WorldWideScience

Sample records for canadensis population situation

  1. Population genetic structure in the eastern population of Greater Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis Tabida)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sandhill Crane (SACR; Grus canadensis) is the most populous of the 15 extant crane species. Their breeding range covers the majority of the continental U.S. and...

  2. Population genetics and adaptation to climate along elevation gradients in invasive Solidago canadensis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emily V Moran; Andrea Reid; Jonathan M Levine

    2017-01-01

    ... but also tend to have good dispersal abilities. To evaluate the extent of gene flow and adaptation to local climate in invasive populations of Solidago canadensis, and the implications of this for range expansion, we compared population...

  3. No evidence for local adaptation to salt stress in the existing populations of invasive Solidago canadensis in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmin Li

    Full Text Available Local adaptation is an important mechanism underlying the adaptation of plants to environmental heterogeneity, and the toxicity of salt results in strong selection pressure on salt tolerance in plants and different ecotypes. Solidago canadensis, which is invasive in China, has spread widely and has recently colonized alkali sandy loams with a significant salt content. A common greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the role of local adaptation in the successful invasion of S. canadensis into salty habitats. Salt treatment significantly decreased the growth of S. canadensis, including rates of increase in the number of leaves and plant height; the root, shoot, and total biomass. Furthermore, salt stress significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and relative chlorophyll content but significantly increased peroxidase activity and the proline content of S. canadensis and the root/shoot ratio. Two-way analysis of variance showed that salt treatment had a significant effect on the physiological traits of S. canadensis, except for the intercellular CO2 concentration, whereas the population and the salt × population interaction had no significant effect on any physiological traits. Most of the variation in plasticity existed within and not among populations, excep for the root/shoot ratio. S. canadensis populations from soil with moderate/high salt levels grew similarly to S. canadensis populations from soils with low salt levels. No significant correlation between salt tolerance indices and soil salinity levels was observed. The plasticity of the proline content, intercellular CO2 concentration and chlorophyll content had significant correlations with the salt tolerance index. These findings indicate a lack of evidence for local adaption in the existing populations of invasive S. canadensis in China; instead, plasticity might be more important than local adaptation in influencing the physiological

  4. Population genetics and adaptation to climate along elevation gradients in invasive Solidago canadensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily V Moran

    Full Text Available Gene flow between populations may either support local adaptation by supplying genetic variation on which selection may act, or counteract it if maladapted alleles arrive faster than can be purged by selection. Although both such effects have been documented within plant species' native ranges, how the balance of these forces influences local adaptation in invasive plant populations is less clear, in part because introduced species often have lower genetic variation initially but also tend to have good dispersal abilities. To evaluate the extent of gene flow and adaptation to local climate in invasive populations of Solidago canadensis, and the implications of this for range expansion, we compared population differentiation at microsatellite and chloroplast loci for populations across Switzerland and assessed the effect of environmental transfer distance using common gardens. We found that while patterns of differentiation at neutral genetic markers suggested that populations are connected through extensive pollen and seed movement, common-garden plants nonetheless exhibited modest adaptation to local climate conditions. Growth rate and flower production declined with climatic distance from a plant's home site, with clones from colder home sites performing better at or above the range limit. Such adaptation in invasive species is likely to promote further spread, particularly under climate change, as the genotypes positioned near the range edge may be best able to take advantage of lengthening growing seasons to expand the range.

  5. Population genetics and adaptation to climate along elevation gradients in invasive Solidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Emily V; Reid, Andrea; Levine, Jonathan M

    2017-01-01

    Gene flow between populations may either support local adaptation by supplying genetic variation on which selection may act, or counteract it if maladapted alleles arrive faster than can be purged by selection. Although both such effects have been documented within plant species' native ranges, how the balance of these forces influences local adaptation in invasive plant populations is less clear, in part because introduced species often have lower genetic variation initially but also tend to have good dispersal abilities. To evaluate the extent of gene flow and adaptation to local climate in invasive populations of Solidago canadensis, and the implications of this for range expansion, we compared population differentiation at microsatellite and chloroplast loci for populations across Switzerland and assessed the effect of environmental transfer distance using common gardens. We found that while patterns of differentiation at neutral genetic markers suggested that populations are connected through extensive pollen and seed movement, common-garden plants nonetheless exhibited modest adaptation to local climate conditions. Growth rate and flower production declined with climatic distance from a plant's home site, with clones from colder home sites performing better at or above the range limit. Such adaptation in invasive species is likely to promote further spread, particularly under climate change, as the genotypes positioned near the range edge may be best able to take advantage of lengthening growing seasons to expand the range.

