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Sample records for canadian cancer control

  1. Modeling Canadian Quality Control Test Program for Steroid Hormone Receptors in Breast Cancer: Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Teresa; Makrestsov, Nikita; Garatt, John; Torlakovic, Emina; Gilks, C Blake; Mallett, Susan

    The Canadian Immunohistochemistry Quality Control program monitors clinical laboratory performance for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor tests used in breast cancer treatment management in Canada. Current methods assess sensitivity and specificity at each time point, compared with a reference standard. We investigate alternative performance analysis methods to enhance the quality assessment. We used 3 methods of analysis: meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity of each laboratory across all time points; sensitivity and specificity at each time point for each laboratory; and fitting models for repeated measurements to examine differences between laboratories adjusted by test and time point. Results show 88 laboratories participated in quality control at up to 13 time points using typically 37 to 54 histology samples. In meta-analysis across all time points no laboratories have sensitivity or specificity below 80%. Current methods, presenting sensitivity and specificity separately for each run, result in wide 95% confidence intervals, typically spanning 15% to 30%. Models of a single diagnostic outcome demonstrated that 82% to 100% of laboratories had no difference to reference standard for estrogen receptor and 75% to 100% for progesterone receptor, with the exception of 1 progesterone receptor run. Laboratories with significant differences to reference standard identified with Generalized Estimating Equation modeling also have reduced performance by meta-analysis across all time points. The Canadian Immunohistochemistry Quality Control program has a good design, and with this modeling approach has sufficient precision to measure performance at each time point and allow laboratories with a significantly lower performance to be targeted for advice.

  2. Spatiotemporal air pollution exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystad, Perry; Demers, Paul A; Johnson, Kenneth C; Brook, Jeff; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lamsal, Lok; Martin, Randall; Brauer, Michael

    2012-04-04

    Few epidemiological studies of air pollution have used residential histories to develop long-term retrospective exposure estimates for multiple ambient air pollutants and vehicle and industrial emissions. We present such an exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study of 8353 individuals using self-reported residential histories from 1975 to 1994. We also examine the implications of disregarding and/or improperly accounting for residential mobility in long-term exposure assessments. National spatial surfaces of ambient air pollution were compiled from recent satellite-based estimates (for PM2.5 and NO2) and a chemical transport model (for O3). The surfaces were adjusted with historical annual air pollution monitoring data, using either spatiotemporal interpolation or linear regression. Model evaluation was conducted using an independent ten percent subset of monitoring data per year. Proximity to major roads, incorporating a temporal weighting factor based on Canadian mobile-source emission estimates, was used to estimate exposure to vehicle emissions. A comprehensive inventory of geocoded industries was used to estimate proximity to major and minor industrial emissions. Calibration of the national PM2.5 surface using annual spatiotemporal interpolation predicted historical PM2.5 measurement data best (R2 = 0.51), while linear regression incorporating the national surfaces, a time-trend and population density best predicted historical concentrations of NO2 (R2 = 0.38) and O3 (R2 = 0.56). Applying the models to study participants residential histories between 1975 and 1994 resulted in mean PM2.5, NO2 and O3 exposures of 11.3 μg/m3 (SD = 2.6), 17.7 ppb (4.1), and 26.4 ppb (3.4) respectively. On average, individuals lived within 300 m of a highway for 2.9 years (15% of exposure-years) and within 3 km of a major industrial emitter for 6.4 years (32% of exposure-years). Approximately 50% of individuals were classified into a

  3. Conceptual and practical challenges for implementing the communities of practice model on a national scale - a Canadian cancer control initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browman George P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer program delivery, like the rest of health care in Canada, faces two ongoing challenges: to coordinate a pan-Canadian approach across complex provincial jurisdictions, and to facilitate the rapid translation of knowledge into clinical practice. Communities of practice, or CoPs, which have been described by Etienne Wenger as a collaborative learning platform, represent a promising solution to these challenges because they rely on bottom-up rather than top-down social structures for integrating knowledge and practice across regions and agencies. The communities of practice model has been realized in the corporate (e.g., Royal Dutch Shell, Xerox, IBM, etc and development (e.g., World Bank sectors, but its application to health care is relatively new. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (CPAC is exploring the potential of Wenger's concept in the Canadian health care context. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of Wenger's concept with a focus on its applicability to the health care sector. Discussion Empirical studies and social science theory are used to examine the utility of Wenger's concept. Its value lies in emphasizing learning from peers and through practice in settings where innovation is valued. Yet the communities of practice concept lacks conceptual clarity because Wenger defines it so broadly and sidelines issues of decision making within CoPs. We consider the implications of his broad definition to establishing an informed nomenclature around this specific type of collaborative group. The CoP Project under CPAC and communities of practice in Canadian health care are discussed. Summary The use of communities of practice in Canadian health care has been shown in some instances to facilitate quality improvements, encourage buy in among participants, and generate high levels of satisfaction with clinical leadership and knowledge translation among participating physicians. Despite these individual success

  4. Spatiotemporal air pollution exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hystad Perry

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few epidemiological studies of air pollution have used residential histories to develop long-term retrospective exposure estimates for multiple ambient air pollutants and vehicle and industrial emissions. We present such an exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study of 8353 individuals using self-reported residential histories from 1975 to 1994. We also examine the implications of disregarding and/or improperly accounting for residential mobility in long-term exposure assessments. Methods National spatial surfaces of ambient air pollution were compiled from recent satellite-based estimates (for PM2.5 and NO2 and a chemical transport model (for O3. The surfaces were adjusted with historical annual air pollution monitoring data, using either spatiotemporal interpolation or linear regression. Model evaluation was conducted using an independent ten percent subset of monitoring data per year. Proximity to major roads, incorporating a temporal weighting factor based on Canadian mobile-source emission estimates, was used to estimate exposure to vehicle emissions. A comprehensive inventory of geocoded industries was used to estimate proximity to major and minor industrial emissions. Results Calibration of the national PM2.5 surface using annual spatiotemporal interpolation predicted historical PM2.5 measurement data best (R2 = 0.51, while linear regression incorporating the national surfaces, a time-trend and population density best predicted historical concentrations of NO2 (R2 = 0.38 and O3 (R2 = 0.56. Applying the models to study participants residential histories between 1975 and 1994 resulted in mean PM2.5, NO2 and O3 exposures of 11.3 μg/m3 (SD = 2.6, 17.7 ppb (4.1, and 26.4 ppb (3.4 respectively. On average, individuals lived within 300 m of a highway for 2.9 years (15% of exposure-years and within 3 km of a major industrial emitter for 6.4 years (32% of exposure-years. Approximately 50

  5. Canadian survey of thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, W. John; McKinney, Steven E.

    1985-01-01

    We report the results of a multicentre retrospective chart review of 2214 patients with thyroid cancer registered at 13 radiotherapy centres between 1958 and 1978. The data analysed included sex, age at the time of diagnosis, pathological diagnosis, extent of disease before treatment, types of treatment and their complications, and the rates of recurrence and survival up to 24 years after diagnosis. Although papillary cancers were most common, anaplastic and miscellaneous tumours were more frequent than expected, which reflects the type of patients referred by endocrinologists and surgeons to radiotherapy centres. There were marked differences in patterns of referral to the centres. Some patients with papillary and follicular thyroid cancers died of these cancers up to 20 years after diagnosis. The clinical manifestations, treatment and outcome of the rarer types of thyroid malignant tumours were of particular interest. The influence of age at the time of diagnosis on survival rates for patients with papillary or follicular thyroid cancer was highly significant, indicating much more aggressive behaviour of these cancers in older patients, particularly those beyond the age of 60 years. A more detailed analysis of tumour subtypes should provide new information on their natural history and lead to better management. PMID:3978516

  6. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation: Guidelines on Colon Cancer Screening

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    Desmond Leddin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer affecting both men and women in Canada. Many of these cancers are preventable, and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation (CDHF strongly support the establishment of screening programs for colorectal cancer. These guidelines discuss a number of screening options, listing the advantages and disadvantages of each. Ultimately, the test that is used for screening should be determined by patient preference, current evidence and local resources.

  7. Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors: a Canadian case–control study

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    Brophy James T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours. Methods 1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1146 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case–control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration. Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82; bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 0.94-5.53; automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.47-4.88, food canning (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.00-5.53, and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02-2.92. Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 1.58-14.4 and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95% CI, 1.03-31.5. Conclusions These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and

  8. Using Simulation to Model and Validate Invasive Breast Cancer Progression in Women in the Study and Control Groups of the Canadian National Breast Screening Studies I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Sharareh; Caudrelier, Laurent N; Miller, Anthony B; Harvey, Bart

    2017-02-01

    Modeling breast cancer progression and the effect of various risk is helpful in deciding when a woman should start and end screening, and how often the screening should be undertaken. We modeled the natural progression of breast cancer using a hidden Markov process, and incorporated the effects of covariates. Patients are women aged 50-59 (older) and 40-49 (younger) years from the Canadian National Breast Screening Studies. We included prevalent cancers, estimated the screening sensitivities and rates of over-diagnosis, and validated the models using simulation. We found that older women have a higher rate of transition from a healthy to preclinical state and other causes of death but a lower rate of transition from preclinical to clinical state. Reciprocally, younger women have a lower rate of transition from a healthy to preclinical state and other causes of death but a higher rate of transition from a preclinical to clinical state. Different risk factors were significant for the age groups. The mean sojourn times for older and younger women were 2.53 and 2.96 years, respectively. In the study group, the sensitivities of the initial physical examination and mammography for older and younger women were 0.87 and 0.81, respectively, and the sensitivity of the subsequent screens were 0.78 and 0.53, respectively. In the control groups, the sensitivities of the initial physical examination for older and younger women were 0.769 and 0.671, respectively, and the sensitivity of the subsequent physical examinations for the control group aged 50-59 years was 0.37. The upper-bounds for over-diagnosis in older and younger women were 25% and 27%, respectively. The present work offers a basis for the better modeling of cancer incidence for a population with the inclusion of prevalent cancers.

  9. Conceptual and practical challenges for implementing the communities of practice model on a national scale--a Canadian cancer control initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Colene; Browman, George P; Poole, Barbara

    2010-01-05

    Cancer program delivery, like the rest of health care in Canada, faces two ongoing challenges: to coordinate a pan-Canadian approach across complex provincial jurisdictions, and to facilitate the rapid translation of knowledge into clinical practice. Communities of practice, or CoPs, which have been described by Etienne Wenger as a collaborative learning platform, represent a promising solution to these challenges because they rely on bottom-up rather than top-down social structures for integrating knowledge and practice across regions and agencies. The communities of practice model has been realized in the corporate (e.g., Royal Dutch Shell, Xerox, IBM, etc) and development (e.g., World Bank) sectors, but its application to health care is relatively new. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (CPAC) is exploring the potential of Wenger's concept in the Canadian health care context. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of Wenger's concept with a focus on its applicability to the health care sector. Empirical studies and social science theory are used to examine the utility of Wenger's concept. Its value lies in emphasizing learning from peers and through practice in settings where innovation is valued. Yet the communities of practice concept lacks conceptual clarity because Wenger defines it so broadly and sidelines issues of decision making within CoPs. We consider the implications of his broad definition to establishing an informed nomenclature around this specific type of collaborative group. The CoP Project under CPAC and communities of practice in Canadian health care are discussed. The use of communities of practice in Canadian health care has been shown in some instances to facilitate quality improvements, encourage buy in among participants, and generate high levels of satisfaction with clinical leadership and knowledge translation among participating physicians. Despite these individual success stories, more information is required on how group

  10. Diet and Blood Pressure Control in Chinese Canadians: Cultural Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in Chinese Canadians and diet has been identified as an important modifiable risk factor for hypertension. The current anti-hypertensive dietary recommendations in hypertension care guidelines lack examination of cultural factors, are not culturally sensitive to ethnic populations, and cannot be translated to Chinese Canadian populations without cultural considerations. Guided by Leininger's Sunrise Model of culture care theory, this paper investigates how cultural factors impact Chinese Canadians' dietary practice. It is proposed that English language proficiency, health literacy, traditional Chinese diet, migration and acculturation, and Traditional Chinese Medicine influence Chinese Canadians' dietary practices. A culturally congruent nursing intervention should be established and tailored according to related cultural factors to facilitate Chinese Canadians' blood pressure control. In addition, further study is needed to test the model adapted from Sunrise Model and understand its mechanism.

  11. Canadian women opting for less effective birth control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lauren Vogel

    2017-01-01

    More Canadian women are relying on less effective methods of birth control and are using them less consistently than they did a decade ago, according to the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC...

  12. Predictors of competing mortality to invasive breast cancer incidence in the Canadian National Breast Screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghipour Sharareh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of breast cancer screening requires estimates of the absolute risk of breast cancer, which is modified by various risk factors. Breast cancer incidence, and thus mortality, is altered by the occurrence of competing events. More accurate estimates of competing risks should improve the estimation of absolute risk of breast cancer and benefit from breast cancer screening, leading to more effective preventive, diagnostic, and treatment policies. We have previously described the effect of breast cancer risk factors on breast cancer incidence in the presence of competing risks. In this study, we investigate the association of the same risk factors with mortality as a competing event with breast cancer incidence. Methods We use data from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study, consisting of two randomized controlled trials, which included data on 39 risk factors for breast cancer. The participants were followed up for the incidence of breast cancer and mortality due to breast cancer and other causes. We stratified all-cause mortality into death from other types of cancer and death from non-cancer causes. We conducted separate analyses for cause-specific mortalities. Results We found that “age at entry” is a significant factor for all-cause mortality, and cancer-specific and non-cancer mortality. “Menstruation length” and “number of live births” are significant factors for all-cause mortality, and cancer-specific mortality. “Ever noted lumps in right/left breasts” is a factor associated with all-cause mortality, and non-cancer mortality. Conclusions For proper estimation of absolute risk of the main event of interest common risk factors associated with competing events should be identified and considered.

  13. Coalition command and control: a Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Robert; Demers, David; Gouin, Denis; McCann, Carol; Nourry, Gerard; Pigeau, Ross; Smith, Donald L.; Vezina, Guy; Walker, Robert S.

    1998-08-01

    Canada has been, and remains, committed to participating in coalition operations to promote peace and stability in the post-Cold War world. However, coalition operations challenge traditional command and control concepts, from both the technological and the human perspectives. In the short term, Canada is working closely with traditional NATO and ABCA allies to ensure that the next generation of automated C2 information systems are able to exchange information effectively through structured messages, gateways and standardized data models. Canada is also conducting R&D, and participating in collaborative experiments, to evolve the next generation of systems to permit richer, more dynamic information sharing, along the lines of the Internet and World Wide Web. However, information technology alone will not solve the problems of coalition operations. Research needs to be undertaken to understand task assignment and information flow among coalition partners at the process or operational level. Research is also required at the human level, where differences between coalition partners in culture, personal values, military expectations, religions, and societal values are proving to be less tractable than differences in message formats and communication protocols.

  14. Taenia ovis infection and its control: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wolf, B D; Peregrine, A S; Jones-Bitton, A; Jansen, J T; Menzies, P I

    2014-01-01

    Distributed worldwide, Taenia ovis infection is responsible for the condemnation of sheep carcasses in many countries. This review highlights the programme used in New Zealand to successfully control T. ovis in sheep, and discusses how similar approaches may be modified for use in Canada, given what is currently known about the epidemiology of T. ovis. The lifecycle of the parasite is well known, involving dogs as the definitive host and sheep or goats as the intermediate host. An effective vaccine does exist, although it is not presently commercially available. In New Zealand an industry-based, non-regulatory programme was created to educate producers about T. ovis and necessary control strategies, including the need to treat farm dogs with cestocides regularly. This programme resulted in a substantial decrease in the prevalence of T. ovis infections between 1991 and 2012. Historically, T. ovis was not a concern for the Canadian sheep industry, but more recently the percentage of lamb condemnations due to T. ovis has increased from 1.5% in 2006 to 55% in 2012. It has been suggested that coyotes may be transmitting T. ovis, but this has not been confirmed. Recommendation are made for the Canadian sheep industry to adopt a control programme similar to that used in New Zealand in order to reduce the prevalence of T. ovis infection.

  15. Canadian Cancer Programs Are Struggling to Invest in Development of Future Leaders: Results of a Pan-Canadian Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nadir; Ghatage, Lena; Craighead, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Cancer agencies within Canada operate with a variety of leadership models, assuming that future leaders are identified, developed and supported by institutions other than their own. A literature review, comprehensive survey and structured interviews were conducted to illuminate the perceptions of leadership in Canadian cancer centres. The major finding from the study is the significant gap between the competencies that leaders acknowledge as being important and the lack of development programs for future and current leaders. The study also showed there is agreement on preferred leadership models and the personal traits that identify future leaders worthy of development. Given the current struggles of leadership, the authors suggest that cancer agencies need to strategize how to advance succession planning and leadership development frameworks.

  16. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and the risk of lung cancer in Canadian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachuri, Linda; Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Johnson, Kenneth C; Harris, Shelley A

    2014-07-01

    Crystalline silica is a recognized carcinogen, but the association with lung cancer at lower levels of exposure has not been well characterized. This study investigated the relationship between occupational silica exposure and lung cancer and the combined effects of cigarette smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risk. A population-based case-control study was conducted in eight Canadian provinces between 1994 and 1997. Self-reported questionnaires were used to obtain a lifetime occupational history and information on other risk factors. Occupational hygienists assigned silica exposures to each job based on concentration, frequency and reliability. Data from 1681 incident lung cancer cases and 2053 controls were analyzed using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Models included adjustments for cigarette smoking, lifetime residential second-hand smoke and occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions. Relative to the unexposed, increasing duration of silica exposure at any concentration was associated with a significant trend in lung cancer risk (OR ≥ 30 years: 1.67, 1.21-2.24; ptrend  = 0.002). The highest tertile of cumulative silica exposure was associated with lung cancer (OR = 1.81, 1.34-2.42; ptrend  = 0.004) relative to the lowest. Men exposed to silica for ≥30 years with ≥40 cigarette pack-years had the highest risk relative to those unexposed with silica is a risk factor for lung cancer, independently from active and passive smoking, as well as from exposure to other lung carcinogens. © 2013 UICC.

  17. Skin deep: Coverage of skin cancer and recreational tanning in Canadian women's magazines (2000-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2015-06-18

    Skin cancer is a significant public health problem among Canadians. Knowledge and attitudes about health are informed by mass media. The aim of our study was to describe the volume and nature of coverage of skin cancer and recreational tanning in Canadian women's magazines. Directed content analysis on article text and images in six popular Canadian women's magazines (Chatelaine, Canadian Living, Homemakers, Flare, FASHION, ELLE Canada) from 2000-2012 with attention to risk factors, ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure and protection behaviours, and early detection. Six popular American women's magazines were used for a between-country comparison. There were 154 articles (221 images) about skin cancer and tanning published over 13 years. Volume of coverage did not increase in a linear fashion over time. The most common risk factor reported on was UV exposure (39%), with other risk factors less frequently identified. Although 72% of articles promoted sunscreen use, little content encouraged other protection behaviours. Only 15% of articles and 1% of images discouraged indoor tanning, while 41% of articles and 53% of images promoted the tanned look as attractive. Few articles (<11%) reported on early detection. Relative to American magazines, Canadian magazines had a greater proportion of content that encouraged sunscreen use and promoted the tanned look and a lesser proportion of content on risk factors and early detection. Skin cancer and tanning messages in Canadian women's magazines had a narrow focus and provided limited information on risk factors or screening. Conflicting messages about prevention (text vs. images) may contribute to harmful UV behaviours among Canadian women.

  18. Role of Computed Tomography and Mediastinoscopy in the Staging of Lung Cancer: A Canadian Opinion Poll

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    Graham L Jones

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To address the Canadian Lung Oncology group’s recently published results and recommendations suggesting that mediastinoscopy is unnecessary in the staging nonsmall cell lung cancer when computed tomography shows no enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes (larger than 1 cm in short axis; to evaluate the practice of thoracic surgeons across Canada in staging presumably operable lung cancer; and to assess the effect of the Canadian Lung Oncology Group’s recommendations on current thoracic surgical practice in Canada.

  19. Benchmarking quality for renal cancer surgery: Canadian Kidney Cancer information system (CKCis) perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Keith A; Saarela, Olli; Liu, Zhihui; Lavallée, Luke T; Breau, Rodney H; Wood, Lori; Jewett, Michael A S; Kapoor, Anil; Tanguay, Simon; Moore, Ronald B; Rendon, Ricardo; Pouliot, Frederic; Black, Peter C; Kawakami, Jun; Drachenberg, Darrel; Finelli, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    There is a lack of validated quality metrics to evaluate the care of patients receiving surgery for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). To address this, the Kidney Cancer Research Network of Canada defined a list of quality indicators (QI) to assess hospital-level performance. We have case-mix adjusted these QIs to benchmark RCC surgical care at Canadian academic centres. The Canadian Kidney Cancer information system (CKCis) was used to measure six QIs: laparoscopic approach proportion (LA), partial nephrectomy proportion (PN), partial nephrectomy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKDPN), positive margin rate (PMR), partial nephrectomy complication rate (PNCx), and warm ischemia time (WIT). To benchmark performance, indirect standardization (observed-to-expected ratio) methodology was employed using multivariate regression models. Multivariate models for LA, PN, and CKDPN demonstrated good discrimination and were used for benchmarking. National averages of 74% (70-78%), 73% (70-75%), and 70% (67-74%) for the LA, PN, and CKDPN QIs, respectively, were determined and used to benchmark individual hospital performance. Overall, three (23%), two (15%), and two (15%) hospitals performed below expected for LA, PN, and CKDPN, respectively. Hospital identity was an independent predictor of LA, PN, and CKDPN (p<0.001). Significant variability between CKCis hospitals for three RCC surgical QIs exists. Using the CKCis infrastructure may provide a framework for institution-level audit feedback for quality improvement. Greater CKCis capture rates and further data supporting the construct validity of these QIs are required to extend the use of this dataset to real-world quality initiatives.

  20. A qualitative exploration of fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) amongst Australian and Canadian breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewes, B; Lebel, S; Seguin Leclair, C; Butow, P

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have explored coping strategies used by cancer survivors to deal with fear of cancer recurrence (FCR), and little research has been conducted on the specific content of recurrence fears. This study aims to qualitatively explore the strategies used by younger breast cancer survivors to cope with FCR and whether women with low, medium and high levels of FCR employ different coping strategies. An additional aim was to understand the specific content of worst recurrence fears. Twenty Australian and 10 Canadian women aged ≤ 45 years diagnosed with stages 0-II disease at least 1 year prior completed telephone interviews. The transcripts of audio-taped interviews were analysed using the qualitative methodology of transcendental realism. Women with higher FCR described using distraction and avoidance and fewer coping skills. The fear of death was a common worst fear at all levels of FCR. However, participants with higher FCR described more elaborate fears of death often involving themes of pain and suffering. Cross-cultural differences were not observed. Women with higher FCR report using fewer and more avoidance-based coping techniques. Whilst many participants feared death, those with higher FCR reported more elaborate death fears. Women with high levels of FCR may benefit from learning a greater repertoire of coping skills. Understanding the specific content of FCR can help refine existing psychological treatment protocols for FCR. Implications for FCR treatment are discussed.

  1. Adherence over time to cervical cancer screening guidelines: insights from the Canadian National Population Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Catherine; McLeish, Kendra; Fuller-Thomson, Esme

    2012-02-01

    A substantial percentage of North American women are nonadherent to cervical cancer screening guidelines despite the effectiveness of the Papinicolaou (pap) test for papillomavirus. Our objective was to determine factors associated with changes in adherence for cervical cancer screening guidelines over a 14-year period. Using data from cycles 1 (1994-1995) through 7 (2006-2007) of the Canadian National Population Health Survey, we used logistic regression to compare the regularity of pap testing (at least once every 36 months) among women. We compared women with increasing adherence to pap testing guidelines to those who were never adherent, and women with decreasing adherence to those who were always adherent. The sample included women aged 20-70 years who responded in at least three of seven waves of data collection and had not undergone a hysterectomy (n=4949). Independent variables were based on Andersen's Behavioral Model of predisposing, enabling, and need variables. The majority of our sample were either always adherent (61.4%) or had increasing adherence (9.9%) over the course of the study. Another 4.8% were never adherent, and 6.6% had decreasing adherence over their involvement in the study. Predominantly, both enabling (e.g., presence of regular doctor) and need (e.g., birth control pill use, obesity) factors were associated with changing patterns of adherence. Physicians have a crucial role to play in the trajectories of adherence to cervical cancer screening guidelines over time. In addition, women with obesity need to be particularly targeted for services because they are vulnerable to negative trajectories in adherence over time.

  2. A cost-utility analysis of cervical cancer vaccination in preadolescent Canadian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merid Maraki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that approximately 70% of Canadian women undergo cervical cancer screening at least once every 3 years, approximately 1,300 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer and approximately 380 died from it in 2008. This study estimates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccinating 12-year old Canadian females with an AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine. The indirect effect of vaccination, via herd immunity, is also estimated. Methods A 12-health-state 1-year-cycle Markov model was developed to estimate lifetime HPV related events for a cohort of 12-year old females. Annual transition probabilities between health-states were derived from published literature and Canadian population statistics. The model was calibrated using Canadian cancer statistics. From a healthcare perspective, the cost-effectiveness of introducing a vaccine with efficacy against HPV-16/18 and evidence of cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types was evaluated in a population undergoing current screening practices. The base-case analysis included 70% screening coverage, 75% vaccination coverage, $135/dose for vaccine, and 3% discount rate on future costs and health effects. Conservative herd immunity effects were taken into account by estimated HPV incidence using a mathematical model parameterized by reported age-stratified sexual mixing data. Sensitivity analyses were performed to address parameter uncertainties. Results Vaccinating 12-year old females (n = 100,000 was estimated to prevent between 390-633 undiscounted cervical cancer cases (reduction of 47%-77% and 168-275 undiscounted deaths (48%-78% over their lifetime, depending on whether or not herd immunity and cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types were included. Vaccination was estimated to cost $18,672-$31,687 per QALY-gained, the lower range representing inclusion of cross-protective efficacy and herd immunity. The cost per QALY-gained was most

  3. Socioeconomic influences on Vietnamese-Canadian women's breast and cervical cancer prevention practices: a social determinant's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; McKellin, William; Hislop, Gregory; Long, Bonita

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer and cervical cancer are major contributors to morbidity and mortality for the Vietnamese Canadian women. Vietnamese women face multiple barriers to obtaining effective preventive care and treatment for these diseases. This paper reports the influence of socioeconomic factors on Vietnamese Canadian women's breast and cervical cancer screening behaviors. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with Vietnamese Canadian women and health care providers. The study revealed that low socioeconomic status is a major barrier to women's participation in breast and cervical cancer screening, despite the fact that health care in Canada is funded publicly by the Medicare system. The Vietnamese Canadian women and health care providers in the present study identified a number of major dimensions through which socioeconomic issues were associated with Vietnamese Canadian women's access to and use of health care for the prevention of breast and cervical cancer, including (a) financial concerns; (b) language, occupational opportunities, and downward mobility; (c) economics and women's households; and (d) low socioeconomic status and screening behaviors. Implications are discussed for increasing Vietnamese Canadian women's utilization of breast and cervical cancer screening services.

  4. Cancer beliefs and prevention policies: comparing Canadian decision-maker and general population views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Wild, T Cameron; Raine, Kim D

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of key policy influencers and the general public can support or hinder the development of public policies that support cancer prevention. To address gaps in knowledge concerning healthy public policy development, views on cancer causation and endorsement of policy alternatives for cancer prevention among government influencers (elected members of legislative assemblies and senior ministry bureaucrats), non-governmental influencers (school board chairs and superintendents, print media editors and reporters, and workplace presidents and senior human resource managers), and the general public were compared. Two structured surveys, one administered to a convenience sample of policy influencers (government and non-governmental) and the other to a randomly selected sample of the general public, were used. The aim of these surveys was to understand knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding health promotion principles and the priority and acceptability of policy actions to prevent four behavioral risk factors for cancer (tobacco use, alcohol misuse, unhealthy eating, and physical inactivity). Surveys were administered in Alberta and Manitoba, two comparable Canadian provinces. Although all groups demonstrated higher levels of support for individualistic policies (e.g., health education campaigns) than for fiscal and legislative measures, the general public expressed consistently greater support than policy influencers for using evidence-based policies (e.g., tax incentives or subsidies for healthy behaviors). These results suggest that Canadian policy influencers may be less open that the general public to adopt healthy public policies for cancer prevention, with potential detriment to cancer rates.

  5. On the path to translation: Highlights from the 2010 Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thériault Brigitte L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian cancer continues to be the most lethal of the gynaecologic malignancies due to the lack of early detection, screening strategies and ineffective therapeutics for late-stage metastatic disease, particularly in the recurrent setting. The gathering of researchers investigating fundamental pathobiology of ovarian cancer and the clinicians who treat patients with this insidious disease is paramount to meeting the challenges we face. Since 2002, the Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research, held every two years, has served this essential purpose. The objectives of this conference have been to disseminate new information arising from the most recent ovarian cancer research and identify the most pressing challenges we still face as scientists and clinicians. This is best accomplished through direct encounters and exchanges of innovative ideas among colleagues and trainees from the realms of basic science and clinical disciplines. This meeting has and continues to successfully facilitate rapid networking and establish new collaborations from across Canada. This year, more guest speakers and participants from other countries have extended the breadth of the research on ovarian cancer that was discussed at the meeting. This report summarizes the key findings presented at the fifth biennial Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research held in Toronto, Ontario, and includes the important issues and challenges we still face in the years ahead to make a significant impact on this devastating disease.

  6. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  7. Modelling mammography screening for breast cancer in the Canadian context: Modification and testing of a microsimulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Martin J.; Mittmann, Nicole; Lee, Pablo; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; AIagoz, Oguzhan; Stout, Natasha K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Modelling is a flexible and efficient approach to gaining insight into the trade-offs surrounding a complex process like breast screening, which involves more variables than can be controlled in an experimental study. Data and methods The University of Wisconsin CISNET breast cancer microsimulation model was adapted to simulate breast cancer incidence and screening performance in Canada. The model considered effects of breast density on the sensitivity and specificity of screening. The model’s ability to predict age-specific incidence of breast cancer was assessed. Results Predictions of age-adjusted incidence over calendar years and age-specific incidence of breast cancer in Canadian women are presented. Based on standard screening strategies, ratios of in situ to invasive disease and stage distribution of disease at diagnosis are compared with data from the British Columbia provincial screening program. Interpretation The adapted model performs well in predicting age-specific incidence and cross-sectional incidence in the absence of screening. The ratios of detection of in situ to invasive cancers and the overall stage distribution of detected cancers are in reasonable agreement with empirical data from British Columbia. PMID:26676233

  8. Adult height in relation to risk of cancer in a cohort of Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Heo, Moonseong; Kamensky, Victor; Miller, Anthony B; Rohan, Thomas E

    2013-03-01

    Although the influence of body mass index on cancer risk has been intensively investigated, few epidemiologic studies have examined the association of adult height with risk of cancer. We assessed the association of height with risk of all cancer and of 19 site-specific cancers in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study, a prospective cohort of nearly 90,000 women. Weight and height were measured at enrollment, and information on reproductive and medical history as well as lifestyle exposures was obtained by means of questionnaire. After exclusions, 5,679 incident invasive cancers were identified among 88,256 women. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) per 10 cm increase in height. All tests of statistical significance were two sided. All cancers combined and ten specific sites (colorectum, colon, premenopausal breast, postmenopausal breast, endometrium, ovary, kidney, thyroid, melanoma and leukemia) showed statistically significant positive associations with height. The HR for all cancers combined was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.08-1.18), and the magnitude of the associations for specific sites ranged from HR 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03-1.20) for postmenopausal breast cancer to HR 1.51 (95% CI: 1.27-1.80) for melanoma. Our study provides strong support for a positive association of adult height with risk of certain cancers. The underlying biological mechanisms are not clear but may differ by anatomic site. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  9. Surface mold brachytherapy for nonmelanoma skin cancer: Canadian patterns of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jim N; McLaughlin, Pierre-Yves; Hanna, Timothy P; D'Souza, David; Sur, Ranjan; Falkson, Conrad B

    2014-01-01

    We sought to describe the use of surface mold brachytherapy (SMBT) for nonmelanoma skin cancer in Canada. A list of Canadian Association of Radiation Oncologists membership and provincial registries were used for a preliminary survey to identify radiation oncologists and physicists involved in the practice of SMBT. A detailed survey was sent electronically to individuals involved in treating with SMBT. Of 41 centers in Canada, 39 responded, with 7 centers indicating use of SMBT. Seven radiation oncologists and 5 physicists from 6 of 7 treating centers responded to the detailed survey, with an overall 75% individual response rate (12/16). General agreement was found regarding indications for SMBT which included irregular or curved surfaces, avoidance of deep structures, and requirement for small fields. There was consensus regarding some contraindications for SMBT such as tumor depth and size. Hypofractionated schedules were used in 5 of 6 centers and doses ranged from 50 Gy in 5 fractions once per week to 30 Gy in 10 fractions twice a day over 5 days. The most common dosimetric parameters for plan evaluation included D90, D95, D100, and maximum skin dose. A minority of Canadian centers practice SMBT. In centers practicing SMBT, general agreement exists on general indications for its use. Given the wide variation in dose and fractionation used and the rarity of the indication a phase 2 Canadian protocol would be invaluable.

  10. Genetics and Personal Insurance: the Perspectives of Canadian Cancer Genetic Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michelle; Ngueng Feze, Ida; Joly, Yann

    2015-12-01

    Genetic discrimination in the context of genetic testing has been identified as a concern for symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals for more than three decades. Genetic counselors are often the health care professionals who discuss risks and benefits of genetic testing with patients, thereby making them most appropriate to address patient concerns about genetics and personal insurance (i.e., life, life as related to mortgage or group insurance, disability, critical illness and travel). A pilot study was conducted to ascertain the current practices of Canadian cancer genetic counselors in regard to their discussions with patients about genetic testing and access to personal insurance. Among the 36 counselors surveyed, 100 % reported discussing the issue of genetic testing and personal insurance with their patients. Several factors influenced the content, depth and length of these discussions including age, cancer status, family members, and patients' current and future insurance needs. Counselors reported discussing with patients the possible impact of genetic test results on access to personal insurance, possible access and use of patient genetic information by insurance companies, and whom patients should contact if they have additional questions. The most commonly reported inquiries from patients included questions about the possible impact of genetic testing on their ability to obtain insurance, and the insurability of family members. While 28 % of counselors reported having been contacted by an insurer requesting access to patient information, only one counselor was aware of or could recall the outcome of such a request. This pilot study revealed that issues concerning genetics and personal insurance are commonly discussed in Canadian cancer genetic counseling sessions. Counselors furthermore expressed a need for additional educational resources on the topic of genetics and personal insurance for themselves and their patients.

  11. Linear parameter-varying modeling and control of the steam temperature in a Canadian SCWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Peiwei, E-mail: sunpeiwei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Jianmin; Su, Guanghui

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Nonlinearity of Canadian SCWR is analyzed based on step responses and Nyquist plots. • LPV model is derived through Jacobian linearization and curve fitting. • An output feedback H{sub ∞} controller is synthesized for the steam temperature. • The control performance is evaluated by step disturbances and wide range operation. • The controller can stabilize the system and reject the reactor power disturbance. - Abstract: The Canadian direct-cycle Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) is a pressure-tube type SCWR under development in Canada. The dynamics of the steam temperature have a high degree of nonlinearity and are highly sensitive to reactor power disturbances. Traditional gain scheduling control cannot theoretically guarantee stability for all operating regions. The control performance can also be deteriorated when the controllers are switched. In this paper, a linear parameter-varying (LPV) strategy is proposed to solve such problems. Jacobian linearization and curve fitting are applied to derive the LPV model, which is verified using a nonlinear dynamic model and determined to be sufficiently accurate for control studies. An output feedback H{sub ∞} controller is synthesized to stabilize the steam temperature system and reject reactor power disturbances. The LPV steam temperature controller is implemented using a nonlinear dynamic model, and step changes in the setpoints and typical load patterns are carried out in the testing process. It is demonstrated through numerical simulation that the LPV controller not only stabilizes the steam temperature under different disturbances but also efficiently rejects reactor power disturbances and suppresses the steam temperature variation at different power levels. The LPV approach is effective in solving control problems of the steam temperature in the Canadian SCWR.

  12. Parameter estimates for invasive breast cancer progression in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, S; Banjevic, D; Miller, A B; Montgomery, N; Jardine, A K S; Harvey, B J

    2013-02-19

    The aim of screening is to detect a cancer in the preclinical state. However, a false-positive or a false-negative test result is a real possibility. We describe invasive breast cancer progression in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study and construct progression models with and without covariates. The effect of risk factors on transition intensities and false-negative probability is investigated. We estimate the transition rates, the sojourn time and sensitivity of diagnostic tests for women aged 40-49 and 50-59. Although younger women have a slower transition rate from healthy state to preclinical, their screen-detected tumour becomes evident sooner. Women aged 50-59 have a higher mortality rate compared with younger women. The mean sojourn times for women aged 40-49 and 50-59 are 2.5 years (95% CI: 1.7, 3.8) and 3.0 years (95% CI: 2.1, 4.3), respectively. Sensitivity of diagnostic procedures for older women is estimated to be 0.75 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.88), while women aged 40-49 have a lower sensitivity (0.61, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.77). Age is the only factor that affects the false-negative probability. For women aged 40-49, 'age at entry', 'history of breast disease' and 'families with breast cancer' are found to be significant for some of the transition rates. For the age-group 50-59, 'age at entry', 'history of breast disease', 'menstruation length' and 'number of live births' are found to affect the transition rates. Modelling and estimating the parameters of cancer progression are essential steps towards evaluating the effectiveness of screening policies. The parameters include the transition rates, the preclinical sojourn time, the sensitivity, and the effect of different risk factors on cancer progression.

  13. A qualitative exploration of fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) amongst Australian and Canadian breast cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thewes, B.; Lebel, S.; Leclair, C.S.; Butow, P.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Few studies have explored coping strategies used by cancer survivors to deal with fear of cancer recurrence (FCR), and little research has been conducted on the specific content of recurrence fears. This study aims to qualitatively explore the strategies used by younger breast cancer

  14. Interaction between professionals and cancer survivors in the context of Brazilian and Canadian care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Azevedo Abrantes de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: analyze cancer survivors’ reports about their communication with health professional team members and describe the similarities and differences in interactional patterns between Brazilian and Canadian health care contexts. Method: This study adopted a qualitative health research approach to secondary analysis, using interpretive description as the methodology, allowing us to elaborate a new research question and look at the primary data from a different perspective. There were in total eighteen participants; all of them were adults and elderly diagnosed with urologic cancer. After being organized and read, the data sets were classified into categories, and an analytic process was performed through inductive thematic analysis. Results: This resulted in three categories of findings which we have framed as: Communication between professional and survivor; The symptoms, the doubts, the questions; and Actions and reaction. Conclusion: This comparative study allowed us to bring to the attention of health professionals, especially nurses, findings regarding effective communication, humanization and empathy, supporting both inside and outside support groups, giving pieces of advice, and advocating for the survivor as is necessary. The study also showed the importance of self-development of these professionals as they fight for better quality in the health system for their patients.

  15. Beyond the Patriot Act: Rulings from the Office of Foreign Asset Control (OFAC and their Effects on Canadian Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Waller

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available OFAC is the Office of Foreign Assets Control, part of the United States Department of the Treasury. OFAC governs sanctions against countries embargoed by the United States and has released rulings that have implications on the licenses signed by Canadian libraries and the provision of information to library users. This paper investigates the effects of the OFAC rulings and presents some suggestions for dealing with these in the Canadian library community.

  16. A qualitative exploration of fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) amongst Australian and Canadian breast cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Thewes, B; LEBEL, S.; Seguin Leclair, C.; Butow, P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have explored coping strategies used by cancer survivors to deal with fear of cancer recurrence (FCR), and little research has been conducted on the specific content of recurrence fears. This study aims to qualitatively explore the strategies used by younger breast cancer survivors to cope with FCR and whether women with low, medium and high levels of FCR employ different coping strategies. An additional aim was to understand the specific content of worst recurrence fears....

  17. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Position Statement on Screening Individuals at Average Risk for Developing Colorectal Cancer: 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond J Leddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation published guidelines on colon cancer screening in 2004. Subsequent to the publication of these guidelines, many advances have occurred, thereby necessitating a review of the existing guidelines in the context of new technologies and clinical knowledge. The assembled guideline panel recognized three recent American sets of guidelines and identified seven issues that required comment from a Canadian perspective. These issues included, among others, the role of program-based screening, flexible sigmoidoscopy, computed tomography colonography, barium enema and quality improvement. The panel also provided context for the selection of the fecal immunochemical test as the fecal occult blood test of choice, and the relative role of colonoscopy as a primary screening tool. Recommendations were also provided for an upper age limit for colon cancer screening, whether upper endoscopy should be performed following a negative colonoscopy for a positive fecal occult blood test and when colon cancer screening should resume following negative colonoscopy.

  18. Investigating relationships between ancestry, lifestyle behaviors and perceptions of heart disease and breast cancer among Canadian women with British and with South Asian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Kimberley D; Berry, Tanya R; Courneya, Kerry S; McGannon, Kerry R; Norris, Colleen M; Rodgers, Wendy M; Spence, John C

    2018-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups including Asians in Canada have different knowledge and perceptions of heart disease and breast cancer compared with the ethnic majority group. Examine relationships between perceptions of heart disease and breast cancer, and lifestyle behaviors for Canadian women with British and with South Asian ancestry. Women with South Asian ( n = 170) and with British ( n = 373) ancestry ( M age = 33.01, SD = 12.86) reported leisure time physical activity, intended fruit and vegetable consumption, disease perceptions (ability to reduce risk, control over getting the diseases, and influence of family history), and demographic information. Mann-Whitney tests and multiple hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the relationships between lifestyle behaviors and disease perceptions, with ancestry explored as a possible moderator. Participants with South Asian ancestry believed they had greater ability to reduce their risk and have control over getting breast cancer than participants with British ancestry. Family history influences on getting either disease was perceived as higher for women with British ancestry. Age was positively related to all three perceptions in both diseases. Intended fruit and vegetable consumption was positively related to perceptions of ability to reduce risk and control of both diseases, but was stronger for women with South Asian ancestry regarding perceptions of breast cancer. Leisure time physical activity was positively related to perceptions of control over getting heart disease for women with British ancestry. Women's disease perceptions can vary by ancestry and lifestyle behaviors. Accurate representation of diseases is essential in promoting effective preventative behaviors.

  19. Cancer Control in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Banglade...

  20. An evaluation of the behaviour-change techniques used on Canadian cancer centre Web sites to support physical activity behaviour for breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, B D; Zammit, K; Fong, A J; Sabiston, C M

    2017-12-01

    Cancer centre Web sites can be a useful tool for distributing information about the benefits of physical activity for breast cancer (bca) survivors, and they hold potential for supporting health behaviour change. However, the extent to which cancer centre Web sites use evidence-based behaviour change techniques to foster physical activity behaviour among bca survivors is currently unknown. The aim of our study was to evaluate the presentation of behaviour-change techniques on Canadian cancer centre Web sites to promote physical activity behaviour for bca survivors. All Canadian cancer centre Web sites ( n = 39) were evaluated by two raters using the Coventry, Aberdeen, and London-Refined (calo-re) taxonomy of behaviour change techniques and the eEurope 2002 Quality Criteria for Health Related Websites. Descriptive statistics were calculated. The most common behaviour change techniques used on Web sites were providing information about consequences in general (80%), suggesting goal-setting behaviour (56%), and planning social support or social change (46%). Overall, Canadian cancer centre Web sites presented an average of M = 6.31 behaviour change techniques (of 40 that were coded) to help bca survivors increase their physical activity behaviour. Evidence of quality factors ranged from 90% (sites that provided evidence of readability) to 0% (sites that provided an editorial policy). Our results provide preliminary evidence that, of 40 behaviour-change techniques that were coded, fewer than 20% were used to promote physical activity behaviour to bca survivors on cancer centre Web sites, and that the most effective techniques were inconsistently used. On cancer centre Web sites, health promotion specialists could focus on emphasizing knowledge mobilization efforts using available research into behaviour-change techniques to help bca survivors increase their physical activity.

  1. Challenges and opportunities for the implementation of the Three Rs in Canadian vaccine quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mara E; Griffin, Gilly

    2012-08-01

    A case-study approach was used to identify opportunities and challenges to the implementation of the Three Rs in vaccine testing in Canada. Data was obtained through interviews with 16 Canadian stakeholders involved in the production, testing and evaluation of vaccines. Participants identified inconsistent regulatory testing requirements, the lack of biological functionality of some in vitro methods, the benchmarking of in vitro against in vivo assays, and high caution towards method changes as major challenges to implementation. Opportunities to implementation were identified as the desire for and steps taken towards harmonization of test methods between countries, collaborations on new method development, the poor performance of traditional animal methods, the domino effect of one regulatory authority accepting a method after another, and stakeholder concerns for the ethical care and use of animals used in vaccine testing. These results suggest that industry and the Canadian government are open to implementing the Three Rs in vaccine quality control, but methods adopted must be reliable and biologically relevant. Improving the harmonization of regulatory requirements will assist in furthering the implementation of alternative methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline emissions and lung cancer in Canadian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Sahni, Vanita; Johnson, Kenneth C

    2011-07-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies diesel exhaust as a probable human carcinogen; this decision is based largely from lung cancer evidence. Gasoline exhaust is classified as a possible carcinogen. Epidemiological studies are needed that improve upon some of the limitations of previous research with respect to the characterization of exposure, and the control for the potential confounding influence of smoking and other occupational exposures. Our objective was to investigate associations between occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions and lung cancer. We used a case-control study design that involved men 40 years of age and older at the time of interview. Analyses are based on 1681 incident cases of lung cancer and 2,053 population controls. A self-reported questionnaire elicited a lifetime occupational history, including general tasks, and information on other potential risk factors. Occupational exposures to diesel and gasoline emissions, crystalline silica, and asbestos were assigned to each job held by study subjects by industrial hygienists who were blind to case-control status. Exposure metrics for diesel and gasoline emissions that were modeled included: ever exposure, cumulative exposure, and concentration of exposure. We found a dose-response relationship between cumulative occupational exposure to diesel engine emissions and lung cancer. This association was more pronounced for the squamous and large cell subtypes with adjusted odds ratios across the three increasing tertiles of cumulative lifetime exposure relative to those with no exposure of 0.99, 1.25, and 1.32 (p=0.04) for squamous cell carcinoma, and 1.06, 1.19, 1.68 (p=0.02) for large cell carcinoma. While the association with cumulative exposure to gasoline was weakly positive, it was not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that exposure to diesel engine emissions increases the risk of lung cancer particularly for squamous and large cell

  3. Cancer incidence, morbidity, and survival in Canadian first nation children: a Manitoba population-based study from the cancer in young people in Canada (CYP-C) registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammers, David M; Israels, Sara J; Lambert, Pascal J; Cuvelier, Geoff D E

    2014-12-01

    Health disparities between Canadian First Nation (FN) people and the rest of the national population exist. No studies have specifically documented cancer-related health outcomes in Canadian FN children. The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence of pediatric malignancies in Manitoba FN children, and to compare morbidity patterns and survival between FN and non-FN children with cancer in the Canadian province of Manitoba. A retrospective, population-based review of all children (0-14.99 years) diagnosed with malignancy (2001-2008) in Manitoba, Canada was undertaken using the Cancer in Young People in Canada registry. FN children were compared to the non-FN population for markers of morbidity and survival. The average annual age-standardized incidence rate for all childhood cancers in FN children was 132 per 1,000,000 per year. 240 children were included in the morbidity and survival analyses (38 FN; 202 non-FN). No differences were found between FN and non-FN children in time from first presentation of symptoms to consultation with an oncology specialist or diagnosis, or number of hospital admissions / total days of admission for treatment complications. Overall survival was inferior for FN children in univariable analysis (P = 0.048) but not when risk group was included in a multivariable analysis (P = 0.15). No difference in event free survival or cumulative incidence of relapse was identified. The estimated incidence of childhood cancers in the Manitoba FN population is similar to provincial incidence rates. No differences in morbidity patterns or survival were found between Manitoba FN and non-FN children with cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Quantifying Canadians' use of the Internet as a source of information on behavioural risk factor modifications related to cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, C G; Hamadani, L G; Gotay, C

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the frequency and timing of Canadians' Internet searches for information on modifying cancer prevention-related behavioural risk factors. We used the Google AdWords Keyword tool to estimate the number of Internet searches in Canada from July 2010 to May 2011 for content associated with the keywords "physical activity / exercise," "healthy eating / weight loss" and "quit smoking." For "physical activity / exercise," 663 related keywords resulted in 117 951 699 searches. For "healthy eating / weight loss," 687 related search terms yielded 98 277 954 searches. "Quit smoking" was associated with 759 related keywords with 31 688 973 searches. All search patterns noticeably peaked in January 2011. Many Canadians are actively searching for information on the Internet to support health behaviour change associated with cancer prevention, especially during the month of January. To take advantage of this opportunity, key stakeholders in cancer prevention need to identify knowledge translation priorities and work with health agencies to develop evidence-based strategies to support Internet-facilitated behaviour change.

  5. The burden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Brenda Elias1, Erich V Kliewer1–3, Madelyn Hall1, Alain A Demers1,2, Donna Turner1,2, Patricia Martens1, Say P Hong1, Lyna Hart4, Caroline Chartrand5, Garry Munro41Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 3British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs Health Information Research Governance Committee, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 5Manitoba First Nations Diabetes Integration Project, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaBackground: Canadian First Nations, the largest of the Aboriginal groups in Canada, have had lower cancer incidence and mortality rates than non-Aboriginal populations in the past. This pattern is changing with increased life expectancy, a growing population, and a poor social environment that influences risk behaviors, metabolic conditions, and disparities in screening uptake. These factors alone do not fully explain differences in cancer risk between populations, as genetic susceptibility and environmental factors also have significant influence. However, genetics and environment are difficult to modify. This study compared modifiable behavioral risk factors and metabolic-associated conditions for men and women, and cancer screening practices of women, between First Nations living on-reserve and a non-First Nations Manitoba rural population (Canada.Methods: The study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey to examine smoking, binge drinking, metabolic conditions, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and cancer-screening practices.Results: First Nations on-reserve had significantly higher rates of smoking (P < 0.001, binge drinking (P < 0.001, obesity (P < 0.001 and diabetes (P < 0.001, and less leisure-time physical activity (P = 0.029, and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.001. Sex differences were also

  6. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 3. Recommendations on alcohol consumption. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, N R; Ashley, M J; Carruthers, S G; Lacourcière, Y; McKay, D W

    1999-05-04

    To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations concerning the effects of alcohol consumption on the prevention and control of hypertension in otherwise healthy adults (except pregnant women). There are 2 main options for those at risk for hypertension: avert the condition by limiting alcohol consumption or by using other nonpharmacologic methods, or maintain or increase the risk of hypertension by making no change in alcohol consumption. The options for those who already have hypertension include decreasing alcohol consumption or using another nonpharmacologic method to reduce hypertension; commencing, continuing or intensifying antihypertensive medication; or taking no action and remaining at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The health outcomes considered were changes in blood pressure and in morbidity and mortality rates. Because of insufficient evidence, no economic outcomes were considered. A MEDLINE search was conducted for the period 1966-1996 with the terms ethyl alcohol and hypertension. Other relevant evidence was obtained from the reference lists of articles identified, from the personal files of the authors and through contacts with experts. The articles were reviewed, classified according to study design, and graded according to the level of evidence. A high value was placed on the avoidance of cardiovascular morbidity and premature death caused by untreated hypertension. A reduction in alcohol consumption from more than 2 standard drinks per day reduces the blood pressure of both hypertensive and normotensive people. The lowest overall mortality rates in observational studies were associated with drinking habits that were within these guidelines. Side effects and costs were not measured in any of the studies. (1) It is recommended that health care professionals determine how much alcohol their patients consume. (2) To reduce blood pressure in the population at large, it is recommended that alcohol consumption be in accordance with Canadian

  7. Variations in the NBN/NBS1 gene and the risk of breast cancer in non-BRCA1/2 French Canadian families with high risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desjardins Sylvie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome is a chromosomal instability disorder characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and increased frequency of cancers. Familial studies on relatives of these patients indicated that they also appear to be at increased risk of cancer. Methods In a candidate gene study aiming at identifying genetic determinants of breast cancer susceptibility, we undertook the full sequencing of the NBN gene in our cohort of 97 high-risk non-BRCA1 and -BRCA2 breast cancer families, along with 74 healthy unrelated controls, also from the French Canadian population. In silico programs (ESEfinder, NNSplice, Splice Site Finder and MatInspector were used to assess the putative impact of the variants identified. The effect of the promoter variant was further studied by luciferase gene reporter assay in MCF-7, HEK293, HeLa and LNCaP cell lines. Results Twenty-four variants were identified in our case series and their frequency was further evaluated in healthy controls. The potentially deleterious p.Ile171Val variant was observed in one case only. The p.Arg215Trp variant, suggested to impair NBN binding to histone γ-H2AX, was observed in one breast cancer case and one healthy control. A promoter variant c.-242-110delAGTA displayed a significant variation in frequency between both sample sets. Luciferase reporter gene assay of the promoter construct bearing this variant did not suggest a variation of expression in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, but indicated a reduction of luciferase expression in both the HEK293 and LNCaP cell lines. Conclusion Our analysis of NBN sequence variations indicated that potential NBN alterations are present, albeit at a low frequency, in our cohort of high-risk breast cancer cases. Further analyses will be needed to fully ascertain the exact impact of those variants on breast cancer susceptibility, in particular for variants located in NBN promoter region.

  8. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer: a re-assessment based on the recent cross-Canada radon survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Moir, D.; Whyte, J.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to indoor radon has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer was assessed in 2005 with the radon distribution characteristics determined from a radon survey carried out in the late 1970s in 19 cities. In that survey, a grab sampling method was used to measure radon levels. The observed radon concentration in 14 000 Canadian homes surveyed followed a log–normal distribution with a geometric mean (GM) of 11.2 Bq m–3 and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.9. Based on the information from that survey, it was estimated that ∼10 % of lung cancers in Canada resulted from indoor radon exposure. To gain a better understanding of radon concentrations in homes across the country, a national residential radon survey was launched in April 2009. In the recent survey, long-term (3 month or longer) indoor radon measurements were made in roughly 14 000 homes in 121 health regions across Canada. The observed radon concentrations follow, as expected, a log–normal distribution with a GM of 41.9 Bq m–3 and a GSD of 2.8. Based on the more accurate radon distribution characteristics obtained from the recent cross-Canada radon survey, a re-assessment of Canadian population risk for radon induced lung cancer was undertaken. The theoretical estimates show that 16 % of lung cancer deaths among Canadians are attributable to indoor radon exposure. These results strongly suggest the ongoing need for the Canadian National Radon Program. In particular, there is a need for a focus on education and awareness by all levels of government, and in partnership with key stakeholders, to encourage Canadians to take action to reduce the risk from indoor radon exposure. PMID:22874897

  9. Participant selection for lung cancer screening by risk modelling (the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer [PanCan] study): a single-arm, prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammemagi, Martin C; Schmidt, Heidi; Martel, Simon; McWilliams, Annette; Goffin, John R; Johnston, Michael R; Nicholas, Garth; Tremblay, Alain; Bhatia, Rick; Liu, Geoffrey; Soghrati, Kam; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Hwang, David M; Laberge, Francis; Gingras, Michel; Pasian, Sergio; Couture, Christian; Mayo, John R; Nasute Fauerbach, Paola V; Atkar-Khattra, Sukhinder; Peacock, Stuart J; Cressman, Sonya; Ionescu, Diana; English, John C; Finley, Richard J; Yee, John; Puksa, Serge; Stewart, Lori; Tsai, Scott; Haider, Ehsan; Boylan, Colm; Cutz, Jean-Claude; Manos, Daria; Xu, Zhaolin; Goss, Glenwood D; Seely, Jean M; Amjadi, Kayvan; Sekhon, Harmanjatinder S; Burrowes, Paul; MacEachern, Paul; Urbanski, Stefan; Sin, Don D; Tan, Wan C; Leighl, Natasha B; Shepherd, Frances A; Evans, William K; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Lam, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    Results from retrospective studies indicate that selecting individuals for low-dose CT lung cancer screening on the basis of a highly predictive risk model is superior to using criteria similar to those used in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST; age, pack-year, and smoking quit-time). We designed the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer (PanCan) study to assess the efficacy of a risk prediction model to select candidates for lung cancer screening, with the aim of determining whether this approach could better detect patients with early, potentially curable, lung cancer. We did this single-arm, prospective study in eight centres across Canada. We recruited participants aged 50-75 years, who had smoked at some point in their life (ever-smokers), and who did not have a self-reported history of lung cancer. Participants had at least a 2% 6-year risk of lung cancer as estimated by the PanCan model, a precursor to the validated PLCOm2012 model. Risk variables in the model were age, smoking duration, pack-years, family history of lung cancer, education level, body-mass index, chest x-ray in the past 3 years, and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Individuals were screened with low-dose CT at baseline (T0), and at 1 (T1) and 4 (T4) years post-baseline. The primary outcome of the study was incidence of lung cancer. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00751660. 7059 queries came into the study coordinating centre and were screened for PanCan risk. 15 were duplicates, so 7044 participants were considered for enrolment. Between Sept 24, 2008, and Dec 17, 2010, we recruited and enrolled 2537 eligible ever-smokers. After a median follow-up of 5·5 years (IQR 3·2-6·1), 172 lung cancers were diagnosed in 164 individuals (cumulative incidence 0·065 [95% CI 0·055-0·075], incidence rate 138·1 per 10 000 person-years [117·8-160·9]). There were ten interval lung cancers (6% of lung cancers and 6% of individuals with cancer

  10. Nonrespiratory mortality and cancer incidence in a cohort of Canadian nickel workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Nancy E; Berriault, Colin J; Seilkop, Steven K; Conard, Bruce R

    2017-07-04

    Mortality and cancer incidence were examined for an updated cohort of nonsinter nickel workers in Sudbury and Port Colborne, Ontario, Canada. Abstract results are provided for those with ≥ 15 years since first exposure. For circulatory disease mortality, significant elevations were observed overall in many Sudbury work areas and in Port Colborne staff. Underground miners, with first exposure before 1960, displayed significant elevations for pneumoconiosis, as well as silicosis and anthrasilicosis, likely due to crystalline silica. Significant elevations in colorectal cancer incidence were observed in Sudbury underground mining, mining maintenance, and maintenance work areas. Given a case-control study is not practical, the next cohort update should include more detailed occupational exposure assessment, including dust exposure, diesel engine emissions, solvents, various metals, silica, and sulphur dioxide.

