage of 62.8 of men were former smokers at diagnosis compared with 55.5% of women, although the former still had a greater cumulative consumption. Squamous cell carcinoma predominated in diagnosis (48.9% of patients) and more than half were in advanced stages (28.5% in stage iiiB and 25.5% in stage iv). No statistical significance was observed by linking the existence of tumor to the prevalence of any of the analyzed polymorphisms. Polymorphisms in the study did not modify the risk of developing lung cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Intrapartum electrocardiogram alteration in fetuses with congenital heart disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Estelle; Bornallet, Géraldine; Gaucherand, Pascal; Doret, Muriel

    2015-11-01

    To assess if the fetal electrocardiogram especially ST segment is modified by congenital heart diseases: modifications in frequencies of the different ST events and modifications in signal quality. A retrospective case-control study, comparing frequencies of the different ST events and the quality of the signal between fetuses with congenital heart diseases and fetuses without congenital heart disease. From 2000 to 2011, fifty-eight fetuses with congenital heart disease had their heart rate recording using a STAN device during labor. Control group was fetuses who were born just before a case and had a STAN as a second line for intrapartum surveillance. Cases and controls were matched on parity, gestational age at birth, presence of growth restriction and umbilical artery pH. Frequencies of the different ST event and quality of the signal were first analyzed for the global labor recording, and then separately for the first and the second phase of labor. No statistically significant difference in ST event frequencies between fetuses with congenital heart disease and the control group was found. Regarding the quality of the signal, 11.49% (±18.82) of recording time is a signal loss for fetus with congenital heart disease whereas only 5.18% (±10.67) for the control group (p=0.028). This is the first study investigating for intrapartum electrocardiogram modification in fetus with congenital heart disease. Congenital heart diseases do not modify frequencies of ST events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Oral and endotracheal tubes colonization by periodontal bacteria: a case-control ICU study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, A N; Cortelli, S C; Borges, A H; Matos, F Z; Aquino, D R; Miranda, T B; Oliveira Costa, F; Aranha, A F; Cortelli, J R

    2016-03-01

    Periodontal infection is a possible risk factor for respiratory disorders; however, no studies have assessed the colonization of periodontal pathogens in endotracheal tubes (ET). This case-control study analyzed whether periodontal pathogens are able to colonize ET of dentate and edentulous patients in intensive care units (ICU) and whether oral and ET periodontal pathogen profiles have any correlation between these patients. We selected 18 dentate and 18 edentulous patients from 78 eligible ICU patients. Oral clinical examination including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index , and plaque index was performed by a single examiner, followed by oral and ET sampling and processing by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (total bacterial load, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia). Data were statistically analyzed by Mann-Whitney U, two-way analysis of variance (p oral and ET bacterial levels, while edentulous patients showed positive correlations between oral and ET levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and T. forsythia. Periodontal pathogens can colonize ET and the oral cavity of ICU patients. Periodontal pathogen profiles tend to be similar between dentate and edentulous ICU patients. In ICU patients, oral cavity represents a source of ET contamination. Although accompanied by higher oral bacterial levels, teeth do not seem to influence ET bacterial profiles.

  17. Impact of Sjogren's syndrome on Parkinson's disease: A nationwide case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chi Wu

    Full Text Available To investigate whether Sjogren's syndrome would have an influence on the development of Parkinson's disease.A population-based case-control study was conducted. Participants consisted of 7716 subjects with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease and a population of 75129 matched control subjects between 2000 and 2010. We measured the risk of Parkinson's disease in association with Sjogren's syndrome by using adjusted odds ratios.A total of 143 Parkinson's disease subjects (1.9% and 893 control subjects (1.2% suffered from Sjogren's syndrome (p < 0.001. The crude odds ratio for Parkinson's disease among subjects with Sjogren's syndrome was 1.56 (95% CI 1.30-1.86; p < 0.01. After adjustment for potential confounders which have been proposed that would increase the risk of development of Parkinson's disease, Sjogren's syndrome was found to be significantly associated with the risk of Parkinson's disease with an odds ratio of 1.37 (95% CI 1.15-1.65; p < 0.01.This study preliminarily proposed that Sjogren's syndrome was significant associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease.