  6. Serologic survey for viral and bacterial infections in western populations of Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman Biek; Randall L. Zarnke; Colin Gillin; Margaret Wild; John R. Squires; Mary Poss

    2002-01-01

    A serologic survey for exposure to pathogens in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western North America was conducted. Samples from 215 lynx from six study areas were tested for antibodies to feline parvovirus (FPV), feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis. A subset of...

  7. [Population size and behavior pattern of Grus canadensis nesiotes (Aves: Gruidae) in two localities of Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Sánchez, Yarelys; Ruiz, Idael; Denis, Dennis; Torres, Yordanis; Abasolo-Pacheco, Fernando; Plasencia-Vázquez, Alexis H

    2016-12-01

    The availability of information on species abundance in the Neotropic is insufficient, and this prevents the execution of precise analysis and the definition of adequate conservation strategies for endemic and threatened species. This study aimed to analyze the population size of the endemic and threatened subspecies Grus canadensis nesiotes. For this, a simultaneous census was undertaken in 24 count stations in Isla de la Juventud (IJ) and 32 stations in Ciego de Ávila (CA), Cuba, during two consecutive days between 2008 and 2010. Abundance and behavior pattern (instantaneous method) were analyzed by habitat type, to help understand how cranes modify their behavioral pattern when the natural habitat is changed. Flocks in IJ had three individuals, and between 1.9 ± 1.5 and 2.8 ± 1.5 in CA. Population size in IJ was 164 individuals, and in CA of 137, 141 and 168 individuals for the 2008-2010 period, respectively. The counting efficacy was high (IJ: 91 %; CA: 81-87 %) and the numerical concordance was intermediate (IJ: 45.4 %; CA: 72 %). When comparing the habitat type, the abundance was higher in natural savannahs (83), followed by coastal flats (59), pines (23) and cattle pastures (7) in IJ; while in CA, marsh grasslands hosted the greatest abundance for the three years period (130; 120; 112), followed by grassland with palms (2; 17; 51) and cattle pastures (5; 4; 5). The cranes were fed more in cattle pastures and were more alert in natural savannas and marsh grasslands. The frequency of feeding and alert behaviors was different from the natural savannah/coastal flats and natural savannah/cattle pastures combinations in IJ. For CA, differences were found between marsh grasslands and marsh grasslands with palms. The population size increased by management strategies adopted in CA; nevertheless, might be affected by habitat loss associated with invasive alien plants in IJ. We propose the maintenance of prescribed fire in marsh grasslands under protection regime

  8. A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggle, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 309 Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior, of different sex and age groups was collected from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway from 1979-1981 and examined for gizzard nematodes and renal coccidia. Three species of nematodes were removed from the gizzards, Amidostomum anseris, A. spatulatum, and Epomidiostomum crami. The latter two species are reported from this population of geese for the first time. Gizzard nematodes were found in 95.2% of all Canada geese examined, with A. anseris being the most abundant of the three species. There was no statistically significant difference between immatures and adults in the abundance of total nematodes species however, immature geese carried significantly more A. anseris and adult geese harbored significantly more A. spatulatum and E. crami infections. No significant difference in gizzard worm infections between male and female birds was observed. The abundance of overall gizzard nematodes was greatest in Canada geese from Winisk, Ontario (11.9), but the abundance of worms in southern Illinois geese (10.0) was similar. Geese from Horicon National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest abundance of infection, 7.5. The overall abundance of nematodes showed a general increase the second year of the study in each sex and age group and at each collection area. Each of three species of nematodes was responsible for some degree of damage to the gizzard lining and koilin, but E. crami was the most pathogenic of the species recovered. The occurrence of renal coccidiosis in Canada geese of this flyway is reported for the first time; the etiologic agent is Eimeria clarkei. The oocysts and/or endogenous stages of E. clarkei were present in 6.8% of the Canada geese sampled and this was the only species found. Male and female geese showed no significant differences in E. clarkei infections, however, significantly more immature geese than adult geese were infected with this species. A cell

  9. Renal coccidiosis in interior Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior Todd, of the Mississippi Valley population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggle, Benjamin N.; Crites, John L.

