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Sample records for canadian arctic wildlife

  1. An assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, Aaron T.; Wit, Cynthia A. de; Wayland, Mark; Kuzyk, Zou Zou; Burgess, Neil; Letcher, Robert; Braune, Birgit; Norstrom, Ross; Blum, Susan Polischuk; Sandau, Courtney; Lie, Elisabeth; Larsen, Hans Jorgen S.; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Muir, Derek C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Anthropogenic contaminants have been a concern in the Canadian arctic for over 30 years due to relatively high concentrations of bioaccumulating and biomagnifying organochlorine contaminants (OCs) and toxic metals found in some arctic biota and humans. However, few studies have addressed the potential effects of these contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife. Prior to 1997, biological effects data were minimal and insufficient at any level of biological organization. The present review summarizes recent studies on biological effects related to contaminant exposure, and compares new tissue concentration data to threshold effects levels. Weak relationships between cadmium, mercury and selenium burdens and health biomarkers in common eider ducks (Somateria mollissima borealis) in Nunavut were found but it was concluded that metals were not influencing the health of these birds. Black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) examined near PCB-contaminated Saglek Bay, Labrador, had enlarged livers, elevated EROD and liver lipid levels and reduced retinol (vitamin A) and retinyl palmitate levels, which correlated to PCB levels in the birds. Circulating levels of thyroid hormones in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were correlated to PCB and HO-PCB plasma concentrations, but the impact at the population level is unknown. High PCB and organochlorine pesticide concentrations were found to be strongly associated with impaired humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in polar bears, implying an increased infection risk that could impact the population. In beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), cytochromes P450 (phase I) and conjugating (phase II) enzymes have been extensively profiled (immunochemically and catalytically) in liver, demonstrating the importance of contaminants in relation to enzyme induction, metabolism and potential contaminant bioactivation and fate. Concentrations of OCs and metals in arctic terrestrial wildlife, fish and seabirds are generally below effects thresholds

  2. An assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, Aaron T. [Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2152 (United States)]. E-mail: afisk@forestry.uga.edu; Wit, Cynthia A. de [Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Wayland, Mark [Prairie and Northern Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada); Kuzyk, Zou Zou [Environmental Sciences Group, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Burgess, Neil [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, 6 Bruce St. Mt. Pearl, NL, A1N4T3 (Canada); Letcher, Robert [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Braune, Birgit [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Norstrom, Ross [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Blum, Susan Polischuk [Office of Research Services, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 4J8 (Canada); Sandau, Courtney [Jacques Whitford Limited, Calgary, AB, T2R 0E4 (Canada); Lie, Elisabeth [National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 8156, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Larsen, Hans Jorgen S. [Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Skaare, Janneche Utne [National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 8156, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Muir, Derek C.G. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Anthropogenic contaminants have been a concern in the Canadian arctic for over 30 years due to relatively high concentrations of bioaccumulating and biomagnifying organochlorine contaminants (OCs) and toxic metals found in some arctic biota and humans. However, few studies have addressed the potential effects of these contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife. Prior to 1997, biological effects data were minimal and insufficient at any level of biological organization. The present review summarizes recent studies on biological effects related to contaminant exposure, and compares new tissue concentration data to threshold effects levels. Weak relationships between cadmium, mercury and selenium burdens and health biomarkers in common eider ducks (Somateria mollissima borealis) in Nunavut were found but it was concluded that metals were not influencing the health of these birds. Black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) examined near PCB-contaminated Saglek Bay, Labrador, had enlarged livers, elevated EROD and liver lipid levels and reduced retinol (vitamin A) and retinyl palmitate levels, which correlated to PCB levels in the birds. Circulating levels of thyroid hormones in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were correlated to PCB and HO-PCB plasma concentrations, but the impact at the population level is unknown. High PCB and organochlorine pesticide concentrations were found to be strongly associated with impaired humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in polar bears, implying an increased infection risk that could impact the population. In beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), cytochromes P450 (phase I) and conjugating (phase II) enzymes have been extensively profiled (immunochemically and catalytically) in liver, demonstrating the importance of contaminants in relation to enzyme induction, metabolism and potential contaminant bioactivation and fate. Concentrations of OCs and metals in arctic terrestrial wildlife, fish and seabirds are generally below effects thresholds

  3. Summer in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This colorful image of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and the Beaufort Sea was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera on August 16, 2000, during Terra orbit 3532. The swirling patterns apparent on the Beaufort Sea are small ice floes driven by turbulent water patterns, or eddies, caused by the interactions of water masses of differing salinity and temperature. By this time of year, all of the seasonal ice which surrounds the north coast of Alaska in winter has broken up, although the perennial pack ice remains further north. The morphology of the perennial ice pack's edge varies in response to the prevailing wind. If the wind is blowing strongly toward the perennial pack (that is, to the north), the ice edge will be more compact. In this image the ice edge is diffuse, and the patterns reflected by the ice floes indicate fairly calm weather.The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (often abbreviated to ANWR) was established by President Eisenhower in 1960, and is the largest wildlife refuge in the United States. Animals of the Refuge include the 130,000-member Porcupine caribou herd, 180 species of birds from four continents, wolves, wolverine, polar and grizzly bears, muskoxen, foxes, and over 40 species of coastal and freshwater fish. Although most of ANWR was designated as wilderness in 1980, the area along the coastal plain was set aside so that the oil and gas reserves beneath the tundra could be studied. Drilling remains a topic of contention, and an energy bill allowing North Slope oil development to extend onto the coastal plain of the Refuge was approved by the US House of Representatives on August 2, 2001.The Refuge encompasses an impressive variety of arctic and subarctic ecosystems, including coastal lagoons, barrier islands, arctic tundra, and mountainous terrain. Of all these, the arctic tundra is the landscape judged most important for wildlife. From the coast inland to an average of 30-60 kilometers

  4. International Disputes and Cultural Ideas in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    of the Canadian-Arctic relationship. Using Canada as the focus for the analysis, the purpose of this project is to contribute to the existing Arctic studies and international relations literature by examining how interests and disputes in the Canadian Arctic region have been affected by domestic cultural...

  5. Forecasting wildlife response to rapid warming in the Alaskan Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Flint, Paul L.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Koch, Joshua C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Oakley, Karen L.; Pearce, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Arctic wildlife species face a dynamic and increasingly novel environment because of climate warming and the associated increase in human activity. Both marine and terrestrial environments are undergoing rapid environmental shifts, including loss of sea ice, permafrost degradation, and altered biogeochemical fluxes. Forecasting wildlife responses to climate change can facilitate proactive decisions that balance stewardship with resource development. In this article, we discuss the primary and secondary responses to physical climate-related drivers in the Arctic, associated wildlife responses, and additional sources of complexity in forecasting wildlife population outcomes. Although the effects of warming on wildlife populations are becoming increasingly well documented in the scientific literature, clear mechanistic links are often difficult to establish. An integrated science approach and robust modeling tools are necessary to make predictions and determine resiliency to change. We provide a conceptual framework and introduce examples relevant for developing wildlife forecasts useful to management decisions.

  6. Brewer spectrophotometer measurements in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, J. B.; Evans, W. F. J.

    1988-01-01

    In the winters of 1987 and 1988 measurements were conducted with the Brewer Spectrophotometer at Alert (82.5 N) and Resolute (74.5 N). The measurements were conducted as part of our Canadian Program to search for an Arctic Ozone Hole (CANOZE). Ozone measurements were conducted in the months of December, January and February using the moon as a light source. The total ozone measurements will be compared with ozonesonde profiles, from ECC sondes, flown once per week from Alert and Resolute. A modified Brewer Spectrophotometer was used in a special study to search for chlorine dioxide at Alert in March 1987. Ground based observations at Saskatoon in February and at Alert in March 1987 failed to detect any measureable chlorine dioxide. Interference from another absorbing gas, which we speculate may be nitrous acid, prevented the measurements at the low levels of chlorine dioxide detected in the Southern Hemisphere by Solomon et al.

  7. Gut Microbiome of the Canadian Arctic Inuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromas, Nicolas; Amyot, Marc

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and “traditional” diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome. We used deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to compare the gut microbiomes of Montrealers with a Western diet to those of the Inuit consuming a range of traditional and Western diets. At the overall microbial community level, the gut microbiomes of Montrealers and Inuit were indistinguishable and contained similar levels of microbial diversity. However, we observed significant differences in the relative abundances of certain microbial taxa down to the subgenus level using oligotyping. For example, Prevotella spp., which have been previously associated with high-fiber diets, were enriched in Montrealers and among the Inuit consuming a Western diet. The gut microbiomes of Inuit consuming a traditional diet also had significantly less genetic diversity within the Prevotella genus, suggesting that a low-fiber diet might not only select against Prevotella but also reduce its diversity. Other microbes, such as Akkermansia, were associated with geography as well as diet, suggesting limited dispersal to the Arctic. Our report provides a snapshot of the Inuit microbiome as Western-like in overall community structure but distinct in the relative abundances and diversity of certain genera and strains. IMPORTANCE Non-Western populations have been shown to have distinct gut microbial communities shaped by traditional diets. The hitherto-uncharacterized microbiome of the Inuit may help us to

  8. Mercury in the Canadian Arctic terrestrial environment: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberg, Mary; Chételat, John; Poulain, Alexandre J; Zdanowicz, Christian; Zheng, Jiancheng

    2015-03-15

    Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic have been studied over the last twenty years under the guidance of the Northern Contaminants Program. This paper provides the current state of knowledge on mercury (Hg) in the Canadian Arctic terrestrial environment. Snow, ice, and soils on land are key reservoirs for atmospheric deposition and can become sources of Hg through the melting of terrestrial ice and snow and via soil erosion. In the Canadian Arctic, new data have been collected for snow and ice that provide more information on the net accumulation and storage of Hg in the cryosphere. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) in terrestrial snow are highly variable but on average, relatively low (Porcupine caribou herd vary among years but there has been no significant increase or decrease over the last two decades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in terrestrial biota from the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamberg, Mary [Gamberg Consulting, Box 10460, Whitehorse, YT, Y1A 7A1 (Canada)]. E-mail: mary.gamberg@northwestel.net; Braune, Birgit [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Davey, Eric [Athabasca Tribal Council, Environmental Affairs, 9206 McCormick Drive, Fort McMurray, AB, T9H 1C7 (Canada); Elkin, Brett [Northwest Territories Department of Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development, Yellowknife, NT X1A 3S8 (Canada); Hoekstra, Paul F. [Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Kennedy, David [Northwest Territories Department of Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development, Yellowknife, NT X1A 3S8 (Canada); Macdonald, Colin [Northern Environmental Consulting, Pinawa, MB, R0E 1L0 (Canada); Muir, Derek [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Nirwal, Amar [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Box 17000, Stn Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Wayland, Mark [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Prairie and Northern Region, 115 Perimeter Road, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Box 17000, Stn Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic have been studied over the last twelve years under the guidance of the Northern Contaminants Program. This paper summarizes results from that program from 1998 to 2003 with respect to terrestrial animals in the Canadian Arctic. The arctic terrestrial environment has few significant contaminant issues, particularly when compared with freshwater and marine environments. Both current and historical industrial activities in the north may have a continuing effect on biota in the immediate area, but effects tend to be localized. An investigation of arctic ground squirrels at a site in the Northwest Territories that had historically received applications of DDT concluded that DDT in arctic ground squirrels livers was the result of contamination and that this is an indication of the continuing effect of a local point source of DDT. Arsenic concentrations were higher in berries collected from areas around gold mines in the Northwest Territories than from control sites, suggesting that gold mining may significantly affect arsenic levels in berries in the Yellowknives Dene traditional territory. Although moose and caribou from the Canadian Arctic generally carry relatively low contaminant burdens, Yukon moose had high renal selenium concentrations, and moose and some woodland caribou from the same area had high renal cadmium levels, which may put some animals at risk of toxicological effects. Low hepatic copper levels in some caribou herds may indicate a shortage of copper for metabolic demands, particularly for females. Similarities in patterns of temporal fluctuations in renal element concentrations for moose and caribou suggest that environmental factors may be a major cause of fluctuations in renal concentrations of some elements. Concentrations of persistent organochlorines and metals in beaver and muskrat from the Northwest Territories, and carnivores from across the Canadian Arctic were very low and considered normal for terrestrial

  10. Performance of municipal waste stabilization ponds in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragush, Colin M.; Schmidt, Jordan J.; Krkosek, Wendy H.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of small remote communities in the Canadian arctic territory of Nunavut utilize waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) for municipal wastewater treatment because of their relatively low capital and operational costs, and minimal complexity. New national effluent quality regulations have be...

  11. Irreversible mass loss of Canadian Arctic Archipelago glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; van Angelen, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325922470; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Gardner, A.S.; Wouters, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304120146; van Meijgaard, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) contains the largest volume of glacier ice on Earth outside of Antarctica and Greenland. In the absence of significant calving, CAA glacier mass balance is governed by the difference between surface snow accumulation and meltwater runoff—surface mass balance.

  12. [Book review] A passion for wildlife: The history of the Canadian Wildlife Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Chandler S.

    2004-01-01

    This intimate historical account was contracted in 1996 by Environment Canada to naturalist-writer Burnett, who interviewed more than 120 present and former Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) employees of the 1947–1997 period. Each of the 10 chapters addresses a major topic, followed by a brief account of the chief activities of a five-year period. For example, chapter 1 is on “The Genesis of the Canadian Wildlife Service,” followed by highlights of the 1947–1952 period: “Setting the Wildlife Agenda.” The other nine chapters cover the history of enforcement; work with birds, mammals, and fish; habitats; education; toxicology; endangered species; and legislation.

  13. Exposure and effects assessment of persistent organohalogen contaminants in arctic wildlife and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Robert J; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Dietz, Rune; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Jørgensen, Even H; Sonne, Christian; Verreault, Jonathan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M; Gabrielsen, Geir W

    2010-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) encompass an array of anthropogenic organic and elemental substances and their degradation and metabolic byproducts that have been found in the tissues of exposed animals, especially POPs categorized as organohalogen contaminants (OHCs). OHCs have been of concern in the circumpolar arctic for decades. For example, as a consequence of bioaccumulation and in some cases biomagnification of legacy (e.g., chlorinated PCBs, DDTs and CHLs) and emerging (e.g., brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and in particular polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanic acid (PFOA) found in Arctic biota and humans. Of high concern are the potential biological effects of these contaminants in exposed Arctic wildlife and fish. As concluded in the last review in 2004 for the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) on the effects of POPs in Arctic wildlife, prior to 1997, biological effects data were minimal and insufficient at any level of biological organization. The present review summarizes recent studies on biological effects in relation to OHC exposure, and attempts to assess known tissue/body compartment concentration data in the context of possible threshold levels of effects to evaluate the risks. This review concentrates mainly on post-2002, new OHC effects data in Arctic wildlife and fish, and is largely based on recently available effects data for populations of several top trophic level species, including seabirds (e.g., glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus)), polar bears (Ursus maritimus), polar (Arctic) fox (Vulpes lagopus), and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), as well as semi-captive studies on sled dogs (Canis familiaris). Regardless, there remains a dearth of data on true contaminant exposure, cause-effect relationships with respect to these contaminant exposures in Arctic wildlife and fish. Indications of exposure effects are largely

  14. Persistent maritime traffic monitoring for the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmke, M.; Battistello, G.; Biermann, J.; Mohrdieck, C.; Pelot, R.; Koch, W.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents results of the Canadian-German research project PASSAGES (Protection and Advanced Surveillance System for the Arctic: Green, Efficient, Secure)1 on an advanced surveillance system for safety and security of maritime operations in Arctic areas. The motivation for a surveillance system of the Northwest Passage is the projected growth of maritime traffic along Arctic sea routes and the need for securing Canada's sovereignty by controlling its arctic waters as well as for protecting the safety of international shipping and the intactness of the arctic marine environment. To ensure border security and to detect and prevent illegal activities it is necessary to develop a system for surveillance and reconnaissance that brings together all related means, assets, organizations, processes and structures to build one homogeneous and integrated system. The harsh arctic conditions require a new surveillance concept that fuses heterogeneous sensor data, contextual information, and available pre-processed surveillance data and combines all components to efficiently extract and provide the maximum available amount of information. The fusion of all these heterogeneous data and information will provide improved and comprehensive situation awareness for risk assessment and decision support of different stakeholder groups as governmental authorities, commercial users and Northern communities.

  15. The Arctic--A Global Hot Spot: Resources for Teaching the Geography of the Contemporary Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntzen, Betsy; Sotherden, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Canadian geography is a fascinating topic, particularly the Canadian North. The North is central to Canadian identity as can be seen by the choice of the far north "inukshuk" standing stones as the emblem for the 2010 Winter Olympics held in Vancouver, southern British Columbia. Canada's Arctic is receiving increasing attention by media,…

  16. Modern pollen data from the Canadian Arctic, 1972-1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Harvey; Stolze, Susann

    2017-05-01

    This data descriptor reports results of a 1972-73 baseline study of modern pollen deposition in the Canadian Arctic to originally aid interpretation of Holocene pollen diagrams from that region, especially focussed on the arctic tree-line. The data set is geographically unique due to its extent, and allows the assessment of the effects of modern climate change on northern ecosystems, including fluctuations of the a arctic tree-line. Repeated sampling was conducted along an interior transect at 29 sites from the Boreal Forest to the High Arctic, with five additional coastal sites covering a total distance of 3,200 km. Static pollen samplers captured both local pollen and long-distance pollen wind-blown from the Boreal Forest. Moss and lichen polsters provided multi-year pollen fallout to assess the effectiveness of the static pollen samplers. The local vegetation was recorded at each site. This descriptor provides information on data archived at the World Data Center PANGAEA, which includes spreadsheets detailing site and sample information as well as raw and processed pollen data obtained on over 500 samples.

  17. Modern pollen data from the Canadian Arctic, 1972–1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Harvey; Stolze, Susann

    2017-01-01

    This data descriptor reports results of a 1972–73 baseline study of modern pollen deposition in the Canadian Arctic to originally aid interpretation of Holocene pollen diagrams from that region, especially focussed on the arctic tree-line. The data set is geographically unique due to its extent, and allows the assessment of the effects of modern climate change on northern ecosystems, including fluctuations of the a arctic tree-line. Repeated sampling was conducted along an interior transect at 29 sites from the Boreal Forest to the High Arctic, with five additional coastal sites covering a total distance of 3,200 km. Static pollen samplers captured both local pollen and long-distance pollen wind-blown from the Boreal Forest. Moss and lichen polsters provided multi-year pollen fallout to assess the effectiveness of the static pollen samplers. The local vegetation was recorded at each site. This descriptor provides information on data archived at the World Data Center PANGAEA, which includes spreadsheets detailing site and sample information as well as raw and processed pollen data obtained on over 500 samples. PMID:28509898

  18. The measurement of I-129 in the Canadian Arctic basin and other Arctic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilius, L.R.; Zhao, X.L.

    1995-01-01

    Since the first demonstration by accelerator mass spectrometry for the measurement of 129 I in oceanic systems, the use of 129 I as a long range tracer has become widespread because the constraint of large sample volumes has been removed. Following extensive measurements of 129 I in both the Barents and Kara Seas, seawater samples were collected within the Canadian Arctic Basin, and at a cruise from the Chuchi Sea, across the pole, to the Norwegian Sea. Only 450 ml samples were required for all AMS measurements of Arctic seawater. Enhanced concentrations of 129 I were observed. Based on 137 Cs measurements for the same samples, the 129 I/ 137 Cs ratios showed the signature of Sellafield reprocessing effluents as the primary source of this 129 I. Based on average estimates, 13% of the total Sellafield/La Hague 129 I emissions now resides within the Atlantic layer of the Arctic Ocean. 7 refs., 3 figs

  19. Remote sensing of the Canadian Arctic: Modelling biophysical variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nanfeng

    It is anticipated that Arctic vegetation will respond in a variety of ways to altered temperature and precipitation patterns expected with climate change, including changes in phenology, productivity, biomass, cover and net ecosystem exchange. Remote sensing provides data and data processing methodologies for monitoring and assessing Arctic vegetation over large areas. The goal of this research was to explore the potential of hyperspectral and high spatial resolution multispectral remote sensing data for modelling two important Arctic biophysical variables: Percent Vegetation Cover (PVC) and the fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fAPAR). A series of field experiments were conducted to collect PVC and fAPAR at three Canadian Arctic sites: (1) Sabine Peninsula, Melville Island, NU; (2) Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory (CBAWO), Melville Island, NU; and (3) Apex River Watershed (ARW), Baffin Island, NU. Linear relationships between biophysical variables and Vegetation Indices (VIs) were examined at different spatial scales using field spectra (for the Sabine Peninsula site) and high spatial resolution satellite data (for the CBAWO and ARW sites). At the Sabine Peninsula site, hyperspectral VIs exhibited a better performance for modelling PVC than multispectral VIs due to their capacity for sampling fine spectral features. The optimal hyperspectral bands were located at important spectral features observed in Arctic vegetation spectra, including leaf pigment absorption in the red wavelengths and at the red-edge, leaf water absorption in the near infrared, and leaf cellulose and lignin absorption in the shortwave infrared. At the CBAWO and ARW sites, field PVC and fAPAR exhibited strong correlations (R2 > 0.70) with the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) derived from high-resolution WorldView-2 data. Similarly, high spatial resolution satellite-derived fAPAR was correlated to MODIS fAPAR (R2 = 0.68), with a systematic

  20. 50 CFR Appendix I to Part 37 - Legal Description of the Coastal Plain, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legal Description of the Coastal Plain, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska I Appendix I to Part 37 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM...

  1. From the Canadian High Arctic to Mars by Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, R. J.; Pollard, W. H.

    2002-12-01

    Planetary scientists are limited in their understanding of physical bodies in the solar system by the lack of primary data or knowledge. Analogue science is science practised in absentia, precisely in those instances when a non-terrestrial physical environment lies beyond one's direct, empirical grasp. Recognising that some environments on Earth may mirror present or past conditions on Mars, planetary scientists have invoked terrestrial analogues with increasing regularity over the last thirty years as fonts of putative understanding. Notwithstanding its ubiquity in planetary science, analogical reasoning has stood, by and large, unconstrained by rules or guidelines of usage. In order to redress this imbalance we propose to take two steps: 1. introduce primary data on newly discovered pingos at Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian High Arctic, and 2. coalesce these and related data on Martian glacial, peri-glacial and fluvio-glacial landforms as a model with which to evaluate the meaningfulness of analogical reasoning in planetary science.

  2. Canadian Ice Service Arctic Regional Sea Ice Charts in SIGRID-3 Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Canadian Ice Service (CIS) produces digital Arctic regional sea ice charts for marine navigation, climate research, and input to the Global Digital Sea Ice Data...

  3. The national public's values and interests related to the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: A computer content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan; Roger Kaye

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the national public's values and interests related to the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Computer content analysis was used to analyze more than 23,000 media stories about the refuge from 1995 through 2007. Ten main categories of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge values and interests emerged from the analysis, reflecting a diversity of values,...

  4. Aerosol Size and Chemical Composition in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R. Y. W.; Hayes, P. L.; Leaitch, W. R.; Croft, B.; O'Neill, N. T.; Fogal, P.; Drummond, J. R.; Sloan, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic aerosol have a strong annual cycle, with winter months dominated by long range transport from lower latitudes resulting in high mass loadings. Conversely, local emissions are more prominent in the summer months because of the decreased influence of transported aerosol, allowing us to regularly observe both transported and local aerosol. This study will present observations of aerosol chemical composition and particle number size distribution collected at the Polar Environment Artic Research Laboratory and the Alert Global Atmospheric Watch Observatory at Eureka (80N, 86W) and Alert (82N, 62W), Nunavut, respectively. Summer time observations of the number size distribution reveal a persistent mode of particles centered between 30-50 nm, with occasional bursts of smaller particles. The non-refractory aerosol chemical composition, measured by the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer, is primarily organic, with contributions from both aged and fresher organic aerosol. Factor analysis will be conducted to better understand these sources. The site at Eureka is more susceptible to long range transport since it is at the top of a mountain ridge (610 m above sea level) and will be compared to the site at Alert on an elevated plain (200 m above sea level). This will allow us to determine the relative contributions from processes and sources at the sites at different elevations. Comparisons with aerosol optical depth and GEOS-Chem model output will also be presented to put these surface measurements into context with the overlying and regional atmosphere. Results from this study contribute to our knowledge of aerosol in the high Arctic.

  5. Assessing determinants of maternal blood concentrations for persistent organic pollutants and metals in the eastern and western Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curren, Meredith S., E-mail: meredith.curren@hc-sc.gc.ca [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Avenue West, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei, E-mail: chun.lei.liang@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Davis, Karelyn, E-mail: karelyn.davis@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Kandola, Kami, E-mail: Kami_Kandola@gov.nt.ca [Government of the Northwest Territories, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada); Brewster, Janet, E-mail: jbrewster@gov.nu.ca [Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada); Potyrala, Mary, E-mail: mary_potyrala@yahoo.ca [Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada); Chan, Hing Man, E-mail: laurie.chan@uottawa.ca [Center for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie-Curie, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals mainly through their consumption of a traditional diet of wildlife items. Recent studies indicate that many human chemical levels have decreased in the north, likely due to a combination of reduced global chemical emissions, dietary shifts, and risk mitigation efforts by local health authorities. Body burdens for chemicals in mothers can be further offset by breastfeeding, parity, and other maternal characteristics. We have assessed the impact of several dietary and maternal covariates following a decade of awareness of the contaminant issue in northern Canada, by performing multiple stepwise linear regression analyses from blood concentrations and demographic variables for 176 mothers recruited from Nunavut and the Northwest Territories during the period 2005–2007. A significant aboriginal group effect was observed for the modeled chemicals, except for lead and cadmium, after adjusting for covariates. Further, blood concentrations for POPs and metals were significantly associated with at least one covariate of older age, fewer months spent breastfeeding, more frequent eating of traditional foods, or smoking during pregnancy. Cadmium had the highest explained variance (72.5%) from just two significant covariates (current smoking status and parity). Although Inuit participants from the Northwest Territories consumed more traditional foods in general, Inuit participants from coastal communities in Nunavut continued to demonstrate higher adjusted blood concentrations for POPs and metals examined here. While this is due in part to a higher prevalence of marine mammals in the eastern Arctic diet, it is possible that other aboriginal group effects unrelated to diet may also contribute to elevated chemical body burdens in Canadian Arctic populations. - Highlights: • In 2005–07, younger age was related to lower levels of chemicals in northern Canada. • Eastern

  6. Assessing determinants of maternal blood concentrations for persistent organic pollutants and metals in the eastern and western Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curren, Meredith S.; Liang, Chun Lei; Davis, Karelyn; Kandola, Kami; Brewster, Janet; Potyrala, Mary; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals mainly through their consumption of a traditional diet of wildlife items. Recent studies indicate that many human chemical levels have decreased in the north, likely due to a combination of reduced global chemical emissions, dietary shifts, and risk mitigation efforts by local health authorities. Body burdens for chemicals in mothers can be further offset by breastfeeding, parity, and other maternal characteristics. We have assessed the impact of several dietary and maternal covariates following a decade of awareness of the contaminant issue in northern Canada, by performing multiple stepwise linear regression analyses from blood concentrations and demographic variables for 176 mothers recruited from Nunavut and the Northwest Territories during the period 2005–2007. A significant aboriginal group effect was observed for the modeled chemicals, except for lead and cadmium, after adjusting for covariates. Further, blood concentrations for POPs and metals were significantly associated with at least one covariate of older age, fewer months spent breastfeeding, more frequent eating of traditional foods, or smoking during pregnancy. Cadmium had the highest explained variance (72.5%) from just two significant covariates (current smoking status and parity). Although Inuit participants from the Northwest Territories consumed more traditional foods in general, Inuit participants from coastal communities in Nunavut continued to demonstrate higher adjusted blood concentrations for POPs and metals examined here. While this is due in part to a higher prevalence of marine mammals in the eastern Arctic diet, it is possible that other aboriginal group effects unrelated to diet may also contribute to elevated chemical body burdens in Canadian Arctic populations. - Highlights: • In 2005–07, younger age was related to lower levels of chemicals in northern Canada. • Eastern

  7. Mercury and cadmium in ringed seals in the Canadian Arctic: Influence of location and diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Tanya M., E-mail: tanya.brown@mun.ca [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, Newfoundland A1B 3X9 (Canada); Fisk, Aaron T. [Great Lakes Institute of Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Wang, Xiaowa [Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada); Ferguson, Steven H. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Young, Brent G. [University of Manitoba, 500 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Reimer, Ken J. [Environmental Sciences Group, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000, Stn Forces, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (THg) and total cadmium (TCd) were determined in muscle and liver of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from up to 14 locations across the Canadian Arctic. Location, trophic position (TP) and relative carbon source best predicted the THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. THg concentrations in ringed seals were highest in the western Canadian Arctic (Beaufort Sea), whereas TCd was highest in the eastern Canadian Arctic (Hudson Bay and Labrador). A positive relationship between THg and TP and a negative relationship between THg and relative carbon source contributed to the geographical patterns observed and elevated THg levels at certain sites. In contrast, a negative relationship between TCd and TP was found, indicating that high TCd concentrations are related to seals feeding more on invertebrates than fish. Feeding ecology appears to play an important role in THg and TCd levels in ringed seals, with biomagnification driving elevated THg levels and a dependence on low-trophic position prey resulting in high TCd concentrations. The present study shows that both natural geological differences and diet variability among regions explain the spatial patterns for THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. - Highlights: • Diet and location influenced THg and Cd in ringed seals across the Canadian Arctic. • Biomagnification processes contribute to elevated THg levels in the western Arctic. • Consuming low-trophic position prey explains high Cd levels in the eastern Arctic.

  8. Mercury and cadmium in ringed seals in the Canadian Arctic: Influence of location and diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Tanya M.; Fisk, Aaron T.; Wang, Xiaowa; Ferguson, Steven H.; Young, Brent G.; Reimer, Ken J.; Muir, Derek C.G.

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (THg) and total cadmium (TCd) were determined in muscle and liver of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from up to 14 locations across the Canadian Arctic. Location, trophic position (TP) and relative carbon source best predicted the THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. THg concentrations in ringed seals were highest in the western Canadian Arctic (Beaufort Sea), whereas TCd was highest in the eastern Canadian Arctic (Hudson Bay and Labrador). A positive relationship between THg and TP and a negative relationship between THg and relative carbon source contributed to the geographical patterns observed and elevated THg levels at certain sites. In contrast, a negative relationship between TCd and TP was found, indicating that high TCd concentrations are related to seals feeding more on invertebrates than fish. Feeding ecology appears to play an important role in THg and TCd levels in ringed seals, with biomagnification driving elevated THg levels and a dependence on low-trophic position prey resulting in high TCd concentrations. The present study shows that both natural geological differences and diet variability among regions explain the spatial patterns for THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. - Highlights: • Diet and location influenced THg and Cd in ringed seals across the Canadian Arctic. • Biomagnification processes contribute to elevated THg levels in the western Arctic. • Consuming low-trophic position prey explains high Cd levels in the eastern Arctic.

  9. Survival of ship biofouling assemblages during and after voyages to the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Farrah T; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Bailey, Sarah A

    2016-01-01

    Human-mediated vectors often inadvertently translocate species assemblages to new environments. Examining the dynamics of entrained species assemblages during transport can provide insights into the introduction risk associated with these vectors. Ship biofouling is a major transport vector of nonindigenous species in coastal ecosystems globally, yet its magnitude in the Arctic is poorly understood. To determine whether biofouling organisms on ships can survive passages in Arctic waters, we examined how biofouling assemblage structure changed before, during, and after eight round-trip military voyages from temperate to Arctic ports in Canada. Species richness first decreased (~70% loss) and then recovered (~27% loss compared to the original assemblages), as ships travelled to and from the Arctic, respectively, whereas total abundance typically declined over time (~55% total loss). Biofouling community structure differed significantly before and during Arctic transits as well as between those sampled during and after voyages. Assemblage structure varied across different parts of the hull; however, temporal changes were independent of hull location, suggesting that niche areas did not provide protection for biofouling organisms against adverse conditions in the Arctic. Biofouling algae appear to be more tolerant of transport conditions during Arctic voyages than are mobile, sessile, and sedentary invertebrates. Our results suggest that biofouling assemblages on ships generally have poor survivorship during Arctic voyages. Nonetheless, some potential for transporting nonindigenous species to the Arctic via ship biofouling remains, as at least six taxa new to the Canadian Arctic, including a nonindigenous cirripede, appeared to have survived transits from temperate to Arctic ports.

  10. 75 FR 17763 - Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Fairbanks, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... diversity, including, but not limited to, the Porcupine caribou herd (including participation in coordinated ecological studies and management of this herd and the Western Arctic caribou herd), polar bears, grizzly...

  11. Summary of wildlife-related research on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 2002–17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John M.; Flint, Paul L.; Atwood, Todd C.; Douglas, David C.; Adams, Layne G.; Johnson, Heather E.; Arthur, Stephen M.; Latty, Christopher J.

    2018-01-23

    We summarize recent (2002–17) publicly available information from studies within the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge as well as terrestrial and coastal ecosystems elsewhere on the Arctic Coastal Plain that are relevant to the 1002 Area. This report provides an update on earlier research summaries on caribou (Rangifer tarandus), forage quality and quantity, polar bears (Ursus maritimus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), and snow geese (Chen caerulescens). We also provide information on new research related to climate, migratory birds, permafrost, coastal erosion, coastal lagoons, fish, water resources, and potential effects of industrial disturbance on wildlife. From this literature review, we noted evidence for change in the status of some wildlife and their habitats, and the lack of change for others. In the 1002 Area, muskox numbers have decreased and the Porcupine Caribou Herd has exhibited variation in use of the area during the calving season. Polar bears are now more common on shore in summer and fall because of declines in sea ice in the Beaufort Sea. In a study spanning 25 years, there were no significant changes in vegetation quality and quantity, soil conditions, or permafrost thaw in the coastal plain of the 1002 Area. Based on studies from the central Arctic Coastal Plain, there are persistent and emerging uncertainties about the long-term effects of energy development for caribou. In contrast, recent studies that examined direct and indirect effects of industrial activities and infrastructure on birds in the central Arctic Coastal Plain found little effect for the species and disturbances examined, except for the possibility of increased predator activity near human developments.

  12. Elevation Changes of Ice Caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalati, W.; Krabill, W.; Frederick, E.; Manizade, S.; Martin, C.; Sonntag, J.; Swift, R.; Thomas, R.; Yungel, J.; Koerner, R.

    2004-01-01

    Precise repeat airborne laser surveys were conducted over the major ice caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in the spring of 1995 and 2000 in order to measure elevation changes in the region. Our measurements reveal thinning at lower elevations (below 1600 m) on most of the ice caps and glaciers, but either very little change or thickening at higher elevations in the ice cap accumulation zones. Recent increases in precipitation in the area can account for the slight thickening where it was observed, but not for the thinning at lower elevations. For the northern ice caps on the Queen Elizabeth Islands, thinning was generally less than 0.5 m/yr , which is consistent with what would be expected from the warm temperature anomalies in the region for the 5-year period between surveys and appears to be a continuation of a trend that began in the mid 1980s. Further south, however, on the Barnes and Penny ice caps on Baffin Island, this thinning was much more pronounced at over 1 m/yr in the lower elevations. Here temperature anomalies were very small, and the thinning at low elevations far exceeds any associated enhanced ablation. The observations on Barnes, and perhaps Penny are consistent with the idea that the observed thinning is part of a much longer term deglaciation, as has been previously suggested for Barnes Ice Cap. Based on the regional relationships between elevation and elevation-change in our data, the 1995-2000 mass balance for the region is estimated to be 25 cu km/yr of ice, which corresponds to a sea level increase of 0.064 mm/ yr . This places it among the more significant sources of eustatic sea level rise, though not as substantial as Greenland ice sheet, Alaskan glaciers, or the Patagonian ice fields.

  13. Three recent ice entrapments of Arctic cetaceans in West Greenland and the eastern Canadian High Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Heide-Jørgensen

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Three ice entrapments of Monodontids have been reported in the western North Atlantic since 1993. Hunters in Disko Bay, West Greenland, discovered one in March 1994 that included about 150 narwhals (Monodon monoceros. The entrapment occurred during a sudden cold period which caused ice to form rapidly. The trapped whales were subject to hunting, but about 50 of the killed whales could not be retrieved in the ice. The whales were trapped in a small opening in the ice and because of that they would probably have succumbed even if not discovered by hunters. Two entrapments involving white whales or belugas (Delphinapterus leucas occurred in the eastern Canadian Arctic in May 1999; one in Lancaster Sound discovered by polar bear (Ursus maritimus researchers and one in Jones Sound discovered by hunters. The first included one bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus and about 40 belugas that were being preyed upon by polar bears. The second involved at least 170 belugas, of which about 100 were killed by polar bears and 17 were taken by hunters. The entrapments in Disko Bay and Jones Sound both occurred in areas where entrapments have previously been reported, whereas the one in Lancaster Sound was in a new area.

  14. Assessing determinants of maternal blood concentrations for persistent organic pollutants and metals in the eastern and western Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Meredith S; Liang, Chun Lei; Davis, Karelyn; Kandola, Kami; Brewster, Janet; Potyrala, Mary; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-09-15

    Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals mainly through their consumption of a traditional diet of wildlife items. Recent studies indicate that many human chemical levels have decreased in the north, likely due to a combination of reduced global chemical emissions, dietary shifts, and risk mitigation efforts by local health authorities. Body burdens for chemicals in mothers can be further offset by breastfeeding, parity, and other maternal characteristics. We have assessed the impact of several dietary and maternal covariates following a decade of awareness of the contaminant issue in northern Canada, by performing multiple stepwise linear regression analyses from blood concentrations and demographic variables for 176 mothers recruited from Nunavut and the Northwest Territories during the period 2005-2007. A significant aboriginal group effect was observed for the modeled chemicals, except for lead and cadmium, after adjusting for covariates. Further, blood concentrations for POPs and metals were significantly associated with at least one covariate of older age, fewer months spent breastfeeding, more frequent eating of traditional foods, or smoking during pregnancy. Cadmium had the highest explained variance (72.5%) from just two significant covariates (current smoking status and parity). Although Inuit participants from the Northwest Territories consumed more traditional foods in general, Inuit participants from coastal communities in Nunavut continued to demonstrate higher adjusted blood concentrations for POPs and metals examined here. While this is due in part to a higher prevalence of marine mammals in the eastern Arctic diet, it is possible that other aboriginal group effects unrelated to diet may also contribute to elevated chemical body burdens in Canadian Arctic populations. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mercury in freshwater ecosystems of the Canadian Arctic: recent advances on its cycling and fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chételat, John; Amyot, Marc; Arp, Paul; Blais, Jules M; Depew, David; Emmerton, Craig A; Evans, Marlene; Gamberg, Mary; Gantner, Nikolaus; Girard, Catherine; Graydon, Jennifer; Kirk, Jane; Lean, David; Lehnherr, Igor; Muir, Derek; Nasr, Mina; Poulain, Alexandre J; Power, Michael; Roach, Pat; Stern, Gary; Swanson, Heidi; van der Velden, Shannon

    2015-03-15

    The Canadian Arctic has vast freshwater resources, and fish are important in the diet of many Northerners. Mercury is a contaminant of concern because of its potential toxicity and elevated bioaccumulation in some fish populations. Over the last decade, significant advances have been made in characterizing the cycling and fate of mercury in these freshwater environments. Large amounts of new data on concentrations, speciation and fluxes of Hg are provided and summarized for water and sediment, which were virtually absent for the Canadian Arctic a decade ago. The biogeochemical processes that control the speciation of mercury remain poorly resolved, including the sites and controls of methylmercury production. Food web studies have examined the roles of Hg uptake, trophic transfer, and diet for Hg bioaccumulation in fish, and, in particular, advances have been made in identifying determinants of mercury levels in lake-dwelling and sea-run forms of Arctic char. In a comparison of common freshwater fish species that were sampled across the Canadian Arctic between 2002 and 2009, no geographic patterns or regional hotspots were evident. Over the last two to four decades, Hg concentrations have increased in some monitored populations of fish in the Mackenzie River Basin while other populations from the Yukon and Nunavut showed no change or a slight decline. The different Hg trends indicate that the drivers of temporal change may be regional or habitat-specific. The Canadian Arctic is undergoing profound environmental change, and preliminary evidence suggests that it may be impacting the cycling and bioaccumulation of mercury. Further research is needed to investigate climate change impacts on the Hg cycle as well as biogeochemical controls of methylmercury production and the processes leading to increasing Hg levels in some fish populations in the Canadian Arctic. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Petroleum potential in western Sverdrup Basin, Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.; Osadetz, K.G.; Embry, A.F.; Gao, H.; Hannigan, P.K. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-12-01

    The discovery of 19 major petroleum fields, including 8 crude oil and 25 natural gas pools was made possible by the drilling of 119 wells in the Mesozoic structural play of the western Sverdrup Basin in the Canadian Arctic. The discovery of total original in-place reserve at standard conditions represents 10 per cent of the conventional crude oil and 23 per cent of the natural gas national reserves remaining. It is expected that 93 fields will be in operation, including approximately 25 crude oil pools and 117 natural gas pools larger than or equal to the smallest oil and gas pools discovered. The largest natural gas pools were found efficiently, as indicated by the exploration data and resource assessment results. Also, the discovery of 9 of the 17 largest gas pools has already been made. It is believed that the Drake and Hecla fields represent the two largest natural gas pools. During the first nine years of exploration, no major oil pools were discovered, and the results seem to indicate that the oil pools were not found efficiently. It is believed that between 7 and 9 crude oil pools remain to be discovered, with five of the ten largest crude oil pools already discovered. One of the undiscovered oil pools is expected to be equal in size to the largest discovered crude oil pool at Cisco in the Awingak Formation. Confidence in the results increases with the ability to compare discovery process and volumetric methods of assessment. Each technique has advantages. A simultaneous analysis of oil and gas pools is possible with the Geo-anchored discovery process model. It also provides independent and objective estimates of numbers of accumulations. No reference to exploratory risk evaluations or efficiencies of geophysical prospecting are made. Recommendations for improvements to assessments were made. They included: obtaining unbiased distributions of reservoir volumetric parameters with the Multivariate Discovery Process Model, estimating simultaneously oil and gas

  17. Evaluation of CORDEX-Arctic daily precipitation and temperature-based climate indices over Canadian Arctic land areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconescu, Emilia Paula; Mailhot, Alain; Brown, Ross; Chaumont, Diane

    2018-03-01

    This study focuses on the evaluation of daily precipitation and temperature climate indices and extremes simulated by an ensemble of 12 Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations from the ARCTIC-CORDEX experiment with surface observations in the Canadian Arctic from the Adjusted Historical Canadian Climate Dataset. Five global reanalyses products (ERA-Interim, JRA55, MERRA, CFSR and GMFD) are also included in the evaluation to assess their potential for RCM evaluation in data sparse regions. The study evaluated the means and annual anomaly distributions of indices over the 1980-2004 dataset overlap period. The results showed that RCM and reanalysis performance varied with the climate variables being evaluated. Most RCMs and reanalyses were able to simulate well climate indices related to mean air temperature and hot extremes over most of the Canadian Arctic, with the exception of the Yukon region where models displayed the largest biases related to topographic effects. Overall performance was generally poor for indices related to cold extremes. Likewise, only a few RCM simulations and reanalyses were able to provide realistic simulations of precipitation extreme indicators. The multi-reanalysis ensemble provided superior results to individual datasets for climate indicators related to mean air temperature and hot extremes, but not for other indicators. These results support the use of reanalyses as reference datasets for the evaluation of RCM mean air temperature and hot extremes over northern Canada, but not for cold extremes and precipitation indices.

  18. Towards Innovation (Eco)Systems: Enhancing the Public Value of Scientific Research in the Canadian Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pigford, Ashlee-Ann; Hickey, M.; Klerkx, L.W.A.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the Canadian Arctic has seen an intensification of scientific research designed to foster innovation (i.e., the process of transforming ideas into new products, services, practices or policies). However, innovation remains generally low. This paper argues that before we can

  19. Inter- and intraclutch variation in egg mercury levels in marine bird species from the Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akearok, Jason A.; Hebert, Craig E.; Braune, Birgit M.; Mallory, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that has been of increasing concern in the Canadian Arctic. We measured total Hg in eggs of three marine birds (Arctic terns Sterna paradisaea, common eiders Somateria mollissima borealis, long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis) that breed in the Canadian Arctic, to compare Hg laying order effects from the same clutch and to examine Hg among species. Early-laid eggs of all three species had 24-48% higher Hg concentrations than late laid eggs. Arctic terns had approximately twice the concentration of Hg in their eggs as the two duck species, and Hg in eider eggs from the High Arctic was higher than Hg in eggs from the Low Arctic. Higher Hg in tern eggs was consistent with this species occupying a higher trophic position in marine food webs, as indicated by stable nitrogen isotope (δ 15 N) values. The egg-laying sequence may need to be considered for Hg biomonitoring studies where small samples sizes are planned, and early eggs may be preferable for such studies since early eggs may be more representative of potential maximum levels of Hg in the marine food webs.

  20. Late winter biogeochemical conditions under sea ice in the Canadian High Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen S. Findlay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the Arctic summer sea-ice extent in decline, questions are arising as to how changes in sea-ice dynamics might affect biogeochemical cycling and phenomena such as carbon dioxide (CO2 uptake and ocean acidification. Recent field research in these areas has concentrated on biogeochemical and CO2 measurements during spring, summer or autumn, but there are few data for the winter or winter–spring transition, particularly in the High Arctic. Here, we present carbon and nutrient data within and under sea ice measured during the Catlin Arctic Survey, over 40 days in March and April 2010, off Ellef Ringnes Island (78° 43.11′ N, 104° 47.44′ W in the Canadian High Arctic. Results show relatively low surface water (1–10 m nitrate (<1.3 µM and total inorganic carbon concentrations (mean±SD=2015±5.83 µmol kg−1, total alkalinity (mean±SD=2134±11.09 µmol kg−1 and under-ice pCO2sw (mean±SD=286±17 µatm. These surprisingly low wintertime carbon and nutrient conditions suggest that the outer Canadian Arctic Archipelago region is nitrate-limited on account of sluggish mixing among the multi-year ice regions of the High Arctic, which could temper the potential of widespread under-ice and open-water phytoplankton blooms later in the season.

  1. Rare earth elements in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems in the eastern Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Gwyneth Anne; Chételat, John; Heath, Joel P; Mickpegak, Raymond; Amyot, Marc

    2017-10-18

    Few ecotoxicological studies exist for rare earth elements (REEs), particularly field-based studies on their bioaccumulation and food web dynamics. REE mining has led to significant environmental impacts in several countries (China, Brazil, U.S.), yet little is known about the fate and transport of these contaminants of emerging concern. Northern ecosystems are potentially vulnerable to REE enrichment from prospective mining projects at high latitudes. To understand how REEs behave in remote northern food webs, we measured REE concentrations and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (∂ 15 N, ∂ 13 C) in biota from marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems of the eastern Canadian Arctic (N = 339). Wildlife harvesting and tissue sampling was partly conducted by local hunters through a community-based monitoring project. Results show that REEs generally follow a coherent bioaccumulation pattern for sample tissues, with some anomalies for redox-sensitive elements (Ce, Eu). Highest REE concentrations were found at low trophic levels, especially in vegetation and aquatic invertebrates. Terrestrial herbivores, ringed seal, and fish had low total REE levels in muscle tissue (∑REE for 15 elements <0.1 nmol g -1 ), yet accumulation was an order of magnitude higher in liver tissues. Age- and length-dependent REE accumulation also suggest that REE uptake is faster than elimination for some species. Overall, REE bioaccumulation patterns appear to be species- and tissue-specific, with limited potential for biomagnification. This study provides novel data on the behaviour of REEs in ecosystems and will be useful for environmental impact assessment of REE enrichment in northern regions.

  2. Assessing values of Arctic wildlife and habitat subject to potential petroleum development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge system of the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is predicated on the principle of conserving and perpetuating the natural diversity and abundance of wildlife and wildlands. The prospect of petroleum development on the 1002 area of the 10,000 km 2 pristine coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) has been a contentious national issue. The FWS assessed the habitat and its constituent wildlife species to determine potential impacts from this development. As part of the assessment effort, research was conducted on the 163,000 member porcupine caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herd, its primary predator at calving, brown bear (Ursus arctos), and the vegetation communities on the coastal plain. We found the traditional calving area within the 1002 area had significantly greater forage species availability and nutrient quality than areas peripheral to the 1002 area. Increased post-perinatal, predator-related mortality has been associated with the foothills and mountains adjacent to the 1002 area. Displacement of the calving caribou from the 1002 area would mean a lesser abundance of high quality forage for calving cows, and calves would be subjected to a potentially higher predation risk. These factors could have a negative impact on the population dynamics of the Porcupine herd. If petroleum development were authorized on the 1002 area of ANWR, the challenge for the FWS will be to assure that the dynamics of the tundra ecosystem are adequately understood and to conserve the abundance and diversity of natural wildlife populations and their habitat

  3. Killer whale (Orcinus orca photo-identification in the eastern Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent G. Young

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We identified individual killer whales (Orcinus orca using recent (2004–09 photographs to obtain a minimum count of whales that use eastern Canadian Arctic waters. Fifty-three individuals were identified from nine different sightings; 11 individuals from western Hudson Bay sightings and 42 from the areas around northern and eastern Baffin Island. One whale was re-sighted: an adult female or large juvenile photographed 17 days and 375 km apart at Churchill, Manitoba, and off-shore of Rankin Inlet, Nunavut, in August 2007. With only one individual re-sighted, the number of individuals that use this area is likely much larger. No re-sightings occurred between Arctic killer whales and individuals photographed off the coast of Newfoundland. Our results represent the minimum number of killer whales sighted in eastern Canadian Arctic waters and provide the foundation for further killer whale research. Little is known about Arctic killer whales and, as a top predator, it is unclear what effect they have on Arctic marine ecosystems.

  4. Limnological characteristics of 56 lakes in the Central Canadian Arctic Treeline Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. SMOL

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Measured environmental variables from 56 lakes across the Central Canadian Treeline Region exhibited clear limnological differences among subpolar ecozones, reflecting strong latitudinal changes in biome characteristics (e.g. vegetation, permafrost, climate. Principal Components Analysis (PCA clearly separated forested sites from tundra sites based on distinct differences in limnological characteristics. Increases in major ions and related variables (e.g. dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC were higher in boreal forest sites in comparison to arctic tundra sites. The higher values recorded in the boreal forest lakes may be indirectly related to differences in climatic factors in these zones, such as the degree of permafrost development, higher precipitation and runoff, duration of ice-cover on the lakes, and thicker and better soil development. Similar to trends observed in DIC, substantially higher values for dissolved organic carbon (DOC were measured in boreal forest lakes than in arctic tundra lakes. This was likely due to higher amounts of catchment-derived DOC entering the lakes from coniferous leaf litter sources. Relative to arctic tundra lakes, boreal forest lakes had higher nutrient concentrations, particularly total nitrogen (TN, likely due to warmer conditions, a longer growing season, and higher precipitation, which would enhance nutrient cycling and primary productivity. Results suggest that modern aquatic environments at opposite sides of the central Canadian arctic treeline (i.e. boreal forest and arctic tundra exhibit distinct differences in water chemistry and physical conditions. These limnological trends may provide important information on possible future changes with additional warming.

  5. Can We Just Get Along Already Canadian Arctic Sovereignty is American Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    consumer of imported resources and a direct client of shipping routes to and from Asia. Consequently, it takes a position that serves the interests...illustrates a tradition of peaceful conflict resolution and the respect of international law as underlying principles of behaviour . As a vast ocean, and...region, under a fully Canadian controlled Northwest Passage. Summary of Findings and Conclusion A pattern of behaviour between Arctic nations

  6. Sharply increased mass loss from glaciers and ice caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Alex S; Moholdt, Geir; Wouters, Bert; Wolken, Gabriel J; Burgess, David O; Sharp, Martin J; Cogley, J Graham; Braun, Carsten; Labine, Claude

    2011-05-19

    Mountain glaciers and ice caps are contributing significantly to present rates of sea level rise and will continue to do so over the next century and beyond. The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, located off the northwestern shore of Greenland, contains one-third of the global volume of land ice outside the ice sheets, but its contribution to sea-level change remains largely unknown. Here we show that the Canadian Arctic Archipelago has recently lost 61 ± 7 gigatonnes per year (Gt yr(-1)) of ice, contributing 0.17 ± 0.02 mm yr(-1) to sea-level rise. Our estimates are of regional mass changes for the ice caps and glaciers of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago referring to the years 2004 to 2009 and are based on three independent approaches: surface mass-budget modelling plus an estimate of ice discharge (SMB+D), repeat satellite laser altimetry (ICESat) and repeat satellite gravimetry (GRACE). All three approaches show consistent and large mass-loss estimates. Between the periods 2004-2006 and 2007-2009, the rate of mass loss sharply increased from 31 ± 8 Gt yr(-1) to 92 ± 12 Gt yr(-1) in direct response to warmer summer temperatures, to which rates of ice loss are highly sensitive (64 ± 14 Gt yr(-1) per 1 K increase). The duration of the study is too short to establish a long-term trend, but for 2007-2009, the increase in the rate of mass loss makes the Canadian Arctic Archipelago the single largest contributor to eustatic sea-level rise outside Greenland and Antarctica.

  7. Biomarkers of Canadian High Arctic Litoral Sediments for Assessment of Organic Matter Sources and Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautler, B. G.; Austin, J.; Otto, A.; Stewart, K.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Simpson, M. J.

    2009-05-01

    Carbon stocks in the High Arctic are particularly sensitive to global climate change, and investigation of variations in organic matter (OM) composition is beneficial for the understanding of the alteration of organic carbon under anticipated future elevated temperatures. Molecular-level characterization of solvent extractable compounds and CuO oxidation products of litoral sedimentary OM at the Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago was conducted to determine the OM sources and decomposition patterns. The solvent extracts contained a series of aliphatic lipids, steroids and one triterpenoid primarily of higher plant origin and new biomarkers, iso- and anteiso-alkanes originating from cerastium arcticum (Arctic mouse-ear chickweed, a native angiosperm) were discovered. Carbon preference index (CPI) values for the n-alkanes, n-alkanols and n-alkanoic acids suggests that the OM biomarkers result from fresh material input in early stage of degradation. The CuO oxidation products were comprised of benzyls, lignin phenols and short-chain diacids and hydroxyacids. High abundance of terrestrial OM biomarkers observed at sites close to the river inlet suggests fluvial inputs as an important pathway to deliver OM into the lake. The lignin phenol vegetation index (LPVI) also suggests that the OM origin is mostly from non-woody angiosperms. A relatively high degree of lignin alteration in the litoral sediments is evident from the abundant ratio of acids and aldehydes of the vanillyl and syringyl monomers. This suggests that the lignin contents have been diagenetically altered as the result of a long residence time in this ecosystem. The molecular-level characterization of litoral sedimentary OM in Canadian High Arctic region provides insight into current OM composition,potential responses to future disturbances and the biogeochemical cycling of carbon in the Arctic.

  8. Using Inuit traditional ecological knowledge for detecting and monitoring avian cholera among Common Eiders in the eastern Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique A. Henri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK has played an increasing role in wildlife management and biodiversity conservation in Canada and elsewhere. This study examined the potential contribution that Inuit TEK (which is one aspect of Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit or Inuit traditional knowledge could offer to detect and monitor avian cholera and other disease-related mortality among Northern Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima borealis breeding in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Avian cholera is an infectious disease (Pasteurella multocida that has been a major conservation issue because of its potential to cause high rates of disease and mortality in several bird species in repeating epizootics; it has spread geographically in North America since the 1940s. In 2004, Inuit hunters from Ivujivik, Nunavik, Québec, were the first to detect avian disease outbreaks among Northern Common Eiders nesting in northeastern Hudson Bay and western Hudson Strait. Laboratory analysis of bird tissues confirmed avian cholera in that region. From 2007 to 2009, we collected Inuit TEK about mortality among Common Eiders and other bird species north and west of where the outbreaks were first detected. During interviews in the communities of Kimmirut, Cape Dorset, Coral Harbour, and Igloolik, Nunavut, Canada (n = 40, Inuit participants reported seeing a total of 8 Common Eiders and 41 specimens of other bird species either sick or dead in northern Hudson Strait, Hudson Bay, and Foxe Basin. Most of the observed disease and mortality events were at sea, on sea ice, or on small nesting islands. Such events probably would have gone undetected by biologists, who were mainly monitoring avian cholera outbreaks on large nesting islands in that region. Inuit participants readily recalled details about the timing, location, and numbers of sick and dead birds that they observed. Some reported signs of disease that were consistent with avian cholera. Inuit also revealed

  9. Assessing values of Arctic wildlife and habitat subject to potential petroleum development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Thomas R. (USFWS, Alaska Fish and Wildlife Research Center, Fairbanks, AK (United States))

    1994-02-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge system of the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is predicated on the principle of conserving and perpetuating the natural diversity and abundance of wildlife and wildlands. The prospect of petroleum development on the 1002 area of the 10,000 km[sup 2] pristine coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) has been a contentious national issue. The FWS assessed the habitat and its constituent wildlife species to determine potential impacts from this development. As part of the assessment effort, research was conducted on the 163,000 member porcupine caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herd, its primary predator at calving, brown bear (Ursus arctos), and the vegetation communities on the coastal plain. We found the traditional calving area within the 1002 area had significantly greater forage species availability and nutrient quality than areas peripheral to the 1002 area. Increased post-perinatal, predator-related mortality has been associated with the foothills and mountains adjacent to the 1002 area. Displacement of the calving caribou from the 1002 area would mean a lesser abundance of high quality forage for calving cows, and calves would be subjected to a potentially higher predation risk. These factors could have a negative impact on the population dynamics of the Porcupine herd. If petroleum development were authorized on the 1002 area of ANWR, the challenge for the FWS will be to assure that the dynamics of the tundra ecosystem are adequately understood and to conserve the abundance and diversity of natural wildlife populations and their habitat

  10. Frequent ultrafine particle formation and growth in Canadian Arctic marine and coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Douglas B.; Burkart, Julia; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Lizotte, Martine; Boivin-Rioux, Aude; Blais, Marjolaine; Mungall, Emma L.; Boyer, Matthew; Irish, Victoria E.; Massé, Guillaume; Kunkel, Daniel; Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Papakyriakou, Tim; Bertram, Allan K.; Bozem, Heiko; Gosselin, Michel; Levasseur, Maurice; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.

    2017-11-01

    The source strength and capability of aerosol particles in the Arctic to act as cloud condensation nuclei have important implications for understanding the indirect aerosol-cloud effect within the polar climate system. It has been shown in several Arctic regions that ultrafine particle (UFP) formation and growth is a key contributor to aerosol number concentrations during the summer. This study uses aerosol number size distribution measurements from shipboard expeditions aboard the research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen in the summers of 2014 and 2016 throughout the Canadian Arctic to gain a deeper understanding of the drivers of UFP formation and growth within this marine boundary layer. UFP number concentrations (diameter > 4 nm) in the range of 101-104 cm-3 were observed during the two seasons, with concentrations greater than 103 cm-3 occurring more frequently in 2016. Higher concentrations in 2016 were associated with UFP formation and growth, with events occurring on 41 % of days, while events were only observed on 6 % of days in 2014. Assessment of relevant parameters for aerosol nucleation showed that the median condensation sink in this region was approximately 1.2 h-1 in 2016 and 2.2 h-1 in 2014, which lie at the lower end of ranges observed at even the most remote stations reported in the literature. Apparent growth rates of all observed events in both expeditions averaged 4.3 ± 4.1 nm h-1, in general agreement with other recent studies at similar latitudes. Higher solar radiation, lower cloud fractions, and lower sea ice concentrations combined with differences in the developmental stage and activity of marine microbial communities within the Canadian Arctic were documented and help explain differences between the aerosol measurements made during the 2014 and 2016 expeditions. These findings help to motivate further studies of biosphere-atmosphere interactions within the Arctic marine environment to explain the production of UFP and their growth to sizes

  11. Polar bears from space: Assessing satellite imagery as a tool to track Arctic wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Seth P.; LaRue, Michelle A.; Lecomte, Nicolas; Atkinson, Stephen N.; Garshelis, David L.; Porter, Claire; Atwood, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Development of efficient techniques for monitoring wildlife is a priority in the Arctic, where the impacts of climate change are acute and remoteness and logistical constraints hinder access. We evaluated high resolution satellite imagery as a tool to track the distribution and abundance of polar bears. We examined satellite images of a small island in Foxe Basin, Canada, occupied by a high density of bears during the summer ice-free season. Bears were distinguished from other light-colored spots by comparing images collected on different dates. A sample of ground-truthed points demonstrated that we accurately classified bears. Independent observers reviewed images and a population estimate was obtained using mark- recapture models. This estimate (N: 94; 95% Confidence Interval: 92-105) was remarkably similar to an abundance estimate derived from a line transect aerial survey conducted a few days earlier (N: 102; 95% CI: 69-152). Our findings suggest that satellite imagery is a promising tool for monitoring polar bears on land, with implications for use with other Arctic wildlife. Large scale applications may require development of automated detection processes to expedite review and analysis. Future research should assess the utility of multi-spectral imagery and examine sites with different environmental characteristics.