  18. A case-control study of Blastocystis hominis among Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami Nejad, Mohammad; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan; Dabiri, Hossein; Nochi, Zahra; Pourhoseingholi, Mohammad Amin; Sahebekhtiari, Navid; Habibi, Manijeh; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2010-03-01

    A case-control study was conducted to investigate the epidemiology and clinical features of Blastocystis hominis among Iranian patients with and without GI symptoms. Six hundred and seventy patients with GI and Six hundred and seventy patients without GI symptoms were enrolled as cases and controls respectively during 2006-07. Standard microscopic examinations following in vitro culture were used to examine the stool samples for presence of trophozoites and cysts of B. hominis. Infection with B. hominis occurred most commonly in those with GI symptoms (5.67 %) compared with those patients without GI symptoms (3.43 %). The most common symptom in case group was abdominal pain (86.84 %). B. hominis was mostly found with Giardia lamblia in case group and with Entamoeba coli in control group. In addition, there was no significant relation between the presence of GI symptoms and the incidence of B. hominis. B. hominis has long been described as a non-pathogenic protozoan parasite until recently, when claims have been made that it could result in pathogenic conditions. Thus, to confirm the complication is needed to additional study especially on molecular pathogenesis of this organism.

  19. Body conformation, diet, and risk of breast cancer in pet dogs: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, E G; Glickman, L T; Goldschmidt, M H; McKee, L J

    1991-04-01

    Canine and human breast cancer share several important clinical and histologic features. A case-control study of nutritional factors and canine breast cancer was conducted at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in 1984-1987 by interviewing owners of 150 pet dogs diagnosed with breast cancer, owners of 147 cancer control dogs, and owners of 131 noncancer control dogs. The risk of breast cancer was significantly reduced in dogs spayed at or before 2.5 years of age. Neither a high-fat diet nor obesity 1 year before diagnosis increased the risk of breast cancer according to multiple logistic regression analysis. However, the risk of breast cancer among spayed dogs was significantly reduced in dogs that had been thin at 9-12 months of age (odds ratio (OR) = 0.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.004-0.4) and OR = 0.04 (95% CI 0.004-0.5) for cases vs. cancer controls and cases vs. noncancer controls, respectively, after adjustment for age at spay). Among intact dogs, the risk associated with being thin at 9-12 months of age was reduced, but not significantly so (OR = 0.60 (95% CI 0.2-1.9) and OR = 0.51 (95% CI 0.2-1.4) for the two comparisons, respectively). Results of this study suggest that nutritional factors operating early in life may be of etiologic importance in canine breast cancer.

  20. Case-control study of risk factors for infectious mastitis in Spanish breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediano, Pilar; Fernández, Leónides; Rodríguez, Juan M; Marín, María

    2014-06-06

    The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. We conducted a case-control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that could be involved in mastitis. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the relationship between mastitis and these factors. The variables significantly- and independently-associated with mastitis were cracked nipples (P mastitis in previous lactations (P = 0.0014), breast milk coming in later than 24 h postpartum (P = 0.0016), history of mastitis in the family (P = 0.0028), mother-infant separation longer than 24 h (P = 0.0027), cream on nipples (P = 0.0228) and throat infection (P = 0.0224). Valuable factors related to an increased risk of infectious mastitis have been identified. This knowledge will allow practitioners to provide appropriate management advice about modifiable risk factors, such as the use of pumps or inappropriate medication. They also could identify before delivery those women at an increased risk of developing mastitis, such as those having a familial history of mastitis, and thus develop strategies to prevent this condition.