    1984-01-01

    Kidneys from 309 Interior Canada geese from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway were examined for renal coccidia. Oocysts and/or young zygotes of Eimeria sp. were found in 6.8% of goose kidneys sampled. Only one type of renal coccidian oocyst was observed. Significantly more immature geese were infected than adults; however, there was no significant difference observed between the prevalences of infection in male and female birds. A host cellular response to zygotes and oocysts was noted in the majority of infected adult geese. Heavily infected kidneys were hypertrophic with minute foci on the surface of the organ. Histological examinations showed large numbers of unsporulated oocysts accumulated in distended collecting tubules, resulting in pressure necrosis to adjacent tissue and urate retention. Zygotes were observed in the cytoplasm of tubule cells and extracellularly in interstitial tissue. Infected tubule cells were characterized by the peripheral location of the nuclei, cytoplasmic basophilia, and cellular hypertrophy. This is the first report of an Eimeria sp. in the kidneys of Canada geese of the Mississippi Valley population.

  10. Population size of Cuban Parrots Amazona leucocephala and Sandhill Cranes Grus canadensis and community involvement in their conservation in northern Isla de la Juventud, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, X.G.; Alvarez, V.B.; Wiley, J.W.; Rosales, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Cuban Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis nesiotes and Cuban Parrot Amazona leucocephala palmarum are considered endangered species in Cuba and the Isla de la Juventud (formerly Isla de Pinos). Coincident with a public education campaign, a population survey for these species was conducted in the northern part of the Isla de la Juventud on 17 December 1995, from 06hoo to 10hoo. Residents from throughout the island participated, manning 98 stations, with 1-4 observers per station. Parrots were observed at 60 (61.2%) of the stations with a total of 1320, maximum (without correction for duplicate observations), and 1100, minimum (corrected), individuals counted. Sandhill cranes were sighted at 38 (38.8%) of the stations, with a total of 115 individuals. Cranes and parrots co-occurred at 20 (20.4%) of the stations.

  11. Multilocus genetic analyses and spatial modeling reveal complex population structure and history in a widespread resident North American passerine (Perisoreus canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohms, Kimberly M; Graham, Brendan A; Burg, Theresa M

    2017-12-01

    An increasing body of studies of widely distributed, high latitude species shows a variety of refugial locations and population genetic patterns. We examined the effects of glaciations and dispersal barriers on the population genetic patterns of a widely distributed, high latitude, resident corvid, the gray jay (Perisoreus canadensis), using the highly variable mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and microsatellite markers combined with species distribution modeling. We sequenced 914 bp of mtDNA control region for 375 individuals from 37 populations and screened seven loci for 402 individuals from 27 populations across the gray jay range. We used species distribution modeling and a range of phylogeographic analyses (haplotype diversity, ΦST, SAMOVA, FST, Bayesian clustering analyses) to examine evolutionary history and population genetic structure. MtDNA and microsatellite markers revealed significant genetic differentiation among populations with high concordance between markers. Paleodistribution models supported at least five potential areas of suitable gray jay habitat during the last glacial maximum and revealed distributions similar to the gray jay's contemporary during the last interglacial. Colonization from and prolonged isolation in multiple refugia is evident. Historical climatic fluctuations, the presence of multiple dispersal barriers, and highly restricted gene flow appear to be responsible for strong genetic diversification and differentiation in gray jays.