  11. Quantification of controls on regional rockfall activity and talus deposition, Kananaskis, Canadian Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Prasamsa; Martin, Yvonne E.; Johnson, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    Rockfall is a significant geomorphic process in many mountainous regions that also poses a notable natural hazard risk. Most previous studies of rockfall erosion have investigated the mechanics and rates of local rockwall retreat and talus deposition, with only a few investigations of rockfall and/or associated talus considering larger spatial scales (i.e., drainage basin, mountain range). The purpose of the current research is to investigate the areal extent of rockfall-talus and controlling factors of its distribution over regional spatial scales (of order 102 km2) in Kananaskis, Canadian Rockies to inform our understanding of its significance in mountain development. To achieve this goal, a large talus inventory is collected and analyzed for 11 steep tributaries of the Kananaskis River, Canadian Rockies. Talus accumulations associated with rockfall provide evidence about the nature and rates of rockfall activity that supplies sediment to these deposits and are the focus of the present study. To quantify the controls of rockfall-talus activity in this region, we analyze the association of talus deposits with structural geology, glacial topography, and temperature-related weathering (i.e., frost cracking). A total of 324 talus polygons covering a surface area of 28.51 km2 are delineated within the 11 study basins, with the number of talus polygons in each study basin ranging from 1 to 73. Analysis of the talus inventory shows that cirques and glacially sculpted valleys are locations of notable talus accumulation in Kananaskis, with other locations of significant talus deposition being associated with thrust faults. We also found that the upper elevations at which talus deposits are typically found are the general range of elevations experiencing a notable number of days in the frost cracking window when this window is defined as - 3 to - 15 °C; no such association is found for the frost cracking window of - 3 to - 8 °C. Estimates of average erosion rates for all

  12. Diabetes Nurse Case Management in a Canadian Tertiary Care Setting: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danni; Elliott, Tom; Klein, Gerri; Ur, Ehud; Tang, Tricia S

    2017-06-01

    To examine the effects of a 6-month nurse case manager (NCM) intervention compared to standard care (SC) on glycemic control and diabetes distress in a Canadian tertiary-care setting. We recruited 140 adults with type 2 diabetes and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels >8% (64 mmol/mol) from 2 tertiary care facilities and randomized them to: 1) a 6-month NCM intervention in addition to SC or 2) SC by the primary endocrinologists. Assessments were conducted at baseline and at 6 months. Primary outcomes included A1C levels and diabetes distress scores (DDS). Secondary outcomes included body mass index, blood pressure, diabetes-related behaviour measures, depressive symptoms, self-motivation and perception of support. At the 6-month follow up, the NCM group experienced larger reductions in A1C levels of -0.73% compared to the SC group (p=0.027; n=134). The NCM group also showed an additional reduction of -0.40 (26% reduction) in DDS compared to those in the SC group (p=0.001; n=134). The NCM group had lower blood pressure, ate more fruit and vegetables, exercised more, checked their feet more frequently, were more motivated, were less depressed and perceived more support. There were no changes and no group differences in terms of body mass index, medication compliance or frequency of testing. Compared to SC, NCM intervention was more effective in improving glycemic control and reducing diabetes distress. It is, therefore, a viable adjunct to standard diabetes care in the tertiary care setting, particularly for patients at high risk and with poor control. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A call to arms: the emergency physician, international perspectives on firearm injury prevention and the Canadian gun control debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, H; Drummond, A

    1999-01-01

    There are more than seven million firearms in Canada and approximately 1400 firearm-related deaths per year. These figures are far greater than those for most European countries, but far less than those for the United States. This article will discuss the different classes of firearm deaths and the associated costs. Public health issues will be explored, especially as they relate to the involvement of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, as well as injury control recommendations.

  14. A Canadian online survey of oncology nurses' perspectives on the management of breakthrough pain in cancer (BTPc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Margaret I; McAndrew, Alison; Burlein-Hall, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores Canadian oncology nurses' perception of management of breakthrough pain in cancer (BTPc). An online questionnaire was distributed to 668 oncology nurses across Canada, and 201 participated. More nurses reported that patients used hydromorphone (99.5%), morphine (97.0%), codeine (88.1%), or oxycodone (88.1%) for BTPc, than fentanyl preparations (64.7%). Problems with opioid administration reported by nurses included failure to work quickly enough (35.7%), difficulty swallowing (16.6%), need for caregiver assistance (13.2%), mouth sores (12.6%) and dry mouth (11.5%). Although most nurses discussed BTPc management with their patients, the vast majority (72.2%) were not very satisfied with current treatment modalities. Effective dialogue with patients and access to educational resources/tools may help optimize therapy and enhance concordance with BTPc medications.

  15. Risk of breast cancer among French-Canadian women, noncarriers of more frequent BRCA1/2 mutations and consumption of total energy, coffee, and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonauth, Vishnee; Shatenstein, Bryna; Fafard, Eve; Maugard, Christine; Robidoux, André; Narod, Steven; Ghadirian, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    Although the connection between diet, lifestyle and hormones suggests that nutritional and lifestyle factors may exert an influence in the etiology of breast cancer, it is not clear whether these factors operate in the same way in women without BRCA gene mutations. A nested case-control study was conducted in a cohort of French-Canadian women, with 560 members involving 280 nongene carriers of mutated BRCA gene affected by breast cancer and 280 nonaffected and nongene carriers of mutated BRCA gene. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to ascertain dietary intake, and a core questionnaire, to gather information on lifestyle risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in logistic regression models. It was found that energy intake >2,057 Kcal/day was significantly and positively related to breast cancer risk (OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 1.67-3.84; p = 0.01). Women who drank more than eight cups of coffee per day had an increased risk of breast cancer: OR = 1.40 (95% CI: 1.09-2.24; p = 0.03). Subjects who drank >9 g of alcohol (ethanol) per day had an increased risk of breast cancer: OR = 1.55 (95% CI: 1.02-2.37; p = 0.04). In addition, a positive and significant association was noted between the consumption of beer, wine and spirits, and breast cancer risk. The ORs were 1.34 (95% CI: 1.28-2.11; p = 0.04) for more than two bottles of beer per week, OR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.08-2.58; p = 0.05) for >10 oz of wine per week and OR = 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02-2.08; p = 0.05) for >6 oz of spirit per week, respectively. Intakes of other nutrients and dietary components were not significantly associated with nongene carrier breast cancer risk. This study provides evidence that total energy intake, coffee, and alcohol consumption may play a role in breast cancer risk.

  16. Planning for cancer control programs: Leadership considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John; Sutcliffe, Simon B

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is a significant challenge globally. Reducing the impact of cancer requires a program and plans that address the main aspects of cancer from prevention through to end-of-life care. This article summarizes the requirements of a robust cancer control program and outlines the contextual and leadership considerations that are required to ensure that the planning and implementation of a control program can achieve improved cancer outcomes.

  17. Can you see what they are saying? Breast cancer images and text in Canadian women's and fashion magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, J E; Hoffman-Goetz, L; Clarke, J N

    2012-06-01

    Media are an important source of breast cancer information for women. Visual images influence recall and comprehension of information. Research on breast cancer in the media has infrequently focused on images. Using directed content analysis, we compared content, tone, and themes in images (n = 91) and articles (n = 31) in Canadian women's and fashion (n = 6) magazines (2005-2010). About half of the articles (51.6%) had both positive and negative tone; in contrast, 87.7% of women in the images had positive facial expressions. Women in the images were Caucasian (80.9%), young (81.3%), attractive (99.2%), had a healthy body type (93.8%), and appeared to have intact breasts (100%). Images of screening/treatment (5.5%) and visual impact of disease/treatment on the body (4.4%) were rare. The most common theme in the articles was medical issues (35.5%); in the images, it was beauty or fashion (15.4%). The potential impact of these divergent messages for breast cancer education is discussed.

  18. Haplotype analysis suggest common founders in carriers of the recurrent BRCA2 mutation, 3398delAAAAG, in French Canadian hereditary breast and/ovarian cancer families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foulkes William D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 3398delAAAAG mutation in BRCA2 was recently found to recur in breast and/or ovarian cancer families from the French Canadian population of Quebec, a population that has genetic attributes consistent with a founder effect. To characterize the contribution of this mutation in this population, this study established the frequency of this mutation in breast and ovarian cancer cases unselected for family history of cancer, and determined if mutation carriers shared a common ancestry. Methods The frequency was estimated by assaying the mutation in series of French Canadian breast cancer cases diagnosed before age 41 (n = 60 or 80 (n = 127 years of age, and ovarian cancer cases (n = 80 unselected for family history of cancer by mutation analysis. Haplotype analysis was performed to determine if mutation carriers shared a common ancestry. Members from 11 families were analyzed using six polymorphic microsatellite markers (cen-D13S260-D13S1699-D13S1698-D13S1697-D13S1701-D13S171-tel spanning approximately a 3.6 cM interval at the chromosomal region 13q13.1, which contains BRCA2. Allele frequencies were estimated by genotyping 47 unaffected female individuals derived from the same population. Haplotype reconstruction of unaffected individuals was performed using the program PHASE. Results The recurrent BRCA2 mutation occurred in 1 of 60 (1.7% women diagnosed with breast cancer before 41 years of age and one of 80 (1.3% women with ovarian cancer. No mutation carriers were identified in the series of breast cancer cases diagnosed before age 80. Mutation carriers harboured one of two haplotypes, 7-3-9-3 – [3/4]-7, that varied with marker D13S1701 and which occurred at a frequency of 0.001. The genetic analysis of D13S1695, a polymorphic marker located approximately 0.3 cM distal to D13S171, did not favour a genetic recombination event to account for the differences in D13S1701 alleles within the haplotype. Although mutation carriers

  19. Contribution of the PALB2 c.2323C>T [p.Q775X] Founder mutation in well-defined breast and/or ovarian cancer families and unselected ovarian cancer cases of French Canadian descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tischkowitz Marc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PALB2 c.2323C>T [p.Q775X] mutation has been reported in at least three breast cancer families and breast cancer cases of French Canadian descent and this has been attributed to common ancestors. The number of mutation-positive cases reported varied based on criteria of ascertainment of index cases tested. Although inherited PALB2 mutations are associated with increased risks of developing breast cancer, risk to ovarian cancer has not been fully explored in this demographically unique population. Methods We screened the PALB2 p.Q775X variant in 71 families with at least three cases of breast cancer (n=48 or breast and ovarian cancers (n=23 that have previously been found negative for at least the most common BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations reported in the French Canadian population and in 491 women of French Canadian descent who had invasive ovarian cancer and/or low malignant potential tumors of the major histopathological subtypes. Results We identified a PALB2 p.Q775X carrier in a breast cancer family, who had invasive ductal breast carcinomas at 39 and 42 years of age. We also identified a PALB2 p.Q775X carrier who had papillary serous ovarian cystadenocarcinoma at age 58 among the 238 serous subtype ovarian cancer cases investigated, who also had breast cancer at age 52. Conclusion Our findings, taken together with previous reports, support adding PALB2 c.2323C>T p.Q775X to the list of cancer susceptibility genes for which founder mutations have been identified in the French Canadian population.

  20. A pan-Canadian practice guideline and algorithm: screening, assessment, and supportive care of adults with cancer-related fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, D; Keller-Olaman, S; Oliver, T K; Hack, T F; Broadfield, L; Biggs, K; Chung, J; Gravelle, D; Green, E; Hamel, M; Harth, T; Johnston, P; McLeod, D; Swinton, N; Syme, A; Olson, K

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the present systematic review was to develop a practice guideline to inform health care providers about screening, assessment, and effective management of cancer-related fatigue (crf) in adults. The internationally endorsed adapte methodology was used to develop a practice guideline for pan-Canadian use. A systematic search of the literature identified a broad range of evidence: clinical practice guidelines, systematic reviews, and other guidance documents on the screening, assessment, and management of crf. The search included medline, embase, cinahl, the Cochrane Library, and other guideline and data sources to December 2009. Two clinical practice guidelines were identified for adaptation. Seven guidance documents and four systematic reviews also provided supplementary evidence to inform guideline recommendations. Health professionals across Canada provided expert feedback on the adapted recommendations in the practice guideline and algorithm through a participatory external review process. Practice guidelines can facilitate the adoption of evidence-based assessment and interventions for adult cancer patients experiencing fatigue. Development of an algorithm to guide decision-making in practice may also foster the uptake of a guideline into routine care.

  1. EDITORIAL CERVICAL CANCER CAN BE CONTROLLED Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    palliative care of invasive cancer(9). But it must also be accepted that even these modest comparisons will mean little to countries where per capita annual expenditure on health is less than five US dollars. This is a realisation that has spurred the search for alternative approaches to cervical cancer screening.

  2. Smoke & Mirrors: The Canadian Tobacco War | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... before parliamentary committees, given hundreds of media interviews in Canada and the United States, published numerous tobacco-related articles, and initiated private prosecutions for violations of tobacco control laws. Cunningham now works in Ottawa as a senior policy analyst for the Canadian Cancer Society.

  3. Bone Health in Patients with Breast Cancer: Recommendations from an Evidence-Based Canadian Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander H. G. Paterson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss is common in patients with breast cancer. Bone modifying agents (BMAs, such as bisphosphonates and denosumab, have been shown to reverse or stabilize bone loss and may be useful in the primary and metastatic settings. The purpose of this review is to provide clear evidence-based strategies for the management of bone loss and its symptoms in breast cancer. A systematic review of clinical trials and meta-analyses published between 1996 and 2012 was conducted of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Reference lists were hand-searched for additional publications. Recommendations were developed based on the best available evidence. Zoledronate, pamidronate, clodronate, and denosumab are recommended for metastatic breast cancer patients; however, no one agent can be recommended over another. Zoledronate or any oral bisphosphonate and denosumab should be considered in primary breast cancer patients who are postmenopausal on aromatase inhibitor therapy and have a high risk of fracture and/or a low bone mineral density and in premenopausal primary breast cancer patients who become amenorrheic after therapy. No one agent can be recommended over another. BMAs are not currently recommended as adjuvant therapy in primary breast cancer for the purpose of improving survival, although a major Early Breast Cancer Cooperative Trialists’ Group meta-analysis is underway which may impact future practice. Adverse events can be managed with appropriate supportive care.

  4. The association of colonoscopy quality indicators with the detection of screen-relevant lesions, adverse events, and postcolonoscopy cancers in an asymptomatic Canadian colorectal cancer screening population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsden, Robert J; Dube, Catherine; Heitman, Steven J; Bridges, Ronald; McGregor, S Elizabeth; Rostom, Alaa

    2015-11-01

    Although several quality indicators of colonoscopy have been defined, quality assurance activities should be directed at the measurement of quality indicators that are predictive of key screening colonoscopy outcomes. The goal of this study was to examine the association among established quality indicators and the detection of screen-relevant lesions (SRLs), adverse events, and postcolonoscopy cancers. Historical cohort study. Canadian colorectal cancer screening center. A total of 18,456 asymptomatic men and women ages 40 to 74, at either average risk or increased risk for colorectal cancer because of a family history, who underwent a screening colonoscopy from 2008 to 2010. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we explored the association among procedural quality indicators and 3 colonoscopy outcomes: detection of SRLs, adverse events, and postcolonoscopy cancers. The crude rates of SRLs, adverse events, and postcolonoscopy cancers were 240, 6.44, and .54 per 1000 colonoscopies, respectively. Several indicators, including endoscopist withdrawal time (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4) and cecal intubation rate (OR, 13.9; 95% CI, 1.9-96.9), were associated with the detection of SRLs. No quality indicator was associated with the risk of adverse events. Endoscopist average withdrawal time over 6 minutes (OR, .12; 95% CI, .002-.85) and SRL detection rate over 20% (OR, .17; 95% CI, .03-.74) were associated with a reduced risk of postcolonoscopy cancers. Single-center study. Quality assurance programs should prioritize the measurement of endoscopist average withdrawal time and adenoma (SRL) detection rate. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrating complementary and alternative medicine into cancer care: Canadian oncology nurses′ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L Truant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM and conventional cancer care in Canada is in its nascent stages. While most patients use CAM during their cancer experience, the majority does not receive adequate support from their oncology health care professionals (HCPs to integrate CAM safely and effectively into their treatment and care. A variety of factors influence this lack of integration in Canada, such as health care professional(HCP education and attitudes about CAM; variable licensure, credentialing of CAM practitioners, and reimbursement issues across the country; an emerging CAM evidence base; and models of cancer care that privilege diseased-focused care at the expense of whole person care. Oncology nurses are optimally aligned to be leaders in the integration of CAM into cancer care in Canada. Beyond the respect afforded to oncology nurses by patients and family members that support them in broaching the topic of CAM, policies, and position statements exist that allow oncology nurses to include CAM as part of their scope. Oncology nurses have also taken on leadership roles in clinical innovation, research, education, and advocacy that are integral to the safe and informed integration of evidence-based CAM therapies into cancer care settings in Canada.

  6. Mutation analysis and characterization of ATR sequence variants in breast cancer cases from high-risk French Canadian breast/ovarian cancer families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichette Roxane

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR is a member of the PIK-related family which plays, along with ATM, a central role in cell-cycle regulation. ATR has been shown to phosphorylate several tumor suppressors like BRCA1, CHEK1 and TP53. ATR appears as a good candidate breast cancer susceptibility gene and the current study was designed to screen for ATR germline mutations potentially involved in breast cancer predisposition. Methods ATR direct sequencing was performed using a fluorescent method while widely available programs were used for linkage disequilibrium (LD, haplotype analyses, and tagging SNP (tSNP identification. Expression analyses were carried out using real-time PCR. Results The complete sequence of all exons and flanking intronic sequences were analyzed in DNA samples from 54 individuals affected with breast cancer from non-BRCA1/2 high-risk French Canadian breast/ovarian families. Although no germline mutation has been identified in the coding region, we identified 41 sequence variants, including 16 coding variants, 3 of which are not reported in public databases. SNP haplotypes were established and tSNPs were identified in 73 healthy unrelated French Canadians, providing a valuable tool for further association studies involving the ATR gene, using large cohorts. Our analyses led to the identification of two novel alternative splice transcripts. In contrast to the transcript generated by an alternative splicing site in the intron 41, the one resulting from a deletion of 121 nucleotides in exon 33 is widely expressed, at significant but relatively low levels, in both normal and tumoral cells including normal breast and ovarian tissue. Conclusion Although no deleterious mutations were identified in the ATR gene, the current study provides an haplotype analysis of the ATR gene polymorphisms, which allowed the identification of a set of SNPs that could be used as tSNPs for large-scale association

  7. Impact of the Canadian Shield-Cordillera tectonic transition on controlling deformation within western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, A. J.; Audet, P.; Mallyon, D.; Chen, Y.; Currie, C. A.; Gu, Y. J.

    2016-12-01

    Assembly of North America has been ongoing for more than 2 Ga, though geologically recent activity has been largely confined to the western margin—the Cordillera. Unlike a typical plate boundary fault, the Cordillera is characterized by a broad zone of distributed deformation as much as 800 km in lateral extent. The Canadian Cordillera is observed to have elevated heat flow, high topography, and a thin and weak lithosphere. Juxtaposed immediately to the east acting as a rigid backstop to deformation, is the strong and thick Canadian Shield. Both the location and nature of the Cordillera-Craton transition have been a subject of much study and debate. Past results suggest that the Cordilleran Deformation Front may mark the western extent of the cratonic lithosphere, whereas others indicate it extends further west, up to the Tintina Fault-Rocky Mountain Trench system. In the Mackenzie and Richardson Mountains of the northern Canadian Cordillera, this boundary likely becomes more complex and elusive due to the arcuate nature of the predominant tectonic structures. Despite high levels of seismicity across much of the region, detailed study has been limited by insufficient coverage of seismological infrastructure. With the USArray Transportable Array now deployed in Alaska and northwestern Canada, combined with several active regional arrays (e.g. the Yukon-Northwest Seismic Network, Canadian Rockies and Alberta Network), national and regional networks, and past seismological datasets, new studies now achieve improved resolution across large regions of western Canada and the craton-Cordillera transition. We present a new vertically polarized shear speed model of the lithospheric mantle and crust across western North America, and examine key features associated with the complex crust and lithosphere of dynamics of western North America. These include the location and nature of the Cordillera-Craton transition throughout the Cordillera, and what role the apparent step

  8. The regional control of the canadian energy production; Le contraste provincial de la production energetique canadienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitlaurent, S.; Sarrazin, J

    2004-12-01

    This document provides information and presents data on the energy situation in many regions of Canada. The first part deals with the petroleum and the bitumen shales of Alberta (reserves, exploitation and production, environmental impacts), the second part discusses with the hydroelectricity choice of Quebec and the 2004 crisis. The nuclear situation of Ontario is presented in the third part (nuclear park, programs, uranium reserves, research and development on Candu reactors), while the fourth part deals with the renewable energies (wind power and biomass). The canadian situation facing the Kyoto protocol is discussed in the last part. (A.L.B.)

  9. Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli John J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10 were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases and 1506 population based controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to fit statistical models. Results Based on conditional logistic regression modeling, the following factors independently increased the risk of NHL: farmer and machinist as long held occupations; constant exposure to diesel exhaust fumes; constant exposure to ionizing radiation (radium; and personal history of another cancer. Men who had worked for 20 years or more as farmer and machinist were the most likely to develop NHL. Conclusion An increased risk of developing NHL is associated with the following: long held occupations of faer and machinist; exposure to diesel fumes; and exposure to ionizing radiation (radium. The risk of NHL increased with the duration of employment as a farmer or machinist.

  10. Cancer control and prevention: nutrition and epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mukesh

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate recent developments in nutritional epigenomics and related challenges, opportunities, and implications for cancer control and prevention. Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and understanding the factors that contribute to cancer development may facilitate the development of strategies for cancer prevention and control. Cancer development involves genetic and epigenetic alterations. Genetic marks are permanent, whereas epigenetic marks are dynamic, change with age, and are influenced by the external environment. Thus, epigenetics provides a link between the environment, diet, and cancer development. Proper food selection is imperative for better health and to avoid cancer and other diseases. Nutrients either contribute directly to cancer prevention or support the repair of genomic and epigenomic damage caused by exposure to cancer-causing agents such as toxins, free radicals, radiation, and infectious agents. Nutritional epigenomics provides an opportunity for cancer prevention because selected nutrients have the potential to reverse cancer-associated epigenetic marks in different tumor types. A number of natural foods and their bioactive components have been shown to have methylation-inhibitory and deacetylation-inhibitory properties. Natural foods and bioactive food components have characteristics and functions that are similar to epigenetic inhibitors and therefore have potential in cancer control and prevention.

  11. Is Your Biobank Up to Standards? A Review of the National Canadian Tissue Repository Network Required Operational Practice Standards and the Controlled Documents of a Certified Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Victoria; Castillo-Pelayo, Tania; Babinszky, Sindy; Dee, Simon; Leblanc, Jodi; Matzke, Lise; O'Donoghue, Sheila; Carpenter, Jane; Carter, Candace; Rush, Amanda; Byrne, Jennifer; Barnes, Rebecca; Mes-Messons, Anne-Marie; Watson, Peter

    2017-11-17

    Ongoing quality management is an essential part of biobank operations and the creation of high quality biospecimen resources. Adhering to the standards of a national biobanking network is a way to reduce variability between individual biobank processes, resulting in cross biobank compatibility and more consistent support for health researchers. The Canadian Tissue Repository Network (CTRNet) implemented a set of required operational practices (ROPs) in 2011 and these serve as the standards and basis for the CTRNet biobank certification program. A review of these 13 ROPs covering 314 directives was conducted after 5 years to identify areas for revision and update, leading to changes to 7/314 directives (2.3%). A review of all internal controlled documents (including policies, standard operating procedures and guides, and forms for actions and processes) used by the BC Cancer Agency's Tumor Tissue Repository (BCCA-TTR) to conform to these ROPs was then conducted. Changes were made to 20/106 (19%) of BCCA-TTR documents. We conclude that a substantial fraction of internal controlled documents require updates at regular intervals to accommodate changes in best practices. Reviewing documentation is an essential aspect of keeping up to date with best practices and ensuring the quality of biospecimens and data managed by biobanks.

  12. Cancer control-A global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, I

    2017-01-01

    Disparities in cancer control exist in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many countries do not have cancer registries to record incidence, mortality and prevalence and are reliant on Globocan estimates of their cancer burden. Poorer cancer control within and between countries occurs in those living remotely from urban centres, those in a low socioeconomic group and some ethnic groups who have lifestyle and belief systems which impact on cancer control. High-income countries generally have population screening programmes for cervix, breast and bowel cancer. However, simpler forms of screening for cancer of the cervix like visual inspection with acetic acid have been shown to be feasible in developing nations. The widespread use of vaccines to prevent cancer has been achieved with the Hepatitis B vaccine but the human papilloma virus vaccine to prevent cancer of the cervix is largely only available in high-income countries. Access to and training of oncological surgeons in LMICs is limited, while 70% of patients in these countries cannot access radiotherapy. The World Health Organization has developed a list of essential medicines although access remains poor in LMICs. The United Nations has set targets for the control of non-communicable diseases to improve global cancer control. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 4. Recommendations on physical exercise training. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cléroux, J; Feldman, R D; Petrella, R J

    1999-05-04

    of moderate rhythmic exercise of the lower limbs, such as brisk walking or cycling, 3 or 4 times per week to reduce blood pressure, (2) Exercise should be prescribed as an adjunctive therapy for people who require pharmacologic therapy for hypertension, especially those who are not receiving beta-blockers. (3) People who do not have hypertension should participate in regular exercise as it will decrease blood pressure and reduce the risk of coronary artery disease, although there is no direct evidence that it will prevent hypertension. These recommendations agree with those of the World Hypertension League, the American College of Sports Medicine, the report of the US Surgeon General on physical activity and health, and the US National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Panel on Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health. These guidelines have not been clinically tested. The Canadian Hypertension Society, the Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

  14. Gun control and suicide: possible impact of Canadian legislation to ensure safe storage of firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Jean

    2004-01-01

    In 1992, the Canadian Firearms Act aimed at ensuring safe storage of firearms was promulgated. This study compares suicide methods 6 years prior to the enactment of the law and 5 years after its enactment. The study encompassed 426 suicide cases from Abitibi-Témiscamingue (Northern Quebec), the region with the highest suicide rate and the highest firearm suicide rate in Quebec. Suicide by firearms decreased in the male and female population. Suicide by hanging increased among youths of both sexes, and suicide by poisoning doubled in the female population. A decrease in firearm suicides was most noticeable in the under-25 age group, although it was in this same age group that the general suicide rate increased the most. The reduction of firearm suicides was not accompanied by a decrease in overall suicide rates.

  15. Canadian biotechnology start-ups, 1991-1997: the role of incumbents' patents and strategic alliances in controlling competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, T; Baum, J A; Silverman, B S

    2000-12-01

    Fligstein (1996) contends that organizations act to exploit the institutional context in which they are embedded so as to stabilize the competition they face. Drawing on Fligstein's theoretical analysis, we conceptualize incumbent biotechnology firms' patent-ing and alliance-building activities as attempts to stabilize and control potential competition and analyze how these activities shape rates of founding in the Canadian biotechnology industry. We find that increases in the level and concentration of incumbents' patenting discourage founding, particularly in human application sectors of the industry where development and approval processes are more costly and time consuming. Incumbents' horizontal alliances depress start-ups; vertical alliances stimulate start-ups. Our findings highlight how technology appropriation and strategic alliances structure the competitive dynamics and evolution of high-technology, knowledge-intensive industries.

  16. Canadian Guidelines for Controlled Pediatric Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death-Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Matthew J; Hornby, Laura; Rochwerg, Bram; van Manen, Michael; Dhanani, Sonny; Sivarajan, V Ben; Appleby, Amber; Bennett, Mary; Buchman, Daniel; Farrell, Catherine; Goldberg, Aviva; Greenberg, Rebecca; Singh, Ram; Nakagawa, Thomas A; Witteman, William; Barter, Jill; Beck, Allon; Coughlin, Kevin; Conradi, Alf; Cupido, Cynthia; Dawson, Rosanne; Dipchand, Anne; Freed, Darren; Hornby, Karen; Langlois, Valerie; Mack, Cheryl; Mahoney, Meagan; Manhas, Deepak; Tomlinson, Christopher; Zavalkoff, Samara; Shemie, Sam D

    2017-11-01

    Create trustworthy, rigorous, national clinical practice guidelines for the practice of pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death in Canada. We followed a process of clinical practice guideline development based on World Health Organization and Canadian Medical Association methods. This included application of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. Questions requiring recommendations were generated based on 1) 2006 Canadian donation after circulatory determination of death guidelines (not pediatric specific), 2) a multidisciplinary symposium of national and international pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death leaders, and 3) a scoping review of the pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death literature. Input from these sources drove drafting of actionable questions and Good Practice Statements, as defined by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation group. We performed additional literature reviews for all actionable questions. Evidence was assessed for quality using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation and then formulated into evidence profiles that informed recommendations through the evidence-to-decision framework. Recommendations were revised through consensus among members of seven topic-specific working groups and finalized during meetings of working group leads and the planning committee. External review was provided by pediatric, critical care, and critical care nursing professional societies and patient partners. We generated 63 Good Practice Statements and seven Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation recommendations covering 1) ethics, consent, and withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy, 2) eligibility, 3) withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy practices, 4) ante and postmortem interventions, 5) death determination, 6) neonatal pediatric donation after circulatory

  17. Canadian Guidelines for Controlled Pediatric Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death—Summary Report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Laura; Rochwerg, Bram; van Manen, Michael; Dhanani, ; Sonny; Sivarajan, V. Ben; Appleby, Amber; Bennett, Mary; Buchman, Daniel; Farrell, Catherine; Goldberg, Aviva; Greenberg, Rebecca; Singh, Ram; Nakagawa, Thomas A.; Witteman, William; Barter, Jill; Beck, Allon; Coughlin, Kevin; Conradi, Alf; Cupido, Cynthia; Dawson, Rosanne; Dipchand, Anne; Freed, Darren; Hornby, Karen; Langlois, Valerie; Mack, Cheryl; Mahoney, Meagan; Manhas, Deepak; Tomlinson, Christopher; Zavalkoff, Samara; Shemie, Sam D.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Create trustworthy, rigorous, national clinical practice guidelines for the practice of pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death in Canada. Methods: We followed a process of clinical practice guideline development based on World Health Organization and Canadian Medical Association methods. This included application of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. Questions requiring recommendations were generated based on 1) 2006 Canadian donation after circulatory determination of death guidelines (not pediatric specific), 2) a multidisciplinary symposium of national and international pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death leaders, and 3) a scoping review of the pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death literature. Input from these sources drove drafting of actionable questions and Good Practice Statements, as defined by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation group. We performed additional literature reviews for all actionable questions. Evidence was assessed for quality using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation and then formulated into evidence profiles that informed recommendations through the evidence-to-decision framework. Recommendations were revised through consensus among members of seven topic-specific working groups and finalized during meetings of working group leads and the planning committee. External review was provided by pediatric, critical care, and critical care nursing professional societies and patient partners. Results: We generated 63 Good Practice Statements and seven Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation recommendations covering 1) ethics, consent, and withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy, 2) eligibility, 3) withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy practices, 4) ante and postmortem interventions, 5) death determination, 6) neonatal pediatric donation

  18. Impact of the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review on provincial concordance with respect to cancer drug funding decisions and time to funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanthan, A; Mai, H; Penner, N; Amir, E; Laupacis, A; Sabharwal, M; Chan, K K W

    2017-10-01

    The pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pcodr) was implemented in 2011 to address uneven drug coverage and lack of transparency with respect to the various provincial cancer drug review processes in Canada. We evaluated the impact of the pcodr on provincial decision concordance and time from Notice of Compliance (noc) to drug funding. In a retrospective review, Health Canada's Drug Product Database was used to identify new indications for cancer drugs between January 2003 and May 2014, and provincial formulary listings for drug-funding dates and decisions between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2014 were retrieved. Multiple linear models and quantile regressions were used to evaluate changes in time to decision-making before and after the implementation of the pcodr. Agreement of decisions between provinces was evaluated using kappa statistics. Data were available from 9 provinces (all Canadian provinces except Quebec), identifying 88 indications that represented 51 unique cancer drugs. Two provinces lacked available data for all 88 indications at the time of data collection. Interprovincial concordance in drug funding decisions significantly increased after the pcodr's implementation (Brennan-Prediger coefficient: 0.54 pre-pcodr vs. 0.78 post-pcodr; p = 0.002). Nationwide, the median number of days from Health Canada's noc date to the date of funding significantly declined (to 393 days from 522 days, p drug funding decisions between provinces and decreased time to funding decisions were observed.

  19. Evidence-Based Cancer Survivorship Activities for Comprehensive Cancer Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, J Michael; Lakhani, Naheed; Finifrock, DeAnna; Pinkerton, Beth; Johnson, Krystal L; Mallory, Sharon H; Migliore Santiago, Patricia; Stewart, Sherri L

    2015-12-01

    One of six priorities of CDC's National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is to address the needs of cancer survivors within the local population served by individually funded states, tribes, and territories. This report examines cancer survivorship activities implemented in five NCCCP grantees, which have initiated evidence-based activities outlined in A National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship: Advancing Public Health Strategies (NAP). NCCCP action plans, submitted annually to CDC, from 2010 to 2014 were reviewed in February 2015 to assess implementation of cancer survivorship activities and recommended strategies consistent with the NAP. Four state-level and one tribal grantee with specific activities related to one of each of the four NAP strategies were chosen for inclusion. Brief case reports describing the initiation and impact of implemented activities were developed in collaboration with each grantee program director. New Mexico, South Carolina, Vermont, Washington state, and Fond Du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa programs each implemented activities in surveillance and applied research; communication, education, and training; programs, policies, and infrastructure; and access to quality care and services. This report provides examples for incorporating cancer survivorship activities within Comprehensive Cancer Control programs of various sizes, demographic makeup, and resource capacity. New Mexico, South Carolina, Vermont, Washington state, and Fond Du Lac Band developed creative cancer survivorship activities that meet CDC recommendations. NCCCP grantees can follow these examples by implementing evidence-based survivorship interventions that meet the needs of their specific populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Infections in Children with Cancer in the Era of Infant Hib Immunization Programs (1991-2014): A Report from the Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program Active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Joanne; Smith, Alyssa; Bettinger, Julie A; Vaudry, Wendy; Tan, Ben; Desai, Shalini; Halperin, Scott A; Top, Karina A

    2017-12-01

    We studied the epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections among children with cancer admitted to Canadian pediatric hospitals. From 1991-2014, 13 cases among children with cancer were identified through active surveillance. Average age was 6.7 years. Six of 7 cases eligible for infant immunization were age-appropriately immunized (vaccine failures). Children with cancer may benefit from booster Hib immunization.

  1. A Qualitative Study of the Impact of Cancer on Romantic Relationships, Sexual Relationships, and Fertility: Perspectives of Canadian Adolescents and Parents During and After Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Jennifer N; Jibb, Lindsay A; Greenberg, Mark; Barrera, Maru; Luca, Stephanie; White, Meghan E; Gupta, Abha

    2015-06-01

    We sought to gain insight into perspectives around core domains of adolescent development--romantic relationships, sexual relationships, and fertility--from the vantage point of Canadian adolescents and parents during and after cancer treatment. Twenty adolescents (12-17 years old at interview) and 20 parents (who may or may not have had an adolescent interviewed) participated in this study. Using a semistructured guide, adolescents and parents were interviewed separately. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcribed interview data were independently coded according to the study objectives by two trained analysts. Codes were organized into categories that reflected emerging themes. Discrepancies in coding were resolved through discussion with the lead investigator. Qualitative analysis revealed main themes for adolescents and parents related to: (1) romantic relationships (opinions on the importance of dating in the context of cancer, expectations that cancer will impact future relationships, dating as a source of moral support, and limited opportunities to engage with partners); (2) sexual relationships (thoughts related to the impact of cancer on future sexual relationships); (3) fertility (initiating treatment as a primary concern and fear of infertility and perceived consequences); and (4) recommendations for care (access to knowledge and support through adolescent-friendly and accessible means). Findings from this study highlight cancer-specific relationship and fertility issues faced by adolescents and provide important direction to the development of interventions that may ultimately improve the psychosocial health of adolescents during and after cancer treatment.

  2. Preferred roles in treatment decision making among patients with cancer: a pooled analysis of studies using the Control Preferences Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Sloan, Jeff A; Atherton, Pamela J; Smith, Tenbroeck; Hack, Thomas F; Huschka, Mashele M; Rummans, Teresa A; Clark, Matthew M; Diekmann, Brent; Degner, Lesley F

    2010-09-01

    To collect normative data, assess differences between demographic groups, and indirectly compare US and Canadian medical systems relative to patient expectations of involvement in cancer treatment decision making. Meta-analysis. Individual patient data were compiled across 6 clinical studies among 3491 patients with cancer who completed the 2-item Control Preferences Scale indicating the roles they preferred versus actually experienced in treatment decision making. The roles in treatment decision making that patients preferred were 26% active, 49% collaborative, and 25% passive. The roles that patients reported actually experiencing were 30% active, 34% collaborative, and 36% passive. Roughly 61% of patients reported having their preferred role; only 6% experienced extreme discordance between their preferred versus actual roles. More men than women (66% vs 60%, P = .001) and more US patients than Canadian patients (84% vs 54%, P women than men reported taking a passive role (40% vs 24%, P communication styles into treatment plans.

  3. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 1. Methods and an overview of the Canadian recommendations. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, N R; Burgess, E; Choi, B C; Taylor, G; Wilson, E; Cléroux, J; Fodor, J G; Leiter, L A; Spence, D

    1999-05-04

    the studies reviewed. Supplementing the diet with potassium, calcium and magnesium has not been associated with a clinically important reduction in blood pressure in people consuming a healthy diet. (1) It is recommended that health care professionals determine the body mass index (weight in kilograms/[height in metres]2) and alcohol consumption of all adult patients and assess sodium consumption and stress levels in all hypertensive patients. (2) To reduce blood pressure in the population at large, it is recommended that Canadians attain and maintain a healthy body mass index. For those who choose to drink alcohol intake should be limited to 2 or fewer standard drinks per day (maximum of 14/week for men and 9/week for women). Adults should exercise regularly. (3) To reduce blood pressure in hypertensive patients, individualized therapy is recommended. This therapy should emphasize weight loss for overweight patients, abstinence from or moderation in alcohol intake, regular exercise, restriction of sodium intake and, in appropriate circumstances, individualized cognitive behaviour modification to reduce the negative effects of stress. The recommendations were reviewed by all of the sponsoring organizations and by participants in a satellite symposium of the fourth international Conference on Preventive Cardiology. They are similar to those of the World Hypertension League and the Joint National committee, with the exception of the recommendations on stress management, which are based on new information. They have not been clinically tested. The Canadian Hypertension Society, the Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at health Canada, and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

  4. Cancer risks in a population-based study of 70,570 agricultural workers: results from the Canadian census health and Environment cohort (CanCHEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachuri, Linda; Harris, M Anne; MacLeod, Jill S; Tjepkema, Michael; Peters, Paul A; Demers, Paul A

    2017-05-19

    Agricultural workers may be exposed to potential carcinogens including pesticides, sensitizing agents and solar radiation. Previous studies indicate increased risks of hematopoietic cancers and decreased risks at other sites, possibly due to differences in lifestyle or risk behaviours. We present findings from CanCHEC (Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort), the largest national population-based cohort of agricultural workers. Statistics Canada created the cohort using deterministic and probabilistic linkage of the 1991 Canadian Long Form Census to National Cancer Registry records for 1992-2010. Self-reported occupations were coded using the Standard Occupational Classification (1991) system. Analyses were restricted to employed persons aged 25-74 years at baseline (N = 2,051,315), with follow-up until December 31, 2010. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were modeled using Cox proportional hazards for all workers in agricultural occupations (n = 70,570; 70.8% male), stratified by sex, and adjusted for age at cohort entry, province of residence, and highest level of education. A total of 9515 incident cancer cases (7295 in males) occurred in agricultural workers. Among men, increased risks were observed for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.00-1.21), prostate (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.06-1.16), melanoma (HR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.02-1.31), and lip cancer (HR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.70-2.70). Decreased risks in males were observed for lung, larynx, and liver cancers. Among female agricultural workers there was an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (HR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.07-1.72). Increased risks of melanoma (HR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.17-2.73), leukemia (HR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.24-3.25) and multiple myeloma (HR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.16-4.37) were observed in a subset of female crop farmers. Exposure to pesticides may have contributed to increased risks of hematopoietic cancers, while increased risks of lip cancer

  5. Geologic and geomorphic controls of altitudinal treeline in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias Fauria, M.; Johnson, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesize that a multi-scale (in both time and space) process competition affecting topographical shelter (e.g. sites favoring snow accumulation which prevents dissecation and abrasion), and substrate and water availability, ultimately set the distribution of suitable sites where trees can establish and survive in the altitudinal treeline. Terrain characteristics on which altitudinal treelines occur are ultimately set by geological history, which determines the distribution of slope aspects, angles, and lengths, as well as the distribution, depth, transport, and texture of the regolith on which trees grow. Erosive processes (landscape evolution) create concave features where flow converges (water, avalanches, debris) - channels - and convex or planar slopes. A spatially explicit model is presented at 1m resolution which predicts tree presence on a ~ 200 km2 area in the Front Ranges of the Canadian Rocky Mountains as a function of landscape topographical variables key in water and energy balances and surface transport/instability. The model was validated with independent data from an adjacent area and successfully captures tree presence/absence. Subalpine forests form a mosaic of stand ages which is a function of the last disturbance (mostly wildfire), where the main differences from their lowland counterparts are 1) a higher portion of areas where stand dynamics are affected by disturbances linked to the presence of slopes (i.e. gravitational: avalanches, flooding/flushing events), and 2) an upslope declining frequency of sites favorable for tree establishment and survival. Thus, the presence of trees in the uppermost part of these forests largely depends on the existence of suitable conditions largely linked to topography. Such places are the result of geomorphologic processes acting on a framework set by the structural geology of the region, and thus the appearance of new sites suitable for tree growth does not depend on short (i.e. yearly to decadal) time

  6. Targeting deregulated epigenetic control in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Sayyed K; Van Wijnen, Andre J; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S

    2013-11-01

    Cancer is a multifaceted disease that involves acquisition of genetic mutations, deletions, and amplifications as well as deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms that fine-tune gene regulation. Key epigenetic mechanisms that include histone modifications, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNA-mediated gene silencing are often deregulated in a variety of cancers. Subnuclear localization of key proteins in the interphase nucleus and bookmarking of genes by lineage commitment factors in mitosis-a new dimension to epigenetic control of fundamental biological processes-is also modified in cancer. In this review, we discuss the various aspects of epigenetic control that are operative in a variety of cancers and their potential for risk assessment, early detection, targeted therapy, and personalized medicine. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Controlling for endogeneity in attributable costs of vancomycin-resistant enterococci from a Canadian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Smith, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Decisions regarding the optimal provision of infection prevention and control resources depend on accurate estimates of the attributable costs of health care-associated infections. This is challenging given the skewed nature of health care cost data and the endogeneity of health care-associated infections. The objective of this study is to determine the hospital costs attributable to vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) while accounting for endogeneity. This study builds on an attributable cost model conducted by a retrospective cohort study including 1,292 patients admitted to an urban hospital in Vancouver, Canada. Attributable hospital costs were estimated with multivariate generalized linear models (GLMs). To account for endogeneity, a control function approach was used. The analysis sample included 217 patients with health care-associated VRE. In the standard GLM, the costs attributable to VRE are $17,949 (SEM, $2,993). However, accounting for endogeneity, the attributable costs were estimated to range from $14,706 (SEM, $7,612) to $42,101 (SEM, $15,533). Across all model specifications, attributable costs are 76% higher on average when controlling for endogeneity. VRE was independently associated with increased hospital costs, and controlling for endogeneity lead to higher attributable cost estimates. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    2011-01-01

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  9. Diabetes Distress, Depression and Glycemic Control in a Canadian-Based Specialty Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Evelyn M; Afshar, Rowshanak; Qian, Hong; Zhang, Mira; Elliott, Thomas G; Tang, Tricia S

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine rates of diabetes distress and depression in patients with type 2 diabetes in a tertiary care setting, to examine the relationship among glycemic control, diabetes distress and depression, and to identify predictors of diabetes distress and depression on the basis of demographic and clinical characteristics. We recruited 148 adults with type 2 diabetes who were presenting to a specialty diabetes clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Participants completed a questionnaire measuring diabetes distress, depressive symptoms and demographic backgrounds. The Diabetes Distress Scale was used to assess overall distress as well as 4 distinct distress dimensions, including emotional burden, physician-related, regimen-related and interpersonal distress. The Personal Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depressive symptoms. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) data were also collected. The prevalence of diabetes distress and depression was 39% and 12% in our population, respectively. A1C levels emerged as a significant predictor of emotional burden (p=0.03) and regimen-related distress (p=0.01); higher A1C levels were associated with increased distress regarding emotional functioning and regimen adherence. A1C levels (p=0.02) and education levels (p=0.03) emerged as predictors of physician-related distress, with higher A1C levels associated with decreased distress regarding confidence in physicians. Our findings reveal that the rate of diabetes distress for patients in a tertiary care setting is high. Furthermore, diabetes distress, particularly emotion- and self-care-related distress, plays a significant role in glycemic control, whereas depression does not. Routine screening for diabetes distress as part of an initial specialty clinic evaluation should be explored. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling the Aneuploidy Control of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aneuploidy has long been recognized to be associated with cancer. A growing body of evidence suggests that tumorigenesis, the formation of new tumors, can be attributed to some extent to errors occurring at the mitotic checkpoint, a major cell cycle control mechanism that acts to prevent chromosome missegregation. However, so far no statistical model has been available quantify the role aneuploidy plays in determining cancer. Methods We develop a statistical model for testing the association between aneuploidy loci and cancer risk in a genome-wide association study. The model incorporates quantitative genetic principles into a mixture-model framework in which various genetic effects, including additive, dominant, imprinting, and their interactions, are estimated by implementing the EM algorithm. Results Under the new model, a series of hypotheses tests are formulated to explain the pattern of the genetic control of cancer through aneuploid loci. Simulation studies were performed to investigate the statistical behavior of the model. Conclusions The model will provide a tool for estimating the effects of genetic loci on aneuploidy abnormality in genome-wide studies of cancer cells.

  11. Design and Methods of the Pan-Canadian Applying Biomarkers to Minimize Long-Term Effects of Childhood/Adolescent Cancer Treatment (ABLE Nephrotoxicity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R. McMahon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood cancer survivors experience adverse drug events leading to lifelong health issues. The Applying Biomarkers to Minimize Long-Term Effects of Childhood/Adolescent Cancer Treatment (ABLE team was established to validate and apply biomarkers of cancer treatment effects, with a goal of identifying children at high risk of developing cancer treatment complications associated with thrombosis, graft-versus-host disease, hearing loss, and kidney damage. Cisplatin is a chemotherapy well known to cause acute and chronic nephrotoxicity. Data on biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI and late renal outcomes in children treated with cisplatin are limited. Objective: To describe the design and methods of the pan-Canadian ABLE Nephrotoxicity study, which aims to evaluate urine biomarkers (neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin [NGAL] and kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1] for AKI diagnosis, and determine whether they predict risk of long-term renal outcomes (chronic kidney disease [CKD], hypertension. Design: This is a 3-year observational prospective cohort study. Setting: The study includes 12 Canadian pediatric oncology centers. Patients: The target recruitment goal is 150 patients aged less than 18 years receiving cisplatin. Exclusion criteria: Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 or a pre-existing renal transplantation at baseline. Measurements: Serum creatinine (SCr, urine NGAL, and KIM-1 are measured during cisplatin infusion episodes (pre-infusion, immediate post-infusion, discharge sampling. At follow-up visits, eGFR, microalbuminuria, and blood pressure are measured and outcomes are collected. Methods: Outcomes: AKI is defined as per SCr criteria of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO guidelines. CKD is defined as eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73m2 or albumin-to-creatinine ratio≥3mg/mmol. Hypertension is defined as per guidelines. Procedure: Patients are recruited before their

  12. Implementation of Controlled Traffic in the Canadian Prairies: Soil and Plant Dynamics under Simulated and Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenette, Kris; Hernandez-Ramirez, Guillermo

    2017-04-01

    Achieving resiliency in agroecosystems may be accomplished through the incorporation of contemporary management systems and the diversification of crop rotations with pulse crops, such as controlled traffic farming (CTF) and faba beans (Vicia faba L.). As these practices become more common in the Canadian Prairies, it is imperative to have a well-rounded understanding of how faba beans interact with the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum in conditions found in contemporary management systems. Simulated field conditions emulated soil compaction found in both the trafficked and un-trafficked areas of a CTF system, in which the presence of high water availability was shown to offset the negative results of large applications of compactive effort. Furthermore, low water availability exacerbated differences in plant responses between compaction treatments. The simulated treatment of 1.2 gcm-3 coupled with high water content yielded the most optimal results for most measured parameters, with a contrasting detrimental treatment of 1.4 gcm-3 at low water availability. The simulated field conditions were further bridged through an analysis of two commercial sites in Alberta, Canada that compared both trafficked and un-trafficked soil properties. Soil properties such as available nitrogen (AN), pH, soil total nitrogen (STN), soil organic carbon (SOC), bulk density, macroporosity, soil quality S-Index, plant available water capacity (PAWC) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (Km) were analysed and compared among trafficked and un-trafficked areas. The measured soil physical and hydraulic properties of bulk density, macroporosity, S-Index, PAWC and Km were shown to be heavily influenced by the CTF traffic regime, while soil nutrient properties of AN, pH, STN SOC were determined to be dependent on both management and landscape features.

  13. [Strengthen the cancer surveillance to promote cancer prevention and control in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J

    2018-01-23

    Cancer is a major chronic disease threatening the people's health in China. We reviewed the latest advances on cancer surveillance, prevention and control in our country, which may provide important clues for future cancer control. We used data from the National Central Cancer Registry, to describe and analyze the latest cancer statistics in China. We summarized updated informations on cancer control policies, conducting network, as well as programs in the country. We provided important suggestions on the future strategies of cancer prevention and control. The overall cancer burden in China has been increasing during the past decades. In 2014, there were about 3 804 000 new cancer cases and 2 296 000 cancer deaths in China. The age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality rates were 190.63/100 000 and 106.98/100 000, respectively. China has formed a comprehensive network on cancer prevention and control. Nationwide population-based cancer surveillance has been built up. The population coverage of cancer surveillance has been expanded, and the data quality has been improved. As the aging population is increasing and unhealthy life styles persist in our country, there will be an unnegligible cancer burden in China. Based on the comprehensive rationale of cancer control and prevention, National Cancer Center of China will perform its duty for future precise cancer control and prevention, based on cancer surveillance statistics.

  14. Structural and Geomorphic Controls in Altitudinal Treeline: a Case Study in the Front Ranges of the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias Fauria, M.; Johnson, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    Altitudinal treelines occur on mountain slopes. The geological history of mountain systems sets both the distribution of slope angles, aspects and lengths, and the physical characteristics of the bedrock and regolith on which trees have to establish and grow. We show that altitudinal treeline is largely controlled at an ecosystem level by structural and slope (i.e. gravitational) geomorphic processes operating at a range of temporal and spatial scales, which have direct influence on the hydrological properties of the substrate (affecting the trees’ water and energy budget), as well as on substrate stability, both of which affect recruitment and growth of trees. The study was conducted over a relatively large area of > 200 km2 in the Front Ranges of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, selected to contain the regional diversity of slopes and substrates, which is the result of hundreds of millions of years of sea deposition, subsequent mountain building, and deep erosion by glaciations. Very high-resolution remote sensing data (LiDAR), aerial orthophotos taken at several times since the late 1940s, and ground truthing were employed to classify the terrain into process-based geomorphic units. High resolution, landscape-scale treeline studies are able avoid potential biases in site selection (i.e. selection of sites that are not representative of the overall regional treeline), and consequently capture the coupling between trees and the environment at an ecosystem (regional) level. Moreover, explicitly accounting for slope and substrate-related processes occurring in the studied mountain region is paramount in order to understand the dynamics of trees at their altitudinal distribution limit. Presence of trees in each unit was found to be controlled by a set of parameters relevant to both hydrological and slope processes, such as contributing area, slope angle, regolith transmissivity, and aspect. Our results show no treeline advance over the last 60 years in the region, as

  15. A case cancer control study of reproductive in breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee B; Chaudhury S; Sengupta S

    1994-01-01

    The role of reproductive factors, such as, parity, age at menarche, age at first child′s birth have been investigated in a hospital based case-control study, for their independent as well as combined influences on the incidence of female breast cancer. The study indicates that except for parity, these factors have no influence on the age at onset of the disease. Parity is positively correlated with age at onset. The patient and the control groups were found to be similar in respect of ...

  16. Gynecologic cancer prevention and control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: progress, current activities, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M; Larkin, O Ann; Moore, Angela R; Hayes, Nikki S

    2013-08-01

    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  17. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabroe Svend

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since updated population registers do not exist in many countries it is often difficult to sample valid population controls from the study base to a case-control study. Use of patient controls is an alternative option if the exposure experience under study for these patients are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors. Methods The study was conducted from 1995 to 1997. Incident colon cancer controls (N = 428 aged 35–69 years with a histological verified diagnosis and population controls (N = 583 were selected. Altogether 254 (59% of the colon cancer controls and 320 (55% of the population controls were interviewed about occupational, medical and life style conditions. Results No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure to pesticides among colon cancer controls. Conclusions Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming.

  18. Medical cannabis - the Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.

  19. Nurse's role in controlling cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfudh, Salma Said

    2011-10-01

    Nurses spend more time with patients than any other member of the healthcare team. They play a critical, active and very important part in controlling cancer patients' pain and alleviating suffering. In controlling cancer pain the nurse needs to understand the psychological state of the cancer patient, cancer pain, cancer pain treatment, deleterious effects of unrelieved cancer pain and patient's socio cultural background. She needs to understand that there are two types of pain, nociceptive and neuropathic pains and that 80% of the cancer patients in pain could have 2 or more than 4 different pains at the same time. Nurses' role in controlling cancer pain include believing the patient, assessing pain, identifying the root of the problem, planning the care, administering medication, evaluating effectiveness, ensuring good pain control and individualizing treatment. It also includes nursing interventions such as giving tender nursing care, preventing pain, educating, advocating, communicating, comforting, supporting, and counseling the patient. The nurse must use both pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments to individualize treatment, know all the drugs that are used for the treatment of Cancer Pain, how these drugs relieve pain and what their side effects are. She must use the WHO guidelines to treat pain and must choose the right drug, right dose, given at the right times, with the right intervals and to the right patient. She must evaluate effectiveness of treatment, give PRN doses for breakthrough pain and recommend for specific changes. The role of the nurse is to anticipate the patient's pain needs, advocate for the patient for what feels appropriate for him within his cultural context and incorporate the patient's belief. The nurse can physically relieve pain by promoting comfort, support painful area, gentleness in handling the patient and use nursing treatments. The nurse can recommend physiotherapy, (TENS)/Acupuncture, Occupational therapy

  20. An epidemiological investigation of the early phase of the porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) outbreak in Canadian swine herds in 2014: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Amanda M; Poljak, Zvonimir; Dewey, Cate; Harding, John C S; O'Sullivan, Terri L

    2018-02-01

    The first case of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in Canada was diagnosed in January 2014 in Ontario, approximately 9 months after PED emerged in the United States. An early investigation of the Canadian outbreak suspected that the probable source of the virus was contaminated feed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of feed and other possible factors in the early phase of the PED outbreak in Canadian swine herds. The study period of interest for this case-control study was January 22nd to March 1st, 2014. A case herd was defined as a swine herd with a confirmed positive laboratory diagnostic test (RT-PCR) results for PED virus, along with pigs exhibiting typical clinical signs at the herd level during the study period. A questionnaire was administered to participating producers from the 22 Canadian swine herds enrolled (n = 9 case and n = 13 control herds). Case herd producers were asked to provide information from the initial day of onset of clinical signs and 30 days prior to that day. Control herds were matched to a case herd on the basis of province, herd type and approximate size. The period of interest for a control herd was matched to the initial day of clinical signs of PED for the case herd, along with the 30 days prior to this day. The questionnaire questions focused on herd demographics, biosecurity protocols, live animal movements onto and off sites, deadstock movements, feed and people movements for both the case and control herds. The questionnaire for control herds were based on their matched case's period of interest, and together with case herds formed a matched stratum. Multivariable exact conditional logistic regression and mixed multivariable logistic regression models, with the matched stratum as a random effect, were used to assess the association between various risk factors and the odds of PED introduction into a herd. After adjusting for biosecurity practices, the odds of a PED occurrence was 38.1 (95% CI: 2

  1. Factors associated with the receipt of fertility preservation services along the decision-making pathway in young Canadian female cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Samantha

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the factors associated with the receipt of fertility preservation (FP) services along the decision-making pathway in young Canadian female cancer patients. The roles of the oncologists were examined. A total of 188 women who were diagnosed with cancer between the ages of 18-39 after the year 2000 and had finished active cancer treatment by the time of the survey (2012-2013) participated in the study. Logistic regression models and Pearson χ (2) tests were used for analyses. The mean ages of participants at diagnosis and at survey time were 30.2 (SD = 3.7) and 33.9 (SD = 5.9). One quarter (n = 45, 23.9 %) did not recall having a fertility discussion with their oncologists. Of the three quarters who had a fertility discussion (n = 143, 76.1 %), discussions were equally initiated by oncologists (n = 71) and patients (n = 72). Of the 49 women (26 %) who consulted a fertility specialist, 17 (9 %) underwent a FP procedure. Fertility concern at diagnosis was the driving force of the receipt of FP services at all decision points. Our findings suggest that not only was the proactive approach of oncologists in initiating a fertility discussion important, the quality of the discussion was equally critical in the decision-making pathway. Oncologists play a pivotal role in the provision of fertility services in that they are not only gate keepers, knowledge brokers, and referral initiators of FP consultation, but also they are catalysts in supporting cancer patients making important FP decision in conjunction with the consultation provided by a fertility specialist.