  1. Alcohol, psychoactive drugs and fatal road traffic accidents in Norway: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Normann, Per T; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Samuelsen, Sven Ove; Mørland, Jørg

    2011-05-01

    A case-control study was conducted on 204 drivers fatally injured in road traffic accidents in south-eastern Norway during the period 2003-2008. Cases from single vehicle accidents (N = 68) were assessed separately. As controls, 10540 drivers selected in a roadside survey in the same geographical area during 2005-2006 were used. Blood samples were collected from the cases and oral fluid (saliva) samples from the controls. Samples were analysed for alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, opioid analgesics, hypnotics, sedatives and a muscle relaxant; altogether 22 psychoactive substances. Equivalent cutoff concentrations for blood and oral fluid were used. The risk for fatal injury in a road traffic accident was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age, season of the year, and time of the week. The odds for involvement in fatal road traffic accidents for different substances or combination of substances were in increasing order: single drug < multiple drugs < alcohol only < alcohol+drugs. For single substance use: medicinal drug or THC < amphetamine/methamphetamine < alcohol. For most substances, higher ORs were found when studying drivers involved in single vehicle accidents than for those involved in multiple vehicle accidents, but confidence intervals were wider. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lifestyle factors and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case-control study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kazushi; Kihira, Tameko; Kondo, Tomoyoshi; Kobashi, Gen; Washio, Masakazu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Naomasa; Inaba, Yutaka; Nagai, Masaki

    2009-06-01

    We examined the associations between lifestyle factors and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using a case-control study in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The study comprised 183 ALS patients diagnosed by the El Escorial World Federation of Neurology criteria as well as 366 gender- and age-matched controls randomly selected from the general population with the use of the basic register of residents. Detailed information on lifestyle factors was obtained through a mailed self-administered questionnaire. The strength of association between ALS and a potential risk factor was assessed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Vigorous physical activity, self reported stress, a type A behavior pattern, and less frequent intakes of green-yellow vegetables were significantly associated with increased risk of ALS, whereas smoking and drinking habits were not. The greatest effect on risk for ALS was posed by the combination of a type A behavior pattern and less frequent intakes of green-yellow vegetables (adjusted OR, 11.2; 95% CI, 3.8 to 33.0). These data suggested that imbalances between excessive productions of oxidants as patient-specific factors and a diminished or missing antioxidant defense system in motor neurons may increase the risk of ALS.

  3. Anxiety and depression predicted by medically unexplained symptoms in Pakistani children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Nazish; Ani, Cornelius; Mahmood, Zahid; Hassan, Khawaja Amjad; Bhatti, Muhammad Riaz

    2014-02-01

    To explore association between medically unexplained symptoms in children in Pakistan with emotional difficulties and functional impairments. We conducted a matched three-group case-control study of 186 children aged 8-16 years in Lahore, Pakistan. Cases were 62 children with chronic somatic symptoms for which no organic cause was identified after investigations. Two control groups of 62 children with chronic medical paediatric conditions, and 62 healthy children were identified. Cases and controls were matched for gender, age, and school class. Somatisation was measured with the Children's Somatisation Inventory (CSI-24) while anxiety and depression were measured with the Spencer Children's Anxiety Scale and the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire respectively. All questionnaires were translated into Urdu. Mean age was 11.7 years (SD=2.1). Cases scored significantly higher on somatisation (CSI-24), anxiety and depression than both control groups. Paediatric controls scored significantly higher than healthy controls on all three measures. Two hierarchical linear regression models were used to explore if somatisation predicted depression and anxiety while controlling for several confounders. Somatisation (higher CSI-24 scores) independently and significantly predicted higher anxiety (β=.37, p=.0001) and depression (β=.41, p=.0001) scores. This is the first study to show an association between medically unexplained symptoms and anxiety and depression in Pakistani children. This highlights the importance of screening for emotional difficulties in children presenting with unexplained somatic symptoms in this region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Modified metabolic syndrome and second cancers in women: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos-Manuel Ortiz-Mendoza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to some studies, the metabolic syndrome causes diverse primary cancers; however, there is no evidence about metabolic syndrome impact on second cancers development in women. Aim: To find out the implication of the modified metabolic syndrome in women with second cancers. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study, at a general hospital in Mexico City, in women with second cancers (cases and age-matched women with only one neoplasm (controls. The analysis comprised: Tumor (s, anthropometric features, and body mass index (BMI; moreover, presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Results: The sample was of nine cases and 27 controls. In cases, the metabolic syndrome (diabetes mellitus or glucose > 99 mg/dL + hypertension or blood pressure ≥ 135/85 mm Hg + triglycerides > 149 mg/dL or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 was more frequent (odds ratio 20.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.9-227.1. Conclusion: Our results suggest that in women, the modified metabolic syndrome may be a risk factor for second cancers.