  12. PHARMACOLOGICAL AND THERAPEUTIC IMPORTANCE OF ERIGERON CANADENSIS (SYN: CONYZA CANADENSIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

    2017-01-01

    Phytochemical studies revealed that Erigeron canadensis (syn. Conyza canadensis) contained saponins, diterpenoids, terpenoids, glycosides, tannin, anthraquinone, steroids and flavonoids. Pharmacological studies showed that Erigeron canadensis exerted antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticoagulant, antiinflammatory, anticancer, mutagenic gastric protective effect and skin depigmentation activity. The current review discussed the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Erigeron c...

  13. Assessment of an Impact of Mechanical Regulation on Selected Morphometric and Productive Parameters of Invasive Species Solidago Canadensis Population in Agricultural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Končeková Lýdia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Repeated mowing is considered as one of the effective control methods against species of the genus Solidago. This paper evaluates the impact of the repeated mowing on selected morphometric and productive characteristics of the invasive neophyte Solidago canadensis in the district of Rimavská Sobota in Central Slovakia. Permanent research plots (PRPs were established within anthropogenic habitat on an abandoned land that was divided into two variants. In the first variant, the mechanical regulation - mowing was applied. The second variant was without the regulation. The mechanical regulation of the populations was carried out in June and August during the growing season 2011. The results showed that the mechanical regulation did not have a clear impact on the population density. The decreasing trend of the number of shoots within the mowed variant was found only in one research plot (PRP3. The other plots showed an increase in the number of individuals by 2.7 and 32.7% between the mowings. Statistically highly significant differences in terms of the mowing impact on the height of the individuals were found in all PRPs. The difference in the weight of dry aboveground biomass between the mowings was 221.87 g, which represents 36.41%. Double the difference (48.8% was recorded in the dry weight of the underground biomass in the regulated stand compared with the unregulated stand (165.1 and 322.5 g/m2, respectively. Although there was a short-term success achieved by the application of the two mowings during the growing period, the pursued objective was not reached.

  14. Population genetic structure and phylogeography of invasive aquatic weed, Elodea canadensis (Hydrocharitaceae) and comparative analyses with E. nuttallii

    OpenAIRE

    Huotari, Tea

    2012-01-01

    The introductions of invasive species are one of the most important threats to global biodiversity and ecosystem function. In addition, invasive species often cause large economical and social consequences. Genetic characteristics of introduced populations have an impact on their capacity of range expansion in the non-native areas. Therefore, understanding the evolutionary consequences of invasions will provide knowledge for the design of appropriate methods for managing introduced population...

  15. Coupled stream and population dynamics: Modeling the role beaver (Castor canadensis) play in generating juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, C.; Bouwes, N.; Wheaton, J. M.; Pollock, M.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past several centuries, the population of North American Beaver has been dramatically reduced through fur trapping. As a result, the geomorphic impacts long-term beaver occupancy and activity can have on fluvial systems have been lost, both from the landscape and from our collective memory such that physical and biological models of floodplain system function neither consider nor have the capacity to incorporate the role beaver can play in structuring the dynamics of streams. Concomitant with the decline in beaver populations was an increasing pressure on streams and floodplains through human activity, placing numerous species of stream rearing fishes in peril, most notably the ESA listing of trout and salmon populations across the entirety of the Western US. The rehabilitation of stream systems is seen as one of the primary means by which population and ecosystem recovery can be achieved, yet the methods of stream rehabilitation are applied almost exclusively with the expected outcome of a static idealized stream planform, occasionally with an acknowledgement of restoring processes rather than form and only rarely with the goal of a beaver dominated riverscape. We have constructed an individual based model of trout and beaver populations that allows the exploration of fish population dynamics as a function of stream habitat quality and quantity. We based the simulation tool on Bridge Creek (John Day River basin, Oregon) where we have implemented a large-scale restoration experiment using wooden posts to provide beavers with stable platforms for dam building and to simulate the dams themselves. Extensive monitoring captured geomorphic and riparian changes, as well as fish and beaver population responses; information we use to parameterize the model as to the geomorphic and fish response to dam building beavers. In the simulation environment, stream habitat quality and quantity can be manipulated directly through rehabilitation actions and indirectly