  2. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  3. Radiotherapy and local control in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, V; Rosetto, M E; Fares, C; Mantini, G; Salvi, G; Turriziani, A

    1998-01-01

    Recurrence is a stage in the natural history of rectal cancer. Preoperative radiotherapy or postoperative radiochemotherapy lower the rate of recurrence, improving local control. From 1980 to 1997, at the "Divisione di Radioterapia" of the "Università Cattolica del S. Cuore" of Rome 380 patients with rectal cancer of early clinical stage T2-3, candidates for surgery for cure, underwent radiation therapy. 119 patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy (45-50 Gy); 45 patients underwent "sandwich" radiotherapy (45 Gy:27 Gy before and 28 Gy after surgery), of whom 7 were treated with preoperative radiotherapy alone; 145 patients underwent preoperative concomitant radiochemotherapy according to 3 different protocols, radiotherapy (38 Gy) combined with mitomycin C and 5-FU; radiotherapy (50.4 Gy) combined with cisplatin and 5-FU; radiotherapy (45 Gy) combined with 5-FU and folinic acid. 71 patients were treated with preoperative radiotherapy (38 Gy) combined with IORT (10 Gy). Median follow-up was 6 years. Overall local control was 85% at 3 years, 83% at 5 years, 81% at 10 years. The rate of local control at 5 years was: 76% for postoperative radiotherapy, 83% for "sandwich" radiotherapy, 84% for preoperative radiochemotherapy and 93% for preoperative radiotherapy combined with IORT. Local control was shown to be significantly better with preoperative treatment as compared to postoperative treatment (p = 0.02). The incidence of metastases was 35% in the patients with local recurrence and 16% in those with local control. The difference in survival was highly significant in patients with local control as compared to those with local recurrence: at 5 years 87% and 32% respectively. Patients with local control showed a lower incidence of metastasis and a better survival.

  4. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing in primary breast cancer in the era of standardized testing: a Canadian prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Wedad M; Barnes, Penny J; Chang, Martin C; Gilks, C Blake; Magliocco, Anthony M; Rees, Henrike; Quenneville, Louise; Robertson, Susan J; SenGupta, Sandip K; Nofech-Mozes, Sharon

    2014-12-10

    Therapies that target overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) rely on accurate and timely assessment of all patients with new diagnoses. This study examines HER2 testing of primary breast cancer tissue when performed with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and additional in situ hybridization (ISH) for negative cases (IHC 0/1+). The analysis focuses on the rate of false-negative HER2 tests, defined as IHC 0/1+ with an ISH ratio ≥ 2.0, in eight pathology centers across Canada. Whole sections of surgical resections or tissue microarrays (TMAs) from invasive breast carcinoma tissue were tested by both IHC and ISH using standardized local methods. Samples were scored by the local breast pathologist, and consecutive HER2-negative IHC results (IHC 0/1+) were compared with the corresponding fluorescence or silver ISH result. Overall, 711 surgical excisions of primary breast cancer were analyzed by IHC and ISH; HER2 and chromosome 17 centromere (CEP17) counts were available in all cases. The overall rate of false-negative samples was 0.84% (six of 711 samples). Interpretable IHC and ISH scores were available in 1,212 cases from TMAs, and the overall rate of false-negative cases was 1.6% (16 of 978 cases). Our observation confirms that IHC is an adequate test to predict negative HER2 status in primary breast cancer in surgical excision specimens, even when different antibodies and IHC platforms are used. The study supports the American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists and Canadian testing algorithms of using IHC followed by ISH for equivocal cases. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  5. Optimal control of multiplicative control systems arising from cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, K.; Kim, M.

    1975-01-01

    This study deals with ways of curtailing the rapid growth of cancer cell populations. The performance functional that measures the size of the population at the terminal time as well as the control effort is devised. With use of the discrete maximum principle, the Hamiltonian for this problem is determined and the condition for optimal solutions are developed. The optimal strategy is shown to be a bang-bang control. It is shown that the optimal control for this problem must be on the vertices of an N-dimensional cube contained in the N-dimensional Euclidean space. An algorithm for obtaining a local minimum of the performance function in an orderly fashion is developed. Application of the algorithm to the design of antitumor drug and X-irradiation schedule is discussed.

  6. Canadian space robotic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberger, Christian; Space Plan Task Force, Canadian Space Agency

    The Canadian Space Agency has chosen space robotics as one of its key niche areas, and is currently preparing to deliver the first flight elements for the main robotic system of the international space station. The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is the Canadian contribution to the international space station. It consists of three main elements. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a 7-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm. The Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a smaller 2-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm can be used independently, or attached to the end of the SSRMS. The Mobile Base System (MBS) will be used as a support platform and will also provide power and data links for both the SSRMS and the SPDM. A Space Vision System (SVS) has been tested on Shuttle flights, and is being further developed to enhance the autonomous capabilities of the MSS. The CSA also has a Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics Program which is developing new technologies to fulfill future robotic space mission needs. This program is currently developing in industry technological capabilities in the areas of automation of operations, autonomous robotics, vision systems, trajectory planning and object avoidance, tactile and proximity sensors, and ground control of space robots. Within the CSA, a robotic testbed and several research programs are also advancing technologies such as haptic devices, control via head-mounted displays, predictive and preview displays, and the dynamic characterization of robotic arms. Canada is also now developing its next Long Term Space Plan. In this context, a planetary exploration program is being considered, which would utilize Canadian space robotic technologies in this new arena.

  7. Evaluating Progress in Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, Pascal; Puckett, Mary; Neri, Antonio

    2017-04-04

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) funds every state, seven tribes, seven territories and the District of Columbia to develop formal cancer plans that focus efforts in cancer control. A 2010 review of cancer plans identified radon-related activities in 27 (42%) plans. Since then, 37 coalitions have updated their plans with new or revised cancer control objectives. There has also been recent efforts to increase awareness about radon among cancer coalitions. This study assesses NCCCP grantees current radon activities and changes since the 2010 review. We reviewed all 65 NCCCP grantee cancer plans created from 2005 to 2015 for radon related search terms and categorized plans by radon activities. The program's most recent annual progress report to CDC was also reviewed. We then compared the results from the updated plans with the findings from the 2010 review to assess changes in radon activities among cancer coalitions. Changes in state radon laws between 2010 and 2015 were also assessed. While a number of cancer plans have added or expanded radon-specific activities since 2010, approximately one-third of NCCCP grantees still do not include radon in their cancer plans. Cancer programs can consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs to further reduce the risk of lung cancer, especially among non-smokers.

  8. Dictionaries of Canadian English

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    ... Globe and Mail said, an enterprising publication. Despite the existence of the Winston dictionary, some Canadians were still, at the end of the 1950s, prepared to dismiss Canadian lexicography as pointless. When the idea of a Canadian dictionary was introduced to the Dean of Arts and Science at Dalhousie University in ...

  9. Utilization of Cancer Information System for Breast Cancer Control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: there is a substantial increase in the incidence of breast cancer in Nigeria usually with the late stage presentations and subsequent poor rates of survival attributed mainly to a low level of cancer awareness and ignorance amongst patients. Cancer information system (CIS) is now assuming an emerging role in ...

  10. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 3. Recommendations on alcohol consumption. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, NR; Ashley, MJ; Carruthers, SG; Lacourciere, Y; McKay, DW

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations concerning the effects of alcohol consumption on the prevention and control of hypertension in otherwise healthy adults (except pregnant women). OPTIONS: There are 2 main options for those at risk for hypertension: avert the condition by limiting alcohol consumption or by using other nonpharmacologic methods, or maintain or increase the risk of hypertension by making no change in alcohol consumption. The options for those who alrea...

  11. Economic evaluation of chemotherapy with mitoxantrone plus prednisone for symptomatic hormone-resistant prostate cancer: based on a Canadian randomized trial with palliative end points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, D J; Krahn, M D; Neogi, T; Panzarella, T; Smith, T J; Warde, P; Willan, A R; Ernst, S; Moore, M J; Neville, A; Tannock, I F

    1998-06-01

    To evaluate the economic consequences of the use of chemotherapy in patients with symptomatic hormone-resistant prostate cancer (HRPC) in the context of a previously published Canadian open-label, phase III, randomized trial with palliative end points. The trial randomized 161 patients to initial treatment with mitoxantrone and prednisone (M + P) or to prednisone alone (P) and showed better palliation with M + P. There was no significant difference in survival. A detailed retrospective chart review was performed of resources used from randomization until death of 114 of 161 patients enrolled at the three largest centers: these included hospital admissions, outpatient visits, investigations, therapies (which included all chemotherapy and radiation), and palliative care. Cancer center and community hospital costs were calculated by using the hotel approximation method and case costing from the Ontario Case Cost Project, respectively. Cost-utility analysis was performed by transforming the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 global quality-of-life item measured every 3 weeks on trial to an estimate of utility, and extending the last known value through to death or last follow-up. The mean total cost until death or last follow-up by intention-to-treat was M + P CDN $27,300; P CDN $29,000. The 95% confidence intervals on the observed cost difference ranged from a saving of $9,200 for M + P (with palliative benefit) to an increased cost of $5,800 for M + P. The major proportion of cost (M + P 53% v P 66%; CDN $14,500 v $19,100) was for inpatient care. Initial M + P was consistently less expensive in whichever time period was used to compare costs. Cost-utility analysis showed M + P to be the preferred strategy with an upper 95% confidence interval for the incremental cost-utility ratio of CDN $19,700 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). A treatment that reduces symptoms and improves quality of life has the potential to reduce

  12. Safety Profile and Costs of Related Adverse Events of Trastuzumab Emtansine for the Treatment of HER2-Positive Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer Compared to Capecitabine Plus Lapatinib from the Perspective of the Canadian Health-Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwko, Charles; Prady, Catherine; Yunger, Simon; Pollex, Erika; Moser, Aurelie

    2015-08-01

    Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1, KADCYLA(®)) is an antibody-drug conjugate comprised of the cytotoxic agent DM1 and trastuzumab (HERCEPTIN(®)). The safety profile of T-DM1 in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab and a taxane was investigated in the phase III EMILIA trial. The trial demonstrated clinically and statistically meaningful differences in the safety profile between T-DM1 and capecitabine plus lapatinib (CAP + LAP). The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of managing treatment-related grade ≥ 3 adverse events (AEs) that occurred in ≥ 2% of patients and grade 2 AEs that occurred in ≥ 5% of patients taking T-DM1 compared with patients taking CAP + LAP based on the EMILIA trial, from the perspective of Canadian public payers. An Excel-based model was utilized to estimate the relevant costs. Clinical data were obtained from the EMILIA trial. Cost information was obtained from the literature, clinical experts, and standard cost sources. The analysis was conducted from the Canadian public-payer perspective and reported in 2014 Canadian dollars (CAD). The management of included treatment-related AEs resulted in higher estimated per-patient costs of CAD6901 for CAP + LAP versus CAD3380 for T-DM1, resulting in savings of CAD3521. From a Canadian perspective, this analysis demonstrated that utilizing T-DM1 for the management of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer results in substantial savings to the public health-care system when considering the costs of treatment-related AEs, due to fewer amount of toxicities compared with CAP + LAP. Results of various sensitivity analyses investigating changes in number and costs of AEs confirmed the findings; however, the magnitude of cost savings varied. Further analyses are necessary to determine whether these cost savings would occur in other countries and health-care systems.

  13. Canadian prostate brachytherapy in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Mira; Crook, Juanita; Morris, W. James; Morton, Gerard; Pickles, Tom; Usmani, Nawaid; Vigneault, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Prostate brachytherapy can be used as a monotherapy for low- and intermediate-risk patients or in combination with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as a form of dose escalation for selected intermediate- and high-risk patients. Prostate brachytherapy with either permanent implants (low dose rate [LDR]) or temporary implants (high dose rate [HDR]) is emerging as the most effective radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Several large Canadian brachytherapy programs were established in the mid- to late-1990s. Prostate brachytherapy is offered in British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick. We anticipate the need for brachytherapy services in Canada will significantly increase in the near future. In this review, we summarize brachytherapy programs across Canada, contemporary eligibility criteria for the procedure, toxicity and prostate-specific antigen recurrence free survival (PRFS), as published from Canadian institutions for both LDR and HDR brachytherapy. PMID:23671495

  14. Effect of glycemic control on the risk of pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Er, Kian-Ching; Hsu, Chen-Yang; Lee, Yi-Kung; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Su, Yung-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer has been studied, the effects of glycemic control on pancreatic cancer have never been evaluated. This study investigates the relationship between glycemic control and pancreatic cancer. Data from 1 million National Health Insurance beneficiaries were screened. The study cohort consisted of 46,973 diabetic patients and 652,142 nondiabetic subjects. Of the patients with diabetes, 1114 who had been admitted for hyperglyce...

  15. Cancer in Angola, resources and strategy for its control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lygia Vieira; Conceição, Ana Vaz; Oliveira, João Blasques; Tavares, António; Domingos, Clarinha; Santos, Lucio Lara

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is an increasingly important health problem in Africa. The number of cancer cases in this region could double, ranging between 700 000 and 1 600 000 new cases in 2030. The mortality rate is higher than 80% and is explained, mainly, by a lack of early detection, diagnostics and treatment resources. In Angola, about 7,000 patients die of cancer every year. Data were derived from open-ended interviews conducted in 2010-11 with health authorities, clinicians, nurses and Administration of Hospitals. According Angola epidemiological data, results of interviews and international published advocacy for cancer control we develop a potential strategy for its control. The objectives are to identify existing resources for cancer control and describe the needs thereto, in order to establish an oncological program to guide the development of Angola cancer control strategies. Malaria remains the leading cause of illness and death in Angola, and other communicable diseases remain a public health problem. However, 9 000 new cases of cancer are diagnosed each year.The most common types of cancer are: cancer of the cervix, breast, prostate, esophagus, stomach and head and neck, as well as cancers with infectious origin, such as Kaposi's sarcoma and liver and bladder cancer. The foundation for developing national cancer control strategies includes: oncological data; investment and training; identifying and removing barriers; guidance and protection of the patient. Angolan National Cancer Centre, Sagrada Esperança Clinic and Girassol Clinic are now developing a cancer program. Improving the economic situation of Angola creates conditions for an increase in life expectancy which in itself is associated with an increased risk of oncological diseases. On the other hand, infectious diseases, associated with the risk of malignant tumors, are endemic. Thus, an increase in patients with malignant disease is expected. A plan is therefore necessary to organize the response to this old

  16. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    is conclusive evidence that screening will decrease morality . The methods used to screen for breast cancer include Self Breast Examination, Clinical...Raciathnic Pattern of Cancer in United States. MMWR. 1991;40:754-757. the United States, 1973-1993. Rockville, Md: National Cancer 11. Escobedo LG

  17. Health Beliefs and Locus of Control as Predictors of Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OR= 0.35, p < 0.05), internal locus of control (OR = 1.43, p < 0.05) and health risks behaviour (OR= 0.42, p < 0.05) all significantly predicted cervical cancer screening behaviour of women. Keywords: Health beliefs, Health locus of control, cancer ...

  18. Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

  19. Perceived control, adjustment, and communication problems in laryngeal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, G W; Dineen, M; Kauffman, S M; Raimondi, S C; Simpson, K C

    1993-12-01

    Health locus of control, adjustment to cancer, and communication experiences after a laryngectomy were investigated in 63 laryngeal cancer survivors. Survivors who showed internal control also scored as better adjusted and had fewer communication problems. Scales were intercorrelated (.68 to .92).

  20. The Initiative to Maximize Progress in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Therapy (IMPACT) Cohort Study: a population-based cohort of young Canadians with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Nancy N; Daly, Corinne; Gupta, Sumit; Pole, Jason D; Sutradhar, Rinku; Greenberg, Mark L; Nathan, Paul C

    2014-11-03

    Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in adolescents and young adults (AYA). Annual improvements in AYA cancer survival have been inferior to those observed in children and older adults. Prior studies of AYA with cancer have been limited by their focus on patients from select treatment centres, reducing generalizability, or by being population-based but lacking diagnostic and treatment details. There is a critical need to conduct population-based studies that capture detailed patient, disease, treatment and system-level data on all AYA regardless of treatment location. We will create a cohort of all AYA (aged 15-21 years) at the time of diagnosis with any malignancy between 1992 and 2011 in Ontario, Canada (n = 5,394). Subjects will be identified through the Ontario Cancer Registry and the final cohort will be expanded to include 2012 diagnoses, as these data become available. Detailed diagnostic, treatment and outcome data for those patients treated at a pediatric cancer centre will be provided by a population-based pediatric cancer registry (n = 1,030). For 15-18 year olds treated at adult centres (n = 923) and all 19-21 year olds (n = 3396), trained abstractors will collect the comparable data elements from medical records. We will link these data to population-based administrative health data that include physician billings, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. This will allow descriptions of health care access and use prior to cancer diagnosis, and during and after treatment. The IMPACT cohort will serve as a platform for addressing questions that span the AYA cancer journey. These will include determining which factors influence where AYA receive care, the impact of locus of care on the types and intensity of cancer therapy, appropriateness of surveillance for disease recurrence, access to clinical trials, and receipt of palliative and survivor care. Findings using the IMPACT cohort have the potential to lead to changes in practice and

  1. Worksite Cancer Prevention Activities in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmias, Zachary; Townsend, Julie S; Neri, Antonio; Stewart, Sherri L

    2016-08-01

    Workplaces are one setting for cancer control planners to reach adults at risk for cancer and other chronic diseases. However, the extent to which Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded National Comprehensive Cancer Control Programs (NCCCP) implement interventions in the workplace setting is not well characterized. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of program action plans submitted by NCCCP grantees from 2013 to 2015 to identify and describe cancer prevention objectives and interventions in the workplace setting. Nearly half of NCCCP action reports contained at least one cancer prevention objective or intervention in the workplace setting. Common interventions included education about secondhand smoke exposure in the workplace, and the importance of obtaining colorectal cancer screening. Workplace interventions were relatively common among NCCCP action plans, and serve as one way to address low percentages of CRC screening, and reduce risk for obesity- and tobacco-related cancers.

  2. LIFETIME LUNG CANCER RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH INDOOR RADON EXPOSURE BASED ON VARIOUS RADON RISK MODELS FOR CANADIAN POPULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing

    2017-04-01

    This study calculates and compares the lifetime lung cancer risks associated with indoor radon exposure based on well-known risk models in the literature; two risk models are from joint studies among miners and the other three models were developed from pooling studies on residential radon exposure from China, Europe and North America respectively. The aim of this article is to make clear that the various models are mathematical descriptions of epidemiologically observed real risks in different environmental settings. The risk from exposure to indoor radon is real and it is normal that variations could exist among different risk models even when they were applied to the same dataset. The results show that lifetime risk estimates vary significantly between the various risk models considered here: the model based on the European residential data provides the lowest risk estimates, while models based on the European miners and Chinese residential pooling with complete dosimetry give the highest values. The lifetime risk estimates based on the EPA/BEIR-VI model lie within this range and agree reasonably well with the averages of risk estimates from the five risk models considered in this study. © Crown copyright 2016.

  3. Sedentary work and the risk of breast cancer in premenopausal and postmenopausal women: a pooled analysis of two case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Terry; Fritschi, Lin; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Heyworth, Jane S; Lee, Derrick G; Si, Si; Aronson, Kristan J; Spinelli, John J

    2016-11-01

    There is limited research on the association between sedentary behaviour and breast cancer risk, particularly whether sedentary behaviour is differentially associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer. We pooled data from 2 case-control studies from Australia and Canada to investigate this association. This pooled analysis included 1762 incident breast cancer cases and 2532 controls. Participants in both studies completed a lifetime occupational history and self-rated occupational physical activity level. A job-exposure matrix (JEM) was also applied to job titles to assess sedentary work. Logistic regression analyses (6 pooled and 12 study-specific) were conducted to estimate associations between both self-reported and JEM-assessed sedentary work and breast cancer risk among premenopausal and postmenopausal women. No association was observed in the 6 pooled analyses, and 10 of the study-specific analyses also showed null results. 2 study-specific analyses provided inconsistent and contradictory results, with 1 showing statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer for self-reported sedentary work among premenopausal women cancer in the Canadian study, and the other a non-significant inverse association between JEM-assessed sedentary work and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women in the Australian study. While a suggestion of increased risk was seen for premenopausal women in the Canadian study when using the self-reported measure, overall this pooled study does not provide evidence that sedentary work is associated with breast cancer risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Prostate Cancer Disparities throughout the Cancer Control Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J. Dalton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimates that 238,590 U.S. men will develop PCa and 29,720 men will die from the disease in 2013. PCa exhibits the most profound racial disparities of all cancers with African American men having a 70% higher incidence rate and more than two times higher mortality rate than Caucasian men. Published research on PCa disparities focuses on singular outcomes such as incidence, mortality or quality of life. The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive summary of the racial disparities found at each stage of the PCa Care Continuum which includes prevention, detection, treatments, and outcomes and survival. It focuses primarily on disparities among Caucasian (white and African American men.

  5. The history and use of cancer registry data by public health cancer control programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary C; Babcock, Frances; Hayes, Nikki S; Mariotto, Angela B; Wong, Faye L; Kohler, Betsy A; Weir, Hannah K

    2017-12-15

    Because cancer registry data provide a census of cancer cases, registry data can be used to: 1) define and monitor cancer incidence at the local, state, and national levels; 2) investigate patterns of cancer treatment; and 3) evaluate the effectiveness of public health efforts to prevent cancer cases and improve cancer survival. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad overview of the history of cancer surveillance programs in the United States, and illustrate the expanding ways in which cancer surveillance data are being made available and contributing to cancer control programs. The article describes the building of the cancer registry infrastructure and the successful coordination of efforts among the 2 federal agencies that support cancer registry programs, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. The major US cancer control programs also are described, including the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program, the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, and the Colorectal Cancer Control Program. This overview illustrates how cancer registry data can inform public health actions to reduce disparities in cancer outcomes and may be instructional for a variety of cancer control professionals in the United States and in other countries. Cancer 2017;123:4969-76. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Alcohol Control Efforts in Comprehensive Cancer Control Plans and Alcohol Use Among Adults in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, S. Jane; Kanny, Dafna; Roland, Katherine B.; Grossman, Melissa; Peaker, Brandy; Liu, Yong; Gapstur, Susan M.; White, Mary C.; Plescia, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Aims To understand how US cancer control plans address alcohol use, an important but frequently overlooked cancer risk factor, and how many US adults are at risk. Methods We reviewed alcohol control efforts in 69 comprehensive cancer control plans in US states, tribes and jurisdictions. Using the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we assessed the prevalence of current alcohol use among US adults and the proportion of these drinkers who exceeded guidelines for moderate drinking. Results Most comprehensive cancer control plans acknowledged alcohol use as a cancer risk factor but fewer than half included a goal, objective or strategy to address alcohol use. More than half of US adults reported current alcohol use in 2011, and two of three drinkers exceeded moderate drinking guidelines at least once in the past month. Many states that did not address alcohol use in comprehensive cancer control plans also had a high proportion of adults at risk. Conclusion Alcohol use is a common cancer risk factor in the USA, but alcohol control strategies are not commonly included in comprehensive cancer control plans. Supporting the implementation of evidence-based strategies to prevent the excessive use of alcohol is one tool the cancer control community can use to reduce the risk of cancer. PMID:25313255

  7. A cross-sectional study assessing dietary intake and physical activity in Canadian patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease vs healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Hannah E; Arendt, Bianca M; Noureldin, Seham A; Therapondos, George; Guindi, Maha; Allard, Johane P

    2014-08-01

    Poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle can contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our aim was to compare diet and physical activity of patients with NAFLD and healthy controls with current recommendations. This was a cross-sectional study. Seventy-four patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD (33 simple steatosis and 41 steatohepatitis [NASH]) and 27 healthy controls participated between 2003 and 2011. Food records and activity logs were completed for 7 days. Results were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes and Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines. Plasma vitamin C was measured to assess food record accuracy. Intake/activity for each participant was compared with the recommendations and proportion of subjects not meeting the requirements was calculated. Groups were compared by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test or z-test with Bonferroni adjustment. More patients with NASH (58.5%) were obese compared with patients with simple steatosis (24.2%) and healthy controls (7.4%; Pfat was as follows: simple steatosis: 27.3%; NASH: 46.3%; healthy controls: 63.0% (simple steatosis vs health controls; Pfat: simple steatosis: 42.4%; NASH: 70.7%; healthy controls: 63.0% (simple steatosis vs. NASH; P80% of subjects did not consume enough linoleic or linolenic acid, vitamin D, and vitamin E, and >60% exceeded the upper intake level for sodium. Only 53.1% of patients with simple steatosis and 53.8% of patients with NASH, but 84.6% of healthy controls, met recommendations for physical activity (P=0.020). Plasma vitamin C was normal, similar among groups, and correlated with vitamin C intakes. All participants followed a similar Western diet with high fat and sodium intakes and suboptimal micronutrient intakes. However, physical activity was lower in NAFLD compared with healthy controls and was associated with higher body mass index and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cervical cancer control, priorities and new directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsonego, J; Bosch, F.X.; Coursaget, P.; Cox, JT; Franco, E; Frazer, I; Sankaranarayanan, R; Schiller, J; Singer, A; Wright, TCJr; Kinney, W; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Linder, J

    2004-01-01

    99% of cervical cancer is initiated by HPV infection. The estimated lifetime risk of cervical cancer is nevertheless relatively low (less than 1 in 20 for most community based studies). Although sensitivity and specificity of the available diagnostic techniques are suboptimal, screening for

  9. Erosion control blankets, organic amendments and site variability influenced the initial plant community at a limestone quarry in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Cohen-Fernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Season of seeding and soil amendment with manure mix, wood shavings and erosion control blankets were evaluated over two growing seasons to determine their effect on soil properties and native grass establishment at a Canadian limestone quarry and lime processing plant. A season (fall, spring of soil amending and seeding did not significantly affect revegetation or soil properties. Site characteristics such as slope, aspect, initial soil nutrients and surrounding plant communities influenced early plant community development and overall effects of soil treatments. Erosion control blankets resulted in the highest seeded plant cover and the lowest non-seeded plant cover despite not significantly changing soil chemical properties. Total nitrogen and carbon significantly increased establishment of seeded grasses and non-seeded species. Increased nitrogen and carbon in the constructed soils were best achieved through addition of manure. Wood shavings did not favour establishment of vegetation and resulted in similar, and in some cases less, vegetation than the controls. Assisted revegetation increased plant cover from < 6 to 50% and reduced cover of non-seeded species. Amendments that modified both chemical and physical soil conditions were best to increase vegetation establishment in the harsh conditions of the quarry.

  10. Erosion control blankets, organic amendments and site variability influenced the initial plant community at a limestone quarry in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Fernández, A. C.; Naeth, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    Season of seeding and soil amendment with manure mix, wood shavings and erosion control blankets were evaluated over two growing seasons to determine their effect on soil properties and native grass establishment at a Canadian limestone quarry and lime processing plant. A season (fall, spring) of soil amending and seeding did not significantly affect revegetation or soil properties. Site characteristics such as slope, aspect, initial soil nutrients and surrounding plant communities influenced early plant community development and overall effects of soil treatments. Erosion control blankets resulted in the highest seeded plant cover and the lowest non-seeded plant cover despite not significantly changing soil chemical properties. Total nitrogen and carbon significantly increased establishment of seeded grasses and non-seeded species. Increased nitrogen and carbon in the constructed soils were best achieved through addition of manure. Wood shavings did not favour establishment of vegetation and resulted in similar, and in some cases less, vegetation than the controls. Assisted revegetation increased plant cover from physical soil conditions were best to increase vegetation establishment in the harsh conditions of the quarry.

  11. Developing strategies for automated remote plant production systems: Environmental control and monitoring of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Berinstain, A.; Graham, T.; Neron, P.; Giroux, R.; Braham, S.; Ferl, R.; Paul, A.-L.; Dixon, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is a unique research facility dedicated to the study of greenhouse engineering and autonomous functionality under extreme operational conditions, in preparation for extraterrestrial biologically-based life support systems. The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is located at the Haughton Mars Project Research Station on Devon Island in the Canadian High Arctic. The greenhouse has been operational since 2002. Over recent years the greenhouse has served as a controlled environment facility for conducting scientific and operationally relevant plant growth investigations in an extreme environment. Since 2005 the greenhouse has seen the deployment of a refined nutrient control system, an improved imaging system capable of remote assessment of basic plant health parameters, more robust communication and power systems as well as the implementation of a distributed data acquisition system. Though several other Arctic greenhouses exist, the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is distinct in that the focus is on autonomous operation as opposed to strictly plant production. Remote control and autonomous operational experience has applications both terrestrially in production greenhouses and extraterrestrially where future long duration Moon/Mars missions will utilize biological life support systems to close the air, food and water loops. Minimizing crew time is an important goal for any space-based system. The experience gained through the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is providing the experience necessary to optimize future plant production systems and minimize crew time requirements. Internal greenhouse environmental data shows that the fall growth season (July-September) provides an average photosynthetic photon flux of 161.09 μmol m -2 s -1 (August) and 76.76 μmol m -2 s -1 (September) with approximately a 24 h photoperiod. The spring growth season provides an average of 327.51 μmol m -2 s -1 (May) and 339.32 μmol m -2 s

  12. Design and Methods of the Pan-Canadian Applying Biomarkers to Minimize Long-Term Effects of Childhood/Adolescent Cancer Treatment (ABLE) Nephrotoxicity Study: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kelly R; Rod Rassekh, Shahrad; Schultz, Kirk R; Pinsk, Maury; Blydt-Hansen, Tom; Mammen, Cherry; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Devarajan, Prasad; Cuvelier, Geoff D E; Mitchell, Lesley G; Baruchel, Sylvain; Palijan, Ana; Carleton, Bruce C; Ross, Colin J D; Zappitelli, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors experience adverse drug events leading to lifelong health issues. The Applying Biomarkers to Minimize Long-Term Effects of Childhood/Adolescent Cancer Treatment (ABLE) team was established to validate and apply biomarkers of cancer treatment effects, with a goal of identifying children at high risk of developing cancer treatment complications associated with thrombosis, graft-versus-host disease, hearing loss, and kidney damage. Cisplatin is a chemotherapy well known to cause acute and chronic nephrotoxicity. Data on biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) and late renal outcomes in children treated with cisplatin are limited. To describe the design and methods of the pan-Canadian ABLE Nephrotoxicity study, which aims to evaluate urine biomarkers (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL] and kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1]) for AKI diagnosis, and determine whether they predict risk of long-term renal outcomes (chronic kidney disease [CKD], hypertension). This is a 3-year observational prospective cohort study. The study includes 12 Canadian pediatric oncology centers. The target recruitment goal is 150 patients aged less than 18 years receiving cisplatin. Exclusion criteria: Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) study has a relatively moderate sample size and short follow-up duration. There is potential for variability in data collection since multiple sites are involved. ABLE will provide a national platform to study biomarkers of late cancer treatment complications. The Nephrotoxicity study is a novel study of AKI biomarkers in children treated with cisplatin that will greatly inform on late cisplatin renal outcomes and follow-up needs.

  13. The Lancet Oncology's Cancer Control in Africa | Michael | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In April 2013 the Lancet Oncology published a series on cancer control in Africa comprising 7 papers (Lancet Oncology vol 14 number 4). The significance of these papers to Africa's attempts at tackling the rapidly rising prevalence of cancer cannot be over-emphasized. Potentially, these papers will form the basis of ...

  14. THE LANCET ONCOLOGY'S CANCER CONTROL IN AFRICA O.S. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In April 2013 the Lancet Oncology published a series on cancer control in Africa comprising 7 papers (Lancet Oncology vol 14 number 4). The significance of these papers to Africa's attempts at tackling the rapidly rising prevalence of cancer cannot be over-emphasized. Potentially, these papers will form the basis of ...

  15. Regional Cancer Control in South-Eastern Nigeria: A Proposal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an impending cancer epidemic in Africa. In Nigeria, this disease is causing untold devastation, and control measures are desperately needed. Breast, cervical, prostate, and liver cancers are the most common types in Nigerian adults. In children, the predominant malignant diseases are Burkitt's lymphoma, acute ...

  16. Control of breast cancer using health education | Nzarubara | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Todetermine theefficacy of massscreening in the control of primary breast cancer among a selected group of women from Mpigi district, Uganda. Design: Qualitative study by comparing the level of knowledge of risk factors, attitude and practice to breast cancer and the ability to carry out self breast examination ...

  17. Application of Karasek's demand/control model a Canadian occupational setting including shift workers during a period of reorganization and downsizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, J; Green, L W; Olsen, L; Kruse, K; Cargo, M

    1997-01-01

    To apply Karasek's Job Content Model to an analysis of the relationships between job type and perceived stress and stress behaviors in a large company during a period of reorganization and downsizing. Cross-sectional mail-out, mail-back survey. A large Canadian telephone/telecommunications company. Stratified random sample (stratified by job category) of 2200 out of 13,000 employees with a response rate of 48.8%. Responses to 25 of Karasek's core questions were utilized to define four job types: low-demand and high control = "relaxed"; high demand and high control = "active"; low demand and low control = "passive", and high demand and low control = "high strain." These job types were compared against self-reported stress levels, perceived general level of health, absenteeism, alcohol use, exercise level, and use of medications and drugs. Similar analyses were performed to assess the influence of shift work. Employees with "passive" or "high strain" job types reported higher levels of stress (trend test p < .0001); poorer health (trend test P = .006); and higher levels of absenteeism (trend test p < .0001). More shift workers reported themselves in poor or fair health (chi-square p = .018) and reported high levels of stress at home (chi-square p = .002) than nonshift workers. The relationships between job type and levels of stress, health and absenteeism, however, held for nonshift workers as well. Job types with high demand and low control were associated with increased stress, increased absenteeism, and poorer self-concept of health. The demand/control model of Karasek and Theorell was validated in this setting with respect to stress and some stress-associated attitudes and behaviors.

  18. Framing Canadian federalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saywell, John; Anastakis, Dimitry; Bryden, Penny E

    2009-01-01

    ... the pervasive effects that federalism has on Canadian politics, economics, culture, and history, and provide a detailed framework in which to understand contemporary federalism. Written in honour of John T. Saywell's half-century of accomplished and influential scholarly work and teaching, Framing Canadian Federalism is a timely and fitting t...

  19. Cost effectiveness of a 21-gene recurrence score assay versus Canadian clinical practice in post-menopausal women with early-stage estrogen or progesterone-receptor-positive, axillary lymph-node positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannouf, Malek B; Xie, Bin; Brackstone, Muriel; Zaric, Gregory S

    2014-02-01

    A 21-gene recurrence score (RS) assay provides a method of guiding treatment decisions in women with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC). We investigated the cost effectiveness of using the RS assay versus current clinical practice (CCP) in post-menopausal women with estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-positive, one to three positive axillary lymph-node ESBC from the perspective of the Canadian public healthcare system. We developed a decision analytic model to project the lifetime clinical and economic consequences of ESBC. We assumed that the RS assay would classify patients among risk levels (low, intermediate and high) and corresponding adjuvant treatment regimens. The model was parameterized using 7-year follow-up data from the Manitoba Cancer Registry, cost data from Manitoba Health administrative databases and secondary sources. Costs are presented in 2012 Canadian dollars, and future costs and benefits were discounted at 5 %. In the base case analysis, the RS assay compared with CCP led to an increase of 0.08 quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) and an increase in cost of Can$36.2 per person, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of Can$464/QALY gained. The ICER was most sensitive to the proportion of women classified to intermediate risk by the RS assay who received adjuvant chemotherapy, and absolute risk of relapse among patients receiving the RS assay. The RS assay is likely to be cost effective in the Canadian healthcare system. Field evaluations of the assay in this patient population will help reduce uncertainty in clinical guidelines for intermediate-range RS-assay values and specific disease outcomes by the RS assay, which are important drivers of ICER.

  20. Superusers in social networks for smoking cessation: analysis of demographic characteristics and posting behavior from the Canadian Cancer Society's smokers' helpline online and StopSmokingCenter.net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mierlo, Trevor; Voci, Sabrina; Lee, Sharon; Fournier, Rachel; Selby, Peter

    2012-06-26

    Online social networks are popular components of behavior-change websites. Research has identified the participation of certain network members who assume leadership roles by providing support, advice, and direction to other members. In the literature, these individuals have been variously defined as key players, posters, active users, or caretakers. Despite their identification, very little research has been conducted on the contributions or demographic characteristics of this population. For this study, we collectively categorized key players, posters, active users, and caretakers as superusers. To analyze data from two large but distinct Web-assisted tobacco interventions (WATI) to help gain insight into superuser demographic characteristics and how they use social networks. We extracted cross-sectional data sets containing posting behaviors and demographic characteristics from a free, publicly funded program (the Canadian Cancer Society's Smokers' Helpline Online: SHO), and a free, privately run program (StopSmokingCenter.net: SSC). Within the reporting period (SHO: June 26, 2008 to October 12, 2010; SSC: May 17, 2007 to October 12, 2010), 21,128 individuals registered for the SHO and 11,418 registered for the SSC. Within the same period, 1670 (7.90%) registrants made at least one post in the SHO social network, and 1627 (14.25%) registrants made at least one post in the SSC social network. SHO and SSC superusers accounted for 0.4% (n = 95) and 1.1% (n = 124) of all registrants, and 5.7% (95/1670) and 7.62% (124/1627) of all social network participants, and contributed to 34.78% (29,422/84,599) and 46.22% (61,820/133,753) of social network content, respectively. Despite vast differences in promotion and group management rules, and contrary to the beliefs of group moderators, there were no statistically significant differences in demographic characteristics between the two superuser groups. To our knowledge, this is the first study that compared demographic

  1. Pain Control: Support for People with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do, this booklet includes tips about managing your pain with medicine and other treatments. PDF Kindle ePub This booklet covers: The types and causes of cancer pain How to talk about your pain with your ...

  2. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Gestational Diabetes , Sickle Cell Anemia in the laboratories of Jayduff Vadgama, P.D. and of Steven Taylor, M.D. at Charles Drew University of Medicine...Ethnic differences in food consumption in the U-S:Relevance to cancer prevalence . In: Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, proceedings of the Fourth Annual...life events such as sick- nessanddeah (agaw-Siger 198).ment was found-the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Wes Acculturation Scale (Suinn, Ahuman, & Khoo

  3. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential patterns

  4. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Objective: This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential

  5. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected fro...

  6. The Canadian safeguards support program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeffe, R. [Atomic Energy Control Board, Canadian Safeguards Support Program, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Canada supports international safeguards as a means by which the proliferation of nuclear weapons can be discouraged. Canada recognizes that,to meet that the IAEA must have effective safeguards techniques and the active cooperation of Member States. Therefore the Canadian Government decided in 1976 to initiate a program in support of IAEA safeguards, known as the Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP). The CSSP is funded and administered by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The CSSP is a co-ordinated program for the development and the application of safeguards instruments and techniques for nuclear facilities and materials on behalf of the IAEA and also in support of Canada's own national nuclear material safeguards system, implemented by the AECB. (author)

  7. Disparities in Cancer Clinical Trials: An Analysis of Comprehensive Cancer Control Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Moniek Felder, Tisha; Pena, Gabriela D.; Chapital, Bridget F

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Disparities in enrollment of adults in cancer clinical trials are well documented, but little is known about the attention given to this topic in comprehensive cancer control (CCC) plans. We assessed the extent to which CCC plans address disparities in clinical trials and whether jurisdictions whose plans address disparities also mandate third-party reimbursement for clinical trial participation. Methods We analyzed 57 CCC plans identified from Cancer PLANET (Plan, Link, Act, Net...

  8. Anti-viral treatment and cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Wei-Liang; Fang, Chi-Tai; Chen, Pei-Jer

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) contribute to about 10-15 % global burden of human cancers. Conventional chemotherapy or molecular target therapies have been used to treat virus-associated cancers. However, a more proactive approach would be the use of antiviral treatment to suppress or eliminate viral infections to prevent the occurrence of cancer in the first place. Antiviral treatments against chronic HBV and HCV infections have achieved this goal, with significant reduction in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in treated patients. Antiviral treatments for EBV, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) had limited success in treating refractory EBV-associated lymphoma and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, KSHV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS patients, and HTLV-1-associated acute, chronic, and smoldering subtypes of adult T-cell lymphoma, respectively. Therapeutic HPV vaccine and RNA-interference-based therapies for treating HPV-associated cervical cancers also showed some encouraging results. Taken together, antiviral therapies have yielded promising results in cancer prevention and treatment. More large-scale studies are necessary to confirm the efficacy of antiviral therapy. Further investigation for more effective and convenient antiviral regimens warrants more attention.

  9. Sexual Dysfunction in Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Ebrahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dysfunction in breast cancer patients is considered as a common and distressing problem. Considering the increasing number of breast cancer survivors living for longer periods of time with the disease and the importance of their quality of life, we conducted the present study to compare the sexual functioning in breast cancer patients with their healthy counterparts.Methods: In this case-control study, breast cancer patients who completed their treatment protocol and were followed up for at least six months were included. The controls were healthy women with normal clinical breast examinations. All subjects filled-in the Persian version of Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire.Results: A total of 165 subjects including 71 breast cancer patients and 94 healthy women were studied. The frequency of sexual dysfunction in cases and controls was 52.6% and 47.4%, respectively (P = 0.09. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding domain scores, except for vaginal lubrication (P = 0.045. Logistic regression analysis indicated that significant determinants of sexual dysfunction in breast cancer group was patients' age (OR = 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3 – 11.5, P = 0.01 and age of the spouse (OR= 9.8, 95% CI: 1.8-51.9, P= 0.007, while in controls, only emotional relationship with the husband was the significant predictive factor (OR = 6.3, 95%CI: 1.9 – 20.5, P = 0.002.Conclusions: Our findings indicated that sexual dysfunction is prevalent in Iranian women regardless of their physical health status. The frequency of vaginal dryness in breast cancer patients was significantly higher than controls. Age of the patient and the spouse (>40 were the only significant predictors of sexual dysfunction among women with breast cancer. Preventive strategies, sexual education and access to effective treatment should be planned in supportive care of breast cancer patients.

  10. Medical cannabis – the Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol – the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts. PMID:27757048

  11. Radon control activities for lung cancer prevention in national comprehensive cancer control program plans, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Antonio; Stewart, Sherri L; Angell, William

    2013-08-08

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that every home be tested for radon. Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs develop cancer coalitions that coordinate funding and resources to focus on cancer activities that are recorded in cancer plans. Radon tests, remediation, and radon mitigation techniques are relatively inexpensive, but it is unclear whether coalitions recognize radon as an important carcinogen. We reviewed 65 cancer plans created from 2005 through 2011 for the terms "radon," "radiation," or "lung." Plan activities were categorized as radon awareness, home testing, remediation, supporting radon policy activities, or policy evaluation. We also reviewed each CCC program's most recent progress report. Cancer plan content was reviewed to assess alignment with existing radon-specific policies in each state. Twenty-seven of the plans reviewed (42%) had radon-specific terminology. Improving awareness of radon was included in all 27 plans; also included were home testing (n=21), remediation (n=11), support radon policy activities (n=13), and policy evaluation (n=1). Three plans noted current engagement in radon activities. Thirty states had radon-specific laws; most (n=21) were related to radon professional licensure. Eleven states had cancer plan activities that aligned with existing state radon laws. Although several states have radon-specific policies, approximately half of cancer coalitions may not be aware of radon as a public health issue. CCC-developed cancer coalitions and plans should prioritize tobacco control to address lung cancer but should consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs.

  12. Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2005–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Angell, William

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that every home be tested for radon. Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs develop cancer coalitions that coordinate funding and resources to focus on cancer activities that are recorded in cancer plans. Radon tests, remediation, and radon mitigation techniques are relatively inexpensive, but it is unclear whether coalitions recognize radon as an important carcinogen. Methods We reviewed 65 cancer plans created from 2005 through 2011 for the terms “radon,” “radiation,” or “lung.” Plan activities were categorized as radon awareness, home testing, remediation, supporting radon policy activities, or policy evaluation. We also reviewed each CCC program’s most recent progress report. Cancer plan content was reviewed to assess alignment with existing radon-specific policies in each state. Results Twenty-seven of the plans reviewed (42%) had radon-specific terminology. Improving awareness of radon was included in all 27 plans; also included were home testing (n = 21), remediation (n = 11), support radon policy activities (n = 13), and policy evaluation (n = 1). Three plans noted current engagement in radon activities. Thirty states had radon-specific laws; most (n = 21) were related to radon professional licensure. Eleven states had cancer plan activities that aligned with existing state radon laws. Conclusion Although several states have radon-specific policies, approximately half of cancer coalitions may not be aware of radon as a public health issue. CCC-developed cancer coalitions and plans should prioritize tobacco control to address lung cancer but should consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs. PMID:23928457

  13. Control of cervical cancer: women's options and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Joanna M; Ngan, Hextan; Garland, Suzanne; Wright, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Cervical cancer takes the lives of more than 250,000 women each year globally, particularly in under-resourced areas of low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Options for cancer control and treatment have reached a point that there are interventions for control that could be adopted for virtually every resource and demographic situation. Women die despite the availability of attractive control options, which means that educating policy makers, women's health professionals, as well as women themselves, must become a major focus for ongoing control of this disease. The human right to life, to prevention of suffering, and to education are all key rights linked to improving the control of cervical cancer and saving the lives of women, particularly in resource-poor parts of the world.

  14. Geospatial Approaches to Cancer Control and Population Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, Mario; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Henry, Kevin A; Paskett, Electra D; Ellison, Gary L; Oh, April; Taplin, Stephen H; Tatalovich, Zaria; Berrigan, David A

    2017-04-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality display strong geographic patterns worldwide and in the United States (1, 2). The environment where individuals live, work, and play is increasingly being recognized as important across the cancer control continuum, including the risk of cancer development, detection, diagnosis, treatment, mortality, and survivorship (3-5). At the same time, emergent technological capacity in geographic information systems (GIS) and mapping, along with increasing sophistication in applied spatial methods, has resulted in a growing research community developing and applying geospatial approaches in health research (5). Through collaborative, transdisciplinary efforts, and continued data collection efforts, there is great potential to apply these emerging geospatial approaches to various aspects of cancer prevention and control to inform etiology and target interventions and implementation of efficacious risk-reducing strategies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 472-5. ©2017 AACRSee all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Geospatial Approaches to Cancer Control and Population Sciences." ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer.DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively.Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  16. Canadians' eating habits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garriguet, Didier

    2007-01-01

    This report is an overview of Canadians' eating habits: total calories consumed and the number of servings from the various food groups, as well as the percentage of total calories from fat, protein and carbohydrates...

  17. P27 in cell cycle control and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe

    2000-01-01

    In order to survive, cells need tight control of cell cycle progression. The control mechanisms are often lost in human cancer cells. The cell cycle is driven forward by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The CDK inhibitors (CKIs) are important regulators of the CDKs. As the name implies, CKIs were...

  18. Baldness and testicular cancer: the EPSAM case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirano, G; Zugna, D; Grasso, C; Lista, P; Ciuffreda, L; Segnan, N; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of testicular cancer is largely unexplained. Research has mainly focused on prenatal exposures, especially to sex hormones, while less attention has been paid to exposures that may act also postnatally. As baldness has been previously associated with testicular cancer risk we focused on baldness and body hairiness, which are both associated with androgen activity. We used data of the Postnatal Exposures and Male Health (EPSAM) study, a case-control study on testicular cancer conducted in the Province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires. Analyses included 255 cases and 459 controls. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs to estimate testicular cancer risk among those who developed baldness and among those with body hairiness. We found an inverse association between testicular cancer and baldness (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.98) and body hairiness (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.53-1.16), although the latter had wider CIs. The inverse association between baldness and testicular cancer is consistent with the results from previous studies. These results suggest that androgens activity may influence testicular cancer risk. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  19. Cancer Pain Control for Advanced Cancer Patients by Using Autonomic Nerve Pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwi-joong Kang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to report a case series of advanced cancer patients whose cancer pain was relieved by using autonomic nerve pharmacopuncture (ANP treatment. ANP is a subcutaneous injection therapy of mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture (MGP along the acupoints on the spine (Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue; 0.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous processes of vertebrae to enhance the immune system and to balance autonomic nerve function. Methods: Patients with three different types of cancer (gastric cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer with distant metastases with cancer pain were treated with ANP. 1 mL of MGP was injected into the bilateral Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue on the T1-L5 sites (total 12 ─ 20 mL injection of each patient’s dorsum by using the principle of symptom differentiation. During ANP treatment, the visual analogue scale (VAS for pain was used to assess their levels of cancer pain; also, the dosage and the frequency of analgesic use were measured. Results: The cancer pain levels of all three patients improved with treatment using ANP. The VAS scores of the three patients decreased as the treatment progressed. The dosage and the frequency of analgesics also gradually decreased during the treatment period. Significantly, no related adverse events were found. Conclusion: ANP has shown benefit in controlling cancer pain for the three different types of cancer investigated in this study and in reducing the dosage and the frequency of analgesics. ANP is expected to be beneficial for reducing cancer pain and, thus, to be a promising new treatment for cancer pain.

  20. "The magic is in the mix": lessons from research capacity building in the Canadian tobacco control community, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Barbara L; Viehbeck, Sarah M; Cohen, Joanna E; Chia, Marie C

    2013-02-25

    Global public health issues, including tobacco use, will be addressed most effectively if informed by relevant evidence. Additional capacity is needed to undertake and sustain relevant and rigorous research that will inform and enable learning from interventions. Despite the undisputed importance of research capacity building (RCB), there is little evidence about how to create relevant capacities. RCB for tobacco control in Canada from 2000-2010 offers a rich experience from which to learn. Lessons were derived using structured data collection from seven capacity-building initiatives and an invitational workshop, at which reflections on major contributions and lessons learned were discussed by initiative leads. Ten years of RCB for tobacco control in Canada revealed the importance of a) taking an organic approach to RCB, b) targeting and sustaining investments in a mix of RCB activities, c) vision and collaborative leadership at organizational and initiative levels, d) a focus on building community, and e) studying capacity building. The experience also provided tangible examples of RCB initiatives and how independent investments can be linked to create a coherent approach. Looking ahead, promising directions may include positioning RCB within a broader context of "field building", focusing on practical approaches to sustainability, and enhancing research on RCB.

  1. Nutrition and Physical Activity Strategies for Cancer Prevention in Current National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Mary; Neri, Antonio; Underwood, J Michael; Stewart, Sherri L

    2016-10-01

    Obesity, diet and physical inactivity are risk factors for some cancers. Grantees of the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) in US states, tribes, and territories develop plans to coordinate funding and activities for cancer prevention and control. Including information and goals related to nutrition and physical activity (NPA) is a key opportunity for primary cancer prevention, but it is currently unclear to what extent NCCCP plans address these issues. We reviewed 69 NCCCP plans and searched for terms related to NPA. Plans were coded as (1) knowledge of NPA and cancer link; (2) goals to improve NPA behaviors; and (3) strategies to increase healthy NPA activities, environments, or systems changes. NPA content was consistently included in all cancer plans examined across all years. Only 4 (6 %) outlined only the relationship between NPA and cancer without goals or strategies. Fifty-nine plans (89 %) contained goals or strategies related to NPA, with 53 (82 %) including both. However, numbers of goals, strategies, and detail provided varied widely. All programs recognized the importance of NPA in cancer prevention. Most plans included NPA goals and strategies. Increasing the presence of NPA strategies that can be modified or adapted appropriately locally could help with more widespread implementation and measurement of NPA interventions.

  2. DNA damage among thyroid cancer and multiple cancer cases, controls, and long-lived individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigurdson, A J; Hauptmann, M; Alexander, B J; Doody, M M; Thomas, C B; Struewing, J P; Jones, I M

    2004-08-24

    Variation in the detection, signaling, and repair of DNA damage contributes to human cancer risk. To assess capacity to modulate endogenous DNA damage among radiologic technologists who had been diagnosed with breast cancer and another malignancy (breast-other; n=42), early-onset breast cancer (early-onset, age {<=} 35; n=38), thyroid cancer (n=68), long-lived cancer-free individuals (hyper-normals; n=20) and cancer-free controls (n=49) we quantified DNA damage (single strand breaks and abasic sites) in untreated lymphoblastoid cell lines using the alkaline comet assay. Komet{trademark} software provided comet tail length, % DNA in tail (tail DNA), comet distributed moment (CDM), and Olive tail moment (OTM) summarized as the geometric mean of 100 cells. Category cut-points (median and 75th percentile) were determined from the distribution among controls. Tail length (for {>=} 75% vs. below the median, age adjusted) was most consistently associated with the highest odds ratios in the breast-other, early-onset, and thyroid cancer groups (with risk increased 10-, 5- or 19-fold, respectively, with wide confidence intervals) and decreased risk among the hyper-normal group. For the other three Comet measures, risk of breast-other was elevated approximately three-fold. Risk of early-onset breast cancer was mixed and risk of thyroid cancer ranged from null to a two-fold increase. The hyper-normal group showed decreased odds ratios for tail DNA and OTM, but not CDM. DNA damage, as estimated by all Comet measures, was relatively unaffected by survival time, reproductive factors, and prior radiation treatment. We detected a continuum of endogenous DNA damage that was highest among cancer cases, less in controls, and suggestively lowest in hyper-normal individuals. Measuring this DNA damage phenotype may contribute to the identification of susceptible sub-groups. Our observations require replication in a prospective study with a large number of pre-diagnostic samples.

  3. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 1. Methods and an overview of the Canadian recommendations. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, NR; Burgess E,; Choi, BC; Taylor, G; Wilson, E; Cleroux, J; Fodor, JG; Leiter, LA; Spence, D

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations for health care professionals on lifestyle changes to prevent and control hypertension in otherwise healthy adults (except pregnant women). OPTIONS: For people at risk for hypertension, there are a number of lifestyle options that may avert the condition--maintaining a healthy body weight, moderating consumption of alcohol, exercising, reducing sodium intake, altering intake of calcium, magnesium and potassium, and reducing stress....

  4. Asbestos in drinking water: a Canadian view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, P.; Meek, M.E.

    1983-11-01

    Because of the widespread occurrence of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water supplies in Canada, public health professionals have been faced with evaluating the potential hazards associated with the ingestion of asbestos in food and drinking water. The results of available Canadian monitoring and epidemiologic studies of asbestos in drinking water are reviewed and discussed in light of other published work. The Canadian studies provide no consistent, convincing evidence of increased cancer risks attributable to the ingestion of drinking water contaminated by asbestos, even though the observed asbestos concentrations were relatively high in several communities. Only one study, conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area, has shown evidence of increased cancer incidence associated with the ingestion of asbestos in drinking water. 6 references.