  5. Lifetime total and beverage specific - alcohol intake and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruba Giuseppe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated lifetime alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk in a case-control study conducted in Buffalo, NY (1998–2001. Methods The study included 88 men, aged 45 to 85 years with incident, histologically-confirmed prostate cancer and 272 controls. We conducted extensive in-person interviews regarding lifetime alcohol consumption and other epidemiologic data. Results Prostate cancer risk was not associated with lifetime intake of total and beverage specific ethanol. In addition we found no association with number of drinks per day (average drinks per day over the lifetime or drinks per drinking day (average drinks per day on drinking days only over the lifetime. However, we observed an inverse association with the total number of drinking years. Men in the lowest tertile of total drinking years had a two-fold prostate cancer risk than men in the highest tertile (OR 2.16, 95% CI 0.98–4.78, p for trend Conclusion Our results suggest that alcohol intake distribution across lifetime may play a more important role in prostate cancer etiology than total lifetime consumption.

  6. Infectious dental diseases in patients with coronary artery disease: an orthopantomographic case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikarinen, Kyosti; Zubaid, Mohammad; Thalib, Lukman; Soikkonen, Kari; Rashed, Wafa; Lie, Tryggve

    2009-02-01

    To investigate a potential association between coronary artery disease (CAD) and a variety of radiographically detectable infectious dental diseases, a hospital-based prospective case-control study was conducted in Kuwait. Eighty-eight consecutive patients with a first attack of unstable angina pectoris or acute myocardial infarction were enrolled as cases and were matched on the basis of age, sex and nationality with control patients who were known not to have CAD. The severity and extent of periodontal bone loss and other radiographic signs of infection in both cases and controls were analyzed with orthopantomograms. More cases than controls had teeth needing extraction (p = 0.043), periapical lesions (p = 0.028), molars with furcation lesions (p or = 6 mm (p = 0.001) and teeth with angular (vertical) bone loss (p periodontitis (p lesions (p = 0.008). In summary, there was a significant association between radiographically diagnosed periodontal diseases and CAD. These results should not be regarded as indicating a causal relationship, especially given that the diagnosis of periodontitis was based only on a radiographic examination. The true impact of oral infections on CAD should be examined in a large prospective clinical and interventional study.

  7. Dietary fiber and stomach cancer risk: a case-control study from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Francesca; Scotti, Lorenza; Bosetti, Cristina; Bertuccio, Paola; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-08-01

    Fiber intake has been inversely related to stomach cancer risk, although this issue is still controversial. A case-control study was conducted in Italy between 1997 and 2007, including 230 cases with incident, histologically confirmed stomach cancer, and 547 controls with acute, non-neoplastic diseases. Dietary habits were investigated through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Compared with the lowest quintile of intake, the multivariate odds ratios (ORs, including terms for major recognised confounding factors and total energy intake) for the highest quintile were 0.47 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28-0.79) for total fiber, 0.50 (95% CI: 0.30-0.85) for soluble non-cellulose polysaccharides (NCP), 0.39 (95% CI: 0.23-0.66) for total insoluble fiber, 0.54 (95% CI: 0.32-0.91) for insoluble NCP, 0.37 (95% CI: 0.22-0.64) for cellulose, and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.36-0.98) for lignin. With reference to the sources of fiber, an inverse association was found for fiber from vegetable (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.24-0.72), and to a lesser extent from fruit (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.38-1.10), but not for fiber from grain (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.77-2.03). This study found an inverse relationship between stomach cancer risk and various types of fiber, derived, in particular, from vegetables and fruit.