  12. Polar bears from space: assessing satellite imagery as a tool to track Arctic wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Stapleton

    Full Text Available Development of efficient techniques for monitoring wildlife is a priority in the Arctic, where the impacts of climate change are acute and remoteness and logistical constraints hinder access. We evaluated high resolution satellite imagery as a tool to track the distribution and abundance of polar bears. We examined satellite images of a small island in Foxe Basin, Canada, occupied by a high density of bears during the summer ice-free season. Bears were distinguished from other light-colored spots by comparing images collected on different dates. A sample of ground-truthed points demonstrated that we accurately classified bears. Independent observers reviewed images and a population estimate was obtained using mark-recapture models. This estimate (N: 94; 95% Confidence Interval: 92-105 was remarkably similar to an abundance estimate derived from a line transect aerial survey conducted a few days earlier (N: 102; 95% CI: 69-152. Our findings suggest that satellite imagery is a promising tool for monitoring polar bears on land, with implications for use with other Arctic wildlife. Large scale applications may require development of automated detection processes to expedite review and analysis. Future research should assess the utility of multi-spectral imagery and examine sites with different environmental characteristics.

  13. Polar bears from space: assessing satellite imagery as a tool to track Arctic wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Seth; LaRue, Michelle; Lecomte, Nicolas; Atkinson, Stephen; Garshelis, David; Porter, Claire; Atwood, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Development of efficient techniques for monitoring wildlife is a priority in the Arctic, where the impacts of climate change are acute and remoteness and logistical constraints hinder access. We evaluated high resolution satellite imagery as a tool to track the distribution and abundance of polar bears. We examined satellite images of a small island in Foxe Basin, Canada, occupied by a high density of bears during the summer ice-free season. Bears were distinguished from other light-colored spots by comparing images collected on different dates. A sample of ground-truthed points demonstrated that we accurately classified bears. Independent observers reviewed images and a population estimate was obtained using mark-recapture models. This estimate (N: 94; 95% Confidence Interval: 92-105) was remarkably similar to an abundance estimate derived from a line transect aerial survey conducted a few days earlier (N: 102; 95% CI: 69-152). Our findings suggest that satellite imagery is a promising tool for monitoring polar bears on land, with implications for use with other Arctic wildlife. Large scale applications may require development of automated detection processes to expedite review and analysis. Future research should assess the utility of multi-spectral imagery and examine sites with different environmental characteristics.

  14. Accounts from 19th-century Canadian Arctic explorers' logs reflect present climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, James E.; Wood, Kevin

    The widely perceived failure of 19th-century expeditions to find and transit the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Arctic is often attributed to extraordinary cold climatic conditions associated with the “Little Ice Age” evident in proxy records. However, examination of 44 explorers' logs for the western Arctic from 1818 to 1910 reveals that climate indicators such as navigability, the distribution and thickness of annual sea ice, monthly surface air temperature, and the onset of melt and freeze were within the present range of variability.The quest for the Northwest Passage through the Canadian archipelago during the 19th century is frequently seen as a vain and tragic failure. Polar exploration during the Victorian era seems to us today to have been a costly exercise in heroic futility, which in many respects it was. This perspective has been reinforced since the 1970s, when paleoclimate reconstructions based on Arctic ice core stratigraphy appeared to confirm the existence of exceptionally cold conditions consistent with the period glaciologists had termed the “Little Ice Age” (Figure 1a), with temperatures more than one standard deviation colder relative to an early 20th-century mean [Koerner, 1977; Koerner and Fisher, 1990; Overpeck et al., 1998]. In recent years, the view of the Little Ice Age as a synchronous worldwide and prolonged cold epoch that ended with modern warming has been questioned [Bradley and Jones, 1993; Jones and Briffa, 2001 ;Ogilvie, 2001].

  15. Beaufort Formation, eastern Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustin, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    On eastern Axel Heiberg Island erosional outliers of the Miocene-early Pliocene Beaufort Formation overlie with angular unconformity, or are faulted against, Mesozoic and early Tertiary strata East of Princess Margaret Arch the Beaufort Formation is divisible into three lithofacies: a conglomerate lithofacies interpreted as alluvial-plain deposits, a sandstone conglomerate lithofacies interpreted as distal alluvial-fan deposits and a sandstone-mudstone-siltstone lithofacies interpreted as alluvial-plain deposits. The floodplain was vegetated by a coniferous forest which was characterized by Picea banksii, Larix, Metasequoia and Alnus. Paleocurrent analysis, facies relationships and petrology of the conglomerates and sandstones indicate the provenance of the Beaufort Formation wa Mesozoic strata to the west. Deposition of the Beaufort Formation on eastern Axel Heiberg Island clearly postdates folding of mid-Eocene and older strata and thus provides a minimum age for orogenesis in this part of the Arctic. The occurrence of faulted massiv conglomerates of the Beaufort Formation provides evidence for Miocene-early Pliocene or earlier uplift of ancestral Princess Margaret Arch and a still-later phase of extension.

  16. Seasonal dynamics of bacterial biomass and production in a coastal arctic ecosystem: Franklin Bay, western Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garneau, Marie-Ã. Ve; Roy, SéBastien; Lovejoy, Connie; Gratton, Yves; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2008-07-01

    The Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study (CASES) included the overwintering deployment of a research platform in Franklin Bay (70°N, 126°W) and provided a unique seasonal record of bacterial dynamics in a coastal region of the Arctic Ocean. Our objectives were (1) to relate seasonal bacterial abundance (BA) and production (BP) to physico-chemical characteristics and (2) to quantify the annual bacterial carbon flux. BA was estimated by epifluorescence microscopy and BP was estimated from 3H-leucine and 3H-thymidine assays. Mean BA values for the water column ranged from 1.0 (December) to 6.8 × 105 cells mL-1 (July). Integral BP varied from 1 (February) to 80 mg C m-2 d-1 (July). During winter-spring, BP was uncorrelated with chlorophyll a (Chl a), but these variables were significantly correlated during summer-autumn (rs = 0.68, p winter, late winter-late spring, and summer. A baseline level of BB and BP was maintained throughout late winter-late spring despite the persistent cold and darkness, with irregular fluctuations that may be related to hydrodynamic events. During this period, BP rates were correlated with colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) but not Chl a (rs BP.CDOM∣Chl a = 0.20, p < 0.05, N = 176). Annual BP was estimated as 6 g C m-2 a-1, implying a total BP of 4.8 × 1010 g C a-1 for the Franklin Bay region. These results show that bacterial processes continue throughout all seasons and make a large contribution to the total biological carbon flux in this coastal arctic ecosystem.

  17. A Large Eddy Simulation Study of Heat Entrainment under Sea Ice in the Canadian Arctic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramudu, E.; Yang, D.; Gelderloos, R.; Meneveau, C. V.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Sea ice cover in the Arctic has declined rapidly in recent decades. The much faster than projected retreat suggests that climate models may be missing some key processes, or that these processes are not accurately represented. The entrainment of heat from the mixed layer by small-scale turbulence is one such process. In the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean, relatively warm Pacific Summer Water (PSW) resides at the base of the mixed layer. With an increasing influx of PSW, the upper ocean in the Canadian Basin has been getting warmer and fresher since the early 2000s. While studies show a correlation between sea ice reduction and an increase in PSW temperature, others argue that PSW intrusions in the Canadian Basin cannot affect sea ice thickness because the strongly-stratified halocline prevents heat from the PSW layer from being entrained into the mixed layer and up to the basal ice surface. In this study, we try to resolve this conundrum by simulating the turbulent entrainment of heat from the PSW layer to a moving basal ice surface using large eddy simulation (LES). The LES model is based on a high-fidelity spectral approach on horizontal planes, and includes a Lagrangian dynamic subgrid model that reduces the need for empirical inputs for subgrid-scale viscosities and diffusivities. This LES tool allows us to investigate physical processes in the mixed layer at a very fine scale. We focus our study on summer conditions, when ice is melting, and show for a range of ice-drift velocities, halocline temperatures, and halocline salinity gradients characteristic of the Canadian Basin how much heat can be entrained from the PSW layer to the sea ice. Our results can be used to improve parameterizations of vertical heat flux under sea ice in coarse-grid ocean and climate models.

  18. Recontinentalizing Canada: Arctic Ice’s Liquid Modernity and the Imagining of a Canadian Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Vannini

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Studying mobile actor networks of moving people, objects, images, and discourses, in conjunction with changing time-spaces, offers a unique opportunity to understand important, and yet relatively neglected, “relational material” dynamics of mobility. A key example of this phenomenon is the recontinentalization of Canada amidst dramatically changing articulations of the meanings and boundaries of the Canadian land-ice-ocean mass. A notable reason why Canada is being re-articulated in current times is the extensiveness of Arctic thawing. The reconfiguration of space and “motility” options in the Arctic constitutes an example of how “materiality and sociality produce themselves together.” In this paper we examine the possibilities and risks connected to this recontinentalization of Canada’s North. In exploring the past, present, and immediate future of this setting, we advance the paradigmatic view that Canada’s changing Arctic is the key element in a process of transformation of Canada into a peninsular body encompassed within a larger archipelagic entity: a place more intimately attuned to its immense (and growing coastal and insular routes.

  19. Inuit Student Teachers' Agency, Positioning and Symbolic Action: Reflections from a "Qallunaat" on Music Teaching in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joan

    2006-01-01

    This article examines how three Inuit student teachers in the Nunavut Teacher Education Program invested their "social and cultural capital" during a music course for classroom teachers, which the author taught in the Canadian Arctic. She describes how, through the musical games they invented for use in Inuit classrooms, these students…

  20. Chemical and microbial characteristics of municipal drinking water supply systems in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daley, Kiley; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; Jamieson, Rob C.

    2017-01-01

    plumbing) could be contributing to Pb, Cu and Fe levels, as the source water in three of the four communities had low alkalinity. The results point to the need for robust disinfection, which may include secondary disinfection or point-of-use disinfection, to prevent microbial risks in drinking water tanks......Drinking water in the vast Arctic Canadian territory of Nunavut is sourced from surface water lakes or rivers and transferred to man-made or natural reservoirs. The raw water is at a minimum treated by chlorination and distributed to customers either by trucks delivering to a water storage tank...... inside buildings or through a piped distribution system. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and microbial drinking water quality from source to tap in three hamlets (Coral Harbour, Pond Inlet and Pangnirtung-each has a population of 0.2 mg/L free chlorine). Some buildings...

  1. Environmental cause/effect phenomena relating to technological development in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eedy, E

    1974-01-01

    The environmental cause/effect interrelationships observed as a consequence of man-mediated disruptions in Canadian Arctic regions are summarized. Sulfur dioxide pollution has destroyed vegetation in Southern Canada. Lichens are particularly vulnerable and have no defense mechanism against pollutants. In Fairbanks, ice fogs and stagnant air collect very high concentrations of pollutants, with the worst conditions arising from fossil fuel combustion and vehicle exhaust. In Yellowknife (Mackenzie) thermal inversions cause high local deposition of arsenic arising from smelter fumes. Concentrations are reported as high as 3 ppM. Fogs cause problems in the Edmonton (Alberta) air. Stable smoke clouds drifted north from a southern forest fire and reduced the solar radiation by 25 percent. Similar problems can occur with the plumes of industrial or thermoelectric stacks. (Air Pollut. Abstr.)

  2. Characterizing aerosol transport into the Canadian High Arctic using aerosol mass spectrometry and Lagrangian modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, T.; Damoah, R.; Bacak, A.; Sloan, J. J.

    2010-05-01

    We report the analysis of measurements made using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS; Aerodyne Research Inc.) that was installed in the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in summer 2006. PEARL is located in the Canadian high Arctic at 610 m above sea level on Ellesmere Island (80° N 86° W). PEARL is unique for its remote location in the Arctic and because most of the time it is situated within the free troposphere. It is therefore well suited as a receptor site to study the long range tropospheric transport of pollutants into the Arctic. Some information about the successful year-round operation of an AMS at a high Arctic site such as PEARL will be reported here, together with design considerations for reliable sampling under harsh low-temperature conditions. Computational fluid dynamics calculations were made to ensure that sample integrity was maintained while sampling air at temperatures that average -40 °C in the winter and can be as low as -55 °C. Selected AMS measurements of aerosol mass concentration, size, and chemical composition recorded during the months of August, September and October 2006 will be reported. During this period, sulfate was at most times the predominant aerosol component with on average 0.115 μg m-3 (detection limit 0.003 μg m-3). The second most abundant component was undifferentiated organic aerosol, with on average 0.11 μg m-3 detection limit (0.04 μg m-3). The nitrate component, which averaged 0.007 μg m-3, was above its detection limit (0.002 μg m-3), whereas the ammonium ion had an apparent average concentration of 0.02 μg m-3, which was approximately equal to its detection limit. A few episodes having increased mass concentrations and lasting from several hours to several days are apparent in the data. These were investigated further using a statistical analysis to determine their common characteristics. High correlations among some of the components arriving during the short term episodes provide

  3. Geophysical Investigations of Hypersaline Subglacial Water Systems in the Canadian Arctic: A Planetary Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutishauser, A.; Sharp, M. J.; Blankenship, D. D.; Skidmore, M. L.; Grima, C.; Schroeder, D. M.; Greenbaum, J. S.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Young, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Robotic exploration and remote sensing of the solar system have identified the presence of liquid water beneath ice on several planetary bodies, with evidence for elevated salinity in certain cases. Subglacial water systems beneath Earth's glaciers and ice sheets may provide terrestrial analogs for microbial habitats in such extreme environments, especially those with higher salinity. Geological data suggest that several ice caps and glaciers in the eastern Canadian High Arctic are partially underlain by evaporite-rich sedimentary rocks, and subglacial weathering of these rocks is potentially conducive to the formation of hypersaline subglacial waters. Here, we combine airborne geophysical data with geological constraints to identify and characterize hypersaline subglacial water systems beneath ice caps in Canada's Queen Elizabeth Islands. High relative bedrock reflectivity and specularity anomalies that are apparent in radio-echo sounding data indicate multiple locations where subglacial water is present in areas where modeled ice temperatures at the glacier bed are well below the pressure melting point. This suggests that these water systems are hypersaline, with solute concentrations that significantly depress the freezing point of water. From combined interpretations of geological and airborne-magnetic data, we define the geological context within which these systems have developed, and identify possible solute-sources for the inferred brine-rich water systems. We also derive subglacial hydraulic potential gradients using airborne laser altimetry and ice thickness data, and apply water routing models to derive subglacial drainage pathways. These allow us to identify marine-terminating glaciers where outflow of the brine-rich waters may be anticipated. These hypersaline subglacial water systems beneath Canadian Arctic ice caps and glaciers may represent robust microbial habitats, and potential analogs for brines that may exist beneath ice masses on planetary

  4. Food expenditure patterns in the Canadian Arctic show cause for concern for obesity and chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Lang, Rosalyn; Rittmueller, Stacey; Roache, Cindy; Sheehy, Tony; Batal, Malek; Corriveau, Andre; Sharma, Sangita

    2014-04-17

    Little is understood about the economic factors that have influenced the nutrition transition from traditional to store-bought foods that are typically high in fat and sugar amongst people living in the Canadian Arctic. This study aims to determine the pattern of household food expenditure in the Canadian Arctic. Local food prices were collected over 12 months in six communities in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. Dietary intake data were collected from 441 adults using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Money spent on six food groups was calculated along with the cost of energy and selected nutrients per person. Participants spent approximately 10% of total food expenditure on each of the food groups of fruit/vegetables, grains and potatoes, and dairy, 17% on traditional meats (e.g. caribou, goose, char, and seal liver), and 20% on non-traditional meats (e.g. beef, pork, chicken, fish, and processed meats). Non-nutrient-dense foods (NNDF) accounted for 34% of food expenditure. Younger participants (<30 years) spent more on NNDF and less on traditional meats compared with the older age groups. Participants with higher levels of formal education spent more on fruit and vegetables and less on traditional meats, when compared with participants with lower levels of formal education. Participants spent most household income on NNDF, a possible consequence of generation discrepancy between younger and older participants. The tendency toward NNDF, particularly among youth, should be addressed with an assessment of predictive factors and the development of targeted approaches to population-based interventions.

  5. Projected polar bear sea ice habitat in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G Hamilton

    Full Text Available Sea ice across the Arctic is declining and altering physical characteristics of marine ecosystems. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus have been identified as vulnerable to changes in sea ice conditions. We use sea ice projections for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from 2006 - 2100 to gain insight into the conservation challenges for polar bears with respect to habitat loss using metrics developed from polar bear energetics modeling.Shifts away from multiyear ice to annual ice cover throughout the region, as well as lengthening ice-free periods, may become critical for polar bears before the end of the 21st century with projected warming. Each polar bear population in the Archipelago may undergo 2-5 months of ice-free conditions, where no such conditions exist presently. We identify spatially and temporally explicit ice-free periods that extend beyond what polar bears require for nutritional and reproductive demands.Under business-as-usual climate projections, polar bears may face starvation and reproductive failure across the entire Archipelago by the year 2100.

  6. Projected polar bear sea ice habitat in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen G; Castro de la Guardia, Laura; Derocher, Andrew E; Sahanatien, Vicki; Tremblay, Bruno; Huard, David

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice across the Arctic is declining and altering physical characteristics of marine ecosystems. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have been identified as vulnerable to changes in sea ice conditions. We use sea ice projections for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from 2006 - 2100 to gain insight into the conservation challenges for polar bears with respect to habitat loss using metrics developed from polar bear energetics modeling. Shifts away from multiyear ice to annual ice cover throughout the region, as well as lengthening ice-free periods, may become critical for polar bears before the end of the 21st century with projected warming. Each polar bear population in the Archipelago may undergo 2-5 months of ice-free conditions, where no such conditions exist presently. We identify spatially and temporally explicit ice-free periods that extend beyond what polar bears require for nutritional and reproductive demands. Under business-as-usual climate projections, polar bears may face starvation and reproductive failure across the entire Archipelago by the year 2100.

  7. Brown snow: A long-range transport event in the Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, H.E.; Muir, D.C.G.; Billeck, B.N.; Lockhart, W.L.; Brunskill, G.J.; Kling, H.J.; Olson, M.P.; Lemoine, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors document the occurrence of a long-range transport event that deposited thousands of tons of fine particulates on the District of Keewatin, central Canadian Arctic, ∼63 N. Air mass trajectories, clay mineral composition, soot particles, and visible organic remains point to Asian sources for the brown snow material, probably western China. Semivolatile organic pollutants detected in the brown snow included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ΣPAH), PCB congeners, and DDT-related compounds (ΣDDT), polychlorinated camphenes (PCCs), as well as the herbicide trifuluralin and insecticides methoxychlor, endosulfan, and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). ΣPAH, PCB, and PCC concentrations were within the range reported in other studies of Arctic snow but ΣDDT levels were 2-10 times higher than previous reports. High molecular weight PAH may have been associated with soot particles in the brown snow but evidence for Asian sources of the pesticides was not strong because of unknown source signal strengths and possible atmospheric transformations of the compounds. Fluxes of these pollutants were also determined by analyzing sediment cores from two small headwater lakes near the sampling site. The quantities of pollutants deposited in this single event may have comprised a significant fraction (>10%) of total annual input ΣPAH and ΣDDT, as determined from lake sedimentation records

  8. Landfast ice thickness in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from observations and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Stephen E. L.; Laliberté, Frédéric; Kwok, Ron; Derksen, Chris; King, Joshua

    2016-07-01

    Observed and modelled landfast ice thickness variability and trends spanning more than 5 decades within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) are summarized. The observed sites (Cambridge Bay, Resolute, Eureka and Alert) represent some of the Arctic's longest records of landfast ice thickness. Observed end-of-winter (maximum) trends of landfast ice thickness (1957-2014) were statistically significant at Cambridge Bay (-4.31 ± 1.4 cm decade-1), Eureka (-4.65 ± 1.7 cm decade-1) and Alert (-4.44 ± 1.6 cm -1) but not at Resolute. Over the 50+-year record, the ice thinned by ˜ 0.24-0.26 m at Cambridge Bay, Eureka and Alert with essentially negligible change at Resolute. Although statistically significant warming in spring and fall was present at all sites, only low correlations between temperature and maximum ice thickness were present; snow depth was found to be more strongly associated with the negative ice thickness trends. Comparison with multi-model simulations from Coupled Model Intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5), Ocean Reanalysis Intercomparison (ORA-IP) and Pan-Arctic Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS) show that although a subset of current generation models have a "reasonable" climatological representation of landfast ice thickness and distribution within the CAA, trends are unrealistic and far exceed observations by up to 2 orders of magnitude. ORA-IP models were found to have positive correlations between temperature and ice thickness over the CAA, a feature that is inconsistent with both observations and coupled models from CMIP5.

  9. Methanogen community composition and rates of methane consumption in Canadian High Arctic permafrost soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, J; Ronholm, J; Mykytczuk, N C S; Greer, C W; Onstott, T C; Whyte, L G

    2014-04-01

    Increasing permafrost thaw, driven by climate change, has the potential to result in organic carbon stores being mineralized into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) through microbial activity. This study examines the effect of increasing temperature on community structure and metabolic activity of methanogens from the Canadian High Arctic, in an attempt to predict how warming will affect microbially controlled CH4 soil flux. In situ CO2 and CH4 flux, measured in 2010 and 2011 from ice-wedge polygons, indicate that these soil formations are a net source of CO2 emissions, but a CH4 sink. Permafrost and active layer soil samples were collected at the same sites and incubated under anaerobic conditions at warmer temperatures, with and without substrate amendment. Gas flux was measured regularly and indicated an increase in CH4 flux after extended incubation. Pyrosequencing was used to examine the effects of an extended thaw cycle on methanogen diversity and the results indicate that in situ methanogen diversity, based on the relative abundance of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene associated with known methanogens, is higher in the permafrost than in the active layer. Methanogen diversity was also shown to increase in both the active layer and permafrost soil after an extended thaw. This study provides evidence that although High Arctic ice-wedge polygons are currently a sink for CH4, higher arctic temperatures and anaerobic conditions, a possible result of climate change, could result in this soil becoming a source for CH4 gas flux. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Natural Radioactivity Accumulated in the Arctic from Long-range Atmospheric Transport - Observations in Canadian Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Weihua [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    In the environment, the main sources of naturally occurring radionuclides come from radionuclides in the uranium decay series. Activity concentrations of uranium decay series radionuclides may vary considerably from place to place depending on the geological characteristics at the location. Their releases to the atmosphere are mainly through radon ({sup 222}Rn), a radioactive noble gas occurring naturally as an indirect decay product of uranium in soils and rocks. Due to the abundance of uranium, radon continuously emanates from continental land masses. With radon as the main source of naturally occurring radioactivity in the environment, one would think that the Arctic should be an area of low background radiation, because a considerable area of the Arctic is covered by glaciers and permafrost, and radon emanation rate has been reported to be negligible from those glacier and permafrost areas. However, available data have shown the opposite. The elevated level of naturally occurring radioactivity in the Arctic is due to natural sources outside of the Arctic, mainly through long-range atmospheric transport of radon and radon progeny. In some cases, natural radioactivity can accumulate to relatively high levels and become a health concern or a limiting factor of country food consumption. By definition, contaminants are undesirable substances which can cause harm to the environment, the biota, and humans. We can call these naturally accumulating radiological burdens to the Arctic 'natural contaminants' to distinguish them from the traditional meaning of contamination, the 'artificial contaminants' which are attributable to industrial or man-made sources. This paper reviews information available in the literature, analyses long-term atmospheric monitoring data in the Canadian high Arctic, sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites, and provides discussion on research needed to address questions, such as how heavily the Arctic has been impacted by the

  11. Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in marine biota of the Canadian Arctic: an overview of spatial and temporal trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braune, B M; Outridge, P M; Fisk, A T; Muir, D C G; Helm, P A; Hobbs, K; Hoekstra, P F; Kuzyk, Z A; Kwan, M; Letcher, R J; Lockhart, W L; Norstrom, R J; Stern, G A; Stirling, I

    2005-12-01

    This review summarizes and synthesizes the significant amount of data which was generated on mercury (Hg) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Canadian Arctic marine biota since the first Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report (CACAR) was published in 1997. This recent body of work has led to a better understanding of the current levels and spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in biota, including the marine food species that northern peoples traditionally consume. Compared to other circumpolar countries, concentrations of many organochlorines (OCs) in Canadian Arctic marine biota are generally lower than in the European Arctic and eastern Greenland but are higher than in Alaska, whereas Hg concentrations are substantially higher in Canada than elsewhere. Spatial coverage of OCs in ringed seals, beluga and seabirds remains a strength of the Arctic contaminant data set for Canada. Concentrations of OCs in marine mammals and seabirds remain fairly consistent across the Canadian Arctic although subtle differences from west to east and south to north are found in the proportions of various chemicals. The most significant development since 1997 is improvement in the temporal trend data sets, thanks to the use of archived tissue samples from the 1970s and 1980s, long-term studies using archeological material, as well as the continuation of sampling. These data cover a range of species and chemicals and also include retrospective studies on new chemicals such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers. There is solid evidence in a few species (beluga, polar bear, blue mussels) that Hg at some locations has significantly increased from pre-industrial times to the present; however, the temporal trends of Hg over the past 20-30 years are inconsistent. Some animal populations exhibited significant increases in Hg whereas others did not. Therefore, it is currently not possible to determine if anthropogenic Hg is generally increasing in Canadian Arctic biota. It is

  12. Atlantic Canada, on watch : Canadian Coast Guard sails to rescue of oiled wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W.

    1999-08-02

    The impact that tanker ships have left on the marine ecosystem on Newfoundland`s south coast was discussed. Tankers and container ships have sometimes discharged leftover bunker-C fuel before entering the St. Lawrence Seaway to save on cleaning services. It is estimated that 60,000 to 100,000 of the 30 million seabirds which reside or migrate through the ecological reserve around St. Mary`s Bay, die each year from the effects of oil. Victims are mostly puffins, seagulls and murres. This paper discussed the involvement of the Canadian Coast Guard in the Prevention of Oiled Wildlife (POW) project. POW has compared British Columbia`s shipping practices with those of Newfoundland. Although crude oil shipments along the B.C. coast exceed 250 million barrels annually, seabirds are not being oiled by passing tankers. It was suggested that in order to change attitudes in Atlantic waters, the maximum fine of $1 million against offenders should be imposed. So far, the highest penalty levied by Transport Canada has been $30,000. It was argued that this is not a significant deterrent for most polluters.

  13. Atlantic Canada, on watch : Canadian Coast Guard sails to rescue of oiled wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, W.

    1999-01-01

    The impact that tanker ships have left on the marine ecosystem on Newfoundland's south coast was discussed. Tankers and container ships have sometimes discharged leftover bunker-C fuel before entering the St. Lawrence Seaway to save on cleaning services. It is estimated that 60,000 to 100,000 of the 30 million seabirds which reside or migrate through the ecological reserve around St. Mary's Bay, die each year from the effects of oil. Victims are mostly puffins, seagulls and murres. This paper discussed the involvement of the Canadian Coast Guard in the Prevention of Oiled Wildlife (POW) project. POW has compared British Columbia's shipping practices with those of Newfoundland. Although crude oil shipments along the B.C. coast exceed 250 million barrels annually, seabirds are not being oiled by passing tankers. It was suggested that in order to change attitudes in Atlantic waters, the maximum fine of $1 million against offenders should be imposed. So far, the highest penalty levied by Transport Canada has been $30,000. It was argued that this is not a significant deterrent for most polluters

  14. Atlantic Canada, on watch : Canadian Coast Guard sails to rescue of oiled wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W

    1999-08-02

    The impact that tanker ships have left on the marine ecosystem on Newfoundland's south coast was discussed. Tankers and container ships have sometimes discharged leftover bunker-C fuel before entering the St. Lawrence Seaway to save on cleaning services. It is estimated that 60,000 to 100,000 of the 30 million seabirds which reside or migrate through the ecological reserve around St. Mary's Bay, die each year from the effects of oil. Victims are mostly puffins, seagulls and murres. This paper discussed the involvement of the Canadian Coast Guard in the Prevention of Oiled Wildlife (POW) project. POW has compared British Columbia's shipping practices with those of Newfoundland. Although crude oil shipments along the B.C. coast exceed 250 million barrels annually, seabirds are not being oiled by passing tankers. It was suggested that in order to change attitudes in Atlantic waters, the maximum fine of $1 million against offenders should be imposed. So far, the highest penalty levied by Transport Canada has been $30,000. It was argued that this is not a significant deterrent for most polluter00.

  15. Evaluation of potential interactions between forest biomass production and Canadian wildlife. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulombe, R.; Lemay, A.B.

    1983-06-01

    Forest management for biomass production can be undertaken in all provinces of Canada. Raw material can be extracted either from sawmills, logged areas, silvicultural treatments or short-rotation intensive culture. All forests are suitable habitats for wildlife. However, some species (e.g. woodland caribou, lynx, marten, owl) are extremely dependant on mature forests. Logging these forests generally contributes to reduction of habitats and thus populations. Management of second growth forests should take into consideration these species by extending rotations so part of the forests will serve the species. Removal of snags and downed logs to increase amount of raw material will contribute to reduced habitats of, for instance, tree-nesting birds. As these aspects have not been intensively studied within the Canadian forest regions, interactions can hardly be specified. Studies are recommended to analyse the overall problems and define measures to prevent detrimental effects. Other species (rare, threatened or endangered) will need specific attention and precaution while managing forests. Some are highly sensitive to noise and human disturbance (e.g. whooping crane, white pelican, peregrine falcon), others are very sensitive to harassment. Increased human presence within managed forests will necessitate more educational programs to prevent detrimental effects. Some species of reptiles, amphibians and fish are so poorly documented that only basic studies of the biology, ecology and distribution will permit to identify and evaluate interactions with these new forestry concepts. 289 refs., 19 figs., 36 tabs.

  16. Resource utilisation by deep-sea megabenthos in the Canadian High Arctic (Baffin Bay and Parry Channel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Solveig; Witte, Ursula; Harrison, Ailish M.; Makela, Anni; Kazanidis, Georgios; Archambault, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing climate change in the Arctic is causing drastic alteration of the Arctic marine ecosystem functioning, such as shifts in patterns of primary production, and modifying the present tight pelagic-benthic coupling. Subsequently benthic communities, which rely upon organic matter produced in the top layers of the Ocean, will also be affected by these changes. The benthic megafaunal communities play a significant role in ecological processes and ecosystem functioning (i.e. organic matter recycling, bioturbation, food source for the higher trophic levels…). Yet, information is scarce regarding the main food sources for dominant benthic organisms, and therefore the impact of the ongoing changes is difficult to assess. The goal of this study is to investigate the preferential feeding of different carbon sources by megabenthic organisms in the Canadian High Arctic and to identify environmental drivers which explain the observed trends. In summer 2013, benthic megafauna was collected at 9 stations spread along latitudinal (58 to 81°N) and longitudinal (62 to 114°W) transects in the Baffin Bay and Parry Channel, respectively. Carbon and nitrogen bulk stable isotope analyses (δ13C and δ15N) were performed on several species divided into groups according to their feeding type. This study highlights distinct trends in δ13C values of benthic organisms suggesting the importance of both phytoplankton and ice algae as carbon sources for megafauna in the Canadian High Arctic. The importance of physical and biological parameters as drivers of food web structure will be furthermore discussed.

  17. Abundant pre-industrial carbon detected in Canadian Arctic headwaters: implications for the permafrost carbon feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J. F.; van der Velde, Y.; Garnett, M. H.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Baxter, R.; Lessels, J. S.; Smith, P.; Street, L. E.; Subke, J.-A.; Tetzlaff, D.; Washbourne, I.; Wookey, P. A.; Billett, M. F.

    2018-03-01

    Mobilization of soil/sediment organic carbon into inland waters constitutes a substantial, but poorly-constrained, component of the global carbon cycle. Radiocarbon (14C) analysis has proven a valuable tool in tracing the sources and fate of mobilized carbon, but aquatic 14C studies in permafrost regions rarely detect ‘old’ carbon (assimilated from the atmosphere into plants and soil prior to AD1950). The emission of greenhouse gases derived from old carbon by aquatic systems may indicate that carbon sequestered prior to AD1950 is being destabilized, thus contributing to the ‘permafrost carbon feedback’ (PCF). Here, we measure directly the 14C content of aquatic CO2, alongside dissolved organic carbon, in headwater systems of the western Canadian Arctic—the first such concurrent measurements in the Arctic. Age distribution analysis indicates that the age of mobilized aquatic carbon increased significantly during the 2014 snow-free season as the active layer deepened. This increase in age was more pronounced in DOC, rising from 101-228 years before sampling date (a 120%-125% increase) compared to CO2, which rose from 92-151 years before sampling date (a 59%-63% increase). ‘Pre-industrial’ aged carbon (assimilated prior to ~AD1750) comprised 15%-40% of the total aquatic carbon fluxes, demonstrating the prevalence of old carbon to Arctic headwaters. Although the presence of this old carbon is not necessarily indicative of a net positive PCF, we provide an approach and baseline data which can be used for future assessment of the PCF.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF RADARSAT-2 HR STEREO DATA OVER CANADIAN NORTHERN AND ARCTIC STUDY SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Toutin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital surface models (DSMs extracted from high-resolution Radarsat-2 (R2 stereo images using a new hybrid radargrammetric modeling developed at the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing are evaluated over two Canadian northern and arctic study sites. Because the new hybrid model uses the full metadata of R2, it does not require any ground control point. The first study site in the north of Quebec is used for the scientific validation where accurate checked data (dGPS, lidas is available. The second study site in the Arctic (steep relief and glaciated surfaces is challenging for the operational evaluation of topographic mapping capabilities of R2. For the first study site, the bias and elevation linear errors with 68 percent confidence level (LE68 of R2 stero-extracted DSM compared to lidar data were computed over bare surfaces: LE90 of 3.9 m and no bias were achieved. For the second study site the comparison was performed between the R2 DEM and ICESat data. A negative 18-m bias was computed and certainly results suggests a bias in the stereo-model of R2 and thus in the metadata used in the model computation because there is few temporal variation in the data acquisition (R2 and ICESat/ LE68 of 28 m was obtained. However, the differential melting and thinning depending of the glaciers elevations and planimetric surging of glacier tongues with less accumulation of debris and moraines, a lower LE68 of around 20 m could be expected. In addition to evaluate the potential of R2 over ice bodies, which generally have low slope relief and because the errors are strongly correlated with slopes, other statistical results of elevation differences were also computed: LE68 of 15 m was obtained over ice fields with 0–5° slopes while a little more than 20-m over less than 30° slopes was achieved.

  19. Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the wildlife resources of the Site. Wildlife populations inhabiting the Hanford Site are monitored in order to measure the status and condition of the populations and assess effects of Hanford operations.

  20. Wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the wildlife resources of the Site. Wildlife populations inhabiting the Hanford Site are monitored in order to measure the status and condition of the populations and assess effects of Hanford operations

  1. Organochlorine contaminant and stable isotope profiles in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekstra, P.F.; Braune, B.M.; O' Hara, T.M.; Elkin, B.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G

    2003-04-01

    PCBs in Arctic fox are lower than reported in other Arctic populations and unlikely to cause significant impairment of reproductive success. - Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) is a circumpolar species distributed across northern Canada and Alaska. Arctic fox muscle and liver were collected at Barrow, AK, USA (n=18), Holman, NT, Canada (n=20), and Arviat, NU, Canada (n=20) to elucidate the feeding ecology of this species and relate these findings to body residue patterns of organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Stable carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) isotope analyses of Arctic fox muscle indicated that trophic position (estimated by {delta}{sup 15}N) is positively correlated with increasing {delta}{sup 13}C values, suggesting that Arctic fox with a predominately marine-based foraging strategy occupy a higher trophic level than individuals mostly feeding from a terrestrial-based carbon source. At all sites, the rank order for OC groups in muscle was polychlorinated biphenyls ({sigma}PCB) > chlordane-related compounds ({sigma}CHLOR) > hexachlorocyclohexane ({sigma}HCH) > total toxaphene (TOX) {>=}chlorobenzenes ({sigma}ClBz) > DDT-related isomers ({sigma}DDT). In liver, {sigma}CHLOR was the most abundant OC group, followed by {sigma}PCB > TOX > {sigma}HCH > {sigma}ClBz > {sigma}DDT. The most abundant OC analytes detected from Arctic fox muscle and liver were oxychlordane, PCB-153, and PCB-180. The comparison of {delta}{sup 15}N with OC concentrations indicated that relative trophic position might not accurately predict OC bioaccumulation in Arctic fox. The bioaccumulation pattern of OCs in the Arctic fox is similar to the polar bear. While {sigma}PCB concentrations were highly variable, concentrations in the Arctic fox were generally below those associated with the toxicological endpoints for adverse effects on mammalian reproduction. Further research is required to properly elucidate the potential health impacts to this species from exposure to OCs.

  2. Organochlorine contaminant and stable isotope profiles in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.F.; Braune, B.M.; O'Hara, T.M.; Elkin, B.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    PCBs in Arctic fox are lower than reported in other Arctic populations and unlikely to cause significant impairment of reproductive success. - Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) is a circumpolar species distributed across northern Canada and Alaska. Arctic fox muscle and liver were collected at Barrow, AK, USA (n=18), Holman, NT, Canada (n=20), and Arviat, NU, Canada (n=20) to elucidate the feeding ecology of this species and relate these findings to body residue patterns of organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Stable carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) isotope analyses of Arctic fox muscle indicated that trophic position (estimated by δ 15 N) is positively correlated with increasing δ 13 C values, suggesting that Arctic fox with a predominately marine-based foraging strategy occupy a higher trophic level than individuals mostly feeding from a terrestrial-based carbon source. At all sites, the rank order for OC groups in muscle was polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) > chlordane-related compounds (ΣCHLOR) > hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCH) > total toxaphene (TOX) ≥chlorobenzenes (ΣClBz) > DDT-related isomers (ΣDDT). In liver, ΣCHLOR was the most abundant OC group, followed by ΣPCB > TOX > ΣHCH > ΣClBz > ΣDDT. The most abundant OC analytes detected from Arctic fox muscle and liver were oxychlordane, PCB-153, and PCB-180. The comparison of δ 15 N with OC concentrations indicated that relative trophic position might not accurately predict OC bioaccumulation in Arctic fox. The bioaccumulation pattern of OCs in the Arctic fox is similar to the polar bear. While ΣPCB concentrations were highly variable, concentrations in the Arctic fox were generally below those associated with the toxicological endpoints for adverse effects on mammalian reproduction. Further research is required to properly elucidate the potential health impacts to this species from exposure to OCs

  3. The role of seasonal migration in the near-total loss of caribou on south-central Canadian Arctic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Miller

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Extended: In 1980 the caribou (Rangifer tarandus on Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands represented a healthy geographic population of an Arctic-island caribou ecotype on the southern tier of Canadian Arctic Islands. Those caribou exhibited complex patterns of seasonal range occupancy, involving annual seasonal migrations between and among the three islands and Boothia Peninsula (Miller et al., 1982, 2005; Miller, 1990. A large segment of the population migrated annually from the islands to Boothia Peninsula in early winter, wintered there, and then returned to the islands in the following late winter and spring. There is no evidence for large-scale emigration of caribou anywhere in the study area (Gunn et al., 2006. Caribou on Boothia Peninsula occur as two distinct ecotypes that are genetically different from the Arctic-island ecotype that occurred on Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands (e.g., Zittlau, 2004. Both the Boothia Peninsula ecotype and the Mainland ecotype calve mostly on northern Boothia Peninsula, northwest and northeast sections respectively (Gunn et al., 2000. After summering on the peninsula, most individuals of both ecotypes migrate south of the Boothia Isthmus onto adjacent mainland areas (Gunn et al., 2000. As a result, there were about the same number of caribou wintering on Boothia Peninsula when migrant caribou from Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands wintered there, as in summer when the migrant Arctic-island caribou had returned to Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands and the migrant Boothia Peninsula and Mainland caribou ecotypes had returned from their winter ranges farther south on the mainland to their calving areas and summer ranges on Boothia Peninsula. We treat both caribou ecotypes on Boothia Peninsula as just one geographic population for our assessment. The Arctic-island caribou ecotype on Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands declined about 98% from the

  4. Mercury speciation in brain tissue of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Anke; Kwan, Michael; Chan, Hing Man

    2012-04-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxicant that has been found at elevated concentrations in the Arctic ecosystem. Little is known about its internal dose in wildlife such as polar bears. We measured concentrations of mercury (Hg) in three different brain regions (cerebellum, frontal lobe and brain stem) of 24 polar bears collected from the Nunavik, Canada between 2000 and 2003. Speciation of Hg was measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (HPLC-ICP-MS). Concentrations of mean total Hg in brain tissue were up to 625 times lower (0.28 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) in frontal lobe, 0.23 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1) dw in cerebellum and 0.12 ± 0.0 3mg kg(-1) dw in brain stem) than the mean total Hg concentration previously reported in polar bear liver collected from Eastern Baffin Island. Methylmercury (MeHg) accounted for 100% of the Hg found in all three brain regions analyzed. These results suggest that polar bear might reduce the toxic effects of Hg by limiting the uptake into the brain and/or decrease the rate of demethylation so that Hg can be excreted from the brain more easily. The toxicokinetics and the blood-brain-barrier mechanisms of polar bears are still unknown and further research is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Persistent organic pollutants and diabetes among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavita; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that is of increasing concern in Inuit communities. Behavioural factors such as physical inactivity and poor diet are well-known risk factors. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has emerged as an additional factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes. In this study, association between polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) with diabetes in Canadian Inuit was examined. Data from the Adult Inuit Health Survey (2007-2008) of Inuit participants from the Canadian Arctic were analyzed. Self-reported diabetes (excluding gestational diabetes) and clinical measurement of fasting glucose were examined as outcomes. Association with individual PCB congeners, sum of dioxin-like PCBs (∑DL-PCB), non-dioxin-like PCBs (∑NDL-PCB), total PCBs (∑PCB), and p,p'-DDE were investigated using multiple regression models adjusted for confounding factors. Using different methods to incorporate serum lipids, highest vs. lowest quartile exposures to PCB-105, PCB-118, PCB-153, PCB-156, PCB-170, PCB-180, PCB-183, ∑PCB, and p,p'-DDE were associated with increased risk of diabetes. For these PCBs, odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.9-3.5 (lower 95% CI: 0.8-1.4, upper 95% CI: 4.4-9.0) and for p,p'-DDE the OR was 2.5 (lower 95% CI: 1.1-1.2, upper 95% CI: 5.9-6.0). The highest vs. lowest quartile exposure to most PCBs and p,p'-DDE were associated with an increase of fasting glucose by 3-7%. PCBs and p,p'-DDE were associated with increased risk of diabetes and higher fasting glucose level in a cross-sectional survey of Canadian Inuit. Cause-effect relationships of PCBs and p,p'-DDE with diabetes and diabetes-related outcomes need to be further investigated in a cohort study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cryogenic formation of brine and sedimentary mirabilite in submergent coastal lake basins, Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasby, Stephen E.; Rod Smith, I.; Bell, Trevor; Forbes, Donald L.

    2013-06-01

    Two informally named basins (Mirabilite Basins 1 and 2) along a submergent coastline on Banks Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, host up to 1 m-thick accumulations of mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) underlying stratified water bodies with basal anoxic brines. Unlike isostatically uplifting coastlines that trap seawater in coastal basins, these basins formed from freshwater lakes that were transgressed by seawater. The depth of the sill that separates the basins from the sea is shallow (1.15 m), such that seasonal sea ice formation down to 1.6 m isolates the basins from open water exchange through the winter. Freezing of seawater excludes salts, generating dense brines that sink to the basin bottom. Progressive freezing increases salinity of residual brines to the point of mirabilite saturation, and as a result sedimentary deposits of mirabilite accumulate on the basin floors. Brine formation also leads to density stratification and bottom water anoxia. We propose a model whereby summer melt of the ice cover forms a temporary freshwater lens, and rather than mixing with the underlying brines, it is exchanged with seawater once the ice plug that separates the basins from the open sea melts. This permits progressive brine development and density stratification within the basins.

  7. Irradiation as an alternative for disinfection of domestic waste in the Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This study evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of various methods for disinfecting wastewater in the Canadian Arctic with specific reference to gamma radiation. More conventional disinfection practices, such as chlorination, chlorination-dechlorination, and ozonation were compared to gamma radiation along with ultraviolet irradiation and lime disinfection. The quality of lagoon effluent, highly diluted (weak) sewage, holding tank wastes and honey-bag wastes, which are the typical waste types found in northern communities, was established from data available in the literature. Further literature reviews were undertaken to establish a data base for design and effectiveness of disinfection systems operated in cold climates. Capital and operating costs for all technically feasible disinfection process alternates were estimated based on historical cost data adjusted to 1977 for the construction and instalation of similar systems in the north. The costs of equipment, chemicals, fuel and electrical power were obtained from suppliers. The environmental impact of each of the disinfection processes was reviewed with emphasis on gamma irradiation. Safety and health aspects were also considered. The study concluded that gamma irradiation was capable of providing safe, reliable disinfection for concentrated honey-bag and holding wastes. Pilot-scale testing was recommended prior to construction of full-scale disinfection facilities. For lagoon effluents and weak sewage, gamma irradiation was not cost competitive with other alternates; rather chlorination-dechlorination was found to be the most cost-effective and environmentally acceptable alternative

  8. Effects of shipping on marine acoustic habitats in Canadian Arctic estimated via probabilistic modeling and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulanier, Florian; Simard, Yvan; Roy, Nathalie; Gervaise, Cédric; Bandet, Marion

    2017-12-15

    Canadian Arctic and Subarctic regions experience a rapid decrease of sea ice accompanied with increasing shipping traffic. The resulting time-space changes in shipping noise are studied for four key regions of this pristine environment, for 2013 traffic conditions and a hypothetical tenfold traffic increase. A probabilistic modeling and mapping framework, called Ramdam, which integrates the intrinsic variability and uncertainties of shipping noise and its effects on marine habitats, is developed and applied. A substantial transformation of soundscapes is observed in areas where shipping noise changes from present occasional-transient contributor to a dominant noise source. Examination of impacts on low-frequency mammals within ecologically and biologically significant areas reveals that shipping noise has the potential to trigger behavioral responses and masking in the future, although no risk of temporary or permanent hearing threshold shifts is noted. Such probabilistic modeling and mapping is strategic in marine spatial planning of this emerging noise issues. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mercury and persistent organic pollutants in native and invading forage species of the Canadian Arctic: Consequences for food web dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Sara; Fisk, Aaron T; Tomy, Gregg T; Ferguson, Steven H; Hussey, Nigel E; Kessel, Steven T; McKinney, Melissa A

    2017-10-01

    Contaminant dynamics within Arctic marine food webs may be altered through the climate-driven northward invasions of temperate/boreal species. Here, we compare tissue concentrations of total mercury (THg) and legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in native versus invading forage species sampled from 2012 to 2014 near Arviat, Clyde River, and Resolute Bay, NU, representing, low, mid- and high eastern Canadian Arctic regions, respectively. Concentrations of THg, legacy Σ-polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) and Σ-organochlorine (ΣOC) pesticides were detected in all forage species, whereas emerging halogenated flame retardants were detected in only a few individuals. Concentrations of major contaminant groups among regions did not vary for Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), while for sculpin (Cottoidea) there was no clear latitudinal trend. Thus, considering interspecific variation, native sculpin and northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) had the highest overall concentrations of THg (0.17 ± 0.02 and 0.21 ± 0.01 μg g -1 wet weight, respectively), ΣPCB (322 ± 35 and 245 ± 25 ng g -1 lipid weight (lw), respectively), and ΣOC (413 ± 38 and 734 ± 64 ng g -1 lw, respectively). Comparing the keystone native species, Arctic cod, to its 'replacement' species, capelin (Mallotus villosus) and sandlance (Ammodytes spp.), THg concentrations were higher in Arctic cod compared to capelin (p compound patterns, in capelin and sandlance relative to Arctic cod seem, therefore, more likely related to a more "temperate"-type contaminant signature in the invaders. Nevertheless, the relatively small (up to two-fold) magnitude of these differences suggested limited effects of these ecological changes on contaminant uptake by Arctic piscivores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ten-year trends of atmospheric mercury in the high Arctic compared to Canadian sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Cole

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Global emissions of mercury continue to change at the same time as the Arctic is experiencing ongoing climatic changes. Continuous monitoring of atmospheric mercury provides important information about long-term trends in the balance between transport, chemistry, and deposition of this pollutant in the Arctic atmosphere. Ten-year records of total gaseous mercury (TGM from 2000 to 2009 were analyzed from two high Arctic sites at Alert (Nunavut, Canada and Zeppelin Station (Svalbard, Norway; one sub-Arctic site at Kuujjuarapik (Nunavik, Québec, Canada; and three temperate Canadian sites at St. Anicet (Québec, Kejimkujik (Nova Scotia and Egbert (Ontario. Five of the six sites examined showed a decreasing trend over this time period. Overall trend estimates at high latitude sites were: −0.9% yr−1 (95% confidence limits: −1.4, 0 at Alert and no trend (−0.5, +0.7 at Zeppelin Station. Faster decreases were observed at the remainder of the sites: −2.1% yr−1 (−3.1, −1.1 at Kuujjuarapik, −1.9% yr−1 (−2.1, −1.8 at St. Anicet, −1.6% yr−1 (−2.4, −1.0 at Kejimkujik and −2.2% yr−1 (−2.8, −1.7 at Egbert. Trends at the sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites agree with reported decreases in background TGM concentration since 1996 at Mace Head, Ireland, and Cape Point, South Africa, but conflict with estimates showing an increase in global anthropogenic emissions over a similar period. Trends in TGM at the two high Arctic sites were not only less negative (or neutral overall but much more variable by season. Possible reasons for differences in seasonal and overall trends at the Arctic sites compared to those at lower latitudes are discussed, as well as implications for the Arctic mercury cycle. The first calculations of multi-year trends in reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and total particulate mercury (TPM at Alert were also performed, indicating increases from 2002 to 2009

  11. Exponential increases of the brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, in the Canadian Arctic from 1981 to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonomou, Michael G; Rayne, Sierra; Addison, Richard F

    2002-05-01

    A suite of 37 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and all of the homologue groups from mono- to deca-brominated were determined in ringed seal (Phoca hispida) blubber collected from subsistence hunts in the Canadian Arctic in 1981, 1991, 1996, and 2000. Total PBDE (sum(PBDE)) concentrations have increased exponentially over this period in male ringed seals aged 0-15 years. Penta- and hexa-BDEs are increasing at approximately the same rate (t2 = 4.7 and 4.3 years, respectively) and more rapidly than tetra-BDEs (t2 = 8.6 years) and tri-BDEs (t2 = infinity) in this age/sex grouping. In contrast to declining PBDE concentrations since 1997 in human milk from Sweden, sum(PBDE) concentrations in arctic ringed seals continue to increase exponentially similar to worldwide commercial penta-BDE production. PBDE congener profiles in male ringed seals aged 0-15 years from 1991 to 2000 also differ significantly from other aquatic organisms and semipermeable membrane devices collected from temperate coastal regions of British Columbia. While PBDE concentrations are 50 times lower than those of mono-ortho and non-ortho PCBs, and approxiamately 500 times higher than PCDD/Fs, our data indicate that, at current rates of bioaccumulation, PBDEs will surpass PCBs to become the most prevalent organohalogen compound in Canadian arctic ringed seals by 2050.

  12. Radiocesium in Canadian Arctic Beluga and Caribou Before and After the Fukushima Accident of 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocki, Trevor J.; Pellerin, Eric; Bergman, Lauren; Mercier, Jean-Francois; Genovesi, Linda; Cooke, Michael; Todd, Bonnie; Sandles, Diane; Whyte, Jeff [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, AL6302D, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Gamberg, Mary [Gamberg Consulting, Whitehorse, Yukon (Canada); Loseto, Lisa [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Wang, X. [Environment Canada, Burlington Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011, northern Canadians expressed concerns about the levels of radioactive contaminants in important traditional foods. Therefore, a study has been conducted to measure the levels of radionuclides in Arctic caribou and beluga whales. The main radionuclide of concern is cesium-137, which has a half-life of 30 years and is chemically similar to potassium, thereby easily accumulating in plants and animals. Cesium-137 was released into the atmosphere during nuclear weapons tests in the 1950's-60's and during nuclear accidents, such as Chernobyl. Previous studies have been made on the cesium-137 levels in Canadian caribou herds from 1958 to 2000, allowing researchers to determine the amount of cesium-137 in caribou specifically attributable to atmospheric weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident. Samples of lichens, mushrooms, caribou and beluga whales taken before and after the Fukushima accident were freeze dried, homogenized, and measured using gamma ray spectroscopy to identify the radionuclides present and determine the radioactivity concentration in the samples. To determine the efficiency of the detectors for the different sized samples, physical calibration standards were used and virtual simulations were also performed. A comparison of the caribou samples from before and after the accident has indicated no increase in radioactivity as a result of the Fukushima accident. Results are consistent with pre-Fukushima levels for these caribou. No Cs-137 was found in the pre-Fukushima beluga whale samples, even if all the measurements were combined into one spectrum. In the individual post-Fukushima beluga whale samples, Cs-137 was also not found. However, when the post-Fukushima beluga whale measurements were combined, an insignificant amount of radioactive Cs-137 was found. The amount of this Cs-137 was about 200 times smaller than the natural radioactive potassium in the samples. Most likely the

  13. Ingested plastic in a diving seabird, the thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), in the eastern Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Jennifer F; Gaston, Anthony J; Mallory, Mark L; O'hara, Patrick D; Gilchrist, H Grant

    2010-09-01

    Plastic debris has become ubiquitous in the marine environment and seabirds may ingest debris which can have deleterious effects on their health. In the North Atlantic Ocean, surface feeding seabirds typically ingest high levels of plastic, while the diving auks which feed in the water column typically have much lower levels. We examined 186 thick-billed murres from five colonies in the eastern Canadian Arctic for ingested plastic debris. Approximately 11% of the birds had at least one piece of plastic debris in their gastrointestinal tracts, with debris dominated by user plastics. This is the first report of ingested plastics in an auk species in Canada's Arctic, and the highest incidence of plastic ingestion to date for thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intercomparison of atmospheric water vapour measurements at a Canadian High Arctic site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Dan; Strong, Kimberly; Schneider, Matthias; Rowe, Penny M.; Sioris, Chris; Walker, Kaley A.; Mariani, Zen; Uttal, Taneil; McElroy, C. Thomas; Vömel, Holger; Spassiani, Alessio; Drummond, James R.

    2017-08-01

    Water vapour is a critical component of the Earth system. Techniques to acquire and improve measurements of atmospheric water vapour and its isotopes are under active development. This work presents a detailed intercomparison of water vapour total column measurements taken between 2006 and 2014 at a Canadian High Arctic research site (Eureka, Nunavut). Instruments include radiosondes, sun photometers, a microwave radiometer, and emission and solar absorption Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers. Close agreement is observed between all combination of datasets, with mean differences ≤ 1.0 kg m-2 and correlation coefficients ≥ 0.98. The one exception in the observed high correlation is the comparison between the microwave radiometer and a radiosonde product, which had a correlation coefficient of 0.92.A variety of biases affecting Eureka instruments are revealed and discussed. A subset of Eureka radiosonde measurements was processed by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN) for this study. Comparisons reveal a small dry bias in the standard radiosonde measurement water vapour total columns of approximately 4 %. A recently produced solar absorption FTIR spectrometer dataset resulting from the MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) retrieval technique is shown to offer accurate measurements of water vapour total columns (e.g. average agreement within -5.2 % of GRUAN and -6.5 % of a co-located emission FTIR spectrometer). However, comparisons show a small wet bias of approximately 6 % at the high-latitude Eureka site. In addition, a new dataset derived from Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) measurements is shown to provide accurate water vapour measurements (e.g. average agreement was within 4 % of GRUAN), which usefully enables measurements to be taken during day and night (especially valuable during polar night).

  15. A Uranium-Lead Chronology of Speleothem Deposition in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, C.; Shakun, J. D.; McGee, D.; Ramezani, J.; Khadivi, S.; Wong, C. I.

    2017-12-01

    The Artic is one of the fastest warming regions on the planet. Currently much of the Arctic is covered by permafrost, which contains approximately 1,700 gigatons of organic carbon. Permafrost thaw could release a substantial amount of this carbon as greenhouse gases into the atmosphere through microbial decomposition, potentially dramatically amplifying anthropogenic warming. However, the risk of permafrost thaw is uncertain, with models exhibiting a wide range of possibilities. Assessing the stability of permafrost during past interglacial periods enables evaluation of the sensitivity of permafrost to warming. Cave mineral deposits (speleothems) in areas currently covered with permafrost can act as a proxy for past permafrost thaw, as liquid water is one criteria of speleothem growth and thus implies thawed ground conditions. Previous uranium-thorium (U-Th) dating of speleothems (n=67) from a wide range of latitudes and permafrost zones across the southern Canadian Rockies, Northwest Territories, and the northern Yukon suggest deposition during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and 13. The majority of U-Th dates of these speleothems, however, exceed the U-Th dating limit of 600 ka. In this study, we apply uranium-lead (U-Pb) geochronology to several of these speleothems to extend the records of speleothem growth further back in time. Initial results include a U-Pb age of 428 ± 14 ka that replicates a previous U-Th age of 416.8 ± 7.9 ka, and U-Pb ages on two other speleothems of 870 ± 100 ka and 1502 ± 30 ka. The results of currently in progress U-Pb analyses and a comparison of results with paleo-temperature and ice volume reconstructions will also be presented.

  16. Origin of middle rare earth element enrichments in acid waters of a Canadian high Arctic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Kevin H.; Zhou, Xiaoping

    1999-01-01

    -Middle rare earth element (MREE) enriched rock-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns of a dilute acidic lake (Colour Lake) in the Canadian High Arctic, were investigated by quantifying whole-rock REE concentrations of rock samples collected from the catchment basin, as well as determining the acid leachable REE fraction of these rocks. An aliquot of each rock sample was leached with 1 N HNO 3 to examine the readily leachable REE fraction of each rock, and an additional aliquot was leached with a 0.04 M NH 2OH · HCl in 25% (v/v) CH 3COOH solution, designed specifically to reduce Fe-Mn oxides/oxyhydroxides. Rare earth elements associated with the leachates that reacted with clastic sedimentary rock samples containing petrographically identifiable Fe-Mn oxide/oxyhydroxide cements and/or minerals/amorphous phases, exhibited whole-rock-normalized REE patterns similar to the lake waters, whereas whole-rock-normalized leachates from mafic igneous rocks and other clastic sedimentary rocks from the catchment basin differed substantially from the lake waters. The whole-rock, leachates, and lake water REE data support acid leaching or dissolution of MREE enriched Fe-Mn oxides/oxyhydroxides contained and identified within some of the catchment basin sedimentary rocks as the likely source of the unique lake water REE patterns. Solution complexation modelling of the REEs in the inflow streams and lake waters indicate that free metal ions (e.g., Ln 3+, where Ln = any REE) and sulfate complexes (LnSO 4+) are the dominant forms of dissolved REEs. Consequently, solution complexation reactions involving the REEs during weathering, transport to the lake, or within the lake, cannot be invoked to explain the MREE enrichments observed in the lake waters.

  17. Chemical and microbial characteristics of municipal drinking water supply systems in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kiley; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth; Jamieson, Rob C; Hayward, Jenny L; Piorkowski, Greg S; Krkosek, Wendy; Gagnon, Graham A; Castleden, Heather; MacNeil, Kristen; Poltarowicz, Joanna; Corriveau, Emmalina; Jackson, Amy; Lywood, Justine; Huang, Yannan

    2017-06-13

    Drinking water in the vast Arctic Canadian territory of Nunavut is sourced from surface water lakes or rivers and transferred to man-made or natural reservoirs. The raw water is at a minimum treated by chlorination and distributed to customers either by trucks delivering to a water storage tank inside buildings or through a piped distribution system. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and microbial drinking water quality from source to tap in three hamlets (Coral Harbour, Pond Inlet and Pangnirtung-each has a population of water conveyance. Generally, the source and drinking water was of satisfactory microbial quality, containing Escherichia coli levels of water in households receiving trucked water contained less than the recommended 0.2 mg/L of free chlorine, while piped drinking water in Iqaluit complied with Health Canada guidelines for residual chlorine (i.e. >0.2 mg/L free chlorine). Some buildings in the four communities contained manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and/or lead (Pb) concentrations above Health Canada guideline values for the aesthetic (Mn, Cu and Fe) and health (Pb) objectives. Corrosion of components of the drinking water distribution system (household storage tanks, premise plumbing) could be contributing to Pb, Cu and Fe levels, as the source water in three of the four communities had low alkalinity. The results point to the need for robust disinfection, which may include secondary disinfection or point-of-use disinfection, to prevent microbial risks in drinking water tanks in buildings and ultimately at the tap.

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, freshwater, and anadromous fish species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting birds in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector arcs in this data set represent species...