  5. Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer: Analysis of linkage to 2p 15-16 places the COCA1 locus telomeric to D2S123 and reveals genetic heterogeneity in seven Canadian families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.C.; Young, T.L. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada)); Narod, S.A.; Tonin, P.; Ginsburg, O.; Miller, S. (Montreal General Hospital, Montreal (Canada) Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal (Canada)); Morasse, J. (Hopital St-Francois d' Assise, Quebec City (Canada)); Cox, J.; Fitzgerald, G.W.N. (Grenfell Regional Health Services, St. Anthony, Newfoundland (Canada)); Jothy, S. (Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal (Canada)) (and others)

    1994-06-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant trait responsible for approximately 6% of colorectal cancers. Linkage of the HNPCC trait to the D2S123 locus on 2p 15-16 has previously been reported in two families. This HNPCC locus is now designated [open quotes]COCA1[close quotes]. The authors have tested seven Canadian HNPCC families, who have a variety of clinical presentations, for linkage to a panel of microsatellite polymorphisms in the vicinity of D2S123. One family was clearly linked to the COCA1 locus (LOD = 4.21), and a second family is likely to be linked (LOD = 0.92). In three families linkage was excluded. In the remaining two families the data were inconclusive. In the linked family, individuals with cancer of the endometrium or ureter share a common haplotype with 12 family members with colorectal cancer. This supports the suspected association between these extracolonic neoplasms and the HNPCC syndrome. In addition, five of the six individuals with adenomatous polyps (but no colorectal cancer) have the same haplotype as the affected individuals, while the sixth carries a recombination. One individual with colorectal cancer carries a recombination that places the COCA1 locus telomeric to D2S123. This study localizes the COCA1 gene to an 8-cM region that is consistent with the location of the hMSH2 gene. The authors also confirm that families presently classified as HNPCC are genetically heterogeneous. 36 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Effects of occupational therapy on quality of life of patients with metastatic prostate cancer. A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huri, Meral; Huri, Emre; Kayihan, Hulya; Altuntas, Onur

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of occupational therapy relative to a home program in improving quality of life (QoL) among men who were treated for metastatic prostate cancer (MPC). Fifty-five men were assigned randomly to either the 12-week cognitive behavioral therapy based occupational therapy (OT-CBSM) intervention (treatment group) or a home program (control group) between March 2012 and August 2014 in the Department of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used to measure the occupational performance and identify difficulties in daily living activities. The QoL and symptom status were measured by The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and its Prostate Cancer Module. A 12-week OT-CBSM intervention including client-centered training of daily living activities, recreational group activities, and cognitive behavioral stress management intervention were applied. The COPM performance and satisfaction scores, which indicate occupational participation and QoL increased statistically in the treatment group in relation to men who were included in the home-program (p less than or equal to 0.05). A 12-week OT-CBSM intervention was effective in improving QoL in men treated for MPC, and these changes were associated significantly with occupational performance.

  7. Controls on Weathering of Pyrrhotite in a Low-Sulfide, Granitic Mine-Waste Rock in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, J. B.; Holland, S.; Sinclair, S.; Blowes, D.

    2013-12-01

    Increased environmental risk is incurred with expansion of mineral extraction in the Arctic. A greater understanding of geochemical processes associated with hard-rock mining in this cold climate is needed to evaluate and mitigate these risks. A laboratory and in-situ experiment was conducted to examine mineral weathering and the generation of acid rock drainage in a low-sulfide, run-of-mine waste rock in an Arctic climate. Rock with different concentrations of sulfides (primarily pyrrhotite [Fe7S8] containing small amounts of Co and Ni) and carbonates were weathered in the laboratory and in-situ, large-scale test piles to examine leachate composition and mineral weathering. The relatively larger sulfide-containing rock produced sufficient acid to overcome carbonate buffering and produced a declining pH environment with concomitant release of SO4, Fe, Co, and Ni. Following carbonate consumption, aluminosilicate buffering stabilized the pH above 4 until a reduction in acid generation. Results from the laboratory experiment assisted in determining that after consumption of 1.6 percent of the total sulfide, the larger sulfide-concentration test pile likely is at an internal steady-state or maximal weathering rate after seven years of precipitation input and weathering that is controlled by an annual freeze-thaw cycle. Further weathering of the test pile should be driven by external factors of temperature and precipitation in this Arctic, semi-arid region instead of internal factors of wetting and non-equilibrium buffering. It is predicted that maximal weathering will continue until at least 20 percent of the total sulfide is consumed. Using the identified evolution of sulfide consumption in this Arctic climate, a variable rate factor can now be assessed for the possible early evolution and maximal weathering of larger scale waste-rock piles and seasonal differences because of changes in the volume of a waste-rock pile undergoing active weathering due to the freeze

  8. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. Methods We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93. For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83 and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74 for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61 and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47 for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94 and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82 for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63 and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79 for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. Conclusions The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  9. Blocking protein quality control to counter hereditary cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmeyer, Caroline; Nielsen, Sofie V.; Clausen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    imbalance, which makes them more dependent on protein quality control (PQC) mechanisms than normal cells. Accordingly, blocking PQC, e.g. by proteasome inhibitors, may cause a lethal proteotoxic crisis in cancer cells, while leaving normal cells unaffected. Evidence, however, suggests that the PQC system...

  10. Cervical cancer control and prevention in Malawi: need for policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents finding on a qualitative study which carried out to determine the suitability of the national sexual and reproductive health and rights [SRHR] in mitigating challenges in cervical cancer control and prevention. Methods: a desk review of the Malawi National Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights ...

  11. Thoracoscopic Splanchnicectomy for Pain Control in Irresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Tavassoli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Severepain is a major problem in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of Thoracoscopic Splanchnicectomy (TS on pain control in these patients suffering from unresectable pancreatic cancer. Methods:Between years 2000 to 2011, 20 patients suffering from unresectable pancreatic cancer underwent TS due to severe pain. They were studied in terms of age, sex, location of pancreas tumor, history of previous surgery, response to treatments for pain control (assessed with VAS scoring system and complications of surgery. Results:M/F = 14/6 with a mean age of 63 years. The most common tumour site was at the pancreas head (in 8 patients. The most cause of unresectability was local expansion to critical adjacent elements (in 10 patients. Surgery was performed successfully in all patients. Post-operative complication included only pleural effusion on the left side which was cured by proper treatment. There were no post-op mortalities.  15 patients had acceptable levels of pain at the end of a six month follow-up period. ConclusionTS provides good pain control, little side effects and minimal invasiveness, the technique is recommended for pain control in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer.

  12. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential patterns of psychological symptoms between trajectories. This naturalistic study focused on 241 cancer patients receiving psychological care at psycho-oncology institutions. Data were collected before the initiation of psychological care, and 3 and 9 months thereafter. Latent class growth analysis was applied to identify personal control trajectories. Three personal control trajectories were identified: enduring improvement (41%), temporary improvement (50%), and deterioration (9%). Education and baseline physical symptoms distinguished these trajectories. In the whole group, improvements in personal control were associated with improvements in psychological symptoms. Patients at distinct trajectories reported different levels of psychological symptoms, but did not differ in their courses of psychological symptoms. Patients in the enduring and temporary control improvement groups experienced significant psychological symptoms reductions over time, whereas patients in the control deterioration group maintained high psychological symptoms. Improvements in personal control seem to depend on initial control level: those who start with the highest control levels show subsequent improvements, whereas those with the lowest control levels show subsequent deterioration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Reproductive Risk Factors for Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshram II

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is second most important cancer among Indian women. Although risk factors are not much prevalent as in western countries, incidence rate is increasing in India. The study was undertaken to study various risk factors associated with breast cancer. Methods: A hospital based group matched case control study was undertaken to identify risk factors. The study consisted of 105 hospitalized cases confirmed on histopathology and 210 group matched controls selected from urban field practice area, Sadar, without any malignancy. Bivariate analyses included odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval (CI for odds ratio. Results: Earlier age at menarche ≤ 12 years of age, late age at first full term delivery, nulliparity, Lack of breast-feeding were found to be significantly associated with the risk of breast cancer in both pre menopausal & post menopausal women while age at menopause at or after 50 years was significantly associated with the risk in post menopausal women. Conclusions: Study suggests that the changes in menstrual and reproductive patterns among women i.e. early age at menarche and late age at first childbirth and some environmental factors in Central India may have contributed to the increase in breast cancer risk, particularly among younger women.

  14. [Occupational risks for laryngeal cancer: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Sergio Guerra; Eluf-Neto, José; Travier, Noemie; Wünsch Filho, Victor; Arcuri, Arline Sydneia Abel; Kowalski, Luís Paulo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    The most solidly established risk factors for laryngeal cancer are tobacco and alcohol. As for occupational factors, the only established carcinogen is exposure to strong inorganic acid mists. However, asbestos, pesticides, paints, gasoline, diesel engine emissions, dusts, and other factors have been reported in the literature as occupational agents that increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to investigate occupational risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Detailed data on smoking, alcohol consumption, and occupational history were collected for 122 laryngeal cancers and 187 controls matched by frequency (according to sex and age). Laryngeal cancer was associated with exposure to respirable free crystalline silica (OR = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.00-3.36), soot (from coal, coke, fuel oil, or wood) (odds ratio - OR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval - 95%CI: 1.03-3.03), fumes (OR = 2.55; 95%CI: 1.14-5.67), and live animals (OR = 1.80; 95%CI: 1.02-3.19).

  15. Spatial analysis of childhood cancer: a case/control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ramis

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL. Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors.The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge.We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05.We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters.The variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the

  16. The voice of experience: results from Cancer Control New Zealand's first national cancer care survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Inga; Britton, Emma; Sarfati, Diana; Naylor, Wayne; Borman, Barry; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Simpson, Andrew; Tamblyn, Craig; Atkinson, Chris

    2010-11-05

    The 2009 Cancer Care Survey aimed to gather information from patients about their experiences receiving outpatient cancer care. In mid-2009, Cancer Control New Zealand sent an NRC+Picker postal survey to a stratified sample of 3251 eligible adults, who had received outpatient cancer care between October 2008 and March 2009. Eight cancer treatment facilities across New Zealand provided patient lists from which potential respondents were selected. The final response rate to the survey was 68%. Most of the patients surveyed responded very positively to questions related to specialist care coordination (91% positive response; 95%CI: 90-93), the level of privacy (87% positive response; 95%CI: 85-89), and the dignity and respect provided by healthcare professionals (86% positive response; 95%CI: 85-88). However, patients tended to be much less positive about the level of information they received on the effects of cancer treatment on their day-to-day life (responses ranging between 30% and 40% positive) and the level of emotional support provided (36% positive response; 95%CI: 33-39). Responses from different cancer services tended to follow similar patterns, although for twelve questions there was at least a 20% difference in response between services. Overall, patients rated their outpatient cancer care experiences as positive, but important gaps exist in the provision of information, emotional support, and treating patients within the context of their living situation. Cancer patient experience surveys can achieve high response rates and generate useful information on patient perceptions of their care. This data can be used to inform quality improvement efforts at both national and cancer treatment service levels.

  17. Update on Canadian Government Documents in Microform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Reviews recent developments in Canadian government documents available in microform, including: (1) Statistics Canada titles, including the 1986 census; (2) publications of the federal Atomic Energy Control Board and other federal technical reports; (3) provincial government publications; and (4) commercial publications of Micromedia. (seven…

  18. Pain Control In Cancer Patients By Opiate Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohagheghi M A

    2003-07-01

    current barriers, WHO stepwise model for cancer pain control and palliative care is recommended. Publishing Standard Treatment Guidelines for different levels of health care system is another recommended approach to optimize cancer pain."n 

  19. New frontiers in translational control of the cancer genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truitt, Morgan L.; Ruggero, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The past several years have seen dramatic leaps in our understanding of how gene expression is rewired at the translation level during tumorigenesis to support the transformed phenotype. This work has been driven by an explosion in technological advances and is revealing previously unimagined regulatory mechanisms that dictate functional expression of the cancer genome. In this Review we discuss emerging trends and exciting new discoveries that reveal how this translational circuitry contributes to specific aspects of tumorigenesis and cancer cell function, with a particular focus on recent insights into the role of translational control in the adaptive response to oncogenic stress conditions. PMID:27112207

  20. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION IN BANKS - KEY ELEMENTS OF THE INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM #8211; AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS BETWEEN ROMANIAN, AMERICAN AND CANADIAN MODELS OF CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bota-Avram Cristina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to focus on one of the most important aspect of the internal control in banking system #8211; information and communication - trying to identify on which of the two well-known international models of control (COSO or CoCo i

  1. Urinary bladder cancer risk factors: a Lebanese case- control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissi, Loulou Hassan; Yassine, Ibrahim Adnan; Jabbour, Michel Elias; Moussa, Mohamad Ahmad; Dhaini, Hassan Rida

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most incident malignancy among Lebanese men. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential risk factors associated with this observed high incidence. A case-control study (54 cases and 105 hospital-based controls) was conducted in two major hospitals in Beirut. Cases were randomly selected from patients diagnosed in the period of 2002-2008. Controls were conveniently selected from the same settings. Data were collected using interview questionnaire and blood analysis. Exposure data were collected using a structured face-to-face interview questionnaire. Blood samples were collected to determine N-acetyltransferase1 (NAT1) genotype by PCR-RFLP. Analyses revolved around univariate, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression, along with checks for effect modification. The odds of having bladder cancer among smokers was 1.02 times significantly higher in cases vs. controls. The odds of exposure to occupational diesel or fuel combustion fumes were 4.1 times significantly higher in cases vs controls. The odds of prostate-related morbidity were 5.6 times significantly higher in cases vs controls. Cases and controls showed different clustering patterns of NAT1 alleles. No significant differences between cases and controls were found for consumption of alcohol, coffee, tea, or artificial sweeteners. This is the first case-control study investigating bladder cancer risk factors in the Lebanese context. Results confirmed established risk factors in the literature, particularly smoking and occupational exposure to diesel. The herein observed associations should be used to develop appropriate prevention policies and intervention strategies, in order to control this alarming disease in Lebanon.

  2. Abortion and breast cancer: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Milena; Vlajinac, Hristina; Marinkovic, Jelena; Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if certain aspects of a woman's experience of abortion might be associated with the risk of breast cancer. The case-control study was conducted in Kragujevac (Serbia) during the period 2004-2005. The case group (191 women) consisted of patients with newly diagnosed first primary breast cancer, which was histologically confirmed. The control group (191 women), individually matched by age (± 2 years), hospital admittance and place of residence (rural/urban) to the respective cases, was selected from female patients admitted for other diseases. The analysis was restricted to parous women (168 cases and 171 controls). Breast cancer risk was reduced among women who had a history of any abortion (adjusted OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24-0.88). The protective effect was found for both induced abortion (adjusted OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.25-0.90) and spontaneous abortion (adjusted OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10-0.98). It seems that these associations did not depend on the number of abortions, age at first abortion, or gestational age at first aborted pregnancy. Our study suggests that even short pregnancies ending in abortion add to the protection against breast cancer.

  3. Practical use of cancer control promoters in municipalities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yako-Suketomo, Hiroko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Imai, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    The Cancer Control Act in Japan became effective in 2006. In Ibaraki, Toyama, and Hyogo prefectures, the Cancer Control Promoter (CCP) plan was created to strengthen partnerships for cancer prevention. This study aimed to examine the curre nt status of CCP utilization and analyze relationships with intersectoral collaboration, both within the government and with outside partners. In 2008, we mailed questionnaires to 100 administrators responsible for disease prevention and health promotion in municipal governments of the three prefectures. Ninety-one administrators responded (response rate, 91.0%). We analyzed responses to questions regarding whether or not the municipalities had used CCPs. Items assessing intersectoral collaboration examined municipality characteristics and relationships with outside partners and sectors specializing in areas other than community health. Among 90 administrators with valid data, 33 municipalities (36.7%) used CCPs while 57 (63.3%) did not. The Fisher's exact test revealed that intersectoral collaboration for using CCPs was associated with communication with all of the municipal government sectors not related to health. The present study indicated that CCPs were not consistently used in municipalities. However, we found that intersectoral collaborations, especially within the local government, may be related to the practical use of CCPs. This, in turn, may result in effective cancer control and prevention, as well as improvement in community health.

  4. Clustering of cancer among families of cases with Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL, Multiple Myeloma (MM, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL, Soft Tissue Sarcoma (STS and control subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunanayake Chandima P

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A positive family history of chronic diseases including cancer can be used as an index of genetic and shared environmental influences. The tumours studied have several putative risk factors in common including occupational exposure to certain pesticides and a positive family history of cancer. Methods We conducted population-based studies of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL, Multiple Myeloma (MM, non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL, and Soft Tissue Sarcoma (STS among male incident case and control subjects in six Canadian provinces. The postal questionnaire was used to collect personal demographic data, a medical history, a lifetime occupational history, smoking pattern, and the information on family history of cancer. The family history of cancer was restricted to first degree relatives and included relationship to the index subjects and the types of tumours diagnosed among relatives. The information was collected on 1528 cases (HL (n = 316, MM (n = 342, NHL (n = 513, STS (n = 357 and 1506 age ± 2 years and province of residence matched control subjects. Conditional logistic regression analyses adjusted for the matching variables were conducted. Results We found that most families were cancer free, and a minority included two or more affected relatives. HL [(ORadj (95% CI 1.79 (1.33, 2.42], MM (1.38(1.07, 1.78, NHL (1.43 (1.15, 1.77, and STS cases (1.30(1.00, 1.68 had higher incidence of cancer if any first degree relative was affected with cancer compared to control families. Constructing mutually exclusive categories combining "family history of cancer" (yes, no and "pesticide exposure ≥10 hours per year" (yes, no indicated that a positive family history was important for HL (2.25(1.61, 3.15, and for the combination of the two exposures increased risk for MM (1.69(1.14,2.51. Also, a positive family history of cancer both with (1.72 (1.21, 2.45 and without pesticide exposure (1.43(1.12, 1.83 increased risk of NHL. Conclusion HL, MM, NHL

  5. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  6. Case-control study of gastric cancer screening in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, P; Oliver, W E; Parkin, D M; Alvarez, N; Vivas, J

    1994-06-01

    A screening programme for early gastric cancer was introduced in the state of Tachira, Venezuela, in 1980. Screening was performed by photofluorography, using two mobile units. The efficacy of this programme in reducing mortality from stomach cancer was evaluated by means of a case-control study. Cases were 241 individuals who died from stomach cancer in the period 1985-89. Ten live controls per case were drawn from the electoral rolls, matched by sex, age and residence. Exposure to the screening examination of cases and controls was assessed through individual linkage with the programme's centralised database. After the exclusion of examinations occurring within the 6 months preceding the case's diagnosis, the odds ratio (OR) of dying from stomach cancer for those screened was 1.26 (CI 0.83-1.91) and the OR in females was lower than in males: 0.77 (CI 0.33-1.78) and 1.52 (CI 0.94-2.47) respectively. Odds ratios associated with years since last test and number of tests did not differ significantly from 1. These results show the inefficacy of the programme in reducing mortality from gastric cancer in the area. In an attempt to determine whether this result was due to selection bias, an analysis restricted to subjects who had been screened at least once was performed. When examinations occurring after an index date at various intervals before the case's diagnosis were excluded, the screening test appeared to protect from death, although confidence intervals of the odds ratios are large, for example OR = 0.47 (CI 0.24-0.98) when excluding tests within 1 month.

  7. Bivalent Epigenetic Control of Oncofetal Gene Expression in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Sayyed K; Frietze, Seth E; Gordon, Jonathan A; Heath, Jessica L; Messier, Terri; Hong, Deli; Boyd, Joseph R; Kang, Mingu; Imbalzano, Anthony N; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S

    2017-12-01

    Multiple mechanisms of epigenetic control that include DNA methylation, histone modification, noncoding RNAs, and mitotic gene bookmarking play pivotal roles in stringent gene regulation during lineage commitment and maintenance. Experimental evidence indicates that bivalent chromatin domains, i.e., genome regions that are marked by both H3K4me3 (activating) and H3K27me3 (repressive) histone modifications, are a key property of pluripotent stem cells. Bivalency of developmental genes during the G 1 phase of the pluripotent stem cell cycle contributes to cell fate decisions. Recently, some cancer types have been shown to exhibit partial recapitulation of bivalent chromatin modifications that are lost along with pluripotency, suggesting a mechanism by which cancer cells reacquire properties that are characteristic of undifferentiated, multipotent cells. This bivalent epigenetic control of oncofetal gene expression in cancer cells may offer novel insights into the onset and progression of cancer and may provide specific and selective options for diagnosis as well as for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Family History as a Risk for Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    A Safaee; Moghimi Dehkordi, B; Fatemi, SR; Maserat, E; Ghafarnejad, F; Zali, MR

    2011-01-01

    Background Although, family history of cancer is an important risk factor for upper gastrointestinal cancers development, but limited information is available on the upper gastrointestinal cancers associated with family history in Iran. The purpose of this study was to define upper gastrointestinal cancers risk associated with family history of cancer. Methods This study was conducted as a case control study. A total number of 1,010 cases of upper gastrointestinal cancer and 1,010 healthy con...

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of breast cancer control interventions in peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, S.G.; Vidaurre, T.; Abugattas, J.E.; Manrique, J.E.; Sarria, G.; Jeronimo, J.; Seinfeld, J.N.; Lauer, J.A.; Sepulveda, C.R.; Venegas, D.; Baltussen, R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Peru, a country with constrained health resources, breast cancer control is characterized by late stage treatment and poor survival. To support breast cancer control in Peru, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of different breast cancer control interventions relevant

  10. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... meeting of the aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control..., regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of breast cancer control interventions in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, S.G.; Vidaurre, T.; Abugattas, J.E.; Manrique, J.E.; Sarria, G.; Jeronimo, J.; Seinfeld, J.N.; Lauer, J.A.; Sepulveda, C.R.; Venegas, D.; Baltussen, R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Peru, a country with constrained health resources, breast cancer control is characterized by late stage treatment and poor survival. To support breast cancer control in Peru, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of different breast cancer control interventions relevant

  12. The adaptive role of perceived control before and after cancer diagnosis : A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranchor, A.V.; Wardle, J.; Steptoe, A.; Henselmans, I.; Ormel, J.; Sanderman, R.

    Cancer is generally considered a low-control situation. Stability of perceptions of control before and after cancer was examined, as well as the adaptive value of maintenance versus relinquishment of control in the psychological adjustment to cancer. This study, conducted in the northern

  13. Cancer Risks among Welders and Occasional Welders in a National Population-Based Cohort Study: Canadian Census Health and Environmental Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill S. MacLeod

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Excess risks of lung cancer and mesothelioma may be partly attributable to factors including smoking and asbestos. Welding-specific exposures may increase bladder and kidney cancer risks, and particular sources of exposure should be investigated. Studies that are able to disentangle welding effects from smoking and asbestos exposure are needed.

  14. Cancer control and the communication innovation in South Korea: implications for cancer disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, the number of cancer survivors in South Korea has reached nearly one million with a survival rate of 49.4%. However, integrated supportive care for cancer survivors is lagging. One area in which the current cancer control policy needs updating is in the utilization of information and communication technology (ICT). The remarkable progress in the field of ICT over the past 10 years presents exciting new opportunities for health promotion. Recent communication innovations are conducive to the exchange of meta-information, giving rise to a new service area and transforming patients into active medical consumers. Consequently, such innovations encourage active participation in the mutual utilization and sharing of high-quality information. However, these benefits from new ICTs will almost certainly not be equally available to all, leading to so-called communication inequalities where cancer survivors from lower socioeconomic classes will likely have more limited access to the best means of making use of the health information. Therefore, most essentially, emphasis must be placed on helping cancer survivors and their caregivers utilize such advances in ICT to create a more efficient flow of health information, thereby reducing communication inequalities and expanding social support. Once we enhance access to health information and better manage the quality of information, as a matter of fact, we can expect an alleviation of the health inequalities faced by cancer survivors.

  15. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, J.; Le, Q. H.; Duong, B. H.; Sun, P.; Pham, H. T.; Ta, V. T.; Kotsopoulos, J.; Narod, S. A.; Ginsburg, O.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK), Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and path...

  16. Association between Alcohol Consumption, Folate Intake, and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Winta Yellow; Bamlet, William R.; Ann L Oberg; Anderson, Kristin E.; Olson, Janet E.; Rashmi Sinha; Petersen, Gloria M.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Jansen, Rick J.

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal common cancers affecting both men and women, representing about 3% of all new cancer cases in the United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of pancreatic cancer risk with alcohol consumption as well as folate intake. We performed a case-control study of 384 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from May 2004 to December 2009 and 983 primary care healthy controls in a largely white population (>96%). Our findings sho...

  17. Vitamin D and pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, M; Risch, H A; Bosetti, C; Anderson, K E; Petersen, G M; Bamlet, W R; Cotterchio, M; Cleary, S P; Ibiebele, T I; La Vecchia, C; Skinner, H G; Strayer, L; Bracci, P M; Maisonneuve, P; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Zaton Ski, W; Lu, L; Yu, H; Janik-Koncewicz, K; Polesel, J; Serraino, D; Neale, R E

    2015-08-01

    The potential role of vitamin D in the aetiology of pancreatic cancer is unclear, with recent studies suggesting both positive and negative associations. We used data from nine case-control studies from the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) to examine associations between pancreatic cancer risk and dietary vitamin D intake. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, and ORs were then pooled using a random-effects model. From a subset of four studies, we also calculated pooled estimates of association for supplementary and total vitamin D intake. Risk of pancreatic cancer increased with dietary intake of vitamin D [per 100 international units (IU)/day: OR = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.19, P = 7.4 × 10(-6), P-heterogeneity = 0.52; ≥230 versus vitamin A intake. Increased risk of pancreatic cancer was observed with higher levels of dietary vitamin D intake. Additional studies are required to determine whether or not our finding has a causal basis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Tumour control probability in cancer stem cells hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Andrew; Kohandel, Mohammad; Hill, Richard; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2014-01-01

    The tumour control probability (TCP) is a formalism derived to compare various treatment regimens of radiation therapy, defined as the probability that given a prescribed dose of radiation, a tumour has been eradicated or controlled. In the traditional view of cancer, all cells share the ability to divide without limit and thus have the potential to generate a malignant tumour. However, an emerging notion is that only a sub-population of cells, the so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), are responsible for the initiation and maintenance of the tumour. A key implication of the CSC hypothesis is that these cells must be eradicated to achieve cures, thus we define TCPS as the probability of eradicating CSCs for a given dose of radiation. A cell surface protein expression profile, such as CD44high/CD24low for breast cancer or CD133 for glioma, is often used as a biomarker to monitor CSCs enrichment. However, it is increasingly recognized that not all cells bearing this expression profile are necessarily CSCs, and in particular early generations of progenitor cells may share the same phenotype. Thus, due to the lack of a perfect biomarker for CSCs, we also define a novel measurable TCPCD+, that is the probability of eliminating or controlling biomarker positive cells. Based on these definitions, we use stochastic methods and numerical simulations parameterized for the case of gliomas, to compare the theoretical TCPS and the measurable TCPCD+. We also use the measurable TCP to compare the effect of various radiation protocols.

  19. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  20. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  1. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaoxu; Zheng, Rongshou; He, Yutong; Sun, Xibin; Wang, Ning; Chen, Tianhui; Chen, Wanqing

    2016-01-01

    Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected from family members of non-pancreatic cancer patients in the same hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staff using questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confident intervals (CIs). Among 646 recruited participants, 323 were pancreatic cancer patients and 323 were controls. Multivariate logistic analysis suggested that pancreatic cancer family history (adjusted OR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11-3.70), obesity (adjusted OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.22-2.57), diabetes (adjusted OR 2.96; 95% CI, 1.48-5.92) and smoking (adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.02-3.10) were risk factors for pancreatic cancer, but that drinking tea (adjusted OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25-0.84) was associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Cigarette smoking, family history, obesity, and diabetes are risk factors of pancreatic cancer, which is important information for designing early intervention and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer and may be beneficial to pancreatic cancer control in China.

  2. Early rehabilitation of cancer patients - a randomized controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arving, Cecilia; Thormodsen, Inger; Brekke, Guri; Mella, Olav; Berntsen, Sveinung; Nordin, Karin

    2013-01-07

    Faced with a life-threatening illness, such as cancer, many patients develop stress symptoms, i.e. avoidance behaviour, intrusive thoughts and worry. Stress management interventions have proven to be effective; however, they are mostly performed in group settings and it is commonly breast cancer patients who are studied. We hereby present the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an individual stress-management intervention with a stepped-care approach in several cancer diagnoses. Patients (≥ 18 years) with a recent diagnosis of breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lymphoma, prostate cancer or testicle cancer and scheduled for adjuvant/curative oncology treatment, will consecutively be included in the study. In this prospective longitudinal intervention study with a stepped-care approach, patients will be randomized to control, treatment as usual, or an individual stress-management intervention in two steps. The first step is a low-intensity stress-management intervention, given to all patients randomized to intervention. Patients who continue to report stress symptoms after the first step will thereafter be given more intensive treatment at the second step of the programme. In the intervention patients will also be motivated to be physically active. Avoidance and intrusion are the primary outcomes. According to the power analyses, 300 patients are planned to be included in the study and will be followed for two years. Other outcomes are physical activity level, sleep duration and quality recorded objectively, and anxiety, depression, quality of life, fatigue, stress in daily living, and patient satisfaction assessed using valid and standardized psychometric tested questionnaires. Utilization of hospital services will be derived from the computerized patient administration systems used by the hospital. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention will be evaluated through a cost-utility analysis. This RCT

  3. Canadian identity: Implications for international social work by Canadians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2011-01-01

    This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all......, to critically examine and unpack our ‘Canadian’ identity in order to practice international work that is socially just and anti-imperialist. Drawing on the work of post-colonial authors, critical race theorists, and those who study national myth-making, this essay revisits Canadian identity because...... it is this identity that Canadian social workers often carry into their international work....

  4. Quality of reporting randomized controlled trials in cancer nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia-Wen; Sward, Katherine A; Beck, Susan L; Staggers, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide high-level evidence for evidence-based practice (EBP). The quality of RCTs has a substantial influence on providing reliable knowledge for EBP. Little is known about the quality of RCT reporting in cancer nursing. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of reporting in published cancer nursing RCTs from 1984 to 2010. A total of 227 RCTs in cancer nursing published in English-language journals and indexed in PubMed or Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were reviewed using the Jadad scale, key methodologic index (KMI), and the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist to assess the quality of reporting methodological aspects of research and the overall quality of reporting RCTs. Adherence to reporting metrics was relatively low, based on the Jadad score (M = 1.94 out of 5, SD = 1.01), KMI scores (M = 0.84 out of 3, SD = .87), and adherence to CONSORT checklist items (M =16.92 out of 37, SD = 4.03). Only 11 of 37 items in the CONSORT checklist were reported in 80% or more of the studies reviewed. The quality of reporting showed some improvement over time. Adherence to reporting metrics for cancer nursing RCTs was suboptimal, and further efforts are needed to improve both methodology reporting and overall reporting. Journals are encouraged to adopt the CONSORT checklist to influence the quality of RCT reports.

  5. Leadership in Nigerian health system for cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbimi, R I

    2009-06-01

    Unacceptable health system outcomes are often related to problems with leadership because the ultimate responsibility for assigned work rests on leadership. In this paper, proper leadership at micro and macro-levels can have positive impact on the health and well being of citizens. While this may be readily obvious in other spheres, it has not been addressed adequately in the context of health care systems and its impact on health outcomes. In this paper, I discuss types of work and leadership systems in order to highlight the importance of leadership and leadership training in collaborative training and research for cancer management. The complexity of health systems highlight the expanded role of leadership in terms of capacity and capability to control the environmental risk factors for cancer, deploy adequate resources for the management of cancers, and ensure fruitful and productive post treatment life for citizens. Improved community awareness, better training of health care workers, improved working environment based on better interpersonal relationships between all cadres of health care workers, environmental health and safety initiatives and research on cancer are some of the areas where improved leadership can lead to better health outcomes. Effective leadership requires a set of skills that can be acquired with requisite operating environment, political will and adequate funding in order to generate the expected improvements in outcome.

  6. Technique for histological control of surgical margins in lip cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Satoru; Hata, Hiroo; Homma, Erina; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    To preserve oral function and achieve acceptable cosmetic results, intraoperative control of surgical margins with frozen section evaluation may help to determine surgical technique in lip cancer. However, frozen section analysis is usually limited to suspicious areas and has not been systematically performed among surgeons. The accuracy of such analysis for detecting histological surgical margins is highly dependent on the methods used to obtain and analyze the margins. Improving the pathodiagnostic reliability of conventional intraoperative frozen section evaluation is the most important goal of surgical management in our method. We describe the successful use of the "double-blade method" in lip cancer treatment. The technique we describe has the advantage of histologically confirming clear margins in lip cancer. This method appears to be time-saving and easy to apply with existing surgical systems. In addition, this method may be used as an alternative to complete evaluation of lateral surgical margins that is important in planning a suitable surgical reconstruction procedure in lip cancer at many institutions where Mohs micrographic surgery is difficult to perform. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  7. CDC Grand Rounds: Family History and Genomics as Tools for Cancer Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juan L; Thomas, Cheryll C; Massetti, Greta M; Duquette, Debra; Avner, Lindsay; Iskander, John; Khoury, Muin J; Richardson, Lisa C

    2016-11-25

    Although many efforts in cancer prevention and control have routinely focused on behavioral risk factors, such as tobacco use, or on the early detection of cancer, such as colorectal cancer screening, advances in genetic testing have created new opportunities for cancer prevention through evaluation of family history and identification of cancer-causing inherited mutations. Through the collection and evaluation of a family cancer history by a trained health care provider, patients and families at increased risk for a hereditary cancer syndrome can be identified, referred for genetic counseling and testing, and make informed decisions about options for cancer risk reduction (1). Although hereditary cancers make up a small proportion of all cancers, the number of affected persons can be large, and the level of risk among affected persons is high. Two hereditary cancer syndromes for which public health professionals have worked to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality are hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) and Lynch syndrome.

  8. Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Christensen, Mariann

    2012-01-01

    Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil...

  9. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Driving: A Canadian Thoracic Society and Canadian Sleep Society Position Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Ayas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA experience sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality that results in daytime sleepiness, which impairs performance during driving and leads to an increased risk for collisions. Not surprisingly, observational studies have shown that patients with OSA experience a two- to 10-fold higher risk for collision compared with healthy controls. Although treatment would clearly mitigate these risks, there is no current Canadian position on driving and OSA. This article, the first Canadian position statement addressing the issue, provides an overview of provincial regulations and proposes recommendations with regard to driving in patients with OSA.

  10. Simultaneous cancer control and diagnosis with magnetic nanohybrid materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saadat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coated magnetite nanoparticles were linked to 68Ga complexes used in the positron emission tomography (PET for a new technical approach to detect cancer tissue with radiopharmaceuticals. By substitution of the Ga isotope with an alpha emitter the same compound could be used for cancer treatment. Furthermore the nanoparticles were connected to pH-sensitive complexes, enabling a pH-controlled assembly/disassembly and therefore the spreading of the particles in the tissue. With this novel method of combining detection and treatment simultaneously, the amount of medical exposure could be minimized for the patient. The results demonstrate that magnetite nanoparticles can effectively be functionalized with PET isotopes and pH sensitive complexes in order to use them as a new type of radiopharmaceuticals.

  11. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Health and Human Services, and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast and... for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early...

  12. Are adjuvant bisphosphonates now standard of care of women with early stage breast cancer? A debate from the Canadian Bone and the Oncologist New Updates meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel Jacobs

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 9th Bone and the Oncologist New Updates conference was held in Ottawa, Canada during 2014. This annual meeting focuses on innovative research into the mechanisms and consequences of treatment-induced and metastatic bone disease. Given the recent presentation of the Oxford overview's “Effects of bisphosphonate treatment on recurrence and cause-specific mortality in women with early breast cancer: A meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized trials” at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, a debate as to the pro's and con's of adjuvant bisphosphonate use in early stage breast cancer was undertaken. As bisphosphonate treatment in post-menopausal women appeared to demonstrate a similar magnitude of benefit to that of other commonly used adjuvant strategies the debate assessed whether or not there was sufficient data to incorporate adjuvant bisphosphonates into standard practice and if so, in which patient populations.

  13. Effectiveness of Computer Tailoring Versus Peer Support Web-Based Interventions in Promoting Physical Activity Among Insufficiently Active Canadian Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, François; Moreau, Michel; Côté, José

    2016-02-11

    Type 2 diabetes is a major challenge for Canadian public health authorities, and regular physical activity is a key factor in the management of this disease. Given that less than half of people with type 2 diabetes in Canada are sufficiently active to meet the Canadian Diabetes Association's guidelines, effective programs targeting the adoption of regular physical activity are in demand for this population. Many researchers have argued that Web-based interventions targeting physical activity are a promising avenue for insufficiently active populations; however, it remains unclear if this type of intervention is effective among people with type 2 diabetes. This research project aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two Web-based interventions targeting the adoption of regular aerobic physical activity among insufficiently active adult Canadian Francophones with type 2 diabetes. A 3-arm, parallel randomized controlled trial with 2 experimental groups and 1 control group was conducted in the province of Quebec, Canada. A total of 234 participants were randomized at a 1:1:1 ratio to receive an 8-week, fully automated, computer-tailored, Web-based intervention (experimental group 1); an 8-week peer support (ie, Facebook group) Web-based intervention (experimental group 2); or no intervention (control group) during the study period. The primary outcome of this study is self-reported physical activity level (total min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity). Secondary outcomes are attitude, social influence, self-efficacy, type of motivation, and intention. All outcomes are assessed at baseline and 3 and 9 months after baseline with a self-reported questionnaire filled directly on the study websites. By evaluating and comparing the effectiveness of 2 Web-based interventions characterized by different behavior change perspectives, findings of this study will contribute to advances in the field of physical activity promotion in adult populations with type 2

  14. Diet and pancreatic cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norell, S E; Ahlbom, A; Erwald, R; Jacobson, G; Lindberg-Navier, I; Olin, R; Törnberg, B; Wiechel, K L

    1986-12-01

    In a population-based case-control study carried out in Sweden in 1982-1984, the authors examined the association of pancreatic cancer with several dietary factors, coffee, alcohol, and tobacco. Analyses were based on 99 cases, 138 population controls, and 163 hospital controls. The cases were persons aged 40-79 years diagnosed with cancer of the exocrine pancreas at three surgical departments in Stockholm and Uppsala. The risk increased with higher consumption frequency of fried and grilled meat in the comparison with each series of controls (e.g., relative risk (RR) = 1.7 (90% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-2.7) for weekly intake and RR = 13.4 (90% CI = 2.4-74.7) for almost daily intake, in the comparison with population controls). Furthermore, associations were found with other fried or grilled foods, but not with meat other than fried or grilled. The risk also increased with the intake of margarine (e.g., RR = 9.7 (90% CI = 3.1-30.2) for 15+ g of margarine on a slice of bread, in the comparison with population controls). In contrast, no excess risk was associated with high intake of butter. A low risk was associated with frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables, particularly carrots (RR = 0.3 (90% CI = 0.2-0.7)) and citrus fruits (RR = 0.5 (90% CI = 0.3-0.9)) for almost daily intake. No consistent associations were found with coffee, artificial sweeteners or alcohol consumption, but a threefold increase in risk was associated with smoking at least one pack of cigarettes per day.

  15. Iron sufficiency of Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Marcia; Greene-Finestone, Linda; Lowell, Hélène; Levesque, Johanne; Robinson, Stacey

    2012-12-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world, but little is known about the iron status of people in Canada, where the last estimates are from 1970-1972. The data are from cycle 2 (2009 to 2011) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey, which collected blood samples from a nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 3 to 79. Descriptive statistics (percentages, arithmetic means, geometric means) were used to estimate hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations, and other markers of iron status. Analyses were performed by age/sex group, household income, self-perceived health, diet, and use of iron supplements. World Health Organization reference values (2001) were used to estimate the prevalence of iron sufficiency and anemia. The overall prevalence of anemia was low in the 2009-to-2011 period--97% of Canadians had sufficient hemoglobin levels. Generally, hemoglobin concentration increased compared with 1970-1972; however, at ages 65 to 79, rates of anemia were higher than in 1970-1972. Depleted iron stores were found in 13% of females aged 12 to 19 and 9% of females aged 20 to 49. Lower household income was associated with a lower prevalence of hemoglobin sufficiency, but was not related to lower serum ferritin sufficiency. Self-perceived health and diet were not significantly associated with hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels. The lack of a relationship between iron status and diet may be attributable to the use of questions about food consumption frequency that were not specifically designed to estimate dietary iron intake. Factors other than iron intake might have contributed to the increase in the prevalence of anemia among seniors.

  16. Tumour control probability in cancer stem cells hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Dhawan

    Full Text Available The tumour control probability (TCP is a formalism derived to compare various treatment regimens of radiation therapy, defined as the probability that given a prescribed dose of radiation, a tumour has been eradicated or controlled. In the traditional view of cancer, all cells share the ability to divide without limit and thus have the potential to generate a malignant tumour. However, an emerging notion is that only a sub-population of cells, the so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs, are responsible for the initiation and maintenance of the tumour. A key implication of the CSC hypothesis is that these cells must be eradicated to achieve cures, thus we define TCPS as the probability of eradicating CSCs for a given dose of radiation. A cell surface protein expression profile, such as CD44high/CD24low for breast cancer or CD133 for glioma, is often used as a biomarker to monitor CSCs enrichment. However, it is increasingly recognized that not all cells bearing this expression profile are necessarily CSCs, and in particular early generations of progenitor cells may share the same phenotype. Thus, due to the lack of a perfect biomarker for CSCs, we also define a novel measurable TCPCD+, that is the probability of eliminating or controlling biomarker positive cells. Based on these definitions, we use stochastic methods and numerical simulations parameterized for the case of gliomas, to compare the theoretical TCPS and the measurable TCPCD+. We also use the measurable TCP to compare the effect of various radiation protocols.

  17. Awareness of Risk Factors among Persons at Risk for Lung Cancer, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Sleep Apnea: A Canadian Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L Walker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess awareness among persons at risk for lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and sleep apnea regarding symptoms and risk factors of the disease, and their attitudes regarding the disease and toward those who are affected.

  18. Patient outcomes from lung cancer and diabetes mellitus: a matched case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Karlin, Nina J; Amin, Shailja B; Buras, Matthew R; Kosiorek, Heidi E; Verona, Patricia M; Cook, Curtiss B

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This case–control study examined the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on survival in lung cancer patients and lung cancer on glycemic control in DM. Materials & methods: Patients with a new lung cancer diagnosis and DM (n = 124) were matched to 124 lung cancer patients without DM. Laboratory results and DM and cancer therapies were obtained from electronic records. Results: Five-year overall survival for lung cancer patients with and without DM was 20 versus 29% (p = .12). Glycemic contr...

  19. Enhancing a Cancer Prevention and Control Curriculum through Interactive Group Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, L.P.; Gadalla, S.M.; Hamilton, J G; Heckman-Stoddard, B.M.; Kent, E.E.; Lai, G Y; Lin, S. W.; Luhn, P.; Faupel-Badger, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This four-week post-graduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g. epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new additio...

  20. Evaluation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation prevalence, risk prediction models and a multistep testing approach in French‐Canadian families with high risk of breast and ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Moisan, Anne‐Marie; Gaborieau, Valérie; Vézina, Hélène; Durocher, Francine; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Plante, Marie; Avard, Denise; Bessette, Paul; Brousseau, Claire; Dorval, Michel; Godard, Béatrice; Houde, Louis; Joly, Yann; Lajoie, Marie‐Andrée; Leblanc, Gilles; Lépine, Jean; Lespérance, Bernard; Malouin, Hélène; Parboosingh, Jillian; Pichette, Roxane; Provencher, Louise; Rhéaume, Josée; Sinnett, Daniel; Samson, Carolle; Simard, Jean‐Claude; Tranchant, Martine; Voyer, Patricia; BRCAs, INHERIT; Easton, Douglas; Tavtigian, Sean V; Knoppers, Bartha‐Maria; Laframboise, Rachel; Bridge, Peter; Goldgar, David

    2007-01-01

    Background and objective In clinical settings with fixed resources allocated to predictive genetic testing for high‐risk cancer predisposition genes, optimal strategies for mutation screening programmes are critically important. These depend on the mutation spectrum found in the population under consideration and the frequency of mutations detected as a function of the personal and family history of cancer, which are both affected by the presence of founder mutations and demographic characteristics of the underlying population. The results of multistep genetic testing for mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 in a large series of families with breast cancer in the French‐Canadian population of Quebec, Canada are reported. Methods A total of 256 high‐risk families were ascertained from regional familial cancer clinics throughout the province of Quebec. Initially, families were tested for a panel of specific mutations known to occur in this population. Families in which no mutation was identified were then comprehensively tested. Three algorithms to predict the presence of mutations were evaluated, including the prevalence tables provided by Myriad Genetics Laboratories, the Manchester Scoring System and a logistic regression approach based on the data from this study. Results 8 of the 15 distinct mutations found in 62 BRCA1/BRCA2‐positive families had never been previously reported in this population, whereas 82% carried 1 of the 4 mutations currently observed in ⩾2 families. In the subset of 191 families in which at least 1 affected individual was tested, 29% carried a mutation. Of these 27 BRCA1‐positive and 29 BRCA2‐positive families, 48 (86%) were found to harbour a mutation detected by the initial test. Among the remaining 143 inconclusive families, all 8 families found to have a mutation after complete sequencing had Manchester Scores ⩾18. The logistic regression and Manchester Scores provided equal predictive power, and both were significantly better

  1. Sustainability in a state comprehensive cancer control coalition: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Renee A; Chapman, Kathryn; Graf, Gavin; Stanfield, Bret; Waterbor, John W

    2014-03-01

    The Alabama Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalition (ACCCC) has developed an integrated and coordinated approach to reducing cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, and to improving the quality of life for cancer survivors, their families, and their caregivers. The ACCCC is currently in a maintenance phase and a formal plan for sustainability of the coalition was needed to keep the members engaged and productive. A training session in coalition sustainability conducted in 2013 identified the following elements as essential to success: (1) increased marketing of the coalition by simplifying its mission; (2) improved networking including flexibility in coalition meeting location and attendance; (3) increased membership satisfaction through transformational leadership; (4) revision of the working structure of committees and improved accountability; and (5) enhancement of partner satisfaction with coalition activities designed to recruit and retain new partners. A self-administered membership satisfaction survey was given to assess coalition mission, meeting logistics, organization, capacity building, and coalition goals. Results indicated that the subcategories of communication, mission, and meeting logistics were rated satisfied to very satisfied on a five-point scale. Although the ACCCC had clearly written goals, improvement could be made in leadership participation and new member orientation could be improved. Most members rated their parent organization as highly involved with the ACCCC and many offered suggestions on capacity building. Results of the sustainability training have clarified the ACCCC's plans to ensure coalition viability and improve strategies to inform stakeholders of the benefits of participation in the coalition.

  2. Unique Factors Affecting Canadian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Robin H.

    In a background statement identifying what is unique about Canada and the issues it currently faces, this paper begins by discussing the concurrent movements toward Canadian nationalism and Quebec nationalism as an illustration of the problems caused by large size and great diversity. It then focuses on unique aspects of Canadian education,…

  3. [The strategy for establishment of comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, H L; Fang, L W; Wang, L H

    2017-01-06

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women. Screening programs for cervical cancer have been implemented in many developed countries. Comprehensive systems for cervical cancer prevention and control have improved over the past 30 years, which has led to a significant decline in the morbidity and mortality of cervical cancer. Since 2009, the Chinese government has conducted the Cervical Cancer and Breast Cancer Screening Program for Rural Women on a national scale, which has substantially improved cervical cancer prevention and control. However, a comprehensive system for cervical cancer prevention has been not established in China. It is essential to investigate suitable strategies for cervical cancer prevention system in the country by referring to the experiences of developed nations in comparison with the situation in China, with respect to system operations, compatibility with the existing health care system, choice of suitable technologies, and information and evaluation platforms.

  4. Affective science perspectives on cancer control: strategically crafting a mutually beneficial research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Green, Paige A; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-05-01

    Cancer control research involves the conduct of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences to reduce cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality and improve quality of life. Given the importance of behavior in cancer control, fundamental research is necessary to identify psychological mechanisms underlying cancer risk, prevention, and management behaviors. Cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are often emotionally laden. As such, affective science research to elucidate questions related to the basic phenomenological nature of emotion, stress, and mood is necessary to understand how cancer control can be hindered or facilitated by emotional experiences. To date, the intersection of basic affective science research and cancer control remains largely unexplored. The goal of this article is to outline key questions in the cancer control research domain that provide an ecologically valid context for new affective science discoveries. We also provide examples of ways in which basic affective discoveries could inform future cancer prevention and control research. These examples are not meant to be exhaustive or prescriptive but instead are offered to generate creative thought about the promise of a cancer research context for answering basic affective science questions. Together, these examples provide a compelling argument for fostering collaborations between affective and cancer control scientists. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Cancer-related information needs and cancer's impact on control over life influence health-related quality of life among adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, Mindy C; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Tao, Li; Bellizzi, Keith M; Lynch, Charles F; Parsons, Helen M; Kent, Erin E; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2015-09-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with cancer between 15 and 39 years of age often report need for greater amounts of cancer-related information and perceive that cancer has had a negative impact on control over their life. We examined whether unmet information need and perceived control over life are associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We examined data from 484 AYA cancer survivors recruited from population-based cancer registries in 2007-2008. Participants completed surveys a median of 11 months after diagnosis. Multivariable linear regression analyses estimated associations of unmet cancer-related information needs and impact of cancer on control over life on HRQOL (SF-12). Two-thirds of AYAs reported an intermediate or high level of unmet information need, and half (47%) reported a negative impact of cancer on control. Greater unmet information need was associated with lower overall mental and physical HRQOL and lower levels of all HRQOL subscales except vitality. A negative impact on control over life was associated with lower overall mental HRQOL as well as lower HRQOL across all subscales except general health perceptions (all p 0.1). Adolescent and young adult patients with cancer have high levels of unmet cancer-related information needs and perceived negative impact of cancer on control over life; both were independently associated with lower HRQOL. Addressing unmet information needs among AYA cancer survivors and finding ways to increase their sense of control may help improve HRQOL in this understudied population. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Immunohistochemistry of colorectal cancer biomarker phosphorylation requires controlled tissue fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey P Theiss

    Full Text Available Phosphorylated signaling molecules are biomarkers of cancer pathophysiology and resistance to therapy, but because phosphoprotein analytes are often labile, poorly controlled clinical laboratory practices could prevent translation of research findings in this area from the bench to the bedside. We therefore compared multiple biomarker and phosphoprotein immunohistochemistry (IHC results in 23 clinical colorectal carcinoma samples after either a novel, rapid tissue fixation protocol or a standard tissue fixation protocol employed by clinical laboratories, and we also investigated the effect of a defined post-operative "cold" ischemia period on these IHC results. We found that a one-hour cold ischemia interval, allowed by ASCO/CAP guidelines for certain cancer biomarker assays, is highly deleterious to certain phosphoprotein analytes, specifically the phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR, but shorter ischemic intervals (less than 17 minutes facilitate preservation of phosphoproteins. Second, we found that a rapid 4-hour, two temperature, formalin fixation yielded superior staining in several cases with select markers (pEGFR, pBAD, pAKT compared to a standard overnight room temperature fixation protocol, despite taking less time. These findings indicate that the future research and clinical utilities of phosphoprotein IHC for assessing colorectal carcinoma pathophysiology absolutely depend upon attention to preanalytical factors and rigorously controlled tissue fixation protocols.

  7. Rac and Rho GTPases in cancer cell motility control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parri Matteo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rho GTPases represent a family of small GTP-binding proteins involved in cell cytoskeleton organization, migration, transcription, and proliferation. A common theme of these processes is a dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton which has now emerged as a major switch control mainly carried out by Rho and Rac GTPase subfamilies, playing an acknowledged role in adaptation of cell motility to the microenvironment. Cells exhibit three distinct modes of migration when invading the 3 D environment. Collective motility leads to movement of cohorts of cells which maintain the adherens junctions and move by photolytic degradation of matrix barriers. Single cell mesenchymal-type movement is characterized by an elongated cellular shape and again requires extracellular proteolysis and integrin engagement. In addition it depends on Rac1-mediated cell polarization and lamellipodia formation. Conversely, in amoeboid movement cells have a rounded morphology, the movement is independent from proteases but requires high Rho GTPase to drive elevated levels of actomyosin contractility. These two modes of cell movement are interconvertible and several moving cells, including tumor cells, show an high degree of plasticity in motility styles shifting ad hoc between mesenchymal or amoeboid movements. This review will focus on the role of Rac and Rho small GTPases in cell motility and in the complex relationship driving the reciprocal control between Rac and Rho granting for the opportunistic motile behaviour of aggressive cancer cells. In addition we analyse the role of these GTPases in cancer progression and metastatic dissemination.

  8. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  9. Personal control after a breast cancer diagnosis : stability and adaptive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, Inge; Sanderman, Robbert; Baas, Peter C.; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Objective: This longitudinal study aims to gain more insight in both the changes in personal control due to a breast cancer diagnosis, as well as in the stress-buffering effect of personal control. Methods: Personal control and distress were assessed in breast cancer patients not treated with

  10. Expanding the meaning of 'being a peer leader': qualitative findings from a Canadian community-based cervical and breast cancer screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Farah; Ferrari, Manuela; Moravac, Catherine; Lofters, Aisha; Dunn, Sheila

    2017-03-01

    Engagement of community members to act as peer workers is a key feature of many community-centred health promotion programmes. However, little is known about their experiences beyond the commonly reported themes of fulfilment through helping people in need and improvement of personal confidence, self-esteem and self-care. This gap in the literature is of particular interest given increasing involvement of peer workers in community-centred programmes addressing health disparities, such as uptake of cancer screening. This paper aims to explore experiences of the peer leaders who worked for the Cancer Awareness: Ready for Education and Screening (CARES) project to promote awareness, knowledge, and uptake of breast and cervical cancer screening among under-/never-screened women who belonged to ethnic minority, recent immigrant and low-income communities in Toronto, Canada. In 2013, three focus groups were conducted with 14 peer leaders to explore their experiences. All were immigrant women between 30 and 50 years of age. All discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. We used situational maps and analysis to create a visual representation of the data, and to investigate peer leaders experiences. Situational analysis was chosen to bring to light dominant and also silent underlying aspects which define the meaning of being a peer leader. The first level of analysis identified main themes that characterised peer leaders' experience: (i) Helping others (women, friends and family) and themselves by improved self-confidence, self-awareness and self-care and (ii) Redefining professional and social positions through their project activities leading to professional development and networking. The second level of analysis explored the redefining process and identified some peer leaders' negotiations in relation to knowledge (science vs. myth), beliefs (fear vs. assurance) and boundaries (private vs. work). Adding to the literature on the peer workers' experience

  11. Using community engagement to inform and implement a community-randomized controlled trial in the Anishinaabek Cervical Cancer Screening Study (ACCSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne eWood

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Social, political, and economic factors are directly and indirectly associated with the quality and distribution of health resources across Canada. First Nations (FN women in particular endure a disproportionate burden of ill health in contrast to the mainstream population. The complex relationship of health, social, and historical determinants are inherent to increased cervical cancer in FN women. This can be traced back to the colonial oppression suffered by Canadian FN and the social inequalities they have since faced. Screening - the Papinacolaou (Pap test – and early immunization have rendered cervical cancer almost entirely preventable but despite these options, FN women endure notably higher rates of diagnosis and mortality due to cervical cancer. The Anishinaabek Cervical Cancer Screening Study (ACCSS is a participatory action research project investigating the factors underlying the cervical cancer burden in FN women. ACCSS is a collaboration with 11 FN communities in Northwest Ontario, Canada and a multidisciplinary research team from across Canada with expertise in cancer biology, epidemiology, medical anthropology, public health, virology, women’s health, and pathology. Interviews with healthcare providers and community members revealed that prior to any formal data collection education must be offered. Consequently, an educational component was integrated into the existing quantitative design of the study: a two-armed, community-randomized trial that compares the uptake of two different cervical screening modalities. In ACCSS, the Research Team integrates community engagement and the flexible nature of participatory research with the scientific rigor of a randomized controlled trial. ACCSS findings will inform culturally appropriate screening strategies, aiming to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical disease in concert with priorities of the partner FN communities.

  12. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2015-01-01

    There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether body

  13. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether

  14. Strategies for the prevention and control of cervical cancer in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of “most-at-risk” women for cervical cancer disease who reside in rural communities of low and middle income countries (LMIC) do not have access to cervical cancer prevention programmes. This paper reviews epidemiology, recommendations, implementation strategies for prevention and control of cervical cancer ...

  15. Strategies for the Prevention and Control of Cervical Cancer in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    Majority of “most-at-risk” women for cervical cancer disease who reside in rural communities of low and middle income countries (LMIC) do not have access to cervical cancer prevention programmes. This paper reviews epidemiology, recommendations, implementation strategies for prevention and control of cervical cancer ...

  16. Breast cancer in Mexican women: an epidemiological study with cervical cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Guzmán, V; Hernández-Girón, C; Lazcano-Ponce, E; Romieu, I; Hernández Avila, M

    2000-04-01

    In Mexico, breast cancer (BC) is one of the main causes of cancer deaths in women, with increasing incidence and mortality in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the study is identify possible risk factors related to BC. An epidemiological study of hospital cases of BC and controls with cervical uterine cancer (CUCA) was carried out at eight third level concentration hospitals in Mexico City. The total of 353 incident cases of BC and 630 controls with CUCA were identified among women younger than 75 years who had been residents of the metropolitan area of Mexico City for at least one year. Diagnosis was confirmed histologically in both groups. Variables were analyzed according to biological and statistical plausibility criteria. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Cases and controls were stratified according to the menopausal hormonal status (pre and post menopause). The factors associated with BC were: higher socioeconomic level (OR= 2.77; 95%CI = 1.77 - 4.35); early menarche (OR= 1.32; 95%CI= 0.88 - 2.00); old age at first pregnancy (>31 years: OR= 5.49; 95%CI= 2.16 - 13.98) and a family history of BC (OR= 4.76; 95% CI= 2.10 - 10.79). In contrast, an increase in the duration of the breastfeeding period was a protective factor (>25 months: OR= 0.38; 95%CI= 0.20 - 0.70). This study contributes to the identification of risk factors for BC described in the international literature, in the population of Mexican women. Breastfeeding appears to play an important role in protecting women from BC. Because of changes in women's lifestyles, lactation is decreasing in Mexico, and young women tend not to breastfeed or to shorten the duration of lactation.