  8. Systemic Inflammation after Third Molar Removal: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, F; D'Aiuto, F; Gennai, S; Petrini, M; Nisi, M; Cirigliano, N; Landini, L; Bruno, R M; Taddei, S; Ghiadoni, L

    2017-12-01

    Third molar extraction is one of the most frequent interventions in dentistry. Nevertheless, there is scarce evidence on the host response of individuals with impacted or semi-impacted third molars and the possible effects of surgical removal. A case-control study of 40 patients was designed to evaluate 1) the differences in biomarkers of systemic inflammation, vascular function, and metabolism (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, lipids, fibrinogen, oxidative stress, and endothelial function analysis) and 2) the acute and short-term effects of surgical removal in patients with bilateral impacted or semi-impacted third molars compared to controls with no third molars. Patients undergoing third molar extraction exhibited greater levels of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and triglycerides than controls. Raised white blood cell counts as well as peaks of serum levels of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen were noticed in the first postoperative week. Three months after the extraction, all markers returned to baseline values. Malondialdehyde, an indicator of oxidative stress indicator, was significantly reduced after third molar removal. Semi-impacted or impacted third molars are associated with higher systemic inflammation, and their removal may represent a useful human model to study acute inflammation and determine beneficial systemic effects ( ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03048175).

  9. Organochlorine pesticides accumulation and breast cancer: A hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ting-Ting; Zuo, An-Jun; Wang, Ji-Gang; Zhao, Peng

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to detect the accumulation status of organochlorine pesticides in breast cancer patients and to explore the relationship between organochlorine pesticides contamination and breast cancer development. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in 56 patients with breast cancer and 46 patients with benign breast disease. We detected the accumulation level of several organochlorine pesticides products (β-hexachlorocyclohexane, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, polychlorinated biphenyls-28, polychlorinated biphenyls-52, pentachlorothioanisole, and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) in breast adipose tissues of all 102 patients using gas chromatography. Thereafter, we examined the expression status of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), and Ki-67 in 56 breast cancer cases by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we analyzed the risk of breast cancer in those patients with organochlorine pesticides contamination using a logistic regression model. Our data showed that breast cancer patients suffered high accumulation levels of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52. However, the concentrations of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52 were not related to clinicopathologic parameters of breast cancer. Further logistic regression analysis showed polychlorinated biphenyls-52 and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane were risk factors for breast cancer. Our results provide new evidence on etiology of breast cancer.

  10. Exposure to pistachio pesticides and stillbirth: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Saeid; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Dehkordi, Fatemeh Ghani; Manshoori, Azita; Goujani, Reza; Vazirinejad, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Stillbirth is an undesirable outcome of pregnancy. In light of the increasing use of pesticides and growing concerns about the possible health effects of agricultural pesticides, we investigated the effect of exposure to pistachio pesticides on stillbirth in pregnant mothers. This case-control study was conducted in Rafsanjan, Iran from 2011 to 2012. A total of 125 females who had a recent stillbirth were included as the case group, and 250 controls were selected from females who had a recent live birth. For each case, two controls with the nearest propensity score to the case were selected. Data were collected using a protocol developed by the researcher that involved interviewing respondents and reviewing their medical records. Conditional multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis were performed and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The ORs of stillbirth in mothers living in pistachio gardens and those who were exposed to sprayed pesticides, in comparison to the controls, were 14.1 (95% CI, 3.3 to 63.4) and 5.0 (95% CI, 1.2 to 28.6), respectively. No significant differences were found in stillbirth rates according to the distance between the mother's residence and a pistachio garden or involvement in agricultural activities. The results of our study showed that exposure to pistachio pesticides during pregnancy may increase the likelihood of stillbirth in mothers.

  11. Dental x-rays and the risk of thyroid cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Anjum; Godward, Sara; Williams, Dillwyn; Siddique, Iqbal; Al-Saleh, Khalid

    2010-05-01

    The thyroid gland is highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis and exposure to high-dose ionising radiation is the only established cause of thyroid cancer. Dental radiography, a common source of low-dose diagnostic radiation exposure in the general population, is often overlooked as a radiation hazard to the gland and may be associated with the risk of thyroid cancer. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has been reported in dentists, dental assistants, and x-ray workers; and exposure to dental x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of meningiomas and salivary tumours. To examine whether exposure to dental x-rays was associated with the risk of thyroid cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control interview study among 313 patients with thyroid cancer and a similar number of individually matched (year of birth +/- three years, gender, nationality, district of residence) control subjects in Kuwait. Conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for other upper-body x-rays, showed that exposure to dental x-rays was significantly associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.1) (p=0.001) with a dose-response pattern (p for trend dental x-rays, particularly multiple exposures, may be associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer; and warrant further study in settings where historical dental x-ray records may be available.