  2. Environmental controls on the 2H/1H values of terrestrial leaf waxes in the eastern Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Timothy M.; Hughen, Konrad A.; Ampel, Linda; Sauer, Peter E.; Fornace, Kyrstin

    2013-10-01

    The hydrogen isotope composition of plant waxes preserved in lacustrine sediments is a potentially valuable tool for reconstructing paleoenvironmental changes in the Arctic. However, in contrast to the mid- and low-latitudes, significantly less effort has been directed towards understanding the factors controlling D/H fractionation in high latitude plant waxes and the impact of these processes on the interpretation of sedimentary leaf wax δD records. To better understand these processes, we examined the D/H ratios of long chain fatty acids in lake surface sediments spanning a temperature and precipitation gradient on Baffin Island in the eastern Canadian Arctic. D/H ratios of plant waxes increase with increasing temperature and aridity, with values ranging from -240‰ to -160‰ over the study area. Apparent fractionation factors between n-alkanoic acids in Arctic lake sediments and precipitation(εFA-ppt) are less negative than those of mid-latitude lakes and modern plants by 25‰ to 65‰, consistent with n-alkane data from modern Arctic plants (Yang et al., 2011). Furthermore, εFA-ppt values from Arctic lakes become systematically more positive with increasing evaporation, in contrast to mid-latitude sites, which show little to no change in fractionation with aridity. These data are consistent with enhanced water loss and isotope fractionation at higher latitude in the Arctic summer, when continuous sunlight supports increased daily photosynthesis. The dominant control on δDFA variations on Baffin Island is temperature. However, changing εFA-ppt result in steeper δDFA-temperature relationships than observed for modern precipitation. The application of this δDFA-based paleotemperature calibration to existing δDFA records from Baffin Island produces much more realistic changes in late Holocene temperature and highlights the importance of these effects in influencing the interpretation of Arctic δDFA records. A better understanding of the controls on

  3. DNA Barcoding the Canadian Arctic Flora: Core Plastid Barcodes (rbcL + matK) for 490 Vascular Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jeffery M.; Sokoloff, Paul C.; Gillespie, Lynn J.; Consaul, Laurie L.; Bull, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate identification of Arctic plant species is critical for understanding potential climate-induced changes in their diversity and distributions. To facilitate rapid identification we generated DNA barcodes for the core plastid barcode loci (rbcL and matK) for 490 vascular plant species, representing nearly half of the Canadian Arctic flora and 93% of the flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sequence recovery was higher for rbcL than matK (93% and 81%), and rbcL was easier to recover than matK from herbarium specimens (92% and 77%). Distance-based and sequence-similarity analyses of combined rbcL + matK data discriminate 97% of genera, 56% of species, and 7% of infraspecific taxa. There is a significant negative correlation between the number of species sampled per genus and the percent species resolution per genus. We characterize barcode variation in detail in the ten largest genera sampled (Carex, Draba, Festuca, Pedicularis, Poa, Potentilla, Puccinellia, Ranunculus, Salix, and Saxifraga) in the context of their phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy. Discrimination with the core barcode loci in these genera ranges from 0% in Salix to 85% in Carex. Haplotype variation in multiple genera does not correspond to species boundaries, including Taraxacum, in which the distribution of plastid haplotypes among Arctic species is consistent with plastid variation documented in non-Arctic species. Introgression of Poa glauca plastid DNA into multiple individuals of P. hartzii is problematic for identification of these species with DNA barcodes. Of three supplementary barcode loci (psbA–trnH, psbK–psbI, atpF–atpH) collected for a subset of Poa and Puccinellia species, only atpF–atpH improved discrimination in Puccinellia, compared with rbcL and matK. Variation in matK in Vaccinium uliginosum and rbcL in Saxifraga oppositifolia corresponds to variation in other loci used to characterize the phylogeographic histories of these Arctic-alpine species. PMID

  4. 75 FR 76611 - 50th Anniversary of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... cherished areas. In the decades to come, it should remain a place where wildlife populations, from roaming... cherished green spaces in our local communities, are truly a hallmark of our American identity. In...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing management area data for Designated Critical Habitats, National Park Service properties, Wildlife Refuges, and...

  6. Socioeconomic and Cultural Correlates of Diet Quality in the Canadian Arctic: Results from the 2007-2008 Inuit Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Tracey; Johnson-Down, Louise; Egeland, Grace M

    2015-09-01

    We examined the impact of socioeconomic and cultural factors on dietary quality in adult Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic. Interviews and a 24-h dietary recall were administered to 805 men and 1292 women from Inuit regions in the Canadian Arctic. We examined the effect of age, sex, education, income, employment, and cultural variables on respondents' energy, macronutrient intake, sodium/potassium ratio, and healthy eating index. Logistic regression was used to assess the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on diet quality indicators. Age was positively associated with traditional food (TF) consumption and greater energy from protein but negatively associated with total energy and fibre intake. Associations between SES and diet quality differed considerably between men and women and there was considerable regional variability in diet quality measures. Age and cultural variables were significant predictors of diet quality in logistic regression. Increased age and use of the Inuit language in the home were the most significant predictors of TF consumption. Our findings are consistent with studies reporting a nutrition transition in circumpolar Inuit. We found considerable variability in diet quality and complex interaction between SES and cultural variables producing mixed effects that differ by age and gender.

  7. A new species of Monstrillopsis (Crustacea, Copepoda, Monstrilloida from the lower Northwest Passage of the Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Delaforge

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new species of monstrilloid copepod, Monstrillopsis planifrons sp. n., is described from an adult female that was collected beneath snow-covered sea ice during the 2014 Ice Covered Ecosystem – CAMbridge bay Process Study (ICE-CAMPS in Dease Strait of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Currently, up to six species of this order are known to occur in polar latitudes. The new species described herein shares similarities with Monstrillopsis dubia (Scott, 1904 but differs in its body proportions and cephalothorax ornamentation; the cephalothorax is covered by minute scattered papillae on dorsal and ventral surfaces; this species has a reduced fifth leg endopod, fifth leg exopod armed with three setae, antennule with fused segments 3–4, and the genital double-somite bears unique posterolateral processes. This is the second species of this genus recorded in the Arctic, after Monstrillopsis ferrarii (Suárez-Morales & Ivanenko, 2004, described from the White Sea, and is the first record of Monstrillopsis in Canadian waters. With the addition of this new species and the recognition of Monstrillopsis bernardensis comb. nov. as a member of this genus, the number of nominal species is now 15. Overall, this genus has a tendency to be distributed in temperate and cold waters, while only three species have been found in tropical and subtropical latitudes.

  8. Molecular identification of Trichinella isolates from wildlife animals of the Russian Arctic territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goździk K.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic nematodes of genus Trichinella are infective to a wide range of hosts, including humans, and have global distribution from tropic to arctic areas. Muscle samples from animals, collected in two areas of the Russian Federation, Chukotka Peninsula and Arkhangelsk Oblast, were tested for the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae. Trichinella spp. larvae were recovered from tissues of eleven wild and domestic animals: 1 polar bear, 1 wolverine, 3 arctic foxes, 1 ringed seal, 1 brown bear, 1 cat, 1 sled dog, 1 domestic pig and 1 northern sea lion.

  9. Large-scale temperature and salinity changes in the upper Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean at a time of a drastic Arctic Oscillation inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bourgain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Between 2008 and 2010, the Arctic Oscillation index over Arctic regions shifted from positive values corresponding to more cyclonic conditions prevailing during the 4th International Polar Year (IPY period (2007–2008 to extremely negative values corresponding to strong anticyclonic conditions in 2010. In this context, we investigated the recent large-scale evolution of the upper western Arctic Ocean, based on temperature and salinity summertime observations collected during icebreaker campaigns and from ice-tethered profilers (ITPs drifting across the region in 2008 and 2010. Particularly, we focused on (1 the freshwater content which was extensively studied during previous years, (2 the near-surface temperature maximum due to incoming solar radiation, and (3 the water masses advected from the Pacific Ocean into the Arctic Ocean. The observations revealed a freshwater content change in the Canadian Basin during this time period. South of 80° N, the freshwater content increased, while north of 80° N, less freshening occurred in 2010 compared to 2008. This was more likely due to the strong anticyclonicity characteristic of a low AO index mode that enhanced both a wind-generated Ekman pumping in the Beaufort Gyre and a possible diversion of the Siberian River runoff toward the Eurasian Basin at the same time. The near-surface temperature maximum due to incoming solar radiation was almost 1 °C colder in the southern Canada Basin (south of 75° N in 2010 compared to 2008, which contrasted with the positive trend observed during previous years. This was more likely due to higher summer sea ice concentration in 2010 compared to 2008 in that region, and surface albedo feedback reflecting more sun radiation back in space. The Pacific water (PaW was also subjected to strong spatial and temporal variability between 2008 and 2010. In the Canada Basin, both summer and winter PaW signatures were stronger between 75° N and 80° N. This was more likely

  10. Food patterns and socioeconomic indicators of food consumption amongst Inuvialuit in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erber, E; Beck, L; Hopping, B N; Sheehy, T; De Roose, E; Sharma, S

    2010-10-01

    Inuvialuit in the Canadian Arctic have been experiencing a nutrition transition resulting in a decrease in nutrient-dense food consumption, which may, in part, explain this population's increasing chronic disease rates. Because the available literature is limited, the present study aimed to document the extent of this transition by examining current dietary patterns and socioeconomic factors affecting food group consumption. This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Inuvialuit communities in the Northwest Territories between 2007 and 2008. A validated food frequency questionnaire determined intake frequency of fruit and vegetables (FV), traditional foods (TF) and non-nutrient-dense foods (NNDF). Socioeconomic status (SES) was assessed by questions on education, ownership of items in working condition used to create a Material Style of Life (MSL) scale and residents in household employed/on income support. Daily intake frequencies were compared by gender and age group using Wilcoxon rank sum test. SES association with food group intake was determined using logistic regression. The response rate was 65-85%. One hundred and seventy-five participants were female and 55 were male, aged 19-84 years [mean (SD) 44 (14)]. Mean frequencies of FV and TF consumption were 1.6 (1.5) and 1.6 (1.7) times per day, respectively. NNDF were reported 9.2 (3.0) times per day. The highest MSL score (>12) was significantly associated with higher fruit (≥0.7 times per day) and higher TF intake (≥1.1 times per day) compared with the lowest score (≤7). An intermediate MSL score (8-12) was related to higher vegetable consumption (≥0.4 times per day). NNDF were consumed approximately seven times more frequently than TF in the present study, indicating that the dietary transition is well underway amongst Inuvialuit. Participants with higher SES were more likely to consume nutrient-dense foods, suggesting possible cost barriers. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010

  11. The Empirical Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Model (E-CHAIM): Bottomside Parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themens, D. R.; Jayachandran, P. T.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) suffers reduced accuracy in its representation of monthly median ionospheric electron density at high latitudes. These inaccuracies are believed to stem, at least in part, from a historical lack of data from these regions. Now, roughly thirty and forty years after the development of the original URSI and CCIR foF2 maps, respectively, there exists a much larger dataset of high latitude observations of ionospheric electron density. These new measurements come in the form of new ionosonde deployments, such as those of the Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network, the CHAMP, GRACE, and COSMIC radio occultation missions, and the construction of the Poker Flat, Resolute, and EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radar systems. These new datasets afford an opportunity to revise the IRI's representation of the high latitude ionosphere. Using a spherical cap harmonic expansion to represent horizontal and diurnal variability and a Fourier expansion in day of year to represent seasonal variations, we have developed a new model of the bottomside ionosphere's electron density for the high latitude ionosphere, above 50N geomagnetic latitude. For the peak heights of the E and F1 layers (hmE and hmF1, respectively), current standards use a constant value for hmE and either use a single-parameter model for hmF1 (IRI) or scale hmF1 with the F peak (NeQuick). For E-CHAIM, we have diverged from this convention to account for the greater variability seen in these characteristics at high latitudes, opting to use a full spherical harmonic model description for each of these characteristics. For the description of the bottomside vertical electron density profile, we present a single-layer model with altitude-varying scale height. The scale height function is taken as the sum three scale height layer functions anchored to the F2 peak, hmF1, and hmE. This parameterization successfully reproduces the structure of the various bottomside

  12. The distribution of methylated sulfur compounds, DMS and DMSP, in Canadian subarctic and Arctic marine waters during summer 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jarníková

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We present seawater concentrations of dimethyl sulfide (DMS and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP measured across a transect from the Labrador Sea to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago during summer 2015. Using an automated ship-board gas chromatography system and a membrane-inlet mass spectrometer, we measured a wide range of DMS (∼ 1 to 18 nM and DMSP (∼ 1 to 150 nM concentrations. The highest DMS and DMSP concentrations occurred in a localized region of Baffin Bay, where surface waters were characterized by high chlorophyll a (chl a fluorescence, indicative of elevated phytoplankton biomass. Across the full sampling transect, there were only weak relationships between DMS(P, chl a fluorescence and other measured variables, including positive relationships between DMSP : chl a ratios and several taxonomic marker pigments, and elevated DMS(P concentrations in partially ice-covered areas. Our high spatial resolution measurements allowed us to examine DMS variability over small scales (< 1 km, documenting strong DMS concentration gradients across surface hydrographic frontal features. Our new observations fill in an important observational gap in the Arctic Ocean and provide additional information on sea–air DMS fluxes from this ocean region. In addition, this study constitutes a significant contribution to the existing Arctic DMS(P dataset and provides a baseline for future measurements in the region.

  13. Mesoscale distribution and functional diversity of picoeukaryotes in the first-year sea ice of the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwosz, Kasia; Wiktor, Józef Maria; Niemi, Andrea; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Michel, Christine

    2013-08-01

    Sea ice, a characteristic feature of polar waters, is home to diverse microbial communities. Sea-ice picoeukaryotes (unicellular eukaryotes with cell size Arctic first-year sea ice. Here, we investigated the abundance of all picoeukaryotes, and of 11 groups (chlorophytes, cryptophytes, bolidophytes, haptophytes, Pavlovaphyceae, Phaeocystis spp., pedinellales, stramenopiles groups MAST-1, MAST-2 and MAST-6 and Syndiniales Group II) at 13 first-year sea-ice stations localized in Barrow Strait and in the vicinity of Cornwallis Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. We applied Catalyzed Reporter Deposition-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization to identify selected groups at a single cell level. Pavlovaphyceae and stramenopiles from groups MAST-2 and MAST-6 were for the first time reported from sea ice. Total numbers of picoeukaryotes were significantly higher in the vicinity of Cornwallis Island than in Barrow Strait. Similar trend was observed for all the groups except for haptophytes. Chlorophytes and cryptophytes were the dominant plastidic, and MAST-2 most numerous aplastidic of all the groups investigated. Numbers of total picoeukaryotes, chlorophytes and MAST-2 stramenopiles were positively correlated with the thickness of snow cover. All studied algal and MAST groups fed on bacteria. Presence of picoeukaryotes from various trophic groups (mixotrophs, phagotrophic and parasitic heterotrophs) indicates the diverse ecological roles picoeukaryotes have in sea ice. Yet, >50% of total sea-ice picoeukaryote cells remained unidentified, highlighting the need for further study of functional and phylogenetic sea-ice diversity, to elucidate the risks posed by ongoing Arctic changes.

  14. Trends in historical mercury deposition inferred from lake sediment cores across a climate gradient in the Canadian High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosi, Jennifer B; Griffiths, Katherine; Smol, John P; Blais, Jules M

    2018-06-02

    Recent climate change may be enhancing mercury fluxes to Arctic lake sediments, confounding the use of sediment cores to reconstruct histories of atmospheric deposition. Assessing the independent effects of climate warming on mercury sequestration is challenging due to temporal overlap between warming temperatures and increased long-range transport of atmospheric mercury following the Industrial Revolution. We address this challenge by examining mercury trends in short cores (the last several hundred years) from eight lakes centered on Cape Herschel (Canadian High Arctic) that span a gradient in microclimates, including two lakes that have not yet been significantly altered by climate warming due to continued ice cover. Previous research on subfossil diatoms and inferred primary production indicated the timing of limnological responses to climate warming, which, due to prevailing ice cover conditions, varied from ∼1850 to ∼1990 for lakes that have undergone changes. We show that climate warming may have enhanced mercury deposition to lake sediments in one lake (Moraine Pond), while another (West Lake) showed a strong signal of post-industrial mercury enrichment without any corresponding limnological changes associated with warming. Our results provide insights into the role of climate warming and organic carbon cycling as drivers of mercury deposition to Arctic lake sediments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Animals from the Hanford environs were collected and analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Wildlife is a potential pathway for the exposure of people who hunt or fish near the Hanford Site. Low levels of radionuclides attributed to past operations at Hanford were observed in several samples of whitefish collected from the Columbia River and in ducks collected from onsite wastewater ponds. In addition, a special study conducted during 1980 determined that Hanford deer contained small amounts of 129 I attributable to onsite operations. Calculated doses resulting from assumed consumption of the samples were very small and far below dose standards

  16. Possible Effects of Climate Warming on Selected Populations of Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Stirling Ian

    2006-01-01

    Polar bears are dependent on sea ice for survival. Climate warming in the Arctic has caused significant declines in coverage and thickness of sea ice in the polar basin and progressively earlier breakup in some areas. In four populations of polar bears in the eastern Canadian Arctic (including Western Hudson Bay), Inuit hunters report more bears near settlements during the open water period in recent years. These observations have been interpreted as evidence of increasing population size, resulting in increases in hunting quotas. However, long-term data on the population size and condition of polar bears in Western Hudson Bay, and population and harvest data from Baffin Bay, make it clear that those two populations at least are declining, not increasing. While the details vary in different arctic regions, analysis of passive-microwave satellite imagery, beginning in the late 1970s, indicates that the sea ice is breaking up at progressively earlier dates, so that bears must fast for longer periods during the open water season. Thus, at least part of the explanation for the appearance of more bears in coastal communities is likely that they are searching for alternative food sources because their stored body fat depots are being exhausted. We hypothesize that, if the climate continues to warm as projected by the IPCC, then polar bears in all five populations discussed in this paper will be stressed and are likely to decline in numbers, probably significantly so. As these populations decline, there will likely also be continuing, possibly increasing, numbers of problem interactions between bears and humans as the bears seek alternate food sources. Taken together, the data reported in this paper suggest that a precautionary approach be taken to the harvesting of polar bears and that the potential effects of climate warming be incorporated into planning for the management and conservation of this species throughout the Arctic.

  17. Optical Characterisation of Suspended Particles in the Mackenzie River Plume (Canadian Arctic Ocean) and Implications for Ocean Colour Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxaran, D.; Ehn, J.; Belanger, S.; Matsuoka, A.; Hooker, S.; Babin, M.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change significantly impacts Arctic shelf regions in terms of air temperature, ultraviolet radiation, melting of sea ice, precipitation, thawing of permafrost and coastal erosion. Direct consequences have been observed on the increasing Arctic river flow and a large amount of organic carbon sequestered in soils at high latitudes since the last glacial maximum can be expected to be delivered to the Arctic Ocean during the coming decade. Monitoring the fluxes and fate of this terrigenous organic carbon is problematic in such sparsely populated regions unless remote sensing techniques can be developed and proved to be operational. The main objective of this study is to develop an ocean colour algorithm to operationally monitor dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) on the Mackenzie River continental shelf (Canadian Arctic Ocean) using satellite imagery. The water optical properties are documented across the study area and related to concentrations of SPM and particulate organic carbon (POC). Robust SPM and POC : SPM proxies are identified, such as the light backscattering and attenuation coefficients, and relationships are established between these optical and biogeochemical parameters. Following a semi-analytical approach, a regional SPM quantification relationship is obtained for the inversion of the water reflectance signal into SPM concentration. This relationship is reproduced based on independent field optical measurements. It is successfully applied to a selection of MODIS satellite data which allow estimating fluxes at the river mouth and monitoring the extension and dynamics of the Mackenzie River surface plume in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Good agreement is obtained with field observations representative of the whole water column in the river delta zone where terrigenous SPM is mainly constrained (out of short periods of maximum river outflow). Most of the seaward export of SPM is observed to occur within the west side of the river mouth. Future

  18. Environmental and spatial factors influencing the distribution of cladocerans in lakes across the central Canadian Arctic treeline region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. SMOL

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We examine the role of local environmental and spatial factors in explaining variation in the composition of cladoceran assemblages from surface sediments within a set of 50 lakes spanning a broad southwest to northeast transect across the central Canadian Arctic treeline region from Yellowknife (Northwest Territories to the northern boundary of the Thelon Game Sanctuary (Nunavut Territory. Within each lake, the cladoceran fauna was identified based on the subfossil exoskeletal remains preserved in recently deposited lake sediments. Physical and chemical limnological data were measured in August of 1996 and 1998. Spatial data were generated based on latitude and longitude using Principal Coordinates of Neighbors Matrices analysis (PCNM. The relationships between cladocerans and the measured environmental and spatial variables were examined using both unconstrained (Principal Components Analysis, PCA and constrained (Redundancy Analysis, RDA ordination techniques. Variance partitioning, based on partial RDAs, was used to identify the relative importance of significant environmental and spatial explanatory variables. Three environmental variables were identified as significantly influencing cladoceran community structure: surface water temperature, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and total phosphorus (TP. Five PCNM-generated spatial variables were also significant in explaining cladoceran distributions. Variance partitioning attributed 14% of the variance in the distribution of Cladocera to spatial factors, an additional 10% to spatially-structured environmental variables, and 8% to environmental factors that were not spatially-structured. Within the central Canadian Arctic treeline region, spatial and other environmental processes had an important influence on the distribution of cladoceran communities. The strong influence of spatial factors was related to the large ecoclimatic gradient across treeline. The distribution patterns of cladocerans

  19. Metagenomic survey of the taxonomic and functional microbial communities of seawater and sea ice from the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yergeau, Etienne; Michel, Christine; Tremblay, Julien; Niemi, Andrea; King, Thomas L; Wyglinski, Joanne; Lee, Kenneth; Greer, Charles W

    2017-02-08

    Climate change has resulted in an accelerated decline of Arctic sea ice since 2001 resulting in primary production increases and prolongation of the ice-free season within the Northwest Passage. The taxonomic and functional microbial community composition of the seawater and sea ice of the Canadian Arctic is not very well known. Bacterial communities from the bottom layer of sea ice cores and surface water from 23 locations around Cornwallis Island, NU, Canada, were extensively screened. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was sequenced for all samples while shotgun metagenomics was performed on selected samples. Bacterial community composition showed large variation throughout the sampling area both for sea ice and seawater. Seawater and sea ice samples harbored significantly distinct microbial communities, both at different taxonomic levels and at the functional level. A key difference between the two sample types was the dominance of algae in sea ice samples, as visualized by the higher relative abundance of algae and photosynthesis-related genes in the metagenomic datasets and the higher chl a concentrations. The relative abundance of various OTUs and functional genes were significantly correlated with multiple environmental parameters, highlighting many potential environmental drivers and ecological strategies.

  20. Distribution and diet of larval and juvenile Arctic cod ( Boreogadus saida) in the shallow Canadian Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkusz, Wojciech; Paulic, Joclyn E.; Williams, William J.; Kwasniewski, Slawomir; Papst, Michael H.

    2011-02-01

    The distribution and diet of larval and juvenile Arctic cod ( Boreogadus saida) were studied during summer 2005 in the coastal Canadian Beaufort Sea. A total of 275 individuals were captured and the highest abundance was observed at station depths of 20-30 m. This corresponds well with the location of the frontal zone where the Mackenzie River plume water and open sea water meet. Diet examinations were performed on 220 Arctic cod, which were found undamaged from sampling. We observed a gradual decrease in prey number per fish and increase in prey size as larvae grew which corresponded to a shift from Rotifera and nauplii towards larger copepodid stages. However, at all sizes, the larvae remain generalists and feed on a broad range of organisms. Environmental changes due to climate warming could have a two-fold impact on fish larvae feeding in the studied region. First, the potential for increased primary production may lead to increased zooplankton production that may impact the feeding and nutrition positively. On the other hand, greater discharge of turbid water from the Mackenzie River may reduce light penetration in the water column that may negatively influence the ability of visual predators to successively forage.

  1. Atmospheric concentrations of halogenated flame retardants at two remote locations: The Canadian High Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Hang; Shen Li; Su, Yushan; Barresi, Enzo; DeJong, Maryl; Hung, Hayley; Lei, Ying-Duan; Wania, Frank; Reiner, Eric J.; Sverko, Ed; Kang, Shi-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of halogenated flame retardants (FRs) were monitored for approximately one year at two remote stations, namely Nam Co on the Tibetan Plateau and Alert in the Canadian High Arctic. BDE-47 and 99 were the dominant polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners at both sites. Atmospheric PBDE concentrations in Nam Co were generally lower than those at Alert. While significant seasonal variations were observed for PBDEs at Alert, the FR concentrations at Nam Co showed no significant seasonality, even though air masses originated from distinctly different regions during different seasons. This suggests that FRs in Tibet do not have regional sources, but are reflective of truly global background contamination. Three new FRs, namely 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), 2-ethyl-1-hexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTeBB) and bis(2-ethyl-1-hexyl)tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) were detected at relatively high concentrations at both sites. This is the first report of these FRs in the remote global atmosphere and suggests significant potential for long-range atmospheric transport. - Highlights: ► First year-round measurements of FRs in the atmosphere of the Tibetan Plateau. ► PBDEs in Tibet are reflective of truly global background levels. ► Orographic precipitation limits the transport of particle-bound chemicals. ► First study of BTBPE, EHTeBB and TBPH in the Arctic and Tibetan air. ► These new FRs may have significant long-range atmospheric transport potential. - Several brominated flame retardants (BTBPE, EHTeBB, TBPH) were present in the atmosphere of the Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau at levels similar to those of the PBDEs.

  2. Changes in cold tolerance due to a 14-day stay in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, S. D.; Romet, T.; Keefe, A. A.; Nolan, R. W.

    1996-12-01

    Responses to cold exposure tests both locally and of the whole body were examined in subjects who stayed in the Arctic (average maximum and minimum temperatures -11 and -21° C respectively) for 14 days of skiing and sleeping in tents. These changes were compared to responses in subjects living working in Ottawa, Canada (average max. and min. temperatures -5 and -11° C respectively). The tests were done before the stay in the Arctic (Pre), immediately after the return (Post 1) and approximately 32 days after the return (Post 2). For the whole-body cold exposure each subject, wearing only shorts and lying on a rope mesh cot, was exposed to an ambient temperature of 10° C. There was no consistent response in the changes of metabolic or body temperature to this exposure in either of groups and, in addition, the changes over time were variable. Cold induced vasodilatation (CIVD) was determined by measuring temperature changes in the middle finger of the nondominant hand upon immersion in ice water for 30 min. CIVD was depressed after the Arctic exposure whilst during the Post 2 testing, although variable, did not return to the Pre values; the responses of the control group were similar. These results indicate that normal seasonal changes may be as important in adaptation as a stay in the Arctic. Caution is advised in the separation of seasonal effects when examining the changes in adaptation after exposure to a cold environment.

  3. An integrated quantitative basin analysis study of the northern part of the Arctic national Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z.; Lerche, Ian

    1992-06-01

    An integrated basin analysis was conducted using one- and two-dimensional quantitative dynamic models (1-D and 2-D) in the northern part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), Northeastern Alaska. Exploratory well data have been used in the reconstructions of: (1) geohistory including basement subsidence, sediment deposition, change of porosity and compaction, permeability, fluid pressure and fluid flow with time and depth; (2) thermal history including heat flux evolution with time, temperature change with time and depth, and thermal maturation history; and (3) hydrocarbon generation history including the change in the amount of hydrocarbons generated with time and depth, and determining the time and depth of peak hydrocarbon generation. 1-D and 2-D basin modeling codes were used with selected wells, and also with a 18 km section, west of ANWR, with five well controls. It is concluded that: (1) the main source rock west of ANWR area matured first about 40-30 Ma ago in the south and gradually to the north about 10-8 Ma ago on the coastal plain; (2) the modeled erosion thickness at Beli Unit-1 location, northeastern Brooks Range, was 1500-3000 m and at least 3000 m at Canning River Unit B-1; and (3) an overpressure zone within the Hue shale and the lowest part of the Canning Formation caused by rapid Tertiary deposition retained porosity, increased the temperature and speeded hydrocarbon generation in the lower part of the coastal plain.

  4. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): The Challenge of Current and Future Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, L. R.

    2003-12-01

    Historically, when one thinks of ANWR the immediate concern has always been the effect of development related to hydrocarbon extraction and its potential impact on the environment. Hydrocarbon extraction is always a possibility and remains before Congress today, but is this type of development the greatest threat to this region? Twenty-five years ago the beauty and hidden resources of Alaska were barely touched, but with the discovery of oil at Prudhoe Bay this quickly changed. Suddenly this once inaccessible region known as the Arctic Coastal Plain became a desirable place to visit. Today, as the Prudhoe Bay oil fields production begins to slow one can visualize an even greater impact that could affect this fragile ecosystem. The landscape is being altered in many ways; not only due to economic development, but also due to global climate change. However, a potentially even larger impact is seldom mentioned and that impact is the consequence of more individuals traveling into the region. The Dalton Highway (the road between Fairbanks and Prudhoe Bay) was opened to all traffic in 1995. Since then the number of people traveling to the North Slope of Alaska via the road has increased significantly. This includes but is not limited to potential entrepreneurs, researchers, tourists as well as the oil field workers. The anthropogenic impact humans may have in this region along with the resultant commercialization will have a lasting influence on ANWR and the surrounding region will be impacted in ways that have not yet been considered. Who will decide who is or is not permitted to visit ANWR? Who will determine what impacts will be allowed? Will the opportunity to visit this unique region be for tour groups or just occasional hikers? Will researchers be allowed access and who will monitor their inevitable footprint? Will the native people increase stress on the environment more as their use of modern methods of hunting and travel increases? All of these factors need to

  5. Giardia assemblage A: human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy John

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype.

  6. The feasibility of using the 25MW super near boiling nuclear reactor (SNB25) to provide thermal and electrical energy for a large Canadian Forces base in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, S.; Bonin, H.W.; Baskin, M.; Bowen, K.; Switzer, Z., E-mail: Stephane.Paquette@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    A feasibility study of a power plant using the Super Near Boiling 25 MWt (SNB25) nuclear reactor as a heat source and capable of supporting the electrical and thermal requirements for a base the size of Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Kingston in the Arctic was carried out. Such a power plant would allow the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) to have a self-sustaining operational base in the Arctic to conduct Search and Rescue (SAR) and sovereignty missions. The thermal and electrical requirements for a base the size of CFB Kingston are determined to be 31.63 MWt and 7.16 MWe, respectively. Using the Heating Degree Days (HDD) approach to account for temperature differences between Southern Ontario and the Arctic, a base the size of CFB Kingston in the Arctic would require 75.16 MWt to operate. A chemical engineering software program, UniSim, was used to simulate the energy cycle of the base which consisted of a district heating loop to provide hot water and an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) using n-pentane as the working fluid to provide the electrical energy. The UniSim simulations determined that the cycle would use six shell and tube heat exchangers, two axial gas turbines coupled to generators, and twelve centrifugal pumps, in addition to a group of five SNB25 reactors that could provide 25.03 MWt and 2.63 MWe to a base in the Arctic with energy requirements about a third of those of CFB Kingston. The design foresees redundancy which is essential to safe operation in the Arctic. (author)

  7. Factors affecting biotic mercury concentrations and biomagnification through lake food webs in the Canadian high Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescord, Gretchen L., E-mail: glescord@gmail.com [University of New Brunswick/Canadian Rivers Institute, 100 Tucker Park Rd, Saint John, NB E2L 4A6 (Canada); Kidd, Karen A. [University of New Brunswick/Canadian Rivers Institute, 100 Tucker Park Rd, Saint John, NB E2L 4A6 (Canada); Kirk, Jane L. [Environment Canada, Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON L7S 1A1 (Canada); O' Driscoll, Nelson J. [Acadia University, 15 University Ave, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Wang, Xiaowa; Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON L7S 1A1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    In temperate regions of Canada, mercury (Hg) concentrations in biota and the magnitude of Hg biomagnification through food webs vary between neighboring lakes and are related to water chemistry variables and physical lake features. However, few studies have examined factors affecting the variable Hg concentrations in landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) or the biomagnification of Hg through their food webs. We estimated the food web structure of six high Arctic lakes near Resolute Bay, Nunavut, Canada, using stable carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) isotopes and measured Hg (total Hg (THg) in char, the only fish species, and methylmercury (MeHg) in chironomids and zooplankton) concentrations in biota collected in 2010 and 2011. Across lakes, δ{sup 13}C showed that benthic carbon (chironomids) was the dominant food source for char. Regression models of log Hg versus δ{sup 15}N (of char and benthic invertebrates) showed positive and significant slopes, indicting Hg biomagnification in all lakes, and higher slopes in some lakes than others. However, no principal components (PC) generated using all water chemistry data and physical characteristics of the lakes predicted the different slopes. The PC dominated by aqueous ions was a negative predictor of MeHg concentrations in chironomids, suggesting that water chemistry affects Hg bioavailability and MeHg concentrations in these lower-trophic-level organisms. Furthermore, regression intercepts were predicted by the PCs dominated by catchment area, aqueous ions, and MeHg. Weaker relationships were also found between THg in small char or MeHg in pelagic invertebrates and the PCs dominated by catchment area, and aqueous nitrate and MeHg. Results from these high Arctic lakes suggest that Hg biomagnification differs between systems and that their physical and chemical characteristics affect Hg concentrations in lower-trophic-level biota. - Highlights: • Mercury (Hg) in Arctic char and invertebrates

  8. Evidence of recent changes in the ice regime of lakes in the Canadian High Arctic from spaceborne satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdu, Cristina M.; Duguay, Claude R.; Fernández Prieto, Diego

    2016-05-01

    Arctic lakes, through their ice cover phenology, are a key indicator of climatic changes that the high-latitude environment is experiencing. In the case of lakes in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), many of which are ice covered more than 10 months per year, warmer temperatures could result in ice regime shifts. Within the dominant polar-desert environment, small local warmer areas have been identified. These relatively small regions - polar oases - with longer growing seasons and greater biological productivity and diversity are secluded from the surrounding barren polar desert. The ice regimes of 11 lakes located in both polar-desert and polar-oasis environments, with surface areas between 4 and 542 km2, many of unknown bathymetry, were documented. In order to investigate the response of ice cover of lakes in the CAA to climate conditions during recent years, a 15-year time series (1997-2011) of RADARSAT-1/2 ScanSAR Wide Swath, ASAR Wide Swath, and Landsat acquisitions were analyzed. Results show that melt onset occurred earlier for all observed lakes. With the exception of Lower Murray Lake, all lakes experienced earlier summer ice minimum and water-clear-of-ice (WCI) dates, with greater changes being observed for polar-oasis lakes (9-24 days earlier WCI dates for lakes located in polar oases and 2-20 days earlier WCI dates for polar-desert lakes). Additionally, results suggest that some lakes may be transitioning from a perennial/multiyear to a seasonal ice regime, with only a few lakes maintaining a multiyear ice cover on occasional years. Aside Lake Hazen and Murray Lakes, which preserved their ice cover during the summer of 2009, no residual ice was observed on any of the other lakes from 2007 to 2011.

  9. Differences in mercury bioaccumulation between polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Canadian high- and sub-Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Vincent L; Derocher, Andrew E; Stirling, Ian; Graydon, Jennifer A; Lee, Caroline; Jocksch, Erin; Richardson, Evan; Ghorpade, Sarah; Kwan, Alvin K; Kirk, Jane L; Lehnherr, Igor; Swanson, Heidi K

    2011-07-15

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are being impacted by climate change and increased exposure to pollutants throughout their northern circumpolar range. In this study, we quantified concentrations of total mercury (THg) in the hair of polar bears from Canadian high- (southern Beaufort Sea, SBS) and sub- (western Hudson Bay, WHB) Arctic populations. Concentrations of THg in polar bears from the SBS population (14.8 ± 6.6 μg g(-1)) were significantly higher than in polar bears from WHB (4.1 ± 1.0 μg g(-1)). On the basis of δ(15)N signatures in hair, in conjunction with published δ(15)N signatures in particulate organic matter and sediments, we estimated that the pelagic and benthic food webs in the SBS are ∼ 4.7 and ∼ 4.0 trophic levels long, whereas in WHB they are only ∼ 3.6 and ∼ 3.3 trophic levels long. Furthermore, the more depleted δ(13)C ratios in hair from SBS polar bears relative to those from WHB suggests that SBS polar bears feed on food webs that are relatively more pelagic (and longer), whereas polar bears from WHB feed on those that are relatively more benthic (and shorter). Food web length and structure accounted for ∼ 67% of the variation we found in THg concentrations among all polar bears across both populations. The regional difference in polar bear hair THg concentrations was also likely due to regional differences in water-column concentrations of methyl Hg (the toxic form of Hg that biomagnifies through food webs) available for bioaccumulation at the base of the food webs. For example, concentrations of methylated Hg at mid-depths in the marine water column of the northern Canadian Arctic Archipelago were 79.8 ± 37.3 pg L(-1), whereas, in HB, they averaged only 38.3 ± 16.6 pg L(-1). We conclude that a longer food web and higher pelagic concentrations of methylated Hg available to initiate bioaccumulation in the BS resulted in higher concentrations of THg in polar bears from the SBS region compared to those inhabiting the western

  10. Transport Regimes of Air Masses Affecting the Tropospheric Composition of the Canadian and European Arctic During RACEPAC 2014 and NETCARE 2014/2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozem, H.; Hoor, P. M.; Koellner, F.; Kunkel, D.; Schneider, J.; Schulz, C.; Herber, A. B.; Borrmann, S.; Wendisch, M.; Ehrlich, A.; Leaitch, W. R.; Willis, M. D.; Burkart, J.; Thomas, J. L.; Abbatt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is warming much faster than any other place in the world and undergoes a rapid change dominated by a changing climate in this region. The impact of polluted air masses traveling to the Arctic from various remote sources significantly contributes to the observed climate change, in contrast there are additional local emission sources contributing to the level of pollutants (trace gases and aerosol). Processes affecting the emission and transport of these pollutants are not well understood and need to be further investigated. We present aircraft based trace gas measurements in the Arctic during RACEPAC (2014) and NETCARE (2014 and 2015) with the Polar 6 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) covering an area from 134°W to 17°W and 68°N to 83°N. We focus on cloud, aerosol and general transport processes of polluted air masses into the high Arctic. Based on CO and CO2 measurements and kinematic 10-day back trajectories we analyze the transport regimes prevalent during spring (RACEPAC 2014 and NETCARE 2015) and summer (NETCARE 2014) in the observed region. Whereas the eastern part of the Canadian Arctic is affected by air masses with their origin in Asia, in the central and western parts of the Canadian and European Arctic air masses from North America are predominant at the time of the measurement. In general the more northern parts of the Arctic were relatively unaffected by pollution from mid-latitudes since air masses mostly travel within the polar dome, being quite isolated. Associated mixing ratios of CO and CO2 fit into the seasonal cycle observed at NOAA ground stations throughout the Arctic, but show a more mid-latitudinal characteristic at higher altitudes. The transition is remarkably sharp and allows for a chemical definition of the polar dome. At low altitudes, synoptic disturbances transport polluted air masses from mid-latitudes into regions of the polar dome. These air masses contribute to the Arctic pollution background, but also

  11. Wastewater treatment and public health in Nunavut: a microbial risk assessment framework for the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daley, Kiley; Jamieson, Rob; Rainham, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    into the terrestrial and aquatic environment at random times. Northern communities rely heavily on their local surroundings as a source of food, drinking water, and recreation, thus creating the possibility of human exposure to wastewater effluent. Human exposure to microbial hazards present in municipal wastewater....... This review offers a conceptual framework and evaluation of current knowledge to enable the first microbial risk assessment of exposure scenarios associated with food-harvesting and recreational activities in Arctic communities, where simplified wastewater systems are being operated....

  12. Application of global datasets for hydrological modelling of a remote, snowmelt driven catchment in the Canadian Sub-Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, David; Werner, Micha; Weerts, Albrecht; Schellekens, Jaap; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological modelling in the Canadian Sub-Arctic is hindered by the limited spatial and temporal coverage of local meteorological data. Local watershed modelling often relies on data from a sparse network of meteorological stations with a rough density of 3 active stations per 100,000 km2. Global datasets hold great promise for application due to more comprehensive spatial and extended temporal coverage. A key objective of this study is to demonstrate the application of global datasets and data assimilation techniques for hydrological modelling of a data sparse, Sub-Arctic watershed. Application of available datasets and modelling techniques is currently limited in practice due to a lack of local capacity and understanding of available tools. Due to the importance of snow processes in the region, this study also aims to evaluate the performance of global SWE products for snowpack modelling. The Snare Watershed is a 13,300 km2 snowmelt driven sub-basin of the Mackenzie River Basin, Northwest Territories, Canada. The Snare watershed is data sparse in terms of meteorological data, but is well gauged with consistent discharge records since the late 1970s. End of winter snowpack surveys have been conducted every year from 1978-present. The application of global re-analysis datasets from the EU FP7 eartH2Observe project are investigated in this study. Precipitation data are taken from Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP) and temperature data from Watch Forcing Data applied to European Reanalysis (ERA)-Interim data (WFDEI). GlobSnow-2 is a global Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) measurement product funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) and is also evaluated over the local watershed. Downscaled precipitation, temperature and potential evaporation datasets are used as forcing data in a distributed version of the HBV model implemented in the WFLOW framework. Results demonstrate the successful application of global datasets in local watershed modelling, but

  13. Early Triassic development of a foreland basin in the Canadian high Arctic: Implications for a Pangean Rim of Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlari, Thomas; Dewing, Keith; Matthews, William A.; Alonso-Torres, Daniel; Midwinter, Derrick

    2018-06-01

    Following the amalgamation of Laurasia and Gondwana to form Pangea, some Triassic tectonic models show an encircling arc system called the "Pangean Rim of Fire". Here we show that the stratigraphy and Early Triassic detrital zircon provenance of the Sverdrup Basin in the Canadian Arctic is most consistent with deposition in a retro-arc foreland basin. Late Permian and Early Triassic volcanism was accompanied by relatively high rates of subsidence leading to a starved basin with volcanic input from a magmatic arc to the northwest. The mostly starved basin persisted through the Middle and Late Triassic with nearly continuous input of volcanic ash recorded as bentonites on the northwestern edge of the basin. In the latest Triassic it is interpreted that decreasing subsidence and a significant influx of sand-grade sediment when the arc was exhumed led to filling of the basin at the end of an orogenic cycle. Combined with other hints of Early Triassic arc activity along the western margin of Laurentia we propose that the Pangean Rim of Fire configuration spanned the entire Triassic. This proposed configuration represents the ring of external subduction zones that some models suggest are necessary for the breakup of supercontinents such as Pangea.

  14. Links between ocean properties, ice cover, and plankton dynamics on interannual time scales in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, James M.; Collins, Kate; Prinsenberg, Simon J.

    2013-10-01

    A decade of instrumented mooring data from Barrow Strait in the eastern Canadian Arctic Archipelago reveals connections between sea ice, water characteristics, and zooplankton dynamics on interannual time scales. On the North side of the Strait, the timing of breakup is positively related to the timing of freezeup in the previous year and negatively related to spring water temperature. This suggests that an early freezeup insulates the ocean from a cold autumn atmosphere, allowing heat to be retained until spring when it contributes to early sea ice erosion. There is also a very strong negative association between the timing of freezeup and late summer salinity, suggesting that monitoring of salinity in real time could be used to predict freezeup. A zooplankton biomass index derived from acoustic Doppler current profiler echo intensity data is used to demonstrate that on the North side there are also strong connections between early summer water temperature and the start, length, and productivity of the zooplankton growth season. On the South side of the Strait where currents are stronger, the relationships seen on the North side were not observed. But here integrated zooplankton biomass index and measured currents are used to identify interannual variability in the zooplankton biomass being delivered downstream into Lancaster Sound. Also on the South side, two yearlong records of daily fluorescence profiles reveal a large difference in the phytoplankton biomass being delivered downstream between years and demonstrate a strong relationship between the timing of the spring phytoplankton bloom and that of breakup.

  15. The cost of lower respiratory tract infections hospital admissions in the Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Banerji

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Inuit infants who reside in the Nunavut (NU regions of Arctic Canada have extremely high rates of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs associated with significant health expenditures, but the costs in other regions of Arctic Canada have not been documented. Objective . This prospective surveillance compares, across most of Arctic Canada, the rates and costs associated with LRTI admissions in infants less than 1 year of age, and the days of hospitalization and costs adjusted per live birth. Design . This was a hospital-based surveillance of LRTI admissions of infants less than 1 year of age, residing in Northwest Territories (NT, the 3 regions of Nunavut (NU; [Kitikmeot (KT, Kivalliq (KQ and Qikiqtani (QI] and Nunavik (NK from 1 January 2009 to 30 June 2010. Costs were obtained from the territorial or regional governments and hospitals, and included transportation, hospital stay, physician fees and accommodation costs. The rates of LRTI hospitalizations, days of hospitalization and associated costs were calculated per live birth in each of the 5 regions. Results . There were 513 LRTI admissions during the study period. For NT, KT, KQ, QI and NK, the rates of LRTI hospitalization per 100 live births were 38, 389, 230, 202 and 445, respectively. The total days of LRTI admission per live birth were 0.25, 3.3, 2.6, 1.7 and 3 for the above regions. The average cost per live birth for LRTI admission for these regions was $1,412, $22,375, $14,608, $8,254 and $10,333. The total cost for LRTI was $1,498,232 in NT, $15,662,968 in NU and $3,874,881 in NK. Medical transportation contributed to a significant proportion of the costs. Conclusion . LRTI admission rates in NU and Nunavik are much higher than that in NT and remain among the highest rates globally. The costs of these admissions are exceptionally high due to the combination of very high rates of admission, very expensive medical evacuations and prolonged hospitalizations

  16. A Porolepiform Rhipidistian from the Lower Devonian of the Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-P. Schultze

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A holoptychiid fish is described from the Lower Devonian of Arctic Canada. The new form is distinct from other holoptychiids by the presence of a large supraorbital bone and a boomerang-shaped tabular. Nasogaluakus n. gen. is the oldest and most primitive holoptychiid based on a phylogenetic analysis of porolepiforms and their closest relatives. The sequence of the genera corresponds to their stratigraphic appearance. Ein Holoptychiide aus dem Unterdevon der kanadischen Arktis wird beschrieben. Er unterscheidet sich durch ein großes Supraorbitale und die Bumerang-Form des Tabulare von allen übrigen Holoptychiiden. Nasogaluakus n. gen. ist der älteste und primitivste Holoptychiide, was durch eine phylogenetische Analyse der Porolepiformes belegt wird. Die Abfolge der Gattungen in diesem Verwandtschaftsschema stimmt mit ihrem zeitlichen Auftreten überein. doi:10.1002/mmng.20000030106

  17. Inorganic carbon dynamics of melt pond-covered first year sea ice in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Galley, R.J.; Crabeck, O.

    2014-01-01

    Melt pond formation is a common feature of the spring and summer Arctic sea ice. However, the role of the melt ponds formation and the impact of the sea ice melt on both the direction and size of CO2 flux between air and sea is still unknown. Here we describe the CO2-carbonate chemistry of melting...... a strong decrease of the total alkalinity (TA), total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2) and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) within the bulk sea ice and the brine. Later on, melt pond formation affects both the bulk sea ice and the brine system. As melt ponds are formed from melted snow the in situ melt pond...

  18. Cytological and ultrastructural preservation in Eocene Metasequoia leaves from the Canadian high Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenhut, K.; Vann, D.R.; LePage, B.A. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Earth & Environmental Science

    2004-06-01

    The ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of 45-million-year-old mummified leaves of Metasequoia extracted from the Upper Coal member of the Buchanan Lake Formation in Napartulik on Axel Heiberg Island revealed the preservation of intact chloroplasts and chloroplast components. Abundant tanniferous cell inclusions may indicate that the 3-mo period of constant daylight during the Arctic summer induced high concentrations of tannins in the leaf tissues, which may have arrested microbial degradation of the litter. Quantified differences in the extent of chloroplast preservation through a vertical section of the lignite suggest that short-term shifts in the depositional environment took place, perhaps influencing the exposure of the leaf tissues to conditions that would either promote or inhibit decomposition.

  19. "mus co shee": Indigenous Plant Foods and Horticultural Imperialism in the Canadian Sub-Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    The 17th-century arrival of the Hudson's Bay Company in Rupert's Land disrupted Mushkegowuk (Cree) hunter-gatherer society by replacing the collection of indigenous plant foods with a British planted-food model. Within a hundred years of British contact, new foodways relied upon hunting and gardening, bringing a loss in heritage plant food knowledge. Mushkegowuk living in the sub-arctic today have minimal knowledge of edible indigenous plants. Dependence on limited local gardening or imported grocery store vegetables has affected diet, nutrition, and cultural systems. In addition to exploring plant food gathering and gardening history in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, this paper demonstrates how re-discovering lost foodway knowledge can contribute to the health and well-being of those living in the far north.

  20. Vitamin D status and intake of lactating Inuit women living in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hayek Fares, Jessy; Weiler, Hope A

    2018-02-13

    To determine the prevalence and correlates of healthy vitamin D status in lactating Inuit women living in remote regions of the Arctic. Cross-sectional. Households were selected randomly in thirty-six communities of Nunavut, Nunatsiavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24 h recall and an FFQ. Anthropometric measurements, household living conditions, supplement use and health status were assessed. In fasting samples, serum 25-hydroxyvitaimn D (25(OH)D) was measured using a chemiluminescent assay (LIAISON; Diasorin Inc.). Lactating Inuit women participating in the 2007-2008 International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey conducted in the months of August to October. Among participants (n 34), 8·8, 26·5 and 50·0 % had 25(OH)D concentrations at or above 75, 50 and 40 nmol/l, respectively. More than one-third of participants did not consume traditional foods during the previous day and only 11·3 % of total energy intake was derived from traditional foods. Only 14·7 % of the sample consumed the daily number of milk servings recommended by Canada's Food Guide (two servings) for First Nations, Inuit and Métis. Using multivariable logistic regression to examine 25(OH)D≥40 nmol/l, only higher body fat was inversely correlated with 25(OH)D concentration. The present study is the first to assess simultaneously vitamin D status and other known factors that affect it among lactating Inuit women living in remote communities in the Arctic. Healthy maternal vitamin D status was observed in 25 % of participants during the late summer and early autumn. This requires further assessment in a larger sample spanning more seasons.

  1. Metagenomic analysis of the bioremediation of diesel-contaminated Canadian high arctic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yergeau, Etienne; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Beaumier, Danielle; Greer, Charles W

    2012-01-01

    As human activity in the Arctic increases, so does the risk of hydrocarbon pollution events. On site bioremediation of contaminated soil is the only feasible clean up solution in these remote areas, but degradation rates vary widely between bioremediation treatments. Most previous studies have focused on the feasibility of on site clean-up and very little attention has been given to the microbial and functional communities involved and their ecology. Here, we ask the question: which microorganisms and functional genes are abundant and active during hydrocarbon degradation at cold temperature? To answer this question, we sequenced the soil metagenome of an ongoing bioremediation project in Alert, Canada through a time course. We also used reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) to quantify the expression of several hydrocarbon-degrading genes. Pseudomonas species appeared as the most abundant organisms in Alert soils right after contamination with diesel and excavation (t = 0) and one month after the start of the bioremediation treatment (t = 1m), when degradation rates were at their highest, but decreased after one year (t = 1y), when residual soil hydrocarbons were almost depleted. This trend was also reflected in hydrocarbon degrading genes, which were mainly affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria at t = 0 and t = 1m and with Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria at t = 1y. RT-qPCR assays confirmed that Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus species actively expressed hydrocarbon degradation genes in Arctic biopile soils. Taken together, these results indicated that biopile treatment leads to major shifts in soil microbial communities, favoring aerobic bacteria that can degrade hydrocarbons.

  2. Metagenomic analysis of the bioremediation of diesel-contaminated Canadian high arctic soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Yergeau

    Full Text Available As human activity in the Arctic increases, so does the risk of hydrocarbon pollution events. On site bioremediation of contaminated soil is the only feasible clean up solution in these remote areas, but degradation rates vary widely between bioremediation treatments. Most previous studies have focused on the feasibility of on site clean-up and very little attention has been given to the microbial and functional communities involved and their ecology. Here, we ask the question: which microorganisms and functional genes are abundant and active during hydrocarbon degradation at cold temperature? To answer this question, we sequenced the soil metagenome of an ongoing bioremediation project in Alert, Canada through a time course. We also used reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR (RT-qPCR to quantify the expression of several hydrocarbon-degrading genes. Pseudomonas species appeared as the most abundant organisms in Alert soils right after contamination with diesel and excavation (t = 0 and one month after the start of the bioremediation treatment (t = 1m, when degradation rates were at their highest, but decreased after one year (t = 1y, when residual soil hydrocarbons were almost depleted. This trend was also reflected in hydrocarbon degrading genes, which were mainly affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria at t = 0 and t = 1m and with Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria at t = 1y. RT-qPCR assays confirmed that Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus species actively expressed hydrocarbon degradation genes in Arctic biopile soils. Taken together, these results indicated that biopile treatment leads to major shifts in soil microbial communities, favoring aerobic bacteria that can degrade hydrocarbons.

  3. Metagenomic Analysis of the Bioremediation of Diesel-Contaminated Canadian High Arctic Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yergeau, Etienne; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Beaumier, Danielle; Greer, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    As human activity in the Arctic increases, so does the risk of hydrocarbon pollution events. On site bioremediation of contaminated soil is the only feasible clean up solution in these remote areas, but degradation rates vary widely between bioremediation treatments. Most previous studies have focused on the feasibility of on site clean-up and very little attention has been given to the microbial and functional communities involved and their ecology. Here, we ask the question: which microorganisms and functional genes are abundant and active during hydrocarbon degradation at cold temperature? To answer this question, we sequenced the soil metagenome of an ongoing bioremediation project in Alert, Canada through a time course. We also used reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) to quantify the expression of several hydrocarbon-degrading genes. Pseudomonas species appeared as the most abundant organisms in Alert soils right after contamination with diesel and excavation (t = 0) and one month after the start of the bioremediation treatment (t = 1m), when degradation rates were at their highest, but decreased after one year (t = 1y), when residual soil hydrocarbons were almost depleted. This trend was also reflected in hydrocarbon degrading genes, which were mainly affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria at t = 0 and t = 1m and with Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria at t = 1y. RT-qPCR assays confirmed that Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus species actively expressed hydrocarbon degradation genes in Arctic biopile soils. Taken together, these results indicated that biopile treatment leads to major shifts in soil microbial communities, favoring aerobic bacteria that can degrade hydrocarbons. PMID:22253877

  4. Low-altitude photographic transects of the Arctic Network of National Park Units and Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, July 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcot, Bruce G.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; DeGange, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    During July 16–18, 2013, low-level photography flights were conducted (with a Cessna 185 with floats and a Cessna 206 with tundra tires) over the five administrative units of the National Park Service Arctic Network (Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, Kobuk Valley National Park, and Noatak National Preserve) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Selawik National Wildlife Refuge in northwest Alaska, to provide images of current conditions and prevalence of land-cover types as a baseline for measuring future change, and to complement the existing grid-based sample photography of the region. Total flight time was 17 hours, 46 minutes, and total flight distance was 2,590 kilometers, at a mean altitude of about 300 meters above ground level. A total of 19,167 photographs were taken from five digital camera systems: 1. A Drift® HD-170 (focal length 5.00 mm);

  5. Vitamin A and E profiles as biomarkers of PCB exposure in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the western Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W.; Ross, Peter S.; Dangerfield, Neil; Palace, Vince P.; Whiticar, Michael; Loseto, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We examine the influence of biology, ecology and contaminant exposure on vitamin A and E profiles in Arctic beluga whales. •PCBs altered vitamin profiles after accounting for sex, age, condition and feeding ecology. •We propose a toxicity reference value for the disruption of vitamin A and E profiles in beluga of 1.6 mg/kg PCBs. •The use of vitamins as biomarkers of contaminant effects is contingent upon an understanding of wildlife biology. -- Abstract: We evaluated the utility of vitamin A and E profiles as biomarkers of contaminant exposure in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas; n = 66) harvested by the Inuvialuit in the Beaufort Sea. Blubber was an important repository for these vitamins, accounting for 76.8 ± 2.6% of the total body store of vitamin A, and 98.5 ± 0.4% of total vitamin E. While the free alcohol form of vitamin A (retinol) appeared highly regulated, the vitamin A esters were influenced by several biological factors including age, body condition and length. Vitamin E concentrations in liver and blubber were related to age, condition, length and feeding ecology, as described δ 15 N and δ 13 C. Despite the influence of these factors, collective results from univariate statistics, best fit multiple regressions, and principal component analysis (PCA) identified polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as important determinants of vitamin concentrations and profiles in beluga tissues. Blubber PCB concentrations best explained variation of the first principal component in a PCA of hepatic vitamins (r 2 = 0.13, p = 0.014), and regression models found that vitamin A concentrations were negatively correlated with PCB levels in liver (esters: r 2 = 0.19, p = 0.001), but positively in plasma (retinol: r 2 = 0.20, p = 0.06) and blubber (retinol: r 2 = 0.22, p = 0.001, esters: r 2 = 0.43, p < 0.001). Our analyses provide a basis to propose an integrated toxicity reference value for disruption of vitamin A and E profiles in beluga of 1.6 mg

  6. Vitamin A and E profiles as biomarkers of PCB exposure in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the western Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W. [University of Victoria, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC, Canada V8P 5C2 (Canada); Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Institute of Ocean Sciences, 9860 West Saanich Road, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, Canada V8L 4B2 (Canada); Ross, Peter S., E-mail: peter.s.ross@dfo-mpo.gc.ca [University of Victoria, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC, Canada V8P 5C2 (Canada); Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Institute of Ocean Sciences, 9860 West Saanich Road, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, Canada V8L 4B2 (Canada); Dangerfield, Neil [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Institute of Ocean Sciences, 9860 West Saanich Road, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, Canada V8L 4B2 (Canada); Palace, Vince P. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Freshwater Institute, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2N6 (Canada); Whiticar, Michael [University of Victoria, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC, Canada V8P 5C2 (Canada); Loseto, Lisa L. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Freshwater Institute, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2N6 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •We examine the influence of biology, ecology and contaminant exposure on vitamin A and E profiles in Arctic beluga whales. •PCBs altered vitamin profiles after accounting for sex, age, condition and feeding ecology. •We propose a toxicity reference value for the disruption of vitamin A and E profiles in beluga of 1.6 mg/kg PCBs. •The use of vitamins as biomarkers of contaminant effects is contingent upon an understanding of wildlife biology. -- Abstract: We evaluated the utility of vitamin A and E profiles as biomarkers of contaminant exposure in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas; n = 66) harvested by the Inuvialuit in the Beaufort Sea. Blubber was an important repository for these vitamins, accounting for 76.8 ± 2.6% of the total body store of vitamin A, and 98.5 ± 0.4% of total vitamin E. While the free alcohol form of vitamin A (retinol) appeared highly regulated, the vitamin A esters were influenced by several biological factors including age, body condition and length. Vitamin E concentrations in liver and blubber were related to age, condition, length and feeding ecology, as described δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C. Despite the influence of these factors, collective results from univariate statistics, best fit multiple regressions, and principal component analysis (PCA) identified polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as important determinants of vitamin concentrations and profiles in beluga tissues. Blubber PCB concentrations best explained variation of the first principal component in a PCA of hepatic vitamins (r{sup 2} = 0.13, p = 0.014), and regression models found that vitamin A concentrations were negatively correlated with PCB levels in liver (esters: r{sup 2} = 0.19, p = 0.001), but positively in plasma (retinol: r{sup 2} = 0.20, p = 0.06) and blubber (retinol: r{sup 2} = 0.22, p = 0.001, esters: r{sup 2} = 0.43, p < 0.001). Our analyses provide a basis to propose an integrated toxicity reference value for disruption of vitamin A and

  7. Testing the Nunatak Refugia Hypothesis in the Eastern Canadian Arctic with Cosmogenic Nuclides 14C, 10Be, and 26Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G. H.; Briner, J. P.; Lifton, N.; Kaplan, M. R.; Refsnider, K. A.

    2008-12-01

    For more than a century the processes by which plants rapidly colonized vast regions formerly covered by Late Quaternary continental ice sheets has been vigorously debated. It has been postulated that refugial plant communities survived on nunataks above ice-sheet surfaces, and that these relict populations facilitated rapid colonization. While glacial mapping confirms that some highlands in the Eastern Canadian Arctic remained above the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) throughout the last glacial maximum (LGM), whether they remained free of local ice carapaces is uncertain. To test the nunatak refugia hypothesis we sampled quartz-rich bedrock from rolling uplands of Broughton Is. (67.5 N; 63.5 E; 600 m asl), one of the most distal high islands bordering the eastern margin of the LIS. At the peak of the LGM, outlet glaciers of the LIS impinged on the island, but did not reach above 100 m asl. Close to the summit, flat-lying quartz-rich veins crop out extensively with 2 to 10 cm of weathering relief. Two samples have 10Be and 26Al exposure ages in excess of 200 ka, but 26Al/10Be of only 3.8. Two tors 150 m lower have 10Be and 26Al exposure ages in excess of 100 ka, and similarly low 26Al/10Be (3.5). The time elapsed to acquire these values exceeds 1 Ma without erosion for the higher samples, and only slightly less for the lower samples, confirming that these sites have not been inundated by actively eroding continental ice since at least the early Quaternary. To evaluate whether a protective ice cap mantled the island during the LGM we measured in situ 14C inventories in the two summit samples for which 10Be and 26Al were also measured. If the summit had been free of ice during the LGM and served as a plant refugium, then the 14C inventories should be at their maximum levels. If, however, the summit was mantled by a thick (>30 m) snowfield or cold-based ice carapace, then 14C inventories should reflect only Holocene surface exposure. Both samples contained in situ 14C

  8. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and selenium in common eider ducks in the eastern Canadian arctic: Influence of reproductive stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, Mark; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Neugebauer, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations and total organ content of mercury, selenium and cadmium, as well as liver, kidney and body mass were determined in female common eiders from 1997 to 2000 at the East Bay Migratory Bird Sanctuary in the eastern Canadian arctic. In 1997 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the pre-nesting period when they eat copious amounts of food and gain substantial weight in preparation for the rigours of nesting. In 1998 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the mid to late stages of the nesting period when they eat very little, if at all, and, as a consequence undergo dramatic weight loss. Total body mass, liver mass and kidney mass were highest in pre-nesting birds, especially in 1997. They were significantly lower in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast, mercury and cadmium concentrations were lowest in pre-nesting birds collected in 1997 and 1999 and increased to significantly higher concentrations in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast to these results, the total contents of mercury in liver and cadmium in kidney did not change significantly over the 4-year period. Hepatic selenium concentrations were relatively stable over the 4-year study period while changes in the total content of selenium in the liver paralleled changes in liver mass and body mass. The results suggest that mercury and cadmium concentrations in female common eiders change in response to normal changes in body and organ mass that occur during the reproductive period. Thus, it may be important to consider body condition or reproductive stage when using common eiders (and perhaps other species of sea ducks) in biomonitoring studies or when interpreting concentrations of metals in tissues in terms of the risk they pose to these ducks

  9. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and selenium in common eider ducks in the eastern Canadian arctic: influence of reproductive stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, Mark; Gilchrist, H Grant; Neugebauer, Ewa

    2005-12-01

    Concentrations and total organ content of mercury, selenium and cadmium, as well as liver, kidney and body mass were determined in female common eiders from 1997 to 2000 at the East Bay Migratory Bird Sanctuary in the eastern Canadian arctic. In 1997 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the pre-nesting period when they eat copious amounts of food and gain substantial weight in preparation for the rigours of nesting. In 1998 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the mid to late stages of the nesting period when they eat very little, if at all, and, as a consequence undergo dramatic weight loss. Total body mass, liver mass and kidney mass were highest in pre-nesting birds, especially in 1997. They were significantly lower in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast, mercury and cadmium concentrations were lowest in pre-nesting birds collected in 1997 and 1999 and increased to significantly higher concentrations in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast to these results, the total contents of mercury in liver and cadmium in kidney did not change significantly over the 4-year period. Hepatic selenium concentrations were relatively stable over the 4-year study period while changes in the total content of selenium in the liver paralleled changes in liver mass and body mass. The results suggest that mercury and cadmium concentrations in female common eiders change in response to normal changes in body and organ mass that occur during the reproductive period. Thus, it may be important to consider body condition or reproductive stage when using common eiders (and perhaps other species of sea ducks) in biomonitoring studies or when interpreting concentrations of metals in tissues in terms of the risk they pose to these ducks.