  17. Breast cancer in Mexican women: an epidemiological study with cervical cancer control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Tovar-Guzmán

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In Mexico, breast cancer (BC is one of the main causes of cancer deaths in women, with increasing incidence and mortality in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the study is identify possible risk factors related to BC. METHODS: An epidemiological study of hospital cases of BC and controls with cervical uterine cancer (CUCA was carried out at eight third level concentration hospitals in Mexico City. The total of 353 incident cases of BC and 630 controls with CUCA were identified among women younger than 75 years who had been residents of the metropolitan area of Mexico City for at least one year. Diagnosis was confirmed histologically in both groups. Variables were analyzed according to biological and statistical plausibility criteria. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Cases and controls were stratified according to the menopausal hormonal status (pre and post menopause. RESULTS: The factors associated with BC were: higher socioeconomic level (OR= 2.77; 95%CI = 1.77 - 4.35; early menarche (OR= 1.32; 95%CI= 0.88 - 2.00; old age at first pregnancy (>31 years: OR= 5.49; 95%CI= 2.16 - 13.98 and a family history of BC (OR= 4.76; 95% CI= 2.10 - 10.79. In contrast, an increase in the duration of the breastfeeding period was a protective factor (>25 months: OR= 0.38; 95%CI= 0.20 - 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the identification of risk factors for BC described in the international literature, in the population of Mexican women. Breastfeeding appears to play an important role in protecting women from BC. Because of changes in women`s lifestyles, lactation is decreasing in Mexico, and young women tend not to breastfeed or to shorten the duration of lactation.

  18. Breast cancer in Mexican women: an epidemiological study with cervical cancer control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar-Guzmán Víctor

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In Mexico, breast cancer (BC is one of the main causes of cancer deaths in women, with increasing incidence and mortality in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the study is identify possible risk factors related to BC. METHODS: An epidemiological study of hospital cases of BC and controls with cervical uterine cancer (CUCA was carried out at eight third level concentration hospitals in Mexico City. The total of 353 incident cases of BC and 630 controls with CUCA were identified among women younger than 75 years who had been residents of the metropolitan area of Mexico City for at least one year. Diagnosis was confirmed histologically in both groups. Variables were analyzed according to biological and statistical plausibility criteria. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Cases and controls were stratified according to the menopausal hormonal status (pre and post menopause. RESULTS: The factors associated with BC were: higher socioeconomic level (OR= 2.77; 95%CI = 1.77 - 4.35; early menarche (OR= 1.32; 95%CI= 0.88 - 2.00; old age at first pregnancy (>31 years: OR= 5.49; 95%CI= 2.16 - 13.98 and a family history of BC (OR= 4.76; 95% CI= 2.10 - 10.79. In contrast, an increase in the duration of the breastfeeding period was a protective factor (>25 months: OR= 0.38; 95%CI= 0.20 - 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the identification of risk factors for BC described in the international literature, in the population of Mexican women. Breastfeeding appears to play an important role in protecting women from BC. Because of changes in women`s lifestyles, lactation is decreasing in Mexico, and young women tend not to breastfeed or to shorten the duration of lactation.

  19. Association between Alcohol Consumption, Folate Intake, and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winta Yellow

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal common cancers affecting both men and women, representing about 3% of all new cancer cases in the United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of pancreatic cancer risk with alcohol consumption as well as folate intake. We performed a case-control study of 384 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from May 2004 to December 2009 and 983 primary care healthy controls in a largely white population (>96%. Our findings showed no significant association between risk of pancreatic cancer and either overall alcohol consumption or type of alcohol consumed (drinks/day. Our study showed dietary folate intake had a modest effect size, but was significantly inversely associated with pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR = 0.99, p < 0.0001. The current study supports the hypothesis that pancreatic cancer risk is reduced with higher food-based folate intake.

  20. Association between Alcohol Consumption, Folate Intake, and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow, Winta; Bamlet, William R; Oberg, Ann L; Anderson, Kristin E; Olson, Janet E; Sinha, Rashmi; Petersen, Gloria M; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Jansen, Rick J

    2017-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal common cancers affecting both men and women, representing about 3% of all new cancer cases in the United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of pancreatic cancer risk with alcohol consumption as well as folate intake. We performed a case-control study of 384 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from May 2004 to December 2009 and 983 primary care healthy controls in a largely white population (>96%). Our findings showed no significant association between risk of pancreatic cancer and either overall alcohol consumption or type of alcohol consumed (drinks/day). Our study showed dietary folate intake had a modest effect size, but was significantly inversely associated with pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 0.99, p pancreatic cancer risk is reduced with higher food-based folate intake.

  1. The communications revolution and health inequalities in the 21st century: implications for cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, K; Nagler, Rebekah H; Bigman-Galimore, Cabral A; McCauley, Michael P; Jung, Minsoo; Ramanadhan, Shoba

    2012-10-01

    The radical and transformative developments in information and communication technologies (ICT) offer unprecedented opportunities to promote cancer control and enhance population and individual health. However, the current context in which these technologies are being deployed--where cancer incidence and mortality and communication are characterized by inequalities among different racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status groups--raises important questions for cancer communication research, policy, and practice. Drawing on illustrative data, this essay characterizes the communications revolution and elucidates its implications for cancer control, with a particular focus on communication inequalities and cancer disparities. 2012 AACR

  2. Forecasting Model of Risk of Cancer in Lung Cancer Pedigree in a Case-control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan LIN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Annual lung screening using spiral computed tomography (CT, has a high sensitivity of detecting early lung cancer (LC, but its high rates of false-positive often lead to unnecessary surgery. The aim of this study is to create a forecasting model of high risk individuals to lung cancer. Methods The pathologic diagnoses of LC in Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute were consecutively chosen as the probands. All the members of the first-degree relatives of probands' and their spouses' were enrolled in this study. These pedigrees consisted of 633 probands' pedigrees and 565 spouses' pedigrees. Unless otherwise stated, analyses were performed using the SPSS 17.0 statistical software package. Results Compared with the control, a family history of carcinoma in first-degree relatives was significantly associated with LC risk (OR=1.71, P<0.001, the sub-group of either one infected individual or more than two infected individuals in first-degree relatives showed significantly statistical differences (P=0.005, P=0.002. In the forecasting model, the risk compared to that in Chinese population was from 0.38 to 63.08 folds. In the population whose risk was more than 10 times to the Chinese population, the accuracy rate of prediction was 88.1%. Conclusion A family history of carcinoma in first-degree relatives was significantly associated with increased LC risk. The more infected individuals exist in first-degree relatives, the more risk was showed. In the forecasting model, smokers especially heavy ones whose risk were more than 10 times to the Chinese population should be receive annual screening. The population are positive at least any two conditions which including male, lung disease history, occupation expose and history of cancer in first-degree relative.

  3. Environmental and occupational cancer in Argentina: a case-control lung cancer study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matos Elena

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the risks for lung cancer associated with occupational exposures in a developing country where lung cancer is the first cause of mortality from cancer in men. The study involved 200 men with lung cancer and 397 hospital controls. The OR for current smokers was 8.5, whereas former smokers displayed an OR of 5.3. The fraction attributable to smoking was 85%. Statistically significant high ORs were observed for employment in the alcoholic beverages industry (4.5, 95% CI:1.02-20.2, sawmills and wood mills (4.6, 95% CI:1.1-18.4, chemicals/plastics (1.8, 95% CI:1.04-3.2, and pottery, glass, or mineral manufactures (3.4, 95% CI:1.1-10.6. Other high, but not statistically significant, risks were observed for employment in leather shoe industry and repair (2.1, 95% CI:0.8-5.4, rubber industries (3.4, 95% CI:0.9-12.4, metal workers, including welders (1.9, 95% CI:0.8-4.4, motor vehicle mechanics (2.0, 95% CI:0.9-4.2, workers in cleaning services (1.9, 95% CI:0.8-4.5, and for workers in agriculture (2.4, 95% CI:0.9-6.0. Although some of the present results may be due to chance, most are consistent with those of previous investigations in other countries.

  4. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Controls were equally matched and selected from family members of non-pancreatic cancer patients in the same hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staff using questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess odd ratios (ORs and 95% confident intervals (CIs. Results: Among 646 recruited participants, 323 were pancreatic cancer patients and 323 were controls. Multivariate logistic analysis suggested that pancreatic cancer family history (adjusted OR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11–3.70, obesity (adjusted OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.22–2.57, diabetes (adjusted OR 2.96; 95% CI, 1.48–5.92 and smoking (adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.02–3.10 were risk factors for pancreatic cancer, but that drinking tea (adjusted OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25–0.84 was associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking, family history, obesity, and diabetes are risk factors of pancreatic cancer, which is important information for designing early intervention and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer and may be beneficial to pancreatic cancer control in China.

  5. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk among women in northern Tanzania: a case?control study

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Irmgard; Hebestreit, Antje; Swai, Britta; Michael B. Krawinkel

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. It was tested within a case?control study in this region whether a specific dietary pattern impacts on the breast cancer risk. Methods A validated semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intake of 115 female breast cancer patients and 230 healthy age-matched women living in the same districts. A logistic regression was performed to estimate breast ...

  6. Role of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein in Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hon Man Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed protein in all eukaryotes—highlighting its important functions in the cell. Previous studies revealed that TCTP is implicated in many biological processes, including cell growth, tumor reversion, and induction of pluripotent stem cell. A recent study on the solution structure from fission yeast orthologue classifies TCTP under a family of small chaperone proteins. There is growing evidence in the literature that TCTP is a multifunctional protein and exerts its biological activity at the extracellular and intracellular levels. Although TCTP is not a tumor-specific protein, our research group, among several others, focused on the role(s of TCTP in cancer progression. In this paper, we will summarize the current scientific knowledge of TCTP in different aspects, and the precise oncogenic mechanisms of TCTP will be discussed in detail.

  7. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  8. Efficacy of an educational material on second primary cancer screening practice for cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Shin

    Full Text Available Cancer surivors have limited knowledge about second primary cancer (SPC screening and suboptimal rates of completion of screening practices for SPC. Our objective was to test the efficacy of an educational material on the knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices for SPC among cancer survivors.Randomized, controlled trial among 326 cancer survivors from 6 oncology care outpatient clinics in Korea. Patients were randomized to an intervention or an attention control group. The intervention was a photo-novel, culturally tailored to increase knowledge about SPC screening. Knowledge and attitudes regarding SPC screening were assessed two weeks after the intervention, and screening practices were assessed after one year.At two weeks post-intervention, the average knowledge score was significantly higher in the intervention compared to the control group (0.81 vs. 0.75, P<0.01, with no significant difference in their attitude scores (2.64 vs. 2.57, P = 0.18. After 1 year of follow-up, the completion rate of all appropriate cancer screening was 47.2% in both intervention and control groups.While the educational material was effective for increasing knowledge of SPC screening, it did not promote cancer screening practice among cancer survivors. More effective interventions are needed to increase SPC screening rates in this population.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00948337.

  9. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  10. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    .... What contributes to this deterioration, and how can its effects be mitigated? Engendering Migrant Health brings together researchers from across Canada to address the intersections of gender, immigration, and health in the lives of new Canadians...

  11. Natural history of Canadian mammals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naughton, Donna; Banfield, A. W. F

    2012-01-01

    .... A complete revision of A.W.F. Banfield's classic text Mammals of Canada, it features brand-new, full-colour images of each species, as well as stunning photographs from Canadian Geographic magazine's national photography...

  12. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    "Voluntary migrants to Canada are generally healthier than the average Canadian, but after ten years in the country they report poorer health and higher rates of chronic disease than those born here...

  13. Preventive care receipt and office visit use among breast and colorectal cancer survivors relative to age- and gender-matched cancer-free controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafata, Jennifer Elston; Salloum, Ramzi G; Fishman, Paul A; Ritzwoller, Debra Pearson; O'Keeffe-Rosetti, Maureen C; Hornbrook, Mark C

    2015-06-01

    We compare breast and colorectal cancer survivors' annual receipt of preventive care and office visits to that of age- and gender-matched cancer-free controls. Automated data, including tumor registries, were used to identify insured individuals aged 50+ at the time of breast or colorectal cancer diagnosis between 2000 and 2008 as well as cancer-free controls receiving care from four integrated delivery systems. Those with metastatic or un-staged disease, or a prior cancer diagnosis were excluded. Annual visits to primary care, oncology, and surgery as well as receipt of mammography, colorectal cancer, Papanicolaou, bone densitometry, and cholesterol screening were observed for 5 years. We used generalized estimating equations that accounted for repeated observations over time per person to test annual service use differences by cancer survivor/cancer-free control status and whether survivor/cancer-free status associations were moderated by patient age breast and 1530 colorectal cancer survivors were identified, representing 12,923 and 5103 patient-years of follow-up, respectively. Compared to cancer-free controls, breast and colorectal cancer survivors were equally or more likely to use all types of office visits and to receive cancer screenings and bone densitometry testing. Both breast and colorectal cancer survivors were less likely than cancer-free controls to receive cholesterol testing, regardless of age, year of diagnosis, or use of primary care. Programs targeting cancer survivors may benefit from addressing a broad range of primary preventive care needs, including recommended cardiovascular disease screening.

  14. 77 FR 20491 - National Cancer Control Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... continues to shed light on the molecular basis of cancer and unlock new therapies. Innovative studies are paving the way for effective treatments to deadly cancers, including melanoma. And new research shows...

  15. Prognosis for patients diagnosed with pregnancy-associated breast cancer: a paired case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Wagner Brant; Brandão, Eduardo Carvalho; Soares, Aleida Nazareth; Lucena, Clécio Enio Murta de; Antunes, Carlos Maurício Figueiredo

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that the occurrence of pregnancy concomitantly with a diagnosis of breast cancer may affect the evolution of the neoplasia. The present study aimed to compare pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) patients with non-pregnant cancer patients (controls) in relation to the time taken to diagnose the disease, tumor characteristics and mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective, paired case-control study was conducted at the Hospital da...

  16. Association between Alcohol Consumption and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Farah Rahman; Michelle Cotterchio; Cleary, Sean P; Steven Gallinger

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Evidence is inconsistent regarding alcohol and pancreatic cancer risk, although heavy drinking may increase risk. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted using 345 pancreas cancer cases diagnosed 2011?2012 and 1,285 frequency-matched controls from Ontario, Canada. Logistic regression was used to evaluate alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk; data was also stratified by sex and smoking status to assess interaction. Results Alcohol consumption was not assoc...

  17. Mortality among Canadian military personnel exposed to low-dose radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, S; Dulberg, C S; Spasoff, R A; Scott, T

    1987-01-01

    We carried out a cohort study of mortality among 954 Canadian military personnel exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation during nuclear reactor clean-up operations at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ont., and during observation of atomic test blasts in the United States and Australia in the 1950s. Two controls matched for age, service, rank and trade were selected for each exposed subject. Mortality among the exposed and control groups was ascertained by means of record linkage with the Canadian Mortality Data Base. Survival analysis with life-table techniques did not reveal any difference in overall mortality between the exposed and control groups. Analysis of cause-specific mortality showed similar mortality patterns in the two groups; there was no elevation in the exposed group in the frequency of death from leukemia or thyroid cancer, the causes of death most often associated with radiation exposure. Analysis of survival by recorded gamma radiation dose also did not show any effect of radiation dose on mortality. The findings are in agreement with the current scientific literature on the risk of death from exposure to low-dose radiation. PMID:3567765

  18. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Health and Human Services, and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast and... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical screening...

  19. Identification of critical regulatory genes in cancer signaling network using controllability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Vandana; Sunitha, V.; Bagler, Ganesh

    2017-05-01

    Cancer is characterized by a complex web of regulatory mechanisms which makes it difficult to identify features that are central to its control. Molecular integrative models of cancer, generated with the help of data from experimental assays, facilitate use of control theory to probe for ways of controlling the state of such a complex dynamic network. We modeled the human cancer signaling network as a directed graph and analyzed it for its controllability, identification of driver nodes and their characterization. We identified the driver nodes using the maximum matching algorithm and classified them as backbone, peripheral and ordinary based on their role in regulatory interactions and control of the network. We found that the backbone driver nodes were key to driving the regulatory network into cancer phenotype (via mutations) as well as for steering into healthy phenotype (as drug targets). This implies that while backbone genes could lead to cancer by virtue of mutations, they are also therapeutic targets of cancer. Further, based on their impact on the size of the set of driver nodes, genes were characterized as indispensable, dispensable and neutral. Indispensable nodes within backbone of the network emerged as central to regulatory mechanisms of control of cancer. In addition to probing the cancer signaling network from the perspective of control, our findings suggest that indispensable backbone driver nodes could be potentially leveraged as therapeutic targets. This study also illustrates the application of structural controllability for studying the mechanisms underlying the regulation of complex diseases.

  20. Urgent need to strengthen and expand screening and other cancer control programs in the CARICOM Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Renee A; Simeon, Donald T

    2017-11-01

    With high mortality in breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancers in Caribbean Community (CARICOM) countries, we examined cancer control initiatives including screening as well as the implementation of relevant international and regional mandates. Secondary data were used to examine cancer control initiatives, which included the presence of national policies, programs, and screening services as well as the implementation of international and regional mandates. To identify the data, an on-line search was conducted using Google/Google Scholar. Data were available for 14 of the 15 full members of CARICOM. Although only six countries had distinct cancer control policies, strategies or action plans, all 14 had key elements of cancer control programs. Screening services were available in the 14 countries for cervical, in 12 countries for breast and in 11 for colorectal cancer. However, only four countries had screening policies. In addition, screening guidelines were available for cervical cancer in nine countries, in one country for breast and in none for colorectal cancer. Selected tobacco control policies were present in the 14 countries and immunization policies for human papillomavirus (HPV) in 13. Treatment services included chemotherapy in 10 countries and radiotherapy in six. Nine countries had palliative care services for patients with advanced disease. The countries were at different stages of implementation/compliance with international and regional mandates and frameworks. There is an urgent need to develop and implement comprehensive and customized cancer control policies addressing screening programs, treatment and palliative care.

  1. Epidemiology of Oral Cavity Cancers in a Country Located in the Esophageal Cancer Belt: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Saedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As one of the most common cancers among head and neck malignancies, cancer of the oral cavity probably has some variations in countries with a high prevalence of esophageal cancer.  Materials and Methods: Patients with oral cavity cancer who were treated at two tertiary referral centers from January 1999 to January 2009 were included in this study. In addition to demographic data, information regarding personal and family history of head and neck cancer, use of dentures, presence of immune deficiency, consumption of alcohol, and incidence of cigarette smoking was collected. Additionally, a history of opium usage was obtained from the participants in this study. Moreover, an appropriately matched control group was selected for comparisons between the risk factors.   Results: A total of 557 patients were entered into this study over a 10-year period, of whom 219 (39.3% were female and the remaining 338 (60.7% were male. The tongue was the most common site of cancer and 9% of the patients had a history of opium abuse, but more than half of the patients did not have any recognized risk factors. The incidence and stage of cancer had a significant relationship with cigarette smoking (P= 0.013.   Conclusion: Tongue cancer in non-smokers is the predominant pattern of oral cavity cancer in Iran.

  2. Diet and cancer of the prostate: a case-control study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzonou, A; Signorello, L B; Lagiou, P; Wuu, J; Trichopoulos, D; Trichopoulou, A

    1999-03-01

    The nutritional aetiology of prostate cancer was evaluated in Athens, Greece, through a case-control study that included 320 patients with histologically confirmed incident prostate cancer and 246 controls without history or symptomatology of benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer, treated in the same hospital as the cases for minor diseases or conditions. Among major food groups, milk and dairy products as well as added lipids were marginally positively associated with risk for prostate cancer. Among added lipids, seed oils were significantly and butter and margarine non-significantly positively associated with prostate cancer risk, whereas olive oil was unrelated to this risk. Cooked tomatoes and to a lesser extent raw tomatoes were inversely associated with the risk for prostate cancer. In analyses focusing on nutrients, rather than foods, polyunsaturated fats were positively and vitamin E inversely associated with prostate cancer. We conclude that several nutrition-related processes jointly contribute to prostate carcinogenesis.

  3. The Canadian mobile satellite program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, P. M.; Breithaupt, R. W.; McNally, J. L.

    The progressions and selection of design features for the Canadian segment of a mobile satellite (MSAT) communications system are traced. The feasibility study for a satellite-based public and government mobile communications service to underserved areas was carried out between 1980-82. The results covered the market demand, commercial viability, user cost-benefit, and spacecraft concepts. A subsequent 2 yr study was initiated to proceed with project definition. A market of 1.1 million users was identified in all of Canada, with MSAT replacing other systems for 50 percent of the market. Operations would be in the 806-890 MHz range. Traffic will be routed through gateway links functioning in the 8/7 GHz SHF band while the mobile units will be connected through an 821-825 MHz up link and an 866-870 MH downlink. New technologies will be needed for a central control station, the gateway stations, and the base stations for the mobile radio service, the mobile user terminals, and data collection platforms.

  4. Diverticular disease and the risk of colon cancer - a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granlund, J; Svensson, T; Granath, F; Hjern, F; Ekbom, A; Blomqvist, P; Schmidt, P T

    2011-09-01

    Colon cancer and diverticular disease are most common in the Western world and their incidences tend to increase with advancing age. The association between the diseases remains unclear. To analyse the risk of colon cancer after hospitalisation for diverticular disease. Nationwide case-control study. A total of 41,037 patients with colon cancer during 1992-2006, identified from the Swedish Cancer Register were included. Each case was matched with two control subjects. From the Swedish Inpatient Register, cases and control subjects hospitalised for diverticular disease were identified. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals for receiving a diagnosis of colon cancer after hospital discharge for diverticular disease were calculated. Colon cancer mortality was compared between patients with or without diverticular disease. Within 6months after an admission due to diverticular disease, OR of having a colon cancer diagnosis were up to 31.49 (19.00-52.21). After 12 months, there was no increased risk. The number of discharges for diverticular disease did not affect the risk. Colon cancer mortality did not differ between patients with and without diverticular disease. Diverticular disease does not increase the risk of colon cancer in the long term, and a history of diverticular disease does not affect colon cancer mortality. The increased risk of colon cancer within the first 12months after diagnosing diverticular disease is most likely due to surveillance and misclassification. Examination of the colon should be recommended after a primary episode of symptomatic diverticular disease. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Cancer with diabetes: prevalence, metabolic control, and survival in an academic oncology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Nina J; Dueck, Amylou C; Cook, Curtiss B

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, glycemic control, and impact of diabetes on overall survival in an academic oncology practice. Data on cancer patients (1999 to 2008) were retrieved from the institutional cancer registry and linked to electronic files to obtain diabetes status and hemoglobin A1c (A1C) values within the first 6 months of cancer diagnosis. Overall survival by cancer type with and without diabetes was compared using Cox regression. Excluding skin and hematologic malignancies, 15,951 cancer cases were identified. Overall diabetes prevalence was 6.8% (n = 1,090), declining over time (Pcancers (7.6% [68 of 899]). Patients with diabetes were older (mean age, 70 versus 66 years; Pcancer patients was 6.8% and did not differ across cancer types (P = 0.80). Only 58.6% (331 of 565) of diabetic cancer patients had all A1C cancer diagnosis. Pancreatic cancer patients with coexisting diabetes had better overall survival than pancreatic cancer patients without diabetes (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.80; Pcancer patients had worse overall survival than prostate cancer patients without diabetes (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.76; P = 0.02). In this academic oncology practice, diabetes was common, glycemic control often was suboptimal, and survival varied by cancer type. Additional study is needed to optimize glucose management and investigate mechanisms underlying age, sex, and survival differences.

  6. Early pregnancy sex steroids and maternal breast cancer: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Schock, Helena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lehtinen, Matti; Pukkala, Eero; Lakso, Hans-Åke; Tanner, Minna; Kallio, Raija; Joensuu, Heikki; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva; Surcel, Helja-Marja

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy, parity, and circulating steroid hormone levels are associated with risk of breast cancer, but little is known about hormone concentrations during pregnancy and subsequent breast cancer risk. We evaluated early pregnancy (breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study in the Finnish Maternity Cohort. The cohort includes 98% of pregnancies registered in Finland since 1983. Individuals with samples collected in the first pregnancy leading to a live birth were eligible. Breast cancer cases (n = 1,199) were identified through linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry; 2,281 matched controls were selected using incidence density sampling. ORs were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Hormone concentrations were not associated with breast cancer overall. Estradiol was positively associated with risk of breast cancer diagnosed age breast cancer diagnosed at age ≥40 [4th vs. 1st quartile OR 0.71 (0.51-1.00); Ptrend = 0.02]. Elevated concentrations of the steroid hormones were associated with increased risk of estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative tumors in women age pregnancy steroid hormones and risk of ER(-)/PR(-) breast cancer in women diagnosed age breast cancer diagnosed age ≥40. Further research on pregnancy hormones and risk of steroid receptor-negative cancers is needed to further characterize this association. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Tackling cancer control in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Othman, Saleh; Haoudi, Abdelali; Alhomoud, Samar; Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Khoja, Tawfik; Al-Zahrani, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Cancer is a major health problem in both high income and middle-to-low income countries, and is the second leading cause of death in the world. Although more than a third of cancer could be prevented and another third could be cured if diagnosed early, it remains a huge challenge to health-care systems worldwide. Despite substantial improvements in health services some of the countries in the Gulf region, the burden of non-communicable diseases is a major threat, primarily due to the rapid socioeconomic shifts that have led to unfavourable changes in lifestyle such as increased tobacco use, decreased physical activity, and consumption of unhealthy food. In the Gulf Cooperation Council states (United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, and Kuwait), advanced breast cancer, colorectal cancer, leukaemia, thyroid cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphomas are the most common cancers affecting younger populations compared with other countries. By contrast with cancer prevalence in developed countries, prostate, lung, and cervical cancers are not among the most common cancers in the Gulf region. In view of the increased cost of cancer management worldwide, integrated approaches between primary, secondary, and tertiary health-care systems with special focus on prevention and early detection is an essential step in the countries' efforts in the fight against cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Canadian leadership in energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Lee, Chan Wha; Lee, Jeonghee; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Hyeon Suk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although the incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea has rapidly increased over the past decade, few studies have investigated its risk factors. This study examined the risk factors for thyroid cancer in Korean adults. Materials and Methods The study design was a hospital-based case-control study. Between August 2002 and December 2011, a total of 802 thyroid cancer cases out of 34,211 patients screened from the Cancer Screenee. Cohort of the National Cancer Center in South Korea were inc...

  10. Physician Training in Cancer Prevention and Control: A Population Health Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Miranda A; Goodman, Richard A

    2017-12-11

    Cancer is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. Although reducing the number of new cancer cases is a national health goal, the continuing growth of the older adult population ensures that the burden of cancer will increase. Despite documentation of the shortage of oncologists to meet the growing need, relatively limited attention has been focused on increasing the physician workforce trained in the prevention and control of cancer. The existing physician workforce with such specialized training in cancer prevention and control is small, aging, increasing at a low rate, and likely to decrease because of an imbalance between retiring physicians and new entrants. This commentary addresses the imperative for increasing the number of physicians trained in preventive medicine with a specialization in cancer prevention and control by first providing a brief overview of U.S. cancer morbidity and mortality, then describing the status of, and trends in, physician training in cancer prevention and control, and concluding by suggesting opportunities for bolstering physician training in cancer prevention and control. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk of cancer in autoimmune pancreatitis: a case-control study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Phil A; Law, Ryan J; Dierkhising, Ross A; Smyrk, Thomas C; Takahashi, Naoki; Chari, Suresh T

    2014-04-01

    The risk of pancreatic and extrapancreatic cancer in autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has not been systematically evaluated. We compared the risk of malignancy in AIP patients and matched control subjects. We identified 116 subjects with AIP from a prospectively maintained database. From patients evaluated in primary care clinics, we selected 3 control subjects for each AIP patient matched on age, registration date, and sex (n = 344) . Risk for developing cancer after the index date was compared using a stratified Cox model. The proportion of patients diagnosed with cancer before AIP diagnosis (10.3%) was lower than that in the matched control subjects (17.4%). After a median follow-up of over 3 years, the risk of developing cancer after the index date was similar in AIP and control subjects (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-1.51). The 3 most commonly diagnosed malignancies in the AIP group were prostate cancer, lymphoma, and bladder cancer. Cancer risk before and after diagnosis of AIP is similar to that of control subjects. Specifically, there is no increased risk of cancer immediately preceding or following AIP diagnosis. Additional follow-up is needed to determine if there is a cumulative increase in cancer risk in AIP.

  12. Nurse Attitude-Related Barriers to Effective Control of Cancer Pain among Iranian Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Name, Name; Mohamadian, Robab; Rahmani, Azad; Fizollah-Zadeh, Hussein; Jabarzadeh, Franak; Azadi, Arman; Rostami, Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Many cancer patients still experience pain worldwide. There are many barriers for effective control of cancer pain and many of these are related to health care providers. There is a need for further investigation of these barriers. The aim of this study was to investigate nurse-related barriers to control of cancer pain among Iranian nurses. In this descriptive study 49 nurses from two hospitals affiliated to Tabriz and Ardebil Universities of Medical Sciences participated using a census sampling method. A demographic and profession related checklist and Barriers Questionnaire II (BQ-II) were used for data collection. The results showed negative attitudes of participants regarding control of cancer pain. Participants believed that cancer pain medications do not manage cancer pain at acceptable levels; patients may become addicted by using these drugs; cancer pain medications have many uncontrollable effects; and controlling cancer pain may distract the physicians from treating disease. Iranian nurses have negative attitudes toward pain control in cancer patients especially about effectiveness of pain medication and their side effects. Educational intervention to reduce these misconceptions is needed.

  13. Body conformation, diet, and risk of breast cancer in pet dogs: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, E G; Glickman, L T; Goldschmidt, M H; McKee, L J

    1991-04-01

    Canine and human breast cancer share several important clinical and histologic features. A case-control study of nutritional factors and canine breast cancer was conducted at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in 1984-1987 by interviewing owners of 150 pet dogs diagnosed with breast cancer, owners of 147 cancer control dogs, and owners of 131 noncancer control dogs. The risk of breast cancer was significantly reduced in dogs spayed at or before 2.5 years of age. Neither a high-fat diet nor obesity 1 year before diagnosis increased the risk of breast cancer according to multiple logistic regression analysis. However, the risk of breast cancer among spayed dogs was significantly reduced in dogs that had been thin at 9-12 months of age (odds ratio (OR) = 0.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.004-0.4) and OR = 0.04 (95% CI 0.004-0.5) for cases vs. cancer controls and cases vs. noncancer controls, respectively, after adjustment for age at spay). Among intact dogs, the risk associated with being thin at 9-12 months of age was reduced, but not significantly so (OR = 0.60 (95% CI 0.2-1.9) and OR = 0.51 (95% CI 0.2-1.4) for the two comparisons, respectively). Results of this study suggest that nutritional factors operating early in life may be of etiologic importance in canine breast cancer.

  14. Cancer-associated autoantibodies to MUC1 and MUC4--a blinded case–control study of colorectal cancer in UK collaborative trial of ovarian cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johannes W; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Nøstdal, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that autoantibodies directed to aberrantly glycosylated mucins, in particular MUC1 and MUC4, are found in patients with colorectal cancer. There is, however, limited information on the autoantibody levels before clinical diagnosis, and their utility in cancer screening...... of colorectal cancer diagnosis and healthy controls. Subsequently, the selected biomarkers were evaluated in a blinded nested case–control study using stored serum samples from among the 50,640 women randomized to the multimodal arm of the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS), where...... in the general population. In our study, we have generated O-glycosylated synthetic MUC1 and MUC4 peptides in vitro, to mimic cancer-associated glycoforms, and displayed these on microarrays. The assay's performance was tested through an initial screening of serum samples taken from patients at the time...

  15. Health behaviour changes after diagnosis of chronic illness among Canadians aged 50 or older

    OpenAIRE

    Newsom, Jason T.; Huguet, Nathalie; Ramage-Morin, Pamela L.; McCarthy, Michael J.; Bernier, Julie; Kaplan, Mark S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in health behaviours (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and fruit and vegetable consumption) after diagnosis of chronic health conditions (heart disease, cancer, stroke, respiratory disease, and diabetes) were examined among Canadians aged 50 or older. Results from 12 years of longitudinal data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey indicated relatively modest changes in behaviour. Although significant decreases in smoking were observed among all groups exc...

  16. Correlation between familial cancer history and epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in Taiwanese never smokers with non-small cell lung cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Po-Chung; Cheng, Yun-Chung

    2015-03-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. Cigarette smoking remains a prominent risk factor, but lung cancer incidence has been increasing in never smokers. Genetic abnormalities including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations predominate in never smoking lung cancer patients. Furthermore, familial aggregations of patients with these mutations reflect heritable susceptibility to lung cancer. The correlation between familial cancer history and EGFR mutations in never smokers with lung cancer requires investigation. This was a retrospective case-control study that evaluated the prevalence of EGFR mutations in lung cancer patients with familial cancer history. Never smokers with lung cancer treated at a hospital in Taiwan between April 2012 and May 2014 were evaluated. Inclusion criteria were never smokers with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Exclusion criteria involved patients without records of familial cancer history or tumor genotype. This study included 246 never smokers with lung cancer. The study population mainly involved never smoking women with a mean age of 60 years, and the predominant tumor histology was adenocarcinoma. Lung cancer patients with familial cancer history had an increased prevalence of EGFR mutations compared to patients without family history [odds ratio (OR): 5.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.3-10.6; Pnever smoking lung cancer patients with familial cancer history. Moreover, a sizable proportion of never smoking cancer patients harbored these mutations. These observations have implications for the treatment of lung cancer in never smokers.

  17. Diet and oxidative stress in breast, colon and prostate cancer patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, E; Bartsch, H; Béréziat, J C; Camus, A M; McClinton, S; Eremin, O; Davidson, L; Boyle, P

    1994-08-01

    To study the changes in pro-oxidant-antioxidant status in breast, colon and prostate cancer patients as compared to respective controls. Cross-sectional case-control study. The pro-oxidant status was measured by analysing alkanes (ethane and pentane) in exhaled air and lipid peroxidation (as malonaldehyde) in blood samples. The antioxidant capacity was measured by studying blood glutathione concentration, vitamin concentrations and serum antioxidant capacity in liposomes in vitro. Aberdeen hospitals. Breast, prostate and colon cancer cases, and age- and sex-matched control patients (hospitalized for a benign disease). Breast cancer patients were females, prostate cancer patients were males and colon cancer patients were both males and females. Controls were age-matched to within 5 years, sex-matched and matched for smoking habits. The dietary study suggested a higher monoene and polyene fat intake in prostate cancer than in controls while in other cancer patients no significant differences were found. Breast and colon cancer patients tended to have lower vitamin intakes than controls. Pentane concentration in exhaled air increased in breast cancer patients as compared to respective controls. In serum total antioxidant capacity no significant differences were found. Both breast and colon cancer patients showed decreased C18:2 and C20:4 fatty acid concentrations in red blood cells while C22:6 concentration was elevated in breast cancer patients. Oxidative stress may be associated with malignant diseases, suggesting the importance of simultaneous analysis of pro- and antioxidation in the search of mechanistic parameters leading to the tumour formation.

  18. Effect of glycemic control on the risk of pancreatic cancer: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Kian-Ching; Hsu, Chen-Yang; Lee, Yi-Kung; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Su, Yung-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Although the relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer has been studied, the effects of glycemic control on pancreatic cancer have never been evaluated. This study investigates the relationship between glycemic control and pancreatic cancer.Data from 1 million National Health Insurance beneficiaries were screened. The study cohort consisted of 46,973 diabetic patients and 652,142 nondiabetic subjects. Of the patients with diabetes, 1114 who had been admitted for hyperglycemic crisis episodes were defined as having poorly controlled diabetes. All adult beneficiaries were followed from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2013, to determine whether pancreatic cancer was diagnosed. The Cox regression model was applied to compare the adjusted hazards for potential confounders.After controlling for age, sex, urbanization level, socioeconomic status, chronic liver disease, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, malignancies, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity, history of alcohol intoxication, chronic renal insufficiency, biliary tract disease, chronic pancreatitis, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and high-dimensional propensity score, the adjusted hazard ratio of pancreatic cancer was 2.53 (95% confidence interval 1.96-3.26) in patients with diabetes. In diabetic patients with poor glycemic control, the hazard ratio of pancreatic cancer was significantly higher (hazard ratio 3.61, 95% confidence interval 1.34-9.78).This cohort study reveals a possible relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer. Moreover, poorly controlled diabetes may be associated with a higher possibility of pancreatic cancer.

  19. Hand-in-Hand. Psychological Intervention for Women Newly Diagnosed with Cancer and their Partners. A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Anne; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Mariet, Hagedoorn,

    Hand-in-Hand. Psychological Intervention for Women Newly Diagnosed with Cancer and their Partners. A Randomized Controlled Trial.......Hand-in-Hand. Psychological Intervention for Women Newly Diagnosed with Cancer and their Partners. A Randomized Controlled Trial....

  20. Hand-in-Hand. Psychological Intervention for Women Newly Diagnosed with Cancer and their Partners. A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Anne; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Hariet, Hagedoorn,

    Hand-in-Hand. Psychological Intervention for Women Newly Diagnosed with Cancer and their Partners. A Randomized Controlled Trial......Hand-in-Hand. Psychological Intervention for Women Newly Diagnosed with Cancer and their Partners. A Randomized Controlled Trial...

  1. Bone Marrow Microenvironmental Control of Prostate Cancer Skeletal Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    implicate PTHrP derived from prostate cancer in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer metastasis to bone. This aspect of the project is complete...presented initial findings as an invited speaker at the Cancer Induced Bone Disease meeting in Chicago (abstract appended). There was a statistically...Affiliations: 1 Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, the University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI; 2 Departments of

  2. Canadian synthetic resins industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margeson, J. [Industry Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    The growth of the synthetic resin industry in Canada is described. In 1999 the industry had shipments totalling $6.3 billion and employed about 9,000 people in 105 establishments. The industry is concentrated in Alberta, Ontario and Quebec. Plants in Alberta produce commodity-grade thermoplastic resins from raw materials derived mainly from natural gas, whereas plants in Ontario and Quebec produce both thermoplastic and thermoset resins using raw materials derived from both crude oil and natural gas. Sixty-four per cent of the synthetic reins produced in Canada, worth about $4.1 billion, are exported. This is offset by imports of 68 per cent of domestic consumption, (valued at $5.0 billion) reflecting rationalization and specialization of the resin industry on a continental basis. Process and product technologies used in Canada are up-to-date and licensed from parent or other foreign chemical companies. Capital investment in the Canadian resin industry is lagging behind investment in the United States, however, this is expected to change once the impact of recent investments in the industry in Alberta is reflected in the statistics. A five to seven per cent real average annual growth in world-wide consumption is predicted over the next five years. Growth in North America is projected to be in the three to four per cent range. The Alberta-based component of the industry, being relatively new, is expected to improve its ability to compete globally in commodity thermoplastics. In contrast, the plants in Ontario and Quebec suffer from the fact that they were built prior to the Free Trade Agreement and were designed to satisfy domestic requirements. They are attempting to compensate for their lack of economics of scale by developing strategies to supply niche products. 8 figs.

  3. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK, Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and pathology data was centrally reported at the National Cancer Hospital of Vietnam, in Hanoi. Results. Our analysis included 294 matched pairs. Mean age at diagnosis was 46.7 years. Lower mean parity, older age at first parity, increasing weight and BMI at age 18, and increasing BMI at diagnosis were positively correlated with breast cancer cases compared to controls. Age at first menarche and duration of breastfeeding were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions. In this study we demonstrate that breast cancer in Vietnam is associated with some but not all of the published risk factors from Western populations. Our data is consistent with other studies of breast cancer in Asian populations.

  4. [Colonoscopy quality control as a requirement of colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Enrique; Alarcón-Fernández, Onofre; Jover, Rodrigo

    2013-11-01

    The strategies used in population-based colorectal screening strategies culminate in colonoscopy and consequently the success of these programs largely depends on the quality of this diagnostic test. The main factors to consider when evaluating quality are scientific-technical quality, safety, patient satisfaction, and accessibility. Quality indicators allow variability among hospitals, endoscopy units and endoscopists to be determined and can identify those not achieving recommended standards. In Spain, the working group for colonoscopy quality of the Spanish Society of Gastroenterology and the Spanish Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy have recently drawn up a Clinical Practice Guideline that contains the available evidence on the quality of screening colonoscopy, as well as the basic requirements that must be met by endoscopy units and endoscopists carrying out this procedure. The implementation of training programs and screening colonoscopy quality controls are strongly recommended to guarantee the success of population-based colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  5. Replication of Prostate Cancer Risk Variants in a Danish Case-Control Association Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, Diem Nguyen; Nyegaard, Mette; Børglum, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is one of the main causes for cancer morbidity and mortality in Western countries. Recently, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with prostate cancer have been identified in genome-wide association studies and multiple variant models have been...... developed to predict prostate cancer risk. The association between genetic markers and clinico-pathological tumor variables has, however, been inconsistent. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 previously identified prostate cancer-associated risk SNPs were genotyped in 648 prostate cancer cases and 526 age...... assays and associations between SNPs, prostate cancer risk, and clinico-pathological variables were assessed. Results: Seventeen SNPs were successfully replicated in our case-control study and the association estimates were consistent with previous reports. Four markers were excluded from further...

  6. Cancer-related information needs and cancer’s impact on control over life influence health-related quality of life among adolescents and young adults with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, Mindy C.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Tao, Li; Bellizzi, Keith M.; Lynch, Charles F.; Parsons, Helen M.; Kent, Erin E.; Keegan, Theresa H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with cancer between 15 and 39 years of age often report need for greater amounts of cancer-related information and perceive that cancer has had a negative impact on control over their life. We examined whether unmet information need and perceived control over life are associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods We examined data from 484 AYA cancer survivors recruited from population-based cancer registries in 2007–2008. Participants completed surveys a median of 11 months after diagnosis. Multivariable linear regression analyses estimated associations of unmet cancer-related information needs and impact of cancer on control over life on HRQOL (SF-12). Results Two-thirds of AYAs reported an intermediate or high level of unmet information need, and half (47%) reported a negative impact of cancer on control. Greater unmet information need was associated with lower overall mental and physical HRQOL and lower levels of all HRQOL subscales except vitality. A negative impact on control over life was associated with lower overall mental HRQOL as well as lower HRQOL across all subscales (all p 0.1). Conclusions AYA patients with cancer have high levels of unmet cancer-related information needs and perceived negative impact of cancer on control over life; both were independently associated with lower HRQOL. Addressing unmet information needs among AYA cancer survivors and finding ways to increase their sense of control may help improve HRQOL in this understudied population. PMID:25611943

  7. Lung cancer and arsenic exposure in drinking water: a case-control study in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreccio Catterina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In some Chilean cities, levels of arsenic (As in drinking water reached 800 µg/L between 1950 and 1970, while current levels are 40 µg/L. To evaluate the causal role of this exposure in lung and bladder cancers, we conducted a case-control study in Regions I, II, and III of the country. From 1994 to 1996, cases diagnosed as lung cancer and two hospital controls were entered in the study; one control was a patient with a cancer, while the other was a patient without cancer, both conditions unrelated to As. Controls were matched with cases by age and sex. A standard survey containing questions about residence, employment, health history, was administered to study subjects. Data on As concentrations in water were obtained from records of the municipal water companies. A total of 151 lung cancer cases and 419 controls (167 with cancer and 242 without cancer were enrolled. Median level of lifetime As exposure was significantly higher among cases, with a clear dose-response relationship between mean As exposure levels, with an OR (95% CI of: 1, 1.7 (0.5-5.1, 3.9 (1.2-13.4, 5.5 (2.2-13.5, and 9.0 (3.6-22 for strata one to five respectively. This study provides new evidence that As in drinking water can cause internal cancers and gives an estimate of the form of this relationship.

  8. 78 FR 20213 - National Cancer Control Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... and women we have lost to the disease, and let us stand with all those facing it today. The Congress... Americans lose their lives to cancer every year. This month, we rededicate ourselves to securing better... efforts to prevent it. Each of us can reduce our risk of developing cancer by maintaining a healthy weight...

  9. Health Behaviors and Associated Sociodemographic Factors in Cervical Cancer Survivors Compared with Matched Non-Cancer Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Kim, Se Ik; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Park, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Myong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    We explored the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors and examined associations between sociodemographic factors and each health behavior. We studied 448 cervical cancer survivors ≥2 years after their initial diagnosis who had completed treatment. The total sample consisted of these survivors, and 4,480 cancer-free controls who were grouped into 5-year age cohorts and matched to the survivors in terms of both education and monthly household income. The prevalence of current smoking, current alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors (2.68, 23.88, 62.02, and 32.81%, respectively) did not differ significantly from those of matched non-cancer controls. Age (younger), marital status (married), and education (≥college) were associated with lower probabilities of current alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.88-0.95; OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23-0.78; OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.25-0.97, respectively). A monthly household income ≥$2,000, being employed, and self-rated health status (less healthy) were associated with physical inactivity (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37-0.99; OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.36-3.42; OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.23-3.05, respectively). Both age and number of years since diagnosis were associated with obesity (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.08; OR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.20-0.72, respectively). The health behaviors of cervical cancer survivors did not differ from those of matched cancer-free controls. As health behaviors are modifiable, identification of cervical cancer survivors who are at risk of an unhealthy lifestyle would allow individual- and population-based intervention programs to more effectively use their limited resources.

  10. Statin use and risk of endometrial cancer: a nationwide registry-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Cecilie D; Verdoodt, Freija; Friis, Søren; Dehlendorff, Christian; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2017-02-01

    Laboratory and epidemiological evidence have suggested that statin use may protect against the development of certain cancers, including endometrial cancer. In a nationwide registry-based case-control study, we examined the association between statin use and risk of endometrial cancer. Cases were female residents of Denmark with a primary diagnosis of endometrial cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected 15 female population controls matched on date of birth (±one month) using risk-set sampling. Ever use of statin was defined as two or more prescriptions on separate dates. Conditional logistic regressions were used to estimate age-matched (by design) and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for endometrial cancer associated with statin use. The multivariable-adjusted models included parity, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), obesity, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and education. We evaluated whether the association between statin use and endometrial cancer varied with duration and intensity of statin use, type of endometrial cancer or patient characteristics. The study population comprised 5382 endometrial cancer cases and 72 127 population controls. We observed no association between ever use of statins and endometrial cancer risk (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.94-1.14). In addition, endometrial cancer risk did not vary substantially with duration or intensity of statin use. Stratification by type of endometrial cancer also yielded neutral ORs. In our nationwide case-control study, we found no association between statin use and risk of endometrial cancer. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Dietary inflammatory index and risk of pancreatic cancer in an Italian case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Shivappa, Nitin; Bosetti, Cristina; Zucchetto, Antonella; Serraino, Diego; La Vecchia, Carlo; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that various dietary components may be implicated in the aetiology of pancreatic cancer. However, the possible relationship between diet-related inflammation and the risk of pancreatic cancer has not yet been investigated. We examined the ability of a newly developed literature-derived dietary inflammatory index (DII) to predict the risk of pancreatic cancer in a case–control study conducted in Italy between 1991 and 2008. This included 326 incident cases and 652 c...

  12. Pain and dyspnea control in cancer patients of an urgency setting: nursing intervention results

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Ana Filipa Nunes; Tavares, Ana Patricia Marques; Mendonça, Susana Maria Sobral

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To outline best practices guidelines to control pain and dyspnea of cancer patients in an urgency setting. CONTENTS: PI[C]O question, with resource to EBSCO (Medline with Full Text, CINAHL, Plus with Full Text, British Nursing Index), retrospectively from September 2009 to 2014 and guidelines issued by reference entities: Oncology Nursing Society (2011), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (2011; 2014) and Cancer Care Ontario (2010), with a total of 15 ...

  13. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  14. Does the use of the revised psychosocial assessment tool (PATrev) result in improved quality of life and reduced psychosocial risk in Canadian families with a child newly diagnosed with cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, M; Hancock, K; Rokeach, A; Atenafu, E; Cataudella, D; Punnett, A; Johnston, D; Cassidy, M; Zelcer, S; Silva, M; Jansen, P; Bartels, U; Nathan, P C; Shama, W; Greenberg, C

    2014-02-01

    Early psychosocial screening may guide interventions and ameliorate the adverse psychosocial effects of childhood cancer. The revised psychosocial assessment tool provides risk information - Universal (typical distress), Targeted (additional specific distress), and Clinical (severe distress) - about the child with cancer and his or her family. This pilot study investigated the benefits of providing a summary of family psychosocial risk information to the medical team treating the newly diagnosed child (Experimental Group, EG). We conducted a pilot randomized control trial with a sample of 67 parents, comparing the EG to the control group (CG) on parental perception of family psychosocial difficulties (revised psychosocial assessment tool risk levels), child behavior (behavior assessment scale for children-2), pediatric quality of life (PedsQL), and parental anxiety (state-anxiety scale of the state-trait anxiety inventory ), 2-4 weeks after diagnosis (Time 1) and 6 months later (Time 2). Compared to the CG, participants in the EG had significantly reduced targeted and clinical risk (p life related to pain for children who are undergoing treatment for cancer. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and cancer risk: a network of case-control studies from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Marta; Bosetti, Cristina; Negri, Eva; Lagiou, Pagona; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    We considered flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in a network of multicentric Italian case-control studies including about 10,000 incident, histologically confirmed cases of selected cancers and over 16,000 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) for the highest vs. the lowest quintile of 6 classes of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins were estimated by multiple logistic regression models. Total flavonoids, flavanones, and flavonols were inversely related to oral and laryngeal cancers (ORs, respectively 0.56 and 0.60 for total flavonoids; 0.51 and 0.60 for flavanones; and 0.62 and 0.32 for flavonols). Flavanols were also inversely related to laryngeal cancer (OR = 0.64), whereas flavanones were inversely related to esophageal cancer (OR = 0.38). A reduced risk of colorectal cancer was found for high intake of anthocyanidins (OR = 0.67), flavonols (OR = 0.64), flavones (OR = 0.78), and isoflavones (OR = 0.76). Inverse relations with breast cancer were found for flavones (OR = 0.81) and flavonols (OR = 0.80). Flavonols (OR = 0.63) and isoflavones (OR = 0.51) were inversely associated to ovarian cancer, whereas flavonols (OR = 0.69) and flavones (OR = 0.68) were inversely associated to renal cancer. No association between flavonoids and prostate cancer emerged. We found inverse associations between proanthocyanidins and colorectal cancer. These associations appeared stronger for proanthocyanidins with a higher degree of polymerization (OR = 0.69 for ≥ 10 mers).

  16. Nutrient dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Francesca; Edefonti, Valeria; Bosetti, Cristina; Talamini, Renato; Montella, Maurizio; Giacosa, Attilio; Franceschi, Silvia; Negri, Eva; Ferraroni, Monica; La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano

    2010-11-01

    The role of diet on colorectal cancer has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns. Data were derived from an Italian case-control study, including 1,225 subjects with cancer of the colon, 728 subjects with rectal cancer, and 4,154 hospital controls. We identified dietary patterns on a selected set of nutrients through principal component factor analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for both cancers were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression. We identified 5 major dietary patterns. Direct associations were observed between the Starch-rich pattern and both cancer of the colon (OR = 1.68) and of the rectum (OR = 1.74). Inverse relationships were found between the Vitamins and fiber pattern and rectal cancer (OR = 0.61), between the Unsaturated fats (animal source) and the Unsaturated fats (vegetable source) and cancer of the colon (OR = 0.80 and OR = 0.79, respectively). No other significant association was found. The Starch-rich pattern is potentially an unfavorable indicator of risk for both colon and rectal cancer, whereas the Vitamins and fiber pattern is associated with a reduced risk of rectal cancer and the Unsaturated fats patterns with a reduced risk of colon cancer.

  17. Well-directed inclusion of hematology in African national cancer control plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Meaghann; Yao, Atteby J J; Renner, Lorna; Harif, Mhamed; Lam, Catherine G

    2017-07-01

    In the context of a convergent call for noncommunicable disease integration in the global agenda, recognizing cross-cutting needs and opportunities in national strategies across disease fields with shared priorities in low- and middle-income settings can enhance sustainable development approaches. We reviewed publicly available cancer control plans in Africa to evaluate for inclusion of hematology needs and shared service priorities. Pediatric data remain sparse in cancer control plans. While continental Africa represents incredible diversity, recognizing shared priorities and opportunity for collaboration between oncology and hematology services and across age groups may guide prioritized cancer control efforts and reduce programmatic redundancies in resource-limited settings. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sabroe, Svend

    2004-01-01

    about occupational, medical and life style conditions. RESULTS: No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure...

  19. Lung cancer and occupation: A New Zealand cancer registry-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Marine; McLean, David; Mannetje, Andrea 't; Dryson, Evan; Walls, Chris; McKenzie, Fiona; Maule, Milena; Cheng, Soo; Cunningham, Chris; Kromhout, Hans; Blair, Aaron; Pearce, Neil

    2011-02-01

    There are many proven and suspected occupational causes of lung cancer, which will become relatively more important over time, as smoking prevalence decreases. We interviewed 457 cases aged 20-75 years notified to the New Zealand Cancer Registry during 2007-2008, and 792 population controls. We collected information on demographic details, potential confounders, and employment history. Associations were estimated using logistic regression adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, smoking, and socio-economic status. Among occupations of a priori interest, elevated odds ratios (ORs) were observed for sawmill, wood panel and related wood-processing plant operators (OR 4.63; 95% CI 1.05-20.29), butchers (OR 8.77, 95% CI 1.06-72.55), rubber and plastics products machine operators (4.27; 1.16-15.66), heavy truck drivers (2.24; 1.19-4.21) and workers in petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (1.80; 1.11-2.90); non-significantly elevated risks were also observed for loggers (4.67; 0.81-27.03), welders and flame-cutters (2.50; 0.86-7.25), pressers (5.74; 0.96-34.42), and electric and electronic equipment assemblers (3.61; 0.96-13.57). Several occupations and industries not of a priori interest also showed increased risks, including nursing associate professionals (5.45; 2.29-12.99), enrolled nurses (7.95; 3.10-20.42), care givers (3.47; 1.40-8.59), plant and machine operators and assemblers (1.61; 1.20-2.16), stationary machine operators and assemblers (1.67; 1.22-2.28), food and related products processing machine operators (1.98; 1.23-3.19), laborers and related elementary service workers (1.45; 1.05-2.00), manufacturing (1.34; 1.02-1.77), car retailing (3.08; 1.36-6.94), and road freight transport (3.02; 1.45-6.27). Certain occupations and industries have increased lung cancer risks in New Zealand, including wood workers, metal workers, meat workers, textile workers and drivers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 54:89-101, 2011. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright

  20. Patient-driven hand hygiene audit process at a regional cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bow, E J; Bourrier, V; Trudel, J; Kostiuk, N; McLeod, J M

    2017-07-24

    A patient-driven hand hygiene compliance audit strategy was piloted in a Canadian provincial cancer agency during routine provision of cancer outpatient care by health care providers (physicians, nurses, and health care aides) under conditions where the deployment of an independent external auditor was not feasible. The results of the audit suggest the feasibility of this approach as a routine institutional performance metric. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate cancer Lung cancer Colorectal cancer In US women, other than skin cancer the three most common cancers are: Breast cancer Lung cancer Colorectal cancer Some cancers are more common in certain parts of the world. For example, in Japan, there are many cases of stomach cancer . But ...

  2. Daily smoking and lower back pain in adult Canadians: the Canadian Community Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Alkherayf

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Fahad Alkherayf1,2,3, Eugene K Wai4,5,6, Eve C Tsai1,3,4,6, Charles Agbi1,3,41University of Ottawa, Division of Neurosurgery, Ottawa, Ontario; 2University of Ottawa, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Ottawa, Ontario; 3The Ottawa Hospital, Civic campus, Division of Neurosurgery, Ottawa, Ontario; 4The Ottawa Hospital, Civic Campus, Spine Unit Ottawa, Ontario; 5The Ottawa Hospital, Civic Campus, Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Ottawa, Ontario; 6The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Lower back pain (LBP is one of the primary causes of disability in the Canadian community. However, only a limited number of studies have addressed the association between daily smoking and LBP in Canada. Of the studies that have explored this association, many had small sample sizes and failed to control for confounders.Objective: The primary objective of the study was to determine if daily smoking is associated with an increased risk of having LBP. The secondary objectives were to assess the risk for LBP among occasional smokers and to determine the prevalence of LBP in relation to different covariates.Data and study design: Using the Canadian Community Health Survey (cycle 3.1 data, 73,507 Canadians between the ages of 20 and 59 years were identified. LBP status, smoking level, sex, age, body mass index (BMI, level of activity and level of education were assessed in these subjects.Methods: Stratified analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to detect effect modifications and to adjust for covariates. Population weight and design were taken into consideration.Results: The prevalence of LBP was 23.3% among daily smokers and 15.7% among non-smokers. Age and sex were found to be effect modifiers. The association between LBP and daily smoking was statistically significant in all ages and genders; this association was stronger for younger age groups. The adjusted odds ratio for male daily smokers aged 20 to 29 was 1.87 (95

  3. Second Primary Tumors associated with Breast Cancer: Kuwait Cancer Control Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayaz, Salah; Demian, Gerges Attia; Eissa, Heba El-Sayed; Abuzalouf, Sadeq

    2017-09-01

    To review the clinico-epidemiologic characteristics of patients who presented with two or more primary cancers, one of which was breast cancer (BC) and to develop a follow-up program for the high risk patients. Patients who were diagnosed with BC and one or more non breast cancer (NBC) were retrospectively reviewed. Medical files were retrieved and epidemiological as well as clinical data were analyzed. Sixty-two patients were retrieved. BC was the first primary in 26 patients while it was the second in 36 patients. Two were males and 60 were females. The median age was 48 years and the median follow-up was 11.5 years. The median interval between the 1st and 2nd primary was 6 years. The most commonly associated NBCs were colon and thyroid cancers, each accounts for 24% of cases followed by endometrial cancer, 18%; Hodgkin's disease, 6.5%; renal and ovarian neoplasm and NHL, 5% each. Others included prostate, lung, cervical and gastric cancers, soft tissue sarcoma and osteosarcoma. Thyroid cancer was more common as first cancer while endometrial cancer was more as second cancer. All patients who developed BC following Hodgkin's disease had received chest irradiation. Seven patients developed 3rd primary (4 lung cancers, 2 NHL, and 1 AML). Patients who were diagnosed with BC should be screened for colon and endometrial cancer. Similarly, patients received chest irradiation at young age, and those diagnosed with thyroid or colon cancer should be screened for BC. Protocol of surveillance needs to be defined. Genetic counseling should be offered to individuals who have experienced multiple primary cancers particularly those with family history and young age of onset.