  16. HIV Epidemic situation among Small Indigenous Populations of Northeast Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Volova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze and assess the real situation of HIV infection among indigenous peoples established , to investigate the prevalence of risky behavior in relation to HIV also determine the level of awareness of the indigenous population about HIV / AIDS.Materials and Methods 1. Analysis of the data cards of the epidemical investigation hearth HIV data form number 283 «About measures on prevention of HIV , hepatitis B and C , detection and treatment of HIV» , form number 61 «Information on the groups of HIV», outpatients patient. 2. The analysis of the statistical prevalence of HIV infection among men and women , including among indigenous representatives , the structure of HIV transmission , coverage of clinical examination. 3. Data analysis of the sociological study among indigenous representatives. The proposed questionnaire contained both closed and open-ended questions to assess the risk factors of respondents’ behavior and their level of awareness of HIV infection. Evaluation of the reliability of the data performed using Student t-test. Results. In 2000, HIV infection in region penetrated into the population of indigenous peoples and continues to spread. Particular way of life and living conditions, such as seasonal migration within the county, early sexual activity, lack of skills in safe sexual behavior , bad habits contributed to the spread of HIV among this ethnic group. Link transition of HIV infection in a group of indigenous peoples is a high incidence of working shifts and workers, among them 30% are already infected with HIV. In connection with this, the spread of HIV infection among women occurs rapidly. Special role in the spread of HIV infection among women of indigenous peoples plays lifestyle and delated psychosocial problems.Conclusion 1. The most vulnerable to HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections by representatives of indigenous peoples living in the

  17. Using Situational Leadership To Reach the Whole Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Linda; And Others

    Librarians providing individual information instruction need to be able to quickly and accurately assess the student's level of experience and ability and to offer the correct balance between support and challenge. Paul Hersey's Situational Leadership Model can provide librarians with a cognitive framework for assessment; it helps the instructor…

  18. Attitudes of rural population in emergency exposure situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, Franca, E-mail: franca.carini@unicatt.i [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense 84, I-29122 Piacenza (Italy); Pellizzoni, Marco [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense 84, I-29122 Piacenza (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    People growing crops in kitchen gardens eat locally self-produced food and are the subject of growing attention as the potential for a more sustainable development. A survey was carried out in two provinces in northern Italy to gather information on the consumption of local horticultural products, peoples' expectations of authorities in the case of a nuclear accident and peoples' behaviour in the absence of official information. Results show that up to 70% of the owners of kitchen gardens possess diets comprised of more than 60% of self-produced vegetables and can be regarded as particular groups of population. In the case of a dispersion of radioactive material, the local population would take advantage of official information on preventive measures to protect farms and local crops from contamination. Results of the survey show differences in the attitude of the population due to age, gender and past experience. - Highlights: {yields} Growers of kitchen gardens are particular groups of population. {yields} A survey in northern Italy reveals that they eat more than 60% of self-produced vegetables. {yields} They lack of confidence in the ability of authorities to communicate hazards to the food supply. {yields} Their age and gender is one of the main parameters affecting confidence in the authorities. {yields} The lack of a tradition of public dialog and participation affects their trust in the authorities.

  19. The current situation of cultivated land and population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, B

    1991-10-01

    China/s current cultivated land supply will be depleted in 200 years if present land use and population pressure continue, according to Professor Liu Xuanhao of the Beijing Agriculture University in 1989. The amount of cultivated land began to decline after 1957 due to national construction projects. By 1985 the decline had reached a net annual average of 15 million mu (1 mu = 16.5% of an acre). Land lost between 1949 and 1986 amounted to a 7 million annual average. During this period, population grew from 540 million in 1949 to 1.14 billion in 1990, which meant 2.8 mu/capita in 1949 vs. 1.5mu/capita in 1990. 5 major points are made. 1) China feeds 22% of the world's population on 7% of world's land. Per capita area of cultivated land is low for China's population size. Land area is 13.3 mu/capita or 25% of US land area. 2) Of the total land area, cultivated land constitutes a small proportion, i.e., 31% is plains and basins while 69% is mountains, plateaus, and hilly areas. 1.4 billion mu is cultivatable land or 10% of the land area. In contrast, 50% of India's territory is cultivatable land. 3) East and south China have the greatest area (90%) of cultivable land. Forest reserves are in the northeast and southwest, and grasslands predominate in the northwest. 4) There is only 500 million mu of arable land. 5) There are insufficient water resources and uneven regional and seasonal distribution. Water resources are 25% of the world average. National Economic development will be impeded by the pressure between limited land resources and population growth which is expected to increase until 2020. Land management since 1986 has come under the Land Administration Law whose guidelines stipulate that land is to be valued, protected, and utilized rationally. Since 1986, there has been nationwide monitoring of land use for nonfarming purposes, which has contributed to less loss of land for cultivation. Evaluation of land resources will now permit plans for appropriate land