  12. Pernicious anemia and colorectal cancer risk - A nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursi, Ben; Mamtani, Ronac; Haynes, Kevin; Yang, Yu-Xiao

    2016-11-01

    Hypergastrinemia was shown to stimulate colonic epithelial cell proliferation. To evaluate the association between pernicious anemia (PA), a disease with hypergastrinemia, and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We conducted a nested case-control study within a large database from the UK. Cases were defined as all individuals in the cohort with at least one medical code for CRC. Controls were selected based on incidence-density sampling. For each case, up to four eligible controls were matched on age at diagnosis, sex, practice-site, and both duration and calendar time of follow-up. Exposure of interest was diagnosis of PA prior to CRC diagnosis date. The primary analysis was a multivariable conditional logistic regression. Our study included 22,098 CRC cases and 85,969 matched controls. We identified 154 (0.70%) cases and 563 (0.65%) controls with past history of PA. The adjusted OR for the association between PA and CRC risk was 1.02 (95% CI 0.85-1.22). There was no difference in the results after stratification according to sex. In a sensitivity analysis only among individuals without chronic use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) the adjusted OR was 1.14 (95% CI 0.90-1.45). There was no association between duration of PA and CRC risk. PA is not associated with higher CRC risk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Genetics of Myasthenia Gravis: A Case-Control Association Study in the Hellenic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Zagoriti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis (MG is an heterogeneous autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies against proteins of the postsynaptic membrane, in the neuromuscular junction. The contribution of genetic factors to MG susceptibility has been evaluated through family and twin studies however, the precise genetic background of the disease remains elusive. We conducted a case-control association study in 101 unrelated MG patients of Hellenic origin and 101 healthy volunteers in order to assess the involvement of common genetic variants in susceptibility to MG. We focused on three candidate genes which have been clearly associated with several autoimmune diseases, aiming to investigate their potential implication in MG pathogenesis. These are interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5, TNFα-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, also known as A20, and interleukin-10 (IL-10, key molecules in the regulation of immune function. A statistical trend of association (P=0.068 between IL-10 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the subgroups of early and late-onset MG patients was revealed. No statistically significant differences were observed in the rest of the variants examined. As far as we are aware, this is the first worldwide attempt to address the possible association between IRF-5 and TNFAIP3 common genetic variants and the genetic basis of MG.

  14. Oral contraception and risk of a cerebral thromboembolic attack: results of a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidegaard, O

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the risk of cerebral thromboembolism in women using low dose oral contraceptives. DESIGN--A retrospective case-control study. SETTING--All Danish medical, neurological, neurosurgical, and gynaecological departments. SUBJECTS--All 794 women in Denmark aged 15-44 who had suffered a cerebral thromboembolic attack during 1985-9 and 1588 age matched randomly selected controls. RESULTS--Of 692/1584 case/control questionnaires sent out, 590/1396 (85.3%/88.1%) were returned. Among the cases, 15 refused to participate, 69 had a revised or unreliable diagnosis, 40 had had thromboembolic disease previously, 13 were pregnant, and 152 had a disease predisposing to a cerebral thromboembolic attack. Of the 323 cases without a known predisposition, 320 reported use or non-use of oral contraception. Among the 1396 controls, eight refused to participate, were mentally retarded, or lived abroad; 18 returned an uncompleted questionnaire; 17 had had thromboembolic disease previously; 31 were pregnant; and 130 had a disease predisposing to a cerebral thromboembolic attack. Thus 1198 non-predisposed controls were available, among whom 1197 reported use or non-use of oral contraception. Among the 320 cases, 116 (36.3%) were oral contraceptive users at the time of the cerebral thromboembolic attack. By comparison there were 191 users (16.0%) among the 1197 controls, giving a crude odds ratio of 3.0. After multivariate analysis, including confounder control for age, smoking, years of schooling, and trend in use of different types of oral contraceptives during 1985-90, pills containing 50 micrograms oestrogen were associated with an odds ratio for cerebral thromboembolic attack of 2.9 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 5.4), those containing 30-40 micrograms oestrogen an odds ratio of 1.8 (1.1 to 2.9), those containing progestogen only an odds ratio of 0.9 (0.4 to 2.4). The odds ratio did not change with increasing age or with duration of oral contraceptive use. A 50