  4. Transnational archives: the Canadian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Creet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.

  5. A case-control study of risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaem Maghami Noori F

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is second prevalent cancer among gynecologic malignancies and the most common type of ovarian cancer is epithelial form (85-90 percent. To detect the risk factors for the epithelial ovarian cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Valieasr hospital in 1988. In this study, 118 cases with epithelial ovarian cancer (according histological records and 240 controls without any gynecological cancer in gynecologic clinic had been interviewed. For data analysis, T-test, Chi2 test and logistic regression have been used at a =0.05 as level of significance. The mean age in cases was 50±13 and in controls was 49.9±12 years, without significant different. The mean number of pregnancies and parity in cases was less than controls, significantly (P<0.03. The mean months of breast feeding in cases was less than controls (54.9±71.2 versus 82.4±62.7 (P<0.001. The cases had a lower mean age of menarch than controls (P=0.03. 58 percent of cases and 21.3 percent of controls hadn't used any contraception methods (P=0.00001. The mean years of contraception was significantly less in cases versus controls (P<0.001. The odds ratio for epithelial ovarian cancer was 0.24 (95 percent CI: 0.13-0.48 in OCP users, 0.47 (95 percent CI: 0.005-0.43 in TL method, and was 0.41 (95 percent CI: 0.22-0.76 in other contraception methods, relative to women who hadn't used any contraception methods. This study reveals that epithelial ovarian cancer risk increases significantly with earlier menarch, decreasing number of pregnancy, deliveries duration of breast feeding and use of contraception methods. Use of contraception pill and tubal ligation method decreases risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  6. Intensive glucose control and risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefansdottir, G.; Zoungas, S.; Chalmers, J.; Kengne, A. P.; Knol, M. J.; Leufkens, H. G. M.; Patel, A.; Woodward, M.; Grobbee, D. E.; De Bruin, M. L.

    Type 2 diabetes has been associated with an increased risk of cancer. This study examines the effect of more vs less intensive glucose control on the risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes. All 11,140 participants from the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron-MR

  7. Smoking and cervical cancer: pooled analysis of the IARC multi-centric case--control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plummer, M; Herrero, R; Franceschi, S; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Snijders, P.J.F.; Bosch, F.X.; Sanjose, de S; Munoz, N.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking has long been suspected to be a risk factor for cervical cancer. However, not all previous studies have properly controlled for the effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which has now been established as a virtually necessary cause of cervical cancer. To evaluate the

  8. Intensive glucose control and risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansdottir, G; Zoungas, S; Chalmers, J

    2011-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes has been associated with an increased risk of cancer. This study examines the effect of more vs less intensive glucose control on the risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: All 11,140 participants from the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease...

  9. Inhibition of non flux-controlling enzymes deters cancer glycolysis by accumulation of regulatory metabolites of controlling steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Marín-Hernández

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycolysis provides precursors for the synthesis of macromolecules and may contribute to the ATP supply required for the constant and accelerated cellular duplication in cancer cells. In consequence, inhibition of glycolysis has been reiteratively considered as an anti-cancer therapeutic option. In previous studies, kinetic modeling of glycolysis in cancer cells allowed the identification of the main steps that control the glycolytic flux: glucose transporter, hexokinase (HK, hexose phosphate isomerase (HPI and glycogen degradation in human cervix HeLa cancer cells and rat AS-30D ascites hepatocarcinoma. It was also previously experimentally determined that simultaneous inhibition of the non-controlling enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, pyruvate kinase (PYK and enolase (ENO brings about significant decrease in the glycolytic flux of cancer cells and accumulation of intermediate metabolites, mainly fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (Fru1,6BP and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP, which are inhibitors of HK and HPI, respectively. Here it was found by kinetic modeling that inhibition of cancer glycolysis can be attained by blocking downstream non flux-controlling steps as long as Fru1,6BP and DHAP, regulatory metabolites of flux-controlling enzymes, are accumulated. Furthermore, experimental results and further modeling showed that oxamate and iodoacetate inhibitions of PYK, ENO and glyceraldehyde3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, but not of LDH and phosphoglycerate kinase, induced accumulation of Fru1,6BP and DHAP in AS-30D hepatoma cells. Indeed, PYK, ENO and GAPDH exerted the highest control on the Fru1,6BP and DHAP concentrations. The high levels of these metabolites inhibited HK and HPI and led to glycolytic flux inhibition, ATP diminution and accumulation of toxic methylglyoxal. Hence, the anticancer effects of downstream glycolytic inhibitors are very likely mediated by this mechanism. In parallel, it was also found that uncompetitive inhibition of

  10. Inhibition of Non-flux-Controlling Enzymes Deters Cancer Glycolysis by Accumulation of Regulatory Metabolites of Controlling Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Hernández, Álvaro; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S; Del Mazo-Monsalvo, Isis; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Glycolysis provides precursors for the synthesis of macromolecules and may contribute to the ATP supply required for the constant and accelerated cellular duplication in cancer cells. In consequence, inhibition of glycolysis has been reiteratively considered as an anti-cancer therapeutic option. In previous studies, kinetic modeling of glycolysis in cancer cells allowed the identification of the main steps that control the glycolytic flux: glucose transporter, hexokinase (HK), hexose phosphate isomerase (HPI), and glycogen degradation in human cervix HeLa cancer cells and rat AS-30D ascites hepatocarcinoma. It was also previously experimentally determined that simultaneous inhibition of the non-controlling enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), pyruvate kinase (PYK), and enolase (ENO) brings about significant decrease in the glycolytic flux of cancer cells and accumulation of intermediate metabolites, mainly fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (Fru1,6BP), and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), which are inhibitors of HK and HPI, respectively. Here it was found by kinetic modeling that inhibition of cancer glycolysis can be attained by blocking downstream non flux-controlling steps as long as Fru1,6BP and DHAP, regulatory metabolites of flux-controlling enzymes, are accumulated. Furthermore, experimental results and further modeling showed that oxamate and iodoacetate inhibitions of PYK, ENO, and glyceraldehyde3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), but not of LDH and phosphoglycerate kinase, induced accumulation of Fru1,6BP and DHAP in AS-30D hepatoma cells. Indeed, PYK, ENO, and GAPDH exerted the highest control on the Fru1,6BP and DHAP concentrations. The high levels of these metabolites inhibited HK and HPI and led to glycolytic flux inhibition, ATP diminution, and accumulation of toxic methylglyoxal. Hence, the anticancer effects of downstream glycolytic inhibitors are very likely mediated by this mechanism. In parallel, it was also found that uncompetitive inhibition of the

  11. Canadian Children's Literature: An Alberta Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Carbonaro, Mike; Green, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an online survey administered to Alberta elementary school teachers in 2000-2001. The survey explored the teachers' knowledge and use of Canadian children's literature and their thoughts about the role of Canadian literature in elementary school classrooms. Canadian children's trade books espouse particular…

  12. Control of HPV infection and related cancer through vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nam Phuong; Hung, Chien-Fu; Roden, Richard; Wu, T-C

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted virus, and its associated diseases continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in over 600 million infected individuals. Major progress has been made with preventative vaccines, and clinical data have emerged regarding the efficacy and cross-reactivity of the two FDA approved L1 virus like particle (VLP)-based vaccines. However, the cost of the approved vaccines currently limits their widespread use in developing countries which carry the greatest burden of HPV-associated diseases. Furthermore, the licensed preventive HPV vaccines only contain two high-risk types of HPV (HPV-16 and HPV-18) which can protect only up to 75 % of all cervical cancers. Thus, second generation preventative vaccine candidates hope to address the issues of cost and broaden protection through the use of more multivalent L1-VLPs, vaccine formulations, or alternative antigens such as L1 capsomers, L2 capsid proteins, and chimeric VLPs. Preventative vaccines are crucial to controlling the transmission of HPV, but there are already hundreds of millions of infected individuals who have HPV-associated lesions that are silently progressing toward malignancy. This raises the need for therapeutic HPV vaccines that can trigger T cell killing of established HPV lesions, including HPV-transformed tumor cells. In order to stimulate such antitumor immune responses, therapeutic vaccine candidates deliver HPV antigens in vivo by employing various bacterial, viral, protein, peptide, dendritic cell, and DNA-based vectors. This book chapter will review the commercially available preventive vaccines, present second generation candidates, and discuss the progress of developing therapeutic HPV vaccines.

  13. Protocol of a randomized controlled trial of the fear of recurrence therapy (FORT) intervention for women with breast or gynecological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Christine; Lebel, Sophie; Courbasson, Christine; Lefebvre, Monique; Singh, Mina; Bernstein, Lori J; Muraca, Linda; Benea, Aronela; Jolicoeur, Lynne; Harris, Cheryl; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Ferguson, Sarah; Sidani, Souraya

    2016-04-25

    Clinically significant levels of fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) affect up to 49% of cancer survivors and are more prevalent among women. FCR is associated with psychological distress, lower quality of life, and increased use of medical resources. Despite its prevalence, FCR is poorly addressed in clinical care. To address this problem, we first developed, and pilot tested a 6-week, 2 h, Cognitive-existential group intervention therapy that targeted FCR in survivors of breast or gynecological cancer. Following the positive outcome of the pilot, we are now testing this approach in a randomized clinical trial (RCT). Goal and hypotheses: This multicenter, prospective RCT aims to test the efficacy of the intervention. The study hypotheses are that, compared to a control group, cancer survivors participating in the intervention (1) will have less FCR, (2) will show more favorable outcomes on the following measures: cancer-specific distress, quality of life, illness uncertainty, intolerance of uncertainty, perceived risk of cancer recurrence, and coping skills. We further postulate that the between-group differences will persist three and 6 months post-intervention. Sixteen groups of seven to nine women are being allocated to the intervention or the control group. The control group receives a 6-week, 2 h, structurally equivalent support group. We are recruiting 144 cancer survivors from four hospital sites in three Canadian cities. The sample size was based on the moderate pre/post-test changes found in our pilot study and adjusted to the drop-out rates. The primary outcome, FCR, is measured by the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory. Secondary outcomes measured include cancer-specific distress, perceived risk of cancer recurrence, illness uncertainty, intolerance of uncertainty, coping, and quality of life. We use reliable and recognized valid scales. Participants are to complete the questionnaire package at four times: before the first group session (baseline

  14. Long-term quality of life after breast cancer: a French registry-based controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Delphine; Mercier, Mariette; Abeilard, Edwige; Puyraveau, Marc; Danzon, Arlette; Dalstein, Véronique; Pozet, Astrid; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Henry-Amar, Michel; Velten, Michel

    2011-08-01

    Population-based studies on quality of life (QOL) of long-term breast cancer survivors are quite recent and insufficient attention has been paid to the effect of time since diagnosis. We compared long-term QOL of population-based breast cancer survivors 5, 10, and 15 years after diagnosis with that of healthy controls. Breast cancer survivors were randomly selected from three population-based cancer registries (Bas-Rhin, Calvados and Doubs, France) along with healthy controls, stratified for age and place of residence, randomly selected from electoral rolls. Participants completed five self-administered questionnaires: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), Short Form-36 (SF-36), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) and a life conditions questionnaire. An analysis of variance was used to compare QOL scores of breast cancer survivors by period (5, 10, or 15 years) of diagnosis with those of controls, adjusted for sociodemographic data and comorbidities. Six hundred and fifty-two cases and 1,188 controls participated in the study. For many QOL scales, scores were significantly different between cancer survivors and controls. A clinically significant difference was evidenced for the fatigue scales, the SF36 physical functioning, role-physical, and role-emotional scales, with more favorable results for controls. Differences decreased with time and 15-year cancer survivors were generally not different from controls. Scores were particularly influenced by age and mean household income. More efforts should be made, specifically during the first 5 to 10 years after diagnosis, to help women with breast cancer to overcome their impairment in QOL.

  15. Directing the senses in contemporary orientations to cancer disease control. Debating symptom research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses ongoing changes in orientations to cancer disease control in the Global North, particularly health promoter attempts to identify the early cancerous body. The paper suggests that the emphasis on early diagnosis of cancer aligns ideas on a symptomatic management of the public...... with a process in which ‘what counts as cancer symptoms’ is steadily being subdivided, classified and expanded. This alignment, the paper suggests, is an example of how biomedicine potentially extends its boundaries into everyday forms of embodied, social life by changing the social and moral value placed...

  16. Clever-1/stabilin-1 controls cancer growth and metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karikoski, Marika; Marttila-Ichihara, Fumiko; Elima, Kati; Rantakari, Pia; Hollmén, Maija; Kelkka, Tiina; Gerke, Heidi; Huovinen, Ville; Irjala, Heikki; Holmdahl, Rikard; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa

    2014-01-01

    .... Clever-1/Stabilin-1, a multifunctional scavenger and adhesion receptor, is constitutively present on a subset of type II macrophages and lymphatic endothelium, but its functional role in cancer is unknown...

  17. 76 FR 19257 - National Cancer Control Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... every background have been touched by cancer, either through a personal diagnosis or that of a family... from occasional smoking or secondhand smoke, is particularly harmful. Americans striving to quit can...

  18. An urban intergenerational program for cancer control education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, J I; Barg, F K; Norman, S; Mccorkle, R

    1997-01-01

    Recognizing the disparities in cancer morbidity and mortality that exist between African Americans and whites, an urban university and its neighborhood community undertook the development of an education program to transfer state-of-the-art cancer prevention, detection, and treatment information from an academic medical center to community residents, including school-age children. An intergenerational, multilevel intervention was developed to: 1) assess the health beliefs of the community, 2) identify, develop, and train an intergenerational group of community residents who would serve as health educators, and 3) promote behavioral change among the target population. Ten community residents were trained as educators. Over the course of two years they conducted cancer education programs that reached 775 adults. During the same period, the school-based educational intervention reached 264 seventh-grade students. Implications for the design and implementation of community-based cancer education programs in this African American community are identified.

  19. Diet composition and obesity among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Kellie; Garriguet, Didier; Findlay, Leanne

    2009-12-01

    The contribution of specific nutrients to obesity has not been definitively established. The objective of this study was to determine if an association exists between obesity and the relative percentages of fats, carbohydrates, protein and fibre in the diets of Canadians. The data are from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey--Nutrition. The analysis pertains to 6454 respondents aged 18 or older who provided valid 24-hour dietary recall information and measured height and weight, and whose reported energy intake was considered plausible based on their predicted energy expenditure. Logistic regression models with obesity status as the main outcome were conducted, controlling for potential confounders. All analyses were based on weighted estimates. When the effect of the control variables was taken into account, total kilocalories consumed increased the odds of obesity in men, and fibre intake decreased the odds. Among women, only total kilocalories consumed was significantly associated with increased odds of obesity. Higher consumption of kilocalories increased the odds of obesity, but the relative amounts of fats, carbohydrates and protein were generally not significant. The sole exception was an association between higher fibre intake and lower rates of obesity among men.

  20. Yoga for persistent fatigue in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bower, Julienne E; Garet, Deborah; Sternlieb, Beth; Ganz, Patricia A; Irwin, Michael R; Olmstead, Richard; Greendale, Gail

    2012-01-01

    .... The authors conducted a 2-group randomized controlled trial to determine the feasibility and efficacy of an Iyengar yoga intervention for breast cancer survivors with persistent post-treatment fatigue...

  1. A Case—Control Study of Lung Cancer Nested in a Cohort of European Asphalt Workers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ann Olsson; Hans Kromhout; Michela Agostini; Johnni Hansen; Christina Funch Lassen; Christoffer Johansen; Kristina Kjaerheim; Sverre Langård; Isabelle Stücker; Wolfgang Ahrens; Thomas Behrens; Marja-Liisa Lindbohm; Pirjo Heikkilä; Dick Heederik; Lützen Portengen; Judith Shaham; Gilles Ferro; Frank de Vocht; Igor Burstyn; Paolo Boffetta

    2010-01-01

    Background: We conducted a nested case—control study in a cohort of European asphalt workers in which an increase in lung cancer risk has been reported among workers exposed to airborne bitumen fume, although potential bias and confounding...

  2. The Urban Church and Cancer Control: A Source of Social Influence in Minority Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donna T. Davis; Ana Bustamante; C. Perry Brown; Girma Wolde-Tsadik; Edward W. Savage; Xiaoguang Cheng; Letitia Howland

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the efficacy of a church-based model of social influence in improving access to and participation of underserved minority women in a cervical cancer control program...

  3. Children with cancer with different survival perspectives: defensiveness, control strategies, and psychological adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootenhuis, M. A.; Last, B. F.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether children with cancer with different survival perspectives differ in their psychological adjustment, defensiveness and their use of cognitive control strategies. Furthermore, the study investigated which variables predict emotional

  4. Planning cancer control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Paul E; Lee, Brittany L; Badovinac-Crnjevic, Tanja; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; St Louis, Jessica; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Ferreyra, Mayra; Debiasi, Márcio; Liedke, Pedro E R; Touya, Diego; Werutsky, Gustavo; Higgins, Michaela; Fan, Lei; Vasconcelos, Claudia; Cazap, Eduardo; Vallejos, Carlos; Mohar, Alejandro; Knaul, Felicia; Arreola, Hector; Batura, Rekha; Luciani, Silvana; Sullivan, Richard; Finkelstein, Dianne; Simon, Sergio; Barrios, Carlos; Kightlinger, Rebecca; Gelrud, Andres; Bychkovsky, Vladimir; Lopes, Gilberto; Stefani, Stephen; Blaya, Marcelo; Souza, Fabiano Hahn; Santos, Franklin Santana; Kaemmerer, Alberto; de Azambuja, Evandro; Zorilla, Andres Felipe Cardona; Murillo, Raul; Jeronimo, Jose; Tsu, Vivien; Carvalho, Andre; Gil, Carlos Ferreira; Sternberg, Cinthya; Dueñas-Gonzalez, Alfonso; Sgroi, Dennis; Cuello, Mauricio; Fresco, Rodrigo; Reis, Rui Manuel; Masera, Guiseppe; Gabús, Raúl; Ribeiro, Raul; Knust, Renata; Ismael, Gustavo; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Roth, Berta; Villa, Luisa; Solares, Argelia Lara; Leon, Marta Ximena; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Covarrubias-Gomez, Alfredo; Hernández, Andrés; Bertolino, Mariela; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Santillana, Sergio; Esteva, Francisco; Fein, Luis; Mano, Max; Gomez, Henry; Hurlbert, Marc; Durstine, Alessandra; Azenha, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    Non-communicable diseases, including cancer, are overtaking infectious disease as the leading health-care threat in middle-income and low-income countries. Latin American and Caribbean countries are struggling to respond to increasing morbidity and death from advanced disease. Health ministries and health-care systems in these countries face many challenges caring for patients with advanced cancer: inadequate funding; inequitable distribution of resources and services; inadequate numbers, training, and distribution of health-care personnel and equipment; lack of adequate care for many populations based on socioeconomic, geographic, ethnic, and other factors; and current systems geared toward the needs of wealthy, urban minorities at a cost to the entire population. This burgeoning cancer problem threatens to cause widespread suffering and economic peril to the countries of Latin America. Prompt and deliberate actions must be taken to avoid this scenario. Increasing efforts towards prevention of cancer and avoidance of advanced, stage IV disease will reduce suffering and mortality and will make overall cancer care more affordable. We hope the findings of our Commission and our recommendations will inspire Latin American stakeholders to redouble their efforts to address this increasing cancer burden and to prevent it from worsening and threatening their societies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pancreatic cancer control: is vitamin D the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sarah; Naseem, Imrana

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer is characterized by late detection, resistance to therapy, poor prognosis, and an exceptionally high mortality rate. Epidemiology ascribes a chemopreventive role to vitamin D in several cancers including pancreatic cancer. Vitamin D therapy has been ascribed a role previously in tumor inhibition and differentiation in addition to reduction of inflammation and angiogenesis. However, the role of vitamin D in pancreatic cancer prevention or therapy remains elusive to date. Studies have shown a negative correlation between the risk of pancreatic cancer and serum vitamin D levels. It is believed that vitamin D binding to certain conserved sequences called vitamin D response elements in the DNA can alter the expression of genes involved in tumorigenesis. Recent research has elucidated the role of zinc in carcinogenesis, which in turn is found to be affected by vitamin D supplementation. In the light of numerous new-found roles for vitamin D, we review and evaluate the potential actions of the sunshine vitamin with respect to pancreatic cancer prevention and therapy.

  6. What is the minimum number of patients for quality control of lung cancer management in Norway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaug, Knut; Eide, Geir E; Gulsvik, Amund

    2016-11-01

    There are few data available on the optimal number of lung cancer patients needed to generate and compare estimates of quality between units managing lung cancer. The number of lung cancer patients per management unit varies considerably in Norway, where there are 42 hospitals that treated between 1 and 454 lung cancer patients in 2011. To estimate the differences in quality indicators that are of sufficient importance to change a pulmonary physician's lung cancer management program, and to estimate the size of the patient samples necessary to detect such differences. Twenty-six physicians were asked about the relative differences from a national average of quality indicators that would change their own lung cancer management program. Sample sizes were calculated to give valid estimates of quality of a management unit based on prevalence of quality indicators and minimally important differences (MID). The average MID in quality indicators that would cause a change in management varied from 18% to 24% among 26 chest physicians, depending on the indicator. To generate precise estimates for quality control of lung cancer care in Norway, the number of management units must be reduced. Given the present willingness of chest physicians to change their procedures for management of lung cancer according to the results of quality control indicators, we recommend a maximum of 10 units with a minimum of 200 incident lung cancer patients per year for each management center. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Phonological Variability in Canadian English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolf, Gaelan Dodds

    A study compared salient variables of Canadian English from two concurrent sociodialectal surveys, one for Ottawa, Ontario and one for Vancouver, British Columbia. Using the Labovian model of phonological variation in association with sociological parameters and other linguistic variables within each specific area, the analysis investigated four…

  8. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on the context of Canadian policy and society, the contributors illuminate migrants' testimonies of struggle, resistance, and solidarity as they negotiate a place for themselves in a new country. Topics range from the difficulties of Francophone refugees and the changing roles of fathers, to the experiences of queer newcomers and the importance of social unity to communal and individual health."--pub. desc.

  9. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  10. Welding and lung cancer in a pooled analysis of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Siemiatycki, Jack; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Peters, Susan; Van Gelder, Rainer; Olsson, Ann; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, H-Erich; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Tardón, Adonina; Merletti, Franco; Mirabelli, Dario; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Consonni, Dario; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Gustavsson, Per; Marcus, Michael; Fabianova, Eleonora; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Rudnai, Peter; Bencko, Vladimir; Janout, Vladimir; Mates, Dana; Foretova, Lenka; Forastiere, Francesco; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Boffetta, Paolo; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-11-15

    Several epidemiologic studies have indicated an increased risk of lung cancer among welders. We used the SYNERGY project database to assess welding as a risk factor for developing lung cancer. The database includes data on 15,483 male lung cancer cases and 18,388 male controls from 16 studies in Europe, Canada, China, and New Zealand conducted between 1985 and 2010. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals between regular or occasional welding and lung cancer were estimated, with adjustment for smoking, age, study center, and employment in other occupations associated with lung cancer risk. Overall, 568 cases and 427 controls had ever worked as welders and had an odds ratio of developing lung cancer of 1.44 (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 1.67) with the odds ratio increasing for longer duration of welding. In never and light smokers, the odds ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval: 1.37, 2.79). The odds ratios were somewhat higher for squamous and small cell lung cancers than for adenocarcinoma. Another 1,994 cases and 1,930 controls had ever worked in occupations with occasional welding. Work in any of these occupations was associated with some elevation of risk, though not as much as observed in regular welders. Our findings lend further support to the hypothesis that welding is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.

  11. A case-control study of stomach cancer in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D Nagaraj; Ganesh, Balasubramaniam; Dinshaw, Ketayun A; Mohandas, K Mallath

    2002-06-10

    Stomach cancer incidence rates are much lower in India than elsewhere, but the stomach remains one of the 10 leading sites of cancer in both sexes in most of the metropolitan registries. This is an unmatched case-control study of stomach cancer carried out at Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH), Mumbai. Our purpose was to identify the association of tobacco and alcohol use, occupational hazards, diet, consumption of beverages like tea and coffee, the living environment, cooking media and literacy with stomach cancer. Our study included 170 stomach cancer cases and 2,184 hospital controls interviewed during the period 1988-1992. Tobacco chewing, bidi or cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking did not emerge as high risk factors for stomach cancer. Consumption of dry fish at least once a week compared to never or once a every 2 weeks showed a 12-fold excess risk (OR = 12.4, 95% CI 7.0-22.1, p < 0.0001) for stomach cancer among the nonvegetarian food items considered. A protective effect of tea consumption (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9, p = 0.03), showing 59% reduction in risk, was identified, which could be of use for possible control and prevention of this cancer. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Tea consumption and the risk of oral cancer incidence: a case-control study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jin-Ye; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Luo, Jian-Feng; Zhong, Lai-Ping; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the relation of tea consumption with the risk of oral cancer incidence. A multicenter case-control study based on hospitalized population was conducted for evaluating the association of tea consumption with oral cancer risk in China. Black tea and green tea were separately analyzed. 723 cases and 857 controls were included. Unconditional multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of oral cancer for tea consumption. The ORs for green tea consumption⩾8g/day compared withconsumption⩾6g/day compared withconsumption was associated with decreased oral cancer risk. The results of this study indicated that green tea consumption may decrease the risk of oral cancer in men especially for those smoking heavily. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cervical cancer control in HIV-infected women: Past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahel G. Ghebre

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial recognition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in 1981, an increased burden of cervical cancer was identified among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive women. Introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART decreased risks of opportunistic infections and improved overall survival. HIV-infected women are living longer. Introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine, cervical cancer screening and early diagnosis provide opportunities to reduce cervical cancer associated mortality. In line with 2030 Sustainable Development Goals to reduce mortality from non-communicable diseases, increased efforts need to focus on high burden countries within sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Despite limitations of resources in SSA, opportunities exist to improve cancer control. This article reviews advancements in cervical cancer control in HIV-positive women.

  14. The Relationship between Food Intake and Bladder Cancer: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Bladder cancer is the second most common cancer of the urinary tract worldwide and the third most common cancer among Iranian males. Despite the relative high incidence of bladder cancer in Iran, no study has examined the relationship between dietary factors and bladder cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate this relationship. Methods: The present case-control study was carried out on fifty-five patients with bladder cancer and including 110 cancer-free patients as controls. Dietary intake was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. To investigate the relationship between food items and bladder cancer, the subjects were classified according to the tertile of food items. The odds ratio was calculated for each tertile and the first tertile was considered as the reference group. Results: Our findings revealed that among food groups, animal fat (OR=19.76, fat (OR=12.92, junk foods (OR=8.1, organ meat (OR=5.47, processed meat (OR=5.34 and sweets (OR=3.62 were involved in the development of bladder cancer. In bladder carcinogenesis, an inverse association was recorded between consumption of low fat dairy products (OR=0.31, yoghurt (OR =0.14, fish (OR = 0.13, specific fruits (OR=0.13 and the development of bladder cancer. Conclusion: Animal products and sources of saturated fat are associated with an increased in risk of bladder cancer. The protective effect of olive oil, specific fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy fermented was observed to reduce the risk of bladder cancer.

  15. Prospective, randomized controlled assessment of the short- and long-term efficacy of a hearing conservation education program in Canadian elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Anastasia; Westerberg, Brian D; Nabi, Shahin; Bryce, Graham; Bureau, Yves

    2011-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of a hearing conservation program in changing acoustic risk-taking and hearing conservation behaviors in elementary school children. Prospective, randomized, mixed design controlled study. Participants were grade-six students from 16 Vancouver School Board schools. Differences between the intervention and control group responses on a behavioral questionnaire were measured at baseline, and then at 2 weeks and 6 months after administration of a hearing conservation program (Sound Sense™). The intervention resulted in significant interactions for improved earplug use at dances (P = .019), rock concerts (P = .001), with percussion musical instruments (P = .002), and electric guitars (P = .028) at 2 weeks postintervention relative to baseline. Improvements in children's earplug use at dances (P = .041), rock concerts (P = .0024), and with power lawn mowers (P = .043) at 6 months postintervention relative to baseline were also observed. Behavior in the intervention group compared to control group improved in earplug use with any "other noises" at 2 weeks (P = .001), and 6 months (P = .022) relative to baseline. There was a tendency in the intervention group to reduce the duration of use of personal music devices at 2 weeks and 6 months after the hearing conservation program, which was nonsignificant. The Sound Sense™ hearing conservation program improved earplug use practices in elementary school children in the short and long term. The development, implementation and evaluation of a community-based health promotion project around hearing loss can serve as a tremendous opportunity for students to develop their knowledge and skills in health advocacy.

  16. Oral cancer prevention and control--the approach of the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2009-01-01

    Health Assembly (WHA) passed a resolution on oral health for the first time in 25 years, which also considers oral cancer prevention. The resolution WHA60 A16 URGES Member states--To take steps to ensure that prevention of oral cancer is an integral part of national cancer-control programmes, and to involve oral-health professionals or primary health care personnel with relevant training in oral health in detection, early diagnosis and treatment;--The WHO Global Oral Health Programme will use this statement as the lead for its work for oral cancer control www.who.int/oral_health.

  17. A population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer in Majorca. I. Dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, E; Obrador, A; Stiggelbout, A; Bosch, F X; Mulet, M; Muñoz, N; Kaldor, J

    1990-01-15

    A population-based case-control study was conducted between July 1984 and February 1988 in the Spanish island of Majorca; 286 incident colorectal cancer cases, 295 population controls and 203 hospital controls were interviewed using a food frequency questionnaire. In a multivariate analysis, an increased risk of colon cancer was found for high consumption of fresh meats (RR = 2.87) while a high consumption of cruciferous vegetables afforded protection (RR = 0.48). For rectal cancer an increased risk was associated with dairy products (RR = 3.08) while a protection was afforded by consumption of cruciferae (RR = 0.50). For colorectal cancer, the cereal food group also showed an increase in risk (RR = 1.92). When cases were compared to hospital controls, the effects of cruciferae in colon and rectum and those of dairy products in rectal cancer remained. The magnitude of the RR estimates was decreased for most comparisons, although in general terms the direction of the associations was the same. In addition, univariate analyses of food groups also suggested significant increases in risk of colorectal cancer for increasing consumption of cereals, potatoes, pastry, eggs and number of meals per day. An indication was found of a reduction in risk for consumers of coffee. An analysis based on risk scores was also conducted and a 4-fold increase in the risk of colorectal cancer and a highly significant statistical trend was found for high consumption of fresh meat, dairy products and cereals combined with low consumption of cruciferae.

  18. Survival of MUTYH-associated polyposis patients with colorectal cancer and matched control colorectal cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Nielsen (Maartje); L.N. van Steenbergen (Liza); N. Jones (Natalie); S. Vogt (Stefanie); H.F. Vasen (Hans); H. Morreau (Hans); S. Aretz (Stefan); J. Sampson (Julian); O.M. Dekkers (Olaf); M.L.G. Janssen-Heijnen (Maryska); F.J. Hes (Frederik)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground MUTYH-associated polyposis is a recessively inherited disorder characterized by a lifetime risk of colorectal cancer that is up to 100%. Because specific histological and molecular genetic features of MUTYH-associated polyposis colorectal cancers might influence tumor behavior

  19. Metabolic Plasticity in Cancer Cells: Reconnecting Mitochondrial Function to Cancer Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2015-06-01

    Anomalous increase in glycolytic activity defines one of the key metabolic alterations in cancer cells. A realization of this feature has led to critical advancements in cancer detection techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) as well as a number of therapeutic avenues targeting the key glycolytic steps within a cancer cell. A normal healthy cell's survival relies on a sensitive balance between the primordial glycolysis and a more regulated mitochondrial bioenergetics. The salient difference between these two bioenergetics pathways is that oxygen availability is an obligatory requirement for mitochondrial pathway while glycolysis can function without oxygen. Early observations that some cancer cells up-regulate glycolytic activity even in the presence of oxygen (aerobic glycolysis) led to a hypothesis that such an altered cancer cell metabolism stems from inherent mitochondrial dysfunction. While a general validity of this hypothesis is still being debated, a number of recent research efforts have yielded clarity on the physiological origins of this aerobic glycolysis phenotype in cancer cells. Building on these recent studies, we present a generalized scheme of cancer cell metabolism and propose a novel hypothesis that might rationalize new avenues of cancer intervention.

  20. Does family history of cancer modify the effects of lifestyle risk factors on esophageal cancer? A population-based case-control study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Zhang, Z.F.; Kampman, E.; Zhou, J.Y.; Han, R.Q.; Yang, J.; Zhang, X.F.; Gu, X.P.; Liu, A.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    A population-based case-control study on esophageal cancer has been conducted since 2003 in Jiangsu Province, China. The aim of this analysis is to provide further evidence on the relationship between family history of cancer in first-degree relatives (FH-FDRs) and the risk of esophageal cancer, and

  1. Human Papillomavirus Antibodies and Future Risk of Anogenital Cancer : A Nested Case-Control Study in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreimer, Aimee R.; Brennan, Paul; Kuhs, Krystle A. Lang; Waterboer, Tim; Clifford, Gary; Franceschi, Silvia; Michel, Angelika; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Riboli, Elio; Castellsague, Xavier; Hildesheim, Allan; Fortner, Renee Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Palli, Domenico; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Panico, Salvatore; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra H.; Cross, Amanda J.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vineis, Paolo; Larranaga, Nerea; Pala, Valeria; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tumino, Rosario; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Travis, Ruth C.; Ramon Quiros, J.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pawlita, Michael; Johansson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) causes cancer at several anatomic sites. In the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition study, HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before oropharyngeal cancer diagnosis and was nearly absent in controls. The

  2. [Dietary factors and cancer of the colon and rectum in a population based case-control study in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G; Gao, Y; Ji, B

    1994-10-01

    The study was a population-based case control one, to compare possible difference in the risk factors between colonic and rectal cancer. This study showed that: (1) High intake of pork and saturated fat was an important risk factor for colon cancer, and only slightly related to rectal cancer. (2) Low consumption of vegetables especially cruciferous vegetables, rhizome vegetables, sea weeds, legume vegetables, dietary fiber and some vitamins mainly derived from vegetables, e.g. vitamin c and carotene, was associated with an increased risk for both colonic and rectal cancer, and these factors were closer relationship with rectal cancer than colon cancer. (3) High intake of the fried and pickled foods significantly increase the risk of occurrence of these cancers. (4) The ratio of bowel cancer in first degree relatives of colon cancer cases was 2.9 times of control group (P 0.05) compared with control group.

  3. Metabolomics Analyses of Cancer Cells in Controlled Microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Simon-Pierre; Avizonis, Daina; St-Pierre, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a complex and heterogeneous milieu in which cancer cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to fuel their growth. Cancer cell lines grown in vitro using traditional culture methods represent key experimental models to gain a mechanistic understanding of tumor biology. This protocol describes the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to assess metabolic changes in cancer cells grown under varied levels of oxygen and nutrients that may better mimic the tumor microenvironment. Intracellular metabolite changes, metabolite uptake and release, as well as stable isotope ((13)C) tracer analyses are done in a single experimental setup to provide an integrated understanding of metabolic adaptation. Overall, this chapter describes some essential tools and methods to perform comprehensive metabolomics analyses.

  4. Healthcare costs in the Danish randomised controlled lung cancer CT-screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J.F.; Siersma, V.; Pedersen, Jesper H.

    2014-01-01

    with the control group. CONCLUSION: Low dose lung cancer CT screening increases healthcare costs compared with no screening; this difference was attributable to the costs of the CT-screening programme. Overall healthcare costs were higher for the true-positive and false-positive groups than for the control group......OBJECTIVES: Low dose computerised tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer can reduce lung-cancer-specific mortality. The objective of this study was to analyse healthcare costs and healthcare utilisation of participants in the Danish lung cancer CT-screening trial (DLCST). MATERIALS AND METHODS......: This registry study was nested in a randomised controlled trial (DLCST). 4104 participants, current or former heavy smokers, aged 50-70 years were randomised to five annual low dose CT scans or usual care during 2004-2010. Total healthcare costs and healthcare utilisation data for both the primary...

  5. Improving cancer pain control with NCCN guideline-based analgesic administration: a patient-centered outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjan, Nora

    2014-09-01

    Improving the control of cancer-related pain (CRP) is a clinical and ethical imperative. Clinical research has documented improved treatment tolerance and survival rates among patients with cancer who have effective pain control. Barriers to CRP control include inadequate patient and physician education. Meta-analyses of patient education studies correlate improvements in CRP control with improved communications with health care providers and the implementation of strategies that assist with adherence to medication schedules. These strategies build patient confidence, allowing better self-management of pain and reduced psychological consequences. For physicians, ample educational resources exist in CRP management. However, in both the inpatient and outpatient settings, compliance with NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Adult Cancer Pain continues to be less than 70%, and more than one-third of patients continue to receive inadequate doses of analgesics. Patient-centered outcomes have become an integral end point in health policy, and the nation's medical training, research, and delivery systems are transforming to a value-based accreditation and reimbursement system. Pain control is a significant patient-centered outcome in cancer care, because pain adversely impacts function and affects all domains of quality of life. Agreement is clear on the value of health care interventions that relieve suffering from cancer pain and restore personal dignity. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  6. Impacting Canadian public health nurses' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Karen R; Davies, Barbara L; Woodend, A Kirsten; Simpson, Jane; Mantha, Shannon L

    2011-01-01

    Workforce recruitment and retention challenges are being experienced in public health as in other Canadian health sectors. While there are many nurses working in public health, little research has been done about their job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is linked to recruitment, retention and positive client outcomes. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between three modifiable work environment factors (autonomy, control-over-practice, and workload) and Canadian public health nurses' (PHNs) job satisfaction. Data were from the 2005 National Survey of the Work and Health of Nurses (response rate, 79.7%; 18,676 nurses). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used for this secondary analysis. Findings were discussed with practicing PHNs, policy-makers and researchers from across Canada at a knowledge translation (KT) 'Think-Tank'. Among the 271 PHNs, 53.5% reported being 'very satisfied' with their jobs. The interaction between autonomy and workload was a significant predictor of PHNs' job satisfaction, (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.99, p multi-generational workforce.

  7. Case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in a rural population of Faisalabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Muhammad Naeem; Malik, Muhammad Akram

    2015-01-01

    The effects of diet on epidemiology of prostate cancer are inconclusive. Therefore a hospital- based, case-control study was conducted in a rural population of Faisalabad, Pakistan, to examine the impact of dietary factors on risk of cancer development. This study was based on 102 confirmed cases of prostate cancer and 204 normal controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for odds ratios to evaluate the relationship between prostate cancer and diet. Consumption of red meat and fat items significantly increased the prostate cancer risk having odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of 3.41; 1.46-7.96 and 2.45; 1.17-5.15, respectively. On the other hand, more consumption of vegetables, fluid intake and fruit significantly decreased the prostate cancer risk (odd ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals of 0.21; 0.10-0.44, 0.10; 0.05- 0.19 and 0.09; 0.03- 0.23, respectively. The present study supports the hypothesis that frequent consumption of red meat and fat items may increase prostate cancer risk while more intake of fruit, vegetables and fluid intake may protect against prostate cancer in the relatively low risk group in rural Pakistan.

  8. Risk factors for prostate cancer: An hospital-based case-control study from Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, B; Saoba, Sushama L; Sarade, Monika N; Pinjari, Suvarna V

    2011-07-01

    In India, prostate cancer is one of the five leading sites of cancers among males in all the registries. Very little is known about risk factors for prostate cancer among the Indian population. The present study aims to study the association of lifestyle factors like chewing (betel leaf with or without tobacco, pan masala, gutka), smoking (bidi, cigarette), comorbid conditions, diet, body mass index (BMI), family history, vasectomy with prostate cancer. This an unmatched hospital-based case-control study, comprised of 123 histologically proven prostate 'cancer cases' and 167 'normal controls. Univariate and regression analysis were applied for obtaining the odds ratio for risk factors. The study revealed that there was no significant excess risk for chewers, alcohol drinkers, tea and coffee drinkers, family history of cancer, diabetes, vasectomy and dietary factors. However, patients with BMI >25 (OR = 2.1), those with hypertension history (OR = 2.5) and age >55 years (OR = 19.3) had enhanced risk for prostate cancer. In the present study age, BMI and hypertension emerged as risk factors for prostate cancer. The findings of this study could be useful to conduct larger studies in a more detailed manner which in turn can be useful for public interest domain.

  9. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  10. Risk factors for prostate cancer: An hospital-based case-control study from Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ganesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In India, prostate cancer is one of the five leading sites of cancers among males in all the registries. Very little is known about risk factors for prostate cancer among the Indian population. Objectives : The present study aims to study the association of lifestyle factors like chewing (betel leaf with or without tobacco, pan masala, gutka, smoking (bidi, cigarette, comorbid conditions, diet, body mass index (BMI, family history, vasectomy with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods : This an unmatched hospital-based case-control study, comprised of 123 histologically proven prostate ′cancer cases′ and 167 ′normal controls. Univariate and regression analysis were applied for obtaining the odds ratio for risk factors. Results : The study revealed that there was no significant excess risk for chewers, alcohol drinkers, tea and coffee drinkers, family history of cancer, diabetes, vasectomy and dietary factors. However, patients with BMI >25 (OR = 2.1, those with hypertension history (OR = 2.5 and age >55 years (OR = 19.3 had enhanced risk for prostate cancer. Conclusions : In the present study age, BMI and hypertension emerged as risk factors for prostate cancer. The findings of this study could be useful to conduct larger studies in a more detailed manner which in turn can be useful for public interest domain.

  11. An assessment of oral cancer curricula in dental hygiene programmes: implications for cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, K K; Kaste, L M; Homsi, K D; LeHew, C W

    2016-11-01

    To assess oral cancer prevention and early detection curricula in Illinois associate-degree dental hygiene programmes and highlight global health applications. An email invitation was sent to each Illinois associate-degree granting dental hygiene programme's oral cancer contact to participate in a survey via a SurveyMonkey™ link to a 21-item questionnaire. Questions elicited background information on each programme and inquired about curriculum and methods used for teaching oral cancer prevention and early detection. Eight of the 12 (67%) programmes responded. Three (37.5%) reported having a specific oral cancer curriculum. Five (62.5%) require students to perform examinations for signs and symptoms of oral cancer at each clinic visit. Variations exist across the programmes in the number of patients each student sees annually and the number of oral cancer examinations each student performs before graduation. Seven programmes (87.5%) conduct early detection screening in community settings. All programmes included risk assessment associated with tobacco. All other risk factors measured were treated inconsistently. Significant differences in training and experience were reported across Illinois dental hygiene programmes. Training is neither standardized nor uniformly comprehensive. Students' preparation for delivering prevention and early detection services to their patients could be strengthened to ensure competence including reflection of risk factors and behaviours in a global context. Regular review of curricular guidelines and programme content would help dental hygienists meet the expectations of the Crete Declaration on Oral Cancer Prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Hyperemesis gravidarum and maternal cancer risk, a Scandinavian nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandraas, Kathrine F; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Støer, Nathalie C; Troisi, Rebecca; Stephansson, Olof; Ording, Anne Gulbech; Vangen, Siri; Grotmol, Tom; Vikanes, Åse V

    2015-09-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown to influence cancer risk. Several pathological conditions during pregnancy have also been associated with subsequent altered cancer risk in the mother. Hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis) is an early pregnancy condition characterized by severe nausea and vomiting resulting in weight loss and metabolic disturbances. Studies have reported associations between hyperemesis and cancer, but results are inconsistent. In this nested case-control study we linked the population-based medical birth registries and cancer registries in Norway, Sweden and Denmark in order to examine overall cancer risk and risk of specific cancer types in women with a history of hyperemesis, using conditional logistic regression. In total, 168,501 cases of cancer in addition to up to 10 cancer-free controls per case were randomly sampled, matched on year of birth and birth registry (n = 1,721,626). Hyperemesis was defined through the International Classification of Diseases. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders. Hyperemesis was inversely associated with overall cancer risk with adjusted relative risk (aRR) of 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99), with cancer in the lungs (aRR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.44-0.81), cervix (aRR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.49-0.91) and rectum (aRR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.29-0.78). Thyroid cancer was positively associated with hyperemesis (aRR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.06-1.99) and risk increased with more than one hyperemetic pregnancy (aRR 1.80, 95% CI: 1.23-2.63). Hormonal factors, in particular human chorionic gonadotropin, are likely to be involved in mediating these effects. This study is the first to systematically address these associations and provides valuable knowledge on potential long-term consequences of hyperemesis. © 2015 UICC.

  13. Control of Tumor Initiation by NKG2D Naturally Expressed on Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Cai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells may co-opt the NKG2D lymphocyte receptor to complement the presence of its ligands for autonomous stimulation of oncogenic signaling. Previous studies raise the possibility that cancer cell NKG2D may induce high malignancy traits, but its full oncogenic impact is unknown. Using epithelial ovarian cancer as model setting, we show here that ex vivo NKG2D+ cancer cells have stem-like capacities, and provide formal in vivo evidence linking NKG2D stimulation with the development and maintenance of these functional states. NKG2D+ ovarian cancer cell populations harbor substantially greater capacities for self-renewing in vitro sphere formation and in vivo tumor initiation in immunodeficient (NOD scid gamma mice than NKG2D− controls. Sphere formation and tumor initiation are impaired by NKG2D silencing or ligand blockade using antibodies or a newly designed pan ligand-masking NKG2D multimer. In further support of pathophysiological significance, a prospective study of 47 high-grade serous ovarian cancer cases revealed that the odds of disease recurrence were significantly greater and median progression-free survival rates higher among patients with above and below median NKG2D+ cancer cell frequencies, respectively. Collectively, our results define cancer cell NKG2D as an important regulator of tumor initiation in ovarian cancer and presumably other malignancies and thus challenge current efforts in immunotherapy aimed at enhancing NKG2D function.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides accumulation and breast cancer: A hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ting-Ting; Zuo, An-Jun; Wang, Ji-Gang; Zhao, Peng

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to detect the accumulation status of organochlorine pesticides in breast cancer patients and to explore the relationship between organochlorine pesticides contamination and breast cancer development. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in 56 patients with breast cancer and 46 patients with benign breast disease. We detected the accumulation level of several organochlorine pesticides products (β-hexachlorocyclohexane, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, polychlorinated biphenyls-28, polychlorinated biphenyls-52, pentachlorothioanisole, and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) in breast adipose tissues of all 102 patients using gas chromatography. Thereafter, we examined the expression status of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), and Ki-67 in 56 breast cancer cases by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we analyzed the risk of breast cancer in those patients with organochlorine pesticides contamination using a logistic regression model. Our data showed that breast cancer patients suffered high accumulation levels of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52. However, the concentrations of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52 were not related to clinicopathologic parameters of breast cancer. Further logistic regression analysis showed polychlorinated biphenyls-52 and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane were risk factors for breast cancer. Our results provide new evidence on etiology of breast cancer.

  15. “We have been forced to move away from home”: print news coverage of Canadians studying abroad at Caribbean offshore medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Morgan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canadian international medical graduates are Canadian-citizens who have graduated from a medical school outside of Canada or the United States. A growing number of Canadians enroll in medical school abroad, including at Caribbean offshore medical schools. Often, Canadians studying medicine abroad attempt to return to Canada for postgraduate residency training and ultimately to practice. Methods The authors conducted a qualitative media analysis to discern the dominant themes and ideologies that frame discussion of offshore medical schools, and the Canadian medical students they graduate, in the Canadian print news. We carried out structured searches on Canadian Newsstand Database for print media related to offshore medical schools. Results Canadian news articles used two frames to characterize offshore medical schools and the Canadian international medical graduates they train: (1 increased opportunity for medical education for Canadians; and (2 frustration returning to Canada to practice despite domestic physician shortages. Conclusion Frames deployed by the Canadian print media to discuss Caribbean offshore medical schools and Canadians studying abroad define two problems: (1 highly qualified Canadians are unable to access medical school in Canada; and (2 some Canadian international medical graduates are unable to return to Canada to practice medicine. Caribbean offshore medical schools are identified as a solution to the first problem while playing a central role in creating the second problem. These frames do not acknowledge that medical school admissions are a primary means to control the make-up of the Canadian physician workforce and they do not address the nature of Canadian physician shortages.

  16. Case-control study of congenital anomalies in children of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, L; Marrett, L D; Tomkins, D J; Green, B; Sherman, G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine whether the offspring of cancer survivors are at an increased risk of congenital anomalies and whether cancer therapy before conception is associated with such an increase. DESIGN--Case-control study using computerised record linkage. SETTING--Ontario, Canada. SUBJECTS--Parents of children born during April 1979 to December 1986 who had a congenital anomaly diagnosed within the first year of life (45,200 mothers and 41,158 fathers) and a matched sample of parents whose children did not have a congenital anomaly (45,200 mothers and 41,158 fathers). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Cancer diagnosed in either parent before conception and radiotherapy to the pelvis or abdomen or chemotherapy with an alkylating agent. RESULTS--Among the mothers, 54 cases and 52 controls were identified as having had cancer diagnosed in Ontario (relative risk = 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 1.5) and among the fathers, 61 cases and 65 controls were identified (0.9, 0.7 to 1.4). No significant associations were found between congenital anomalies in the offspring and any type of cancer treatment in either the mothers or the fathers. CONCLUSIONS--The risk of congenital anomalies among liveborn offspring whose parents have had cancer or been treated for cancer is not higher than that in the general population. PMID:8343744

  17. Diseases preceding colon cancer. A case-control study among veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A D; Sonnenberg, A; Wasserman, I H

    1994-11-01

    Patients with regular use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) appear to have a reduced mortality from colon cancer. As NSAID use is associated with gastrointestinal bleeding, endoscopic exploration of patients on NSAID may lead to more efficient screening and frequent detection of colon cancer. A case-control study was conducted among 12,304 veterans with a colon cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 1992. Four controls were matched by age, sex, and race to each case. The frequency distributions of previous discharge diagnoses in cases and controls were compared. Arterial embolism and thrombosis, spondylosis, peripheral vascular disease, angina, osteoarthrosis, and ischemic heart disease protected against future development of colon cancer. On the other hand, atrial fibrillation and flutter, as well as phlebitis and thrombophlebitis, were associated an increased occurrence of colon cancer after 5-10 years. The study contrasts diseases that are treated with aspirin with those that are treated with other anticoagulants. Both cause bleeding, but the reduced risk of colon cancer was seen only in conditions treated with aspirin. The difference between the two disease groups from the same VA patient population suggests that chronic use of NSAID truly protects against future development of colon cancer.

  18. 75 FR 17839 - National Cancer Control Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... individuals and families in communities across our Nation, but the future holds untold promise. We continue to... smoking to visit SmokeFree.gov for resources and information. My Administration is committed to supporting... Institutes of Health to develop more effective treatments. While cancer affects people of every background...

  19. Inhibition of Embryonic Genes to Control Colorectal Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    anticipate that this will be done by the end of next month and then we will hand the information over to our statistician, Dr. Lisa McShane, who is...deacetylase inhibitor in NCCIT cells: involvement of NANOG suppression. Cancer Res 2009; 69: 5716-5725. 45. Ben-Porath I, Thomson MW, Carey VJ, Ge R

  20. Lifelong vegetarianism and breast cancer risk: a large multicentre case control study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathani, Toral; Barnes, Isobel; Ali, Raghib; Arumugham, Rajkumar; Chacko, Raju; Digumarti, Raghunadharao; Jivarajani, Parimal; Kannan, Ravi; Loknatha, Dasappa; Malhotra, Hemant; Mathew, Beela S

    2017-01-18

    The lower incidence of breast cancer in Asian populations where the intake of animal products is lower than that of Western populations has led some to suggest that a vegetarian diet might reduce breast cancer risk. Between 2011 and 2014 we conducted a multicentre hospital based case-control study in eight cancer centres in India. Eligible cases were women aged 30-70 years, with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer (ICD10 C50). Controls were frequency matched to the cases by age and region of residence and chosen from the accompanying attendants of the patients with cancer or those patients in the general hospital without cancer. Information about dietary, lifestyle, reproductive and socio-demographic factors were collected using an interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for the risk of breast cancer in relation to lifelong vegetarianism, adjusting for known risk factors for the disease. The study included 2101 cases and 2255 controls. The mean age at recruitment was similar in cases (49.7 years (SE 9.7)) and controls (49.8 years (SE 9.1)). About a quarter of the population were lifelong vegetarians and the rates varied significantly by region. On multivariate analysis, with adjustment for known risk factors for the disease, the risk of breast cancer was not decreased in lifelong vegetarians (OR 1.09 (95% CI 0.93-1.29)). Lifelong exposure to a vegetarian diet appears to have little, if any effect on the risk of breast cancer.

  1. Participation in regular leisure-time physical activity among individuals with type 2 diabetes not meeting Canadian guidelines: the influence of intention, perceived behavioral control, and moral norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, François; Godin, Gaston

    2014-12-01

    Most people with type 2 diabetes do not engage in regular leisure-time physical activity. The theory of planned behavior and moral norm construct can enhance our understanding of physical activity intention and behavior among this population. This study aims to identify the determinants of both intention and behavior to participate in regular leisure-time physical activity among individuals with type 2 diabetes who not meet Canada's physical activity guidelines. By using secondary data analysis of a randomized computer-tailored print-based intervention, participants (n = 200) from the province of Quebec (Canada) completed and returned a baseline questionnaire measuring their attitude, perceived behavioral control, and moral norm. One month later, they self-reported their level of leisure-time physical activity. A hierarchical regression equation showed that attitude (beta = 0.10, P leisure-time physical activity (R (2) = 0.22, P leisure-time physical activity among individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  2. Youth Excel: towards a pan-Canadian platform linking evidence and action for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Barbara L; Manske, Steve; Cameron, Roy

    2011-05-15

    Population-level intervention is required to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases. It also promotes health for those living with established risk factors and illness. In this article, the authors describe a vision and approach for continuously improving population-level programs and policies within and beyond the health sector. The vision and approach are anchored in contemporary thinking about what is required to link evidence and action in the field of population and public health. The authors believe that, as a cancer prevention and control community, organizations and practitioners must be able to use the best available evidence to inform action and continually generate evidence that improves prevention policies and programs on an ongoing basis. These imperatives require leaders in policy, practice, and research fields to work together to jointly plan, conduct, and act on relevant evidence. The Propel Center and colleagues are implementing this approach in Youth Excel-a pan-Canadian initiative that brings together national and provincial organizations from health and education sectors and capitalizes on a history of collaboration. The objective of Youth Excel is to build sustainable capacity for knowledge development and exchange that can guide and redirect prevention efforts in a rapidly evolving social environment. This goal is to contribute to creating health-promoting environments and to accelerate progress in preventing cancer and other diseases among youth and young adults and in the wider population. Although prevention is the aim, health-promoting environments also can support health gains for individuals of all ages and with established illness. In addition, the approach Youth Excel is taking to link evidence and action may be applicable to early intervention and treatment components of cancer control. © 2011 American Cancer Society

  3. Municipal return to work management in cancer survivors undergoing cancer treatment: a protocol on a controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina M; Labriola, Merete; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Momsen, Anne-Mette H; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2015-07-29

    Cancer survivors are often left on their own to deal with the challenges of resuming work during or after cancer treatment, mainly due to unclear agreements between stakeholders responsible for occupational rehabilitation. Social inequality exists in cancer risk, survival probability and continues with regard to the chance of being able to return to work. The aim is to apply an early, individually tailored occupational rehabilitation intervention to cancer survivors in two municipalities parallel with cancer treatment focusing on enhancing readiness for return to work. In a controlled trial municipal job consultants use acceptance and commitment therapy dialogue and individual-placement-and-support-inspired tools with cancer survivors to engage them in behaviour changes toward readiness for return to work. The workplace is involved in the return to work process. Patients referred to surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy at the Oncology Department, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark for the diagnoses; breast, colon-rectal, head and neck, thyroid gland, testicular, ovarian or cervix cancer are eligible for the study. Patients must be residents in the municipalities of Silkeborg or Randers, 18-60 years of age and have a permanent or temporary employment (with at least 6 months left of their contract) at inclusion. Patients, for whom the treating physician considers occupational rehabilitation to be unethical, or who are not reading or talking Danish are excluded. The control group has identical inclusion and exclusion criteria except for municipality of residence. Return to work is the primary outcome and is indentified in a social transfer payment register. Effect is assessed as relative cumulative incidences within 52 weeks and will be analysed in generalised linear regression models using the pseudo values method. As a secondary outcome; co-morbidity and socio-economic status is analysed as effect modifiers of the intervention effect on return to work. The

  4. Canadian safeguards - an historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ironside, A.M. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Smith, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper summarizes safeguards activities and programs undertaken in Canada. In 1970, Canada, in collaboration with the IAEA, began a study of procedures and equipment required for the application of safeguards to on-line-fueled reactors. In 1977, this assistance was substantially increased and formalized into the Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP). To date, Canada has spent in excess of $35 million Canadian on this program. The CSSP provides support to the IAEA safeguards effort for areas in which Canada has expertise and has been primarily engaged in developing safeguards procedures and equipment for the CANDU power reactors in Canada and throughout the world. Work, projects, and equipment development undertaken by CANDU CSSP are highlighted.