  10. Thermodynamic and dynamic ice thickness contributions in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in NEMO-LIM2 numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianmin; Sun, Jingfan; Chan, Ting On; Myers, Paul G.

    2018-04-01

    Sea ice thickness evolution within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) is of great interest to science, as well as local communities and their economy. In this study, based on the NEMO numerical framework including the LIM2 sea ice module, simulations at both 1/4 and 1/12° horizontal resolution were conducted from 2002 to 2016. The model captures well the general spatial distribution of ice thickness in the CAA region, with very thick sea ice (˜ 4 m and thicker) in the northern CAA, thick sea ice (2.5 to 3 m) in the west-central Parry Channel and M'Clintock Channel, and thin ( Program data at first-year landfast ice sites except at the northern sites with high concentration of old ice. At 1/4 to 1/12° scale, model resolution does not play a significant role in the sea ice simulation except to improve local dynamics because of better coastline representation. Sea ice growth is decomposed into thermodynamic and dynamic (including all non-thermodynamic processes in the model) contributions to study the ice thickness evolution. Relatively smaller thermodynamic contribution to ice growth between December and the following April is found in the thick and very thick ice regions, with larger contributions in the thin ice-covered region. No significant trend in winter maximum ice volume is found in the northern CAA and Baffin Bay while a decline (r2 ≈ 0.6, p < 0.01) is simulated in Parry Channel region. The two main contributors (thermodynamic growth and lateral transport) have high interannual variabilities which largely balance each other, so that maximum ice volume can vary interannually by ±12 % in the northern CAA, ±15 % in Parry Channel, and ±9 % in Baffin Bay. Further quantitative evaluation is required.

  11. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and selenium in common eider ducks in the eastern Canadian arctic: Influence of reproductive stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, Mark [Environment Canada, Prairie and Northern Wildlife Research Centre, 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada)]. E-mail: mark.wayland@ec.gc.ca; Gilchrist, H. Grant [Canadian Wildlife Service, Prairie and Northern Region, Suite 301, 5204-50th St., Yellowknife, NT, X1A 1E2 (Canada); Neugebauer, Ewa [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Dr., Ottawa, ON, K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Concentrations and total organ content of mercury, selenium and cadmium, as well as liver, kidney and body mass were determined in female common eiders from 1997 to 2000 at the East Bay Migratory Bird Sanctuary in the eastern Canadian arctic. In 1997 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the pre-nesting period when they eat copious amounts of food and gain substantial weight in preparation for the rigours of nesting. In 1998 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the mid to late stages of the nesting period when they eat very little, if at all, and, as a consequence undergo dramatic weight loss. Total body mass, liver mass and kidney mass were highest in pre-nesting birds, especially in 1997. They were significantly lower in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast, mercury and cadmium concentrations were lowest in pre-nesting birds collected in 1997 and 1999 and increased to significantly higher concentrations in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast to these results, the total contents of mercury in liver and cadmium in kidney did not change significantly over the 4-year period. Hepatic selenium concentrations were relatively stable over the 4-year study period while changes in the total content of selenium in the liver paralleled changes in liver mass and body mass. The results suggest that mercury and cadmium concentrations in female common eiders change in response to normal changes in body and organ mass that occur during the reproductive period. Thus, it may be important to consider body condition or reproductive stage when using common eiders (and perhaps other species of sea ducks) in biomonitoring studies or when interpreting concentrations of metals in tissues in terms of the risk they pose to these ducks.

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, walruses, polar bears, and Steller sea lions in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector...

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Steller sea lions and polar bears in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent...

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector points and lines representing human-use resource data for airports, marinas, and mining sites in Northwest Arctic, Alaska....

  15. Air-water exchange of anthropogenic and natural organohalogens on International Polar Year (IPY) expeditions in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M; Pućko, Monika; Papakyriakou, Tim; Staebler, Ralf M; Stern, Gary A; Bidleman, Terry F

    2011-02-01

    Shipboard measurements of organohalogen compounds in air and surface seawater were conducted in the Canadian Arctic in 2007-2008. Study areas included the Labrador Sea, Hudson Bay, and the southern Beaufort Sea. High volume air samples were collected at deck level (6 m), while low volume samples were taken at 1 and 15 m above the water or ice surface. Water samples were taken within 7 m. Water concentration ranges (pg L(-1)) were as follows: α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) 465-1013, γ-HCH 150-254, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) 4.0-6.4, 2,4-dibromoanisole (DBA) 8.5-38, and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) 4.7-163. Air concentration ranges (pg m(-3)) were as follows: α-HCH 7.5-48, γ-HCH 2.1-7.7, HCB 48-71, DBA 4.8-25, and TBA 6.4 - 39. Fugacity gradients predicted net deposition of HCB in all areas, while exchange directions varied for the other chemicals by season and locations. Net evasion of α-HCH from Hudson Bay and the Beaufort Sea during open water conditions was shown by air concentrations that averaged 14% higher at 1 m than 15 m. No significant difference between the two heights was found over ice cover. The α-HCH in air over the Beaufort Sea was racemic in winter (mean enantiomer fraction, EF = 0.504 ± 0.008) and nonracemic in late spring-early summer (mean EF = 0.476 ± 0.010). This decrease in EF was accompanied by a rise in air concentrations due to volatilization of nonracemic α-HCH from surface water (EF = 0.457 ± 0.019). Fluxes of chemicals during the southern Beaufort Sea open water season (i.e., Leg 9) were estimated using the Whitman two-film model, where volatilization fluxes are positive and deposition fluxes are negative. The means ± SD (and ranges) of net fluxes (ng m(-2) d(-1)) were as follows: α-HCH 6.8 ± 3.2 (2.7-13), γ-HCH 0.76 ± 0.40 (0.26-1.4), HCB -9.6 ± 2.7 (-6.1 to -15), DBA 1.2 ± 0.69 (0.04-2.0), and TBA 0.46 ± 1.1 ng m(-2) d(-1) (-1.6 to 2.0).

  16. 78 FR 70525 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of Status Review of Arctic Grayling in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . In the Search box, enter FWS-R6-ES-2013-0120, which is the docket... streams and rivers of the Great Lakes region of northern Michigan, but was extirpated in the 1930s (Hubbs... determined that fluvial (stream dwelling) and adfluvial (residing in lakes and spawning in streams) Arctic...

  17. Graduate training in Earth science across borders and disciplines: ArcTrain -"Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Rüdiger; Kucera, Michal; Walter, Maren; de Vernal, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Due to a complex set of feedback processes collectively known as "polar amplification", the Arctic realm is expected to experience a greater-than-average response to global climate forcing. The cascades of feedback processes that connect the Arctic cryosphere, ocean and atmosphere remain incompletely constrained by observations and theory and are difficult to simulate in climate models. Our capacity to predict the future of the region and assess the impacts of Arctic change processes on global and regional environments hinges on the availability of interdisciplinary experts with strong international experience and understanding of the science/society interface. This is the basis of the International Research Training Group "Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic - ArcTrain", which was initiated in 2013. ArcTrain aims to educate PhD students in an interdisciplinary environment that combines paleoclimatology, physical oceanography, remote sensing and glaciology with comprehensive Earth system modelling, including sea-ice and ice-sheet components. The qualification program for the PhD students includes joint supervision, mandatory research residences at partner institutions, field courses on land and on sea (Floating University), annual meetings and training workshops and a challenging structured training in expert skills and transferrable skills. Its aim is to enhance the career prospects and employability of the graduates in a challenging international job market across academic and applied sectors. ArcTrain is a collaborative project at the University of Bremen and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven. The German part of the project is designed to continue for nine years and educate three cohorts of twelve PhD students each. The Canadian partners comprise a consortium of eight universities led by the GEOTOP cluster at the Université du Québec à Montréal and including

  18. Application of Terrestrial Ecosystem Monitoring under the CAFF Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program: Designing and Implementing Terrestrial Monitoring to Establish the Canadian High Arctic Research Station as a Flagship Arctic Environmental Monitoring Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, D.; Kehler, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Canadian High Arctic Research Station (CHARS) is scheduled for completion in July 2017 and is the northern science component of Polar Knowledge Canada (POLAR). A mandated goal for POLAR is to establish the adjacent Experimental and Reference Area (ERA) as an Arctic Flagship monitoring site that will track change in Arctic terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. Situated in the community of Cambridge Bay, CHARS provides the opportunity to draw on the Indigenous Knowledge of local residents to help design and conduct the monitoring, and to operate 12 months a year. Monitoring at CHARS will be linked to networks nationally and internationally, and is being designed so that change in key indicators can be understood in terms of drivers and processes, modeled and scaled up regionally, and used to predict important changes in critical indicators. As a partner in the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP), the monitoring design for terrestrial ecosystems follows approaches outlined by the CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group, who have listed key monitoring questions and identified a list of important Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs). To link drivers to FECs we are proposing a multi-scaled approach: 1) an Intensive Monitoring Area to establish replicated monitoring plots that track change in snow depth and condition, active layer depth, soil temperature, soil moisture, and soil solution chemistry that are spatially and temporally linked to changes in microbiological activity, CO2/CH4 net ecosystem flux, vegetation relative frequency, species composition, growth and foliar nutrient concentration, arthropod abundance, lemming abundance and health, and shorebird/songbird abundance and productivity. 2) These intensive observations are supported by watershed scale measures that will monitor, during the growing season, lemming winter nest abundance, songbird, shorebird and waterfowl staging and nesting, and other observations; in the winter we will

  19. Spatial and temporal variability of seawater pCO2 within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay during the summer and autumn 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geilfus, N.-X.; Pind, M. L.; Else, B. G. T.

    2018-01-01

    The partial pressure of CO2 in surface water (pCO2sw) measured within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) and Baffin Bay was highly variable with values ranging from strongly undersaturated (118 μatm) to slightly supersaturated (419 μatm) with respect to the atmospheric levels ( 386 μatm) during...... summer and autumn 2011. During summer, melting sea ice contributed to cold and fresh surface water and enhanced the ice-edge bloom, resulting in strong pCO2sw undersaturation. Coronation Gulf was the only area with supersaturated pCO2sw, likely due to warm CO2-enriched freshwater input from...... the Coppermine River. During autumn, the entire CAA (including Coronation Gulf) was undersaturated, despite generally increasing pCO2sw. Coronation Gulf was the one place where pCO2sw decreased, likely due to seasonal reduction in discharge from the Coppermine River and the decreasing sea surface temperature...

  20. Determining Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Subsidence in the Canadian Arctic Using a Dense GPS Velocity Field for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craymer, M.; Forbes, D.; Henton, J.; Lapelle, E.; Piraszewski, M.; Solomon, S.

    2005-12-01

    With observed climate warming in the western Canadian Arctic and potential increases in regional sea level, we anticipate expansion of the coastal region subject to rising relative sea level and increased flooding risk. This is a concern for coastal communities such as Tuktoyaktuk and Sachs Harbour and for the design and safety of hydrocarbon production facilities on the Mackenzie Delta. To provide a framework in which to monitor these changes, a consistent velocity field has been determined from GPS observations throughout North America, including the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and the Mackenzie Delta region. An expanded network of continuous GPS sites and multi-epoch (episodic) sites has enabled an increased density that enhances the application to geophysical studies including the discrimination of crustal motion, other components of coastal subsidence, and sea-level rise. To obtain a dense velocity field consistent at all scales, we have combined weekly solutions of continuous GPS sites from different agencies in Canada and the USA, together with the global reference frame under the North American Reference Frame initiative. Although there is already a high density of continuous GPS sites in the conterminous United States, there are many fewer such sites in Canada. To make up for this lack of density, we have incorporated high-accuracy episodic GPS observations on stable monuments distributed throughout Canada. By combining up to ten years of repeated, episodic GPS observations at such sites, together with weekly solutions from the continuous sites, we have obtained a highly consistent velocity field with a significantly increased spatial sampling of crustal deformation throughout Canada. This exhibits a spatially coherent pattern of uplift and subsidence in Canada that is consistent with the expected rates of glacial isostatic adjustment. To determine the contribution of vertical motion to sea-level rise under climate warming in the Canadian Arctic, we have

  1. A regional approach to plant DNA barcoding provides high species resolution of sedges (Carex and Kobresia, Cyperaceae) in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc-Blain, Jessica L E; Starr, Julian R; Bull, Roger D; Saarela, Jeffery M

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on barcoding sedges (Carex) suggested that basic searches within a global barcoding database would probably not resolve more than 60% of the world's some 2000 species. In this study, we take an alternative approach and explore the performance of plant DNA barcoding in the Carex lineage from an explicitly regional perspective. We characterize the utility of a subset of the proposed protein-coding and noncoding plastid barcoding regions (matK, rpoB, rpoC1, rbcL, atpF-atpH, psbK-psbI) for distinguishing species of Carex and Kobresia in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, a clearly defined eco-geographical region representing 1% of the Earth's landmass. Our results show that matK resolves the greatest number of species of any single-locus (95%), and when combined in a two-locus barcode, it provides 100% species resolution in all but one combination (matK + atpFH) during unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean averages (UPGMA) analyses. Noncoding regions were equally or more variable than matK, but as single markers they resolve substantially fewer taxa than matK alone. When difficulties with sequencing and alignment due to microstructural variation in noncoding regions are also considered, our results support other studies in suggesting that protein-coding regions are more practical as barcoding markers. Plastid DNA barcodes are an effective identification tool for species of Carex and Kobresia in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, a region where the number of co-existing closely related species is limited. We suggest that if a regional approach to plant DNA barcoding was applied on a global scale, it could provide a solution to the generally poor species resolution seen in previous barcoding studies. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Longer ice-free seasons increase the risk of nest depredation by polar bears for colonial breeding birds in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Samuel A; Gilchrist, H Grant; Smith, Paul A; Gaston, Anthony J; Forbes, Mark R

    2014-03-22

    Northern polar regions have warmed more than other parts of the globe potentially amplifying the effects of climate change on biological communities. Ice-free seasons are becoming longer in many areas, which has reduced the time available to polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to hunt for seals and hampered bears' ability to meet their energetic demands. In this study, we examined polar bears' use of an ancillary prey resource, eggs of colonial nesting birds, in relation to diminishing sea ice coverage in a low latitude region of the Canadian Arctic. Long-term monitoring reveals that bear incursions onto common eider (Somateria mollissima) and thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) nesting colonies have increased greater than sevenfold since the 1980s and that there is an inverse correlation between ice season length and bear presence. In surveys encompassing more than 1000 km of coastline during years of record low ice coverage (2010-2012), we encountered bears or bear sign on 34% of eider colonies and estimated greater egg loss as a consequence of depredation by bears than by more customary nest predators, such as foxes and gulls. Our findings demonstrate how changes in abiotic conditions caused by climate change have altered predator-prey dynamics and are leading to cascading ecological impacts in Arctic ecosystems.

  3. Seasonal formation of ikaite (caco 3 · 6h 2o) in saline spring discharge at Expedition Fiord, Canadian High Arctic: Assessing conditional constraints for natural crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, Christopher R.; Pollard, Wayne H.; Marion, Giles M.

    2001-05-01

    - Spring discharge at Expedition Fiord (Pollard et al., 1999) on Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian High Arctic produces a variety of travertine forms in addition to a diverse collection of mineral precipitates. This paper focuses on clusters of thermally unstable crystals believed to be the mineral ikaite (CaCO 3 · 6H 2O) growing seasonally along two spring outflows at Colour Peak. This form of calcium carbonate mineral occurs along small sections of discharge outflow as white euhedral crystals up to 0.5 cm in length. Difficulty in sampling, storage and transport of the samples for analysis has hampered attempts to confirm the presence of ikaite by X-ray diffraction. However, various field observations and the remarkable instability of these crystals at normal ambient temperatures strengthens our argument. This paper provides a description of these particular CaCO 3 · 6H 2O crystals and their environmental surroundings, and attempts to determine the validity of ikaite precipitation at this site by theoretical geochemical modeling: these results are compared with other reported observations of ikaite to both understand their occurrence and help delineate their geochemical characteristics. It is believed that the restrictive combination of spring water chemistry and long periods of low temperatures characteristic of arctic climates are necessary for ikaite growth at this site. The fact that ikaite is not forming at a second group of saline springs 11 km away allows us to more specifically outline conditions controlling its presence.

  4. Baseline monitoring of the western Arctic Ocean estimates 20% of Canadian basin surface waters are undersaturated with respect to aragonite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa L Robbins

    Full Text Available Marine surface waters are being acidified due to uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, resulting in surface ocean areas of undersaturation with respect to carbonate minerals, including aragonite. In the Arctic Ocean, acidification is expected to occur at an accelerated rate with respect to the global oceans, but a paucity of baseline data has limited our understanding of the extent of Arctic undersaturation and of regional variations in rates and causes. The lack of data has also hindered refinement of models aimed at projecting future trends of ocean acidification. Here, based on more than 34,000 data records collected in 2010 and 2011, we establish a baseline of inorganic carbon data (pH, total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and aragonite saturation index for the western Arctic Ocean. This data set documents aragonite undersaturation in ≈ 20% of the surface waters of the combined Canada and Makarov basins, an area characterized by recent acceleration of sea ice loss. Conservative tracer studies using stable oxygen isotopic data from 307 sites show that while the entire surface of this area receives abundant freshwater from meteoric sources, freshwater from sea ice melt is most closely linked to the areas of carbonate mineral undersaturation. These data link the Arctic Ocean's largest area of aragonite undersaturation to sea ice melt and atmospheric CO2 absorption in areas of low buffering capacity. Some relatively supersaturated areas can be linked to localized biological activity. Collectively, these observations can be used to project trends of ocean acidification in higher latitude marine surface waters where inorganic carbon chemistry is largely influenced by sea ice meltwater.

  5. Assessment of neurotoxic effects of mercury in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), ringed seals (Pusa hispida), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Anke; Ostertag, Sonja K; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-03-15

    Marine mammals are indicator species of the Arctic ecosystem and an integral component of the traditional Inuit diet. The potential neurotoxic effects of increased mercury (Hg) in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), ringed seals (Pusa hispida), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are not clear. We assessed the risk of Hg-associated neurotoxicity to these species by comparing their brain Hg concentrations with threshold concentrations for toxic endpoints detected in laboratory animals and field observations: clinical symptoms (>6.75 mg/kg wet weight (ww)), neuropathological signs (>4 mg/kg ww), neurochemical changes (>0.4 mg/kg ww), and neurobehavioral changes (>0.1mg/kg ww). The total Hg (THg) concentrations in the cerebellum and frontal lobe of ringed seals and polar bears were 3mg/kg ww. Our results suggest that brain THg levels in polar bears are below levels that induce neurobehavioral effects as reported in the literature, while THg concentrations in ringed seals are within the range that elicit neurobehavioral effects and individual ringed seals exceed the threshold for neurochemical changes. The relatively high THg concentration in beluga whales exceeds all of the neurotoxicity thresholds assessed. High brain selenium (Se):Hg molar ratios were observed in all three species, suggesting that Se could protect the animals from Hg-associated neurotoxicity. This assessment was limited by several factors that influence neurotoxic effects in animals, including: animal species; form of Hg in the brain; and interactions with modifiers of Hg-associated toxicity, such as Se. Comparing brain Hg concentrations in wildlife with concentrations of appropriate laboratory studies can be used as a tool for risk characterization of the neurotoxic effects of Hg in Arctic marine mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin L; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-10-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention-Healthy Foods North-was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two comparison communities) in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, Canada, in 2008. The 12-month program was developed from theory (social cognitive theory and social ecological models), formative research, and a community participatory process. It included an environmental component to increase healthy food availability in local stores and activities consisting of community-wide and point-of-purchase interactive educational taste tests and cooking demonstrations, media (e.g., radio ads, posters, shelf labels), and events held in multiple venues, including recreation centers and schools. The intervention was evaluated using pre- and postassessments with 246 adults from intervention and 133 from comparison communities (311 women, 68 men; mean age 42.4 years; 78.3% retention rate). Outcomes included psychosocial constructs (healthy eating knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions), frequency of healthy and unhealthy food acquisition, healthiness of commonly used food preparation methods, and body mass index (kg/m(2)). After adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic status, and body mass index variables, respondents living in intervention communities showed significant improvements in food-related self-efficacy (β = 0.15, p = .003) and intentions (β = 0.16, p = .001) compared with comparison communities. More improvements from the intervention were seen in overweight, obese, and high socioeconomic status respondents. A community-based, multilevel intervention is an effective strategy to improve psychosocial factors for healthy nutritional behavior change to reduce chronic disease in indigenous Arctic populations.

  7. Analysis of Decadal-Scale Shoreline Change along the Hamlet of Paulatuk (Canadian Arctic), using Landsat Satellite Imagery and GIS techniques from 1984 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, R. D.; Murray, M. S.; Wells, P.

    2016-12-01

    Increased accuracy in estimating coastal change along localized segments of the Canadian Arctic coast is essential, in order to identify plausible adaptation initiatives to deal with the effects of climate change. This paper quantifies rates of shoreline movement along an 11 km segment of the Hamlet of Paulatuk (Northwest Territories, Canada), using an innovative modelling technique - Analyzing Moving Boundaries Using R (AMBUR). Approximately two dozen shorelines, obtained from high-resolution Landsat satellite imagery were analyzed. Shorelines were extracted using the band ratio method and compiled in ArcMapTM to determine decadal trends of coastal change. The unique geometry of Paulatuk facilitated an independent analysis of the western and eastern sections of the study area. Long-term (1984-2014) and short-term (1984-2003) erosion and accretion rates were calculated using the Linear Regression and End Point Rate methods respectively. Results reveal an elevated rate of erosion for the western section of the hamlet over the long-term (-1.1 m/yr), compared to the eastern portion (-0.92 m/yr). The study indicates a significant alongshore increase in the rates of erosion on both portions of the study area, over the short-term period 1984 to 2003. Mean annual erosion rates increased over the short-term along the western segment (-1.4 m/yr), while the eastern shoreline retreated at a rate of -1.3 m/yr over the same period. The analysis indicates that an amalgamation of factors may be responsible for the patterns of land loss experienced along Paulatuk. These include increased sea-surface temperature coupled with dwindling arctic ice and elevated storm hydrodynamics. The analysis further reveals that the coastline along the eastern portion of the hamlet, where the majority of the population reside, is vulnerable to a high rate of shoreline erosion.

  8. Developing strategies for automated remote plant production systems: Environmental control and monitoring of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Berinstain, A.; Graham, T.; Neron, P.; Giroux, R.; Braham, S.; Ferl, R.; Paul, A.-L.; Dixon, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is a unique research facility dedicated to the study of greenhouse engineering and autonomous functionality under extreme operational conditions, in preparation for extraterrestrial biologically-based life support systems. The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is located at the Haughton Mars Project Research Station on Devon Island in the Canadian High Arctic. The greenhouse has been operational since 2002. Over recent years the greenhouse has served as a controlled environment facility for conducting scientific and operationally relevant plant growth investigations in an extreme environment. Since 2005 the greenhouse has seen the deployment of a refined nutrient control system, an improved imaging system capable of remote assessment of basic plant health parameters, more robust communication and power systems as well as the implementation of a distributed data acquisition system. Though several other Arctic greenhouses exist, the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is distinct in that the focus is on autonomous operation as opposed to strictly plant production. Remote control and autonomous operational experience has applications both terrestrially in production greenhouses and extraterrestrially where future long duration Moon/Mars missions will utilize biological life support systems to close the air, food and water loops. Minimizing crew time is an important goal for any space-based system. The experience gained through the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is providing the experience necessary to optimize future plant production systems and minimize crew time requirements. Internal greenhouse environmental data shows that the fall growth season (July-September) provides an average photosynthetic photon flux of 161.09 μmol m -2 s -1 (August) and 76.76 μmol m -2 s -1 (September) with approximately a 24 h photoperiod. The spring growth season provides an average of 327.51 μmol m -2 s -1 (May) and 339.32 μmol m -2 s

  9. A trajectory analysis of atmospheric transport of black carbon aerosols to Canadian high Arctic in winter and spring (1990–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Huang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC particles accumulated in the Arctic troposphere and deposited on snow have been calculated to have significant effects on radiative forcing of the Arctic regional climate. Applying cluster analysis technique on 10-day backward trajectories, seven distinct transport pathways (or clusters affecting Alert (82.5° N, 62.5° W, Nunavut in Canada are identified in this work. Transport frequency associated with each pathway is obtained as the fraction of trajectories in that cluster. Based on atmospheric transport frequency and BC surface flux from surrounding regions (i.e. North America, Europe, and former USSR, a linear regression model is constructed to investigate the inter-annual variations of BC observed at Alert in January and April, representative of winter and spring respectively, between 1990 and 2005. Strong correlations are found between BC concentrations predicted with the regression model and measurements at Alert for both seasons (R2 equals 0.77 and 0.81 for winter and spring, respectively. Results imply that atmospheric transport and BC emission are the major contributors to the inter-annual variations in BC concentrations observed at Alert in the cold seasons for the 16-year period. Other factors, such as deposition, could also contribute to the variability in BC concentrations but were not considered in this analysis. Based on the regression model the relative contributions of regional BC emissions affecting Alert are attributed to the Eurasian sector, composed of the European Union and the former USSR, and the North American sector. Considering both seasons, the model suggests that former USSR is the major contributor to the near-surface BC levels at the Canadian high Arctic site with an average contribution of about 67% during the 16-year period, followed by European Union (18% and North America (15%. In winter, the atmospheric transport of BC aerosols from Eurasia is found to be even more

  10. Evaluation of radionuclide levels and radiological dose in three populations of marine mammals in the eastern Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, C.R.; Ewing, L.L.; Wiewel, A.M.; Harris, D.A.; Stewart, R.E.A.

    1993-01-01

    Radionuclide levels were measured in beluga, walrus and ringed seal populations collected in 1992 to assess radiation dose and changes in dose with age and sex. The authors hypothesized that Arctic marine food chains accumulate high levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides such as polonium-210 and that radiation may pose a stress to animals which also accumulate metals such as cadmium. Liver, kidney, muscle and jawbone were analyzed by gamma spectrometry for cesium-137, cesium-134, lead-210, potassium-40 and radium-226 and fission-derived nuclides. Polonium-210 was analyzed by alpha spec after autodeposition onto a silver disk. Cesium-137 concentrations in muscle in all three populations were low, and ranged from below detection limits to 10 Bq/kg ww. There was no evidence of fission-derived radionuclides such as zinc-65 or cobalt-60. Lead-210 levels ranged from below detection limits in muscle of ringed seal and walrus to a mean of 82.3 Bq/kg ww in walrus bone. Polonium-210 in the three population ranged from 10 to 30 Bq/kg ww in bone and kidney. The major contributor to dose in the animals was polonium-210 because it is an alpha emitter and accumulates to moderate levels in liver and kidney. Radiological dose is approximately 20--30 times higher than background in humans, and is considerably lower than the dose observed in terrestrial food chains in the Arctic

  11. Archaeological Site Vulnerability Modelling: The Influence of High Impact Storm Events on Models of Shoreline Erosion in the Western Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Rourke Michael J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of the Inuvialuit archaeological record is situated along shorelines of the western Canadian Arctic. These coastal sites are at substantial risk of damage due to a number of geomorphological processes at work in the region. The identification of threatened heritage remains is critical in the Mackenzie Delta, where landscape changes are taking place at an increasingly rapid pace. This paper outlines some preliminary observations from a research program directed toward identifying vulnerable archaeological remains within the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Coastal erosion rates have been calculated for over 280 km of the Kugmallit Bay shoreline, extending along the eastern extent of Richards Island and neighbouring areas of the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula. Helicopter surveys conducted during the 2014 field season confirmed that areas exposed to heavy erosive forces in the past continue to erode at alarming rates. Some of the calculated rates, however, have proven far too conservative. An extreme period of erosion at Toker Point in the autumn of 2013 has yielded a prime example of how increasingly volatile weather patterns can influence shoreline erosion models. It has also provided a case with which to demonstrate the value of using more recent, shorter time-interval imagery in assessing impacts to cultural landscapes.

  12. What we know, do not know, and need to know about climate change vulnerability in the western Canadian Arctic: a systematic literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, James D; Pearce, Tristan

    2010-01-01

    This letter systematically reviews and synthesizes scientific and gray literature publications (n = 420) to identify and characterize the nature of climate change vulnerability in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region of the western Canadian Arctic and identify gaps in understanding. The literature documents widespread evidence of climate change, with implications for human and biophysical systems. Adaptations are being employed to manage changing conditions and are indicative of a high adaptive capacity. However, barriers to adaptation are evident and are expected to constrain adaptive capacity to future climate change. Continued climate change is predicted for the region, with differential exposure sensitivity for communities, groups and sectors: a function of social-economic-biophysical characteristics and projected future climatic conditions. Existing climate risks are expected to increase in magnitude and frequency, although the interaction between projected changes and socio-economic-demographic trends has not been assessed. The capacity for adapting to future climate change has also not been studied. The review identifies the importance of targeted vulnerability research that works closely with community members and other stakeholders to address research needs. Importantly, the fully categorized list of reviewed references accompanying this letter will be a valuable resource for those working or planning to work in the region, capturing climate change research published since 1990. At a broader level, the systematic review methodology offers a promising tool for climate/environmental change studies in general where there is a large and emerging body of research but limited understanding of research gaps and needs.

  13. Long-term changes of mercury levels in ringed seal (Phoca hispida) from Amundsen Gulf, and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) from the Beaufort Sea, western Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outridge, P.M.; Hobson, K.A.; Savelle, J.

    2009-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined in the canine teeth of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) harvested during the 13th-14th, late 19th and early 21st Centuries in Amundsen Gulf, Northwest Territories, Canada. Most historical and pre-industrial teeth contained undetectable Hg levels (i.e. 15 N values) did not change over time, modern δ 13 C values were lower by about 2 per mille than in the 14th and 19th Centuries. This could be due to increased dissolution of anthropogenically derived CO 2 in the ocean from the atmosphere, but could also indicate more offshore pelagic feeding by modern seals, which might be a factor in their Hg exposure. New tooth [Hg] data are also presented for the Beaufort Sea beluga, using recently-discovered museum samples collected in 1960/61, which showed that most of the anthropogenic contribution to beluga Hg had already taken effect by 1960 (reaching ∼ 75% of total Hg). Taken together, the long-term seal and beluga data indicate that whereas Hg levels in the marine ecosystems of the western Canadian Arctic were probably unchanged from pre-industrial times up to the late 19th Century, there was a significant, many-fold increase in the early to mid-20th Century, but little or no change after about the early 1960s.

  14. Active microwave measurements of sea ice under fall conditions: The RADARSAT/FIREX fall experiment. [in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstott, R. G.; Kim, Y. S.; Moore, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    A series of measurements of the active microwave properties of sea ice under fall growing conditions was conducted. Ice in the inland waters of Mould Bay, Crozier Channel, and intrepid inlet and ice in the Arctic Ocean near Hardinge Bay was investigated. Active microwave data were acquired using a helicopter borne scatterometer. Results show that multiyear ice frozen in grey or first year ice is easily detected under cold fall conditions. Multiyear ice returns were dynamic due to response to two of its scene constituents. Floe boundaries between thick and thin ice are well defined. Multiyear pressure ridge returns are similar in level to background ice returns. Backscatter from homogeneous first year ice is seen to be primarily due to surface scattering. Operation at 9.6 GHz is more sensitive to the detailed changes in scene roughness, while operation at 5.6 GHz seems to track roughness changes less ably.

  15. Controls on Weathering of Pyrrhotite in a Low-Sulfide, Granitic Mine-Waste Rock in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, J. B.; Holland, S.; Sinclair, S.; Blowes, D.

    2013-12-01

    Increased environmental risk is incurred with expansion of mineral extraction in the Arctic. A greater understanding of geochemical processes associated with hard-rock mining in this cold climate is needed to evaluate and mitigate these risks. A laboratory and in-situ experiment was conducted to examine mineral weathering and the generation of acid rock drainage in a low-sulfide, run-of-mine waste rock in an Arctic climate. Rock with different concentrations of sulfides (primarily pyrrhotite [Fe7S8] containing small amounts of Co and Ni) and carbonates were weathered in the laboratory and in-situ, large-scale test piles to examine leachate composition and mineral weathering. The relatively larger sulfide-containing rock produced sufficient acid to overcome carbonate buffering and produced a declining pH environment with concomitant release of SO4, Fe, Co, and Ni. Following carbonate consumption, aluminosilicate buffering stabilized the pH above 4 until a reduction in acid generation. Results from the laboratory experiment assisted in determining that after consumption of 1.6 percent of the total sulfide, the larger sulfide-concentration test pile likely is at an internal steady-state or maximal weathering rate after seven years of precipitation input and weathering that is controlled by an annual freeze-thaw cycle. Further weathering of the test pile should be driven by external factors of temperature and precipitation in this Arctic, semi-arid region instead of internal factors of wetting and non-equilibrium buffering. It is predicted that maximal weathering will continue until at least 20 percent of the total sulfide is consumed. Using the identified evolution of sulfide consumption in this Arctic climate, a variable rate factor can now be assessed for the possible early evolution and maximal weathering of larger scale waste-rock piles and seasonal differences because of changes in the volume of a waste-rock pile undergoing active weathering due to the freeze

  16. Ship emissions measurement in the Arctic by plume intercepts of the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Amundsen from the Polar 6 aircraft platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Amir A.; Thomas, Jennie L.; Herber, Andreas B.; Staebler, Ralf M.; Leaitch, W. Richard; Schulz, Hannes; Law, Kathy S.; Marelle, Louis; Burkart, Julia; Willis, Megan D.; Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter M.; Köllner, Franziska; Schneider, Johannes; Levasseur, Maurice; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.

    2016-06-01

    Decreasing sea ice and increasing marine navigability in northern latitudes have changed Arctic ship traffic patterns in recent years and are predicted to increase annual ship traffic in the Arctic in the future. Development of effective regulations to manage environmental impacts of shipping requires an understanding of ship emissions and atmospheric processing in the Arctic environment. As part of the summer 2014 NETCARE (Network on Climate and Aerosols) campaign, the plume dispersion and gas and particle emission factors of effluents originating from the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Amundsen operating near Resolute Bay, NU, Canada, were investigated. The Amundsen burned distillate fuel with 1.5 wt % sulfur. Emissions were studied via plume intercepts using the Polar 6 aircraft measurements, an analytical plume dispersion model, and using the FLEXPART-WRF Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The first plume intercept by the research aircraft was carried out on 19 July 2014 during the operation of the Amundsen in the open water. The second and third plume intercepts were carried out on 20 and 21 July 2014 when the Amundsen had reached the ice edge and operated under ice-breaking conditions. Typical of Arctic marine navigation, the engine load was low compared to cruising conditions for all of the plume intercepts. The measured species included mixing ratios of CO2, NOx, CO, SO2, particle number concentration (CN), refractory black carbon (rBC), and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The results were compared to similar experimental studies in mid-latitudes. Plume expansion rates (γ) were calculated using the analytical model and found to be γ = 0.75 ± 0.81, 0.93 ± 0.37, and 1.19 ± 0.39 for plumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. These rates were smaller than prior studies conducted at mid-latitudes, likely due to polar boundary layer dynamics, including reduced turbulent mixing compared to mid-latitudes. All emission factors were in agreement with prior

  17. Shallow methylmercury production in the marginal sea ice zone of the central Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Sonke, Jeroen E; Cossa, Daniel; Point, David; Lagane, Christelle; Laffont, Laure; Galfond, Benjamin T; Nicolaus, Marcel; Rabe, Benjamin; van der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers

    2015-05-20

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxic compound that threatens wildlife and human health across the Arctic region. Though much is known about the source and dynamics of its inorganic mercury (Hg) precursor, the exact origin of the high MeHg concentrations in Arctic biota remains uncertain. Arctic coastal sediments, coastal marine waters and surface snow are known sites for MeHg production. Observations on marine Hg dynamics, however, have been restricted to the Canadian Archipelago and the Beaufort Sea (Ocean (79-90 °N) profiles for total mercury (tHg) and MeHg. We find elevated tHg and MeHg concentrations in the marginal sea ice zone (81-85 °N). Similar to other open ocean basins, Arctic MeHg concentration maxima also occur in the pycnocline waters, but at much shallower depths (150-200 m). The shallow MeHg maxima just below the productive surface layer possibly result in enhanced biological uptake at the base of the Arctic marine food web and may explain the elevated MeHg concentrations in Arctic biota. We suggest that Arctic warming, through thinning sea ice, extension of the seasonal sea ice zone, intensified surface ocean stratification and shifts in plankton ecodynamics, will likely lead to higher marine MeHg production.

  18. Adapting to the impacts of climate change on food security among Inuit in the Western Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesche, Sonia D; Chan, Hing Man

    2010-09-01

    This study examined critical impacts of climate change on Inuit diet and nutritional health in four Inuit communities in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Western Arctic, Canada. The first objective was to combine data from community observation studies and dietary interview studies to determine potential climate change impacts on nutritional quality. The second objective was to address the scale of data collection and/or availability to compare local versus regional trends, and identify implications for adaptation planning. Information was compiled from 5 reports (4 community reports and 1 synthesis report) of climate change observations, impacts and adaptations in 12 Inuit communities (2005-2006), and from a dietary report of food use from 18 Inuit communities (1997-2000). Changing access to, availability of, quality of, and ability to use traditional food resources has implications for quality of diet. Nutritional implications of lower traditional food use include likely reductions in iron, zinc, protein, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids, among others. The vulnerability of each community to changing food security is differentially influenced by a range of factors, including current harvesting trends, levels of reliance on individual species, opportunities for access to other traditional food species, and exposure to climate change hazards. Understanding linkages between climate change and traditional food security provides a basis for strengthening adaptive capacity and determining effective adaptation options to respond to future change.

  19. A comparison of photograph-interpreted and IfSAR-derived maps of polar bear denning habitat for the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Atwood, Todd C.

    2018-05-11

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in Alaska use the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for maternal denning. Pregnant bears den in snow banks for more than 3 months in winter during which they give birth to and nurture young. Denning is one of the most vulnerable times in polar bear life history as the family group cannot simply walk away from a disturbance without jeopardizing survival of newly born cubs. The ANWR includes the “1002 Area”, a region recently opened for oil and gas exploration by the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). As a part of its mission, the DOI “… protects and manages the Nation's natural resources …” and is therefore responsible for conserving polar bears and encouraging development of energy potential. Because future industrial activities could overlap habitats used by denning polar bears, identifying these habitats can inform the decisions of resource managers tasked to develop resources and protect polar bears. To help inform these efforts, we qualitatively compared the distribution of denning habitat identified by two different methods: previously published habitat from manual interpretation of aerial photographs, and habitat derived by computer interrogation of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) digital terrain models (DTM). Because photograph-interpreted methods depicted denning habitat as a line and IfSAR-derived methods depicted habitat as a polygon, we assessed agreement between the two methods with distance measurements. We found that 77.5 percent of IfSAR-derived denning habitat (79.6 km2 ; 1.2 percent of the 6,837.0 km2 1002 Area) was within 600 m of photograph-interpreted habitat (3,026.9 km), including 53.9 percent within 200 m. This distribution differed from that of randomly distributed points, as only 49.4 percent of these occurred within 600 m of photograph-interpreted habitat, including 18.3 percent within 200 m. Both methods appear to identify the major physiographic features that polar bears

  20. Total mercury concentrations in anadromous Northern Dolly Varden from the northwestern Canadian Arctic: A historical baseline study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, L., E-mail: l5tran@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Reist, J.D. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Power, M., E-mail: m3power@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Previous research has documented the significance of total mercury (THg) as a northern contaminant in general and of fish in particular. While much research has been devoted to documenting both spatial and temporal changes in THg in consumed fish, little effort has been directed at understanding patterns of THg in Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma), a prized subsistence species throughout the western North American Arctic. Here we report historical THg concentrations for anadromous Dolly Varden from 10 populations in the Yukon and Northwest Territories sampled across a range of latitudes (67–69°N) and longitudes (136–141°W) between the years 1988–91. Unadjusted mean THg concentrations ranged from 15 to 254 ng/g wet weight. Length-adjusted THg concentrations were significantly different among sites, but were not related to latitude or longitude. Within and among populations, THg was significantly related to fork-length, age, δ{sup 15}N, and δ{sup 13}C, with the variation in THg found among populations being best explained by size. The data serve as an important baseline against which future changes in THg levels in this important subsistence fishery may be compared to determine the significance of any observed trends. - Highlights: • THg were measured in Dolly Varden from the Yukon and Northwest Territories. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were not related to latitude or longitude. • Among-population variation in THg was best explained by fork-length. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were related to age, δ{sup 15}N, and δ{sup 13}C. • Mean THg were below Health Canada’s consumption guideline for commercial fish.

  1. Water systems, sanitation, and public health risks in remote communities: Inuit resident perspectives from the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kiley; Castleden, Heather; Jamieson, Rob; Furgal, Chris; Ell, Lorna

    2015-06-01

    Safe drinking water and wastewater sanitation are universally recognized as critical components of public health. It is well documented that a lack of access to these basic services results in millions of preventable deaths each year among vulnerable populations. Water and wastewater technologies and management practices are frequently tailored to local environmental conditions. Also important, but often overlooked in water management planning, are the social, cultural and economic contexts in which services are provided. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify and understand residents' perceptions of the functionality of current water and wastewater sanitation systems in one vulnerable context, that of a remote Arctic Aboriginal community (Coral Harbour, Nunavut), and to identify potential future water related health risks. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 Inuit residents and 9 key informants in 2011 and 2012. Findings indicate that the population's rapid transition from a semi-nomadic hunting and gathering lifestyle to permanent settlements with municipally provided utilities is influencing present-day water usage patterns, public health perceptions, and the level of priority decision-makers place on water and wastewater management issues. Simultaneously environmental, social and cultural conditions conducive to increased human exposure to waterborne health risks were also found to exist and may be increasing in the settlements. While water and wastewater system design decisions are often based on best practices proven suitable in similar environmental conditions, this study reinforces the argument for inclusion of social, cultural, and economic variables in such decisions, particularly in remote and economically challenged contexts in Canada or elsewhere around the world. The results also indicate that the addition of qualitative data about water and wastewater systems users' behaviours to technical knowledge of systems and

  2. Total mercury concentrations in anadromous Northern Dolly Varden from the northwestern Canadian Arctic: A historical baseline study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, L.; Reist, J.D.; Power, M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has documented the significance of total mercury (THg) as a northern contaminant in general and of fish in particular. While much research has been devoted to documenting both spatial and temporal changes in THg in consumed fish, little effort has been directed at understanding patterns of THg in Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma), a prized subsistence species throughout the western North American Arctic. Here we report historical THg concentrations for anadromous Dolly Varden from 10 populations in the Yukon and Northwest Territories sampled across a range of latitudes (67–69°N) and longitudes (136–141°W) between the years 1988–91. Unadjusted mean THg concentrations ranged from 15 to 254 ng/g wet weight. Length-adjusted THg concentrations were significantly different among sites, but were not related to latitude or longitude. Within and among populations, THg was significantly related to fork-length, age, δ 15 N, and δ 13 C, with the variation in THg found among populations being best explained by size. The data serve as an important baseline against which future changes in THg levels in this important subsistence fishery may be compared to determine the significance of any observed trends. - Highlights: • THg were measured in Dolly Varden from the Yukon and Northwest Territories. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were not related to latitude or longitude. • Among-population variation in THg was best explained by fork-length. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were related to age, δ 15 N, and δ 13 C. • Mean THg were below Health Canada’s consumption guideline for commercial fish

  3. The 25 MW Super Near Boiling nuclear reactor (SNB25) for supplying co-generation energy to an Arctic Canadian Forces Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, H.W.; Paquette, S.; Boucher, P.J. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-12-15

    Nuclear energy represents a better alternative for the supply of heat and electricity to the Canadian Forces bases in the Arctic (CFS Alert and CFB Nanisivik). In this context, the Super Near-Boiling 25-MWth reactor (SNB25) has been designed as a small unpressurized LWR that displays inherent safety and is intended to run in automatic mode. The reactor employs TRISO fuel particles (20% enrichment) in zirconium-sheathed fuel rods, and is light water cooled and moderated with a normal output temperature is 95 {sup o} C at atmospheric pressure. Control is via 133 control rods and six adjustable radial reflector plates. The design work used the probabilistic simulation code MCNP 5 and the deterministic code WIMS-AECL Version 3.1, permitting a code-to-code comparison of the results. Inherent safety was confirmed and is mostly due to the large negative void reactivity coefficient of -5.17 mk per % void. A kinetic model that includes thermal-hydraulics calculations was developed to determine the reactor's behaviour in transient states, and the results further confirm the inherent safety. Large power excursions temperatures that could compromise structural integrity cannot be produced. If the coolant/moderator temperature exceeds the saturation temperature of 100 {sup o} C, the coolant begins to boil and the large negative void coefficient causes the reactor to become subcritical in 0.84 seconds. The SNB25 reactor's core life exceeds 12 years between refuellings. A group of 4 SNB25 reactors meets both the heating and electricity requirements of a base like CFB Nanisivik via a hot water network and through an organic Rankine cycle conversion plant. (author)

  4. The 25 MW super near boiling nuclear reactor (SNB25) for supplying co-generation energy to an Arctic Canadian Forces base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, H.W.; Paquette, S.; Boucher, P.J., E-mail: bonin-h@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear energy represents a better alternative for the supply of heat and electricity to the Canadian Forces bases in the Arctic (CFS Alert and CFB Nanisivik). In this context, the Super Near-Boiling 25-MWth reactor (SNB25) has been designed as a small unpressurized LWR that displays inherent safety and is intended to run in automatic mode. The reactor employs TRISO fuel particles (20% enrichment) in zirconium-sheathed fuel rods, and is light water cooled and moderated with a normal output temperature is 95{sup o}C at atmospheric pressure. Control is via 133 control rods and six adjustable radial reflector plates. The design work used the probabilistic simulation code MCNP 5 and the deterministic code WIMS-AECL Version 3.1, permitting a code-to-code comparison of the results. Inherent safety was confirmed and is mostly due to the large negative void reactivity coefficient of -5.17 mk per % void. A kinetic model that includes thermal-hydraulics calculations was developed to determine the reactor's behaviour in transient states, and the results further confirm the inherent safety. Large power excursions temperatures that could compromise structural integrity cannot be produced. If the coolant/moderator temperature exceeds the saturation temperature of 100{sup o}C, the coolant begins to boil and the large negative void coefficient causes the reactor to become subcritical in 0.84 seconds. The SNB25 reactor’s core life exceeds 12 years between refuellings. A group of 4 SNB25 reactors meets both the heating and electricity requirements of a base like CFB Nanisivik via a hot water network and through an organic Rankine cycle conversion plant. (author)

  5. The 25 MW super near boiling nuclear reactor (SNB25) for supplying co-generation energy to an Arctic Canadian Forces base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, H.W.; Paquette, S.; Boucher, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear energy represents a better alternative for the supply of heat and electricity to the Canadian Forces bases in the Arctic (CFS Alert and CFB Nanisivik). In this context, the Super Near-Boiling 25-MWth reactor (SNB25) has been designed as a small unpressurized LWR that displays inherent safety and is intended to run in automatic mode. The reactor employs TRISO fuel particles (20% enrichment) in zirconium-sheathed fuel rods, and is light water cooled and moderated with a normal output temperature is 95 o C at atmospheric pressure. Control is via 133 control rods and six adjustable radial reflector plates. The design work used the probabilistic simulation code MCNP 5 and the deterministic code WIMS-AECL Version 3.1, permitting a code-to-code comparison of the results. Inherent safety was confirmed and is mostly due to the large negative void reactivity coefficient of -5.17 mk per % void. A kinetic model that includes thermal-hydraulics calculations was developed to determine the reactor's behaviour in transient states, and the results further confirm the inherent safety. Large power excursions temperatures that could compromise structural integrity cannot be produced. If the coolant/moderator temperature exceeds the saturation temperature of 100 o C, the coolant begins to boil and the large negative void coefficient causes the reactor to become subcritical in 0.84 seconds. The SNB25 reactor’s core life exceeds 12 years between refuellings. A group of 4 SNB25 reactors meets both the heating and electricity requirements of a base like CFB Nanisivik via a hot water network and through an organic Rankine cycle conversion plant. (author)

  6. Current-use pesticides in seawater and their bioaccumulation in polar bear-ringed seal food chains of the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adam D; Muir, Derek C G; Solomon, Keith R; Letcher, Robert J; McKinney, Melissa A; Fisk, Aaron T; McMeans, Bailey C; Tomy, Gregg T; Teixeira, Camilla; Wang, Xiaowa; Duric, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in seawater and their trophodynamics were investigated in 3 Canadian Arctic marine food chains. The greatest ranges of dissolved-phase concentrations in seawater for each CUP were endosulfan sulfate (less than method detection limit (MDL) to 19 pg L(-1) ) > dacthal (0.76-15 pg L(-1) ) > chlorpyrifos (less than MDL to 8.1 pg L(-1) ) > pentachloronitrobenzene (less than MDL to 2.6 pg L(-1) ) > α-endosulfan (0.20-2.3 pg L(-1) ). Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs, water-respiring organisms) were greatest in plankton, including chlorothalonil (log BAF = 7.4 ± 7.1 L kg(-1) , mean ± standard error), chlorpyrifos (log BAF = 6.9 ± 6.7 L kg(-1) ), and α-endosulfan (log BAF = 6.5 ± 6.0 L kg(-1) ). The largest biomagnification factors (BMFs) were found for dacthal in the capelin:plankton trophic relationship (BMF = 13 ± 5.0) at Cumberland Sound (Nunvavut), and for β-endosulfan (BMF = 16 ± 4.9) and α-endosulfan (BMF = 9.3 ± 2.8) in the polar bear-ringed seal relationship at Barrow and Rae Strait (NU), respectively. Concentrations of endosulfan sulfate exhibited trophic magnification (increasing concentrations with increasing trophic level) in the poikilothermic portion of the food web (trophic magnification factor = 1.4), but all of the CUPs underwent trophic dilution in the marine mammal food web, despite some trophic level-specific biomagnification. Together, these observations are most likely indicative of metabolism of these CUPs in mammals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1695-1707. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. Spatial and temporal variability of seawater pCO2 within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay during the summer and autumn 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilfus, N.-X.; Pind, M. L.; Else, B. G. T.; Galley, R. J.; Miller, L. A.; Thomas, H.; Gosselin, M.; Rysgaard, S.; Wang, F.; Papakyriakou, T. N.

    2018-03-01

    The partial pressure of CO2 in surface water (pCO2sw) measured within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) and Baffin Bay was highly variable with values ranging from strongly undersaturated (118 μatm) to slightly supersaturated (419 μatm) with respect to the atmospheric levels ( 386 μatm) during summer and autumn 2011. During summer, melting sea ice contributed to cold and fresh surface water and enhanced the ice-edge bloom, resulting in strong pCO2sw undersaturation. Coronation Gulf was the only area with supersaturated pCO2sw, likely due to warm CO2-enriched freshwater input from the Coppermine River. During autumn, the entire CAA (including Coronation Gulf) was undersaturated, despite generally increasing pCO2sw. Coronation Gulf was the one place where pCO2sw decreased, likely due to seasonal reduction in discharge from the Coppermine River and the decreasing sea surface temperature. The seasonal summer-to-autumn increase in pCO2sw across the archipelago is attributed in part to the continuous uptake of atmospheric CO2 through both summer and autumn and to the seasonal deepening of the surface mixed layer, bringing CO2-rich waters to the surface. These observations demonstrate how freshwater from sea ice melt and rivers affect pCO2sw differently. The general pCO2sw undersaturation during summer-autumn 2011 throughout the CAA and Baffin Bay give an estimated net oceanic sink for atmospheric CO2 over the study period of 11.4 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1, assuming no sea-air CO2 flux exchange across the sea-ice covered areas.

  8. Research with Arctic peoples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, H Sally; Bjerregaard, Peter; Chan, Hing Man

    2006-01-01

    Arctic peoples are spread over eight countries and comprise 3.74 million residents, of whom 9% are indigenous. The Arctic countries include Canada, Finland, Greenland (Denmark), Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States. Although Arctic peoples are very diverse, there are a variety...... of environmental and health issues that are unique to the Arctic regions, and research exploring these issues offers significant opportunities, as well as challenges. On July 28-29, 2004, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research co-sponsored a working group...... entitled "Research with Arctic Peoples: Unique Research Opportunities in Heart, Lung, Blood and Sleep Disorders". The meeting was international in scope with investigators from Greenland, Iceland and Russia, as well as Canada and the United States. Multiple health agencies from Canada and the United States...

  9. Ship emissions measurement in the Arctic by plume intercepts of the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Amundsen from the Polar 6 aircraft platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Aliabadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing sea ice and increasing marine navigability in northern latitudes have changed Arctic ship traffic patterns in recent years and are predicted to increase annual ship traffic in the Arctic in the future. Development of effective regulations to manage environmental impacts of shipping requires an understanding of ship emissions and atmospheric processing in the Arctic environment. As part of the summer 2014 NETCARE (Network on Climate and Aerosols campaign, the plume dispersion and gas and particle emission factors of effluents originating from the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Amundsen operating near Resolute Bay, NU, Canada, were investigated. The Amundsen burned distillate fuel with 1.5 wt % sulfur. Emissions were studied via plume intercepts using the Polar 6 aircraft measurements, an analytical plume dispersion model, and using the FLEXPART-WRF Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The first plume intercept by the research aircraft was carried out on 19 July 2014 during the operation of the Amundsen in the open water. The second and third plume intercepts were carried out on 20 and 21 July 2014 when the Amundsen had reached the ice edge and operated under ice-breaking conditions. Typical of Arctic marine navigation, the engine load was low compared to cruising conditions for all of the plume intercepts. The measured species included mixing ratios of CO2, NOx, CO, SO2, particle number concentration (CN, refractory black carbon (rBC, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. The results were compared to similar experimental studies in mid-latitudes. Plume expansion rates (γ were calculated using the analytical model and found to be γ  =  0.75 ± 0.81, 0.93 ± 0.37, and 1.19 ± 0.39 for plumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. These rates were smaller than prior studies conducted at mid-latitudes, likely due to polar boundary layer dynamics, including reduced turbulent mixing compared to mid-latitudes. All emission

  10. Long-term changes of mercury levels in ringed seal (Phoca hispida) from Amundsen Gulf, and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) from the Beaufort Sea, western Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outridge, P.M., E-mail: outridge@nrcan.gc.ca [Geological Survey of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, 601 Booth Street, Ottawa, Canada K1A 0E8 (Canada); Hobson, K.A. [Environment Canada, 11 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, Canada S7N 3H5 (Canada); Savelle, J. [Department of Anthropology, McGill University, 855 Sherbrooke Street, Montreal, Canada H3A 2T7 (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined in the canine teeth of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) harvested during the 13th-14th, late 19th and early 21st Centuries in Amundsen Gulf, Northwest Territories, Canada. Most historical and pre-industrial teeth contained undetectable Hg levels (i.e. < 1.0 ng/g DW), whereas samples from 2001-03 contained up to 12 ng/g DW in an age-dependent pattern. Assuming a median [Hg] value in 13th-14th Century teeth of half the detection limit (i.e. 0.5 ng/g DW), geometric means of Hg in modern teeth were 9-17 times those of seals in the 14th Century, equivalent to an anthropogenic input of 89-94% of total Hg in modern seals. These results corroborate a previous study of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) in the nearby Beaufort Sea. While the seals' trophic position (inferred from {delta}{sup 15}N values) did not change over time, modern {delta}{sup 13}C values were lower by about 2 per mille than in the 14th and 19th Centuries. This could be due to increased dissolution of anthropogenically derived CO{sub 2} in the ocean from the atmosphere, but could also indicate more offshore pelagic feeding by modern seals, which might be a factor in their Hg exposure. New tooth [Hg] data are also presented for the Beaufort Sea beluga, using recently-discovered museum samples collected in 1960/61, which showed that most of the anthropogenic contribution to beluga Hg had already taken effect by 1960 (reaching {approx} 75% of total Hg). Taken together, the long-term seal and beluga data indicate that whereas Hg levels in the marine ecosystems of the western Canadian Arctic were probably unchanged from pre-industrial times up to the late 19th Century, there was a significant, many-fold increase in the early to mid-20th Century, but little or no change after about the early 1960s.

  11. In Situ Field Sequencing and Life Detection in Remote (79°26′N Canadian High Arctic Permafrost Ice Wedge Microbial Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Goordial

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress is being made in the development of the next generation of low cost life detection instrumentation with much smaller size, mass and energy requirements. Here, we describe in situ life detection and sequencing in the field in soils over laying ice wedges in polygonal permafrost terrain on Axel Heiberg Island, located in the Canadian high Arctic (79°26′N, an analog to the polygonal permafrost terrain observed on Mars. The life detection methods used here include (1 the cryo-iPlate for culturing microorganisms using diffusion of in situ nutrients into semi-solid media (2 a Microbial Activity Microassay (MAM plate (BIOLOG Ecoplate for detecting viable extant microorganisms through a colourimetric assay, and (3 the Oxford Nanopore MinION for nucleic acid detection and sequencing of environmental samples and the products of MAM plate and cryo-iPlate. We obtained 39 microbial isolates using the cryo-iPlate, which included several putatively novel strains based on the 16S rRNA gene, including a Pedobacter sp. (96% closest similarity in GenBank which we partially genome sequenced using the MinION. The MAM plate successfully identified an active community capable of L-serine metabolism, which was used for metagenomic sequencing with the MinION to identify the active and enriched community. A metagenome on environmental ice wedge soil samples was completed, with base calling and uplink/downlink carried out via satellite internet. Validation of MinION sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform was consistent with the results obtained with the MinION. The instrumentation and technology utilized here is pre-existing, low cost, low mass, low volume, and offers the prospect of equipping micro-rovers and micro-penetrators with aggressive astrobiological capabilities. Since potentially habitable astrobiology targets have been identified (RSLs on Mars, near subsurface water ice on Mars, the plumes and oceans of Europa and Enceladus

  12. Dynamical downscaling with the fifth-generation Canadian regional climate model (CRCM5) over the CORDEX Arctic domain: effect of large-scale spectral nudging and of empirical correction of sea-surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhsha, Maryam; Nikiéma, Oumarou; Lucas-Picher, Philippe; Laprise, René; Hernández-Díaz, Leticia; Winger, Katja

    2017-10-01

    As part of the CORDEX project, the fifth-generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5) is used over the Arctic for climate simulations driven by reanalyses and by the MPI-ESM-MR coupled global climate model (CGCM) under the RCP8.5 scenario. The CRCM5 shows adequate skills capturing general features of mean sea level pressure (MSLP) for all seasons. Evaluating 2-m temperature (T2m) and precipitation is more problematic, because of inconsistencies between observational reference datasets over the Arctic that suffer of a sparse distribution of weather stations. In our study, we additionally investigated the effect of large-scale spectral nudging (SN) on the hindcast simulation driven by reanalyses. The analysis shows that SN is effective in reducing the spring MSLP bias, but otherwise it has little impact. We have also conducted another experiment in which the CGCM-simulated sea-surface temperature (SST) is empirically corrected and used as lower boundary conditions over the ocean for an atmosphere-only global simulation (AGCM), which in turn provides the atmospheric lateral boundary conditions to drive the CRCM5 simulation. This approach, so-called 3-step approach of dynamical downscaling (CGCM-AGCM-RCM), which had considerably improved the CRCM5 historical simulations over Africa, exhibits reduced impact over the Arctic domain. The most notable positive effect over the Arctic is a reduction of the T2m bias over the North Pacific Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean in all seasons. Future projections using this method are compared with the results obtained with the traditional 2-step dynamical downscaling (CGCM-RCM) to assess the impact of correcting systematic biases of SST upon future-climate projections. The future projections are mostly similar for the two methods, except for precipitation.