  20. Individual Plasticity of the Shade Response of the Invasive Solidago canadensis in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leshan Du; Haiyan Liu; Ming Yan; Junmin Li; Junsheng Li

    2017-01-01

      To evaluate the population variation, individual plasticity, and local adaptability of Solidago canadensis in response to shade treatment, we conducted a common pots experiment with a total of 150 ramets...

  1. Genetic Variation of Echinococcus canadensis (G7) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Prado, Ulises; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego Emiliano; Avila, Guillermina; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Martinez-Flores, Williams Arony; Mondragon de la Peña, Carmen; Hernandez-Castro, Rigoberto; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Flisser, Ana; Martinez-Hernandez, Fernando; Maravilla, Pablo; Martinez-Maya, Jose Juan

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the genetic variation of Echinococcus G7 strain in larval and adult stages using a fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gen. Viscera of pigs, bovines, and sheep and fecal samples of dogs were inspected for cystic and canine echinococcosis, respectively; only pigs had hydatid cysts. Bayesian inferences grouped the sequences in an E. canadensis G7 cluster, suggesting that, in Mexico, this strain might be mainly present. Additionally, the population genetic and network analysis showed that E. canadensis in Mexico is very diverse and has probably been introduced several times from different sources. Finally, a scarce genetic differentiation between G6 (camel strain) and G7 (pig strain) populations was identified. PMID:25266350

  2. Changing population structure and commuting situation in Tokyo Megalopolis: a municipality-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, R; Umezaki, M

    1993-06-01

    Census data was analyzed for 20 municipalities along the Tohoku Line in Tokyo Megalopolis to elucidate the changes in the population structure and the commuting situation in the last two decades. The major findings were: (1) the changing pattern of population structure markedly varied among the municipalities, and (2) the long-distance commuting workers have increased particularly among those 50 km or more from central Tokyo.

  3. Development of an Aerial Breeding Pair Survey of Dusky Canada Geese (Branta canadensis occidentalis) on the Copper River Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The dusky Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) population has declined for several years (Cornely and Jarvis 1984 Cornely et al. 1985; Campbell 1984, 1988;...

  4. Cause-effect linkages between chemicals and populations of mink (Mustela vison) and otter (Lutra canadensis) in the Great Lakes basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wren, C.D. (Ecological Services for Planning Ltd., Guelph, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-08-01

    Following outbreaks of reproductive failure in commercial ranching operations, laboratory experiments showed that mink are extremely sensitive to organochlorine chemicals, particularly PCBs and dioxins. The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that, since wild mink are exposed to these compounds through consumption of Great Lakes fish, they might exhibit reproductive dysfunction and population declines. The otter, another piscivorous animal, should show the same effects. The available information is reviewed according to five epidemiological criteria. Harvest data are presented as a surrogate for the population status of mink and otters in certain locations around the Great Lakes. Data from Ohio show that the mink harvest between 1982 and 1987 from contaminated counties bordering Lake Erie was consistently lower than those from counties removed from Lake Erie, suggesting an effect of chemicals on the status of mink populations. Preliminary studies from Ontario also suggest that mink harvest is lower in potentially high PCB exposure areas compared with lower exposure areas. Evidence is also presented on the harvest data for otters taken from four New York State counties adjacent to Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. The harvest data from these four counties show that between 1960 and early 1970 otter harvest remained stable but has since increased. Increased harvest is consistent with improved water quality in Lake Ontario during the past 15 yr. Data relating to strength of association between chemicals and populations of mink and otter are weak and need to be further analyzed. The specificity of the effects of the chemicals on mink reproduction and mortality is well established from toxicological experiments, but there is poor resolution of the information on effects using field data. 104 references.