  5. Role of Private Enterprise in Cancer Control in Low to Middle Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwumere E. Nwogu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. About 65% of cancer deaths globally occur in low to middle income countries (LMICs where prioritization and allocation of resources to cancer care are often quite poor. In the absence of governmental focus on this problem, public-private partnerships may be an avenue to provide effective cancer control. Methods. This manuscript highlights the establishment of a nongovernmental organization (NGO to stimulate the development of partnerships between oncology professionals, private enterprise, and academic institutions, both locally and internationally. Examples of capacity building, grant support, establishment of collaborative networks, and the development of a facility to provide clinical care are highlighted. Results. Collaborations were established between oncology professionals at academic institutions in the US and Nigeria. Cancer control workshops were conducted in Nigeria with grant support from the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC. A monthly tumor board conference was established at LASUTH in Lagos, and further capacity building is underway with grant support from the United States NCI. An outpatient, privately funded oncology clinic in Lagos has been launched. Conclusion. In LMICs, effective partnership between public and private institutions can lead to tangible strides in cancer control. The use of creative healthcare financing models can also support positive change.

  6. Base excision repair activities differ in human lung cancer cells and corresponding normal controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahalil, Bensu; Bohr, Vilhelm A; De Souza-Pinto, Nadja C

    2010-01-01

    for the repair of oxidized modifications both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. In order to ascertain whether diminished BER capacity might account for increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in cancer cells, the activities of BER enzymes in three different lung cancer cell lines and their non......-cancerous counterparts were measured using oligonucleotide substrates with single DNA lesions to assess specific BER enzymes. The activities of four BER enzymes, OGG1, NTH1, UDG and APE1, were compared in mitochondrial and nuclear extracts. For each specific lesion, the repair activities were similar among the three...... cell lines used. However, the specific activities and cancer versus control comparison differed significantly between the nuclear and mitochondrial compartments. OGG1 activity, as measured by 8-oxodA incision, was up-regulated in cancer cell mitochondria but down-regulated in the nucleus when compared...

  7. Cancer control through principles of systems science, complexity, and chaos theory: a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Ivo P

    2007-06-05

    Cancer is a significant medical and societal problem. This reality arises from the fact that an exponential and an unrestricted cellular growth destabilizes human body as a system. From this perspective, cancer is a manifestation of a system-in-failing.A model of normal and abnormal cell cycle oscillations has been developed incorporating systems science, complexity, and chaos theories. Using this model, cancer expresses a failing subsystem and is characterized by a positive exponential growth taking place in the outer edge of chaos. The overall survival of human body as a system is threatened. This model suggests, however, that cancer's exponential cellular growth and disorganized complexity could be controlled through the process of induction of differentiation of cancer stem cells into cells of low and basic functionality. This concept would imply reorientation of current treatment principles from cellular killing (cyto-toxic therapies) to cellular retraining (cyto-education).

  8. Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands

    OpenAIRE

    Patchett, Merle M; Lozowy, A

    2012-01-01

    Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands” is a collaborative exchange between photographer Andriko Lozowy and cultural geographer Merle Patchett that engages photography and photographic theory to evoke a more critical and politically meaningful visual engagement with the world’s largest capital oil project. Since the appearance of Edward Burtynsky’s aerial and abstracted photographic-mappings of the region, capturing the scale of the Oil Sands from ‘on high’ has become the dominant visual imaginary....

  9. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Zota, Ami R; Aschengrau, Ann; Rudel, Ruthann A; Brody, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs abou...

  10. A Cluster Randomized-Controlled Trial of the Impact of the Tools of the Mind Curriculum on Self-Regulation in Canadian Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Tracy; Plamondon, Andre; O’Hara, Arland; Finch, Heather; Goco, Geraldine; Chaban, Peter; Huggins, Lorrie; Ferguson, Bruce; Tannock, Rosemary

    2018-01-01

    Early self-regulation predicts school readiness, academic success, and quality of life in adulthood. Its development in the preschool years is rapid and also malleable. Thus, preschool curricula that promote the development of self-regulation may help set children on a more positive developmental trajectory. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial of the Tools of the Mind preschool curriculum, a program that targets self-regulation through imaginative play and self-regulatory language (Tools; clinical trials identifier NCT02462733). Previous research with Tools is limited, with mixed evidence of its effectiveness. Moreover, it is unclear whether it would benefit all preschoolers or primarily those with poorly developed cognitive capacities (e.g., language, executive function, attention). The study goals were to ascertain whether the Tools program leads to greater gains in self-regulation compared to Playing to Learn (YMCA PTL), another play based program that does not target self-regulation specifically, and whether the effects were moderated by children’s initial language and hyperactivity/inattention. Two hundred and sixty 3- to 4-year-olds attending 20 largely urban daycares were randomly assigned, at the site level, to receive either Tools or YMCA PTL (the business-as-usual curriculum) for 15 months. We assessed self-regulation at pre-, mid and post intervention, using two executive function tasks, and two questionnaires regarding behavior at home and at school, to capture development in cognitive as well as socio-emotional aspects of self-regulation. Fidelity data showed that only the teachers at the Tools sites implemented Tools, and did so with reasonable success. We found that children who received Tools made greater gains on a behavioral measure of executive function than their YMCA PTL peers, but the difference was significant only for those children whose parents rated them high in hyperactivity/inattention initially. The effect of Tools did

  11. Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP): a population-based case–control study in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male in most Western countries, including France. Despite a significant morbidity and mortality to a lesser extent, the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Indeed, the only well-established risk factors to date are age, ethnicity and a family history of prostate cancer. We present, here, the rationale and design of the EPIdemiological study of Prostate CAncer (EPICAP), a population-based case–control study specifically designed to investigate the role of environmental and genetic factors in prostate cancer. The EPICAP study will particularly focused on the role of circadian disruption, chronic inflammation, hormonal and metabolic factors in the occurrence of prostate cancer. Methods/Design EPICAP is a population-based case–control study conducted in the département of Hérault in France. Eligible cases are all cases of prostate cancers newly diagnosed in 2012-2013 in men less than 75 years old and residing in the département of Hérault at the time of diagnosis. Controls are men of the same age as the cases and living in the département of Hérault, recruited in the general population. The sample will include a total of 1000 incident cases of prostate cancer and 1000 population-based controls over a 3-year period (2012-2014). The cases and controls are face-to-face interviewed using a standardized computed assisted questionnaire. The questions focus primarily on usual socio-demographic characteristics, personal and family medical history, lifestyle, leisure activities, residential and occupational history. Anthropometric measures and biological samples are also collected for cases and controls. Discussion The EPICAP study aims to answer key questions in prostate cancer etiology: (1) role of circadian disruption through the study of working hours, chronotype and duration/quality of sleep, (2) role of chronic inflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs, (3) role of hormonal and metabolic

  12. Nutritional risk among older Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage-Morin, Pamela L; Garriguet, Didier

    2013-03-01

    Nutritional risk screening is typically done in clinical settings to identify individuals at risk of malnourishment. This article presents the first population-level assessment of nutritional risk based on a large national sample representative of Canadian householders aged 65 or older. Data from the 2008/2009 Canadian Community Health Survey-Healthy Aging were used to estimate the prevalence of nutritional risk by selected characteristics. Factors associated with nutritional risk were examined with restricted and full logistic models. The distribution of responses on the SCREEN II-AB nutritional risk instrument is reported. Based on the results of the 2008/2009 survey, 34% of Canadians aged 65 or older were at nutritional risk. Women were more likely than men to be at risk. Among people with depression, 62% were at nutritional risk, compared with 33% of people without depression. Level of disability, poor oral health, and medication use were associated with nutritional risk, as were living alone, low social support, infrequent social participation, and not driving on a regular basis. Lower income and education were also associated with nutritional risk. Nutritional risk is common among seniors living in private households in Canada. The characteristics of people most likely to be at nutritional risk provide evidence for targeted screening and assessment.

  13. Tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk: a case-control study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamini, R; Polesel, J; Gallus, S; Dal Maso, L; Zucchetto, A; Negri, E; Bosetti, C; Lucenteforte, E; Boz, G; Franceschi, S; Serraino, D; La Vecchia, C

    2010-01-01

    In Italy, pancreatic cancer accounts for approximately 5% of cancer-related deaths. Tobacco smoking is the major established risk factor for this cancer, whereas the role of alcohol consumption is open to debate. Between 1991 and 2008, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study on pancreatic cancer in northern Italy. Cases were 326 patients (median age 63 years) with incident pancreatic cancer admitted to major general hospitals. Controls were 652 patients (median age 63 years) with acute non-neoplastic conditions admitted to the same hospital network of cases. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Pancreatic cancer was associated to current smoking (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.13-2.48), and the risk rose with increasing number of cigarettes/day (OR=2.04; 95% CI: 1.14-3.66 for > or = 20 cigarettes/day). No association emerged for former smokers (OR=0.98; 95% CI: 0.66-1.45). Alcohol consumption was associated to increased pancreatic cancer risk, but ORs were significant only among heavy drinkers (ORs: 2.03 and 3.42 for 21-34 and > or = 35 drinks/week, respectively). Pancreatic cancer risk was 4.3-fold higher in heavy smokers (> or = 20 cigarettes/day) and heavy drinkers (> or = 21 drinks/week) in comparison with never smokers who drunk alcohol drinking are two independent risk factors for pancreatic cancer which may be responsible for approximately one third of these cancers in our population. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of serum lipid profiles between normal controls and breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikul Laisupasin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Researchers have reported association of plasma/serum lipids and lipoproteins with different cancers. Increase levels of circulating lipids and lipoproteins have been associated with breast cancer risk. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare serum lipid profiles: total-cholesterol (T-CHOL, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C between breast cancer patients and normal participants. Materials and Methods: A total of 403 women in this study were divided into two groups in the period during May 2006-April 2007. Blood samples were collected from 249 patients with early stage breast cancer and 154 normal controls for serum lipid profiles (T-CHOL, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and VLDL-C analysis using Hitachi 717 Autoanalyzer (Roche Diagnostic GmbH, Germany. TG, LDL-C and VLDL-C levels in breast cancer group were significantly increased as compared with normal controls group (P < 0.001, whereas HDL-C and T-CHOL levels were not. Results: The results of this study suggest that increased serum lipid profiles may associate with breast cancer risk in Thai women. Further studies to group important factors including, cancer stages, types of cancer, parity, and menopausal status that may affect to lipid profiles in breast cancer patients along with an investigation of new lipid profiles to clarify most lipid factors that may involve in breast cancer development are needed.

  15. Tubal ligation, hysterectomy and epithelial ovarian cancer in the New England Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Megan S; Murphy, Megan A; Vitonis, Allison F; Cramer, Daniel W; Titus, Linda J; Tworoger, Shelley S; Terry, Kathryn L

    2013-11-15

    Previous studies have observed that tubal ligation and hysterectomy are associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer; however, little is known about whether these associations vary by surgical characteristics, individual characteristics or tumor histology. We used logistic regression to examine tubal ligation, simple hysterectomy and hysterectomy with unilateral oophorectomy in relation to risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in the New England Case-Control Study. Our primary analysis included 2,265 cases and 2,333 controls. Overall, tubal ligation was associated with a lower risk of epithelial ovarian cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.97], especially for endometrioid tumors (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.29-0.69). The inverse association between tubal ligation and ovarian cancer risk was stronger for women who had undergone the procedure at the time of last delivery (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.84) rather than at a later time (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.75-1.15). Overall, simple hysterectomy was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.83-1.42), although it was associated with a nonsignificant decreased risk of ovarian cancer among women who underwent the procedure at age 45 or older (RR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.40-1.02) or within the last 10 years (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.38-1.13). Overall, women who had a hysterectomy with a unilateral oophorectomy had significantly lower risk of ovarian cancer (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.45-0.94). In summary, tubal ligation and hysterectomy with unilateral oophorectomy were inversely associated with ovarian cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Additional research is necessary to understand the potential biologic mechanisms by which these procedures may reduce ovarian cancer risk. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  16. A Possible Association between Melanoma and Prostate Cancer. Results from a Case-Control-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Goldenberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma and prostate cancer are the fifth and first most common cancers in men within the United States, respectively. The association between the two cancers lies in the mutual androgen-dependence. However, the relationship between prostate cancer history and melanoma development remains to be further elucidated. We aim to determine the odds of history of prostate cancer among men with melanoma as compared to time-frame, clinic, and provider-matched controls without melanoma within a single academic surgical center. We present a case-control study comparing men treated for melanoma and non-melanoma cancer by a single provider between 2010 and 2014 within an academic dermatologic surgical center. Overall, there were nine cases of prostate cancer among the melanoma group and two cases amongst the controls—a statistically significant difference in both uni- and multivariable analyses (p = 0.057 [95% CI 1, 23.5], p = 0.042 [95% CI 1.1, 129], respectively. Body mass index, alcohol use, and skin type II were significant risk factors for melanoma (p = 0.011 [95% CI 1, 1.3], 0.005 [95% CI 1.4, 7], 0.025 [95% CI 1.1, 3.3], respectively. There were more immunosuppressed controls (p = 0.002; however, the melanoma patients had a significantly longer duration of immunosuppression (11.6 vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.001 [95% CI 0.03, 0.5]. Melanoma screenings for men should include questions on prostate cancer history. Prostate cancer patients may benefit from more frequent and comprehensive melanoma screening.

  17. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. VI. Fish and shellfish consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosetti, C; Kolonel, L; Negri, E; Ron, E; Franceschi, S; Maso, LD; Galanti, MR; Mark, SD; Preston-Martin, S; McTiernan, A; Land, C; Jin, F; Wingren, G; Hallquist, A; Glattre, E; Lund, E; Levi, F; Linos, D; Vecchia, CL

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To better understand the role of fish and shellfish on thyroid cancer risk, we systematically re-analyzed the original data from 13 case-control studies conducted in the US, Japan, China, and Europe. Methods: A total of 2497 cases (2023 women, 474 men) and 4337 controls (3268 women, 1069

  18. 75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal...

  19. A randomized, controlled trial of physician postures when breaking bad news to cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruera, Eduardo; Palmer, J Lynn; Pace, Ellen; Zhang, Karen; Willey, Jie; Strasser, Florian; Bennett, Michael I

    2007-09-01

    Medical training teaches physicians to sit when breaking bad news, though there have been no controlled studies to support this advice. We aimed to establish cancer patients' preference for physician posture when physicians break bad news using a randomized controlled crossover trial in a department of palliative care at a large US cancer center. Referred patients were blind to the hypothesis and watched video sequences of a sitting or standing physician breaking bad news to a cancer patient and 168 of 173 participants (88 female) completed the study. Sitting physicians were preferred and viewed as significantly more compassionate than standing physicians (P posture. In summary, cancer patients, especially females, prefer physicians to sit when breaking bad news and rate physicians who adopt this posture as more compassionate. However, sitting posture alone is unlikely to compensate for poor communication skills and lack of other respectful gestures during a consultation.

  20. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajenga E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal groups with OR 10.04 and 12.1, respectively. In addition, nulliparity is associated with higher risk while abortion did not indicate any influence in the multivariate model. The findings from this study have shown that reproductive and menstrual variables are significant predictors of breast cancer risk in Albanian women, as seen in studies of other western countries.

  1. Molecular characterization of the stomach microbiota in patients with gastric cancer and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicksved, J.; Lindberg, M.; Rosenquist, M.; Enroth, H.; Jansson, J.K.; Engstrand, L.

    2009-01-15

    Persistent infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori, can initiate an inflammatory cascade that progresses into atrophic gastritis, a condition associated with reduced capacity for secretion of gastric acid and an increased risk in developing gastric cancer. The role of H. pylori as an initiator of inflammation is evident but the mechanism for development into gastric cancer has not yet been proven. A reduced capacity for gastric acid secretion allows survival and proliferation of other microbes that normally are killed by the acidic environment. It has been postulated that some of these species may be involved in the development of gastric cancer, however their identities are poorly defined. In this study, the gastric microbiota from ten patients with gastric cancer was characterized and compared with five dyspeptic controls using the molecular profiling approach, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), in combination with 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. T-RFLP analysis revealed a complex bacterial community in the cancer patients that was not significantly different from the controls. Sequencing of 140 clones revealed 102 phylotypes, with representatives from five bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria). The data revealed a relatively low abundance of H. pylori and showed that the gastric cancer microbiota was instead dominated by different species of the genera Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Veillonella and Prevotella. The respective role of these species in development of gastric cancer remains to be determined.

  2. A case-control study of lung cancer among refinery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosamilia, K; Wong, O; Raabe, G K

    1999-12-01

    This case-control study examined the relationship between lung cancer and the work histories of male employees at a large Texas refinery. The study included 112 lung cancer deaths observed between 1946 and 1987 and 490 matched controls. Employment histories were obtained from personnel records, and smoking information was available from medical records. Both stratification methods and conditional logistic regression were used in data analyses. Overall employment in four general job categories (administrative, engineering/laboratory, process, maintenance/mechanical) was not associated with lung cancer mortality. Results by hire period (study do not support the hypothesis that work in maintenance/mechanical jobs increases lung cancer risk. On the basis of analyses in this study, it is unlikely that asbestos exposure contributed to excess lung cancer mortality. Additional analyses were conducted for specific maintenance jobs with potential exposure to asbestos and by duration in jobs with occasional or routine asbestos exposure. No significant increase in lung cancer was found in any subgroup. Furthermore, there was no significant trend toward lung cancer risk in relation to duration of employment in jobs with asbestos exposure.

  3. Dental x-rays and the risk of thyroid cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Anjum; Godward, Sara; Williams, Dillwyn; Siddique, Iqbal; Al-Saleh, Khalid

    2010-05-01

    The thyroid gland is highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis and exposure to high-dose ionising radiation is the only established cause of thyroid cancer. Dental radiography, a common source of low-dose diagnostic radiation exposure in the general population, is often overlooked as a radiation hazard to the gland and may be associated with the risk of thyroid cancer. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has been reported in dentists, dental assistants, and x-ray workers; and exposure to dental x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of meningiomas and salivary tumours. To examine whether exposure to dental x-rays was associated with the risk of thyroid cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control interview study among 313 patients with thyroid cancer and a similar number of individually matched (year of birth +/- three years, gender, nationality, district of residence) control subjects in Kuwait. Conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for other upper-body x-rays, showed that exposure to dental x-rays was significantly associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.1) (p=0.001) with a dose-response pattern (p for trend dental x-rays, particularly multiple exposures, may be associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer; and warrant further study in settings where historical dental x-ray records may be available.

  4. Cigarette smoking and pancreas cancer: a case-control study based on direct interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, D T; Dunn, J A; Hoover, R N; Schiffman, M; Lillemoe, K D; Schoenberg, J B; Brown, L M; Greenberg, R S; Hayes, R B; Swanson, G M

    1994-10-19

    Cigarette smoking is the most consistently reported risk factor for pancreas cancer, yet the dose-response relationship in many pancreas cancer studies is weak. Because of the poor prognosis for pancreas cancer, many case-control studies have been based largely on interviews with proxy respondents, who are known to report less reliable information on detailed smoking habits than original subjects. Our purpose was to evaluate cigarette smoking as a risk factor for pancreas cancer based on data obtained only from direct interviews and to estimate the effects of quitting smoking and of switching from nonfiltered to filtered cigarettes on risk. Our objective also was to estimate the contribution of cigarette smoking toward explaining the higher pancreas cancer incidence experienced by black Americans compared with white Americans. A population-based, case-control study of pancreas cancer was conducted during 1986-1989 in Atlanta, Ga., Detroit, Mich., and 10 counties in New Jersey. Direct interviews were successfully completed with 526 case patients and 2153 control subjects aged 30-79 years, making this the largest population-based, case-control study of pancreas cancer to date based only on direct interviews. Cigarette smokers had a significant, 70% increased risk of pancreas cancer compared with the risk in nonsmokers. A significant, positive trend in risk with increasing duration smoked was apparent (P or = 40 years) smokers experiencing a modest 2.1-fold risk. We also observed a negative trend in risk with increasing years quit smoking. Smokers who quit for more than 10 years experienced about a 30% reduction in risk relative to current smokers; quitters of 10 years or less experienced no risk reduction. Switching from nonfiltered to filtered cigarettes did not appear to decrease risk. Compared with nonsmokers, subjects who smoked only filtered cigarettes had a 50% elevated risk and those who smoked only nonfiltered cigarettes had a 40% elevated risk. The

  5. A case-control study of lung cancer nested in a cohort of European asphalt workers.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Olsson; Kromhout, H; Agostini, M.; Hansen, J.; Funch Lassen, C.; Johansen, C.; Kjaerheim, K.; Langard, S; Stucker, I; Ahrens, W; Behrens, T.; Lindbohm, M-J.; Heikkila, P.; Heederik, D.; Portengen, L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of European asphalt workers in which an increase in lung cancer risk has been reported among workers exposed to airborne bitumen fume, although potential bias and confounding were not fully addressed. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the contribution of exposure to bitumen, other occupational agents, and tobacco smoking to the risk of lung cancer among asphalt workers. METHODS: Cases were cohort members in Denmark, Finland, France, Ge...

  6. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hextan Y. S. Ngan

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed.

  7. Yoga and self-reported cognitive problems in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Heather M; Jaremka, Lisa M; Bennett, Jeanette M; Peng, Juan; Andridge, Rebecca; Shapiro, Charles; Malarkey, William B; Emery, Charles F; Layman, Rachel; Mrozek, Ewa; Glaser, Ronald; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2015-08-01

    Cancer survivors often report cognitive problems. Furthermore, decreases in physical activity typically occur over the course of cancer treatment. Although physical activity benefits cognitive function in noncancer populations, evidence linking physical activity to cognitive function in cancer survivors is limited. In our recent randomized controlled trial, breast cancer survivors who received a yoga intervention had lower fatigue and inflammation following the trial compared with a wait list control group. This secondary analysis of the parent trial addressed yoga's impact on cognitive complaints. Posttreatment stage 0-IIIA breast cancer survivors (n = 200) were randomized to a 12-week, twice-weekly Hatha yoga intervention or a wait list control group. Participants reported cognitive complaints using the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial Cognitive Problems Scale at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 3-month follow-up. Cognitive complaints did not differ significantly between groups immediately postintervention (p = 0.250). However, at 3-month follow-up, yoga participants' Breast Cancer Prevention Trial Cognitive Problems Scale scores were an average of 23% lower than wait list participants' scores (p = 0.003). These group differences in cognitive complaints remained after controlling for psychological distress, fatigue, and sleep quality. Consistent with the primary results, those who practiced yoga more frequently reported significantly fewer cognitive problems at 3-month follow-up than those who practiced less frequently (p complaints and prompt further research on mind-body and physical activity interventions for improving cancer-related cognitive problems. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effect of a multimodal high intensity exercise intervention in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Adamsen, Lis; Quist, Morten; Andersen, Christina; M?ller, Tom; Herrstedt, J?rn; Kronborg, Dorte; Baadsgaard, Marie T; Vistisen, Kirsten; Midtgaard, Julie; Christiansen, Birgitte; Stage, Maria; Kronborg, Morten T; R?rth, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of a multimodal group exercise intervention, as an adjunct to conventional care, on fatigue, physical capacity, general wellbeing, physical activity, and quality of life in patients with cancer who were undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy or treatment for advanced disease. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Two university hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants 269 patients with cancer; 73 men, 196 women, mean age 47 years (range 20-65) representing...

  9. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Castelló

    Full Text Available According to the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the "American Institute of Cancer Research" (WCRF/AICR one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity.To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer.During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention:: 1Maintain adequate body weight; 2Be physically active; 3Limit the intake of high density foods; 4Eat mostly plant foods; 5Limit the intake of animal foods; 6Limit alcohol intake; 7Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; 8Meet nutritional needs through diet; S1Breastfeed infants exclusively up to 6 months. We explored its association with BC by menopausal status and by intrinsic tumor subtypes (ER+/PR+ & HER2-; HER2+; ER&PR-&HER2- using conditional and multinomial logistic models respectively.Our results point to a linear association between the degree of noncompliance and breast cancer risk. Taking women who met 6 or more recommendations as reference, those meeting less than 3 showed a three-fold excess risk (OR=2.98(CI95%:1.59-5.59, especially for postmenopausal women (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.24;10.47 and ER+/PR+&HER2- (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.84;7.05 and HER2+ (OR=4.23(CI95%:1.66;10.78 tumors. Noncompliance of recommendations regarding the consumption of foods and drinks that promote weight gain in premenopausal women (OR=2.24(CI95%:1.18;4.28; p for interaction=0.014 and triple negative tumors (OR=2.93(CI95%:1.12-7.63; the intake of plant foods in postmenopausal women (OR=2.35(CI95%:1.24;4.44 and triple negative tumors (OR=3.48(CI95%:1.46-8.31; and the alcohol consumption in ER+/PR+&HER2- tumors (OR=1.52 (CI95%:1.06-2.19 showed the strongest associations.Breast cancer prevention might be possible by following the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the

  10. The effectiveness of music in relieving pain in cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Tzu; Good, Marion; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2010-11-01

    To examine effects of sedative music on cancer pain. A randomized controlled trial. Two large medical centers in Kaoshiung City, in southern Taiwan. 126 hospitalized persons with cancer pain. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (n=62) or a control group (n=64), with computerized minimization, stratifying on gender, pain, and hospital unit. Music choices included folk songs, Buddhist hymns (Taiwanese music), plus harp, and piano (American). The experimental group listened to music for 30 min; the control group rested in bed. Sensation and distress of pain were rated on 100mm VAS before and after the 30-min test. Using MANCOVA, there was significantly less posttest pain in the music versus the control group, pmusic was very helpful for pain. Thirty minutes of music provided 50% relief in 42% of the music group compared to 8% of the controls. The number needed to treat (NNT) to find one with 50% sensation relief was three patients. More patients chose Taiwanese music (71%) than American music (29%), but both were liked and effective. Offering a choice of familiar, culturally appropriate music was a key element of the intervention. Findings extend the Good and Moore theory (1996) to cancer pain. Soft music was safe, effective, and liked by participants. It provided greater relief of cancer pain than analgesics alone. Thus nurses should offer calming, familiar music to supplement analgesic medication for persons with cancer pain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Negative impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye Bin; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-09-15

    Although anemia is considered to be a contributor to intra-tumoral hypoxia and tumor resistance to ionizing radiation in cancer patients, the impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for rectal cancer remains unclear. We reviewed the records of 247 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with NACRT followed by curative-intent surgery. The patients with anemia before NACRT (36.0%, 89/247) achieved less pathologic complete response (pCR) than those without anemia (p = 0.012). The patients with pretreatment anemia had worse 3-year local control than those without pretreatment anemia (86.0% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor and nodal stage (p = 0.020 and 0.032, respectively) were independently significant factors for local control. Pretreatment anemia had negative impacts on pCR and local control among patients who underwent NACRT and surgery for rectal cancer. Strategies maintaining hemoglobin level within normal range could potentially be used to improve local control in rectal cancer patients.

  12. Breast cancer risk and genetic ancestry: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Bertoni, Bernardo; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Artagaveytia, Nora; Ackermann, Elizabeth; Barreto, Isabel; Cancela, Paula; Cappetta, Mónica; Egaña, Ana; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Heinzen, Silvina; Hooker, Stanley; Román, Estela; Sans, Mónica; Kittles, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay exhibits one of the highest rates of breast cancer in Latin America, similar to those of developed nations, the reasons for which are not completely understood. In this study we investigated the effect that ancestral background has on breast cancer susceptibility among Uruguayan women. We carried out a case-control study of 328 (164 cases, 164 controls) women enrolled in public hospitals and private clinics across the country. We estimated ancestral proportions using a panel of nuclear and mitochondrial ancestry informative markers (AIMs) and tested their association with breast cancer risk. Nuclear individual ancestry in cases was (mean ± SD) 9.8 ± 7.6% African, 13.2 ± 10.2% Native American and 77.1 ± 13.1% European, and in controls 9.1 ± 7.5% African, 14.7 ± 11.2% Native American and 76.2 ± 14.2% European. There was no evidence of a difference in nuclear or mitochondrial ancestry between cases and controls. However, European mitochondrial haplogroup H was associated with breast cancer (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.5). We have not found evidence that overall genetic ancestry differs between breast cancer patients and controls in Uruguay but we detected an association of the disease with a European mitochondrial lineage, which warrants further investigation.

  13. Human Papillomavirus Antibodies and Future Risk of Anogenital Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimer, Aimée R.; Brennan, Paul; Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Waterboer, Tim; Clifford, Gary; Franceschi, Silvia; Michel, Angelika; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Riboli, Elio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Hildesheim, Allan; Fortner, Renée Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Palli, Domenico; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Panico, Salvatore; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra H.; Cross, Amanda J.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vineis, Paolo; Larrañaga, Nerea; Pala, Valeria; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tumino, Rosario; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Travis, Ruth C.; Quirós, J. Ramón; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pawlita, Michael; Johansson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) causes cancer at several anatomic sites. In the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition study, HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before oropharyngeal cancer diagnosis and was nearly absent in controls. The current study sought to evaluate the extent to which HPV16 E6 antibodies are present before diagnosis of anogenital cancers within the same cohort. Methods Four hundred incident anogenital cancers (273 cervical, 24 anal, 67 vulvar, 12 vaginal, and 24 penile cancers) with prediagnostic blood samples (collected on average 3 and 8 years before diagnosis for cervix and noncervix cancers, respectively) and 718 matched controls were included. Plasma was analyzed for antibodies against HPV16 E6 and multiple other HPV proteins and genotypes and evaluated in relation to risk using unconditional logistic regression. Results HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present in 29.2% of individuals (seven of 24 individuals) who later developed anal cancer compared with 0.6% of controls (four of 718 controls) who remained cancer free (odds ratio [OR], 75.9; 95% CI, 17.9 to 321). HPV16 E6 seropositivity was less common for cancers of the cervix (3.3%), vagina (8.3%), vulva (1.5%), and penis (8.3%). No associations were seen for non–type 16 HPV E6 antibodies, apart from anti-HPV58 E6 and anal cancer (OR, 6.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 33.1). HPV16 E6 seropositivity tended to increase in blood samples drawn closer in time to cancer diagnosis. Conclusion HPV16 E6 seropositivity is relatively common before diagnosis of anal cancer but rare for other HPV-related anogenital cancers. PMID:25667279

  14. The fear of using tramadol for pain control (tramadolophobia) among Egyptian patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsirafy, Samy A; Saleh, Radfan N; Fawzy, Radwa; Alnagar, Ahmed A; Hammad, Ahmed M; El-Sherief, Wessam; Farag, Dina E; Radwan, Riham H

    2015-01-01

    The fear of using tramadol for pain control (tramadolophobia) by Egyptian patients with cancer is a frequent problem in our practice. This study was conducted to explore the prevalence of and the reasons behind tramadolophobia among Egyptian patients with cancer. A structured interview including open-ended and closed questions. The study included 178 adult patients with cancer from two cancer centers in Cairo and Sharkia, Egypt. The source of information about tramadol was a non-healthcare-related source in 168 (94 percent) patients, mainly the media (50 percent). The believed uses of tramadol were abuse related in 94 (53 percent) patients, stimulant (physical, sexual, and to boost alertness) in 59 (33 percent), and analgesic in 55 (31 percent). Twenty-six (15 percent) patients gave history of tramadol use, largely (69 percent) as a stimulant. In case tramadol was prescribed for pain control, 90 (51 percent) patients refused to take it, 59 (33 percent) patients agreed to take it with concern about addiction, and only 29 (16 percent) patients agreed without concerns. Among those who refused taking tramadol for pain, the mentioned reason of refusal was addiction-related fears in 57 percent. The stigmatization and misconceptions about tramadol may have resulted in tramadolophobia among the majority of Egyptian patients with cancer. This further complicates the barriers to cancer pain control in Egypt. Being the only available World Health Organization step-II analgesic in Egypt, interventions to overcome tramadolophobia should be taken.

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Appearance-focused Intervention to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, Joel; Turrisi, Rob; Stapleton, Jerod; Robinson, June

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Skin cancer represents a significant health threat with over 1.3 million diagnoses, 8000 melanoma deaths, and more than $1 billion spent annually for skin cancer healthcare in the US. Despite findings from laboratory, case-control, and prospective studies that indicate a link between youthful indoor tanning (IT) and skin cancer, IT is increasing among US youth. Appearance-focused interventions represent a promising method to counteract these trends. METHODS A total of 430 female indoor tanners were randomized into intervention or no intervention control conditions. Intervention participants received an appearance-focused booklet based on decision-theoretical models of health behavior. Outcome variables included self-reports of IT behavior and intentions, as well as measures of cognitive mediating variables. RESULTS Normative increases in springtime IT rates were significantly lower (ie, over 35%) at 6-month follow-up in intervention versus control participants with similar reductions in future intentions. Mediation analyses revealed 6 cognitive variables (IT attitudes, fashion attitudes, perceived susceptibility to skin cancer and skin damage, subjective norms, and image norms) that significantly mediated change in IT behavior. CONCLUSIONS The appearance-focused intervention demonstrated strong effects on IT behavior and intentions in young indoor tanners. Appearance-focused approaches to skin cancer prevention need to present alternative behaviors as well as alter IT attitudes. Mediational results provide guides for strengthening future appearance-focused interventions directed at behaviors that increase risk of skin cancer. PMID:18937268

  16. Lympho-vascular invasion in BRCA related breast cancer compared to sporadic controls

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    van der Wall Elsken

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germline mutations in the BRCA1 gene predispose to the development of breast cancer, exhibiting a specific histological phenotype. Identification of possible hallmarks of these tumors is important for selecting patients for genetic screening and provides inside in carcinogenetic pathways. Since BRCA1-associated breast cancers have pushing borders that prevent them from easily reaching vessels and are often of the medullary (like type that is known to have a low rate of lympho-vascular invasion (LVI, we hypothesized that absence of LVI could characterize BRCA1 related breast cancer. Methods A population of 68 BRCA1 related invasive breast cancers was evaluated for LVI by an experienced breast pathologist blinded to mutation status, and compared to a control group matched for age, grade and tumor type. Results LVI was present in 25.0% of BRCA1 related cases, compared to 20.6% of controls (P = 0.54, OR = 1.29, CI 0.58-2.78. Conclusion LVI is frequent in BRCA1 germline mutation related breast cancers, but seems to occur as often in sporadic controls matched for age, grade and tumor type. Apparently, these hereditary cancers find their way to the blood and lymph vessels despite their well demarcation and often medullary differentiation.

  17. Assessment of risk factors in laryngeal cancer in India: a case-control study.

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    Kapil, Umesh; Singh, Preeti; Bahadur, Sudhir; Dwivedi, Sada Nand; Singh, Rajvir; Shukla, Nk

    2005-01-01

    Cancer of the larynx is fourteenth most common cancer in the world. Limited data are available from India on associations with risk factors and hence the present hospital based matched case-control study was conducted. Three hundred and five laryngeal cancer patients and an equal number of healthy controls matched for their age within 2 years, sex and place of residence constituted the study population. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to each individual to elicit information on their socio-demographic profile, food habits and risk factors and dietary consumption patterns. Univariate logistic regression analysis and multivariate forward stepwise conditional logistic analysis were performed. In the univariate analysis a lower consumption of roots and tubers green leaf vegetable other vegetables and fruits, and higher consumption of milk, eggs, meat, tea, alcohol , smoking, consumption of betel leaf with tobacco as well as a preference for spicy and fried foods emerged as significant positive variables. After adjusting for education, years of use of alcohol, smoking, chewing of betel leaf with tobacco in the model, low green leafy vegetables and preference for spicy foods were found to be positively related to the risk of laryngeal cancer. There was a significant difference in the dietary consumption patterns of laryngeal cancer patients and controls, indicating a role for nutritional factors in the etiology of laryngeal cancer in the Indian population.

  18. Metallic elements in pulmonary biopsies from lung cancer and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giuseppe; Goldoni, Matteo; Catalani, Simona; Carbognani, Paolo; Poli, Diana; Mozzoni, Paola; Acampa, Olga; Internullo, Eveline; Rusca, Michele; Apostoli, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    Occupational/environmental exposure to some metallic elements is a risk factor for the development of lung diseases, including lung cancer. We aimed at investigating the levels of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, nickel and lead in the lung tissue of patients affected by early stage non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A small number of patients without a diagnosis of lung cancer were also included as control group. Lung tissue biopsies were collected from 45 NSCLC patients (both cancerous and unaffected tissues) and 8 control subjects undergoing surgery. Patients were stratified for smoking habits, histopathology and cancer sites. Metallic elements were determined in dry tissue after digestion by means of ICP-MS. Cd, Ni and Pb levels were higher in unaffected than in control tissues (0.52 vs 0.18 microg/g dry, p elements, and particularly Cd, were influenced by smoking habits; Pb levels were higher in squamocellular carcinoma than adenocarcinomas; Ni distributed in the lungs in an inhomogeneous way. This study demonstrates that the unaffected lung tissue is more representative than the cancerous tissue of the pulmonary content of metallic elements. Tobacco smoke is a main factor affecting the concentration levels of Cd, Pb, and to a lesser extent Ni in the lung tissues of NSCLC patients. The role of past environmental-occupational exposures could not be fully elucidated, due to the limited sample size and the retrospective nature of the study.

  19. An integrative review of Canadian childhood obesity prevention programmes.

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    Conroy, S; Ellis, R; Murray, C; Chaw-Kant, J

    2007-01-01

    To examine successful Canadian nursing and health promotion intervention programmes for childhood obesity prevention during gestation and infancy, an integrative review was performed of the literature from 1980 to September 2005. The following databases were used: PubMed; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Cochrane Controlled Trials Register; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; ACP Journal Club; MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; Scopus; Sociological Abstracts; Sport Discus; PsycInfo; ERIC and HealthStar. MeSH headings included: infancy (0-24 months), gestation, gestational diabetes, nutrition, prenatal care, pregnancy, health education, pregnancy outcome, dietary services with limits of Canadian, term birth. Of 2028 articles found, six Canadian childhood obesity prevention programmes implemented during gestation and/or infancy were found; three addressed gestational diabetes with five targeting low-income Canadian urban and/or Aboriginal populations. No intervention programmes specifically aimed to prevent childhood obesity during gestation or infancy. This paucity suggests that such a programme would be innovative and much needed in an effort to stem the alarming increase in obesity in children and adults. Any attempts either to develop new approaches or to replicate interventions used with obese adults or even older children need careful evaluation and pilot testing prior to sustained use within the perinatal period.

  20. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Canadian Perspective

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    Réjeanne Gougeon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a clinical tool designed to facilitate implementation of therapeutic lifestyle recommendations for people with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG recommendations is essential to address varied patient populations within and among diverse regions worldwide. The Canadian version of tDNA supports and targets behavioural changes to improve nutritional quality and to promote regular daily physical activity consistent with Canadian Diabetes Association CPG, as well as channelling the concomitant management of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycaemia in primary care. Assessing glycaemic index (GI (the ranking of foods by effects on postprandial blood glucose levels and glycaemic load (GL (the product of mean GI and the total carbohydrate content of a meal will be a central part of the Canadian tDNA and complement nutrition therapy by facilitating glycaemic control using specific food selections. This component can also enhance other metabolic interventions, such as reducing the need for antihyperglycaemic medication and improving the effectiveness of weight loss programs. This tDNA strategy will be adapted to the cultural specificities of the Canadian population and incorporated into the tDNA validation methodology.

  1. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievenpiper, John L.; Jenkins, David; Yale, Jean-François; Bell, Rhonda; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ransom, Thomas P. P.; Dupre, John; Kendall, Cyril; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Marchetti, Albert; Hamdy, Osama; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a clinical tool designed to facilitate implementation of therapeutic lifestyle recommendations for people with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG) recommendations is essential to address varied patient populations within and among diverse regions worldwide. The Canadian version of tDNA supports and targets behavioural changes to improve nutritional quality and to promote regular daily physical activity consistent with Canadian Diabetes Association CPG, as well as channelling the concomitant management of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycaemia in primary care. Assessing glycaemic index (GI) (the ranking of foods by effects on postprandial blood glucose levels) and glycaemic load (GL) (the product of mean GI and the total carbohydrate content of a meal) will be a central part of the Canadian tDNA and complement nutrition therapy by facilitating glycaemic control using specific food selections. This component can also enhance other metabolic interventions, such as reducing the need for antihyperglycaemic medication and improving the effectiveness of weight loss programs. This tDNA strategy will be adapted to the cultural specificities of the Canadian population and incorporated into the tDNA validation methodology. PMID:24550982

  2. Contraceptive sterilization among Canadians, 1984-1995

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    Vijaya Krishnan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to early 1970s, traditional methods were the principal means of controlling the number and spacing of births. Today, an estimated 57 per cent of the world’s married women use contraceptives and half use modern methods such as medical sterilizations. Recent statistics suggest that Canada has the highest sterilization rate in the Western world. This paper presents findings of research examining sterilization trends in Canada with respect to changing patterns in the use of modern contraceptives, using data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey (CFS and the 1995 General Social Survey (GSS. The main finding is that there is a decrease in the use of tubal ligation and an increase in the use of hysterectomy over the period 1984-1995. Less educated women are more likely to be in the forefront of modern methods of contraception.

  3. Living with prostate cancer: randomised controlled trial of a multimodal supportive care intervention for men with prostate cancer

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    Lepore Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in developed countries and diagnosis and treatment carries with it substantial morbidity and related unmet supportive care needs. These difficulties may be amplified by physical inactivity and obesity. We propose to apply a multimodal intervention approach that targets both unmet supportive care needs and physical activity. Methods/design A two arm randomised controlled trial will compare usual care to a multimodal supportive care intervention "Living with Prostate Cancer" that will combine self-management with tele-based group peer support. A series of previously validated and reliable self-report measures will be administered to men at four time points: baseline/recruitment (when men are approximately 3-6 months post-diagnosis and at 3, 6, and 12 months after recruitment and intervention commencement. Social constraints, social support, self-efficacy, group cohesion and therapeutic alliance will be included as potential moderators/mediators of intervention effect. Primary outcomes are unmet supportive care needs and physical activity levels. Secondary outcomes are domain-specific and health-related quality of life (QoL; psychological distress; benefit finding; body mass index and waist circumference. Disease variables (e.g. cancer grade, stage will be assessed through medical and cancer registry records. An economic evaluation will be conducted alongside the randomised trial. Discussion This study will address a critical but as yet unanswered research question: to identify a population-based way to reduce unmet supportive care needs; promote regular physical activity; and improve disease-specific and health-related QoL for prostate cancer survivors. The study will also determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Trial Registration ACTRN12611000392965

  4. Canadian Adjuvant Initiative Workshop, March 26-27, 2013--Ottawa, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Lakshmi; Twine, Susan; Gerdts, Volker; Barreto, Luis; Richards, James C

    2014-01-01

    Novel adjuvants hold the promise for developing effective modern subunit vaccines capable of appropriately modulating the immune response against challenging diseases such as those caused by chronic and/or intracellular pathogens and cancer. Over the past decade there has been intensive research into discovering new adjuvants, however, their translation into routine clinical use is lagging. To stimulate discussion and identify opportunities for networking and collaboration among various stakeholders, a Canadian Adjuvant Initiative Workshop was held in Ottawa. Sponsored by the National Research Council Canada, Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Vaccine Industry Committee, a two day workshop was held that brought together key Canadian and international stakeholders in adjuvant research from industry, academia and government. To discover innovation gaps and unmet needs, the presentations covered a board range of topics in adjuvant development; criteria for selection of lead adjuvant candidates from an industry perspective, discovery research across Canada, bioprocessing needs and challenges, veterinary vaccines, Canadian vaccine trial capabilities, the Canadian regulatory framework and WHO formulation laboratory experience. The workshop concluded with a discussion on the opportunity to create a Canadian Adjuvant Development Network. This report details the key discussion points and steps forward identified for facilitating adjuvant development research in Canada.

  5. Cancer and the healthy immigrant effect: a statistical analysis of cancer diagnosis using a linked Census-cancer registry administrative database

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    James Ted McDonald

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large volume of research has been published on both the socio economic and demographic determinants of cancer and on the health of immigrants and minority groups. Yet because of data limitations, little research examines differences in the occurrence of cancer incidence between immigrants and non-immigrants and among immigrants defined by region of birth and time in the host country. In particular it is not known whether a healthy immigrant effect is present for cancer and if so, whether this advantage is lost with additional years of residence in the host country. Methods This paper uses a large data file from Statistics Canada that links Census information on immigrant status, socioeconomic status including educational attainment, and other person-level information with administrative data on cancer and mortality over a continuous 13 year period of observation. It estimates discrete and continuous time duration models to identify differences in cancer diagnosis by immigrant subgroup after controlling for a variety of potential confounders. Differences in historical smoking behavior are not observable at the individual level in the dataset but are accounted for indirectly using various methods. Results Results in general confirm the existence of a healthy immigrant effect for cancer in that, overall, recent immigrants to Canada are significantly less likely than otherwise comparable non-immigrant Canadians to be diagnosed with any cancer and the most common forms of cancer by site. As well, this gap appears to decline with additional years in Canada for immigrant men and women, eventually converging to Canadian-born levels. Differentiating among immigrant subgroups by period of arrival and country of birth reveals significant variation across immigrant subgroups, with immigrant men and women from developing countries typically having a lower likelihood of being diagnosed with cancer than immigrants from the US, UK and

  6. Cancer and the healthy immigrant effect: a statistical analysis of cancer diagnosis using a linked Census-cancer registry administrative database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James Ted; Farnworth, Michael; Liu, Zikuan

    2017-04-05

    A large volume of research has been published on both the socio economic and demographic determinants of cancer and on the health of immigrants and minority groups. Yet because of data limitations, little research examines differences in the occurrence of cancer incidence between immigrants and non-immigrants and among immigrants defined by region of birth and time in the host country. In particular it is not known whether a healthy immigrant effect is present for cancer and if so, whether this advantage is lost with additional years of residence in the host country. This paper uses a large data file from Statistics Canada that links Census information on immigrant status, socioeconomic status including educational attainment, and other person-level information with administrative data on cancer and mortality over a continuous 13 year period of observation. It estimates discrete and continuous time duration models to identify differences in cancer diagnosis by immigrant subgroup after controlling for a variety of potential confounders. Differences in historical smoking behavior are not observable at the individual level in the dataset but are accounted for indirectly using various methods. Results in general confirm the existence of a healthy immigrant effect for cancer in that, overall, recent immigrants to Canada are significantly less likely than otherwise comparable non-immigrant Canadians to be diagnosed with any cancer and the most common forms of cancer by site. As well, this gap appears to decline with additional years in Canada for immigrant men and women, eventually converging to Canadian-born levels. Differentiating among immigrant subgroups by period of arrival and country of birth reveals significant variation across immigrant subgroups, with immigrant men and women from developing countries typically having a lower likelihood of being diagnosed with cancer than immigrants from the US, UK and continental Europe. As well, controlling for immigrant

  7. Professional Legitimation for Education in Canadian Universities: "The Canadian Journal of Education", 1976-1997

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    Fisher, Donald

    2017-01-01

    In this commentary, Donald Fisher reports on the history of the "The Canadian Journal of Education" as part of this 40th anniversary issue. Fisher states that the history of the Canadian Society for the Study of Education (CSSE) has been profoundly influenced by changes in the role of the Canadian State. The 1960s and 1970s were a time…

  8. Association between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk: a case-control study.

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    Farah Rahman

    Full Text Available Evidence is inconsistent regarding alcohol and pancreatic cancer risk, although heavy drinking may increase risk.A population-based case-control study was conducted using 345 pancreas cancer cases diagnosed 2011-2012 and 1,285 frequency-matched controls from Ontario, Canada. Logistic regression was used to evaluate alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk; data was also stratified by sex and smoking status to assess interaction.Alcohol consumption was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (age-adjusted odds ratio=0.78, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.05 for 1 - 3 drinks/week; age-adjusted odds ratio=0.86, 95% CI: 0.63, 1.17 for 4 - 20 drinks/week, however there was a non-significant increased risk for heavy drinkers consuming ≥ 21 drinks/week (age-adjusted odds ratio=1.35, 95% CI: 0.81, 2.27. Cigarette smoking modified the alcohol-cancer relationship; among current smokers, heavy alcohol consumption was associated with a significantly increased pancreatic cancer risk (age-adjusted odds ratio=4.04, 95% CI: 1.58, 10.37, whereas this significant association with heavy drinking was not observed among non-smokers (age-adjusted odds ratio=2.01, 95% CI: 0.50, 8.18. Furthermore, light - moderate alcohol intake was associated with increased pancreas cancer risk among current smokers.While alcohol was not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk, smoking status modified this relationship such that among current smokers, alcohol intake was associated with a greater than two-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer. The results should be interpreted with caution due to small sample sizes within subgroups and correction for multiple comparisons should be considered. These findings should be replicated in larger studies where more precise estimates of risk can be obtained.

  9. Dietary patterns in relation to prostate cancer in Iranian men: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Faezeh; Parizi, Mehdi Kardoust; Jessri, Mahsa; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer among males in economically developed countries. Among the several risk factors that have been suggested, only age, ethnicity, diabetes, and family history of prostate cancer are well-established and primary prevention of this disease is limited. Prior studies had shown that dietary intake could be modified to reduce cancer risk. We conducted a hospital-based, case- control study to examine the association between dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk in Iran. A total of fifty patients with prostate cancer and a hundred controls underwent face-to-face interviews. Factor analysis was used to determine the dietary patterns. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We defined two major dietary patterns in this population: 'western diet'(high in sweets and desserts, organ meat, snacks, tea and coffee, French fries, salt, carbonated drinks, red or processed meat) and 'healthy diet' (high in legumes, fish, dairy products, fruits and fruit juice, vegetables, boiled potatoes ,whole cereal and egg). Both Healthy and western pattern scores were divided into two categories (based on medians). Higher scores on Healthy pattern was marginally significantly related to decreased risk of prostate cancer (above median vs below median, OR =0.4, 95%CI=0.2-1.0). An increased risk of prostate cancer was observed with the higher scores on the Western pattern (above median vs below median, OR=4.0, 95%CI=1.5-11.0). The results of this study suggested that diet might be associated with prostate cancer among Iranian males.

  10. The post hoc use of randomised controlled trials to explore drug associated cancer outcomes: methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansdottir, Gudrun; Zoungas, Sophia; Chalmers, John; Knol, Miriam J; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Woodward, Mark; Patel, Anushka; Grobbee, Diederick E; De Bruin, Marie L

    2013-11-01

    Drug-induced cancer risk is of increasing interest. Both observational studies and data from clinical trials have linked several widely used treatments to cancer. When a signal for a potential drug-cancer association is generated, substantiation is required to assess the impact on public health before proper regulatory action can be taken. This paper aims to discuss challenges of exploring drug-associated cancer outcomes by post-hoc analyses of Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) designed for other purposes. METHODOLOGICAL CHALLENGES TO CONSIDER: We set out to perform a post-hoc nested case-control analysis in the ADVANCE trial in order to examine the association between insulin use and cancer. We encountered several methodological challenges that made the results difficult to interpret, including short duration of exposure of interest, lack of power, and correlation between exposure and potential confounders. Considering these challenges, we concluded that using the data would not enlighten the discussion about insulin use and cancer risk and only serve to further complicate any understanding. Therefore, we decided to use our experience to illustrate methodological challenges, which need to be addressed when re-analysing trial data for cancer related outcomes. Substantial amount of information on cancer outcomes is available from RCTs. Hence, making use of such data could save time and spare patients from inclusion in further trials. However, methodological challenges must be addressed to enhance the likelihood of reliable conclusions. Advantages of post-hoc analyses of RCTs include quality of data collected and sometimes randomisation to exposure of interest. Limitations include confounding and sample size, which is fixed to suit the purposes of the trial, insufficient duration of exposure and identification of underlying biological mechanisms relating treatment to cancer to formulate the most appropriate post-hoc study design.

  11. Association between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Farah; Cotterchio, Michelle; Cleary, Sean P; Gallinger, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is inconsistent regarding alcohol and pancreatic cancer risk, although heavy drinking may increase risk. A population-based case-control study was conducted using 345 pancreas cancer cases diagnosed 2011-2012 and 1,285 frequency-matched controls from Ontario, Canada. Logistic regression was used to evaluate alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk; data was also stratified by sex and smoking status to assess interaction. Alcohol consumption was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (age-adjusted odds ratio=0.78, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.05 for 1 - 3 drinks/week; age-adjusted odds ratio=0.86, 95% CI: 0.63, 1.17 for 4 - 20 drinks/week), however there was a non-significant increased risk for heavy drinkers consuming ≥ 21 drinks/week (age-adjusted odds ratio=1.35, 95% CI: 0.81, 2.27). Cigarette smoking modified the alcohol-cancer relationship; among current smokers, heavy alcohol consumption was associated with a significantly increased pancreatic cancer risk (age-adjusted odds ratio=4.04, 95% CI: 1.58, 10.37), whereas this significant association with heavy drinking was not observed among non-smokers (age-adjusted odds ratio=2.01, 95% CI: 0.50, 8.18). Furthermore, light - moderate alcohol intake was associated with increased pancreas cancer risk among current smokers. While alcohol was not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk, smoking status modified this relationship such that among current smokers, alcohol intake was associated with a greater than two-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer. The results should be interpreted with caution due to small sample sizes within subgroups and correction for multiple comparisons should be considered. These findings should be replicated in larger studies where more precise estimates of risk can be obtained.

  12. Association between Alcohol Consumption and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Farah; Cotterchio, Michelle; Cleary, Sean P.; Gallinger, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Evidence is inconsistent regarding alcohol and pancreatic cancer risk, although heavy drinking may increase risk. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted using 345 pancreas cancer cases diagnosed 2011–2012 and 1,285 frequency-matched controls from Ontario, Canada. Logistic regression was used to evaluate alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk; data was also stratified by sex and smoking status to assess interaction. Results Alcohol consumption was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (age-adjusted odds ratio=0.78, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.05 for 1 - 3 drinks/week; age-adjusted odds ratio=0.86, 95% CI: 0.63, 1.17 for 4 - 20 drinks/week), however there was a non-significant increased risk for heavy drinkers consuming ≥21 drinks/week (age-adjusted odds ratio=1.35, 95% CI: 0.81, 2.27). Cigarette smoking modified the alcohol-cancer relationship; among current smokers, heavy alcohol consumption was associated with a significantly increased pancreatic cancer risk (age-adjusted odds ratio=4.04, 95% CI: 1.58, 10.37), whereas this significant association with heavy drinking was not observed among non-smokers (age-adjusted odds ratio=2.01, 95% CI: 0.50, 8.18). Furthermore, light – moderate alcohol intake was associated with increased pancreas cancer risk among current smokers. Conclusions While alcohol was not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk, smoking status modified this relationship such that among current smokers, alcohol intake was associated with a greater than two-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer. The results should be interpreted with caution due to small sample sizes within subgroups and correction for multiple comparisons should be considered. These findings should be replicated in larger studies where more precise estimates of risk can be obtained. PMID:25856529

  13. The Effect of Smoking and Opium on Bladder Cancer in Yazd Province: A Case - Control Study

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    Mohammad Hassan Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bladder cancer is regarded as the most common urinary malignancy in the world. As other cancers, its incidence has increased in recent years. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between smoking and opium and bladder cancer in residents of Yazd province. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 200 patients with bladder cancer and 200 matched healthy individuals in Yazd province. Research data was gathered through interview and administration of a researcher-made questionnaire.  Furthermore, chi-square and regression tests were carried out with SPSS software (version 18. Results: The mean and standard deviation of age in case and control groups were reported to be 61.54 ± 13.61 and 61.45 ± 13.3 respectively. Education level, type of oil consumed, weekly frequency of smoking and fried foods, white meat, red meat consumption involve the predictive factors for bladder cancer; as consumption of hydrogenated fats, animal fats, fried foods more than 4 times per week and red meat had (OR=1.31;95% CL,0.63-2.71, (OR= 6.32;95% CL,2.03-19.8, (OR=2.86;95% CL,1.2-6.8 and (OR=51.18;95% CL,14.78-177.03 times greater risk for bladder cancer respectively and also low education level. White meat intake had a protective effect. Moreover, in line with increasing number of cigarettes per day, the risk of bladder cancer increased. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed that smoking and opium are risk factors of bladder cancer. Thus, appropriate training and intervention program need to be taken into account in order to prevent the cancer.