  13. Remagnetization and Cementation of Unconsolidated Sediments in the Mallik 5L-38 Well (Canadian Arctic) by Solute Exclusion During Gas Hydrate Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, T. S.; Enkin, R. J.; Esteban, L.

    2007-05-01

    Bulk magnetic properties provide a sensitive measure of sedimentary diagenesis related to the stability and growth of gas hydrates. The deposit at Mallik (Mackenzie Delta, Canadian Arctic) occurs in unconsolidated Tertiary sands, but is absent in interstratified silt layers. A detailed sampling of the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 5L-38 core tested the use of magnetic properties for detecting diagenetic changes related to the hydrate. Petrographic studies reveal that the sands are well sorted and clean, with quartz > chert >> muscovite and little fines content. Excepting a few rare bands of indurated dolomite in the midst of the gas hydrate zone, there is little or no cementation in the sands. Detrital magnetite is the dominant magnetic mineral, comprising up to a few percent of the sand grain population. In contrast, the muddier layers have a somewhat different detrital grain composition, richer in lithic (sedimentary and metamorphic) grains, feldspar, and clays. They are extensively diagenetically altered (to as much as 30- 40%) and cemented with carbonates, clays, chlorite and the iron sulphide greigite (the dominant magnetic mineral). The greigite is recognized by its isotropic creamy-white reflectance, cubic to prismatic habit, and characteristic tarnish to faintly bluish bireflectant mackinawite. Habits range from disseminated cubes and colliform masses to inflationary massive sulphide veins and clots. Rare detrital grains of magnetite were observed among the silt grains, but never in a reaction relationship or overgrown. Instead the greigite has nucleated separately, in tensional fractures and granular masses up to 4 mm across. In this particular sediment sequence, being so quartz and chert rich, there is insufficient local source for the introduced cements (calcite, dolomite, greigite, clays, jarosite), so ions must have been introduced by fluid flow. Magnetic studies reveal a bi-modal character related to the lithology (sands versus silts) and their magnetic

  14. Bacterial genomics reveal the complex epidemiology of an emerging pathogen in arctic and boreal ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Taya L.; Orsel, Karin; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Biek, Roman; Adams, Layne G.; Checkley, Sylvia L.; Davison, Tracy; De Buck, Jeroen; Dumond, Mathieu; Elkin, Brett T.; Finnegan, Laura; Macbeth, Bryan J.; Nelson, Cait; Niptanatiak, Amanda; Sather, Shane; Schwantje, Helen M.; van der Meer, Frank; Kutz, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Northern ecosystems are currently experiencing unprecedented ecological change, largely driven by a rapidly changing climate. Pathogen range expansion, and emergence and altered patterns of infectious disease, are increasingly reported in wildlife at high latitudes. Understanding the causes and consequences of shifting pathogen diversity and host-pathogen interactions in these ecosystems is important for wildlife conservation, and for indigenous populations that depend on wildlife. Among the key questions are whether disease events are associated with endemic or recently introduced pathogens, and whether emerging strains are spreading throughout the region. In this study, we used a phylogenomic approach to address these questions of pathogen endemicity and spread for Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, an opportunistic multi-host bacterial pathogen associated with recent mortalities in arctic and boreal ungulate populations in North America. We isolated E. rhusiopathiae from carcasses associated with large-scale die-offs of muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and from contemporaneous mortality events and/or population declines among muskoxen in northwestern Alaska and caribou and moose in western Canada. Bacterial genomic diversity differed markedly among these locations; minimal divergence was present among isolates from muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic, while in caribou and moose populations, strains from highly divergent clades were isolated from the same location, or even from within a single carcass. These results indicate that mortalities among northern ungulates are not associated with a single emerging strain of E. rhusiopathiae, and that alternate hypotheses need to be explored. Our study illustrates the value and limitations of bacterial genomic data for discriminating between ecological hypotheses of disease emergence, and highlights the importance of studying emerging pathogens within the broader context of environmental and host factors.

  15. The importance of nature to Canadians: survey highlights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DuWors, E

    1999-01-01

    .... The 1996 Survey on the Importance of Nature to Canadians (the Nature Survey) also tells us that Canadians commit large amounts of their leisure time to activities that depend on natural areas and wildlife...

  16. Arctic Landfast Sea Ice 1953-1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The files in this data set contain landfast sea ice data (monthly means) gathered from both Russian Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) and Canadian Ice...

  17. Can Canada Avoid Arctic Militarization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    global market and the evolution of new fracking technology for the extraction of shale hydrocarbons, the development of the Canadian Arctic might not...resources extraction . In hydrocarbons alone, the United States Geological Survey estimates that there are approximately 90 billion barrels of oil...1,669 trillion cubic feet of natural gas , and 44 billion barrels of natural gas liquids currently undiscovered in the Arctic, with 84 percent lying in

  18. Romantic notions about the arctic must include indigenous rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    2017-01-01

    The Arctic plays a big role in Canada's national identity. But as Canada's relationship with the region evolves, the interests of Indigenous peoples must be better represented. This article summarizes the research in my book 'International Disputes and Cultural Ideas in the Canadian Arctic: Arctic...

  19. Detecting change in seabird distributions at sea in arctic and sub-arctic waters over six decades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum, Carina; Wong, Sarah; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    predictive models to investigate how ice cover and ocean processes influence the distribution thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), dovekie (Alle alle), and black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) in summer and autumn between Canada and Greenland. We used the PIROP data......In the western North Atlantic and eastern Arctic, data on the distribution and abundance of seabirds at sea have been collected by the Canadian Wildlife Service from two main survey programs using ships of opportunity. The first, PIROP (Programme intégré de recherches sur les oiseaux pélagiques...... to examine how the distribution of these four species has changed over the last six decades. We discuss the results in relation to ocean climate variability, but also the challenges that exist when comparisons span such long time periods, including monitoring programs with changing priorities, differences...

  20. Baseline monitoring of the western Arctic Ocean estimates 20% of the Canadian Basin surface waters are undersaturated with respect to aragonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Wynn, Jonathan G.; Lisle, John T.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Knorr, Paul O.; Byrne, Robert H.; Liu, Xuewu; Patsavas, Mark C.; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Takahashi, Taro

    2013-01-01

    Marine surface waters are being acidified due to uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, resulting in surface ocean areas of undersaturation with respect to carbonate minerals, including aragonite. In the Arctic Ocean, acidification is expected to occur at an accelerated rate with respect to the global oceans, but a paucity of baseline data has limited our understanding of the extent of Arctic undersaturation and of regional variations in rates and causes. The lack of data has also hindered refinement of models aimed at projecting future trends of ocean acidification. Here, based on more than 34,000 data records collected in 2010 and 2011, we establish a baseline of inorganic carbon data (pH, total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and aragonite saturation index) for the western Arctic Ocean. This data set documents aragonite undersaturation in ~20% of the surface waters of the combined Canada and Makarov basins, an area characterized by recent acceleration of sea ice loss. Conservative tracer studies using stable oxygen isotopic data from 307 sites show that while the entire surface of this area receives abundant freshwater from meteoric sources, freshwater from sea ice melt is most closely linked to the areas of carbonate mineral undersaturation. These data link the Arctic Ocean’s largest area of aragonite undersaturation to sea ice melt and atmospheric CO2 absorption in areas of low buffering capacity. Some relatively supersaturated areas can be linked to localized biological activity. Collectively, these observations can be used to project trends of ocean acidification in higher latitude marine surface waters where inorganic carbon chemistry is largely influenced by sea ice meltwater.

  1. Arctic Islands LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Trans-Canada Pipe Lines Ltd. made a feasibility study of transporting LNG from the High Arctic Islands to a St. Lawrence River Terminal by means of a specially designed and built 125,000 cu m or 165,000 cu m icebreaking LNG tanker. Studies were made of the climatology and of ice conditions, using available statistical data as well as direct surveys in 1974, 1975, and 1976. For on-schedule and unimpeded (unescorted) passage of the LNG carriers at all times of the year, special navigation and communications systems can be made available. Available icebreaking experience, charting for the proposed tanker routes, and tide tables for the Canadian Arctic were surveyed. Preliminary design of a proposed Arctic LNG icebreaker tanker, including containment system, reliquefaction of boiloff, speed, power, number of trips for 345 day/yr operation, and liquefaction and regasification facilities are discussed. The use of a minimum of three Arctic Class 10 ships would enable delivery of volumes of natural gas averaging 11.3 million cu m/day over a period of a year to Canadian markets. The concept appears to be technically feasible with existing basic technology.

  2. The flow of radionuclides through the Canadian archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.; Smith, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    The transport of contaminants to the Canadian Arctic by air and in water and their concentration through the marine food web has lead to enhanced levels of contaminants in several foods of Canadian northern inhabitants. Artificial radionuclides in the marine water can be used to determine water circulation and to trace contaminant transport through the Canadian Archipelago

  3. Wildlife Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Kim Arild; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Karstoft, Henrik

    This report contains a progress report for the ph.d. project titled “Wildlife Communication”. The project focuses on investigating how signal processing and pattern recognition can be used to improve wildlife management in agriculture. Wildlife management systems used today experience habituation...

  4. Measurements of aerosol and CCN properties in the Mackenzie River delta (Canadian Arctic during spring–summer transition in May 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Herenz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the RACEPAC (Radiation–Aerosol–Cloud Experiment in the Arctic Circle project, the Arctic aerosol, arriving at a ground-based station in Tuktoyaktuk (Mackenzie River delta area, Canada, was characterized during a period of 3 weeks in May 2014. Basic meteorological parameters and particle number size distributions (PNSDs were observed and two distinct types of air masses were found. One type were typical Arctic haze air masses, termed accumulation-type air masses, characterized by a monomodal PNSD with a pronounced accumulation mode at sizes above 100 nm. These air masses were observed during a period when back trajectories indicate an air mass origin in the north-east of Canada. The other air mass type is characterized by a bimodal PNSD with a clear minimum around 90 nm and with an Aitken mode consisting of freshly formed aerosol particles. Back trajectories indicate that these air masses, termed Aitken-type air masses, originated from the North Pacific. In addition, the application of the PSCF receptor model shows that air masses with their origin in active fire areas in central Canada and Siberia, in areas of industrial anthropogenic pollution (Norilsk and Prudhoe Bay Oil Field and the north-west Pacific have enhanced total particle number concentrations (NCN. Generally, NCN ranged from 20 to 500 cm−3, while cloud condensation nuclei (CCN number concentrations were found to cover a range from less than 10 up to 250 cm−3 for a supersaturation (SS between 0.1 and 0.7 %. The hygroscopicity parameter κ of the CCN was determined to be 0.23 on average and variations in κ were largely attributed to measurement uncertainties. Furthermore, simultaneous PNSD measurements at the ground station and on the Polar 6 research aircraft were performed. We found a good agreement of ground-based PNSDs with those measured between 200 and 1200 m. During two of the four overflights, particle number concentrations at 3000

  5. Canadian petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, J.H.

    1969-12-01

    This study covers the following Canadian petroleum industry categories: (1) a brief history; (2) the demand for Alberta crude; (3) U.S. oil policies; (4) overseas exploration; (5) the national oil policy; (6) the Montreal pipeline and its targets; (7) a continental oil policy; and (8) the impact of Arctic reserves. It is noted that large potential benefits will improve from the Manhattan navigating the Northwest Passage. Without prejudging the analysis now applied to the information gathered on this voyage, the Manhattan has greatly contributed to the solution of the problem of access to the Arctic islands. The picture for natural gas is less fraught with uncertainties. Unlike oil, where domestic and international considerations may weigh in U.S. policy decision, Canadian natural gas is likely to be allowed to enjoy its full economic potential in bridging the foreseeable U.S. supply gap and, inasmuch as this potential is ultimately tied with that for crude oil markets, the anticipated U.S. needs for Canadian natural gas may be expected to enhance U.S. interest in the overall well-being of the Canadian petroleum industry.

  6. Fine scale monitoring of ice ablation following convective heat transfer: case study based on ice-wedge thermo-erosion on Bylot Island (Canadian High Arctic) and laboratory observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, E.; Fortier, D.

    2011-12-01

    the excavated channel just before the water got in contact with the ice surface. The field experiment where flowing water at Tw = 277 K, Ti = 273 K with a water discharge of 0.01 m3 s-1 resulted in a measured Ar of 0.01 to 0.02 m min-1. Water discharge and temperature difference between water and the melting ice were fundamental to ice ablation rate. The recent climate warming in the Canadian High Arctic will likely strongly contribute to the interaction and importance of the thermo-erosion and gullying processes in the High Arctic. Combined factors such as earlier or faster snowmelt, precipitation changes during the summer and positive feedback effects will probably increase the hydrological input to gullies and therefore enhance their development by thermo-erosion. Costard F. et al. 2003. Fluvial thermal erosion investigations along a rapidly eroding river bank: Application to the Lena River (central Siberia). Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 28: 1349-1359. Fortier D. et al. 2007. Observation of rapid drainage system development by thermal erosion of ice wedges on Bylot island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 18: 229-243.

  7. Arctic Newcomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the Arctic region and its economic potential in Japan, South Korea and Singapore was slow to develop but is now rapidly growing. All three countries have in recent years accelerated their engagement with Arctic states, laying the institutional frameworks needed to better understand...... and influence policies relating to the Arctic. But each country’s approach is quite different, writes Aki Tonami....

  8. High-Affinity Methanotrophy Informed by Genome-Wide Analysis of Upland Soil Cluster Alpha (USCα) from Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusley, C.; Onstott, T. C.; Lau, M.

    2017-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas whose proper budgeting is vital to climate predictions. Recent studies have identified upland Arctic mineral cryosols as consistent CH4 sinks, drawing CH4 from both the atmosphere and underlying anaerobic soil layers. Global atmospheric CH4 uptake is proposed to be mediated by high-affinity methanotrophs based on the detection of the marker gene pmoA (particulate methane monooxygenase beta subunit). However, a lack of pure cultures and scarcity of genomic information have hindered our understanding of their metabolic capabilities and versatility. Together with the missing genetic linkage between its pmoA and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, the factors that control the distribution and magnitude of high-affinity methanotrophy in the Arctic permafrost-affected region have remained elusive. Using 21 metagenomic datasets of surface soils obtained from long-term core incubation experiments,1 this bioinformatics study aimed to reconstruct the draft genome of the Upland Soil Cluster α-proteobacteria (USCα), the high-affinity methanotroph previously detected in the samples,2 and to determine its phylogeny and metabolic requirements. We obtained a genome bin containing the high-affinity form of the USCα-like pmoA gene. The 3.03 Mbp assembly is 91.6% complete with a unique set of single-copy marker genes. The 16S rRNA gene fragment of USCα belongs to the α-proteobacterial family Beijerinckiaceae. Genome annotation indicates possible formaldehyde oxidation via tetrahydromethanopterin-linked C1 transfer pathways, acetate utilization, carbon fixation via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, and glycogen production. Notably, the key enzymes for formaldehyde assimilation via the serine and ribulose monophosphate pathways are missing. The presence of genes encoding nitrate reductase and hemoglobin suggests adaptation to low O2 under water-logged conditions. Since USCα has versatile carbon metabolisms, it may not be an obligate methanotroph

  9. 50 CFR 216.107 - Incidental harassment authorization for Arctic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incidental harassment authorization for Arctic waters. 216.107 Section 216.107 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL... Incidental to Specified Activities § 216.107 Incidental harassment authorization for Arctic waters. (a...

  10. Impact of the Healthy Foods North nutrition intervention program on Inuit and Inuvialuit food consumption and preparation methods in Canadian Arctic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Mead, Erin; Beck, Lindsay; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2014-07-04

    The 12-month Healthy Foods North intervention program was developed to improve diet among Inuit and Inuvialuit living in Arctic Canada and assess the impact of the intervention established for the communities. A quasi-experimental study randomly selected men and women (≥19 years of age) in six remote communities in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. Validated quantitative food frequency and adult impact questionnaires were used. Four communities received the intervention and two communities served as delayed intervention controls. Pre- and post-intervention changes in frequency of/total intake of de-promoted food groups and healthiness of cooking methods were determined. The impact of the intervention was assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Post-intervention data were analysed in the intervention (n = 221) and control (n = 111) communities, with participant retention rates of 91% for Nunavut and 83% for the Northwest Territories. There was a significant decrease in de-promoted foods, such as high fat meats (-27.9 g) and high fat dairy products (-19.8 g) among intervention communities (all p ≤ 0.05). The use of healthier preparation methods significantly increased (14.7%) in intervention communities relative to control communities. This study highlights the importance of using a community-based, multi-institutional nutrition intervention program to decrease the consumption of unhealthy foods and the use of unhealthy food preparation methods.

  11. Arctic Landfast Sea Ice 1953-1998, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The files in this data set contain landfast sea ice data (monthly means) gathered from both Russian Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) and Canadian Ice...

  12. Arctic industrial activities compilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Most industrial activities in the Beaufort Sea region are directly or indirectly associated with the search for oil and gas. Activities in marine areas include dredging, drilling, seismic and sounding surveys, island/camp maintenance, vessel movements, helicoptor and fixed-wind flights, and ice-breaking. This inventory contains a summary of chemical usage at 119 offshore drilling locations in the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Islands and Davis Straight of the Canadian Arctic between 1973 and 1987. Data are graphically displayed for evaluating patterns of drill waste discharge in the three offshore drilling areas. These displays include a comparison of data obtained from tour sheets and well history records, summaries of drilling mud chemicals used by year, well and oil company, frequency of wells drilled as a function of water depth, and offshore drilling activity by year, company, and platform. 21 refs., 104 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Modern and historical fluxes of halogenated organic contaminants to a lake in the Canadian arctic, as determined from annually laminated sediment cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, G.A.; Braekevelt, E.; Helm, P.A.; Bidleman, T.F.; Outridge, P.M.; Lockhart, W.L.; McNeeley, R.; Rosenberg, B.; Ikonomou, M.G.; Hamilton, P.; Tomy, G.T.; Wilkinson, P.

    2005-01-01

    Two annually laminated cores collected from Lake DV09 on Devon Island in May 1999 were dated using 210 Pb and 137 Cs, and analyzed for a variety of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, short-chain polychlorinated n-alkanes (sPCAs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Dry weight HOC concentrations in Lake DV09 sediments were generally similar to other remote Arctic lakes. Maximum HOC fluxes often agreed well with production maxima, although many compound groups exhibited maxima at or near the sediment surface, much later than peak production. The lower than expected HOC concentrations in older sediment slices may be due to anaerobic degradation and possibly to dilution resulting from a temporary increase in sedimentation rate observed between the mid-1960s and 1970s. Indeed, temporal trends were more readily apparent for those compound classes when anaerobic metabolites were also analyzed, such as for DDT and toxaphene. However, it is postulated here for the first time that the maximum or increasing HOC surface fluxes observed for many of the major compound classes in DV09 sediments may be influenced by climate variation and the resulting increase in algal primary productivity which could drive an increasing rate of HOC scavenging from the water column. Both the fraction (F TC ) and enantiomer fraction (EF) of trans-chlordane (TC) decreased significantly between 1957 and 1997, suggesting that recent inputs to the lake are from weathered chlordane sources. PCDD/Fs showed a change in sources from pentachlorophenol (PeCP) in the 1950s and 1960s to combustion sources into the 1990s. Improvements in combustion technology may be responsible for the reducing the proportion of TCDF relative to OCDD in the most recent slice

  14. Risk–Benefit Assessment of Monomethylmercury and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake for Ringed Seal Consumption with Particular Emphasis on Vulnerable Populations in the Western Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Gmelch

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many northern Inuit communities rely on traditional food as major source of nourishment. An essential part of the traditional Arctic diet is marine mammals such as ringed seals or beluga. Being top predators, these animals are often highly contaminated with various toxins. In contrast, some tissues of marine mammals are also characterized by high amounts of n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we try to balance the risks associated with the consumption of different tissue types of ringed seals in terms of the neurotoxin monomethylmercury (MMHg with the benefits of consumption due to high n3-PUFA concentrations. Fetuses are at the highest risk of neurological impairments because MMHg can easily cross the placental barrier. Therefore, women of childbearing age served as an indicator population for especially susceptible subpopulations. We calculated maximal weekly maternal portions sizes if mutual consumption of muscle and blubber tissue or liver and blubber tissue was assumed. Those weekly portion sizes resulted in an estimated overall IQ point gain of infants of 0, whereas the consumption of liver or muscle tissue without blubber could lead to an IQ loss. In contrast to former studies, our data do not generally prohibit the consumption of liver tissue. Instead, our results suggest that a maximal weekly consumption of 125 g liver tissue together with 1 g of blubber tissue is acceptable and does not lead to neurological damages in the long term. Similarly, the consumption of maximal 172 g muscle tissue can be balanced by the mutual consumption of 1 g blubber tissue.

  15. Changing Arctic: A Strategic Analysis of United States Arctic Policy and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    is below the constellation Ursa Minor, or the Great Bear . Hence, the word Arctic comes from the Greek word arktos or “ bear .” 7 The generally...13 David Curtis Wright , Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute., and Canadian Electronic Library (Firm), "The Panda ... Bear Readies to Meet the Polar Bear China and Canada’s Arctic Sovereignty Challenge," Canadian Defence & Foreign Affairs Institute, p. 4 67

  16. 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous, A.

    1996-01-01

    The 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conference was held 13-17 August 1995 on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus. The Institute of Arctic Biology and the Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit were responsible for organizing the conference with assistance from biologists with state and federal agencies and commercial organizations. David R. Klein was chair of the conference organizing committee. Over 200 people attended the conference, coming from 10 different countries. T...

  17. Canadian gas supply : an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochefort, T.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the daily production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) from 1986 to 1997 was presented. This presentation also outlined Canadian production trends, Canadian reserves and resources, and supply challenges. Ultimate conventional marketable gas from the WCSB, the Scotian Shelf, the Beaufort Sea and Canada's Arctic region was estimated at 591 TCF. Issues regarding supply and demand of natural gas such as the impact of electricity restructuring on pricing, generation fuel mix, the capacity of the U.S. market to absorb Canadian heavy oil production, and the influence of the rate of technological advances on supply and demand were outlined. The overall conclusion confirmed the health and competitiveness of the Canadian upstream sector and expressed confidence that the WCSB can support rising levels of production to meet the expected continued market growth. tabs., figs

  18. A veterinary perspective on One Health in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Letcher, Robert James; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to long-range transported industrial chemicals, climate change and diseases is posing a risk to the overall health and populations of Arctic wildlife. Since local communities are relying on the same marine food web as marine mammals in the Arctic, it requires a One Health approach...

  19. A veterinary perspective on One Health in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Letcher, Robert James; Jenssen, Bjorn Munro

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to long-range transported industrial chemicals, climate change and diseases is posing a risk to the overall health and populations of Arctic wildlife. Since local communities are relying on the same marine food web as marine mammals in the Arctic, it requires a One Health approach to und...

  20. Molecular epidemiological study of Arctic rabies virus isolates from Greenland and comparison with isolates from throughout the Arctic and Baltic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansfield, K.L.; Racloz, V.; McElhinney, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report a Molecular epidemiological study of rabies in Arctic Countries by comparing a panel of novel Greenland isolates to a larger cohort of viral sequences from both Arctic and Baltic regions. Rabies Virus isolates originating from wildlife (Arctic/red foxes, raccoon-dogs and reindeer), from...... sequences from the Arctic and Arctic-like viruses, which were distinct from rabies isolates originating ill the Baltic region of Europe, the Steppes in Russia and from North America. The Arctic-like group consist of isolates from India, Pakistan, southeast Siberia and Japan. The Arctic group...... in northeast Siberia and Alaska. Arctic 2b isolates represent a biotype, which is dispersed throughout the Arctic region. The broad distribution of rabies in the Arctic regions including Greenland, Canada and Alaska provides evidence for the movement of rabies across borders....

  1. Auditing wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Reilly

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Reilly B.K. and Y. Reilly. 2003. Auditing wildlife. Koedoe 46(2: 97–102. Pretoria. ISSN 0075-6458. Accountants and auditors are increasingly confronted with the problem of auditing wildlife populations on game ranches as their clients' asset base expands into this industry. This paper aims to provide guidelines on these actions based on case study data and research in the field of wildlife monitoring. Parties entering into dispute on numbers of animals on a property often resort to their auditors for advice. This paper tracks a method of deciding on whether or not to audit the population based on wildlife value and an initial sample count. This will act as a guideline for the accounting profession when confronted by this problem.

  2. Wildlife Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...

  3. Monitoring the numbers and productivity of Tundra Swans in relation to potential natural gas development in the Mackenzie River Delta, western Canadian Arctic, 2001-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swystun, H.A. [Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada); Hines, J.E. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Dawson, R.D. [Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2005-03-01

    A study was conducted in which tundra swans were used as an indicator species to monitor the environmental change and effects of oil and gas development in the Mackenzie Delta. The objectives were to monitor consistent study plots for tundra swans at development and non development sites and to document nesting success and brood survival. Environmental protection and maintenance of harvestable populations of wildlife are part of land claim agreement for two Aboriginal groups with settled land claims in the Mackenzie Delta. This study also evaluated the possible factors such as habitat and climate, which limit the reproductive success of tundra swans. Their nesting biology was examined along with how they use their habitat. Researchers established 48 plots near exploratory well sites, existing camps, sites of recent seismic exploration and gas fields of known importance. Air surveillance was used to count and observe the swans on a yearly basis, along with their nests and offspring. Plots were located both where development is proposed and where development is not likely to occur. The important spring staging, summer moulting and fall staging areas were identified along with spring migration patterns, behaviour and feeding areas. The 3 proposed drilling sites include Niglingtak (Kendall Island Bird Sanctuary), Taglu, and Parsons Lake. The concerns regarding future development in tundra swan habitat include: (1) areas where drilling and pipeline structures are built may prompt swans to move away from their traditional nesting and feeding areas, (2) human activity will increase due to gas drilling and pipeline construction, which may reduce nesting success, (3) wastes associated with construction sites may attract predators and increase predation on nesting birds, (4) increased air traffic would disturb geese and swan hunting areas, and (5) waterfowl habitat could be lost if spring staging, summer moulting and fall staging areas are not considered when planning

  4. Freshwater Export from the Arctic Ocean and its Downstream Effect on Labrador Sea Deep Convection in a High-Resolution Numerical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Arctic has been observed in the northern Canadian Arctic Archipelago ( Bourke and McLaren 1992). There, thick multiyear ice of Arctic origin encounters...Affairs, 87(2), 63-77. 172 Bourke , R. H., and A. S. McLaren, 1992: Contour mapping of Arctic Basin ice draft and roughness parameters. J. Geophys

  5. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Anna L; Whiteside, Douglas P; Gilchrist, Grant

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  6. Arctic Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Nils

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of China, India, Japan, Singapore and Italy as permanent observers in the Arctic Council has increased the international status of this forum significantly. This chapter aims to explain the background for the increased international interest in the Arctic region through an analysis...

  7. The Arctic : the great breakup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, R.

    2007-01-01

    The impact that climate change has had on the famous Northwest passage in Canada's Arctic was discussed. The water channel through the Arctic Islands is now navigable during the summer and it has been predicted that in 40 years, it may be navigable throughout the entire year. Although the Arctic is still covered with snow, the icebergs which navigators have feared no longer exist. Environment Canada has cautioned that Canada's extreme north would be most at risk from global warming, with temperatures increasing by 6 degrees, or 3 times higher than in moderate zones. The joint Canadian-United States program Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic has also confirmed that the waters of the Beaufort Sea are less salty and relatively warmer. Climatologists also project that the predicted increase in snowfall will act as an insulation blanket, thereby preventing the ice from thickening. Scientists stated that the gigantic polar cap, which has been frozen for the past 3.2 million years, will have fissures everywhere by 2080. The Northwest passage will become easily accessible in less than 10 years. This article raised questions regarding the role of the Northwest passage as an international maritime route. It presented the case of the first successful passage of a U.S. commercial oil tanker in 1969 which created controversy regarding Canada's territorial waters. Fourty years later, this issue is still not resolved. The article questioned whether there should be more cooperation on both the Canadian and American sides in light of the shared common interests such as commerce, science and security. It was noted that although Canada has sovereignty of the Arctic Islands, there are eight other countries who share the Arctic. 4 figs

  8. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, Anna L.; Whiteside, Douglas P.; Gilchrist, Grant

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  9. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, Anna L., E-mail: alhargreaves@gmail.com [Calgary Zoo, Centre for Conservation Research, 1300 Zoo Rd NE, Calgary, AB, T2E 7V6 (Canada); Whiteside, Douglas P. [Calgary Zoo, Animal Health Centre, 1300 Zoo Rd NE, Calgary, AB, T2E 7V6 (Canada); University of Calgary, Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Gilchrist, Grant [Carleton University, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, KIA OH3 (Canada)

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  10. Wildlife Habitat Evaluation Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Edward L., Jr.; Benson, Delwin E.

    The National 4-H Wildlife Invitational is a competitive event to teach youth about the fundamentals of wildlife management. Youth learn that management for wildlife means management of wildlife habitat and providing for the needs of wildlife. This handbook provides information about wildlife habitat management concepts in both urban and rural…

  11. Environmental marine geology of the Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudie, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean and its ice cover are major regulators of Northern Hemisphere climate, ocean circulation and marine productivity. The Arctic is also very sensitive to changes in the global environment because sea ice magnifies small changes in temperature, and because polar regions are sinks for air pollutants. Marine geology studies are being carried out to determine the nature and rate of these environmental changes by study of modem ice and sea-bed environments, and by interpretation of geological records imprinted in the sea-floor sediments. Sea ice camps, an ice island, and polar icebreakers have been used to study both western and eastern Arctic Ocean basins. Possible early warning signals of environmental changes in the Canadian Arctic are die-back in Arctic sponge reefs, outbreaks of toxic dinoflagellates, and pesticides in the marine food chain. Eastern Arctic ice and surface waters are contaminated by freon and radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. At present, different sedimentary processes operate in the pack ice-covered Canadian polar margin than in summer open waters off Alaska and Eurasia. The geological records, however, suggest that a temperature increase of 1-4 degree C would result in summer open water throughout the Arctic, with major changes in ocean circulation and productivity of waters off Eastern North America, and more widespread transport of pollutants from eastern to western Arctic basins. More studies of longer sediment cores are needed to confirm these interpretations, but is is now clear that the Arctic Ocean has been the pacemaker of climate change during the past 1 million years

  12. Levels and trends of polybrominated diphenylethers and other brominated flame retardants in wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Robin J; Alaee, Mehran; Allchin, Colin R; Boon, Jan P; Lebeuf, Michel; Lepom, Peter; Stern, Gary A

    2003-09-01

    In this paper, we review the available data for polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and other flame retardants in wildlife, with the exception of fishes from Europe and North America which are covered in more detail elsewhere. More data are available for PBDEs than for other compounds, and these show that some of these compounds have become widely distributed in the environment, being found in samples from Europe, Australia, Azerbaijan, North America and the Arctic. Most available data relate to birds and their eggs and marine mammals, but the results of two food web studies are also included. The detection of PBDEs in pelagic marine mammals which feed in deep offshore waters, including baleen whales, indicate that these compounds have found their way into deep-water, oceanic food webs as well as the coastal/shallow sea examples described in detail. In the North Sea study, the most marked increase in lipid-normalised concentrations of six BDE congeners occurred during transfer from predatory fish to marine mammals. In the St. Lawrence Estuary study, marked differences in the ratios observed between species suggested that some fish species may be able to metabolise BDE99.A number of time trend studies have also been conducted, notably in guillemot eggs from Sweden (1969-2000), beluga whales from the Canadian Arctic (1982-1997 and 1989-2001) and from the St. Lawrence Estuary (1988-1999), and ringed seals from the Canadian Arctic (1981-2000). In the temperate latitudes, from these and other studies (e.g. in dated sediment cores), PBDE concentrations began to rise earlier than in those from high latitudes, in line with data for production and use. These trends have now slowed in many cases. Declines could be expected in Europe for many congeners following the cessation of manufacture and use of the penta-mix formulation in the EU, though these are not yet apparent in environmental samples. In Arctic biota, however, the rapidly rising concentrations seen currently in

  13. Genomics of Arctic cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sage, George K.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Gravley, Megan C.; Menning, Damian; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2017-01-01

    identified species-specific markers and in conjunction with mitogenome data, identified an Arctic cod x Polar cod hybrid in western Canadian Beaufort Sea. Overall, the lack of genetic structure among Arctic cod within the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort seas of Alaska is concordant with the absence of geographic barriers to dispersal and typical among marine fishes. Arctic cod may exhibit a genetic pattern of isolation-by-distance, whereby populations in closer geographic proximity are more genetically similar than more distant populations. As this signal is only found between our two fartherest localities, data from populations elsewhere in the species’ global range are needed to determine if this is a general characteristic. Further, tests for selection suggested a limited role for natural selection acting on the mitochondrial genome of Arctic cod, but do not exclude the possibility of selection on genes involved in nuclear-mitogenome interactions. Unlike previous genetic assessment of Arctic cod sampled from the Chukchi Sea, the high levels of genetic diversity found in Arctic cod assayed in this study, across regions, suggests that the species in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas does not suffer from low levels of genetic variation, at least at neutral genetic markers. The large census size of Arctic cod may allow this species to retain high levels of genetic diversity. In addition, we discovered the presence of hybridization between Arctic and Polar cod (although low in frequency). Hybridization is expected to occur when environmental changes modify species distributions that result in contact between species that were previously separated. In such cases, hybridization may be an evolutionary mechanism that promotes an increase in genetic diversity that may provide species occupying changing environments with locally-adapted genotypes and, therefore, phenotypes. Natural selection can only act on the standing genetic variation present within a population. Therefore, given its

  14. The Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, H.; Meltofte, H.; Rysgaard, S.; Rasch, M.; Jonasson, S.; Christensen, T.R.; Friborg, T.; Soegaard, H.; Pedersen, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    Global climate change in the Arctic is a growing concern. Research has already documented pronounced changes, and models predict that increases in temperature from anthropogenic influences could be considerably higher than the global average. The impacts of climate change on Arctic ecosystems are complex and difficult to predict because of the many interactions within ecosystem, and between many concurrently changing environmental variables. Despite the global consequences of change in the Arctic climate the monitoring of basic abiotic as well as biotic parameters are not adequate to assess the impact of global climate change. The uneven geographical location of present monitoring stations in the Arctic limits the ability to understand the climate system. The impact of previous variations and potential future changes to ecosystems is not well understood and need to be addressed. At this point, there is no consensus of scientific opinion on how much of the current changes that are due to anthropogenic influences or to natural variation. Regardless of the cause, there is a need to investigate and assess current observations and their effects to the Arctic. In this chapter examples from both terrestrial and marine ecosystems from ongoing monitoring and research projects are given. (LN)

  15. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidell, B.V.; Smallbeck, D.R.; Ramert, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. Enhancing the biological degradation of hydrocarbon (bioremediation) by adding nutrients to the spill area has been demonstrated to be an effective cleanup tool in more temperate locations. However, this technique has never been considered for restoration in the Arctic because the process of microbial degradation of hydrocarbon in this area is very slow. The short growing season and apparent lack of nutrients in the gravel pads were thought to be detrimental to using bioremediation to cleanup Arctic oil spills. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes

  16. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liddell, B.V.; Smallbeck, D.R.; Ramert, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes. Discussed are the results of a laboratory bioremediation study which simulated microbial degradation of hydrocarbon under arctic conditions

  17. Perinatal exposure to a mixture of persistent pollutants based on blood profiles of Arctic populations affects bone parameters in 35 days old rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, N.; Trossvik, C.; Hakansson, H. [Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Bowers, W.; Nakai, J.S.; Chu, I. [Environmental and Occupational Toxicology Div., Environmental Health Sciences Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    Environmental pollution of Arctic regions is a public concern. Arctic inhabitants are a high-risk group regarding health effects of environmental toxicants because of their high consumption of contaminated fish and wildlife. Developing fetuses and newborn infants may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and toxic metals. Developmental exposure to environmental pollutants affects a wide range of clinical and biochemical parameters. Disturbance in skeletal growth, an integral component of somatic development, is a novel area in the toxicity of POPs. Low-dose prenatal exposure to TCDD caused a variety of harmful effects in rat long bones. In adult rats, TCDD exposure caused inhibited bone growth and lowered biomechanical properties of tibia and exposure to the dioxin-like PCBcongener 3,3,4,4,5-pentachlorobiphenyl has been associated with a decreased strength and collagen concentration of humerus. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of perinatal exposure to a mixture of PCBs, organochlorines and methyl mercury based on blood levels of Canadian Arctic populations on skeletal development in rat pups.

  18. Climate change and zoonotic infections in the Russian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Revich

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change in the Russian Arctic is more pronounced than in any other part of the country. Between 1955 and 2000, the annual average air temperature in the Russian North increased by 1.2°C. During the same period, the mean temperature of upper layer of permafrost increased by 3°C. Climate change in Russian Arctic increases the risks of the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases. This review presents data on morbidity rates among people, domestic animals and wildlife in the Russian Arctic, focusing on the potential climate related emergence of such diseases as tick-borne encephalitis, tularemia, brucellosis, leptospirosis, rabies, and anthrax.

  19. Contributions of Arctic PRISM to monitoring western hemispheric shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Smith, Paul A.; Andres, Brad A.; Donaldson, Garry; Brown, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    for assessing its vulnerability and subsequent listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and the Canadian Species at Risk Act. To meet the need for information on population size and trends, shorebird biologists from Canada and the United States proposed a shared blueprint for shorebird monitoring across the Western Hemisphere in the late 1990s; this effort was undertaken in concert with the development of the Canadian and U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plans (Donaldson et al. 2000, Brown et aL 2001). Soon thereafter, partners in the monitoring effort adopted the name "Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring" (PRISM). Among the primary objectives of PRISM were to estimate the population sizes and trends of breeding North American shorebirds and describe their distributions (Bart et al. 2002). PRISM members evaluated ongoing and potential monitoring approaches to address 74 taxa (including subspecies) and proposed a combination of arctic andboreal breeding surveys, temperate breeding and non-breeding surveys, and neotropical surveys.

  20. Foreword: Contributions of Arctic PRISM to monitoring western hemispheric shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Smith, Paul A.; Andres, Brad A.; Donaldson, Garry; Brown, Stephen; Bart, Jonathan R.; Johnston, Victoria H.

    2012-01-01

    listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and the Canadian Species at Risk Act. To meet the need for information on population size and trends, shorebird biologists from Canada and the United States proposed a shared blueprint for shorebird monitoring across the Western Hemisphere in the late 1990s; this effort was undertaken in concert with the development of the Canadian and the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plans. Soon thereafter, partners in the monitoring effort adopted the name "Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring" (PRISM). Among the primary objectives of PRISM were to estimate the population sizes and trends of breeding North American shorebirds and describe their distributions. PRISM members evaluated ongoing and potential monitoring approached to address 74 taxa (including subspecies) and proposed a combination of arctic and boreal breeding surveys, temperate breeding and non-breeding surveys, and neotropical surveys.

  1. Trichinella in arctic, subarctic and temperate regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O

    1997-01-01

    The transmission and occurrence of Trichinella spp according to the zoogeography of different climatic conditions, socioeconomy and human activity are discussed. Comparing arctic, subarctic and temperate regions, it appears that the species of Trichinella present, the composition of the fauna...... and the human activity are all very important interacting factors affecting epidemiology. In Greenland, where only sylvatic trichinellosis is present, the high prevalence in wildlife appears closely connected with polar bear hunting. In the Scandinavian countries, the prevalence of both sylvatic and domestic...

  2. Prevention of oiled wildlife project (POW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    The establishment of a project to analyse the nature and extent of the problem of marine oil spills and their impact on the wildlife in coastal Newfoundland was described. Pelagic seabirds were identified as the marine wildlife most affected by oil released into the ocean. The Prevention of Oiled Wildlife (POW) project was initiated by the Canadian Coast Guard, the lead agency for oil spills of unknown origin. Details of the POW project were provided. It was shown that the project serves as an interdepartmental approach to: (1) identifying past occurrences, probable sources, causes, effects and possible releases of oil into the marine environment, (2) identifying remedial measures undertaken to date to curb the release of oil, and (3) establishing a plan of action through legislation, education, detection, prosecution or any other means, to eliminate the release of oil. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  3. Avian Cholera emergence in Arctic-nesting northern Common Eiders: using community-based, participatory surveillance to delineate disease outbreak patterns and predict transmission risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A. Iverson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are a growing concern in wildlife conservation. Documenting outbreak patterns and determining the ecological drivers of transmission risk are fundamental to predicting disease spread and assessing potential impacts on population viability. However, evaluating disease in wildlife populations requires expansive surveillance networks that often do not exist in remote and developing areas. Here, we describe the results of a community-based research initiative conducted in collaboration with indigenous harvesters, the Inuit, in response to a new series of Avian Cholera outbreaks affecting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima and other comingling species in the Canadian Arctic. Avian Cholera is a virulent disease of birds caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. Common Eiders are a valuable subsistence resource for Inuit, who hunt the birds for meat and visit breeding colonies during the summer to collect eggs and feather down for use in clothing and blankets. We compiled the observations of harvesters about the growing epidemic and with their assistance undertook field investigation of 131 colonies distributed over >1200 km of coastline in the affected region. Thirteen locations were identified where Avian Cholera outbreaks have occurred since 2004. Mortality rates ranged from 1% to 43% of the local breeding population at these locations. Using a species-habitat model (Maxent, we determined that the distribution of outbreak events has not been random within the study area and that colony size, vegetation cover, and a measure of host crowding in shared wetlands were significantly correlated to outbreak risk. In addition, outbreak locations have been spatially structured with respect to hypothesized introduction foci and clustered along the migration corridor linking Arctic breeding areas with wintering areas in Atlantic Canada. At present, Avian Cholera remains a localized threat to Common Eider populations in the

  4. Status and Impacts of Arctic Freshwater Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, T. W. N.

    2017-12-01

    Large freshwater anomalies clearly exist in the Arctic Ocean. For example, liquid freshwater has accumulated in the Beaufort Gyre in the decade of the 2000s compared to 1980-2000, with an extra ≈5000 km3—about 25%—being stored. The sources of freshwater to the Arctic from precipitation and runoff have increased between these periods (most of the evidence comes from models). Despite flux increases from 2001 to 2011, it is uncertain if the marine freshwater source through Bering Strait for the 2000s has changed, as observations in the 1980s and 1990s are incomplete. The marine freshwater fluxes draining the Arctic through Fram and Davis straits are also insignificantly different. In this way, the balance of sources and sinks of freshwater to the Arctic, Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), and Baffin Bay shifted to about 1200±730 km3yr-1 freshening the region, on average, during the 2000s. The observed accumulation of liquid freshwater is consistent with this increased supply and the loss of freshwater from sea ice (Figure, right). Evidence exists that such discharges can impact the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, and hence Atlantic sector climate. Nevertheless, it appears that the observed AMOC variability since 2004, when high quality measurements began, is not attributable to anthropogenic influence. This work is based on, and updated from, Haine et al. (2015), Carmack et al. (2016), and Haine (2016). Haine, T. W. N. Ocean science: Vagaries of Atlantic overturning. Nature Geoscience, 9, 479-480, 10.1038/ngeo2748, 2016. T. W. N. Haine et al., Arctic Freshwater Export: Status, Mechanisms, and Prospects, Global Planetary Change, 125, 13-35, 10.1016/j.glopacha.2014.11.013, 2015. E. Carmack et al., Fresh water and its role in the Arctic Marine System: sources, disposition, storage, export, and physical and biogeochemical consequences in the Arctic and global oceans. J. G. Res. Biogeosciences, 10.1002/2015JG003140, 2016.

  5. Historical and contemporary imagery to assess ecosystem change on the Arctic coastal plain of northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, Ken D.; Pearce, John M.; Walworth, Dennis; Meixell, Brandt W.; Fondell, Tom F.; Gustine, David D.; Flint, Paul L.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Ward, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is a complex landscape of lakes, streams, and wetlands scattered across low-relief tundra that is underlain by permafrost. This region of the Arctic has experienced a warming trend over the past three decades leading to thawing of on-shore permafrost and the disappearance of sea ice at unprecedented rates. The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) research initiative was developed to investigate and forecast these rapid changes in the physical environment of the Arctic, and the associated changes to wildlife populations, in order to inform key management decisions by the U.S. Department of the Interior and other agencies. Forecasting future wildlife responses to changes in the Arctic can benefit greatly from historical records that inform what changes have already occurred. Several Arctic wildlife and plant species have already responded to climatic and physical changes to the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. Thus, we located historical aerial imagery to improve our understanding of recent habitat changes and the associated response to such changes by wildlife populations.

  6. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Northwest Arctic, Alaska, volume 2, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0046028)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Northwest Arctic, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  7. Arctic Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Lindstrøm Graversen, Christian

    This report forms part of the ambitious CBS Maritime research initiative entitled “Competitive Challenges and Strategic Development Potential in Global Maritime Industries” which was launched with the generous support of the Danish Maritime Fund. The competitiveness initiative targets specific ma......, the latter aiming at developing key concepts and building up a basic industry knowledge base for further development of CBS Maritime research and teaching. This report attempts to map the opportunities and challenges for the maritime industry in an increasingly accessible Arctic Ocean...

  8. The Canadian experience in frontier environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Early Canadian frontier exploration (from 1955 onshore and from 1966 for offshore drilling) caused insignificant public concern. The 1967-1968 Torrey Canyon Tanker and Santa Barbara disasters roused public opinion and governments. In Canada, 1969-1970 Arctic gas blowouts, a tanker disaster, and damage to the 'Manhattan' exacerbated concerns and resulted in new environmental regulatory constraints. From 1970, the Arctic Petroleum Operations Association learned to operate safely with environmental responsibility. It studied physical environment for design criteria, and the biological and human environment to ameliorate impact. APOA's research projects covered sea-ice, permafrost, sea-bottom, oil-spills, bird and mammal migration, fish habitat, food chains, oceanography, meteorology, hunters'/trappers' harvests, etc. In 1971 Eastcoast Petroleum Operators' Association and Alaska Oil and Gas Association followed APOA's cooperative research model. EPOA stressed icebergs and fisheries. Certain research was handled by the Canadian Offshore Oil Spill Research Association. By the mid-1980s these associations had undertaken $70,000,000 of environmental oriented research, with equivalent additional work by member companies on specific needs and similar sums by Federal agencies often working with industry on complementary research. The frontier associations then merged with the Canadian Petroleum Association, already active environmentally in western Canada. Working with government and informing environmental interest groups, the public, natives, and local groups, most Canadian frontier petroleum operations proceeded with minimal delay and environmental disturbance

  9. 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anonymous

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conference was held 13-17 August 1995 on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus. The Institute of Arctic Biology and the Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit were responsible for organizing the conference with assistance from biologists with state and federal agencies and commercial organizations. David R. Klein was chair of the conference organizing committee. Over 200 people attended the conference, coming from 10 different countries. The United States, Canada, and Norway had the largest representation. The conference included invited lectures; panel discussions, and about 125 contributed papers. There were five technical sessions on Physiology and Body Condition; Habitat Relationships; Population Dynamics and Management; Behavior, Genetics and Evolution; and Reindeer and Muskox Husbandry. Three panel sessions discussed Comparative caribou management strategies; Management of introduced, reestablished, and expanding muskox populations; and Health risks in translocation of arctic ungulates. Invited lectures focused on the physiology and population dynamics of arctic ungulates; contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates and lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident; and ecosystem level relationships of the Porcupine Caribou Herd.

  10. VT Wildlife Linkage Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Wildlife Linkage Habitat Analysis uses landscape scale data to identify or predict the location of potentially significant wildlife linkage...

  11. Multidisciplinary Wildlife Teaching Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernbrode, William R., Ed.

    This guide provides information and activities descriptions designed to allow the teacher to use wildlife concepts in the teaching of various subjects. The author suggests that wildlife and animals are tremendous motivators for children and hold their attention. In the process, concepts of wildlife interaction with man and the environment are…

  12. Firewood and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Carey; John D. Gill

    1980-01-01

    The increased demand for firewood threatens the habitat of many wildlife species. Dead or dying trees that commonly are cut for firewood are vital to wildlife species that nest in tree cavities. Likewise, healthy trees of many species preferred for firewood are important components of wildlife habitat. Tree species or species groups are value-rated for both firewood...

  13. WILDLIFE HEALTH AND PUBLIC TRUST RESPONSIBILITIES FOR WILDLIFE RESOURCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Daniel J; Schuler, Krysten; Forstchen, Ann B; Wild, Margaret A; Siemer, William F

    2016-10-01

    A significant development in wildlife management is the mounting concern of wildlife professionals and the public about wildlife health and diseases. Concurrently, the wildlife profession is reexamining implications of managing wildlife populations as a public trust and the concomitant obligation to ensure the quality (i.e., health) and sustainability of wildlife. It is an opportune time to emphasize the importance of wildlife health, specifically to advocate for comprehensive and consistent integration of wildlife health in wildlife management. We summarize application of public trust ideas in wildlife population management in the US. We argue that wildlife health is essential to fulfilling public trust administration responsibilities with respect to wildlife, due to the central responsibility of trustees for ensuring the well-being of wildlife species (i.e., the core resources of the trust). Because both health of wildlife and risk perceptions regarding threats posed by wildlife disease to humans and domestic animals are issues of growing concern, managing wildlife disease and risk communication vis-à-vis wildlife health is critical to wildlife trust administration. We conclude that wildlife health professionals play a critical role in protecting the wildlife trust and that current conditions provide opportunities for important contributions by wildlife health professionals in wildlife management.

  14. Arctic polynya and glacier interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Laura

    2013-04-01

    Major uncertainties surround future estimates of sea level rise attributable to mass loss from the polar ice sheets and ice caps. Understanding changes across the Arctic is vital as major potential contributors to sea level, the Greenland Ice Sheet and the ice caps and glaciers of the Canadian Arctic archipelago, have experienced dramatic changes in recent times. Most ice mass loss is currently focused at a relatively small number of glacier catchments where ice acceleration, thinning and calving occurs at ocean margins. Research suggests that these tidewater glaciers accelerate and iceberg calving rates increase when warming ocean currents increase melt on the underside of floating glacier ice and when adjacent sea ice is removed causing a reduction in 'buttressing' back stress. Thus localised changes in ocean temperatures and in sea ice (extent and thickness) adjacent to major glacial catchments can impact hugely on the dynamics of, and hence mass lost from, terrestrial ice sheets and ice caps. Polynyas are areas of open water within sea ice which remain unfrozen for much of the year. They vary significantly in size (~3 km2 to > ~50,000 km2 in the Arctic), recurrence rates and duration. Despite their relatively small size, polynyas play a vital role in the heat balance of the polar oceans and strongly impact regional oceanography. Where polynyas develop adjacent to tidewater glaciers their influence on ocean circulation and water temperatures may play a major part in controlling subsurface ice melt rates by impacting on the water masses reaching the calving front. Areas of open water also play a significant role in controlling the potential of the atmosphere to carry moisture, as well as allowing heat exchange between the atmosphere and ocean, and so can influence accumulation on (and hence thickness of) glaciers and ice caps. Polynya presence and size also has implications for sea ice extent and therefore potentially the buttressing effect on neighbouring

  15. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge : Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for Ottawa NWR describes the inventory program’s relation to Refuge objectives and outlines the program’s policies and administration....

  16. Daily atmospheric radionuclide observations and health impact estimation before and after the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident: Five-year trends by Canadian monitoring stations - Ten-year trends of atmospheric lead-210 and the correlation to atmospheric mercury in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weihua; Chen, Jing; Ungar, Kurt [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Rd. Ottawa, K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Mercury is a global threat to human and environmental health. Anthropogenic emissions of mercury have been larger than natural emissions since the start of the industrial age about 200 years ago. In the past decades, many studies have focused on monitoring and controlling anthropogenic emissions of mercury and their transport and transformation in the environment. In October 2013, the Minamata Convention on Mercury was formally adopted as international law. The new treaty aims to further cut mercury emissions and releases; it is the first global convention on environment and health. Coal burning for power generation and industrial use is one of the major sources of anthropogenic mercury emissions to the air. However, coal combustion processes produce significant quantities of dust containing not only mercury but also natural radionuclides that are released into the atmosphere. Like the case of mercury, those radionuclides can be transported over long distances, deposited on soil and oceans and accumulated in Arctic biota. Exposure to elevated levels of radiation is a health concern. This study analyses long-term trends of atmospheric lead-210 from Health Canada's radiological monitoring stations in the Arctic. Results are compared with ten-year records of atmospheric mercury reported by Environment Canada. A discussion is given on the correlation of long-range atmospheric transport of lead-210 and mercury from industrial sources, such as coal burning. It is expected that continuous decline of atmospheric mercury in the Arctic, especially with more and more countries signing the Minamata Convention, will result in a deceasing trend of atmospheric lead-210 from industrial sources as well. (authors)

  17. Estimating absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) using a semi-analytical algorithm for Southern Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic) waters: application to deriving concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, A.; Hooker, S. B.; Bricaud, A.; Gentili, B.; Babin, M.

    2012-10-01

    A series of papers have suggested that freshwater discharge, including a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM), has increased since the middle of the 20th century. In this study, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating light absorption coefficients of the colored fraction of DOM (CDOM) was developed for Southern Beaufort Sea waters using remote sensing reflectance at six wavelengths in the visible spectral domain corresponding to MODIS ocean color sensor. This algorithm allows to separate colored detrital matter (CDM) into CDOM and non-algal particles (NAP) by determining NAP absorption using an empirical relationship between NAP absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Evaluation using independent datasets, that were not used for developing the algorithm, showed that CDOM absorption can be estimated accurately to within an uncertainty of 35% and 50% for oceanic and turbid waters, respectively. In situ measurements showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were tightly correlated with CDOM absorption (r2 = 0.97). By combining the CDOM absorption algorithm together with the DOC versus CDOM relationship, it is now possible to estimate DOC concentrations in the near-surface layer of the Southern Beaufort Sea using satellite ocean color data. DOC concentrations in the surface waters were estimated using MODIS ocean color data, and the estimates showed reasonable values compared to in situ measurements. We propose a routine and near real-time method for deriving DOC concentrations from space, which may open the way to an estimate of DOC budgets for Arctic coastal waters.

  18. Mercury genomics in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, K.; Lamborg, C. H.; Collins, E.; Hammerschmidt, C. R.; Agather, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Methyl-mercury production in the ocean is likely dependent on microbial activity, however, methylation pathways remain elusive. In the Arctic, high concentrations of methyl-mercury are found in top predator marine mammals and seabirds. As a result of seafood consumption, pregnant women and women of child-bearing age in the Arctic often have blood Hg concentrations that exceed U.S. and Canadian safety guidelines. To understand the chemical cycling of mercury in the Arctic Ocean we participated in the 2015 U.S. GEOTRACES Arctic expedition (GN01) to measure Hg speciation in the water column of the Bering Sea, Makarov basin, and Canada basin between Dutch Harbor, Alaska and the North Pole. At select stations, seawater was filtered through 0.22 µm Sterivex filters and genomic DNA was collected using a phenol-chloroform extraction. Broad-range degenerate PCR primers were used to detect the presence of hgcAB, and clade-specific degenerate quantitative PCR primers were used to determine the abundance of hgcA. Metagenomic sequencing was done at three stations to identify taxonomic and functional groups, and to search for hgcA-like genes that the PCR primers may have missed.

  19. Approaching a Postcolonial Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This article explores different postcolonially configured approaches to the Arctic. It begins by considering the Arctic as a region, an entity, and how the customary political science informed approaches are delimited by their focus on understanding the Arctic as a region at the service...... of the contemporary neoliberal order. It moves on to explore how different parts of the Arctic are inscribed in a number of sub-Arctic nation-state binds, focusing mainly on Canada and Denmark. The article argues that the postcolonial can be understood as a prism or a methodology that asks pivotal questions to all...... approaches to the Arctic. Yet the postcolonial itself is characterised by limitations, not least in this context its lack of interest in the Arctic, and its bias towards conventional forms of representation in art. The article points to the need to develop a more integrated critique of colonial and neo...

  20. Feasibility of hydrogen from renewable energy in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, B.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' There is an abundance of renewable resources in the Canadian Arctic. Despite that diesel is still the conventional source used by homes and businesses for their electrical and space heating needs. Electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen using renewable resources is under investigation. A techno-economic feasibility has been conducted for hybrid systems including wind turbine, photovoltaic system, electrolyser and fuel cells. Different scenarios have been considered for meeting the needs of a small, remote community in the Arctic. Results will be presented indicating the most cost-effective Wind-PV-Electrolyser-Fuel Cell system for combined heat and power. (author)

  1. Wildlife and Tamarix

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter, we present a synthesis of published literature and preliminary reports on the use of Tamarix by wildlife in riparian systems. We discuss how several groups of wildlife; specifically herpetofauna, birds, and mammals utilize or avoid Tamarix and discuss the impacts of methods for cont...

  2. Wildlife value orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    This article examined value orientations toward wildlife among the adult general Danish public in relation to age, sex, past and present residence, education, and income, using a U.S. survey instrument on Wildlife Value Orientations (WVO). The study used an Internet-based questionnaire sent...

  3. Canada’s 2009 Northern Strategy: Cold War Policy in a Warming Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    more harm than benefit to Northern peoples like the Inuit , the people most directly affected by Arctic activities. They argue there is no immediate...waterways of the Arctic Archipelago, the Canadian government re-settled eight native Inuit families from northern Quebec to Resolute Bay and Grise Ford...76 Initially the re-location was claimed to be a humanitarian effort intended to save the lives of starving Inuit by providing them with new

  4. The Arctic Turn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon

    2018-01-01

    In October 2006, representatives of the Arctic governments met in Salekhard in northern Siberia for the biennial Arctic Council ministerial meeting to discuss how the council could combat regional climate change, among other issues. While most capitals were represented by their foreign minister......, a few states – Canada, Denmark, and the United States – sent other representatives. There was nothing unusual about the absence of Per Stig Møller, the Danish foreign minister – a Danish foreign minister had only once attended an Arctic Council ministerial meeting (Arctic Council 2016). Møller......’s nonappearance did, however, betray the low status that Arctic affairs had in the halls of government in Copenhagen. Since the end of the Cold War, where Greenland had helped tie Denmark and the US closer together due to its geostrategically important position between North America and the Soviet Union, Arctic...

  5. Collaboration across the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huppert, Verena Gisela; Chuffart, Romain François R.

    2017-01-01

    The Arctic is witnessing the rise of a new paradigm caused by an increase in pan-Arctic collaborations which co-exist with the region’s traditional linkages with the South. Using an analysis of concrete examples of regional collaborations in the Arctic today in the fields of education, health...... and infrastructure, this paper questions whether pan-Arctic collaborations in the Arctic are more viable than North-South collaborations, and explores the reasons behind and the foreseeable consequences of such collaborations. It shows that the newly emerging East-West paradigm operates at the same time...... as the traditional North-South paradigm, with no signs of the East-West paradigm being more viable in the foreseeable future. However, pan-Arctic collaboration, both due to pragmatic reasons and an increased awareness of similarities, is likely to increase in the future. The increased regionalization process...

  6. The expedition ARCTIC `96 of RV `Polarstern` (ARK XII) with the Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Cruise report; Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 des FS `Polarstern` (ARK XII) mit der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Fahrtbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augstein, E.

    1997-11-01

    The multinational expedition ARCTIC `96 was carried out jointly by two ships, the German RV POLARSTERN and the Swedish RV ODEN. The research programme was developed by scientists from British, Canadian, Finish, German, Irish, Norwegian, Russian, Swedish and US American research institutions and universities. The physical programme on POLARSTERN was primarily designed to foster the Arctic Climte System Study (ACSYS) in the framework of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). Investigations during the recent years have provided substantial evidence that the Arctic Ocean and the adjacent shelf seas play a significant role in the thermohaline oceanic circulation and may therefore have a distinct influence on global climate. Consequently the main ACSYS goals are concerned with studies of the governing oceanic, atmospheric and hydrological processes in the entire Arctic region. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 wurde von zwei Forschungsschiffen, der deutschen POLARSTERN und der schwedischen ODEN unter Beteiligung von Wissenschaftlern und Technikern aus Deutschland, Finnland, Grossbritannien, Irland, Kanada, Norwegen, Russland, Schweden und den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika durchgefuehrt. Die physikalischen Projekte auf der POLARSTERN dienten ueberwiegend der Unterstuetzung der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS) des Weltklimaforschungsprogramms, die auf die Erforschung der vorherrschenden ozeanischen, atmosphaerischen, kryosphaerischen und hydrologischen Prozesse der Arktisregion ausgerichtet ist. (orig.)

  7. The "Canadian" in Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Wolodko, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    Notes that a rich body of Canadian children's literature exists that reflects the country's literary and socio-cultural values, beliefs, themes and images, including those of geography, history, language and identity. Discusses how Canadians tend to identify themselves first by region or province and then by nation. (SG)

  8. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  9. Arctic wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, E.; Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Tammelin, B.