  5. Intraspecific variation in Tsuga canadensis foliar chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Ingwell; Joseph Brady; Matthew Fitzpatrick; Brian Maynard; Richard Casagrande; Evan Preisser

    2009-01-01

    Three groups of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis Carr.) trees were analyzed to compare their chemical composition and the potential for naturally occurring resistance to hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsguae...

  6. Chemical studies on Taxus canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Qin, Fang; Wang, Si-Ming; Guo, Rui-Xia; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Shi, Qing-Wen

    2013-10-01

    A series of new taxanes, 1-93, have been isolated, together with 37 known taxoids including Taxol(®) (paclitaxel) and cephalomannine, from the Canadian yew, Taxus canadensis (Taxaceae) in the past 30 years. These new taxoids possess various skeletons containing 5/7/6, 6/10/6, 6/5/5/6, 6/8/6, and 6/12 ring systems and six new taxanes with four novel skeletons, i.e., a taxane with a 6/6/8/6 ring system, a taxane with a [3.3.3] propellane skeleton, three taxanes with [3.3.3] [3.4.5] dipropellane sytems, as well as a novel taxane with a unique 5/5/4/6/6/6 hexacyclic skeleton, containing a unique [3.3.2] propellane, were isolated for the first time from natural sources. It should be emphasized that 13-acetyl-9-dihydrobaccatin III, a very useful starting material for the semisynthesis of Taxol(®) and Taxotere(®) , represents the most abundant taxane in the needles of this yew tree. These findings establish the above mentioned yew tree as significantly different from the remaining species. On the other hand, some chemical modifications on the taxanes isolated from this plant were carried out. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  7. Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Bionomics aspects of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana de Oliveira Torres

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar alguns aspectos bionômicos da vespa social neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758. Vinte e seis colônias foram acompanhadas entre abril de 2004 e julho de 2006, no município de Mundo Novo, estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Os resultados encontrados nesse estudo sugerem que o padrão fenológico de Polistes canadensis canadensis é assincrônico nessa região, com fundações e abandonos podendo ocorrer o ano todo. A duração média dos estágios imaturos foi diferente entre as estações climáticas fria-seca e úmida-quente. Diferentes substratos foram escolhidos para nidificação, contudo em ambientes que forneceram condições físicas mais homogêneas durante o dia foram encontradas as maiores freqüências de sucesso. Colônias nessa espécie são fundadas por haplometrose ou pleometrose, no entanto, o sucesso tem sido maior para colônias pleometróticas.Certain aspects of the bionomics of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied. Twenty-six colonies were observed from April 2004 through July 2006, in the municipal district of Mundo Novo, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central-Brazil. The results suggest that the colony phenological pattern of this species is asynchronous, and colonies may be founded or abandoned at any time of the year. The mean duration of the immature stages differed between the cold-dry and warm-rainy seasons. Colonies were founded on several different kinds of substrates, but were more successful in environments that provided more-homogeneous physical conditions during the day. Colonies in this species are founded by haplometrosis or pleometrosis, and pleometrotic colonies were more successful.

  8. Environmental DNA assays for the sister taxa aauger (Sander canadensis) and walleye (Sander vitreus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph C. Dysthe; Kellie J. Carim; Michael Ruggles; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Young; Michael K. Schwartz

    2017-01-01

    Sauger (Sander canadensis) and walleye (S. vitreus) are percid fishes that naturally co-occur throughout much of the eastern United States. The native range of sauger extends into the upper Missouri River drainage where walleye did not historically occur, but have been stocked as a sport fish. Sauger populations have been declining due to habitat loss, fragmentation,...