  14. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

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    Hadjisavvas Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigation on risk factors of breast cancer among the Cypriot female population. Methods We carried out a case-control study, involving 1,109 breast cancer patients and a group of 1,177 controls who were recruited while participating in the National screening programme for breast cancer. Information on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected from both groups during a standardized interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the association between each risk factor and breast cancer risk, before and after adjusting for the possible confounding effect of other factors. Results In multivariable models, family history of breast cancer (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23, 2.19 was the strongest predictor of breast cancer risk in the Cypriot population. Late menarche (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45, 0.92 among women reaching menarche after the age of 15 vs. before the age of 12 and breastfeeding (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59, 0.92 exhibited a strong protective effect. In the case of breastfeeding, the observed effect appeared stronger than the effect of pregnancy alone. Surprisingly, we also observed an inverse association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT although this may be a product of the retrospective nature of this study. Conclusion Overall the findings of our study corroborate with the results of previous investigations on descriptive epidemiology of risk factors for breast cancer. This investigation provides important background

  15. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer: a case-control study based on direct interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, D T

    2001-01-01

    The etiology of pancreatic cancer is poorly understood, partly because of the inconsistency of findings among case-control studies of pancreatic cancer. Because of the unfavorable prognosis for pancreatic cancer, many case-control studies have been based largely on interviews with next of kin, who are known to report less reliable information on potential risk factors than original respondents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of speculative risk factors such as dietary/nutritional factors and alcohol drinking, as well as those of established risk factors such as cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, and family history of pancreatic cancer, on pancreatic cancer risk based solely on direct interviews. This investigation was a population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer diagnosed in Atlanta (GA), Detroit (MI), and ten New Jersey counties from August 1986 through April 1989. Direct interviews were conducted with 526 incident cases and 2,153 population controls. This study revealed a significant interaction between body mass index and caloric intake that was consistent by both race and gender. Subjects with elevated body mass index and caloric intake had increased risk, whereas those with elevated values for one of these factors but not the other experienced no increased risk. This finding suggests that energy balance may play a major role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Diabetes mellitus was also a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, as well as a possible complication of the tumor. Our data are consistent with a key role for hyperinsulinemia in pancreatic carcinogenesis, particularly among non-diabetics with an elevated body mass index. A three-fold risk of pancreatic cancer among first-degree relatives of affected individuals was apparent. An increased risk also was associated with a family history of colon, endometrial, ovary, and breast cancer, suggesting a possible link to hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer. Our findings support a

  16. Subfertility and Risk of Testicular Cancer in the EPSAM Case-Control Study.

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    Chiara Grasso

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that subfertility and testicular cancer share genetic and environmental risk factors. We studied both subfertility and the strongest known testicular cancer susceptibility gene, the c-KIT ligand (KITLG, whose pathway is involved in spermatogenesis.The EPSAM case-control study is comprised of testicular cancer patients from the Province of Turin, Italy, diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. The present analysis included 245 cases and 436 controls from EPSAM, who were aged 20 years or older at diagnosis/recruitment. The EPSAM questionnaire collected information on factors such as number of children, age at first attempt to conceive, duration of attempt to conceive, use of assisted reproduction techniques, physician-assigned diagnosis of infertility, number of siblings, and self-reported cryptorchidism. Genotyping of the KITLG single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs995030 was performed on the saliva samples of 202 cases and 329 controls.Testicular cancer was associated with the number of children fathered 5 years before diagnosis (odds ratio (OR per additional child: 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.58-1.04 and sibship size (OR per additional sibling: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.66-0.88. When considering the reproductive history until 1 year before diagnosis, attempting to conceive for at least 12 months or fathering a child using assisted reproduction techniques was not associated with the risk of testicular cancer, nor was age at first attempt to conceive or physician-assigned diagnosis of infertility. The SNP rs995030 was strongly associated with risk of testicular cancer (per allele OR: 1.83; 95%CI: 1.26-2.64, but it did not modify the association between number of children and the risk of testicular cancer.This study supports the repeatedly reported inverse association between number of children and risk of testicular cancer, but it does not find evidence of an association for other indicators of subfertility.

  17. Psychosocial consequences in the Danish randomised controlled lung cancer screening trial (DLCST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Rasmussen, Jakob; Siersma, V.; H. Pedersen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To measure the psychosocial consequences in the Danish lung cancer screening trial (DLCST)and compare those between the computed tomography (CT) group and the control group. Materials and methods: This study was a single centre randomised controlled trial with five annual screening...... rounds. Healthy current or former heavy smokers aged 50–70 years (men and women) were randomised 1:1 to a CT group and a control group. Heavy smokers were defined by having smoked ≥20pack years and former smokers by being abstinent ≤10 years. Both groups were invited annually to the screening clinic...... to complete the validated lung-cancer-specific questionnaire consequences of screening lung cancer (COS-LC). The CT group was also offered a low dose CT scan of the lungs. The COS-LC measures nine scales with psychosocial properties: Anxiety, Behaviour, Dejection, Negative impact on sleep, Self-blame, Focus...

  18. Mortality of iron foundry workers. III. Lung cancer case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjelkovich, D A; Shy, C M; Brown, M H; Janszen, D B; Levine, R J; Richardson, R B

    1994-12-01

    A nested case-control study was undertaken to identify the determinants of lung cancer mortality in a cohort of 8147 foundry men among whom an excess of lung cancer deaths was previously observed. The present study consisted of all lung cancer deaths (N = 220) that occurred within this cohort between 1950 and 1989. both living and dead controls, matched on race and attained age, were selected in the ratio of 10:1 (N = 2200) by means of the incidence density sampling procedure. All cases and two controls per case, randomly selected from each case's 10 controls, were included in a smoking history survey. Basic smoking history information was obtained for about 71% of these study subjects. For the purpose of this study, formaldehyde exposure levels were categorized as high, medium, low, and none. Airborne silica exposure was categorized only as high, medium, and low levels, because all foundry workers were known to be exposed to silica. Conditional logistic regression analyses indicated that cigarette smoking was a strong predictor of lung cancer mortality in this cohort. Neither exposure to formaldehyde nor silica exposure level, nor employment in any of the six major work areas within the foundry, showed an association with lung cancer.

  19. Case-controlled study of the epidemiological risk factors for breast cancer in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebamowo, C A; Adekunle, O O

    1999-05-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide, more rapidly in societies that hitherto enjoyed a low incidence of the disease, such as most African countries. Most of the epidemiological data on breast cancer from Africa have been retrospective studies with propensity for bias. This was a case-controlled study of 250 consecutive patients with breast cancer diagnosed between April 1992 and December 1995. An age- and sex-matched control group of patients with non-oncological and non-endocrine diseases was compared. The peak age incidence of breast cancer in the sample studied was 43 years. There was a statistically significant difference in the height and weight of the patients compared with the controls. Patients also tended to be older at first pregnancy and at first lactation, and had a higher mean number of pregnancies. The patients also tended to be of an early birth order, to have lactated less often, to have used contraceptives and to have abused alcohol compared with the controls. The incidence of breast cancer in this environment is increasing. This is partly a result of the changing demographic profile, acquisition of 'western' lifestyle, and the changing socioeconomic profile of the country.

  20. Flavonoid intake and breast cancer risk: a case--control study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, J; Lagiou, P; Samoli, E; Lagiou, A; Katsouyanni, K; La Vecchia, C; Dwyer, J; Trichopoulos, D

    2003-10-06

    Flavonoids have been investigated for possible inverse associations with various chronic degenerative diseases, but there are no epidemiologic data concerning a possible association between several of the main flavonoid categories and breast cancer risk. We have applied recently published data on the flavonoid content of several foods and beverages on dietary information collected in the context of a large case-control study of 820 women with breast cancer and 1548 control women, conducted in Greece. We found a strong, statistically significant inverse association of flavone intake with breast cancer. The odds ratio for an increment equal to one standard deviation of daily flavone intake (i.e. 0.5 mg day(-1)) was 0.87, with 95% confidence interval 0.77-0.97. The association persisted after controlling for fruit and vegetable consumption, or for other flavonoid intake. This inverse association is compatible with and may explain the reported inverse association of breast cancer with consumption of vegetables, particularly leafy vegetables. After controlling for dietary confounding, there was no association of breast cancer risk with flavanones, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, anthocyanidins or isoflavones.

  1. Results of a randomized controlled trial to increase cervical cancer screening among rural Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Beti; Carosso, Elizabeth A; Jhingan, Esther; Wang, Lei; Holte, Sarah E; Byrd, Theresa L; Benavides, Maria C; Lopez, Cathy; Martinez-Gutierrez, Javiera; Ibarra, Genoveva; Gonzalez, Virginia J; Gonzalez, Nora E; Duggan, Catherine R

    2017-02-15

    Latinas have the highest rates of cervical cancer in the United States and the second highest rate of cervical cancer mortality. One factor in the disparity is the relatively low rate of screening for cervical cancer in this population. Eligible women who were out of adherence with cervical cancer screening (>3 years since their last Papanicolaou [Pap] test) were identified via medical record review by a federally qualified local health center. The effects of a low-intensity intervention (video delivered to participants' homes; n = 150) and a high-intensity intervention (video plus a home-based educational session; n = 146) on cervical cancer screening uptake in comparison with a control arm (usual care; n = 147) were investigated. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the interventions was conducted: all intervention costs were calculated, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was computed. Finally, women with positive Pap tests were provided navigation by a community health educator to ensure that they received follow-up care. A total of 443 Latinas participated. Seven months after randomization, significantly more women in the high-intensity arm received a Pap test (53.4%) in comparison with the low-intensity arm (38.7%; P cancer; these women received navigation for follow-up care. A culturally appropriate, in-home, promotora-led educational intervention was successful in increasing cervical cancer screening among Latinas. Cancer 2017;123:666-674. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  2. Hypnosis in breast cancer care: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Lauche, Romy; Paul, Anna; Langhorst, Jost; Kümmel, Sherko; Dobos, Gustav J

    2015-01-01

    Many breast cancer patients and survivors experience pain and emotional stress related to their disease, its diagnostic procedures, or treatment. Hypnosis has long been used for the treatment of such symptoms. The aim of this review was to systematically assess the effectiveness of hypnosis in women with breast cancer, breast cancer survivors, and in women undergoing diagnostic breast biopsy. PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and CAMBASE were screened through February 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of hypnosis in women with breast cancer or undergoing diagnostic breast biopsy. RCTs on postmenopausal women without a history of breast cancer were also eligible. Primary outcomes were pain, distress, fatigue, nausea/vomiting, and hot flashes. Safety was defined as secondary outcome measure. Risk of bias was assessed by 2 reviewers independently using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Thirteen RCTs with 1357 patients were included. In women undergoing diagnostic breast biopsy (3 RCTs), hypnosis positively influenced pain and distress; 1 RCT on breast cancer surgery found effects of hypnosis on pain, distress, fatigue, and nausea. For women undergoing radiotherapy (3 RCTs), hypnosis combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy improved distress and fatigue. In 3 RCTs on women with and without a history of breast cancer experiencing hot flashes, hypnosis improved hot flashes and distress. Three RCTs on women with metastatic breast cancer found effects on pain and distress. This systematic review found sparse but promising evidence for the effectiveness of hypnosis in breast cancer care. While more research is needed to underpin these results, hypnosis can be considered as an ancillary intervention in the management of breast cancer-related symptoms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Serum Magnesium Concentrations in the Canadian Population and Associations with Diabetes, Glycemic Regulation, and Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinato, Jesse; Wang, Kuan Chiao; Hayward, Stephen

    2017-03-17

    Total serum magnesium (Mg) concentration (SMC) is commonly used to assess Mg status. This study reports current SMCs of Canadians and their associations with demographic factors, diabetes, and measures of glycemic control and insulin resistance using results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012-2013). Associations were examined in adults aged 20-79 years using linear mixed models. Mean SMCs and percentile distributions for 11 sex-age groups between 3 and 79 years (n = 5561) are reported. SMCs were normally distributed and differences (p insulin concentrations, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were negatively associated with SMC. This is the first study to report SMCs in a nationally representative sample of the Canadian population. A substantial proportion of Canadians are hypomagnesaemic in relation to a population-based reference interval, and SMC was negatively associated with diabetes and indices of glycemic control and insulin resistance.

  4. Research on Skin Cancer-Related Behaviors and Outcomes in the NIH Grant Portfolio, 2000-2014: Skin Cancer Intervention Across the Cancer Control Continuum (SCI-3C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Frank M; Dwyer, Laura A; Tesauro, Gina; Taber, Jennifer M; Norton, Wynne E; Hartman, Anne M; Geller, Alan C

    2017-05-01

    The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer broadly identified research gaps, but specific objectives are needed to further behavioral intervention research. To review National Institute of Health (NIH) grants targeting skin cancer-related behaviors and relevant outcomes. A portfolio analysis of the title, abstract, specific aims, and research plans of identified grant applications from 2000 to 2014 targeting skin cancer-related behaviors or testing behavioral intervention effects on cancer-relevant outcomes along the cancer continuum. Funding trends were compared along the cancer control continuum, with respect to investigator demographics and use of theory, technology, policy, and changes to environmental surroundings (built environment). A total of 112 submitted applications met inclusion criteria; of these, 40 (35.7%) were funded, and 31 of the 40 were interventions. Comparing the 40 funded grants with the 72 unfunded grants, the overall success rates did not differ significantly between male (33.3%) and female (37.3%) investigators, nor did the frequency of R01 awards (36.7% and 28.1%, respectively). Among intervention awards, most (24 of 31) addressed prevention. Fewer awards targeted detection alone or in conjunction with prevention (3) or cancer survivorship (4), and no grant addressed emotional sequelae or adherence behavior related to diagnosis or treatment. Fewer than half of funded grants aimed for clinically related targets (eg, sunburn reduction). Use of theory and technology occurred in more than 75% of grants. However, the full capability of proposed technology was infrequently used, and rarely did constructs of the proposed behavior change theory clearly and comprehensively drive the intervention approach. Policy or environmental manipulation was present in all dissemination grants but was rarely used elsewhere, and 19.4% included policy implementation and 25.8% proposed changes in built environment. Grant success rate in skin

  5. Canadian Council for Area Studies Learned Societies - 2007-2008 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCASLS) provides a shared secretariat for four area studies associations: the Canadian Association of African Studies (CAAS); the Canadian Asian Studies Association (CASA): the Canadian Association of Latin American and Caribbean Studies ...

  6. Confidence and uncertainty long after initial treatment for early prostate cancer: survivors' views of cancer control and the treatment decisions they made.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jack A; Talcott, James A

    2006-09-20

    The many years most men diagnosed with early prostate cancer live after diagnosis allow evolving assessments of their cancer control and their treatment choices, but little is known of these outcomes or the factors that influence them. We surveyed an established, prospective cohort that had initiated treatment for early prostate cancer 4 to 8 years previously. We assessed perceived cancer control, quality of treatment decisions, and other domains of quality of life, along with treatment-related urinary, bowel, and sexual dysfunction. Most men reported high confidence in cancer control and their treatment decisions, but many reported misgivings about one or both. The diagnostic, treatment, and quality-of-life factors associated with these two outcomes were distinct. Perceived cancer control was lower among those with adverse medical factors: higher pretreatment Gleason scores, subsequent rises in prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and secondary androgen ablation therapy. Confidence in treatment decisions was unrelated to these factors and was higher in men who opted for radical prostatectomy or brachytherapy, reported close attention to current PSA, had high masculine self-esteem and little distress from sexual dysfunction, and were married. Although perceptions of cancer control and the quality of their treatment decisions are linked, men can distinguish between these two outcomes. They incorporate objective indicators of high risk and adverse outcomes when assessing their cancer control; confidence in treatment decisions represents a more complex psychosocial adjustment to the persistent uncertainty that originates with their diagnosis.

  7. Association between obesity and local control of advanced rectal cancer after combined surgery and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Seon; Park, Sung Kwang; Cho, Heung Lae; Ahn, Ki Jung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun Han [Dept. of Molecular Medicine, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The association between metabolism and cancer has been recently emphasized. This study aimed to find the prognostic significance of obesity in advanced stage rectal cancer patients treated with surgery and radiotherapy (RT). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 111 patients who were treated with combined surgery and RT for clinical stage 2–3 (T3 or N+) rectal cancer between 2008 and 2014. The prognostic significance of obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m{sup 2}) in local control was evaluated. The median follow-up was 31.2 months (range, 4.1 to 85.7 months). Twenty-five patients (22.5%) were classified as obese. Treatment failure occurred in 33 patients (29.7%), including local failures in 13 patients (11.7%), regional lymph node failures in 5, and distant metastases in 24. The 3-year local control, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 88.7%, 73.6%, and 87.7%, respectively. Obesity (n = 25) significantly reduced the local control rate (p = 0.045; 3-year local control, 76.2%), especially in women (n = 37, p = 0.021). Segregation of local control was best achieved by BMI of 25.6 kg/m{sup 2} as a cutoff value. Obese rectal cancer patients showed poor local control after combined surgery and RT. More effective local treatment strategies for obese patients are warranted.

  8. Opportunity for collaboration: a conceptual model of success in tobacco control and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Frances A; Schmitt, Carol L; Rosas, Scott R

    2012-01-01

    Collaborations between cancer prevention and tobacco control programs can leverage scarce resources to address noncommunicable diseases globally, but barriers to cooperation and actual collaboration are substantial. To foster collaboration between cancer prevention and tobacco control programs, the Global Health Partnership conducted research to identify similarities and differences in how the 2 programs viewed program success. Using concept mapping, cancer prevention and tobacco control experts generated statements describing the components of a successful cancer prevention or tobacco control program and 33 participants sorted and rated the final 99 statements. Multidimensional scaling analysis with a 2-dimensional solution was used to identify an 8-cluster conceptual map of program success. We calculated Pearson correlation coefficients for all 99 statements to compare the item-level ratings of both groups and used t tests to compare the mean importance of ratings assigned to each cluster. Eight major clusters of success were identified: 1) advocacy and persuasion, 2) building sustainability, 3) partnerships, 4) readiness and support, 5) program management fundamentals, 6) monitoring and evaluation, 7) utilization of evidence, and 8) implementation. We found no significant difference between the maps created by the 2 groups and only 1 mean difference for the importance ratings for 1 of the clusters: cancer prevention experts rated partnerships as more important to program success than did tobacco control experts. Our findings are consistent with those of research documenting the necessary components of successful programs and the similarities between cancer prevention and tobacco control. Both programs value the same strategies to address a common risk factor: tobacco use. Identifying common ground between these 2 research and practice communities can benefit future collaborations at the local, state, tribal, national, and international levels, and inform the

  9. Altered mitochondrial quality control signaling in muscle of old gastric cancer patients with cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzetti, Emanuele; Lorenzi, Maria; Landi, Francesco; Picca, Anna; Rosa, Fausto; Tanganelli, Fabiana; Galli, Marco; Doglietto, Giovanni Battista; Pacelli, Fabio; Cesari, Matteo; Bernabei, Roberto; Calvani, Riccardo; Bossola, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the loss of muscle featuring both aging and cancer cachexia (CC). Whether mitochondrial quality control (MQC) is altered in skeletal myocytes of old patients with CC is unclear. The present investigation therefore sought to preliminarily characterize MQC pathways in muscle of old gastric cancer patients with cachexia. The study followed a case-control cross-sectional design. Intraoperative biopsies of the rectus abdominis muscle were obtained from 18 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (nine with CC and nine non-cachectic) and nine controls, and assayed for the expression of a set of MQC mediators. The mitofusin 2 expression was reduced in cancer patients compared with controls, independent of CC. Fission protein 1 was instead up-regulated in CC patients relative to the other groups. The mitophagy regulators PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 and Parkin were both down-regulated in cancer patients compared with controls. The ratio between the protein content of the lipidated and non-lipidated forms of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B was lower in CC patients relative to controls and non-cachectic cancer patients. Finally, the expression of autophagy-associated protein 7, lysosome-associated membrane protein 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, and mitochondrial transcription factor A was unvarying among groups. Collectively, our findings indicate that, in old patients with gastric cancer, cachexia is associated with derangements of the muscular MQC axis at several checkpoints: mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial tagging for disposal, and mitophagy signaling. Further investigations are needed to corroborate these preliminary findings and determine whether MQC pathways may become target for future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of adjuvant exemestane versus anastrozole on bone mineral density for women with early breast cancer (MA.27B): a companion analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Paul E; Hershman, Dawn L; Cheung, Angela M; Ingle, James N; Khosla, Sundeep; Stearns, Vered; Chalchal, Haji; Rowland, Kendrith; Muss, Hyman B; Linden, Hannah M; Scher, Judite; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Elliott, Catherine R; Badovinac-Crnjevic, Tanja; St Louis, Jessica; Chapman, Judith-Anne W; Shepherd, Lois E

    2014-04-01

    Treatment of breast cancer with aromatase inhibitors is associated with damage to bones. NCIC CTG MA.27 was an open-label, phase 3, randomised controlled trial in which women with breast cancer were assigned to one of two adjuvant oral aromatase inhibitors-exemestane or anastrozole. We postulated that exemestane-a mildly androgenic steroid-might have a less detrimental effect on bone than non-steroidal anastrozole. In this companion study to MA.27, we compared changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and total hip between patients treated with exemestane and patients treated with anastrozole. In MA.27, postmenopausal women with early stage hormone (oestrogen) receptor-positive invasive breast cancer were randomly assigned to exemestane 25 mg versus anastrozole 1 mg, daily. MA.27B recruited two groups of women from MA.27: those with BMD T-scores of -2·0 or more (up to 2 SDs below sex-matched, young adult mean) and those with at least one T-score (hip or spine) less than -2·0. Both groups received vitamin D and calcium; those with baseline T-scores of less than -2·0 also received bisphosphonates. The primary endpoints were percent change of BMD at 2 years in lumbar spine and total hip for both groups. We analysed patients according to which aromatase inhibitor and T-score groups they were allocated to but BMD assessments ceased if patients deviated from protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00354302. Between April 24, 2006, and May 30, 2008, 300 patients with baseline T-scores of -2·0 or more were accrued (147 allocated exemestane, 153 anastrozole); and 197 patients with baseline T-scores of less than -2·0 (101 exemestane, 96 anastrozole). For patients with T-scores greater than -2·0 at baseline, mean change of bone mineral density in the spine at 2 years did not differ significantly between patients taking exemestane and patients taking anastrozole (-0·92%, 95% CI -2·35 to 0·50 vs -2·39%, 95% CI -3·77 to -1·01; p

  11. A pilot randomized controlled trial of cognitive bias modification to reduce fear of breast cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenthal, Wendy G; Corner, Geoffrey W; Slivjak, Elizabeth T; Roberts, Kailey E; Li, Yuelin; Breitbart, William; Lacey, Stephanie; Tuman, Malwina; DuHamel, Katherine N; Blinder, Victoria S; Beard, Courtney

    2017-04-15

    The most common, persistent concern among survivors of breast cancer is the fear that their disease will return, yet to the authors' knowledge, few interventions targeting fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) have been developed to date. The current pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a home-delivered cognitive bias modification intervention to reduce FCR. The intervention, called Attention and Interpretation Modification for Fear of Breast Cancer Recurrence (AIM-FBCR), targeted 2 types of cognitive biases (ie, attention and interpretation biases). A total of 110 survivors of breast cancer were randomized to receive 8 sessions of 1 of 2 versions of AIM-FBCR or a control condition program. Computer-based assessments of cognitive biases and a self-report measure of FCR were administered before the intervention, after the intervention, and 3 months after the intervention. Improvements in health worries (P = .019) and interpretation biases (rates of threat endorsement [Pcancer. Future research should attempt to replicate these findings in a larger-scale trial using a more sophisticated, user-friendly program and additional measures of improvement in more diverse samples. Cancer 2017;123:1424-1433. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. A Case Control Study of Lung Cancer Among Workers in Dagang Oil Field, Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaguang FAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective To investigate the risk factors of lung cancer among the employees who had worked in Dagang oil field, Tianjin, China. Methods A matched case control study was conducted to analyse the association between some exposures and lung cancer risk by univariate and multiple Logistic regression method. ResultsAccording to the results from univariate and multiple analysis, smoking and previous lung disease increase lung cancer risk with adjusted OR of 1.52 (95%CI: 1.18-1.94 and 3.37 (95%CI: 1.88-7.16 respectively, while the adjusted OR for occupational chemical toxic substance and dust exposure is 0.73 (95%CI: 0.69-1.30 and 0.84 (95%CI: 0.62-1.15 respectively, and there is no significant association between family history of cancer and lung cancer risk in this study.Conclusion Smoking and previous lung disease are the independent risk factors for lung cancer among workers in Dagang oil field, yet due to some potential epidemiological bias, the association between occupational exposure and lung cancer needs further investigation.

  13. The expression of Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) in testicular cancer: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapouri, Farnaz; Saeidi, Shaghayegh; Ashrafi Kakhki, Sara; Pouyan, Omid; Amirchaghmaghi, Elham; Aflatoonian, Reza

    2013-11-01

    It has been suggested that malfunction of immune system may causes testicular cancer. Recently, our understanding of innate immune system has been expanded, by discovery of "Toll-Like Receptors" (TLRs). Some studies have shown that polymorphisms of TLR2 and 4 may affect on the risk of cancer. Also, the role of TLRs 3 and 9 have been shown in apoptosis and metastasis of cancer cells in animal models. Little information is available about the influence of innate immunity on testicular malignancy. Therefore, expression of TLRs 2, 3, 4 and 9 as main components of innate immunity has been investigated in this study. In this case control study, TLRs gene expression was examined by RT-PCR in normal testis and testicular cancer tissues. Real time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis was used to compare the relative expression of TLRs between the samples. mRNAs of TLR 2, 3, 4 and 9 were expressed in all normal and cancer samples. Q-PCR reveals that cancer samples had stronger expression of these genes compared with normal ones. It seems that the different TLRs expression in testicular cancer cells may contribute to extensive signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis.

  14. Induced abortion and breast cancer: results from a population-based case control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Qing; Li, Yu-Yan; Ren, Jing-Chao; Zhao, Rui; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Er-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether induced abortion (IA) increases breast cancer (BC) risk. A population-based case-control study was performed from Dec, 2000 to November, 2004 in Shanghai, China, where IA could be verified through the family planning network and client medical records. Structured questionnaires were completed by 1,517 cases with primary invasive epithelial breast cancer and 1,573 controls frequency- matched to cases for age group. The information was supplemented and verified by the family planning records. Statistical analysis was conducted with SAS 9.0. After adjusting for potential confounders, induced abortions were not found to be associated with breast cancer with OR=0.94 (95%CI= 0.79-1.11). Compared to parous women without induced abortion, parous women with 3 or more times induced abortion (OR=0.66, 95%CI=0.46 to 0.95) and women with 3 or more times induced abortion after the first live birth (OR=0.66, 95%CI =0.45 to 0.97) showed a lower risk of breast cancer, after adjustment for age, level of education, annual income per capita, age at menarche, menopause, parity times, spontaneous abortion, age at first live birth, breast-feeding, oral contraceptives, hormones drug, breast disease, BMI, drinking alcohol, drinking tea, taking vitamin/calcium tablet, physical activity, vocation, history of breast cancer, eating the bean. The results suggest that a history of induced abortions may not increase the risk of breast cancer.

  15. Lung cancer and cigarette smoking in women: a case-control study in Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, A; Barnadas, A; Pallares, C; Martinez, I; Fabregat, X; Rosello, J; Estape, J; Planas, J; Gonzalez, C A

    1994-10-15

    A case-control study on lung cancer and the habit of cigarette smoking was carried out in Barcelona (Spain). Cases were 103 women newly diagnosed with primary lung cancer in 10 hospitals from the study area. Histologic confirmation was given in 101 cases, of which 53 were adenocarcinoma, 19 squamous-cell carcinoma, 9 small-cell carcinoma and 20 other types. Two controls per case were selected, matched by age, residence and hospital. Compared with the never-smokers, the odds ratios (OR), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI), were 1.61 (0.4 to 6.9) for ex-smokers and 3.61 (1.6 to 8.3) for current smokers. The risk of lung cancer showed a good dose-response relationship with duration of the habit, average number of cigarettes smoked daily and cumulative cigarette consumption. The risk of lung cancer increased by 62% for each 10 pack-years. Depth of inhalation also showed a remarkable effect, independently of the intensity of the habit. Although mortality and incidence rates of lung cancer among women in Spain are lower than in other developed countries, the risk of lung cancer is that which would be expected according to the pattern of the smoking habit in Spanish women.

  16. Mindfulness practice reduces cortisol blunting during chemotherapy: A randomized controlled study of colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David S; Peng, Cheng; Sleight, Alix G; Nguyen, Nathalie; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Figueiredo, Jane C

    2017-08-15

    The objective of this randomized clinical experiment was to test the influence of a mindfulness meditation practice, when delivered during 1 session of active chemotherapy administration, on the acute salivary cortisol response as a marker of neuroendocrine system activity in cancer patients. A mindfulness, attention-control, or resting exposure was assigned to 57 English- or Spanish-speaking colorectal cancer patients at 1 county oncology clinic and 1 university oncology clinic at the start of chemotherapy. Saliva samples were collected at the start of chemotherapy and at subsequent 20-minute intervals during the first 60 minutes of chemotherapy (4 samples in all). Self-reporting on biobehavioral assessments after chemotherapy included distress, fatigue, and mindfulness. An area-under-the-curve analysis (AUC) showed a relative increase in cortisol reactivity in the mindfulness group after adjustments for biological and clinical measures (β = 123.21; P = .03). More than twice as many patients in the mindfulness group versus the controls displayed a cortisol rise from the baseline to 20 minutes (69% vs 34%; P = .02). AUC values were uncorrelated with biobehavioral measure scores, although mindfulness scores were inversely correlated with fatigue (r = -0.46; P mindfulness practice during chemotherapy can reduce the blunting of neuroendocrine profiles typically observed in cancer patients. Implications include support for the use of mindfulness practice in integrative oncology. Cancer 2017;123:3088-96. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  17. Lung cancer and occupation in nonsmokers: a multicenter case-control study in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeka, Ariana; Mannetje, Andrea't; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Cassidy, Adrian; Janout, Vladimir; Travier, Noemie; Fevotte, Joelle; Fletcher, Tony; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Tobacco smoking is the main cause for lung cancer worldwide, making it difficult to examine the carcinogenic role of other risk factors because of possible confounding by smoking. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the association between lung cancer and occupation independent of smoking. A case-control study of lung cancer was carried out between March 1998 and January 2002 in 16 centers from 7 European countries, including 223 never-smoking cases and 1039 controls. Information on lifestyle and occupation was obtained through detailed questionnaires. Job and industries were classified as entailing exposure to known or suspected carcinogens; in addition, expert assessment provided exposure estimates to specific agents. The odds ratio of lung cancer among women employed for more than 12 years in suspected high-risk occupations was 1.75 (95% confidence interval = 0.63-4.85). A comparable increase in risk was not detected for employment in established high-risk occupations or among men. Increased risk of lung cancer was suggested among individuals exposed to nonferrous metal dust and fumes, crystalline silica, and organic solvents. Occupations were found to play a limited role in lung cancer risk among never-smokers. Jobs entailing exposure to suspected lung carcinogens should receive priority in future studies among women. Nonferrous metal dust and fumes and silica may exert a carcinogenic effect independently from smoking.

  18. Dietary inflammatory index and ovarian cancer risk in a New Jersey case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R; Paddock, Lisa E; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Olson, Sara H; Bandera, Elisa V

    2018-02-01

    Diet may influence the development of ovarian cancer. Although it has been shown that inflammation plays an important etiologic role in ovarian carcinogenesis, little is known about the influence of the inflammatory potential of food consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a proinflammatory diet, as indicated by a high dietary inflammatory index (DII ® ) score, on ovarian cancer risk, in a New Jersey population. Data from a case-control study conducted in New Jersey were used to estimate the relation between DII score and the risk for ovarian cancer. The study consisted of 205 cases with incident, histologically confirmed ovarian cancer, and 390 controls identified by random-digit dialing, based on Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Service lists, and area sampling. Computation of the DII was based on the intake of selected dietary factors assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for potential covariates. Although there was no significant association observed in pre- and perimenopausal women, a significant association was observed between the most proinflammatory DII scores and ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women (OR Quartile4 vs1 , 1.89; 95% CI, 1.02-3.52; P trend  = 0.03). Findings from the present study suggested that a proinflammatory diet may increase risk for ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women, and warrants further study to confirm this association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer risk: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Massa, Ana E; Alonso-Sardón, Montserrat; Menacho-Miguel, José Antonio; Mirón-Canelo, José Antonio; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio

    2014-08-04

    The smoke fume, principal factor in the development of lung cancer, causes the expression of certain cytokines, including interleukin 4, 6, 8 and 10, which may act by inhibiting apoptosis and interfere cellular repair mechanisms and angiogenesis. To determine the possible relationship between gene polymorphisms of these cytokines and lung cancer. To achieve this objective we designed a case-control study, which included 400 patients who had come to the consultation for rapid diagnosis of lung cancer at the Pneumology Department, University Hospital of Salamanca, and whose main criterion exclusion was the lack of active contact with smoke fume. Patients were divided into 2 groups, each consisting of 200 patients: cases (patients diagnosed with lung cancer) and controls (patients without lung cancer). A percentage of 62.8 of men were former smokers at diagnosis compared with 55.5% of women, although the former still had a greater cumulative consumption. Squamous cell carcinoma predominated in diagnosis (48.9% of patients) and more than half were in advanced stages (28.5% in stage iiiB and 25.5% in stage iv). No statistical significance was observed by linking the existence of tumor to the prevalence of any of the analyzed polymorphisms. Polymorphisms in the study did not modify the risk of developing lung cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Differences in cancer information-seeking behavior, preferences, and awareness between cancer survivors and healthy controls: a national, population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Abbey R; Lykins, Emily L B; Gochett, Celestine G; Brechting, Emily H; Graue, Lili O; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    No research has examined how cancer diagnosis and treatment might alter information source preferences or opinions. We examined data from 719 cancer survivors (CS group) and 2012 matched healthy controls (NCC group) regarding cancer-related information-seeking behavior, preferences, and awareness from the population-based 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey. The CS group reported greater consumption of cancer-related information, but the CS and NCC groups did not differ in information source use or preferences. The CS group was more confident of their ability to get cancer information, reported more trust in health care professionals and television as cancer information sources, but evaluated their recent cancer information-seeking experiences more negatively than the NCC group. Awareness of cancer information resources was surprisingly low in both the CS and NCC groups. Cancer diagnosis and treatment subtly alters cancer information-seeking preferences and experience. However, awareness and use of cancer information resources was relatively low regardless of personal history of cancer.

  1. Differences in Cancer Information Seeking Behavior, Preferences, and Awareness Between Cancer Survivors and Healthy Controls: A National, Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Abbey R.; Lykins, Emily L.B.; Gochett, Celestine G.; Brechting, Emily H.; Graue, Lili O.; Andrykowski, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Background No research has examined how cancer diagnosis and treatment might alter information source preferences or opinions. Methods Data from 719 cancer survivors (CS group) and 2012 matched healthy controls (NCC group) regarding cancer-related information seeking behavior, preferences, and awareness from the population-based 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was examined. Results The CS group reported greater consumption of cancer-related information but the CS and NCC groups did not differ in information source use or preferences. The CS group was more confident of their ability to get cancer information, reported more trust in health care professionals and television as cancer information sources, but evaluated their recent cancer information seeking experiences more negatively than the NCC group. Awareness of cancer information resources was surprisingly low in both the CS and NCC groups. Conclusions Cancer diagnosis and treatment subtly alters cancer information seeking preferences and experience. However awareness and use of cancer information resources was relatively low regardless of personal history of cancer. PMID:19259869

  2. Nanomedicine strategies for sustained, controlled and targeted treatment of cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Li, Wei; Guo, Yajun; Feng, Si-Shen

    2016-12-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are original cancer cells that are of characteristics associated with normal stem cells. CSCs are toughest against various treatments and thus responsible for cancer metastasis and recurrence. Therefore, development of specific and effective treatment of CSCs plays a key role in improving survival and life quality of cancer patients, especially those in the metastatic stage. Nanomedicine strategies, which include prodrugs, micelles, liposomes and nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers, could substantially improve the therapeutic index of conventional therapeutics due to its manner of sustained, controlled and targeted delivery of high transportation efficiency across the cell membrane and low elimination by intracellular autophagy, and thus provide a practical solution to solve the problem encountered in CSCs treatment. This review gives briefly the latest information to summarize the concept, strategies, mechanisms and current status as well as future promises of nanomedicine strategies for treatment of CSCs.

  3. Nurse-Led Programs to Facilitate Enrollment to Children's Oncology Group Cancer Control Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Maureen; Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Leonard, Marcia; Mills, Denise; Sung, Lillian; Mowbray, Catriona; Landier, Wendy

    2016-09-01

    The progress made over the past 50 years in disease-directed clinical trials has significantly increased cure rates for children and adolescents with cancer. The Children's Oncology Group (COG) is now conducting more studies that emphasize improving quality of life for young people with cancer. These types of clinical trials are classified as cancer control (CCL) studies by the National Cancer Institute and require different resources and approaches to facilitate adequate accrual and implementation at COG institutions. Several COG institutions that had previously experienced problems with low accruals to CCL trials have successfully implemented local nursing leadership for these types of studies. Successful models of nurses as institutional leaders and "champions" of CCL trials are described. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  4. Plasma metabolomic profiles in breast cancer patients and healthy controls: by race and tumor receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Yan, Li; Liu, Song; Ambrosone, Christine B; Zhao, Hua

    2013-12-01

    A few studies in the last several years have shown that metabolomics, the study of metabolites and small intermediate molecules, may help better understand the breast carcinogenesis. However, breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with different subtypes. Additionally, there is a significant racial difference in terms of breast cancer incidence and mortality. Few, if any, metabolomics studies in breast cancer have considered race and tumor subtypes in the study design. We performed a global metabolomic profiling using mass spectrometry and samples from 60 breast cancer cases and 60 matched controls. A total of 375 named metabolites were observed, with 117 metabolites whose levels were significantly different between African American and Caucasian American women (P racial difference.

  5. Cancer Control Related to Stimulation of Immunity by Low-Dose Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Zheng

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies showed that low dose radiation (LDR) could stimulate the immune system in both animal and human populations. This paper reviews the present status of relevant research as support to the use of LDR in clinical practice for cancer prevention and treatment. It has been demonstrated that radiation-induced changes in immune activity follows an inverse J-shaped curve, i.e., low dose stimulation and high dose suppression. The stimulation of immunity by LDR concerns most anticancer parameters, including antibody formation, natural killer activity, secretion of interferon and other cytokines as well as other cellular changes. Animal studies have revealed that LDR retards tumor growth, decreases cancer metastasis, and inhibits carcinogenesis induced by high dose radiation. These effects of LDR on cancer control were found to be related to its stimulation on immunity. The experimental data may well explain the efficacy of the clinical trial of LDR in the treatment of cancer. PMID:18648611

  6. Challenges in the development and implementation of the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Meneses-García, Abelardo; Erazo-Valle, Aura; Escudero-de Los Ríos, Pedro; Kuri-Morales, Pablo Antonio; Mohar-Betancourt, Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), including cancer, have become the leading cause of human morbidity and mortality. In Mexico, cancer is the third leading cause of death, with a high incidence among the economically active population, a high proportion of advanced stages at diagnosis and limited care coverage for patients. However, no public policy aimed at managing this important public health problem has been developed and implemented to date. This manuscript describes the first interinstitutional proposal of a National Program for Cancer Control, considering the known risk factors, early detection, treatment, palliative care and patient rehabilitation. This manuscript also outlines a series of thoughts on the difficulties and needs that the Mexican health system faces in achieving the main objectives of the program: to decrease the incidence of cancer, to increase survival and to improve the quality of life for this group of patients.

  7. Rising Cost of Cancer Pharmaceuticals: Cost Issues and Interventions to Control Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glode, Ashley E; May, Megan Brafford

    2017-01-01

    The rising cost of pharmaceuticals and, in particular, cancer drugs has made headline news in recent years. Several factors contribute to increasing costs and the burden this places on the health care system and patients. Some of these factors include costly cancer pharmaceutical research and development, longer clinical trials required to achieve drug approval, manufacturing costs for complex compounds, and the economic principles surrounding oncology drug pricing. Strategies to control costs have been proposed, and some have already been implemented to mitigate cancer drug costs such as the use of clinical treatment pathways and tools to facilitate cost discussions with patients. In this article, we briefly review some of the potential factors contributing to increasing cancer pharmaceutical costs and interventions to mitigate costs, and touch on the role of health care providers in addressing this important issue. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  8. The Canadian mobile satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertenyi, Elemer

    1992-07-01

    Plans to upgrade Canadian mobile data services by introducing a full, two way mobile voice and data service, using a large geostationary satellite which is scheduled to be launched in 1994, are reported. This Mobile Satellite (MSAT) will offer customers the ability to communicate, using mobile or transportable terminals, from the most remote parts of the continent, to any other point within North America, and indeed the whole world. Currently planned MSAT services are reviewed, the main features of the overall system are outlined, and the configuration and key performance parameters of the MSAT satellite are presented. The communications subsystem is detailed, and a summary of the spacecraft service module is given.

  9. Canadian Cardiovascular Society and Canadian Thoracic Society Position Statement on Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Langleben

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Cardiovascular Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society requested a position statement on pulmonary arterial hypertension from leading Canadian experts. The present document is intended to act as an update for the clinician, to provide a template for the initial evaluation of patients, to enable the understanding of current therapeutic paradigms based on approved indications for Canada, to highlight new therapies on the horizon, and to state the positions of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society on resource management for pulmonary arterial hypertension in Canada.

  10. Skin cancer: preventive photodynamic therapy in patients with face and scalp cancerization. A randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apalla, Z; Sotiriou, E; Chovarda, E; Lefaki, I; Devliotou-Panagiotidou, D; Ioannides, D

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with a previous medical history of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) often develop multiple or recurrent malignant lesions around the site of the primary tumour. This finding led to the field cancerization theory, which suggests that the entire epithelial surface of the regional skin has an increased risk for the development of malignant lesions. Management of field change is challenging, taking into account the high impact of NMSCs on public health and healthcare costs. Objectives We sought to investigate whether field-photodynamic therapy (PDT) of extreme photodamaged skin would prevent new NMSCs, in comparison with a control area receiving placebo-PDT, in patients with clinical and histological signs of field cancerization. Methods Forty-five patients, previously diagnosed as having NMSCs of the face or scalp, with actinic keratoses symmetrically distributed over the same regions, were randomized for field treatment with 20% aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-PDT on one side and placebo-PDT on the other. During the next 12-month period of follow up, patients were clinically evaluated for new NMSCs. Results A significant delay in the mean time of appearance and a reduction in the total number of new lesions were observed in the field-PDT protocol, when compared with the control. Conclusions The results obtained showed that field therapy with ALA-PDT confers a significant preventive potential against the formation of new NMSCs in patients with field changes.

  11. Perceived control and hot flashes in treatment-seeking breast cancer survivors and menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Janet S; Wu, Jingwei; Burns, Debra S; Yu, Menggang

    2012-01-01

    Lower perceived control over hot flashes has been linked to fewer coping strategies, more catastrophizing, and greater hot flash severity and distress in midlife women, yet this important concept has not yet been studied in breast cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to explore perceived control over hot flashes and hot flashes in breast cancer survivors compared with midlife women without cancer. Ninety-nine survivors and 138 midlife women completed questionnaires and a prospective, electronic hot flash diary. All data were collected at a baseline assessment before randomization in a behavioral intervention study. Both groups had moderate perceived control over hot flashes. Control was not significantly related to hot flash frequency but was significantly related to hot flash severity, bother, and interference in both groups. A significantly stronger association between control and hot flash interference was found for survivors than for midlife women. Survivors using hot flash treatments perceived less control than did survivors not using hot flash treatments, whereas the opposite was true in midlife women. Findings extend our knowledge of perceived control over hot flashes in both survivors and midlife women. Findings emphasize the importance of continued menopausal symptom assessment and management, support the importance of continuing nursing care even for survivors who are already using hot flash treatment, and suggest that nursing interventions aimed at improving perceived control over hot flashes may be more helpful for survivors than for midlife women.

  12. Effects of Voice Rehabilitation After Radiation Therapy for Laryngeal Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, Lisa, E-mail: lisa.tuomi@vgregion.se [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Andréll, Paulin [Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine/Multidisciplinary Pain Center, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Finizia, Caterina [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-08-01

    Background: Patients treated with radiation therapy for laryngeal cancer often experience voice problems. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of voice rehabilitation for laryngeal cancer patients after having undergone radiation therapy and to investigate whether differences between different tumor localizations with regard to rehabilitation outcomes exist. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine male patients irradiated for laryngeal cancer participated. Voice recordings and self-assessments of communicative dysfunction were performed 1 and 6 months after radiation therapy. Thirty-three patients were randomized to structured voice rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist and 36 to a control group. Furthermore, comparisons with 23 healthy control individuals were made. Acoustic analyses were performed for all patients, including the healthy control individuals. The Swedish version of the Self Evaluation of Communication Experiences after Laryngeal Cancer and self-ratings of voice function were used to assess vocal and communicative function. Results: The patients who received vocal rehabilitation experienced improved self-rated vocal function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors who received voice rehabilitation had statistically significant improvements in voice quality and self-rated vocal function, whereas the control group did not. Conclusion: Voice rehabilitation for male patients with laryngeal cancer is efficacious regarding patient-reported outcome measurements. The patients experienced better voice function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors also showed an improvement in terms of acoustic voice outcomes. Rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist is recommended for laryngeal cancer patients after radiation therapy, particularly for patients with supraglottic tumors.

  13. Impact of the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network: Accelerating the Translation of Research Into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Fernandez, Maria E; Friedman, Daniela B; Hannon, Peggy A; Leeman, Jennifer; Moore, Alexis; Olson, Lindsay; Ory, Marcia; Risendal, Betsy; Sheble, Laura; Taylor, Vicky M; Williams, Rebecca S; Weiner, Bryan J

    2017-03-01

    The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (CPCRN) is a thematic network dedicated to accelerating the adoption of evidence-based cancer prevention and control practices in communities by advancing dissemination and implementation science. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute, CPCRN has operated at two levels: Each participating network center conducts research projects with primarily local partners as well as multicenter collaborative research projects with state and national partners. Through multicenter collaboration, thematic networks leverage the expertise, resources, and partnerships of participating centers to conduct research projects collectively that might not be feasible individually. Although multicenter collaboration is often advocated, it is challenging to promote and assess. Using bibliometric network analysis and other graphical methods, this paper describes CPCRN's multicenter publication progression from 2004 to 2014. Searching PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science in 2014 identified 249 peer-reviewed CPCRN publications involving two or more centers out of 6,534 total. The research and public health impact of these multicenter collaborative projects initiated by CPCRN during that 10-year period were then examined. CPCRN established numerous workgroups around topics such as: 2-1-1, training and technical assistance, colorectal cancer control, federally qualified health centers, cancer survivorship, and human papillomavirus. This paper discusses the challenges that arise in promoting multicenter collaboration and the strategies that CPCRN uses to address those challenges. The lessons learned should broadly interest those seeking to promote multisite collaboration to address public health problems, such as cancer prevention and control. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary total antioxidant capacity and pancreatic cancer risk: an Italian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Aimee L; Bosetti, Cristina; Boffetta, Paolo; Negri, Eva; Tavani, Alessandra; Serafini, Mauro; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; La Vecchia, Carlo; Rossi, Marta

    2016-06-28

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality. Diet may be associated with pancreatic cancer, but it is unknown whether specific dietary components contribute to its risk. The potential differential role of dietary antioxidants warrants further investigation. We analysed data from a case-control study of 326 pancreatic cancer cases and 652 controls conducted between 1991 and 2008 in Northern Italy. Subjects' usual diet was assessed through a validated and reproducible food frequency questionnaire. Using this information and an Italian food composition database, we calculated three indices of dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC): Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for pancreatic cancer using multiple logistic regression models conditioned on study centre, sex and age, and adjusted for major known pancreatic cancer risk factors. Significant inverse associations were found for the highest tertile of TAC compared with the lowest tertile for both TEAC and FRAP. The ORs were 0.61 (95% CI 0.39-0.94, P-value for trend 0.03) and 0.63 (95% CI 0.41-0.99, P-value for trend 0.05), respectively. Total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter was inversely, but not significantly, associated with pancreatic cancer risk, with an OR of 0.78 (95% CI 0.49-1.24, P-value for trend 0.27). Diet high in TAC, as measured by TEAC and FRAP, is inversely associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

  15. Obesity, inflammatory markers, and endometrial cancer risk: a prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossus, Laure; Rinaldi, Sabina; Becker, Susen; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Stegger, Jakob; Overvad, Kim; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Rohrmann, Sabine; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Schütze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Redondo, Maria-Luisa; Travier, Noémie; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Altzibar, Jone M; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H M; Hallmans, Goran; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim J; Slimani, Nadia; Hainaut, Pierre; Romaguera, Dora; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2010-12-01

    Obesity, a major risk factor for endometrial cancer, is a low-grade inflammatory state characterized by elevated concentrations of cytokines and acute phase reactants. The current study had two aims: first to investigate the associations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6), and IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra) with endometrial cancer risk and second to examine to which extent these markers can influence the association between obesity and endometrial cancer. We conducted a case-control study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, which comprised 305 incident cases of endometrial cancer and 574 matched controls. CRP, IL6, and IL1Ra were measured in prospectively collected blood specimens by immunoassays. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided, and P values endometrial cancer with elevated levels of CRP (odds ratio (OR) for top versus bottom quartile: 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-2.41, P(trend)=0.02), IL6 (OR for top versus bottom quartile: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.08-2.54, P(trend)=0.008), and IL1Ra (OR for top versus bottom quartile: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.22-2.73, P(trend)=0.004). After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), the estimates were strongly reduced and became non-significant. The association between BMI and endometrial cancer was also substantially attenuated (∼10-20%) after adjustment for inflammatory markers, even when the effects of C-peptide or estrone had already been taken into account. We provided epidemiological evidence that chronic inflammation might mediate the association between obesity and endometrial cancer and that endometrial carcinogenesis could be promoted by an inflammatory milieu.

  16. Obesity, inflammatory markers, and endometrial cancer risk: a prospective case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossus, Laure; Rinaldi, Sabina; Becker, Susen; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Stegger, Jakob; Overvad, Kim; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Rohrmann, Sabine; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Schütze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Redondo, Maria-Luisa; Travier, Noémie; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Altzibar, Jone M; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H M; Hallmans, Goran; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim J; Slimani, Nadia; Hainaut, Pierre; Romaguera, Dora; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Obesity, a major risk factor for endometrial cancer, is a low-grade inflammatory state characterized by elevated concentrations of cytokines and acute phase reactants. The current study had two aims: first to investigate the associations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6), and IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra) with endometrial cancer risk and second to examine to which extent these markers can influence the association between obesity and endometrial cancer. We conducted a case–control study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, which comprised 305 incident cases of endometrial cancer and 574 matched controls. CRP, IL6, and IL1Ra were measured in prospectively collected blood specimens by immunoassays. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided, and P values endometrial cancer with elevated levels of CRP (odds ratio (OR) for top versus bottom quartile: 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–2.41, Ptrend=0.02), IL6 (OR for top versus bottom quartile: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.08–2.54, Ptrend=0.008), and IL1Ra (OR for top versus bottom quartile: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.22–2.73, Ptrend=0.004). After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), the estimates were strongly reduced and became non-significant. The association between BMI and endometrial cancer was also substantially attenuated (∼10–20%) after adjustment for inflammatory markers, even when the effects of C-peptide or estrone had already been taken into account. We provided epidemiological evidence that chronic inflammation might mediate the association between obesity and endometrial cancer and that endometrial carcinogenesis could be promoted by an inflammatory milieu. PMID:20843938

  17. [Fasting serum glucose level and gastric cancer risk in a nested case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jae Kwan; Gwack, Jin; Park, Sue Kyung; Choi, Yun-Hee; Kim, Yeonju; Shin, Aesun; Chang, Soung-Hoon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2006-11-01

    Diabetes has been reported as a risk factor for several cancers. However, the association between diabetes and gastric cancer has been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the fasting serum glucose level and gastric cancer risk in Korea. Among the members of the Korean MultiCenter Cancer Cohort (KMCC) from 1993 to 2004, a total of 100 incident gastric cancer cases were ascertained until December 31, 2002 and 400 controls were matched according to age, sex, and year and area of enrollment. Of the eligible subjects, those without fasting serum glucose level information were excluded, with a total of 64 cases and 236 controls finally selected. On enrollment, all subjects completed a baseline demographic and lifestyle characteristics questionnaire, and had their fasting serum glucose level measured. The Helicobacter pylori infection status was determined by an immunoblot assay using long-term stored serum. The odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using conditional and unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for the H. pylori infection status, smoking, drinking, education, follow-up period and matching variables. The ORs for risk of gastric cancer according to the serum glucose level were 1.33 [95% CI=0.50-3.53] and 1.66 [95% CI=0.55-5.02] for the categories of 100-125 and 126 mg/dL or greater, respectively, compared to the category of less than 100 mg/dL. No increased risk of gastric cancer according to the serum glucose level was found (p-trend=0.337). This study provides no evidence for an association of the serum glucose level with gastric cancer.

  18. Using a statistical process control chart during the quality assessment of cancer registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Zachary M; German, Robert R; Wilson, Reda J; Wu, Manxia

    2011-01-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) charts may be used to detect acute variations in the data while simultaneously evaluating unforeseen aberrations that may warrant further investigation by the data user. Using cancer stage data captured by the Summary Stage 2000 (SS2000) variable, we sought to present a brief report highlighting the utility of the SPC chart during the quality assessment of cancer registry data. Using a county-level caseload for the diagnosis period of 2001-2004 (n=25,648), we found the overall variation of the SS2000 variable to be in control during diagnosis years of 2001 and 2002, exceeded the lower control limit (LCL) in 2003, and exceeded the upper control limit (UCL) in 2004; in situ/localized stages were in control throughout the diagnosis period, regional stage exceeded UCL in 2004, and distant stage exceeded the LCL in 2001 and the UCL in 2004. Our application of the SPC chart with cancer registry data illustrates that the SPC chart may serve as a readily available and timely tool for identifying areas of concern during the data collection and quality assessment of central cancer registry data.

  19. Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm A. Moore

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East.

  20. Mass screening-based case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Changchun, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Meng; Li, Jiang; Tsuji, Ichiro; Nakaya, Naoki; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Zhao, Xue-Jian

    2008-07-01

    To investigate possible correlation factors for prostate cancer by a population-based case-control study in China. We carried out a mass screening of prostate cancer in Changchun, China, using a prostate-specific antigen assisted by Japan International Cooperation Agency. From June 1998 to December 2000, 3 940 men over 50 years old were screened. Of these, 29 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. We selected 28 cases and matched them with controls of low prostate-specific antigen value (different days had a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-1.12). In addition, men who consumed soybean products more than once per day had a multivariate OR of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11-0.79) compared with men who consumed soybean products less than once per week. The P for trend was 0.02, which showed significant difference. There was no significant difference in P trend for any dairy food. Even when we matched the cases and controls by other criteria, we found that soybean food was the only preventive factor associated with prostate cancer. Our study suggests that consumption of soybeans, one of the most popular foods in Asia, would decrease the risk of prostate cancer.

  1. Emotional aspects and pranayama in breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Chakrabarty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Emotional disturbances are commonly experienced by cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of certain Pranayama techniques on the emotional aspects such as impatience, worry, anxiety, and frustration among breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy in India. Methods: The study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial. Patients were recruited when they were seeking radiation therapy for breast cancer. They were allocated into two groups using block randomization technique. The experimental group performed Pranayama along with radiation therapy, whereas the control group received only routine care. Results: Emotional aspects of the two groups were compared at the end of the treatment. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for comparison as the data were not following normality. It showed a significant difference between the two groups with the group who performed Pranayama showing a lesser mean score for these negative emotions. Conclusions: Pranayama might help in controlling the negative emotions likely to be faced by breast cancer patients, and it can be used as a supportive therapy for breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy.

  2. Modified metabolic syndrome and second cancers in women: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos-Manuel Ortiz-Mendoza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to some studies, the metabolic syndrome causes diverse primary cancers; however, there is no evidence about metabolic syndrome impact on second cancers development in women. Aim: To find out the implication of the modified metabolic syndrome in women with second cancers. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study, at a general hospital in Mexico City, in women with second cancers (cases and age-matched women with only one neoplasm (controls. The analysis comprised: Tumor (s, anthropometric features, and body mass index (BMI; moreover, presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Results: The sample was of nine cases and 27 controls. In cases, the metabolic syndrome (diabetes mellitus or glucose > 99 mg/dL + hypertension or blood pressure ≥ 135/85 mm Hg + triglycerides > 149 mg/dL or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 was more frequent (odds ratio 20.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.9-227.1. Conclusion: Our results suggest that in women, the modified metabolic syndrome may be a risk factor for second cancers.

  3. Breastfeeding reduces breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awatef, Msolly; Olfa, Gharbi; Imed, Harrabi; Kacem, Mahmoudi; Imen, Chabchoub; Rim, Chafai; Mohamed, Bibi; Slim, Ben Ahmed

    2010-03-01

    In this report, we examined the relationship between mother's breastfeeding history and her risk of breast cancer, in a case-control study in Tunisia between 2006 and 2009. About 400 breast cancer cases and 400 controls were included. Cases and controls were interviewed using a standardized structured questionnaire to obtain information on breastfeeding and other risk factors. Mean duration of breastfeeding per child was significantly associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer for women who breastfed for > 24 months per child. The OR was 0.46 (95% CI, 0.28-0.76) when compared those who breastfed for or = 109 months (OR = 0.42, 95% CI, 0.20-0.84). Stratification by menopausal status showed a reduced risk of breast cancer associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding for both pre- and postmenopausal women. The risk reduction was more consistent for lifetime duration of breastfeeding, the test for trend being significant for both pre- (p = 0.03) and postmenopausal (p = 0.01) women. These results support an inverse association between breastfeeding and breast cancer risk.

  4. The p16 Pathway In Breast Cancer and Senescence Control

    National Research Council Canada - Nation