    1998-01-01

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  10. Protest: The Canadian pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    This popularly written article compares Canadian attitudes to protests against nuclear power to those in the United States. Canadian protesters are more peaceful, expressing their opinions within the law. The article describes the main anti-nuclear groups in Canada and presents the results of public opinion surveys of Canadians on the use of nuclear power for generating electricity. (TI)

  11. Marine distribution of arctic seabirds over six decades: changes and conservation applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, SNP; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Lieske, DJ

    Climate change is causing rapid changes in Arctic marine ecosystems and understanding its impacts on wildlife is critical for conservation management, especially as the decline in sea ice leads to increased development and vessel traffic. The Arctic supports hundreds of millions of seabirds, which...... collected from 1988 to 2015 and covering a combined 185,000 linear km, we examined the marine distribution of seabirds in sub-arctic and Arctic waters between Canada and Greenland, an area covering over 5,000,000 km2. We developed a predictive model to investigate how ice cover and ocean processes influence...... the distribution of arctic seabirds in summer and autumn and identified existing areas of high density. Comparing these results to at-sea surveys conducted in the same waters from 1966 - 1987, we examined how seabird distribution has changed over the last six decades. Understanding how changes in the marine...

  12. Tilting at wildlife: reconsidering human-wildlife conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Redpath, Stephen Mark; Bhatia, Saloni; Young, Juliette

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts between people over wildlife are widespread and damaging to both the wildlife and people involved. Such issues are often termed human–wildlife conflicts. We argue that this term is misleading and may exacerbate the problems and hinder resolution. A review of 100 recent articles on human–wildlife conflicts reveals that 97 were between conservation and other human activities, particularly those associated with livelihoods. We suggest that we should distinguish between human–wildlife i...

  13. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  14. VT Wildlife Crossing Value

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) WCV describes the value of the Wildlife Habitat Suitability as it approaches the state highway system. This analysis was designed to use the...

  15. Human adaptation responses to a rapidly changing Arctic: A research context for building system resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, T.; Brinkman, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    Although human behavior accounts for more uncertainty in future trajectories in climate change than do biophysical processes, most climate-change research fails to include human actions in research design and implementation. This is well-illustrated in the Arctic. At the global scale, arctic processes strongly influence the strength of biophysical feedbacks between global human emissions and the rate of climate warming. However, most human actions in the arctic have little effect on these feedbacks, so research can contribute most effectively to reduction in arctic warming through improved understanding of the strength of arctic-global biophysical feedbacks, as in NASA's ABoVE program, and its effective communication to policy makers and the public. In contrast, at the local to regional scale within the arctic, human actions may influence the ecological and societal consequences of arctic warming, so research benefits from active stakeholder engagement in research design and implementation. Human communities and other stakeholders (government and NGOs) respond heterogeneously to socioeconomic and environmental change, so research that documents the range of historical and current adaptive responses to change provides insights on the resilience (flexibility of future options) of social-ecological processes in the arctic. Alaskan communities have attempted a range of adaptive responses to coastal erosion (e.g., seasonal migration, protection in place, relocation), wildfire (fire suppression to use of fire to manage wildlife habitat or landscape heterogeneity), declining sea ice (e.g., new hunting technology, sea ice observations and predictions), and changes in wildlife and fish availability (e.g., switch to harvest of alternative species, harvest times, or harvest locations). Research that draws on both traditional and western knowledge facilitates adaptation and predictions of the likely societal consequences of climate change in the Arctic. Effective inclusion of

  16. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  17. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species

  18. Foodborne parasites from wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund

    2015-01-01

    The majority of wild foods consumed by humans are sourced from intensively managed or semi-farmed populations. Management practices inevitably affect wildlife density and habitat characteristics, which are key elements in the transmission of parasites. We consider the risk of transmission...... of foodborne parasites to humans from wildlife maintained under natural or semi-natural conditions. A deeper understanding will be useful in counteracting foodborne parasites arising from the growing industry of novel and exotic foods....

  19. Wildlife law and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bertouille, S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the crucial issues of our decades is how to stop the loss of biodiversity. Policy–makers need reliable data to base their decisions on. Managing wildlife populations requires, first of all, science–based knowledge of their abundance, dynamics, ecology, behaviour and dispersal capacities based on reliable qualitative data. The importance of dialogue and communication with the local actors should be stressed (Sennerby Forsse, 2010) as bag statistics and other monitoring data in wildlife ...

  20. Tuberculosis in Tanzanian wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, S; Mlengeya, T; Kazwala, R R; Michel, A; Kaare, M T; Jones, S L; Eblate, E; Shirima, G M; Packer, C

    2005-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a pathogen of growing concern in free-ranging wildlife in Africa, but little is known about the disease in Tanzanian wildlife. Here, we report the infection status of Mycobacterium bovis in a range of wildlife species sampled from protected areas in northern Tanzania. M. bovis was isolated from 11.1% (2/18) migratory wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and 11.1% (1/9) topi (Damaliscus lunatus) sampled systematically in 2000 during a meat cropping program in the Serengeti ecosystem, and from one wildebeest and one lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) killed by sport hunters adjacent to Tarangire National Park. A tuberculosis antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to screen serum samples collected from 184 Serengeti lions (Panthera leo) and 19 lions from Ngorongoro Crater sampled between 1985 and 2000. Samples from 212 ungulates collected throughout the protected area network between 1998 and 2001 also were tested by EIA. Serological assays detected antibodies to M. bovis in 4% of Serengeti lions; one positive lion was sampled in 1984. Antibodies were detected in one of 17 (6%) buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Tarangire and one of 41 (2%) wildebeest in the Serengeti. This study confirms for the first time the presence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife of northern Tanzania, but further investigation is required to assess the impact on wildlife populations and the role of different wildlife species in maintenance and transmission.

  1. Arctic circulation regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L

    2015-10-13

    Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. © 2015 The Authors.

  2. Arctic carbon cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, Torben R; Rysgaard, SØREN; Bendtsen, JØRGEN; Else, Brent; Glud, Ronnie N; van Huissteden, J.; Parmentier, F.J.W.; Sachs, Torsten; Vonk, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    The marine Arctic is considered a net carbon sink, with large regional differences in uptake rates. More regional modelling and observational studies are required to reduce the uncertainty among current estimates. Robust projections for how the Arctic Ocean carbon sink may evolve in the future are

  3. Arctic Haze Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Linlu; Xue, Yong

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic atmosphere is perturbed by nature/anthropogenic aerosol sources known as the Arctic haze, was firstly observed in 1956 by J. Murray Mitchell in Alaska (Mitchell, 1956). Pacyna and Shaw (1992) summarized that Arctic haze is a mixture of anthropogenic and natural pollutants from a variety of sources in different geographical areas at altitudes from 2 to 4 or 5 km while the source for layers of polluted air at altitudes below 2.5 km mainly comes from episodic transportation of anthropogenic sources situated closer to the Arctic. Arctic haze of low troposphere was found to be of a very strong seasonal variation characterized by a summer minimum and a winter maximum in Alaskan (Barrie, 1986; Shaw, 1995) and other Arctic region (Xie and Hopke, 1999). An anthropogenic factor dominated by together with metallic species like Pb, Zn, V, As, Sb, In, etc. and nature source such as sea salt factor consisting mainly of Cl, Na, and K (Xie and Hopke, 1999), dust containing Fe, Al and so on (Rahn et al.,1977). Black carbon and soot can also be included during summer time because of the mix of smoke from wildfires. The Arctic air mass is a unique meteorological feature of the troposphere characterized by sub-zero temperatures, little precipitation, stable stratification that prevents strong vertical mixing and low levels of solar radiations (Barrie, 1986), causing less pollutants was scavenged, the major revival pathway for particulates from the atmosphere in Arctic (Shaw, 1981, 1995; Heintzenberg and Larssen, 1983). Due to the special meteorological condition mentioned above, we can conclude that Eurasian is the main contributor of the Arctic pollutants and the strong transport into the Arctic from Eurasia during winter caused by the high pressure of the climatologically persistent Siberian high pressure region (Barrie, 1986). The paper intends to address the atmospheric characteristics of Arctic haze by comparing the clear day and haze day using different dataset

  4. The Arctic : the great breakup; Arctique : la grande debacle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, R.

    2007-05-15

    The impact that climate change has had on the famous Northwest passage in Canada's Arctic was discussed. The water channel through the Arctic Islands is now navigable during the summer and it has been predicted that in 40 years, it may be navigable throughout the entire year. Although the Arctic is still covered with snow, the icebergs which navigators have feared no longer exist. Environment Canada has cautioned that Canada's extreme north would be most at risk from global warming, with temperatures increasing by 6 degrees, or 3 times higher than in moderate zones. The joint Canadian-United States program Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic has also confirmed that the waters of the Beaufort Sea are less salty and relatively warmer. Climatologists also project that the predicted increase in snowfall will act as an insulation blanket, thereby preventing the ice from thickening. Scientists stated that the gigantic polar cap, which has been frozen for the past 3.2 million years, will have fissures everywhere by 2080. The Northwest passage will become easily accessible in less than 10 years. This article raised questions regarding the role of the Northwest passage as an international maritime route. It presented the case of the first successful passage of a U.S. commercial oil tanker in 1969 which created controversy regarding Canada's territorial waters. Fourty years later, this issue is still not resolved. The article questioned whether there should be more cooperation on both the Canadian and American sides in light of the shared common interests such as commerce, science and security. It was noted that although Canada has sovereignty of the Arctic Islands, there are eight other countries who share the Arctic. 4 figs.

  5. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...... amount of data is available along the Norwegian and Russian coasts since 1950, and most published research on Arctic sea level extends cautiously from these areas. Very little tide gauge data is available elsewhere in the Arctic, and records of a length of several decades,as generally recommended for sea...

  6. Arctic development and historical analysis: the use of historical methodology in addressing current issues in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Vasiliki Kravariotis

    2008-06-01

    To demonstrate the applicability of historical methodology to current issues in the Canadian Arctic. This is a literature-based analytical historical study, which draws on material from database searches of MEDLINE, Anthropology Plus, POLARInfo, the Arctic Blue Books and Historical Abstracts. Material was also obtained from physical searches of the University of Alberta Libraries and Library and Archives Canada collections, as well as from field research in the records of the Inuulitsivik Maternities. The historical technique of tracing epistemological change over time, pioneered by Michel Foucault and further developed by Ian Hacking, was applied to the history of Canadian authority in the Arctic. This was linked with epistemological changes occurring throughout Western/Southern culture in this period. The applicability of this historical analysis for current issues in the region was then evaluated. An epistemological shift in Western society has moved authority from traditional human actors in government, medicine and, increasingly, science to statistics, which is seen as both impartial and accurate. Human authorities now routinely appeal to statistical authority to validate policy decisions. This change is as apparent in the Arctic as elsewhere, but it has also opened a space for Inuit practices, rooted in traditional Inuit epistemology, to reassert themselves, provided they can satisfy demands for statistical validity. Historical analysis provides a means to identify the spaces which epistemological change and historical contingency have opened in which social and cultural change can occur.

  7. Climate-induced behavioral changes influence exposure of an Arctic apex predator to pathogens and contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) may serve as sentinels for pathogens and contaminants, providing insight into changing Arctic ecosystems and health risks to wildlife and humans. Recent changes in the availability of sea ice habitat have coincided with increased use of land by polar bears from the sout...

  8. Arctic Climate Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, David G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peterson, Kara J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Desilets, Darin Maurice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reinert, Rhonda Karen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This study began with a challenge from program area managers at Sandia National Laboratories to technical staff in the energy, climate, and infrastructure security areas: apply a systems-level perspective to existing science and technology program areas in order to determine technology gaps, identify new technical capabilities at Sandia that could be applied to these areas, and identify opportunities for innovation. The Arctic was selected as one of these areas for systems level analyses, and this report documents the results. In this study, an emphasis was placed on the arctic atmosphere since Sandia has been active in atmospheric research in the Arctic since 1997. This study begins with a discussion of the challenges and benefits of analyzing the Arctic as a system. It goes on to discuss current and future needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for more comprehensive data products related to the Arctic; assess the current state of atmospheric measurement resources available for the Arctic; and explain how the capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories can be used to address the identified technological, data, and modeling needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for Arctic support.

  9. Determination of monomethylmercury and dimethylmercury in the Arctic marine boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baya, Pascale A; Gosselin, Michel; Lehnherr, Igor; St Louis, Vincent L; Hintelmann, Holger

    2015-01-06

    Our understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of monomethylmercury (MMHg) in the Arctic is incomplete because atmospheric sources and sinks of MMHg are still unclear. We sampled air in the Canadian Arctic marine boundary layer to quantify, for the first time, atmospheric concentrations of methylated Hg species (both MMHg and dimethylmercury (DMHg)), and, estimate the importance of atmospheric deposition as a source of MMHg to Arctic land- and sea-scapes. Overall atmospheric MMHg and DMHg concentrations (mean ± SD) were 2.9 ± 3.6 and 3.8 ± 3.1 (n = 37) pg m(-3), respectively. Concentrations of methylated Hg species in the marine boundary layer varied significantly among our sites, with a predominance of MMHg over Hudson Bay (HB), and DMHg over Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) waters. We concluded that DMHg is of marine origin and that primary production rate and sea-ice cover are major drivers of its concentration in the Canadian Arctic marine boundary layer. Summer wet deposition rates of atmospheric MMHg, likely to be the product of DMHg degradation in the atmosphere, were estimated at 188 ± 117.5 ng m(-2) and 37 ± 21.7 ng m(-2) for HB and CAA, respectively, sustaining MMHg concentrations available for biomagnification in the pelagic food web.

  10. An Existentialist in Iqaluit: Existentialism and Reflexivity Informing Pedagogy in the Canadian North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    Reflecting on the personal experience of teaching human resource management in the Canadian Arctic, the author explores the utility of an existentialist approach to pedagogy. The author outlines select aspects of existentialism that are pertinent to the teaching and discusses the implications of using reflexive existential thought as guidance in a…

  11. Globalising the Arctic Climate:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    This chapter uses an object-oriented approach to explore how the Arctic is being constituted as an object of global governance within an emerging ‘global polity’, partly through geoengineering plans and political visions ('imaginaries'). It suggests that governance objects—the socially constructed...... on world politics. The emergence of the Arctic climate as a potential target of governance provides a case in point. The Arctic climate is becoming globalised, pushing it up the political agenda but drawing it away from its local and regional context....

  12. Canada : oil, gas, and the new Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebert, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Political Science; Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Centre for Military and Strategic Studies

    2010-07-01

    This presentation provided a broad overview of the geopolitical issues affecting the massive transformation of the Arctic resulting from resource development, globalization, and climate change. Two Arctics are emerging, notably one European and one North American. Oil and gas companies are investing heavily in the North, and there is continued debate over pipelines and projects, but the viability of projects can shift abruptly from technological and political change. Recent examples include the emergence of shale gas, the possibility of the United States becoming a gas exporter, and the Deepwater Horizon disaster. In terms of Maritime jurisdictions and boundaries, a comparison was presented regarding the Canadian and Russian claims to the continental shelf. International cooperation and a commitment to peaceful means can be seen in the Ilulissat Declaration, the acceptance of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea as rules, the scientific cooperation of Canada, the United States, and Denmark, and the recent boundary agreement between Russia and Norway. The positions of the main players in the new geopolitics of the North were outlined, particularly with respect to Russia, the United States, Norway, Denmark, and Canada. Their recent policy statements and developing arctic force capabilities were summarized. Canada's more assertive Arctic policy was outlined in more detail along with the country's base locations and recent security actions in the North. The main issues facing nations with interests in the North will be maritime and aerospace; understanding the new players on the scene; and new technological developments. 10 figs., 5 refs.

  13. Transitions of social-ecological subsistence systems in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Fauchald

    2017-04-01

    intensifying exogenous driver that is threatening many important Arctic wildlife resources inflicting increased appropriation challenges to the governance of local harvest.

  14. Future human health research directions for the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Shawn G.; Curren, Meredith S.; Adlard, Bryan; Provost, Jonathan; Leech, Tara; Tikhonov, Constantine; Feeley, Mark; Tomlinson, Scott; Shearer, Russel

    2013-01-01

    Studies conducted in the mid-1980s and early 1990s demonstrated that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals were reaching the Arctic ecosystem at unexpectedly high levels, many of which had no Arctic or Canadian sources. Epidemiological and toxicological studies in Canada and in other countries have found that these contaminants may pose a risk to human health. The objective of this paper is to provide the foundation for the discussion on future northern human health research under the Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) in Canada. This short discussion of human health priorities will help guide a path forward for future northern human health research in Canada to address on-going and new health concerns related to contaminants exposure in the Canadian Arctic. PMID:24282784

  15. NORTHWOODS Wildlife Habitat Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Janine M. Benyus; Richard R. Buech

    1992-01-01

    Wildlife habitat data from seven Great Lakes National Forests were combined into a wildlife-habitat matrix named NORTHWOODS. Several electronic file formats of NORTHWOODS data base and documentation are available on floppy disks for microcomputers.

  16. Arctic Mixed Layer Dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morison, James

    2003-01-01

    .... Over the years we have sought to understand the heat and mass balance of the mixed layer, marginal ice zone processes, the Arctic internal wave and mixing environment, summer and winter leads, and convection...

  17. Arctic Aerosols and Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ingeborg Elbæk

    2017-01-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases has been increasing, leading to a rise in the global temperature. Particularly in the Arctic, climate change is having serious impact where the average temperature has increased almost twice as much as the global during......, ammonium, black carbon, and trace metals. This PhD dissertation studies Arctic aerosols and their sources, with special focus on black carbon, attempting to increase the knowledge about aerosols’ effect on the climate in an Arctic content. The first part of the dissertation examines the diversity...... of aerosol emissions from an important anthropogenic aerosol source: residential wood combustion. The second part, characterizes the chemical and physical composition of aerosols while investigating sources of aerosols in the Arctic. The main instrument used in this research has been the state...

  18. Live from the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    For reasons of geography and geophysics, the poles of our planet, the Arctic and Antarctica, are places where climate change appears first: they are global canaries in the mine shaft. But while Antarctica (its penguins and ozone hole, for example) has been relatively well-documented in recent books, TV programs and journalism, the far North has received somewhat less attention. This project builds on and advances what has been done to date to share the people, places, and stories of the North with all Americans through multiple media, over several years. In a collaborative project between the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) and PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, Live from the Arctic will bring the Arctic environment to the public through a series of primetime broadcasts, live and taped programming, interactive virtual field trips, and webcasts. The five-year project will culminate during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY). Live from the Arctic will: A. Promote global understanding about the value and world -wide significance of the Arctic, B. Bring cutting-edge research to both non-formal and formal education communities, C. Provide opportunities for collaboration between arctic scientists, arctic communities, and the general public. Content will focus on the following four themes. 1. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts on Land (i.e. snow cover; permafrost; glaciers; hydrology; species composition, distribution, and abundance; subsistence harvesting) 2. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Sea (i.e. salinity, temperature, currents, nutrients, sea ice, marine ecosystems (including people, marine mammals and fisheries) 3. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Atmosphere (i.e. precipitation and evaporation; effects on humans and their communities) 4. Global Perspectives (i.e. effects on humans and communities, impacts to rest of the world) In The Earth is Faster Now, a recent collection of comments by members of indigenous arctic peoples, arctic

  19. On Uncertain Ice: The Future of Arctic Shipping and the Northwest Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney Lackenbauer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic sea-ice is in a state of rapid decline. Barriers to navigation that once doomed the likes of Sir John Franklin and closed the shortcut to the Orient now seem to be melting away. The prospect of shorter, transpolar transportation routes linking Asian and Western markets has inspired excitement and fear, and particularly the latter when it comes to Canadian sovereignty. This paper confirms recent studies suggesting that, in spite of the general trend towards reduced ice cover in the Arctic Basin, environmental variability, scarce infrastructure and other navigational aids, and uncertain economics make it unlikely that the Northwest Passage will emerge as a viable trans-shipping route in the foreseeable future. Instead, the region is likely to witness a steady increase in resource, resupply, and tourist destinational shipping. Accordingly, concerns that this increased activity will adversely affect Canadian sovereignty are misplaced. Rather than calling into question Canadian control, foreign vessels engaged in local activities are likely to reinforce Canada’s legal position by demonstrating an international acceptance of Canadian laws and regulations. Rather than worrying about the “sovereignty” ramifications of Arctic shipping, the Canadian government should focus its short – and medium – term energies on the practical requirements of developing and maintaining safe shipping routes. At the heart of this requirement is ensuring that such activity is beneficial to Inuit, whose traditional “highways” will double as transits routes for resource carriers and cruise liners. If developed with an eye to those most directly affected, Canada’s Arctic waters can become a well-managed route to an increasingly attractive region, making our Arctic a destination rather than mere space through which to pass.

  20. Science and Civics: Sustaining Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Environmental Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Project WILD's new high school curriculum, "Science and Civics: Sustaining Wildlife", is designed to serve as a guide for involving students in environmental action projects aimed at benefitting the local wildlife found in a community. It involves young people in decisions affecting people, wildlife, and their shared habitat in the community. The…

  1. Oak woodlands as wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Tietje; K. Purcell; S. Drill

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides local planners and policymakers with information on the diversity and abundance of oak woodland wildlife, wildlife habitat needs, and how local planning activities can influence wildlife abundance and diversity. Federal and state laws, particularly the federal and California Endangered Species Act and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA...

  2. Great Basin wildlife disease concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ Mason

    2008-01-01

    In the Great Basin, wildlife diseases have always represented a significant challenge to wildlife managers, agricultural production, and human health and safety. One of the first priorities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Fish and Wildlife Services was Congressionally directed action to eradicate vectors for zoonotic disease, particularly rabies, in...

  3. TRAFFIC - Wildlife Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    growing in Eastern and Southern Africa in response to increased human populations and poverty. fuel-trees etc. Conversely, extreme poverty of others means they regard wildlife as a means to meet their short worldwide. You can also find us online in: mainland China, India, Japan, Taiwan TRAFFIC is a strategic

  4. Persistent organic pollutants in ringed seals from the Russian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinov, Vladimir; Muir, Derek C G; Svetochev, Vladislav; Svetocheva, Olga; Belikov, Stanislav; Boltunov, Andrey; Alekseeva, Ludmila; Reiersen, Lars-Otto; Savinova, Tatiana

    2011-06-15

    Organochlorine compounds total DDT (ΣDDT), total HCH isomers (ΣHCH), toxaphenes (sum of Parlar 26, 50, 62), mirex, endrin, methoxychlor, total chlorinated benzenes (ΣCBz), total chlordane compounds (ΣCHL), polychlorinated biphenyls (total of 56 congeners; ΣPCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (sum of 7 tri- to hepta congeners; ΣPBDEs) were analysed in the blubber of adult ringed seals from the four areas of the Russian Arctic (White Sea, Barents Sea, Kara Sea and Chukchi Sea) collected in 2001-2005. Ringed seals from the south-western part of the Kara Sea (Dikson Island - Yenisei estuary) were the most contaminated with ΣDDTs, ΣPCBs, ΣCHL, and mirex as compared with those found in the other three areas of Russian Arctic, while the highest mean concentrations of ΣHCHs and PCDD/Fs were found in the blubber of ringed seals from the Chukchi Sea and the White Sea, respectively. Among all organochlorine compounds measured in ringed seals from the European part of the Russian Arctic, concentrations of ΣDDT and ΣPCBs only were higher as compared with the other Arctic regions. Levels of all other organochlorine compounds were similar or lower than in seals from Svalbard, Alaska, the Canadian Arctic and Greenland. ΣPBDEs were found in all ringed seal samples analysed. There were no significant differences between ΣPBDE concentrations found in the blubber of ringed seals from the three studied areas of the European part of the Russian Arctic, while PBDE contamination level in ringed seals from the Chukchi Sea was 30-50 times lower. ΣPBDE levels in the blubber of seals from the European part of the Russian Arctic are slightly higher than in ringed seals from the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and western Greenland but lower compared to ringed seals from Svalbard and eastern Greenland. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mass balance of Greenland and the Canadian Ice Caps from combined altimetry and GRACE inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    The combination of GRACE and altimetry data may yield a high resolution mass balance time series of the Greenlandice sheet, highlighting the varying individual mass loss behaviour of major glaciers. By including the Canadian arctic ice caps in the estimation, a more reliable estimate of the mass...... loss of both Greenlandand the Canadian ice caps may be obtained, minimizing the leakage errors otherwise unavoidable by GRACE. Actually, the absolute value of the Greenlandice sheet mass loss is highly dependent on methods and how the effects of Arctic Canadian ice caps are separated in the GRACE...... loss of the ice caps and ice sheet basins for the period 2003-15. This period shows a marked increase of ice sheet melt, especially in NW and NE Greenland, but also show large variability, with the melt anomaly year of 2012 showing a record mass loss, followed by 2013 with essentially no Greenland mass...

  6. Framing Canadian federalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saywell, John; Anastakis, Dimitry; Bryden, Penny E

    2009-01-01

    ... the pervasive effects that federalism has on Canadian politics, economics, culture, and history, and provide a detailed framework in which to understand contemporary federalism. Written in honour of John T. Saywell's half-century of accomplished and influential scholarly work and teaching, Framing Canadian Federalism is a timely and fitting t...

  7. Sea Ice Melt Pond Data from the Canadian Arctic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains observations of albedo, depth, and physical characteristics of melt ponds on sea ice, taken during the summer of 1994. The melt ponds studied...

  8. Geochemistry of the brachiopod Hemithiris psittacea from the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, Clemens V.; Korte, Christoph; Bitner, M. Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Fossil shell material from high palaeo-latitudes is increasingly studied for environmental forcings specific to these latitudes and as sensitive archives of climate change. However, more detailed studies of modern analogues are necessary for putting findings into global and high latitude perspect...

  9. Adolescence and changing family relations in the Central Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, R G

    1990-04-01

    This paper reports on a ten-year longitudinal study of adolescent development and socialization conducted in the Copper Inuit community of Holman. This research has documented how demographic, social, and economic changes have dramatically altered the patterning and sequencing of traditional Inuit life stages, thus giving rise to a prolonged adolescent life stage which was non-existent in the precontact period. At the same time, Inuit family relations have undergone drastic changes as a result of population increase, population concentration, access to government housing, introduction of formal schooling, and the availability of social subsides. Today, the Copper Inuit family has lost its focus as the primary agent of socialization and learning, and many young Inuit now spend most of their time within the context of a greatly expanded peer group which has gradually acquired the values and aspirations of the southern adolescent sub-culture. This paper will discuss the impact of these changing attitudes upon parent-child relations as well as the social adjustment problems experienced by young Inuit as they strive to find a place in the North's changing social landscape.

  10. Contemporary Arctic Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    During recent decades, the Arctic region has warmed at a rate about twice the rest of the globe. Sea ice melting is increasing and the Greenland ice sheet is losing mass at an accelerated rate. Arctic warming, decrease in the sea ice cover and fresh water input to the Arctic ocean may eventually impact the Arctic sea level. In this presentation, we review our current knowledge of contemporary Arctic sea level changes. Until the beginning of the 1990s, Arctic sea level variations were essentially deduced from tide gauges located along the Russian and Norwegian coastlines. Since then, high inclination satellite altimetry missions have allowed measuring sea level over a large portion of the Arctic Ocean (up to 80 degree north). Measuring sea level in the Arctic by satellite altimetry is challenging because the presence of sea ice cover limits the full capacity of this technique. However adapted processing of raw altimetric measurements significantly increases the number of valid data, hence the data coverage, from which regional sea level variations can be extracted. Over the altimetry era, positive trend patterns are observed over the Beaufort Gyre and along the east coast of Greenland, while negative trends are reported along the Siberian shelf. On average over the Arctic region covered by satellite altimetry, the rate of sea level rise since 1992 is slightly less than the global mea sea level rate (of about 3 mm per year). On the other hand, the interannual variability is quite significant. Space gravimetry data from the GRACE mission and ocean reanalyses provide information on the mass and steric contributions to sea level, hence on the sea level budget. Budget studies show that regional sea level trends over the Beaufort Gyre and along the eastern coast of Greenland, are essentially due to salinity changes. However, in terms of regional average, the net steric component contributes little to the observed sea level trend. The sea level budget in the Arctic

  11. Pan-Arctic Distribution of Bioavailable Dissolved Organic Matter and Linkages With Productivity in Ocean Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuan; Benner, Ronald; Kaiser, Karl; Fichot, Cédric G.; Whitledge, Terry E.

    2018-02-01

    Rapid environmental changes in the Arctic Ocean affect plankton productivity and the bioavailability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) that supports microbial food webs. We report concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and yields of amino acids (indicators of labile DOM) in surface waters across major Arctic margins. Concentrations of DOC and bioavailability of DOM showed large pan-Arctic variability that corresponded to varying hydrological conditions and ecosystem productivity, respectively. Widespread hot spots of labile DOM were observed over productive inflow shelves (Chukchi and Barents Seas), in contrast to oligotrophic interior margins (Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, and Beaufort Seas). Amino acid yields in outflow gateways (Canadian Archipelago and Baffin Bay) indicated the prevalence of semilabile DOM in sea ice covered regions and sporadic production of labile DOM in ice-free waters. Comparing these observations with surface circulation patterns indicated varying shelf subsidies of bioavailable DOM to Arctic deep basins.

  12. Arctic Rabies – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestrud Pål

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies seems to persist throughout most arctic regions, and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, is the only part of the Arctic where rabies has not been diagnosed in recent time. The arctic fox is the main host, and the same arctic virus variant seems to infect the arctic fox throughout the range of this species. The epidemiology of rabies seems to have certain common characteristics in arctic regions, but main questions such as the maintenance and spread of the disease remains largely unknown. The virus has spread and initiated new epidemics also in other species such as the red fox and the racoon dog. Large land areas and cold climate complicate the control of the disease, but experimental oral vaccination of arctic foxes has been successful. This article summarises the current knowledge and the typical characteristics of arctic rabies including its distribution and epidemiology.

  13. Radioactivity and wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, V.H.; Horrill, A.D.; Livens, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    The official assumption is that if levels of radioactivity are safe for humans, they are safe for wildlife too. NCC sponsored a research project by the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology to find out what was known in this field. It appears that the assumption is justified to a certain extent in that mammals are identified as the organisms most vulnerable to the damaging effects of radioactivity. Other general principles are put forward: where there are radioactive discharges to the marine environment, coastal muds and saltmarshes can be particularly contaminated; upland habitats, with low nutrient status and subject to high rainfall, are likely to accumulate radioactivity from atmospheric discharges (e.g. Chernobyl, the wildlife effects of which are reported here). The document concludes that no deleterious effects of radioactivity on wild plants and animals have been detected in the UK, but acknowledges that there are still many gaps in our knowledge of the behaviour of radioisotopes in the natural environment. (UK)

  14. Arctic security and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamnes, Rolf

    2013-03-01

    Global warming is one of the most serious threats facing mankind. Many regions and countries will be affected, and there will be many losers. The earliest and most intense climatic changes are being experienced in the Arctic region. Arctic average temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in the past half century. These changes provide an early indication for the world of the environmental and societal significance of global warming. For that reason, the Arctic presents itself as an important scientific laboratory for improving our understanding of the causes and patterns of climate changes. The rapidly rising temperature threatens the Arctic ecosystem, but the human consequences seem to be far less dramatic there than in many other places in the world. According to the U.S. National Intelligence Council, Russia has the potential to gain the most from increasingly temperate weather, because its petroleum reserves become more accessible and because the opening of an Arctic waterway could provide economic and commercial advantages. Norway might also be fortunate. Some years ago, the Financial Times asked: #Left Double Quotation Mark#What should Norway do about the fact that global warming will make their climate more hospitable and enhance their financial situation, even as it inflicts damage on other parts of the world?#Right Double Quotation Mark#(Author)

  15. Canadian snow and sea ice: historical trends and projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudryk, Lawrence R.; Derksen, Chris; Howell, Stephen; Laliberté, Fred; Thackeray, Chad; Sospedra-Alfonso, Reinel; Vionnet, Vincent; Kushner, Paul J.; Brown, Ross

    2018-04-01

    The Canadian Sea Ice and Snow Evolution (CanSISE) Network is a climate research network focused on developing and applying state of the art observational data to advance dynamical prediction, projections, and understanding of seasonal snow cover and sea ice in Canada and the circumpolar Arctic. Here, we present an assessment from the CanSISE Network on trends in the historical record of snow cover (fraction, water equivalent) and sea ice (area, concentration, type, and thickness) across Canada. We also assess projected changes in snow cover and sea ice likely to occur by mid-century, as simulated by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) suite of Earth system models. The historical datasets show that the fraction of Canadian land and marine areas covered by snow and ice is decreasing over time, with seasonal and regional variability in the trends consistent with regional differences in surface temperature trends. In particular, summer sea ice cover has decreased significantly across nearly all Canadian marine regions, and the rate of multi-year ice loss in the Beaufort Sea and Canadian Arctic Archipelago has nearly doubled over the last 8 years. The multi-model consensus over the 2020-2050 period shows reductions in fall and spring snow cover fraction and sea ice concentration of 5-10 % per decade (or 15-30 % in total), with similar reductions in winter sea ice concentration in both Hudson Bay and eastern Canadian waters. Peak pre-melt terrestrial snow water equivalent reductions of up to 10 % per decade (30 % in total) are projected across southern Canada.

  16. A Hero in the Friendly Arctic: Deconstructing Vilhjalmur Stefansson's Rhetorical Maneuver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje Gaupseth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with Arctic explorer and anthropologist Vilhjalmur Stefansson's self-presentation in the expedition account The Friendly Arctic: The Story of Five Years in Polar Regions (1921, which tells the story of his travels and trials in the Canadian High Arctic in the years between 1913-1918. The account has been considered a key text to Stefansson's Arctic career, and provides a textbook example of his characteristic theory of living off the country in the so-called Eskimo way. Against the background of Stefansson's debated position as Arctic expert and visionary, I ask if it is possible to read the kind of criticism with which Stefansson frequently was met as rooted in some of the narrative aspects of his account. The narrative persona or implied author is a central element in the literature of exploration, as several literary scholars have pointed out. My reading is centred around the implied author of The Friendly Arctic, which I argue must be read in light of the sometimes conflicting roles given to Stefansson as protagonist and narrator in his own story. Close-readings of passages from the account raise the dilemma of how it is possible to present oneself as a hero in an essentially friendly Arctic.

  17. Declining summer snowfall in the Arctic: causes, impacts and feedbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Screen, James A.; Simmonds, Ian [University of Melbourne, School of Earth Sciences, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2012-06-15

    Recent changes in the Arctic hydrological cycle are explored using in situ observations and an improved atmospheric reanalysis data set, ERA-Interim. We document a pronounced decline in summer snowfall over the Arctic Ocean and Canadian Archipelago. The snowfall decline is diagnosed as being almost entirely caused by changes in precipitation form (snow turning to rain) with very little influence of decreases in total precipitation. The proportion of precipitation falling as snow has decreased as a result of lower-atmospheric warming. Statistically, over 99% of the summer snowfall decline is linked to Arctic warming over the past two decades. Based on the reanalysis snowfall data over the ice-covered Arctic Ocean, we derive an estimate for the amount of snow-covered ice. It is estimated that the area of snow-covered ice, and the proportion of sea ice covered by snow, have decreased significantly. We perform a series of sensitivity experiments in which inter-annual changes in snow-covered ice are either unaccounted for, or are parameterized. In the parameterized case, the loss of snow-on-ice results in a substantial decrease in the surface albedo over the Arctic Ocean, that is of comparable magnitude to the decrease in albedo due to the decline in sea ice cover. Accordingly, the solar input to the Arctic Ocean is increased, causing additional surface ice melt. We conclude that the decline in summer snowfall has likely contributed to the thinning of sea ice over recent decades. The results presented provide support for the existence of a positive feedback in association with warming-induced reductions in summer snowfall. (orig.)

  18. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  19. Anthropogenic mercury deposition to arctic lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, M.H. [Westchester University, Westchester, PA (United States). Dept. of Health

    1998-01-01

    The history of atmospheric mercury inputs to remote arctic regions can be measured in lake sediment cores using lead-210 chronology. In the investigation, total mercury deposition is measured in sediments from Imitavik and Annak Lakes on the Belcher Islands in southeastern Hudson Bay, an area in the southern Canadian Arctic with no history of local industrial or agricultural sources of contamination. Both lakes received background and atmospheric inputs of mercury while Annak also received mercury from raw domestic sewage from the Hamlet of Sanikiluaq, a growing Inuit community of about 550 established in the late 1960s. Results from Imitavik show that anthropogenic mercury inputs, apparently transported through the atmosphere, began to appear in the mid-eighteenth century, and continued to the 1990s. Annak had a similar mercury history until the late 1960s when disposal of domestic sewage led to increased sediment and contaminant accumulation. The high input of mercury to Annak confirms that Sanikiluaq residents are exposed to mercury through native food sources. 39 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Canadian nuclear risk experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, P.E.

    1982-05-01

    Risk assessment in the Canadian nuclear fuel cycle is a very important and complex subject. Many levels of government are involved in deciding the acceptable limits for the risks, taking into account the benefits for society [fr

  1. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    The peak of biological activities in Arctic ecosystems is characterized by a relative short and intense period between the start of snowmelt until the onset of frost. Recent climate changes have induced larger seasonal variation in both timing of snowmelt as well as changes mean temperatures......, an extensive monitoring program has been conducted in the North Eastern Greenland National Park, the Zackenberg Basic. The objective of the program is to provide long time series of data on the natural innate oscillations and plasticity of a High Arctic ecosystem. With offset in the data provided through...

  2. Fording Canadian Coal Trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popowich, J.; Millos, R. [Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This is the first of five slide/overhead presentations presented at the Fording Canadian Coal Trust and Tech Cominco Ltd. investor day and mine tour. The Fording Canadian Coal Trust is described. The Trust's assets comprise six Elk Valley metallurgical coal mines and six wollastonite operations (in the NYCO Group). Trust structure, corporate responsibility, organizational structure, reserves and resources, management philosophy, operating strategies, steel market dynamics, coal market, production expansion, sales and distribution are outlined. 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Recent development of wildlife transfer databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, Nicholas A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Center, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Copplestone, David [Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Hosseini, A.; Brown, Justin E. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Johansen, Mathew P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Rd, Menai, NSW (Australia); Hirth, Gillian [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, 619 Lower Plenty Rd, Yallambie, 3085, Victoria (Australia); Sheppard, Steve [ECOMatters Inc, WB Lewis Business Centre, 24 Aberdeen Avenue, Suite 105, Pinawa, Manitoba, R0E 1L0 (Canada); Dagher, Elias [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Environmental Risk Assessment Division, 280 Slater, Ottawa, K1A0H3 (Canada); Yankovich, Tamara [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, 1400, Vienna (Austria); Uchida, Shigeo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Napier, Jon [Oregon State University, Oregon (United States); Outola, Iisa [STUK, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J.; Barnett, Catherine L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Center, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Wood, Michael D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    The transfer of radionuclides to wildlife in the environmental radiological assessment models developed over the last two decades is most often described by the whole organism concentration ratio (CRwo-media). This parameter relates whole organism activity concentrations to those in environmental media (typically soil for terrestrial ecosystems and water for aquatic ecosystems). When first released in 2007, the ERICA Tool contained the most comprehensive and well documented CRwo-media database available for wildlife. It was subsequently used in the US DOE RESRAD-BIOTA model and formed the initial basis for the international wildlife transfer database (WTD; www.wildlifetransferdatabase.org/?) developed to support IAEA and ICRP activities. Subsequently, many additional data were input to the WTD, including the outputs of a review of Russian language literature and data from Canadian monitoring programmes associated with nuclear power plants, U-mining and related industries. Summarised data from the WTD in 2011 were used to provide CRwo values in ICRP 114 and the IAEA's handbook on wildlife transfer parameters (http://www-ns.iaea.org/projects/emras/emras2/working-groups/working-group-five.asp?s=8&l=63). This paper provides an update on the development of the WTD subsequent to 2011 and its application to derive revised default CRwo-media parameter values of the ERICA Tool. Since 2011, some circa 17,000 additional CRwo-media values have been added to the WTD. The new inputs include original data for: representative species of the ICRPs Representative Animals and Plants (RAPs) from a UK forest; monitoring data from Japanese estuaries and Finland; Canadian wildlife; plutonium uptake data from US weapons testing programme sites; wild plants and invertebrates from north western USA; refereed literature published after 2011. Additionally, data already in the WTD from Australia were reviewed with reference to original source reports not previously considered and amended

  4. Acquiring Marine Data in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Jackson, H. Ruth; Shimeld, John W.; Chapman, C. Borden; Childs, Jonathan R.; Funck, Thomas; Rowland, Robert W.

    2009-06-01

    Despite the record minimum ice extent in the Arctic Ocean for the past 2 years, collecting geophysical data with towed sensors in ice-covered regions continues to pose enormous challenges. Significant parts of the Canada Basin in the western Arctic Ocean have remained largely unmapped because thick multiyear ice has limited access even by research vessels strengthened against ice [Jackson et al., 1990]. Because of the resulting paucity of data, the western Arctic Ocean is one of the few areas of ocean in the world where major controversies still exist with respect to its origin and tectonic evolution [Grantz et al., 1990; Lawver and Scotese, 1990; Lane, 1997; Miller et al., 2006]. This article describes the logistical challenges and initial data sets from geophysical seismic reflection, seismic refraction, and hydrographic surveys in the Canada Basin conducted by scientists with U.S. and Canadian government agencies (Figure 1a) to fulfill the requirements of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to determine sediment thickness, geological origin, and basin evolution in this unexplored part of the world. Some of these data were collected using a single ship, but the heaviest ice conditions necessitated using two icebreakers, similar to other recent Arctic surveys [e.g., Jokat, 2003].

  5. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP......-Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long...

  6. Human-induced Arctic moistening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis

    2008-04-25

    The Arctic and northern subpolar regions are critical for climate change. Ice-albedo feedback amplifies warming in the Arctic, and fluctuations of regional fresh water inflow to the Arctic Ocean modulate the deep ocean circulation and thus exert a strong global influence. By comparing observations to simulations from 22 coupled climate models, we find influence from anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols in the space-time pattern of precipitation change over high-latitude land areas north of 55 degrees N during the second half of the 20th century. The human-induced Arctic moistening is consistent with observed increases in Arctic river discharge and freshening of Arctic water masses. This result provides new evidence that human activity has contributed to Arctic hydrological change.

  7. Lidar Measurements of Tropospheric Ozone in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seabrook Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on differential absorption lidar (DIAL measurements of tropospheric ozone in the Canadian Arctic during springtime. Measurements at Eureka Weather Station revealed that mountains have a significant effect on the vertical structure of ozone above Ellesmere Island. Ozone depletion events were observed when air that had spent significant time near to the frozen surface of the Arctic Ocean reached Eureka. This air arrived at Eureka by flowing over the surrounding mountains. Surface level ozone depletions were not observed during periods when the flow of air from over the sea ice was blocked by mountains. In the case of blocking there was an enhancement in the amount of ozone near the surface as air from the mid troposphere descended in the lee of the mountains. Three case studies will be shown in the presentation, while one is described in this paper.

  8. Arctic Solutions The Frozen (Thawing) Relations of the High North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Ch.

    2010-07-01

    It's cold, inhospitable and deadly. The image of the Arctic in years past is one of bewilderment, ignorance and awe. How the image of the Arctic has changed in recent years can be directly linked to our recognition that the Arctic has a great deal to offer in meeting the basic needs of future generations. Although we are still in awe of the Arctic's cruel beauty, new technologies are making it easier to explore the once unmanageable environment. The Arctic has moved into the mainstream with a host of suitors jockeying for position in the race to possess the Arctic and all that it contains. To highlight this increased interest, Russia's 'National Security Until 2020' initiative, has upgraded the High North to one of Russia's main priorities and identifies the Arctic as liable to produce military conflict in the future linked to competition for the Arctic's abundant raw materials.1 Even Canada, a peaceful and respectful country, has stepped outside the box of traditional Canadian rhetoric by giving Canada's Northern Strategy a tag line: 'Our North, our heritage, our future'. The Arctic is increasingly viewed as central to meeting the challenges of an ever changing world where climate change and economic benefit drive international agreements and policies. However Canada and Russia are not the only actors here. The other Arctic Five states: Denmark, Norway, and the United States of America all lay claims to some area or activity within the Arctic region. The Arctic is a unique part of this world, one that has been left largely untouched by human hands, and one that is on the brink of being changed forever. To fully understand Arctic issues, resource figures must be taken into account. Every nation involved in the Arctic debate has considered and based its policies on its set of numbers and resource estimates. A U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2009 put Arctic resource figures in the range of thirty percent of the

  9. Arctic Solutions The Frozen (Thawing) Relations of the High North

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    It's cold, inhospitable and deadly. The image of the Arctic in years past is one of bewilderment, ignorance and awe. How the image of the Arctic has changed in recent years can be directly linked to our recognition that the Arctic has a great deal to offer in meeting the basic needs of future generations. Although we are still in awe of the Arctic's cruel beauty, new technologies are making it easier to explore the once unmanageable environment. The Arctic has moved into the mainstream with a host of suitors jockeying for position in the race to possess the Arctic and all that it contains. To highlight this increased interest, Russia's 'National Security Until 2020' initiative, has upgraded the High North to one of Russia's main priorities and identifies the Arctic as liable to produce military conflict in the future linked to competition for the Arctic's abundant raw materials.1 Even Canada, a peaceful and respectful country, has stepped outside the box of traditional Canadian rhetoric by giving Canada's Northern Strategy a tag line: 'Our North, our heritage, our future'. The Arctic is increasingly viewed as central to meeting the challenges of an ever changing world where climate change and economic benefit drive international agreements and policies. However Canada and Russia are not the only actors here. The other Arctic Five states: Denmark, Norway, and the United States of America all lay claims to some area or activity within the Arctic region. The Arctic is a unique part of this world, one that has been left largely untouched by human hands, and one that is on the brink of being changed forever. To fully understand Arctic issues, resource figures must be taken into account. Every nation involved in the Arctic debate has considered and based its policies on its set of numbers and resource estimates. A U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2009 put Arctic resource figures in the range of thirty percent of the remaining world reserves of natural gas and ten percent

  10. 50 CFR 216.87 - Wildlife research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wildlife research. 216.87 Section 216.87 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.87 Wildlife research. (a) Wildlife research, other than research on...

  11. Submarine landslides in Arctic sedimentation: Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  12. Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E. Opresko, D.M. Suter, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.). While exceedance of these benchmarks does not indicate any particular level or type of risk, concentrations below the benchmarks should not result in significant effects. In practice, when contaminant concentrations in food or water resources are less than these toxicological benchmarks, the contaminants may be excluded from further consideration. However, if the concentration of a contaminant exceeds a benchmark, that contaminant should be retained as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) and investigated further. The second tier in ecological risk assessment, the baseline ecological risk assessment, may use toxicological benchmarks as part of a weight-of-evidence approach (Suter 1993). Under this approach, based toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. Other sources of evidence include media toxicity tests, surveys of biota (abundance and diversity), measures of contaminant body burdens, and biomarkers. This report presents NOAEL- and lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 85 chemicals on 9 representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, little brown bat, meadow vole, white-footed mouse, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer) or 11 avian wildlife species (American robin, rough-winged swallow, American woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, barn owl, Cooper's hawk, and red

  13. Disparities in Arctic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Life at the top of the globe is drastically different. Harsh climate devoid of sunlight part of the year, pockets of extreme poverty, and lack of physical infrastructure interfere with healthcare and public health services. Learn about the challenges of people in the Arctic and how research and the International Polar Year address them.

  14. The Arctic Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Siobhan

    2016-04-01

    My name is Siobhan McDonald. I am a visual artist living and working in Dublin. My studio is based in The School of Science at University College Dublin where I was Artist in Residence 2013-2015. A fascination with time and the changeable nature of landmass has led to ongoing conversations with scientists and research institutions across the interweaving disciplines of botany, biology and geology. I am developing a body of work following a recent research trip to the North Pole where I studied the disappearing landscape of the Arctic. Prompted by my experience of the Arctic shelf receding, this new work addresses issues of the instability of the earth's materiality. The work is grounded in an investigation of material processes, exploring the dynamic forces that transform matter and energy. This project combines art and science in a fascinating exploration of one of the Earth's last relatively untouched wilderness areas - the High Arctic to bring audiences on journeys to both real and artistically re-imagined Arctic spaces. CRYSTALLINE'S pivotal process is collaboration: with The European Space Agency; curator Helen Carey; palaeontologist Prof. Jenny McElwain, UCD; and with composer Irene Buckley. CRYSTALLINE explores our desire to make corporeal contact with geological phenomena in Polar Regions. From January 2016, in my collaboration with Jenny McElwain, I will focus on the study of plants and atmospheres from the Arctic regions as far back as 400 million years ago, to explore the essential 'nature' that, invisible to the eye, acts as imaginary portholes into other times. This work will be informed by my arctic tracings of sounds and images recorded in the glaciers of this disappearing frozen landscape. In doing so, the urgencies around the tipping of natural balances in this fragile region will be revealed. The final work will emerge from my forthcoming residency at the ESA in spring 2016. Here I will conduct a series of workshops in ESA Madrid to work with

  15. Tsunami in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Evgueni; Medvedev, Igor; Ivaschenko, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    The severity of the climate and sparsely populated coastal regions are the reason why the Russian part of the Arctic Ocean belongs to the least studied areas of the World Ocean. In the same time intensive economic development of the Arctic region, specifically oil and gas industry, require studies of potential thread natural disasters that can cause environmental and technical damage of the coastal and maritime infrastructure of energy industry complex (FEC). Despite the fact that the seismic activity in the Arctic can be attributed to a moderate level, we cannot exclude the occurrence of destructive tsunami waves, directly threatening the FEC. According to the IAEA requirements, in the construction of nuclear power plants it is necessary to take into account the impact of all natural disasters with frequency more than 10-5 per year. Planned accommodation in the polar regions of the Russian floating nuclear power plants certainly requires an adequate risk assessment of the tsunami hazard in the areas of their location. Develop the concept of tsunami hazard assessment would be based on the numerical simulation of different scenarios in which reproduced the hypothetical seismic sources and generated tsunamis. The analysis of available geological, geophysical and seismological data for the period of instrumental observations (1918-2015) shows that the highest earthquake potential within the Arctic region is associated with the underwater Mid-Arctic zone of ocean bottom spreading (interplate boundary between Eurasia and North American plates) as well as with some areas of continental slope within the marginal seas. For the Arctic coast of Russia and the adjacent shelf area, the greatest tsunami danger of seismotectonic origin comes from the earthquakes occurring in the underwater Gakkel Ridge zone, the north-eastern part of the Mid-Arctic zone. In this area, one may expect earthquakes of magnitude Mw ˜ 6.5-7.0 at a rate of 10-2 per year and of magnitude Mw ˜ 7.5 at a

  16. Long-range transport of persistent pollutants into Arctic regions; Schadstoff-Ferntransport in die Arktis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallenborn, R.; Herzke, D. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, The Polar Environmental Centre, Tromso (Norway)

    2001-07-01

    In recent years, high concentrations of persistent pollutants (organic chemicals, metals) were detected in top predators of the Arctic food chain and indigenous peoples from the Canadian and Greenland Arctic, although no local contamination sources are known. The comprehensive, scientific investigations of the past 20 years confirmed that the combination of atmospheric and waterborne long-range transport is the major source of the high concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the pristine Arctic environment. However, also pelagic marine organisms (e.g. Atlantic cod, marine mammals) can transport large amounts of persistent pollutants in their lipids and introduce contaminants into the Arctic food web. Thus, the pollutants are transported into the Arctic and subsequently accumulated through the short and unbranched Arctic food web of the top predators. The most accepted theory nowadays describes the long-range transport of persistent pollutants as a combination of atmospheric and sea current transport, or as a 'global distillation' process. Depending on such physical properties of the substances as vapour pressure and the ambient temperature, persistent (semivolatile) contaminants are transported over different distances prior to deposition (sea surface, sediment, soil). After the deposition, however, and depending on the weather conditions and surrounding temperature, persistent pollutants will be re-evaporated into the atmosphere and undergo further atmospheric transport to the Arctic region. This process is also called the 'grasshopper effect'. The global transport of persistent pollutants into Arctic regions can be described as a repeatedly occurring combination of atmospheric and waterborne transport in which the main transport vehicle depends on the physical properties of the transported compound. The role of characteristic meteorological conditions in the respective climate zones through which the contaminant is

  17. Wildlife disease and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch-Kirkbride, Shauna L; Riley, Shawn J; Gore, Meredith L

    2013-10-01

    Risk perception has an important influence on wildlife management and is particularly relevant to issues that present health risks, such as those associated with wildlife disease management. Knowledge of risk perceptions is useful to wildlife health professionals in developing communication messages that enhance public understanding of wildlife disease risks and that aim to increase public support for disease management. To promote knowledge of public understanding of disease risks in the context of wildlife disease management, we used a self-administered questionnaire mailed to a stratified random sample (n = 901) across the continental United States to accomplish three objectives: 1) assess zoonotic disease risk perceptions; 2) identify sociodemographic and social psychologic factors underlying these risk perceptions; and 3) examine the relationship between risk perception and agreement with wildlife disease management practices. Diseases we assessed in the surveys were rabies, plague, and West Nile virus. Risk perception, as measured by an index consisting of severity, susceptibility, and dread, was greatest for rabies and West Nile virus disease (x = 2.62 and 2.59, respectively, on a scale of 1 to 4 and least for plague (x = 2.39). The four most important variables associated with disease risk perception were gender, education, prior exposure to the disease, and concern for health effects. We found that stronger risk perception was associated with greater agreement with wildlife disease management. We found particular concern for the vulnerability of wildlife to zoonotic disease and for protection of wildlife health, indicating that stakeholders may be receptive to messages emphasizing the potential harm to wildlife from disease and to messages promoting One Health (i.e., those that emphasize the interdependence of human, domestic animal, wildlife, and ecosystem health).

  18. Wildlife in Chernobyl forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary Mycio

    2007-01-01

    The article is a review of a book addressed Wormwood Forest: a natural history of Chernobyl which describes life in Europe's largest wildlife sanctuary in the region surrounding the Chernobyl station. Since the accident, the area has largely been a safe haven from hunters and farmers, allowing the wildlife to live in an undisturbed environment. Against this backdrop, the book describes in detail, a highly controversial programme that released an endangered species of horse into the zone. Lack of funding for such programmes makes it nearly impossible to administer them. The book blends reportage, popular science and encounters with the zone's few residents. The result is an account of a remarkable land, its people and animals seen through the eyes of the locals, the author and the zoologists, botanists and radiologists who travelled with her around the zone. The radiation is the book's ever-present protagonist, as the author describes in detail how it works itself through the entire food chain and environment. Along the author's journey through the affected regions of Belarus and Ukraine she debunks several myths surrounding Chernobyl and the nuclear industry in general. In fact, while there have been a small number of cases of mutations observed in some species, these are not as dramatic as the Chernobyl mythology.

  19. First Record of Eocene Bony Fishes and Crocodyliforms from Canada’s Western Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Jaelyn J.; Gottfried, Michael D.; Hutchison, J. Howard; Brochu, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada’s High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early – middle Eocene (∼53–50 Ma), despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada’s easternmost Arctic – Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands (Nunavut). Although temporally correlative strata crop out over 1,000 km west, on Canada’s westernmost Arctic Island – Banks Island, Northwest Territories – they have been interpreted as predominantly marine. We document the first Eocene bony fish and crocodyliform fossils from Banks Island. Principal Findings We describe fossils of bony fishes, including lepisosteid (Atractosteus), esocid (pike), and amiid, and a crocodyliform, from lower – middle Eocene strata of the Cyclic Member, Eureka Sound Formation within Aulavik National Park (∼76°N. paleolat.). Palynology suggests the sediments are late early to middle Eocene in age, and likely spanned the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Conclusions/Significance These fossils extend the geographic range of Eocene Arctic lepisosteids, esocids, amiids, and crocodyliforms west by approximately 40° of longitude or ∼1100 km. The low diversity bony fish fauna, at least at the family level, is essentially identical on Ellesmere and Banks Islands, suggesting a pan-High Arctic bony fish fauna of relatively basal groups around the margin of the Eocene Arctic Ocean. From a paleoclimatic perspective, presence of a crocodyliform, gar and amiid fishes on northern Banks provides further evidence that mild, year-round temperatures extended across the Canadian Arctic during early – middle Eocene time. Additionally, the Banks Island crocodyliform is consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of a Paleogene divergence

  20. First record of eocene bony fishes and crocodyliforms from Canada's Western Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Jaelyn J; Gottfried, Michael D; Hutchison, J Howard; Brochu, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada's High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early - middle Eocene (∼53-50 Ma), despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada's easternmost Arctic - Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands (Nunavut). Although temporally correlative strata crop out over 1,000 km west, on Canada's westernmost Arctic Island - Banks Island, Northwest Territories - they have been interpreted as predominantly marine. We document the first Eocene bony fish and crocodyliform fossils from Banks Island. We describe fossils of bony fishes, including lepisosteid (Atractosteus), esocid (pike), and amiid, and a crocodyliform, from lower - middle Eocene strata of the Cyclic Member, Eureka Sound Formation within Aulavik National Park (∼76°N. paleolat.). Palynology suggests the sediments are late early to middle Eocene in age, and likely spanned the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). These fossils extend the geographic range of Eocene Arctic lepisosteids, esocids, amiids, and crocodyliforms west by approximately 40° of longitude or ∼1100 km. The low diversity bony fish fauna, at least at the family level, is essentially identical on Ellesmere and Banks Islands, suggesting a pan-High Arctic bony fish fauna of relatively basal groups around the margin of the Eocene Arctic Ocean. From a paleoclimatic perspective, presence of a crocodyliform, gar and amiid fishes on northern Banks provides further evidence that mild, year-round temperatures extended across the Canadian Arctic during early - middle Eocene time. Additionally, the Banks Island crocodyliform is consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of a Paleogene divergence time between the two extant alligatorid lineages Alligator

  1. Patterns of Wildlife Value Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry C. Zinn; Michael J. Manfredo; Susan C. Barro

    2002-01-01

    Public value orientations toward wildlife may be growing less utilitarian and more protectionist. To better understand one aspect of this trend, we investigated patterns of wildlife value orientations within families. Using a mail survey, we sampled Pennsylvania and Colorado hunting license holders 50 or older; obtaining a 54% response rate (n = 599). Males (94% of...

  2. Wildlife health in a rapidly changing North: focus on avian disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Pearce, John M.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Climate-related environmental changes have increasingly been linked to emerging infectious diseases in wildlife. The Arctic is facing a major ecological transition that is expected to substantially affect animal and human health. Changes in phenology or environmental conditions that result from climate warming may promote novel species assemblages as host and pathogen ranges expand to previously unoccupied areas. Recent evidence from the Arctic and subarctic suggests an increase in the spread and prevalence of some wildlife diseases, but baseline data necessary to detect and verify such changes are still lacking. Wild birds are undergoing rapid shifts in distribution and have been implicated in the spread of wildlife and zoonotic diseases. Here, we review evidence of current and projected changes in the abundance and distribution of avian diseases and outline strategies for future research. We discuss relevant climatic and environmental factors, emerging host–pathogen contact zones, the relationship between host condition and immune function, and potential wildlife and human health outcomes in northern regions.

  3. Canadian oil spill response capability - an investigation of the proposed fee regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, E.; Gratwick, J.; Yee, P.

    1996-08-01

    Canada's oil spill response capability and its fee structure was examined and assessed. The present regime consists of five industry-owned oil spill response organizations who provide response teams throughout Canadian waters, except the Arctic. These organizations are fully adequate to meet the standards set by the Canadian Coast Guard. However, the Canadian Coast Guard withdrew from active control of the fee regime, leaving it to each response team to determine its own fee structure. The expectation was that the market would be capable of controlling the fees to be charged. This did not happen, and the investigative panel came to the conclusion that the present regime was not workable. In view of the situation the Panel concluded that ensuring oil spill response capability in Canada must always be the sole responsibility of the Canadian Government. Eleven recommendations were detailed in this final report. The most important recommendation was that the Canadian Coast Guard should re-establish its principal role in the oil spill response area. It was also suggested that there should be a single, national fee structure applying to the whole country except the Arctic, and that the fee should be collected by an independent national agency

  4. Canadian competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, J.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of the Canadian petrochemical industry was outlined, emphasizing the proximity to feedstocks as the principal advantage enjoyed by the industry over its international competitors. Annual sales statistics for 1995 were provided. Key players in the Canadian petrochemical industry (Nova, Dow, DuPont, Methanex, Esso, Union Carbide, Shell and Celanese), their share of the market and key products were noted. Manufacturing facilities are located primarily in Alberta, southern Ontario and Quebec. The feedstock supply infrastructure, historical and alternative ethane pricing in Canada and the US, the North American market for petrochemicals, the competitiveness of the industry, tax competitiveness among Canadian provinces and the US, the Canada - US unit labour cost ratio, ethylene facility construction costs in Canada relative to the US Gulf Coast, and projected 1997 financial requirements were reviewed. 19 figs

  5. Outlook for Canadian refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boje, G.

    1998-01-01

    The petroleum supply and demand balance was discussed and a comparison between Canadian and U.S. refineries was provided. The impact of changing product specifications on the petroleum industry was also discussed. The major changes include sulphur reductions in gasoline, benzene and MMT additives. These changes have been made in an effort to satisfy environmental needs. Geographic margin variations in refineries between east and west were reviewed. An overview of findings from the Solomon Refining Study of Canadian and American refineries, which has been very complimentary of the Canadian refining industry, was provided. From this writer's point of view refinery utilization has improved but there is a threat from increasing efficiency of US competitors. Environmental issues will continue to impact upon the industry and while the chances for making economic returns on investment are good for the years ahead, it will be a challenge to maintain profitability

  6. Microplastics in aquatic environments: Implications for Canadian ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julie C; Park, Bradley J; Palace, Vince P

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics have been increasingly detected and quantified in marine and freshwater environments, and there are growing concerns about potential effects in biota. A literature review was conducted to summarize the current state of knowledge of microplastics in Canadian aquatic environments; specifically, the sources, environmental fate, behaviour, abundance, and toxicological effects in aquatic organisms. While we found that research and publications on these topics have increased dramatically since 2010, relatively few studies have assessed the presence, fate, and effects of microplastics in Canadian water bodies. We suggest that efforts to determine aquatic receptors at greatest risk of detrimental effects due to microplastic exposure, and their associated contaminants, are particularly warranted. There is also a need to address the gaps identified, with a particular focus on the species and conditions found in Canadian aquatic systems. These gaps include characterization of the presence of microplastics in Canadian freshwater ecosystems, identifying key sources of microplastics to these systems, and evaluating the presence of microplastics in Arctic waters and biota. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transferrin variation and evolution of Canadian barren-ground caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut H. Røed

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were obtained from 95 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus of the Beverly herd in Northwest Territories, Canada. Polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis was used to score for genetic variation in the locus coding for transferrin. The pattern of allele frequency distribution are compared with previously reported values of Eurasian tundra reindeer (R.t. tarandus, Alaska caribou (R.t. granti, Peary caribou (R.t. pearyi, and Svalbard reindeer (R.t. platyrhynchus. In the Beverly herd a total of 21 different transferrin alleles were detected. The amount of genetic variation was higher in the Canadian barren-ground caribou than what has been detected in other subspecies of reindeer/caribou. Highly gene-tical differences in the allele frequencies were detected between the Canadian barren-ground caribou and the other subspecies. The genetic identity analyses indicates approximately the same amount of genetic differentiation when the Canadian barren-ground caribou are compared with Alaska caribou as with the Peary caribou. The allele frequency pattern could be explained by a possible origin of the Canadian barren-ground caribou from an ancestral population which was genetical influenced by animals surviving the We-ichselian glaciation in refugia both in high Arctic, in Beringia, and south of the ice sheet.