  15. A metagenomics and case-control study to identify viruses associated with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Kondov, Nikola O; Deng, Xutao; Van Eenennaam, Alison; Neibergs, Holly L; Delwart, Eric

    2015-05-01

    -matched animals, we compared the rates of viral detection and identified 3 viruses associated with severe BRD signs. Combining a metagenomics and case-control format can provide candidate pathogens associated with complex infectious diseases and inform further studies aimed at reducing their impact. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Oral contraception and risk of a cerebral thromboembolic attack: results of a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidegaard, O

    1993-04-10

    To assess the risk of cerebral thromboembolism in women using low dose oral contraceptives. A retrospective case-control study. All Danish medical, neurological, neurosurgical, and gynaecological departments. All 794 women in Denmark aged 15-44 who had suffered a cerebral thromboembolic attack during 1985-9 and 1588 age matched randomly selected controls. Of 692/1584 case/control questionnaires sent out, 590/1396 (85.3%/88.1%) were returned. Among the cases, 15 refused to participate, 69 had a revised or unreliable diagnosis, 40 had had thromboembolic disease previously, 13 were pregnant, and 152 had a disease predisposing to a cerebral thromboembolic attack. Of the 323 cases without a known predisposition, 320 reported use or non-use of oral contraception. Among the 1396 controls, eight refused to participate, were mentally retarded, or lived abroad; 18 returned an uncompleted questionnaire; 17 had had thromboembolic disease previously; 31 were pregnant; and 130 had a disease predisposing to a cerebral thromboembolic attack. Thus 1198 non-predisposed controls were available, among whom 1197 reported use or non-use of oral contraception. Among the 320 cases, 116 (36.3%) were oral contraceptive users at the time of the cerebral thromboembolic attack. By comparison there were 191 users (16.0%) among the 1197 controls, giving a crude odds ratio of 3.0. After multivariate analysis, including confounder control for age, smoking, years of schooling, and trend in use of different types of oral contraceptives during 1985-90, pills containing 50 micrograms oestrogen were associated with an odds ratio for cerebral thromboembolic attack of 2.9 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 5.4), those containing 30-40 micrograms oestrogen an odds ratio of 1.8 (1.1 to 2.9), those containing progestogen only an odds ratio of 0.9 (0.4 to 2.4). The odds ratio did not change with increasing age or with duration of oral contraceptive use. A 50% increased risk of a cerebral thromboembolic attacks

  17. Source attribution of human salmonellosis using a meta-analysis of case-control studies of sporadic infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is an important cause of human illness. Disease is frequently associated with foodborne transmission, but other routes of exposure are recognized. Identifying sources of disease is essential for prioritizing public health interventions. Numerous case-control studies of sporadic......-control studies and a meta-analysis of obtained results. Thirty-five Salmonella case-control studies were identified. In the meta-analysis, heterogeneity between studies and possible sources of bias were investigated, and pooled odds ratios estimated. Results suggested that travel, predisposing factors, eating...

  18. [The evaluation of the risk factors for congenital hypothyroidism: the outlook of a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandolfo, M E; Sagliocca, L; Stazi, M A; Medda, E; Olivieri, A; Sorcini, M

    1994-01-01

    The availability of a National Register of congenital hypothyroid infants allowed to perform descriptive studies on characteristics of the cases and the efficiency of the neonatal screening. Continuous and exhaustive recording of data concerning congenital hypothyroidism cases provided valuable epidemiological informations about congenital hypothyroidism in Italy. Moreover, the National Register allowed to develop a network of collaboration which can promote a population based case-control study. As the etiopathogenesis of congenital hypothyroidism has not been completely elucidated, performing of a case-control study can contribute to evidence the most important risk factors of congenital hypothyroidism and to improve the prevention also by prenatal diagnosis of this disease. Screening centers will be involved in the study and questionnaires of the National Register for congenital hypothyroidism will be used to record case and control informations. A biological bank concerning cases, controls and their parents, will be organized.