  8. Canadian Irradiation Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The Canadian Irradiation Centre is a non-profit cooperative project between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Radiochemical Company and Universite du Quebec, Institut Armand-Frappier, Centre for Applied Research in Food Science. The Centre's objectives are to develop, demonstrate and promote Canada's radiation processing technology and its applications by conducting applied research; training technical, professional and scientific personnel; educating industry and government; demonstrating operational and scientific procedures; developing processing procedures and standards, and performing product and market acceptance trials. This pamphlet outlines the history of radoation technology and the services offered by the Canadian Irradiation Centre

  9. How Rapid Change Affects Deltas in the Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Bendixen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas form where the river drains into the ocean. Consequently, delta depositional processes are impacted by either changes in the respective river drainage basin or by changes in the regional marine environment. In a warming Arctic region rapid change has occurred over the last few decades in both the terrestrial domain as well as in the marine domain. Important terrestrial controls include 1) change in permafrost possibly destabilizing river banks, 2) strong seasonality of river discharge due to a short melting season, 3) high sediment supply if basins are extensively glaciated, 4) lake outbursts and ice jams favoring river flooding. Whereas in the Arctic marine domain sea ice loss promotes wave and storm surge impact, and increased longshore transport. We here ask which of these factors dominate any morphological change in Arctic deltas. First, we analyze hydrological data to assess change in Arctic-wide river discharge characteristics and timing, and sea ice concentration data to map changes in sea ice regime. Based on this observational analysis we set up a number of scenarios of change. We then model hypothetical small-scale delta formation considering change in these primary controls by setting up a numerical delta model, and combining it dynamically with a permafrost model. We find that for typical Greenlandic deltas changes in river forcing due to ice sheet melt dominate the morphological change, which is corroborated by mapping of delta progradation from aerial photos and satellite imagery. Whereas in other areas, along the North Slope and the Canadian Arctic small deltas are more stable or experienced retreat. Our preliminary coupled model allows us to further disentangle the impact of major forcing factors on delta evolution in high-latitude systems.

  10. Status of endangered and threatened caribou on Canada's arctic islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gunn

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus on the Canadian Arctic Islands occur as several populations which are nationally classified as either endangered or threatened. On the western High Arctic (Queen Elizabeth Islands, Peary caribou (R. t. pearyi declined to an estimated 1100 caribou in 1997. This is the lowest recorded abundance since the first aerial survey in 1961 when a high of ca. 24 363 caribou was estimated on those islands. Peary caribou abundance on the eastern Queen Elizabeth Islands is almost unknown. On the southern Arctic Islands, three caribou populations declined by 95-98% between 1973 and 1994 but our information is unclear about the numerical trends for the two other populations. Diagnosis of factors driving the declines is complicated by incomplete information but also because the agents driving the declines vary among the Arctic's different climatic regions. The available evidence indicates that severe winters caused Peary caribou die-offs on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands. On Banks Island, harvesting together with unfavourable snow/ice conditions in some years accelerated the decline. On northwestern Victoria Island, harvesting apparently explains the decline. The role of wolf predation is unknown on Banks and notthwest Victoria islands, although wolf sightings increased during the catibou declines. Reasons for the virtual disappearance of arctic-island caribou on Prince of Wales and Somerset islands are uncertain. Recovery actions have started with Inuit and Inuvialuit reducing their harvesting but it is too soon to evaluate the effect of those changes. Recovery of Peary caribou on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands is uncertain if the current trends toward warmer temperatures and higher snowfall persist.

  11. Arctic biogeography: The paradox of the marine benthic fauna and flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, K

    1992-06-01

    The marine benthic fauna and flora that inhabit the shallow arctic sublittoral zone comprise a relatively young marine assemblage characterized by species of either Pacific or Atlantic affinity and notably few endemics. The young character of nearshore arctic communities, as well as their biogeographical composition, is largely a product of the Pleistocene glaciation. However, analysis of more recent collections and comparison between the origins of the benthic fauna and flora present some interesting paradoxes to biogeographers. One enigma is the low frequency of algal species with Pacific affinities in the Arctic, especially in the Chukchi, Beaufort and East Siberian Seas of the Eastern Arctic, which receive direct inputs of northward-flowing Pacific waters. In contrast, animal species with Pacific affinities are found throughout the nearshore regions of the Arctic, reaching their highest frequency in the marginal seas between the New Siberian Islands and the Canadian Archipelago. Organization of published and unpublished data, additional field collections, and the use of cladistics and molecular DNA techniques by systematists are a high priority for future research in reconstructing the evolution of the arctic biotic assemblage. Copyright © 1992. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. CONCEPTUAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE PACIFIC, ATLANTIC AND ARCTIC TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEMS FOR CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Murty

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada has coastlines on three of the four oceans on the globe, namely, the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic oceans. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans are connected to the Arctic Ocean in the north, but still they are three distinct oceans, and need three individual tsunami warning systems. Tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are not as well documented as in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. From what is known, tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are rare and probably are small in amplitude. Because of very low population density, around the Canadian Arctic, at present, there is no priority for a tsunami warning system for Arctic Canada. For the Pacific Ocean, a tsunami warning system is in existence since 1948. In at least one sense, the warning aspects of the tsunami warning system for the Pacific coast of Canada, is relatively simple and straight forward, because it involves only the federal government (PSEPC and the provincial government of British Columbia (PEP. For the Atlantic Ocean, A tsunami warning system is now being established. The warning aspects will be some what more complex for eastern Canada, since it not only involves the federal government, but also five provinces, namely, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Quebec. The Alaska tsunami warning center (ATWC in Palmer, Alaska, provides tsunami warnings for both Pacific and Atlantic Canada.

  13. Semi volatile organic compounds in the snow of Russian Arctic islands: Archipelago Novaya Zemlya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, A T; Mazur, D M; Polyakova, O V; Kosyakov, D S; Kozhevnikov, A Yu; Latkin, T B; Andreeva Yu, I; Artaev, V B

    2018-04-18

    Environmental contamination of the Arctic has widely been used as a worldwide pollution marker. Various classes of organic pollutants such as pesticides, personal care products, PAHs, flame retardants, biomass burning markers, and many others emerging contaminants have been regularly detected in Arctic samples. Although numerous papers have been published reporting data from the Canadian, Danish, and Norwegian Arctic regions, the environmental situation in Russian Arctic remains mostly underreported. Snow analysis is known to be used for monitoring air pollution in the regions with cold climate in both short-term and long-term studies. This paper presents the results of a nontargeted study on the semivolatile organic compounds detected and identified in snow samples collected at the Russian Artic Archipelago Novaya Zemlya in June 2016. Gas chromatography coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer enabled the simultaneous detection and quantification of a variety of pollutants including those from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority pollutants list, emerging contaminants (plasticizers, flame retardants-only detection), as well as the identification of novel Arctic organic pollutants, (e.g., fatty acid amides and polyoxyalkanes). The possible sources of these novel pollutants are also discussed. GC-HRMS enabled the detection and identification of emerging contaminants and novel organic pollutants in the Arctic, e.g., fatty amides and polyoxyalkanes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Light Pollution and Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffek, J.

    2008-12-01

    for Educational Program IYA Dark Skies Education Session Fall American Geophysical Union San Francisco, December 15-19, 2008 Light Pollution and Wildlife This is a very exciting time to be a part of the mission to keep the nighttime skies natural. The International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 is developing programs for all areas of Dark Skies Awareness. For many years the issue of light pollution focused on the impact to the astronomy industry. While this is an important area, research has shown that light pollution negatively impacts wildlife, their habitat, human health, and is a significant waste of energy. Since the message and impact of the effects of light pollution are much broader now, the message conveyed to the public must also be broader. Education programs directed at youth are a new frontier to reach out to a new audience about the adverse effects of too much artificial light at night. The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) has developed educational presentations using the National Science Teachers Association Education Standards. These programs focus on youth between the ages of 5 to 17exploring new territory in the education of light pollution. The IDA education programs are broken down into three age groups; ages 5-9, 8-13, 12 and older. The presentations come complete with PowerPoint slides, discussion notes for each slide, and workbooks including age appropriate games to keep young audiences involved. A new presentation reflects the growing area of interest regarding the effects of too much artificial light at night on wildlife. This presentation outlines the known problems for ecosystems caused by artificial light at night. Insects are attracted to artificial lights and may stay near that light all night. This attraction interferes with their ability to migrate, mate, and look for food. Such behavior leads to smaller insect populations. Fewer insects in turn affect birds and bats, because they rely on insects as a food source. The IDA

  15. Eating to save wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Birkved, Morten; Gamborg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    are to work for sustainability and species conservation – should food served in zoos be part of considerations – and to what extent? To answer this question the paper presents the goals of EAZA along with environmental impact profiles, relying on previously published life cycle assessments of the entirety (i......According to the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA, 2016) their mission is ”to facilitate cooperation…towards the goals of education, research and conservation”. Livestock production is one of the leading causes of often-irreversible land use changes, greenhouse gas emissions, loss...... of biodiversity and different types of environmental degradation – all affecting wildlife negatively, and hence undermining conservation policies that aim to protect individuals, populations and species. But what is the link between livestock production and zoos and aquariums? One link, putting it a bit boldly...

  16. Changing Arctic ecosystems: resilience of caribou to climatic shifts in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustine, David D.; Adams, Layne G.; Whalen, Mary E.; Pearce, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative strives to inform key resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information and forecasts for current and future ecosystem response to a warming climate. Over the past 5 years, a focal area for the USGS CAE initiative has been the North Slope of Alaska. This region has experienced a warming trend over the past 60 years, yet the rate of change has been varied across the North Slope, leading scientists to question the future response and resilience of wildlife populations, such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus), that rely on tundra habitats for forage. Future changes in temperature and precipitation to coastal wet sedge and upland low shrub tundra are expected, with unknown consequences for caribou that rely on these plant communities for food. Understanding how future environmental change may affect caribou migration, nutrition, and reproduction is a focal question being addressed by the USGS CAE research. Results will inform management agencies in Alaska and people that rely on caribou for food.

  17. Disparities in Arctic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-02-04

    Life at the top of the globe is drastically different. Harsh climate devoid of sunlight part of the year, pockets of extreme poverty, and lack of physical infrastructure interfere with healthcare and public health services. Learn about the challenges of people in the Arctic and how research and the International Polar Year address them.  Created: 2/4/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 2/20/2008.

  18. Canadian heavy water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlinger, A.; Lockerby, W.E.; Rae, H.K.

    1977-05-01

    The paper reviews Canadian experience in the production of heavy water, presents a long-term supply projection, relates this projection to the anticipated long-term electrical energy demand, and highlights principal areas for further improvement that form the bulk of our research and development program on heavy water processes

  19. Canadian petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feick, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    A wide ranging discussion about the factors that have influenced oil and natural gas prices, the differences of the Canadian market from international markets, the differences between eastern and western Canadian markets, and shareholders' perspectives on recent commodity price developments was presented. Developments in the OPEC countries were reviewed, noting that current OPEC production of 25 mmbbls is about 60 per cent higher than it was in 1985. It is expected that OPEC countries will continue to expand capacity to meet expected demand growth and the continuing need created by the UN embargo on Iraqi oil sales. Demand for natural gas is also likely to continue to rise especially in view of the deregulation of the electricity industry where natural gas may well become the favored fuel for incremental thermal generation capacity. Prices of both crude oil and natural gas are expected to hold owing to unusually low storage levels of both fuels. The inadequacy of infrastructure, particularly pipeline capacity as a key factor in the Canadian market was noted, along with the dynamic that will emerge in the next several years that may have potential consequences for Canadian production - namely the reversal of the Sarnia to Montreal pipeline. With regard to shareholders' expectations the main issues are (1) whether international markets reach back to the wellhead, hence the producer's positioning with respect to transportation capacity and contract portfolios, and (2) whether the proceeds from increased prices are invested in projects that are yielding more than the cost of capital. 28 figs

  20. Canadian gas resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Canadian exports of gas to the United States are a critical component of EMF-9 (North American Gas Supplies). However, it has been noted that there are differences between US expectations for imports and Canadian forecasts of export supply capacity. Recent studies by the National Petroleum Council (NPC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) indicate that 1.8 to 2.4 Tcf of imports may be required in the mid to late 1990's; A recent study by Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) indicates that the conventional resource base may not be able to provide continued gas exports to the US after the mid 1990's and that frontier sources would need to be developed to meet US expectations. The discrepancies between US expectations and Canadian estimates of capacity are of great concern to US policymakers because they call into question the availability of secure supplies of natural gas and suggest that the cost of imports (if available) will be high. By implication, if shortages are to be averted, massive investment may be required to bring these higher cost sources to market. Since the long-term supply picture will be determined by the underlying resource base, EMF-9 participants have been asked to provide estimates of critical components of the Canadian resource base. This paper provides a summary of ICF-Lewin's recent investigation of both the Conventional and Tight Gas resource in Canada's Western Sedimentary Basin, which includes both quantitative estimates and a brief sketch of the analysis methodology

  1. Canadian hydrogen safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacIntyre, I.; Tchouvelev, A.V.; Hay, D.R.; Wong, J.; Grant, J.; Benard, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian hydrogen safety program (CHSP) is a project initiative of the Codes and Standards Working Group of the Canadian transportation fuel cell alliance (CTFCA) that represents industry, academia, government, and regulators. The Program rationale, structure and contents contribute to acceptance of the products, services and systems of the Canadian Hydrogen Industry into the Canadian hydrogen stakeholder community. It facilitates trade through fair insurance policies and rates, effective and efficient regulatory approval procedures and accommodation of the interests of the general public. The Program integrates a consistent quantitative risk assessment methodology with experimental (destructive and non-destructive) failure rates and consequence-of-release data for key hydrogen components and systems into risk assessment of commercial application scenarios. Its current and past six projects include Intelligent Virtual Hydrogen Filling Station (IVHFS), Hydrogen clearance distances, comparative quantitative risk comparison of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) refuelling options; computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling validation, calibration and enhancement; enhancement of frequency and probability analysis, and Consequence analysis of key component failures of hydrogen systems; and fuel cell oxidant outlet hydrogen sensor project. The Program projects are tightly linked with the content of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 19 Hydrogen Safety. (author)

  2. Canadian Nuclear Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, John

    1992-01-01

    It is the view of the Canadian Nuclear Association that continuing creation of economic wealth is vital to sustainable development. A plentiful supply of cheap energy is essential. Nuclear energy provides the cleanest source of bulk energy generation essential to any path of sustainable development

  3. Wildlife reserves, populations, and hunting outcome with smart wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Strange, Niels

    2014-01-01

    We consider a hunting area and a wildlife reserve and answer the question: How does clever migration decision affect the social optimal and the private optimal hunting levels and population stocks? We analyze this in a model allowing for two-way migration between hunting and reserve areas, where...... the populations’ migration decisions depend on both hunting pressure and relative population densities. In the social optimum a pure stress effect on the behavior of smart wildlife exists. This implies that the population level in the wildlife reserve tends to increase and the population level in the hunting area...... and hunting levels tend to decrease. On the other hand, the effect on stock tends to reduce the population in the wildlife reserve and increase the population in the hunting area and thereby also increase hunting. In the case of the private optimum, open-access is assumed and we find that the same qualitative...

  4. The Holocene History of Nares Strait: Transition from Glacial Bay to Arctic-Atlantic Throughflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennings, Anne; Sheldon, Christina; Cronin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    . As low-salinity, nutrient-rich Arctic Water began to enter Baffin Bay, it contributed to the Baffin and Labrador currents flowing southward. This enhanced freshwater inflow must have influenced the sea ice regime and likely is responsible for poor calcium carbonate preservation that characterizes...... retreat. A transitional unit with high ice-rafted debris content records the opening of Nares Strait at approximately 9,000 cal BP. High productivity in Hall Basin between 9,000 and 6,000 cal BP reflects reduced sea ice cover and duration as well as throughflow of nutrient-rich Pacific Water. The later......Retreat of glacier ice from Nares Strait and other straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago after the end of the last Ice Age initiated an important connection between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans, allowing development of modern ocean circulation in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea...

  5. 7 CFR 371.6 - Wildlife Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wildlife Services. 371.6 Section 371.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.6 Wildlife Services. (a) General statement. Wildlife Services (WS) manages problems caused by wildlife. (b) Deputy Administrator of...

  6. 36 CFR 1002.2 - Wildlife protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wildlife protection. 1002.2... RECREATION § 1002.2 Wildlife protection. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) The taking of wildlife. (2) The feeding, touching, teasing, frightening or intentional disturbing of wildlife nesting, breeding or...

  7. 40 CFR 230.32 - Other wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other wildlife. 230.32 Section 230.32... Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.32 Other wildlife. (a) Wildlife associated with aquatic ecosystems... cover, travel corridors, and preferred food sources for resident and transient wildlife species...

  8. Are Wildlife Films Really "Nature Documentaries"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouse, Derek

    1998-01-01

    Examines origins of wildlife films. Outlines their tension between education and entertainment. Looks at how Disney codified wildlife films as a coherent genre by imposing conventionalized narrative frameworks upon them. Discusses factors influencing wildlife television in the 1990s. Concludes that wildlife films are a valid and distinct film and…

  9. Factors Controlling Black Carbon Deposition in Snow in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L.; Li, Q.; He, C.; Li, Y.

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of black carbon (BC) concentration in snow in the Arctic to BC emissions, dry deposition and wet scavenging efficiency using a 3D global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem driven by meteorological field GEOS-5. With all improvements, simulated median BC concentration in snow agrees with observation (19.2 ng g-1) within 10%, down from -40% in the default GEOS-Chem. When the previously missed gas flaring emissions (mainly located in Russia) are included, the total BC emission in the Arctic increases by 70%. The simulated BC in snow increases by 1-7 ng g-1, with the largest improvement in Russia. The discrepancy of median BC in snow in the whole Arctic reduces from -40% to -20%. In addition, recent measurements of BC dry deposition velocity suggest that the constant deposition velocity of 0.03 cm s-1 over snow and ice used in the GEOS-Chem is too low. So we apply resistance-in-series method to calculate the dry deposition velocity over snow and ice and the resulted dry deposition velocity ranges from 0.03 to 0.24 cm s-1. However, the simulated total BC deposition flux in the Arctic and BC in snow does not change, because the increased dry deposition flux has been compensated by decreased wet deposition flux. However, the fraction of dry deposition to total deposition increases from 16% to 25%. This may affect the mixing of BC and snow particles and further affect the radative forcing of BC deposited in snow. Finally, we reduced the scavenging efficiency of BC in mixed-phase clouds to account for the effect of Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process based on recent observations. The simulated BC concentration in snow increases by 10-100%, with the largest increase in Greenland (100%), Tromsø (50%), Alaska (40%), and Canadian Arctic (30%). Annual BC loading in the Arctic increases from 0.25 to 0.43 mg m-2 and the lifetime of BC increases from 9.2 to 16.3 days. This indicates that BC simulation in the Arctic is really sensitive to

  10. Remarkable separability of the circulation response to Arctic sea ice loss and greenhouse gas forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, K. E.; Kushner, P. J.; Fyfe, J. C.; Sigmond, M.; Kharin, V. V.; Bitz, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice loss has an important effect on local climate through increases in ocean to atmosphere heat flux and associated feedbacks, and may influence midlatitude climate by changing large-scale circulation that can enhance or counter changes that are due to greenhouse gases. The extent to which climate change in a warming world can be understood as greenhouse gas-induced changes that are modulated by Arctic sea ice loss depends on how additive the responses to the separate influences are. Here we use a novel sea ice nudging methodology in the Canadian Earth System Model, which has a fully coupled ocean, to isolate the effects of Arctic sea ice loss and doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) to determine their additivity and sensitivity to mean state. We find that the separate effects of Arctic sea ice loss and doubled CO2 are remarkably additive and relatively insensitive to mean climate state. This separability is evident in several thermodynamic and dynamic fields throughout most of the year, from hemispheric to synoptic scales. The extent to which the regional response to sea ice loss sometimes agrees with and sometimes cancels the response to CO2 is quantified. In this model, Arctic sea ice loss enhances the CO2-induced surface air temperature changes nearly everywhere and zonal wind changes over the Pacific sector, whereas sea ice loss counters CO2-induced sea level pressure changes nearly everywhere over land and zonal wind changes over the Atlantic sector. This separability of the response to Arctic sea ice loss from the response to CO2 doubling gives credence to the body of work in which Arctic sea ice loss is isolated from the forcing that modified it, and might provide a means to better interpret the diverse array of modeling and observational studies of Arctic change and influence.

  11. Biodiversity of arctic marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Møller, Peter Rask; Steinke, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomic and distributional information on each fish species found in arctic marine waters is reviewed, and a list of families and species with commentary on distributional records is presented. The list incorporates results from examination of museum collections of arctic marine fishes dating b...

  12. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Kim; Scheepstra, Annette; Gille, Johan; Stępień, Adam; Koivurova, Timo

    The European Arctic is currently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities, but future developments will be highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importer of Arctic raw materials. As the EU is concerned about the security of supply, it encourages domestic

  13. 78 FR 3909 - Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge, IN; Glacial Ridge National Wildlife Refuge, MN; Northern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R3-R-2012-N283; FXRS1265030000-134-FF03R06000] Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge, IN; Glacial Ridge National Wildlife Refuge, MN; Northern Tallgrass Prairie National Wildlife Refuge, MN; Whittlesey Creek National Wildlife Refuge, WI AGENCY: Fish...

  14. A 4.5 km resolution Arctic Ocean simulation with the global multi-resolution model FESOM 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Wekerle, Claudia; Danilov, Sergey; Wang, Xuezhu; Jung, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    In the framework of developing a global modeling system which can facilitate modeling studies on Arctic Ocean and high- to midlatitude linkage, we evaluate the Arctic Ocean simulated by the multi-resolution Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM). To explore the value of using high horizontal resolution for Arctic Ocean modeling, we use two global meshes differing in the horizontal resolution only in the Arctic Ocean (24 km vs. 4.5 km). The high resolution significantly improves the model's representation of the Arctic Ocean. The most pronounced improvement is in the Arctic intermediate layer, in terms of both Atlantic Water (AW) mean state and variability. The deepening and thickening bias of the AW layer, a common issue found in coarse-resolution simulations, is significantly alleviated by using higher resolution. The topographic steering of the AW is stronger and the seasonal and interannual temperature variability along the ocean bottom topography is enhanced in the high-resolution simulation. The high resolution also improves the ocean surface circulation, mainly through a better representation of the narrow straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). The representation of CAA throughflow not only influences the release of water masses through the other gateways but also the circulation pathways inside the Arctic Ocean. However, the mean state and variability of Arctic freshwater content and the variability of freshwater transport through the Arctic gateways appear not to be very sensitive to the increase in resolution employed here. By highlighting the issues that are independent of model resolution, we address that other efforts including the improvement of parameterizations are still required.

  15. WICCI Wildlife Working Group Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDee, Olivia E.; Hagell, Suzanne; Martin, K.; McFarland, David; Meyer, Michael; Paulios, Andy; Ribic, Christine A.; Sample, D.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    Wisconsin is world-renowned for its diversity of ecological landscapes and wildlife populations.  The northern forests, southern prairies, and interior and coastal wetlands of the state are home to more than 500 terrestrial animal species.  These animals supply the Wisconsin public with aesthetic, cultural, and economic benefits; our identity and economy are intertwined with these natural resources.  Climate change is altering the behavior, distribution, development, reproduction, and survival of these animal populations.  In turn, these changes will alter the aesthetic, cultural, and economic benefits we receive from them.  The focus of the Wildlife Working Group is to document past and current impacts, anticipate changes in wildlife distribution and abundance, and develop adaptation strategies to maintain the vitality and diversity of Wisconsin's wildlife populations.

  16. The Wildlife Institute of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 9. Careers in Nature Conservation: The Wildlife Institute of India. T R Shankar Raman. Information and Announcements Volume 1 Issue 9 September 1996 pp 89-93 ...

  17. Changing patterns of wildlife diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was not to analyze the effects of global warming on wildlife disease patterns, but to serve as a springboard for future efforts to identify those wildlife diseases, including zoonotic diseases, that could be influenced the most by warming climates and to encourage the development of models to examine the potential effects. Hales et al. (1999) examined the relationship of the incidence of a vector-borne human disease, Dengue fever, and El Nino southern oscillations for South Pacific Island nations. The development of similar models on specific wildlife diseases which have environmental factors strongly associated with transmission would provide information and options for the future management of our wildlife resources.

  18. 'WORLD OF BIRDS' WILDLIFE SANCTUARY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and activities of the 'World of Birds' Wildlife. Sanctuary, near Cape Town, are .... For the time being the benefit for school outings will be mainly visual ... feed, sing, display, build nests, incubate, feed chicks - and even fight.

  19. Boundary layer and free-tropospheric dimethyl sulfide in the Arctic spring and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremaninezhad, Roghayeh; Norman, Ann-Lise; Croft, Betty; Martin, Randall V.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Burkart, Julia; Rempillo, Ofelia; Bozem, Heiko; Kunkel, Daniel; Thomas, Jennie L.; Aliabadi, Amir A.; Wentworth, Gregory R.; Levasseur, Maurice; Staebler, Ralf M.; Sharma, Sangeeta; Leaitch, W. Richard

    2017-07-01

    Vertical distributions of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS(g)) were sampled aboard the research aircraft Polar 6 near Lancaster Sound, Nunavut, Canada, in July 2014 and on pan-Arctic flights in April 2015 that started from Longyearbyen, Spitzbergen, and passed through Alert and Eureka, Nunavut, and Inuvik, Northwest Territories. Larger mean DMS(g) mixing ratios were present during April 2015 (campaign mean of 116 ± 8 pptv) compared to July 2014 (campaign mean of 20 ± 6 pptv). During July 2014, the largest mixing ratios were found near the surface over the ice edge and open water. DMS(g) mixing ratios decreased with altitude up to about 3 km. During April 2015, profiles of DMS(g) were more uniform with height and some profiles showed an increase with altitude. DMS reached as high as 100 pptv near 2500 m. Relative to the observation averages, GEOS-Chem (www.geos-chem.org) chemical transport model simulations were higher during July and lower during April. Based on the simulations, more than 90 % of the July DMS(g) below 2 km and more than 90 % of the April DMS(g) originated from Arctic seawater (north of 66° N). During April, 60 % of the DMS(g), between 500 and 3000 m originated from Arctic seawater. During July 2014, FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) simulations locate the sampled air mass over Baffin Bay and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago 4 days back from the observations. During April 2015, the locations of the air masses 4 days back from sampling were varied: Baffin Bay/Canadian Archipelago, the Arctic Ocean, Greenland and the Pacific Ocean. Our results highlight the role of open water below the flight as the source of DMS(g) during July 2014 and the influence of long-range transport (LRT) of DMS(g) from further afield in the Arctic above 2500 m during April 2015.

  20. Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) was initiated in 1993 as a result of US congressional concern over the disposal of nuclear materials by the former Soviet Union into the Arctic marine environment. The program is comprised of appr. 70 different projects. To date appr. ten percent of the funds has gone to Russian institutions for research and logistical support. The collaboration also include the IAEA International Arctic Seas Assessment Program. The major conclusion from the research to date is that the largest signals for region-wide radionuclide contamination in the Arctic marine environment appear to arise from the following: 1) atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, a practice that has been discontinued; 2) nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes carried in the Arctic from reprocessing facilities in Western Europe, and 3) accidents such as Chernobyl and the 1957 explosion at Chelyabinsk-65

  1. AMOP (Arctic Marine Oil Spill Program) studies reviewed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-05

    A discussion of the Arctic Marine Oil Spill Program organized in 1976 by the Canadian Federal Government includes: an Arctic Atlas compiled by Fenco Consultants Ltd. to give background information necessary for developing marine oil spill countermeasures for the Arctic north of 60/sup 0/ including the west Greenland coast and the Labrador shelf (geology, meteorology and oceanography, ice conditions, biology, and social factors); program in emergency transport of spill-combatting equipment; and the factors which influence the choice of conveyance, i.e., accessibility of the site, urgency for response, and quantity of material required; laboratory studies involving the release of oil under artificial sea ice in simulated ice formation and decay purposes to determine the interaction of crude oil and first-year sea ice; inability of companies and government to control a major spill in the Labrador Sea because of poor and inadequate transport facilities, communications, and navigational aids, severe environmental conditions, and logistics problems; and studies on the effects of oil-well blowouts in deep water, including formation of oil and gas hydrates, design of oil skimmers, the use of hovercraft, and specifications for an airborne multisensor system for oil detection in ice-infested waters.

  2. AMAP Assessment 2013: Arctic Ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This assessment report presents the results of the 2013 AMAP Assessment of Arctic Ocean Acidification (AOA). This is the first such assessment dealing with AOA from an Arctic-wide perspective, and complements several assessments that AMAP has delivered over the past ten years concerning the effects of climate change on Arctic ecosystems and people. The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) is a group working under the Arctic Council. The Arctic Council Ministers have requested AMAP to: - produce integrated assessment reports on the status and trends of the conditions of the Arctic ecosystems;

  3. Arctic Submarine Slope Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, D.; Geissler, W.

    2010-12-01

    Submarine landsliding represents aside submarine earthquakes major natural hazard to coastal and sea-floor infrastructure as well as to coastal communities due to their ability to generate large-scale tsunamis with their socio-economic consequences. The investigation of submarine landslides, their conditions and trigger mechanisms, recurrence rates and potential impact remains an important task for the evaluation of risks in coastal management and offshore industrial activities. In the light of a changing globe with warming oceans and rising sea-level accompanied by increasing human population along coasts and enhanced near- and offshore activities, slope stability issues gain more importance than ever before. The Arctic exhibits the most rapid and drastic changes and is predicted to change even faster. Aside rising air temperatures, enhanced inflow of less cooled Atlantic water into the Arctic Ocean reduces sea-ice cover and warms the surroundings. Slope stability is challenged considering large areas of permafrost and hydrates. The Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide (HYM) north of Svalbard is the first and so far only reported large-scale submarine landslide in the Arctic Ocean. The HYM exhibits the highest headwalls that have been found on siliciclastic margins. With more than 10.000 square kilometer areal extent and app. 2.400 cubic kilometer of involved sedimentary material, it is one of the largest exposed submarine slides worldwide. Geometry and age put this slide in a special position in discussing submarine slope stability on glaciated continental margins. The HYM occurred 30 ka ago, when the global sea-level dropped by app. 50 m within less than one millennium due to rapid onset of global glaciation. It probably caused a tsunami with circum-Arctic impact and wave heights exceeding 130 meters. The HYM affected the slope stability field in its neighbourhood by removal of support. Post-megaslide slope instability as expressed in creeping and smaller-scaled slides are

  4. Canadian seismic agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C.; Anglin, F.M.; Plouffe, M.; Lapointe, S.P.; Adams, J.; Drysdale, J.A.

    1990-04-01

    This is the twenty-first progress report under the agreement entitled Canadian Seismic Agreement between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Canadian Commercial Corporation. Activities undertaken by the Geophysics Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GD/GSC) during the period from July 01, 1988 to June 30, 1989 and supported in part by the NRC agreement are described below under four headings; Eastern Canada Telemetred Network and local network developments, Datalab developments, strong motion network developments and earthquake activity. In this time period eastern Canada experienced its largest earthquake in over 50 years. This earthquake, which has been christened the Saguenay earthquake, has provided a wealth of new data pertinent to earthquake engineering studies in eastern North America and is the subject of many continuing studies, which are presently being carried out at GD and elsewhere. 41 refs., 21 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Financing Canadian international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle, G.

    1996-01-01

    A primer on financing international operations by Canadian corporations was provided. Factors affecting the availability to project finance (location, political risk), the various forms of financing (debt, equity, and combinations), the main sources of government backed financing to corporations (the International Finance Corporation) (IFC), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Overseas Property Insurance Corporation (OPIC), government or agency guarantees, political risk coverage, the use of offshore financial centres, and the where, when and how these various organizations operate, were reviewed. Examples of all of the above, taken from the experiences of Canadian Occidental Petroleum of Calgary in the U.S., in South America, in the Middle and Far East, and in Kazakhstan, were used as illustrations. figs

  6. Canadian Medicare: prognosis guarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, C D; Fooks, C; Williams, J I

    1995-08-01

    Beset by unprecedented fiscal pressures, Canadian medicare has reached a crossroads. The authors review the impact of recent cuts in federal transfer payments on provincial health care programs and offer seven suggestions to policymakers trying to accommodate these reductions. (1) Go slowly: public health care spending is no longer rising and few provinces have the necessary systems in place to manage major reductions. (2) Target reductions, rewarding quality and efficiency instead of making across-the-board cuts. (3) Replace blame with praise:give health care professionals and institutions credit for their contributions. (4) Learn from the successful programs and policies already in place across the country. (5) Foster horizontal and vertical integration of services. (6) Promote physician leadership by rewarding efforts to promote the efficient use of resources. (7) Monitor the effects of cutbacks: physician groups should cooperate with government in maintaining a national "report card" on services, costs and the health status of Canadians.

  7. Canadian fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.S.

    1982-06-01

    The National Research Council of Canada is establishing a coordinated national program of fusion research and development that is planned to grow to a total annual operating level of about $20 million in 1985. The long-term objective of the program is to put Canadian industry in a position to manufacture sub-systems and components of fusion power reactors. In the near term the program is designed to establish a minimum base of scientific and technical expertise sufficient to make recognized contributions and thereby gain access to the international effort. The Canadian program must be narrowly focussed on a few specializations where Canada has special indigenous skills or technologies. The programs being funded are the Tokamak de Varennes, the Fusion Fuels Technology Project centered on tritium management, and high-power gas laser technology and associated diagnostic instrumentation

  8. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  9. 50 CFR 31.12 - Sale of wildlife specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sale of wildlife specimens. 31.12 Section 31.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDLIFE SPECIES MANAGEMENT Terms and Conditions of Wildlife...

  10. Canadian Medicare: prognosis guarded.

    OpenAIRE

    Naylor, C D; Fooks, C; Williams, J I

    1995-01-01

    Beset by unprecedented fiscal pressures, Canadian medicare has reached a crossroads. The authors review the impact of recent cuts in federal transfer payments on provincial health care programs and offer seven suggestions to policymakers trying to accommodate these reductions. (1) Go slowly: public health care spending is no longer rising and few provinces have the necessary systems in place to manage major reductions. (2) Target reductions, rewarding quality and efficiency instead of making ...

  11. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  12. Northern gas : Arctic Canada and Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses supply challenges in relation to Northern gas availability in Arctic Canada and Alaska. A background of BP Canada Energy Company was provided. It was suggested that gas from traditional North American basins would not meet demand, and that incremental sources of supply would be needed. A map of traditional and non-tradition supply sources was presented along with details of supply and infrastructure investment requirements from 2003-2025. The roles of producers, local distribution companies, pipelines and policy makers in infrastructure development were examined. Potential resources in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta were discussed, along with details of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline project and exploration activities. Alaska's North Slope gas resource was reviewed. Several large projects devolving from the Alaska Gas Pipeline represent an anticipated total investment of $20 billion. Various regulatory and economic conditions necessary for the successful completion of the project include the Alaska Fiscal Contract; Alaska gas provisions in the Federal Energy Bill; details of the Canadian regulatory process; and cost reductions and market outlooks. It was concluded that the Alaska Gas Pipeline would provide thousands of jobs and provide stability of long-term gas prices as well as meeting North America's energy needs. In addition, the pipeline would provide $16 billion in Canadian government revenues and $40 billion in US government revenues. The pipeline would provide 4.5 billion cubic feet per day of clean energy, with half the carbon dioxide emissions of coal. It would also provide hundreds of billions of dollars in consumer savings. tabs, figs

  13. Spatio-temporal Analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Arctic Rabies Viruses and Their Reservoir Hosts in Greenland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Hanke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been limited knowledge on spatio-temporal epidemiology of zoonotic arctic fox rabies among countries bordering the Arctic, in particular Greenland. Previous molecular epidemiological studies have suggested the occurrence of one particular arctic rabies virus (RABV lineage (arctic-3, but have been limited by a low number of available samples preventing in-depth high resolution phylogenetic analysis of RABVs at that time. However, an improved knowledge of the evolution, at a molecular level, of the circulating RABVs and a better understanding of the historical perspective of the disease in Greenland is necessary for better direct control measures on the island. These issues have been addressed by investigating the spatio-temporal genetic diversity of arctic RABVs and their reservoir host, the arctic fox, in Greenland using both full and partial genome sequences. Using a unique set of 79 arctic RABV full genome sequences from Greenland, Canada, USA (Alaska and Russia obtained between 1977 and 2014, a description of the historic context in relation to the genetic diversity of currently circulating RABV in Greenland and neighboring Canadian Northern territories has been provided. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed delineation into four major arctic RABV lineages (arctic 1-4 with viruses from Greenland exclusively grouping into the circumpolar arctic-3 lineage. High resolution analysis enabled distinction of seven geographically distinct subclades (3.I - 3.VII with two subclades containing viruses from both Greenland and Canada. By combining analysis of full length RABV genome sequences and host derived sequences encoding mitochondrial proteins obtained simultaneously from brain tissues of 49 arctic foxes, the interaction of viruses and their hosts was explored in detail. Such an approach can serve as a blueprint for analysis of infectious disease dynamics and virus-host interdependencies. The results showed a fine-scale spatial population

  14. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  15. Canadian small wind market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhouse, E.

    2010-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed initiatives and strategies adopted by the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) to support the development of Canada's small wind market. The general public has shown a significant interest in small wind projects of 300 kW. Studies have demonstrated that familiarity and comfort with small wind projects can help to ensure the successful implementation of larger wind projects. Small wind markets include residential, farming and commercial, and remote community applications. The results of CanWEA market survey show that the small wind market grew by 78 percent in 2008 over 2007, and again in 2009 by 32 percent over 2008. The average turbine size is 1 kW. A total of 11,000 turbines were purchased in 2007 and 2008. Global small wind market growth increased by 110 percent in 2008, and the average turbine size was 2.4 kW. Eighty-seven percent of the turbines made by Canadian mid-size wind turbine manufacturers are exported, and there is now a significant risk that Canada will lose its competitive advantage in small wind manufacturing as financial incentives have not been implemented. American and Canadian-based small wind manufacturers were listed, and small wind policies were reviewed. The presentation concluded with a set of recommendations for future incentives, educational programs and legislation. tabs., figs.

  16. Canadian ethane market overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauft, T. [TransCanada Midstream, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    A review of the Canadian petrochemical industry, the supply and demand for ethane, and the longer-term outlook for ethane are presented. Recent projections of natural gas production by the National Energy Board are examined, along with the impact on ethane supply and demand by Alliance. It is suggested that reduced gas will flow past Cochrane and Empress, Alberta ethane and gas prices will increase relative to US Gulf Coast prices, and since expansion is based on ethane demand, the combined influence of these factors will be to delay the construction of new extraction capacity. Present capacity is considered sufficient to produce ethane for the current round of petrochemical plant expansions. Excess supplies will exist for the next few years, and Alberta ethane prices are likely to strengthen due to the tight supply/demand balance. The combination of the impact of the Alliance Pipeline project and the ultimate potential of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin are the major uncertainties. On the plus side, both the US and Canadian regulatory agencies appear to be moving away from regulating ethane, and towards allowing a competitive market to develop.

  17. Canadian ethane market overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauft, T.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the Canadian petrochemical industry, the supply and demand for ethane, and the longer-term outlook for ethane are presented. Recent projections of natural gas production by the National Energy Board are examined, along with the impact on ethane supply and demand by Alliance. It is suggested that reduced gas will flow past Cochrane and Empress, Alberta ethane and gas prices will increase relative to US Gulf Coast prices, and since expansion is based on ethane demand, the combined influence of these factors will be to delay the construction of new extraction capacity. Present capacity is considered sufficient to produce ethane for the current round of petrochemical plant expansions. Excess supplies will exist for the next few years, and Alberta ethane prices are likely to strengthen due to the tight supply/demand balance. The combination of the impact of the Alliance Pipeline project and the ultimate potential of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin are the major uncertainties. On the plus side, both the US and Canadian regulatory agencies appear to be moving away from regulating ethane, and towards allowing a competitive market to develop

  18. Man-Made Wildlife Tourism Destination: The Visitors Perspective on Lok Kawi Wildlife Park, Sabah, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd Sun Fatt; Johnny Cindy; Bakansing Shirley M.

    2014-01-01

    Sabah is blessed with natural forest habitats and rich with floras and faunas. Amongst its’ attraction is wildlife endemism. Lok Kawi Wildlife Park was established to provide an alternative wildlife tourism destination with its inhabitants from the wildlife species of Borneo. Since its opening in 2007, multitudes of tourists have visited the park. However, there has been no study to identify the visitor’s perspective on Lok Kawi Wildlife Park as man-made wildlife tourism destination. The stud...

  19. State of the Arctic Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Arctic environment, covering about 21 million km 2 , is in this connection regarded as the area north of the Arctic Circle. General biological and physical features of the terrestrial and freshwater environments of the Arctic are briefly described, but most effort is put into a description of the marine part which constitutes about two-thirds of the total Arctic environment. General oceanography and morphological characteristics are included; e.g. that the continental shelf surrounding the Arctic deep water basins covers approximately 36% of the surface areas of Arctic waters, but contains only 2% of the total water masses. Blowout accident may release thousands of tons of oil per day and last for months. They occur statistically very seldom, but the magnitude underlines the necessity of an efficient oil spill contingency as well as sound safety and quality assurance procedures. Contingency plans should be coordinated and regularly evaluated through simulated and practical tests of performance. Arctic conditions demand alternative measures compared to those otherwise used for oil spill prevention and clean-up. New concepts or optimization of existing mechanical equipment is necessary. Chemical and thermal methods should be evaluated for efficiency and possible environmental effects. Both due to regular discharges of oil contaminated drilled cuttings and the possibility of a blowout or other spills, drilling operations in biological sensitive areas may be regulated to take place only during the less sensitive parts of the year. 122 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  20. Dictionaries of Canadian English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Considine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The lexicographical record of English in Canada began with wordlists of the late eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth centuries. From the beginning of the twentieth century onwards, the general vocabulary of English in Canada has been represented in bilingual and monolingual dictionaries, often adapted from American or British dictionaries. In the 1950s, several important projects were initiated, resulting in the publication of general dictionaries of English in Canada, and of dictionaries of Canadianisms and of the vocabulary of particular regions of Can-ada. This article gives an overview of these dictionaries and of their reception, contextualizing them in the larger picture of the lexicography of Canada's other official language, French, and of a number of its non-official languages. It concludes by looking at the future of English-language lexicography in Canada, and by observing that although it has, at its best, reached a high degree of sophistication, there are still major opportunities waiting to be taken.

    Keywords: DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHY, CANADIAN ENGLISH, CANADIANISMS, NATIONAL DICTIONARIES, CANADIAN FRENCH, CANADIAN FIRST NATIONS LAN-GUAGES, BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES, REGIONAL DICTIONARIES, UNFINISHED DICTIONARY PROJECTS

    Opsomming: Woordeboeke van Kanadese Engels. Die leksikografiese optekening van Engels in Kanada begin met woordelyste van die laat agtiende, neëntiende en vroeë twintigste eeue. Van die begin van die twintigste eeu af en verder, is die algemene woordeskat van Engels weergegee in tweetalige en eentalige woordeboeke, dikwels met wysiginge ontleen aan Ameri-kaanse en Britse woordeboeke. In die 1950's is verskeie belangrike projekte onderneem wat gelei het tot die publikasie van algemene woordeboeke van Engels in Kanada, en van woordeboeke van Kanadeïsmes en van die woordeskat van bepaalde streke van Kanada. Hierdie artikel gee 'n oorsig van dié woordeboeke, en van hul ontvangs, deur

  1. Arctic action against climatic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njaastad, Birgit

    2000-01-01

    The articles describes efforts to map the climatic changes in the Arctic regions through the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Project which is a joint venture between eight Arctic countries: Denmark, Canada, the USA, Russia, Finland, Sweden and Norway. The project deals with the consequences of the changes such as the UV radiation due to diminishing ozone layers. The aims are: Evaluate and integrate existing knowledge in the field and evaluate and predict the consequences particularly on the environment both in the present and the future and produce reliable and useful information in order to aid the decision-making processes

  2. Participatory Methods in Arctic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Louise

    2018-01-01

    collection, analysis and conclusions and / or knowledge dissemination. The book aims to collect and share experiences from researchers active in engaging research in the Arctic. The articles reflect on the inclusive methods used in the Arctic research, on the cause and purpose thereof, while the methods......This book is a collection of articles written by researchers at Aalborg University, affiliated with AAU Arctic. The articles are about how the researchers in their respective projects work with stakeholders and citizens in different ways, for example in connection with problem formulation, data...... are exemplified to serve as inspiration for other researchers....

  3. Abundant Pre-Industrial Carbon Emitted by Arctic Inland Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J.; Van der Velde, Y.; Billett, M. F.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Garnett, M.; Meisel, O.; Dolman, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Mobilization of carbon (C) derived from soil/sediment organic matter into inland freshwaters constitutes a substantial, but poorly-constrained, component of the global C cycle. Radiocarbon (14C) analysis has proven a valuable tool in tracing the sources and fate of mobilized C, but aquatic 14C studies in permafrost regions rarely detect 'old' C (assimilated from the atmosphere into plants and soil prior to AD1950). This is partly due to a focus on dissolved organic C (DOC) in many Arctic inland water 14C studies to date, now known to be an insensitive method for detecting old C. Crucially, the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) derived from old permafrost C by aquatic systems contributes to a positive climate feedback loop: the 'Permafrost Climate Feedback' (PCF). Here, we measure directly the 14C content and quantify fluxes of aquatic CO2 and CH4, alongside DOC and particulate-OC, in freshwater systems of the Canadian and Siberian Arctic tundra - the first such concurrent 14C measurements from freshwater systems. Aquatic C increased in age significantly over the snow-free season as the active layer deepened (Figure 1). However, 'modern' C (assimilated since AD1950) still dominated aquatic CO2 and CH4 emissions, except where deep ancient (6,000 to 50,000 yBP) C was exposed. Age distribution modeling of these bulk 14C samples indicated that 'pre-industrial' C (assimilated prior to AD1750) comprised 15-30% of aquatic GHGs (Figure 1). Further, we estimate that 15-20% of total CO2 and CH4 emissions were derived from old C previously locked up in permafrost soils and thus contributed to the PCF. These results demonstrate the previously unknown presence of aged C within Arctic headwater GHG emissions that could be equivalent to 7.5-28.2 Tg C yr-1 across the pan-Arctic.

  4. Latitudinal variation of phytoplankton communities in the western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Joo, Hyoung; Lee, Sang H.; Won Jung, Seung; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Hwan Lee, Jin

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that photosynthetic eukaryotes are an active and often dominant component of Arctic phytoplankton assemblages. In order to explore this notion at a large scale, samples were collected to investigate the community structure and biovolume of phytoplankton along a transect in the western Arctic Ocean. The transect included 37 stations at the surface and subsurface chlorophyll a maximum (SCM) depths in the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Canadian Basin from July 19 to September 5, 2008. Phytoplankton (>2 μm) were identified and counted. A cluster analysis of abundance and biovolume data revealed different assemblages over the shelf, slope, and basin regions. Phytoplankton communities were composed of 71 taxa representing Dinophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Dictyochophyceae, Prasinophyceae, and Prymnesiophyceae. The most abundant species were of pico- to nano-size at the surface and SCM depths at most stations. Nano- and pico-sized phytoplankton appeared to be dominant in the Bering Sea, whereas diatoms and nano-sized plankton provided the majority of taxon diversity in the Bering Strait and in the Chukchi Sea. From the western Bering Sea to the Bering Strait, the abundance, biovolume, and species diversity of phytoplankton provided a marked latitudinal gradient towards the central Arctic. Although pico- and nano-sized phytoplankton contributed most to cell abundance, their chlorophyll a contents and biovolumes were less than those of the larger micro-sized taxa. Micro-sized phytoplankton contributed most to the biovolume in the largely ice-free waters of the western Arctic Ocean during summer 2008.

  5. Quadcopter applications for wildlife monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiansyah, S.; Kusrini, M. D.; Prasetyo, L. B.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) had been use as an instrument for wildlife research. Most of that, using an airplane type which need space for runaway. Copter is UAV type that can fly at canopy space and do not need runaway. The research aims are to examine quadcopter application for wildlife monitoring, measure the accuracy of data generated and determine effective, efficient and appropriate technical recommendation in accordance with the ethics of wildlife photography. Flight trials with a camera 12 - 24 MP at altitude ranges from 50-200 m above ground level (agl), producing aerial photographs with spatial resolution of 0.85 - 4.79 cm/pixel. Aerial photos quality depends on the type and setting of camera, vibration damper system, flight altitude and punctuality of the shooting. For wildlife monitoring the copter is recommended to take off at least 300 m from the target, and flies at 50 - 100 m agl with flight speed of 5 - 7 m/sec on fine weather. Quadcopter presence with a distance more than 30 m from White-bellied Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus leucogaster) nest and Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis larvatus) did not cause negative response. Quadcopter application should pay attention to the behaviour and characteristic of wildlife.

  6. Wildlife reserves, populations and hunting outcome with smart wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2014-01-01

    reach ambiguous results when comparing a situation with and without stress effects. A pure stress effect implies that the population level in a wildlife reserve increase and the population level in the hunting area decrease in optimum. However, this change in optimal population levels increase migration...... from the wildlife reserve to the hunting area in the social optimum. The total effect is, therefore, ambiguous. For the private optimum open-access is assumed and exactly the same results arise as in the social optimum when comparing a situation with and without stress effects....

  7. Squaring the Arctic Circle: connecting Arctic knowledge with societal needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Over the coming years the landscape of the Arctic will change substantially- environmentally, politically, and economically. Furthermore, Arctic change has the potential to significantly impact Arctic and non-Arctic countries alike. Thus, our science is in-demand by local communities, politicians, industry leaders and the public. During these times of transition it is essential that the links between science and society be strengthened further. Strong links between science and society is exactly what is needed for the development of better decision-making tools to support sustainable development, enable adaptation to climate change, provide the information necessary for improved management of assets and operations in the Arctic region, and and to inform scientific, economic, environmental and societal policies. By doing so tangible benefits will flow to Arctic societies, as well as for non-Arctic countries that will be significantly affected by climate change. Past experience has shown that the engagement with a broad range of stakeholders is not always an easy process. Consequently, we need to improve collaborative opportunities between scientists, indigenous/local communities, private sector, policy makers, NGOs, and other relevant stakeholders. The development of best practices in this area must build on the collective experiences of successful cross-sectorial programmes. Within this session we present some of the outreach work we have performed within the EU programme ICE-ARC, from community meetings in NW Greenland through to sessions at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change COP Conferences, industry round tables, and an Arctic side event at the World Economic Forum in Davos.

  8. Quantifying the Bering Strait Oceanic Fluxes and their Impacts on Sea-Ice and Water Properties in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas and Western Arctic Ocean for 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    impacts on sea-ice and water properties in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas and western Arctic Ocean for 2013-2014 Rebecca Woodgate Polar Science...and G. R. Bigg (2002), Impact of flow through the Canadian Archipelago and Bering Strait on the North Atlantic and Arctic circulation: an ocean ...Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Feb 2013 - April 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantifying the Bering Strait oceanic fluxes and their impacts

  9. Diazotroph Diversity in the Sea Ice, Melt Ponds, and Surface Waters of the Eurasian Basin of the Central Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Turk-Kubo, Kendra A; Buttigieg, Pier L; Rapp, Josephine Z; Krumpen, Thomas; Zehr, Jonathan P; Boetius, Antje

    2016-01-01

    The Eurasian basin of the Central Arctic Ocean is nitrogen limited, but little is known about the presence and role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Recent studies have indicated the occurrence of diazotrophs in Arctic coastal waters potentially of riverine origin. Here, we investigated the presence of diazotrophs in ice and surface waters of the Central Arctic Ocean in the summer of 2012. We identified diverse communities of putative diazotrophs through targeted analysis of the nifH gene, which encodes the iron protein of the nitrogenase enzyme. We amplified 529 nifH sequences from 26 samples of Arctic melt ponds, sea ice and surface waters. These sequences resolved into 43 clusters at 92% amino acid sequence identity, most of which were non-cyanobacterial phylotypes from sea ice and water samples. One cyanobacterial phylotype related to Nodularia sp. was retrieved from sea ice, suggesting that this important functional group is rare in the Central Arctic Ocean. The diazotrophic community in sea-ice environments appear distinct from other cold-adapted diazotrophic communities, such as those present in the coastal Canadian Arctic, the Arctic tundra and glacial Antarctic lakes. Molecular fingerprinting of nifH and the intergenic spacer region of the rRNA operon revealed differences between the communities from river-influenced Laptev Sea waters and those from ice-related environments pointing toward a marine origin for sea-ice diazotrophs. Our results provide the first record of diazotrophs in the Central Arctic and suggest that microbial nitrogen fixation may occur north of 77°N. To assess the significance of nitrogen fixation for the nitrogen budget of the Arctic Ocean and to identify the active nitrogen fixers, further biogeochemical and molecular biological studies are needed.

  10. Diazotroph diversity in the sea ice, melt ponds and surface waters of the Eurasian Basin of the Central Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Fernández-Méndez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian basin of the Central Arctic Ocean is nitrogen limited, but little is known about the presence and role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Recent studies have indicated the occurrence of diazotrophs in Arctic coastal waters potentially of riverine origin. Here, we investigated the presence of diazotrophs in ice and surface waters of the Central Arctic Ocean in the summer of 2012. We identified diverse communities of putative diazotrophs through targeted analysis of the nifH gene, which encodes the iron protein of the nitrogenase enzyme. We amplified 529 nifH sequences from 26 samples of Arctic melt ponds, sea ice and surface waters. These sequences resolved into 43 clusters at 92% amino acid sequence identity, most of which were non-cyanobacterial phylotypes from sea ice and water samples. One cyanobacterial phylotype related to Nodularia sp. was retrieved from sea ice, suggesting that this important functional group is rare in the Central Arctic Ocean. The diazotrophic community in sea-ice environments appear distinct from other cold-adapted diazotrophic communities, such as those present in the coastal Canadian Arctic, the Arctic tundra and glacial Antarctic lakes. Molecular fingerprinting of nifH and the intergenic spacer region of the rRNA operon revealed differences between the communities from river-influenced Laptev Sea waters and those from ice-related environments pointing towards a marine origin for sea-ice diazotrophs. Our results provide the first record of diazotrophs in the Central Arctic and suggest that microbial nitrogen fixation may occur north of 77ºN. To assess the significance of nitrogen fixation for the nitrogen budget of the Arctic Ocean and to identify the active nitrogen fixers, further biogeochemical and molecular biological studies are needed.

  11. Selected physical, biological and biogeochemical implications of a rapidly changing Arctic Marginal Ice Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, David G.; Hop, Haakon; Mundy, Christopher J.; Else, Brent; Dmitrenko, Igor A.; Tremblay, Jean-Eric; Ehn, Jens K.; Assmy, Philipp; Daase, Malin; Candlish, Lauren M.; Rysgaard, Søren

    2015-12-01

    The Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) of the Arctic Ocean is changing rapidly due to a warming Arctic climate with commensurate reductions in sea ice extent and thickness. This Pan-Arctic review summarizes the main changes in the Arctic ocean-sea ice-atmosphere (OSA) interface, with implications for primary- and secondary producers in the ice and the underlying water column. Changes in the Arctic MIZ were interpreted for the period 1979-2010, based on best-fit regressions for each month. Trends of increasingly open water were statistically significant for each month, with quadratic fit for August-November, illustrating particularly strong seasonal feedbacks in sea-ice formation and decay. Geographic interpretations of physical and biological changes were based on comparison of regions with significant changes in sea ice: (1) The Pacific Sector of the Arctic Ocean including the Canada Basin and the Beaufort, Chukchi and East Siberian seas; (2) The Canadian Arctic Archipelago; (3) Baffin Bay and Hudson Bay; and (4) the Barents and Kara seas. Changes in ice conditions in the Barents sea/Kara sea region appear to be primarily forced by ocean heat fluxes during winter, whereas changes in the other sectors appear to be more summer-autumn related and primarily atmospherically forced. Effects of seasonal and regional changes in OSA-system with regard to increased open water were summarized for photosynthetically available radiation, nutrient delivery to the euphotic zone, primary production of ice algae and phytoplankton, ice-associated fauna and zooplankton, and gas exchange of CO2. Changes in the physical factors varied amongst regions, and showed direct effects on organisms linked to sea ice. Zooplankton species appear to be more flexible and likely able to adapt to variability in the onset of primary production. The major changes identified for the ice-associated ecosystem are with regard to production timing and abundance or biomass of ice flora and fauna, which are related to

  12. Arctic oil and gas 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Henry P.

    2007-07-01

    The Arctic Council's assessment of oil and gas activities in the Antic is prepared in response to a request from Ministers of the eight Arctic countries. The Ministers called for engagement of all Arctic Council Working Groups in this process, and requested that the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment programme (AMAP) take responsibility for coordinating the work. This Executive Summary is in three parts. Part A presents the main findings of the assessment and related recommendations. Part B is structured in the same manner as Part A and provides additional information for those interested in examining the basis for the conclusions and recommendations that are presented in Part A. Part C presents information on 'gaps in knowledge' and recommendations aimed at filling these gaps. (AG)

  13. Russia's strategy in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jørgen Meedom

    2017-01-01

    Russia's strategy in the Arctic is dominated by two overriding international relations (IR) discourses – or foreign policy directions. On the one hand, there is an IR-realism/geopolitical discourse that puts security first and often has a clear patriotic character, dealing with ‘exploring......’, ‘winning’ or ‘conquering’ the Arctic and putting power, including military power, behind Russia's national interests in the area. Opposed to this is an IR-liberalism, international law-inspired and modernisation-focused discourse, which puts cooperation first and emphasises ‘respect for international law......’, ‘negotiation’ and ‘cooperation’, and labels the Arctic as a ‘territory of dialogue’, arguing that the Arctic states all benefit the most if they cooperate peacefully. After a short but very visible media stunt in 2007 and subsequent public debate by proponents of the IR realism/geopolitical side, the IR...

  14. Acquatorialities of the Arctic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2013-01-01

    In order to describe the Arctic system I propose using a concept functionally equivalent to territoriality, namely aquatoriality. Whether communicating about territoriality or aquatoriality, concepts and delimitations are both contingent to forms of communication systems. I will distinguish between...

  15. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  16. Development of arctic wind technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Antikainen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The climatic conditions of Lapland set special technical requirements for wind power production. The most difficult problem regarding wind power production in arctic regions is the build-up of hard and rime ice on structures of the machine

  17. Arctic oil and gas 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Henry P

    2007-07-01

    The Arctic Council's assessment of oil and gas activities in the Antic is prepared in response to a request from Ministers of the eight Arctic countries. The Ministers called for engagement of all Arctic Council Working Groups in this process, and requested that the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment programme (AMAP) take responsibility for coordinating the work. This Executive Summary is in three parts. Part A presents the main findings of the assessment and related recommendations. Part B is structured in the same manner as Part A and provides additional information for those interested in examining the basis for the conclusions and recommendations that are presented in Part A. Part C presents information on 'gaps in knowledge' and recommendations aimed at filling these gaps. (AG)

  18. Canadian heavy water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlinger, A.; Lockerby, W.E.; Rae, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews Canadian experience in the production of heavy water, presents a long-term supply projection, relates this projection to the anticipated long-term electrical energy demand, and highlights principal areas for further improvement that form the bulk of the Canadian R and D programme on heavy water processes. Six Canadian heavy water plants with a total design capacity of 4000Mg/a are in operation or under construction. All use the Girdler-Sulphide (GS) process, which is based on deuterium exchange between water and hydrogen sulphide. Early operating problems have been overcome and the plants have demonstrated annual capacity factors in excess of 70%, with short-term production rates equal to design rates. Areas for further improvement are: to increase production rates by optimizing the control of foaming to give both higher sieve tray efficiency and higher flow rates, to reduce the incapacity due to deposition of pyrite (FeS 2 ) and sulphur (between 5% and 10%), and to improve process control and optimization of operating conditions by the application of mathematical simulations of the detailed deuterium profile throughout each plant. Other processes being studied, which look potentially attractive are the hydrogen-water exchange and the hydrogen-amine exchange. Even if they become successful competitors to the GS process, the latter is likely to remain the dominant production method for the next 10-20 years. This programme, when related to the long-term electricity demand, indicates that heavy water supply and demand are in reasonable balance and that the Candu programme will not be inhibited because of shortages of this commodity. (author)

  19. Wildlife management using the AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Fatti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Two applications of Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process towards solving decision problems in Wildlife Management are discussed. The first involves structuring the management objectives of a National Park and establishing priorities for the implementation of various possible strategic management plans in the Park. The second deals with the problem faced by the various non-governmental organisations concerned with the conservation of the Rhino and Elephant populations in Southern Africa, of deciding how best to allocate their funds towards this purpose. General conclusions are drawn concerning the use of analytical techniques, particularly the AHP, in planning and decision making in Wildlife Management.

  20. Public Perceptions of Arctic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, L.

    2014-12-01

    What does the general US public know, or think they know, about Arctic change? Two broad nationwide surveys in 2006 and 2010 addressed this topic in general terms, before and after the International Polar Year (IPY). Since then a series of representative national or statewide surveys have carried this research farther. The new surveys employ specific questions that assess public knowledge of basic Arctic facts, along with perceptions about the possible consequences of future Arctic change. Majorities know that late-summer Arctic sea ice area has declined compared with 30 years ago, although substantial minorities -- lately increasing -- believe instead that it has now recovered to historical levels. Majorities also believe that, if the Arctic warms in the future, this will have major effects on the weather where they live. Their expectation of local impacts from far-away changes suggests a degree of global thinking. On the other hand, most respondents do poorly when asked whether melting Arctic sea ice, melting Greenland/Antarctic land ice, or melting Himalayan glaciers could have more effect on sea level. Only 30% knew or guessed the right answer to this question. Similarly, only 33% answered correctly on a simple geography quiz: whether the North Pole could best be described as ice a few feet or yards thick floating over a deep ocean, ice more than a mile thick over land, or a rocky, mountainous landscape. Close analysis of response patterns suggests that people often construct Arctic "knowledge" on items such as sea ice increase/decrease from their more general ideology or worldview, such as their belief (or doubt) that anthropogenic climate change is real. When ideology or worldviews provide no guidance, as on the North Pole or sealevel questions, the proportion of accurate answers is no better than chance. These results show at least casual public awareness and interest in Arctic change, unfortunately not well grounded in knowledge. Knowledge problems seen on

  1. Interaction webs in arctic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Hardwick, Bess; Gilg, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    How species interact modulate their dynamics, their response to environmental change, and ultimately the functioning and stability of entire communities. Work conducted at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland, has changed our view on how networks of arctic biotic interactions are structured, how they ...... that the combination of long-term, ecosystem-based monitoring, and targeted research projects offers the most fruitful basis for understanding and predicting the future of arctic ecosystems....

  2. The Canadian safeguards program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarecki, C.W.; Smith, R.M.

    1981-12-01

    In support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Canada provides technical support to the International Atomic Energy Agency for the development of safeguards relevant to Canadian designed and built nuclear facilities. Some details of this program are discussed, including the philosophy and development of CANDU safeguards systems; the unique equipment developed for these systems; the provision of technical experts; training programs; liaison with other technical organizations; research and development; implementation of safeguards systems at various nuclear facilities; and the anticipated future direction of the safeguards program

  3. Canadian photovoltaic industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This directory has been prepared to help potential photovoltaic (PV) customers identify Canadian-based companies who can meet their needs, and to help product manufacturers and distributors identify potential new clients and/or partners within the PV industry for new and improved technologies. To assist the reader, an information matrix is provided that identifies the product and service types offered by each firm and its primary clients served. A list of companies by province or territory is also included. The main section lists companies in alphabetical order. Information presented for each includes address, contact person, prime activity, geographic area served, languages in which services are offered, and a brief company profile

  4. Wind power in Arctic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundsager, P.; Ahm, P.; Madsen, B.; Krogsgaard, P.

    1993-07-01

    Arctic or semi-arctic regions are often endowed with wind resources adequate for a viable production of electricity from the wind. Only limited efforts have so far been spent to introduce and to demonstrate the obvious synergy of combining wind power technology with the problems and needs of electricity generation in Arctic regions. Several factors have created a gap preventing the wind power technology carrying its full role in this context, including a certain lack of familiarity with the technology on the part of the end-users, the local utilities and communities, and a lack of commonly agreed techniques to adapt the same technology for Arctic applications on the part of the manufacturers. This report is part of a project that intends to contribute to bridging this gap. The preliminary results of a survey conducted by the project are included in this report, which is a working document for an international seminar held on June 3-4, 1993, at Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark. Following the seminar a final report will be published. It is intended that the final report will serve as a basis for a sustained, international effort to develop the wind power potential of the Arctic and semi-arctic regions. The project is carried out by a project group formed by Risoe, PA Energy and BTM Consult. The project is sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency of the Danish Ministry of Energy through grant no. ENS-51171/93-0008. (au)

  5. Book review: Foundations of wildlife diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Charles

    2016-01-01

    A new textbook for practitioners and students of wildlife disease is available. Rick Botzler and Richard Brown have provided an excellent addition to the wildlife disease literature with Foundations of Wildlife Diseases. It has been 8 years since the last major wildlife disease book (Wobeser 2006), and over 40 years since the first major wildlife disease compilation (Page 1975), an edited summary of the 3rd International Wildlife Disease meeting in Munich, Germany. Many people interested in wildlife diseases have waited eagerly for this book, and they will not be disappointed.Book information: Foundations of Wildlife Diseases. By Richard G. Botzler and Richard N. Brown. University of California Press, Oakland, California, USA. 2014. 429 pp., viii preface material. ISBN: 9780520276093. 

  6. On Realities of Canadian Multiculturalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦辰

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a multicultural country which was mainly established by immigrants. Just because of that, Canadian govern⁃ment has carried out the policy of multiculturalism since1970s. However, it has encountered many problems such as policy con⁃flicts, national identity, democracy-inquiry and racial discrimination, etc. Hence the Canadian multiculturalism has been in a di⁃lemma.

  7. "Canadianizing" an American Communication Textbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, Jennifer M.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a study on the process involved in the "Canadianization" of U.S. textbooks for the domestic market. Explores whether disciplinary values have been shaped by the United States in the field of communication. Focuses on the experience of developing the Canadian edition of the book "Public Speaking: Strategies for Success"…

  8. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    ... these and other issues at the intersections of gender, immigration, and health in the lives of new Canadians. Situating their work within the context of Canadian policy and society, the contributors illuminate migrants' testimonies of struggle, resistance, and solidarity as they negotiate a place for themselves in a new country. Topics range fr...

  9. Canadian perspectives on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1988-01-01

    Canada has been in the forefront of irradiation technology for some 30 years. Nearly 90 of the 140 irradiators used worldwide are Canadian-built, yet Canadian food processors have been very slow to use the technology. The food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada, the factors that influence it, and some significant non-regulatory developments are reviewed. (author)

  10. Possible changes in the dose of biologically active ultraviolet radiation received by the biosphere in the summertime Arctic due to total ozone interannual variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, Aleksandr N. (Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1994-12-01

    Data for total ozone measurements since 1972 from the world ozone measuring network have been analyzed to study ozone interannual variability and estimate its possible effect on the UV-B dose received by the arctic biosphere. Possible interannual changes in the UV-B dose received by DNA associated with overall interannual ozone variability, as well as with the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in total ozone were computed for different summer months. In general, the largest interannual variations in UV-B dose may occur in the Russian Arctic, whereas the possible variations in the Canadian Arctic are the smallest. Overall variations in the UV-B dose received by DNA can exceed 25% (2[sigma] criterion) in the Taimyr and Severnaya Zemlya for June and July, and 30% in the Laptev Sea for August. In the European sector of the Arctic, the possible variations are greater than 10%, and can exceed 15% in the north Norwegian Sea for July and 20% in Spitsbergen for August. Possible overall variations in the Canadian Arctic and Alaska are [<=]10%, reaching 15% in Alaska for August, however. The total ozone QBO can also cause essential and (statistically) predicted changes in UV-B radiation. In general, the UV-B dose received by DNA is found to be greater in the Arctic during the westerly phase of the QBO of the equatorial stratospheric wind at 50 mb level than during the easterly phase. The difference can reach or exceed 15% (relative to the mean value) in Taimyr for June and in Severnaya Zemlya for July and August. In northern Europe and Iceland, the difference can reach 10% for August. In the Canadian Arctic, the QBO-related effect is small. In Alaska, the appropriate difference in UV-B dose has an opposite sign for August, exceeding 5% in magnitude

  11. 75 FR 67095 - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-R-2010-N215; 60138-1261-6CCP-S3] Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, Montana AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior (DOI). ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish...

  12. 75 FR 54381 - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-R-2010-N078; 60138-1261-6CCP-S3] Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, MT AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability: Draft comprehensive conservation plan and draft...

  13. Canadian geologic isolation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyne, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Canadian geologic isolation program is directed at examining the potential of (1) salt deposits and (2) hard rock as repositories for radioactive wastes. It was felt essential from the inception that alternative host rocks be evaluated over a fairly large geographical area. The studies on salt deposits to date are based on existing geological information and have identified the areas that show some potential and merit further study. The factors considered include depth, thickness and purity of the deposit, overlying aquifers, and the potential for gas and oil exploration as well as potash recovery. The studies on hard rock are restricted to plutonic igneous rocks in the Ontario part of the Canadian Shield. Because geological information on their nature and extent is sparse, the study is limited to bodies that are well exposed and for which information is available.for which information is available. Field studies in the next two seasons are aimed at mapping the fault and joint patterns and defining the geologic controls on their development. In 1977 and 1978, two or three of the more favorable sites will be mapped in greater detail, and an exploratory drilling program will be established to determine the extent of fracturing at depth and the hydrology of these fractures. Conceptual designs of mined repositories in hard rock are also being made with the hope of identifying, at an early stage in this program, special problems in hard-rock repositories that may require development and study

  14. Social-Ecological Soundscapes: Examining Aircraft-Harvester-Caribou Conflict in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcomb, Taylor R.

    As human development expands across the Arctic, it is crucial to carefully assess the impacts to remote natural ecosystems and to indigenous communities that rely on wild resources for nutritional and cultural wellbeing. Because indigenous communities and wildlife populations are interdependent, assessing how human activities impact traditional harvest practices can advance our understanding of the human dimensions of wildlife management. Indigenous communities across Arctic Alaska have expressed concern over the last four decades that low-flying aircraft interfere with their traditional harvest practices. For example, communities often have testified that aircraft disturb caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and thereby reduce harvest opportunities. Despite this longstanding concern, little research exists on the extent of aircraft activity in Arctic Alaska and on how aircraft affect the behavior and perceptions of harvesters. Therefore, the overarching goal of my research was to highlight the importance of aircraft-harvester conflict in Arctic Alaska and begin to address the issue using a scientific and community-driven approach. In Chapter 1, I demonstrated that conflict between aircraft and indigenous harvesters in Arctic Alaska is a widespread, understudied, and complex issue. By conducting a meta-analysis of the available literature, I quantified the deficiency of scientific knowledge about the impacts of aircraft on rural communities and traditional harvest practices in the Arctic. My results indicated that no peer-reviewed literature has addressed the conflict between low-flying aircraft and traditional harvesters in Arctic Alaska. I speculated that the scale over which aircraft, rural communities, and wildlife interact limits scientists' ability to determine causal relationships and therefore detracts from their interest in researching the human dimension of this social-ecological system. Innovative research approaches like soundscape ecology could begin to

  15. Wildlife Habitat Improvement Guide for Minnesota Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Clifton

    This publication outlines projects to increase wildlife, primarily fowl and deer, and to help rural youth better understand wildlife requirements. The publication outlines six basic steps that are involved in initiating a wildlife project. These are: (1) Determine the types of wild animals for which the land is best suited; (2) Study the life…

  16. 32 CFR 644.429 - Wildlife purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wildlife purposes. 644.429 Section 644.429... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.429 Wildlife... for wildlife conservation purposes by the agency of the state exercising administration over the...

  17. Blurred Boundaries in Wildlife Management Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonman-Berson, S.H.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts have been increasing at alarming rates over the last few decades. Wildlife management practices deal with preventing and disentangling these conflicts. However, which approach should be taken is widely disputed in research, policy, in-the-field-wildlife management and local

  18. 36 CFR 2.2 - Wildlife protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wildlife protection. 2.2... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.2 Wildlife protection. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) The taking of wildlife, except by authorized hunting and trapping activities conducted in accordance with...

  19. The Arctic Coastal Erosion Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Matthew Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Craig A. [Integral Consulting Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Roberts, Jesse D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Permafrost-dominated coastlines in the Arctic are rapidly disappearing. Arctic coastal erosion rates in the United States have doubled since the middle of the twentieth century and appear to be accelerating. Positive erosion trends have been observed for highly-variable geomorphic conditions across the entire Arctic, suggesting a major (human-timescale) shift in coastal landscape evolution. Unfortunately, irreversible coastal land loss in this region poses a threat to native, industrial, scientific, and military communities. The Arctic coastline is vast, spanning more than 100,000 km across eight nations, ten percent of which is overseen by the United States. Much of area is inaccessible by all-season roads. People and infrastructure, therefore, are commonly located near the coast. The impact of the Arctic coastal erosion problem is widespread. Homes are being lost. Residents are being dispersed and their villages relocated. Shoreline fuel storage and delivery systems are at greater risk. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operate research facilities along some of the most rapidly eroding sections of coast in the world. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is struggling to fortify coastal radar sites, operated to ensure national sovereignty in the air, against the erosion problem. Rapid alterations to the Arctic coastline are facilitated by oceanographic and geomorphic perturbations associated with climate change. Sea ice extent is declining, sea level is rising, sea water temperature is increasing, and permafrost state is changing. The polar orientation of the Arctic exacerbates the magnitude and rate of the environmental forcings that facilitate coastal land area loss. The fundamental mechanics of these processes are understood; their non-linear combination poses an extreme hazard. Tools to accurately predict Arctic coastal erosion do not exist. To obtain an accurate predictive model, a coupling of the influences of

  20. Wildlife and electric power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Goodwin, J.G.; Hunt, J.R.; Fletcher, John L.; Busnel, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of miles of transmission lines have been introduced into our natural environment. These lines and their corridors can be damaging or beneficial to wildlife communities depending on how they are designed, where they are placed, and when they are constructed and maintained. With the current trend toward UHV systems, new problems (associated with additional increments in audible noise, electric and magnetic force fields, etc.) must be addressed. We recommend the following areas for careful study: (1) the response of wilderness species to transmission lines and line construction and maintenance activities (2) the magnitude of bird collision and electrocution mortality, (3) the response of power corridor and power tower in habiting wildlife to laboratory and field doses of electro-chemical oxidants, corona noise, electric and magnetic fields, etc., (4) the productivity of tower inhabiting birds compared with nearby non-tower nesters, and (5) the influence of powerline corridors on mammalian and avian migration patterns. It is our hope that the questions identified in this study will help stimulate further research so that we can maximize wildlife benefits and minimize wildlife detriments.

  1. Journal of Wildlife Management guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    William M. Block; Frank R. Thompson; Dawn Hanseder; Allison Cox; Anna Knipps

    2011-01-01

    These Guidelines apply to all Journal of Wildlife Management (JWM, The Journal) submissions. Publishing a professional manuscript proceeds most smoothly if authors understand the policy, procedures, format, and style of the outlet to which they are submitting a manuscript. These instructions supersede all previous guidelines. Manuscripts that clearly deviate from this...

  2. 50 CFR 36.32 - Taking of fish and wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Taking of fish and wildlife. 36.32 Section 36.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Other Refuge Uses § 36.32...

  3. 50 CFR 31.1 - Determination of surplus wildlife populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of surplus wildlife populations. 31.1 Section 31.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDLIFE SPECIES MANAGEMENT Surplus...

  4. Variability of the Arctic Basin Oceanographic Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sabinin, K

    1996-01-01

    ...." Special attention was paid to Atlantic Water in the Arctic Ocean which seems to be the main source of information in acoustic monitoring of the ocean, in the framework of the Arctic-ATOC program...

  5. Canadian attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.E.O.

    1977-01-01

    In the past ten years, public interest in nuclear power and its relationship to the environment has grown. Although most Canadians have accepted nuclear power as a means of generating electricity, there is significant opposition to its use. This opposition has effectively forced the Canadian nuclear industry to modify its behaviour to the public in the face of growing concern over the safety of nuclear power and related matters. The paper reviews Canadian experience concerning public acceptance of nuclear power, with special reference to the public information activities of the Canadian nuclear industry. Experience has shown the need for scientific social data that will permit the nuclear industry to involve the public in a rational examination of its concern about nuclear power. The Canadian Nuclear Association sponsored such studies in 1976 and the findings are discussed. They consisted of a national assessment of public attitudes, two regional studies and a study of Canadian policy-makers' views on nuclear energy. The social data obtained were of a base-line nature describing Canadian perceptions of and attitudes to nuclear power at that time. This research established that Canadian levels of knowledge about nuclear power are very low and that there are marked regional differences. Only 56% of the population have the minimum knowledge required to indicate that they know that nuclear power can be used to generate electricity. Nevertheless, 21% of informed Canadians oppose nuclear power primarily on the grounds that it is not safe. Radiation and waste management are seen to be major disadvantages. In perspective, Canadians are more concerned with inflation than with the energy supply. About half of all Canadians see the question of energy supplies as a future problem (within five years), not a present one. A more important aspect of energy is seen by the majority of Canadians to be some form of energy independence. The use of data from these studies is no easy

  6. Canadian beef quality audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) was observed on 34% of the cattle. Bruises were found on 78% of the carcasses, 81% of which were minor in severity. Fifteen percent of the bruises were located on the round, 29% on the loin, 40% on the rib, 16% on the chuck, and 0.02% on the brisket. Grubs were observed in 0.02% of the steers, and injection sites were observed in 1.3% of whole hanging carcasses. Seventy percent of the livers were passed for human food and 14% for pet food; 16% were condemned. Approximately 71% of the liver condemnations were due to liver abscesses. Four percent of the heads, 6% of the tongues, and 0.2% of whole carcasses were condemned. The pregnancy rate in female cattle was approximately 6.7%. The average hot carcass weight was 357 kg (s = 40) in steers, 325 kg (s = 41) in heifers, 305 kg (s = 53) in cows, 388 kg (s = 62) in virgin bulls and 340 kg (s = 39) in mature bulls. The average ribeye area in all cattle was 84 cm2 (s = 12); range 29 cm2 to 128 cm2. Grade fat was highly variable and averaged 9 mm (s = 4) for steers and heifers, 6 mm (s = 6) for cows, 5 mm (s = 1) for virgin bulls, and 4 mm (s = 0.5) for mature bulls. The average lean meat yield was 59.7% in cattle (s = 3.4); range 39% to 67%. One percent of the carcasses were devoid of marbling, 1% were dark cutters, and 0.05% of the steer carcasses were staggy. Six percent of the carcasses had poor conformation, 3.7% were underfinished, and 0.7% were overfinished. Yellow fat was observed in 4% of the carcasses; 10% of carcasses were

  7. Freshwater fluxes into the subpolar North Atlantic from secular trends in Arctic land ice mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, J. L.; Enderlin, E. M.; Howat, I. M.; Wouters, B.; van den Broeke, M.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater fluxes (FWF) from river runoff and precipitation minus evaporation for the pan Arctic seas are relatively well documented and prescribed in ocean GCMs. Fluxes from Greenland and Arctic glaciers and ice caps on the other hand are generally ignored, despite their potential impacts on ocean circulation and marine biology and growing evidence for changes to the hydrography of parts of the subpolar North Atlantic. In a previous study we determined the FWF from Greenland for the period 1958-2010 using a combination of observations and regional climate modeling. Here, we update the analysis with data from new satellite observations to extend the record both in space and time. The new FWF estimates cover the period 1958-2014 and include the Canadian, Russian and Norwegian Arctic (Svalbard) in addition to the contributions from Greenland. We combine satellite altimetry (including CryoSat 2) with grounding line flux data, regional climate modeling of surface mass balance and gravimetry to produce consistent estimates of solid ice and liquid FWF into the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. The total cumulative FWF anomaly from land ice mass loss started to increase significantly in the mid 1990s and now exceeds 5000 km^3, a value that is about half of the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s. The majority of the anomaly is entering two key areas of deep water overturning in the Labrador and Irminger Seas, at a rate that has been increasing steadily over the last ~20 years. Since the mid 2000s, however, the Canadian Arctic archipelago has been making a significant contribution to the FW anomaly entering Baffin Bay. Tracer experiments with eddy-permitting ocean GCMs suggest that the FW input from southern Greenland and the Canadian Arctic should accumulate in Baffin Bay with the potential to affect geostrophic circulation, stratification in the region and possibly the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. We also examine the trajectory of

  8. Redefining U.S. Arctic Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    responsibility shifts 21 Barno, David and Nora Bensahel. The Anti-Access Challenge you’re not thinking...International Affairs 85, no. 6 (2009). 38 Barno, David and Nora Bensahel. THE ANTI-ACCESS CHALLENGE YOU’RE NOT THINKING ABOUT, 05 May 2015...and Rescue in the Arctic, 22 June 2011. Arctic Council Secretariat. About the Arctic Council, Arctic Council, 2011. Barno, David and Nora

  9. Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments: An Arctic Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Carol E.; Stanford, Kerry L.; Bubenheim, David L.; Covington, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The problems of obtaining adequate pure drinking water and disposing of liquid and solid waste in the U.S. Arctic, a region where virtually all water is frozen solid for much of the year, has led to unsanitary solutions (U.S. Arctic Research Commission). These solutions are also damaging to the environment. Sanitation and a safe water supply are particularly problems in rural villages. About one-fourth of Alaska's 86.000 Native residents live in these communities. They are without running water and use plastic buckets for toilets. The outbreak of diseases is believed to be partially attributable to exposure to human waste. Villages with the most frequent outbreaks of disease are those in which running water is difficult to obtain (Office of Technology Assessment, 1994). Waste is emptied into open lagoons, rivers, or onto the sea coast. It does not degrade rapidly and in addition to affecting human health, can be harmful to the fragile ecology of the Arctic and the indigenous wildlife and fish populations. Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) provides a solution to sanitation and safe water problems. The system uses an advanced integrated technology developed for Antarctic and space applications. ALSEE uses the systems approach to address more than waste and water problems. By incorporating hydroponic horticulture and aquaculture into the waste treatment system, ALSEE addresses the quality and quantity of fresh foods available to Arctic residents. A temperate climate is required for year-round plant growth. ALSEE facilities can be designed to include a climate controlled area within the structure. This type of environment is a change from the long periods of darkness and cold found in the Arctic and can help alleviate stress so often associated with these extremes. While the overall concept of ALSEE projects is advanced, system facilities can be operated by village residents with appropriate training. ALSEE provides continuing training and

  10. Canadian wind energy program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templin, R J; South, P

    1976-01-01

    Several aspects of recent work at the National Research Council of Canada on the development of vertical-axis turbines have been reviewed. Most of this work, during the past year or more, has been in support of the design of a 200 kW unit now being built for experimental operation on the Magdelen Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Results of small and large scale aeroelastic wind tunnel model experiments have confirmed that very large scale vertical-axis wind turbines are feasible, especially if designed for normal operation at constant rotational speed. A computer model of a simple mixed power system has indicated that substantial cost savings may be possible by using wind energy in Canadian east coast regions. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Environmental problems associated with Arctic development especially in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, G. C.

    1976-10-01

    Exploration and extraction of mineral and petroleum resources in the arctic tundra and subarctic taiga regions of the world has potential impacts on the environment, wildlife, and human health and safety. Transportation, especially over low wet-tundra in summer, causes long-term changes in vegetation by reducing insulation to the underlying permafrost. Gravel laid directly on the tundra mat, makes the most suitable permanent road-bed. However this causes problems such as spreading of dust, impoundment of water, behavioral barricading of animals, alteration of river channels, and siltation of streams. Anadromous fishes are a major food alteration of stream channels or siltation of rivers can affect their movement and reproduction. Oil-spills in aquatic systems are harder to control and clean up than terrestrial ones, and recovery of ponds takes several years. The oil-rich outer-continental shelves in the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering Seas, now under exploration for oil, are especially sensitive. They contain unique populations of marine mammals and birds. Human habitation of the Arctic requires transport of food, fuel, and construction materials, and disposal of refuse and wastes which, due to the permafrost-underlain vegetative mat, is difficult. Heating by fossil fuels results in ice-fogs in winter and accumulation of atmospheric pollutants at ground-level during thermal inversions at all seasons. Perhaps the greatest impact is the increased intervention of the human population. Where native people were previously only sparsely settled or nomadic in the tundra, and on coasts where they congregated, now the economic need for resources has resulted in increased pressure overall which will result in fewer habitats for wildlife, destruction of wilderness, and increased access to humans for further exploration and recreation.

  12. Seasonal narwhal habitat associations in the high Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laidre, K.L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M.P.; Logdson, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Movements and behavior of top marine predators are often closely linked with productive oceanic fronts or regional prey aggregations. Consequently, it is of interest to quantify habitat needs and preferences, which can facilitate predictions of conditions favoring persistence and success....... Multivariate habitat models of movements and dive behavior of narwhals (Monodon monoceros, Linnaeus) in the eastern Canadian high Arctic and West Greenland were developed using data collected from satellite telemetry studies on three separate sub-populations. Twenty-six narwhals were captured between 1993...... and 2000 and fitted with satellite-linked time-depth recorders. Geographic positions of whales at 24-h time steps were linked to dive behavior variables compressed on a daily scale, including numbers of dives to different target depths or durations, time near the surface, daily dive rate, and travel speed...

  13. Cytogenetics of a parthenogenetic Arctic species of Micropsectra (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, David L.; Martin, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Micropsectra sedna (Oliver, 1976) is a parthenogenetic midge from the Canadian Arctic. The parthenogenetic mechanism is apomictic thelytoky, with a restitutional division during oogenesis, as found in other parthenogenetic Chironomidae. It is triploid, with two similar chromosome sets, and the third is relatively dissimilar, pairing little with the diploid set. Two karyotypes were observed: a single individual with eight polytene elements in the salivary glands (3n=12), considered standard, while the majority of larvae showed only seven polytene chromosomes (3n=11). Hybrid speciation is considered likely, although chromosomal recombination following the origin of thelytoky has played some part in karyotype evolution. A single morphologically distinct larva was also found, which might be the donor of the haploid chromosome set. The apomictic restitutional system is compared to that of the other, independently derived, parthenogenetic Chironomids to assess the extent of similarity between species. PMID:24260638

  14. Wildlife response on the Alaska North Slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costanzo, D.; McKenzie, B.

    1992-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive plan to deal with potentially oiled wildlife on the Alaskan North Slope, a multifaceted wildlife protection strategy was developed and implemented during 1991. The strategy incorporated all aspects of wildlife response including protection of critical habitat, hazing, capture and stabilization, long term rehabilitation, and release. The primary wildlife response strategy emphasizes controlling of the release and spreading of spilled oil at the source to prevent or reduce contamination of potentially affected species and/or their habitat. A secondary response strategy concentrates on keeping potentially affected wildlife away from an oiled area through the use of deterrent techniques. Tertiary response involves the capture and treatment of oiled wildlife. Implementation of the strategy included the development of specialized training, the procurement of equipment, and the construction of a bird stabilization center. The result of this initiative is a comprehensive wildlife response capability on the Alaskan North Slope. 1 ref., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Dictionaries of Canadian English | Considine | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... its best, reached a high degree of sophistication, there are still major opportunities waiting to be taken. keywords: dictionary, lexicography, canadian english, canadianisms, national dictionaries, canadian french, canadian first nations lan-guages, bilingual dictionaries, regional dictionaries, unfinished diction-ary projects ...

  16. Correlates between feeding ecology and mercury levels in historical and modern arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bocharova

    Full Text Available Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources. This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1 canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus population and 2 relative total mercury (THg level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland' for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs. Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.

  17. Correlates between feeding ecology and mercury levels in historical and modern arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharova, Natalia; Treu, Gabriele; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Krone, Oliver; Stefanski, Volker; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Unnsteinsdóttir, Ester Rut; Hersteinsson, Páll; Schares, Gereon; Doronina, Lilia; Goltsman, Mikhail; Greenwood, Alex D

    2013-01-01

    Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources). This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1) canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) population and 2) relative total mercury (THg) level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland') for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs). Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.

  18. Arctic Ocean UNCLOS Article 76 Work for Greenland Starts on Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl-Jensen, T.; Marcussen, C.; Jackson, R.; Voss, P.

    2005-12-01

    One of the most lonely and desolate stretches of coastline on the planet has become the target for UNCLOS article 76 related research. The Danish Continental Shelf Project has launched a work program to investigate the possibilities for Greenland to claim an area outside the 200 nm limit in the Arctic Ocean. The role of the Lomonosov Ridge as a Natural Prolongation of Greenland/Canada is an important issue, and in order to better evaluate the connection between Greenland and the Lomonosov Ridge the nature of not only the ridge but also of Northern Greenland is the target of deep crustal investigations. The North Greenland Fold belt covers the ice-free part of North Greenland and continues west in the Canadian Arctic. The foldbelt was formed during the Ellesmerian orogeny, where sediments from the Franklinian Basin where compressed and deformed. The deep structure of basin and its subsequent closure are broadly unknown. Three broad band earthquake seismological stations where installed in North Greenland to supplement the existing stations at Alert (Canada) and Station Nord to the east, and the first data was available summer 2005. Crustal thickness data from these first results are presented. Plans for the spring 2006 consist of wide-angle acquisition on the sea ice from the Greenland-Canadian mainland out onto the Lomonosov Ridge, a joint Danish - Canadian project with a 400 km long profile over difficult ice conditions, 18 tons of explosives, three helicopters, a Twin Otter and about 30 participants.

  19. NATIONAL ATLAS OF THE ARCTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay S. Kasimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Atlas of the Arctic is a set of spatio-temporal information about the geographic, ecological, economic, historical-ethnographic, cultural, and social features of theArcticcompiled as a cartographic model of the territory. The Atlas is intended for use in a wide range of scientific, management, economic, defense, educational, and public activities. The state policy of theRussian Federationin the Arctic for the period until 2020 and beyond, states that the Arctic is of strategic importance forRussiain the 21st century. A detailed description of all sections of the Atlas is given. The Atlas can be used as an information-reference and educational resource or as a gift edition.

  20. Arctic Basemaps In Google Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muggah, J.; Mioc, Darka

    2010-01-01

    The Ocean Mapping Group has been collecting data in the Arctic since 2003 and there are approximately 2,000 basemaps. In the current online storage format used by the OMG, it is difficult to view the data and users cannot easily pan and zoom. The purpose of this research is to investigate...... the advantages of the use of Google Maps, to display the OMG's Arctic data. The map should should load the large Artic dataset in a reasonable time. The bathymetric images were created using software in Linux written by the OMG, and a step-by-step process was used to create images from the multibeam data...... collected by the OMG in the Arctic. The website was also created using Linux operating system. The projection needed to be changed from Lambert Conformal Conic (useful at higher Latitudes) to Mercator (used by Google Maps) and the data needed to have a common colour scheme. After creating and testing...

  1. Interaction webs in arctic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels M.; Hardwick, Bess; Gilg, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    How species interact modulate their dynamics, their response to environmental change, and ultimately the functioning and stability of entire communities. Work conducted at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland, has changed our view on how networks of arctic biotic interactions are structured, how...... they vary in time, and how they are changing with current environmental change: firstly, the high arctic interaction webs are much more complex than previously envisaged, and with a structure mainly dictated by its arthropod component. Secondly, the dynamics of species within these webs reflect changes...... that the combination of long-term, ecosystem-based monitoring, and targeted research projects offers the most fruitful basis for understanding and predicting the future of arctic ecosystems....

  2. Environmental radioactivity in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Cooke, A.

    1995-01-01

    The conference considered several broad themes: (1) assessment of releases from landbased sources and river transport, (2) assessment of dumping of nuclear waste, (3) arctic radioecology, (4) assessment of impacts of nuclear explosions and accidents, (5) nuclear safety and consequences of nuclear accidents in the arctic, and (6) waste management. The presentations demonstrated that current levels of radioactivity in the Arctic are generally low. The two most important sources are global fallout from the nuclear weapons tests of the 1950's and 1960's, and discharges to the sea from reprocessing plants in Western Europe which are transported northward by prevailing currents. The conference was attended by scientists from 17 countries and served as a forum for collection and dissemination of information on the range of themes and described above. It is hoped that this will serve to increase awareness of areas of uncertainty and act as a stimulus to further research

  3. The Arctic tourism in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury F. Lukin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new book "Arctic tourism in Russia" the basic concepts, resource potential, attractiveness (from Lat. Attrahere: to attract, opportunities and threats of environmental, cruise, international, and other types of tourism in the Arctic are system-based analyzed, for the first time in the literature. The sphere of tourism has becoming an integral sector of the economy, having a multiplicative effect for the development of infrastructure, social services, employment. Reference materials about the tourism products in the Russian Arctic and Far North regions are published, including the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions; Republic of Karelia, Komi, Sakha (Yakutia; Nenets, the Yamalo-Nenets, Khanty-Mansiysk, the Chukotka Autonomous Districts; Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets Municipal District, Turukhansk district, the city of Norilsk of the Krasnoyarsk region; Magadan region, Kamchatka region.

  4. The Canadian Dollar and the Dutch and Canadian Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Coulombe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With the spectacular rise of the dollar, along with rising natural-resource prices during the first decade of the 21st century, Canadians heard a great deal about Dutch disease. Many politicians and pundits blamed the phenomenon — in which a country’s currency, inflated by rising commodity prices, renders manufacturing exports increasingly uncompetitive — for rising unemployment in the Canadian manufacturing industry. But a close look at what happened during that period reveals that the Dutch disease mechanism was only part of the story. The other part, and quantitatively the most important, is an affliction of an altogether different providence: Canadian disease. Canadian disease is the economic trouble that can be caused by Canada’s extraordinarily heavy reliance on the United States as a trading partner. As a consequence, a sudden depreciation of the U.S, dollar will deteriorate the competitiveness of Canadian manufacturing exporters. Such a phenomenon was at work during the “Great Appreciation” of the Canadian dollar between 2002 and 2008 — the largest such appreciation on record in this country. The depreciation of the U.S. dollar is a phenomenon that is independent of the resource boom and the resulting consequences on the Canadian economy cannot be endorsed to a Dutch disease. Almost 2/3 of the employment losses that are exchange rate related in the trade-exposed manufacturers in Canada during the 2002–2008 period could be attributed to the Canadian disease. The Canadian dollar is partly driven by commodity prices, and the appreciation of the Canadian dollar exerts a negative impact on manufacturing industries that are exposed to international competition. This phenomenon can be coined as a Dutch Affair. The Dutch Affair becomes a disease in the long run when the non-renewable resource is depleted and the manufacturing base is gone. New manufacturing activities might not reappear due to a variety of obstacles. In Canada

  5. Wildlife management using the AHP

    OpenAIRE

    L.P. Fatti

    2003-01-01

    Two applications of Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process towards solving decision problems in Wildlife Management are discussed. The first involves structuring the management objectives of a National Park and establishing priorities for the implementation of various possible strategic management plans in the Park. The second deals with the problem faced by the various non-governmental organisations concerned with the conservation of the Rhino and Elephant populations in Southern Africa, of deci...

  6. Wildlife Inventory, Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassirer, E. Frances

    1995-06-01

    Wildlife distribution/abundance were studied at this location during 1993 and 1994 to establish the baseline as part of the wildlife mitigation agreement for construction of Dworshak reservoir. Inventory efforts were designed to (1) document distribution/abundance of 4 target species: pileated woodpecker, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, and river otter, (2) determine distribution/abundance of rare animals, and (3) determine presence and relative abundance of all other species except deer and elk. 201 wildlife species were observed during the survey period; most were residents or used the area seasonally for breeding or wintering. New distribution or breeding records were established for at least 6 species. Pileated woodpeckers were found at 35% of 134 survey points in upland forests; estimated densities were 0-0.08 birds/ha, averaging 0.02 birds/ha. Yellow warblers were found in riparian areas and shrubby draws below 3500 ft elev., and were most abundant in white alder plant communities (ave. est. densities 0.2-2. 1 birds/ha). Black-capped chickadees were found in riparian and mixed tall shrub vegetation at all elevations (ave. est. densities 0-0.7 birds/ha). River otters and suitable otter denning and foraging habitat were observed along the Snake and Salmon rivers. 15 special status animals (threatened, endangered, sensitive, state species of special concern) were observed at Craig Mt: 3 amphibians, 1 reptile, 8 birds, 3 mammals. Another 5 special status species potentially occur (not documented). Ecosystem-based wildlife management issues are identified. A monitoring plant is presented for assessing effects of mitigation activities.

  7. Arctic environmental strategy: Progress report, April 1992 - March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Arctic Environmental Strategy is part of Canada's Green Plan and involves providing $100 million over six years to address environmental problems in the Canadian north in the areas of contaminants, waste, water, and environment/economy integration. In 1992/93, over 50 scientific studies on the origins, occurrence, and behavior of contaminants in the Arctic were conducted, and a series of large-volume atmospheric stations were established. Caribou herds, fish, and the health of aboriginal northern peoples are being monitored. Over 100 sites across the north were cleaned in 1992/93, including commercial fishing waste sites, oil/gas exploration staging sites, and diamond drill camps. In addition to ongoing monitoring of water quality and quantity, a number of studies are being conducted to respond to local water concerns. An environmental action program is working through schools and northern communities on issues such as recycling, water pollution avoidance, and resource conservation and management. In response to demand for access to information about the north, the Northern Information Network is being established which will link users of databases and encourage information sharing. 5 figs

  8. Citizen scientists reveal: Marine litter pollutes Arctic beaches and affects wild life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Melanie; Lutz, Birgit; Tekman, Mine B; Gutow, Lars

    2017-12-15

    Recent data indicate accumulation areas of marine litter in Arctic waters and significant increases over time. Beaches on remote Arctic islands may be sinks for marine litter and reflect pollution levels of the surrounding waters particularly well. We provide the first quantitative data from surveys carried out by citizen scientists on six beaches of Svalbard. Litter quantities recorded by cruise tourists varied from 9-524gm -2 and were similar to those from densely populated areas. Plastics accounted for >80% of the overall litter, most of which originated from fisheries. Photographs provided by citizens show deleterious effects of beach litter on Arctic wildlife, which is already under strong pressure from global climate change. Our study highlights the potential of citizen scientists to provide scientifically valuable data on the pollution of sensitive remote ecosystems. The results stress once more that current legislative frameworks are insufficient to tackle the pollution of Arctic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamics of aboveground phytomass of the circumpolar Arctic tundra during the past three decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Howard E; Raynolds, Martha K; Walker, Donald A; Bhatt, Uma S; Tucker, Compton J; Pinzon, Jorge E

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the dynamics of Arctic tundra vegetation throughout the past few decades, using remotely sensed proxies of vegetation, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). While extremely useful, these coarse-scale satellite-derived measurements give us minimal information with regard to how these changes are being expressed on the ground, in terms of tundra structure and function. In this analysis, we used a strong regression model between NDVI and aboveground tundra phytomass, developed from extensive field-harvested measurements of vegetation biomass, to estimate the biomass dynamics of the circumpolar Arctic tundra over the period of continuous satellite records (1982–2010). We found that the southernmost tundra subzones (C–E) dominate the increases in biomass, ranging from 20 to 26%, although there was a high degree of heterogeneity across regions, floristic provinces, and vegetation types. The estimated increase in carbon of the aboveground live vegetation of 0.40 Pg C over the past three decades is substantial, although quite small relative to anthropogenic C emissions. However, a 19.8% average increase in aboveground biomass has major implications for nearly all aspects of tundra ecosystems including hydrology, active layer depths, permafrost regimes, wildlife and human use of Arctic landscapes. While spatially extensive on-the-ground measurements of tundra biomass were conducted in the development of this analysis, validation is still impossible without more repeated, long-term monitoring of Arctic tundra biomass in the field. (letter)

  10. Dynamics of Aboveground Phytomass of the Circumpolar Arctic Tundra During the Past Three Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Howard E.; Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.; Bhatt, Uma S.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pinzon, Jorge E.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the dynamics of Arctic tundra vegetation throughout the past few decades, using remotely sensed proxies of vegetation, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). While extremely useful, these coarse-scale satellite-derived measurements give us minimal information with regard to how these changes are being expressed on the ground, in terms of tundra structure and function. In this analysis, we used a strong regression model between NDVI and aboveground tundra phytomass, developed from extensive field-harvested measurements of vegetation biomass, to estimate the biomass dynamics of the circumpolar Arctic tundra over the period of continuous satellite records (1982-2010). We found that the southernmost tundra subzones (C-E) dominate the increases in biomass, ranging from 20 to 26%, although there was a high degree of heterogeneity across regions, floristic provinces, and vegetation types. The estimated increase in carbon of the aboveground live vegetation of 0.40 Pg C over the past three decades is substantial, although quite small relative to anthropogenic C emissions. However, a 19.8% average increase in aboveground biomass has major implications for nearly all aspects of tundra ecosystems including hydrology, active layer depths, permafrost regimes, wildlife and human use of Arctic landscapes. While spatially extensive on-the-ground measurements of tundra biomass were conducted in the development of this analysis, validation is still impossible without more repeated, long-term monitoring of Arctic tundra biomass in the field.

  11. The Arctic policy of China and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2014-01-01

    At the May 2013 Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting, five Asian states, namely China, Japan, India, Singapore and South Korea, were accepted to become new Permanent Observers at the Arctic Council. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the Asian states and their interest in the Arctic. Most...... discussions have focused on China and the assessment of China’s interest in the Arctic is divided. This paper attempts to fill this gap by presenting and comparing the various components of the Arctic policies of China and Japan. Referring to Putnam’s model of the “two-level game” and Young’s categorization...

  12. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    "Voluntary migrants to Canada are generally healthier than the average Canadian, but after ten years in the country they report poorer health and higher rates of chronic disease than those born here...

  13. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    .... What contributes to this deterioration, and how can its effects be mitigated? Engendering Migrant Health brings together researchers from across Canada to address the intersections of gender, immigration, and health in the lives of new Canadians...

  14. The Canadian heavy water situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlinger, A.

    The Canadian heavy water industry is analyzed. Supply and demand are predicted through 1985. Pricing is broken down into components. Backup R and D contributes greatly to process improvements. (E.C.B.)

  15. Canadian perspectives on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada has been in the forefront of irradiation technology for over 30 years. Some 83 of the 147 irradiators used worldwide are Canadian-built, yet Canadian food processors have been very slow to use the technology. This paper is an update on the food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada and the factors that influence it. It also reviews some significant non-regulatory developments. (author)

  16. Managing the livestock– Wildlife interface on rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Johan T.; Cross, Paul C.; Valeix, Marion

    2017-01-01

    On rangelands the livestock–wildlife interface is mostly characterized by management actions aimed at controlling problems associated with competition, disease, and depredation. Wildlife communities (especially the large vertebrate species) are typically incompatible with agricultural development because the opportunity costs of wildlife conservation are unaffordable except in arid and semi-arid regions. Ecological factors including the provision of supplementary food and water for livestock, together with the persecution of large predators, result in livestock replacing wildlife at biomass densities far exceeding those of indigenous ungulates. Diseases are difficult to eradicate from free-ranging wildlife populations and so veterinary controls usually focus on separating commercial livestock herds from wildlife. Persecution of large carnivores due to their depredation of livestock has caused the virtual eradication of apex predators from most rangelands. However, recent research points to a broad range of solutions to reduce conflict at the livestock–wildlife interface. Conserving wildlife bolsters the adaptive capacity of a rangeland by providing stakeholders with options for dealing with environmental change. This is contingent upon local communities being empowered to benefit directly from their wildlife resources within a management framework that integrates land-use sectors at the landscape scale. As rangelands undergo irreversible changes caused by species invasions and climate forcings, the future perspective favors a proactive shift in attitude towards the livestock–wildlife interface, from problem control to asset management.

  17. Transport of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from an arctic glacier to downstream locations: implications for sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Karen Y; Yamazaki, Eriko; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Murphy, Margaret B; Horii, Yuichi; Petrick, Gert; Kallerborn, Roland; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Murano, Kentaro; Lam, Paul K S

    2013-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been globally detected in various environmental matrices, yet their fate and transport to the Arctic is still unclear, especially for the European Arctic. In this study, concentrations of 17 PFAS were quantified in two ice cores (n=26), surface snow (n=9) and surface water samples (n=14) collected along a spatial gradient in Svalbard, Norway. Concentrations of selected ions (Na(+), SO4(2-), etc.) were also determined for tracing the origins and sources of PFAS. Perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were the dominant compounds found in ice core samples. Taking PFOA, PFNA and perfluorooctane-sulfonate (PFOS) as examples, higher concentrations were detected in the middle layers of the ice cores representing the period of 1997-2000. Lower concentrations of C8-C12 perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) were detected in comparison with concentrations measured previously in an ice core from the Canadian Arctic, indicating that contamination levels in the European Arctic are lower. Average PFAS concentrations were found to be lower in surface snow and melted glacier water samples, while increased concentrations were observed in river water downstream near the coastal area. Perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) was detected in the downstream locations, but not in the glacier, suggesting existence of local sources of this compound. Long-range atmospheric transport of PFAS was the major deposition pathway for the glaciers, while local sources (e.g., skiing activities) were identified in the downstream locations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prediction of a thermodynamic wave train from the monsoon to the Arctic following extreme rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurti, T. N.; Kumar, Vinay

    2017-04-01

    This study addresses numerical prediction of atmospheric wave trains that provide a monsoonal link to the Arctic ice melt. The monsoonal link is one of several ways that heat is conveyed to the Arctic region. This study follows a detailed observational study on thermodynamic wave trains that are initiated by extreme rain events of the northern summer south Asian monsoon. These wave trains carry large values of heat content anomalies, heat transports and convergence of flux of heat. These features seem to be important candidates for the rapid melt scenario. This present study addresses numerical simulation of the extreme rains, over India and Pakistan, and the generation of thermodynamic wave trains, simulations of large heat content anomalies, heat transports along pathways and heat flux convergences, potential vorticity and the diabatic generation of potential vorticity. We compare model based simulation of many features such as precipitation, divergence and the divergent wind with those evaluated from the reanalysis fields. We have also examined the snow and ice cover data sets during and after these events. This modeling study supports our recent observational findings on the monsoonal link to the rapid Arctic ice melt of the Canadian Arctic. This numerical modeling suggests ways to interpret some recent episodes of rapid ice melts that may require a well-coordinated field experiment among atmosphere, ocean, ice and snow cover scientists. Such a well-coordinated study would sharpen our understanding of this one component of the ice melt, i.e. the monsoonal link, which appears to be fairly robust.

  19. Challenges of climate change: an Arctic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corell, Robert W

    2006-06-01

    Climate change is being experienced particularly intensely in the Arctic. Arctic average temperature has risen at almost twice the rate as that of the rest of the world in the past few decades. Widespread melting of glaciers and sea ice and rising permafrost temperatures present additional evidence of strong Arctic warming. These changes in the Arctic provide an early indication of the environmental and societal significance of global consequences. The Arctic also provides important natural resources to the rest of the world (such as oil, gas, and fish) that will be affected by climate change, and the melting of Arctic glaciers is one of the factors contributing to sea level rise around the globe. An acceleration of these climatic trends is projected to occur during this century, due to ongoing increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. These Arctic changes will, in turn, impact the planet as a whole.

  20. History of sea ice in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyak, Leonid; Alley, Richard B.; Andrews, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past. This inf......Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past...... Optimum, and consistently covered at least part of the Arctic Ocean for no less than the last 13–14 million years. Ice was apparently most widespread during the last 2–3 million years, in accordance with Earth’s overall cooler climate. Nevertheless, episodes of considerably reduced sea ice or even...

  1. Arctic Glass: Innovative Consumer Technology in Support of Arctic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthkoski, T.

    2015-12-01

    The advancement of cyberinfrastructure on the North Slope of Alaska is drastically limited by location-specific conditions, including: unique geophysical features, remoteness of location, and harsh climate. The associated cost of maintaining this unique cyberinfrastructure also becomes a limiting factor. As a result, field experiments conducted in this region have historically been at a technological disadvantage. The Arctic Glass project explored a variety of scenarios where innovative consumer-grade technology was leveraged as a lightweight, rapidly deployable, sustainable, alternatives to traditional large-scale Arctic cyberinfrastructure installations. Google Glass, cloud computing services, Internet of Things (IoT) microcontrollers, miniature LIDAR, co2 sensors designed for HVAC systems, and portable network kits are several of the components field-tested at the Toolik Field Station as part of this project. Region-specific software was also developed, including a multi featured, voice controlled Google Glass application named "Arctic Glass". Additionally, real-time sensor monitoring and remote control capability was evaluated through the deployment of a small cluster of microcontroller devices. Network robustness was analyzed as the devices delivered streams of abiotic data to a web-based dashboard monitoring service in near real time. The same data was also uploaded synchronously by the devices to Amazon Web Services. A detailed overview of solutions deployed during the 2015 field season, results from experiments utilizing consumer sensors, and potential roles consumer technology could play in support of Arctic science will be discussed.

  2. US energy policy and Arctic gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beecy, D.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation provided a perspective of Arctic energy resource development and the impact that science and technology will have on the American National Energy Policy (NEP). The role of the NEP is to provide energy security for the United States by ensuring dependable, affordable and sustainable energy for the future. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) conducts a wide range of energy and research activities that contribute to energy efficiency advances that help meet rising energy demand and reduce pollution emissions. In May 2001, the NEP proposed 100 recommendations, of which half focus on energy efficiency and developing renewable energy sources. The Clean Coal Power Initiative is also based on technological innovation and focuses on a program called FutureGen to build and operate a zero emission coal-fired power plant to produce both electricity and hydrogen. These initiatives could result in major changes in America's energy scenario. The provisions of the Energy Bill in streamlining the regulatory process for the proposed Alaska gas pipeline were outlined. The 2004 Annual Energy Outlook for the United States indicates that a pipeline from the Mackenzie Delta to Alberta would be constructed first, followed by one from Alaska. The North Slope Alaska natural gas pipeline will likely be operational by 2018 and add 4.5 BCF per day to meet growing natural gas demand in the United States. The National Petroleum Council's report on America's long-term natural gas supply and demand situation claims that lower-48 and traditional Canadian natural gas basins will be able to supply 75 per cent of the U.S. demand by the year 2025. The remainder will be made up by Alaskan natural gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and gas from new sources in Canada such as coalbed methane, methane hydrates, and oil sands

  3. Canadian leadership in energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Canadian programme overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    In a severe accident, hydrogen is released into containment. When it is well mixed, the hydrogen mixture is nonflammable because there is sufficient dilution by the large containment volume. This is the desired end point. However, the release may occur into smaller compartments of containment, stratification may occur, and local pockets of flammable mixtures may arise if hydrogen is released faster than processes that mix and disperse it. Long term hydrogen generation from water radiolysis must also be considered. Hydrogen mitigation and control strategies adopted or considered in Canada include fanforced mixing, glow plug igniters, recombiners, venting through filters, or combinations of these. The Canadian hydrogen programme is focussed on understanding hydrogen combustion behaviour and providing the data needed to demonstrate the adequacy of hydrogen mitigation and control strategies. The programme includes both experimental and modelling components of hydrogen combustion and distribution. Experiments include mixing tests, deflagration tests, diffusion flames, transition from deflagration to detonation, and testing the performance of igniters and recombiners. Modelling is focussing on the GOTHIC code as an industry standard. Detailed three dimensional modelling of gas mixing and combustion are underway, and a code validation matrix is being assembled for validation exercises. Significant progress has been made, highlights from which are being presented at this workshop. (author)

  5. Canadian fuel development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacesa, M.; Young, E.G.

    1992-11-01

    CANDU power reactor fuel has demonstrated an enviable operational record. More than 99.9% of the bundles irradiated have provided defect-free service. Defect excursions are responsible for the majority of reported defects. In some cases research and development effort is necessary to resolve these problems. In addition, development initiatives are also directed at improvements of the current design or reduction of fueling cost. The majority of the funding for this effort has been provided by COG (CANDU Owners' Group) over the past 10 to 15 years. This paper contains an overview of some key fuel technology programs within COG. The CANDU reactor is unique among the world's power reactors in its flexibility and its ability to use a number of different fuel cycles. An active program of analysis and development, to demonstrate the viability of different fuel cycles in CANDU, has been funded by AECL in parallel with the work on the natural uranium cycle. Market forces and advances in technology have obliged us to reassess and refocus some parts of our effort in this area, and significant success has been achieved in integrating all the Canadian efforts in this area. This paper contains a brief summary of some key components of the advanced fuel cycle program. (Author) 4 figs., tab., 18 refs

  6. Canadian leadership in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Sarcoptic mange in Swedish wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörner, T

    1992-12-01

    Mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. vulpes appeared among red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Scandinavia (south-west Finland) for the first time in this century in 1967. The disease was most probably introduced by foxes crossing the Gulf of Finland from Estonia. The mange epizootic spread northwards through Finland and reached Sweden in late 1975, when mangy foxes appeared in the northern part of the country. In 1984, mange was observed in most parts of Sweden. The disease was observed to spread rapidly in boreal areas, whereas it spread more slowly in agricultural areas. Mortality due to mange was very high. The duration of the disease before death due to emaciation has been shown experimentally to be over 90 days. An outbreak of fox mange among Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) occurred in 1986. The local population of Arctic foxes was caught and successfully treated. The following year, treated foxes were caught again and no signs of disease were found. Sporadic cases of fox mange have also been diagnosed in lynx (Lynx lynx), pine marten (Martes martes) and domestic dogs. Single cases have been observed in other species: wolf (Canis lupus), mountain hare (Lepus timidus), domestic cat and horse. No cases of sarcoptic mange have been recorded in the badger (Meles meles). At present, although fox mange occurs as an epizootic in local populations, the number of foxes has increased again in many parts of Sweden.

  8. Building Materials in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2005-01-01

    Building in the artic requires special attention on the appropriateness of building materials. The harsh climate makes execution difficult and sets unusual requirements for the pure material properties. In addition, there is a lack of choice of good, natural building materials in the arctic...

  9. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Karin; Scheepstra, Adriana; Gille, Johan; Stepien, Adam; Koivurova, Timo; Stepien, Adam; Koivurova, Timo; Kankaanpää, Paula

    The European Arctic has been recently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities. This is reflected in an on-going interest from the industry, regulators and the public. However, current and future prospects are highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and

  10. Computational problems in Arctic Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, I

    2016-01-01

    This article is to inform about main problems in the area of Arctic shelf seismic prospecting and exploitation of the Northern Sea Route: simulation of the interaction of different ice formations (icebergs, hummocks, and drifting ice floes) with fixed ice-resistant platforms; simulation of the interaction of icebreakers and ice- class vessels with ice formations; modeling of the impact of the ice formations on the underground pipelines; neutralization of damage for fixed and mobile offshore industrial structures from ice formations; calculation of the strength of the ground pipelines; transportation of hydrocarbons by pipeline; the problem of migration of large ice formations; modeling of the formation of ice hummocks on ice-resistant stationary platform; calculation the stability of fixed platforms; calculation dynamic processes in the water and air of the Arctic with the processing of data and its use to predict the dynamics of ice conditions; simulation of the formation of large icebergs, hummocks, large ice platforms; calculation of ridging in the dynamics of sea ice; direct and inverse problems of seismic prospecting in the Arctic; direct and inverse problems of electromagnetic prospecting of the Arctic. All these problems could be solved by up-to-date numerical methods, for example, using grid-characteristic method. (paper)

  11. Arctic resources : a mechatronics opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKean, M.; Baiden, G. [Penguin Automated Systems Inc., Naughton, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed the telerobotic mechatronics opportunities that exist to access mineral resources in the Arctic. The Mining Automation Project (MAP) determined that telerobotics could contribute to productivity gains while providing increased worker safety. The socio-economic benefits of advanced mechatronics for Arctic resource development are particularly attractive due to reduced infrastructure needs; operating costs; and environmental impacts. A preliminary analysis of mining transportation options by the authors revealed that there is a case for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) for oil and gas processing to address resource development. The ISRU options build on concepts developed to support space exploration and were proposed to reduce or modify transportation loads to allow more sustainable and efficient Arctic resource development. Many benefits in terms of efficiency could be achieved by combining demonstrated mechatronics with ISRU because of the constrained transportation infrastructure in the Arctic. In the context of harsh environment operations, mechatronics may provide an opportunity for undersea resource facilities. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  12. A Tri-Oceanic Perspective: DNA Barcoding Reveals Geographic Structure and Cryptic Diversity in Canadian Polychaetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Christina M.; Hardy, Sarah M.; Brown, Tanya M.; Macdonald, Tara A.; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although polychaetes are one of the dominant taxa in marine communities, their distributions and taxonomic diversity are poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that many species thought to have broad distributions are actually a complex of allied species. In Canada, 12% of polychaete species are thought to occur in Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific Oceans, but the extent of gene flow among their populations has not been tested. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequence variation in a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene was employed to compare morphological versus molecular diversity estimates, to examine gene flow among populations of widespread species, and to explore connectivity patterns among Canada's three oceans. Analysis of 1876 specimens, representing 333 provisional species, revealed 40 times more sequence divergence between than within species (16.5% versus 0.38%). Genetic data suggest that one quarter of previously recognized species actually include two or more divergent lineages, indicating that richness in this region is currently underestimated. Few species with a tri-oceanic distribution showed genetic cohesion. Instead, large genetic breaks occur between Pacific and Atlantic-Arctic lineages, suggesting their long-term separation. High connectivity among Arctic and Atlantic regions and low connectivity with the Pacific further supports the conclusion that Canadian polychaetes are partitioned into two distinct faunas. Conclusions/Significance Results of this study confirm that COI sequences are an effective tool for species identification in polychaetes, and suggest that DNA barcoding will aid the recognition of species overlooked by the current taxonomic system. The consistent geographic structuring within presumed widespread species suggests that historical range fragmentation during the Pleistocene ultimately increased Canadian polychaete diversity and that the coastal British Columbia fauna played a minor

  13. A tri-oceanic perspective: DNA barcoding reveals geographic structure and cryptic diversity in Canadian polychaetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Carr

    Full Text Available Although polychaetes are one of the dominant taxa in marine communities, their distributions and taxonomic diversity are poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that many species thought to have broad distributions are actually a complex of allied species. In Canada, 12% of polychaete species are thought to occur in Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific Oceans, but the extent of gene flow among their populations has not been tested.Sequence variation in a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene was employed to compare morphological versus molecular diversity estimates, to examine gene flow among populations of widespread species, and to explore connectivity patterns among Canada's three oceans. Analysis of 1876 specimens, representing 333 provisional species, revealed 40 times more sequence divergence between than within species (16.5% versus 0.38%. Genetic data suggest that one quarter of previously recognized species actually include two or more divergent lineages, indicating that richness in this region is currently underestimated. Few species with a tri-oceanic distribution showed genetic cohesion. Instead, large genetic breaks occur between Pacific and Atlantic-Arctic lineages, suggesting their long-term separation. High connectivity among Arctic and Atlantic regions and low connectivity with the Pacific further supports the conclusion that Canadian polychaetes are partitioned into two distinct faunas.Results of this study confirm that COI sequences are an effective tool for species identification in polychaetes, and suggest that DNA barcoding will aid the recognition of species overlooked by the current taxonomic system. The consistent geographic structuring within presumed widespread species suggests that historical range fragmentation during the Pleistocene ultimately increased Canadian polychaete diversity and that the coastal British Columbia fauna played a minor role in Arctic recolonization following deglaciation

  14. US 93 north wildlife-vehicle collision and wildlife crossing monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Human safety: Wildlife-vehicle collisions : Habitat connectivity: Wildlife use crossing structures : Cost-benefit analyses : Contract research : WTI-MSU and CSKT : Students and other partners at MSU and UofM

  15. Blue Creek Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities are analyzed: Habitat protection; Habitat enhancement; Operation and maintenance; and Monitoring and evaluation. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir

  16. Health practices of Canadian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Erica; Segura, Carolina

    2009-08-01

    To study the health and health practices of Canadian physicians, which can often influence patient health. Mailed survey. Canada. A random sample of 8100 Canadian physicians; 7934 were found to be eligible and 3213 responded (40.5% response rate). Factors that influence health, such as consumption of fruits and vegetables, amount of exercise and alcohol consumption, smoking status, body mass idex, and participation in preventive health screening measures, as well as work-life balance and emotional stability. Canadian physicians are healthy. More than 90% reported being in good to excellent health, and only 5% reported that poor physical or mental health made it difficult to handle their workload more than half the time in the previous month (although a quarter had reduced work activity because of long-term health conditions). Eight percent were obese, 3% currently smoked cigarettes, and 1% typically consumed 5 drinks or more on days when they drank alcohol. Physicians averaged 4.7 hours of exercise per week and ate fruits and vegetables 4.8 times a day. Their personal screening practices were largely compliant with Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care recommendations. They averaged 38 hours per week on patient care and 11 hours on other professional activities. Fifty-seven percent agreed that they had a good work-life balance, and 11% disagreed with the statement "If I can, I work when I am ill." Compared with sel