  9. Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis): an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary L. Predny; James L. Chamberlain

    2005-01-01

    Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) is a spring-blooming herbaceous perennial found mainly in rich woods throughout the Appalachian Mountain regions and across the Eastern United States. The common name bloodroot and scientific name Sanguinaria denote the blood-red sap found throughout the plant, particularly in the roots. This sap...

  10. THE HOUSING SITUATION OF THE RURAL POPULATION IN THE SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Stolarska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  The basic research material comprised empirical data on household budgets conducted by CSO (The Central Statistical Offi ce. The analysed housing conditions of 15 742 rural households in 2012 in Poland. Attention is paid to some households in poor housing situation. Diversity of housing situation and factors affecting this state of affairs is presented. We observe not only the diversity of household wealth, but there are also disparities in housing situation. Disturbing and contrary to the principles of sustainable development and sustainable consumption is the fact that there are signifi cant differences in the size (10–900 m2 and quality of fl ats. Some have more than one house, others are not able to meet their basic needs. Until 13% fl ats of rural households had leaky roofs, damp walls or rotting windows and fl oors. Nearly 1.3% of them also was too tight and located in an area with a low level of infrastructure. It was associated with poor revenue situation, but also the type of the main source of income, family situation and who was the owner of the apartment. Approx. 1.4% of the fl ats had no running water, and almost 18% were heated using heating furnaces, which are not only a nuisance in operation, but also emit carbon dioxide harmful to the environment. Some rural households (5% had credit, but they have better fi nancial situation than others.

  11. [The population of Shanghai city: the present situation, some problems, and our recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C G; Liu, M H; Hu, Y Z

    1981-01-01

    A summary is presented of the history of Shanghai's population growth and the accompanying problems relative to high density, employment, housing, and transportation. Some suggestions for controlling Shanghai's population growth are made, including the need to accomodate population growth in national economic planning, to adopt effective measures to lower the birth rate in the suburbs, and to establish an organization with city-wide authority to develop population policy and to handle all population-related problems.

  12. Nalaz tombusvirusa na vrsti Erigeron canadensis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeknić, Zoran; Erić, Živojin; Grbelja, Julijana

    1988-01-01

    Iz listova zaraženih primjeraka korovne biljke Erigeron canadensis L. koji su rasli na nekoliko lokaliteta u Sarajevu izoliran je virus iz skupine tombusvirusi. Identifikacija virusa izvršena je na osnovi reakcije pokusnih biljaka, analize ultratankih presjeka kroz zaraženo tkivo, morfologije i veličine virusnih čestica, te na osnovi seroloških reakcija metodom dvostruke imunodifuzije u agarskom gelu i čvrsto fazne imunoelektronske mikroskopije (SPIEM). U serološkim pokusima upotrijebljen je ...

  13. [Studying Marxist theory on population and initiating a new situation in demographic research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, Z

    1983-03-29

    Within Marxist ideology are important population theories that led to the establishment of demography and the work of population control in China. Marxist population theory should be studied in order to build a scientific system of concepts in population theory. Both Marx and Engels spoke of the relationship between human reproduction and material production, and of how the modes of social development determine population development. Marx also established the view that a normal population and surplus population both were mutually adaptable with a certain production basis. In any historical period, the total population is not determined subjectively by man's wishes, but is a product of historical development. The Maoist population theory is derived from Marxist theory. Borrowing from historical materialism, Mao said that of all the objects in the world, man is the most precious. Nevertheless, he continued, while China's large population is good, it brings many difficulties; thus, population must be controlled. The study of demography should follow Marxist and Maoist population theories, even though the study of Marixst population theory is relatively recent and much remains to be learned.

  14. Individual Plasticity of the Shade Response of the Invasive Solidago canadensis in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leshan Du

    Full Text Available To evaluate the population variation, individual plasticity, and local adaptability of Solidago canadensis in response to shade treatment, we conducted a common pots experiment with a total of 150 ramets (5 genets, 15 populations, and 2 treatments subjected to both control (natural light and shady treatment (10% of natural light. Shade treatment significantly reduced growth and content of defense metabolites in S. canadensis. Compared to control, shading led to increased height, decreased basal diameter, increased leaf width, increased leaf length, increased chlorophyll content, stronger photosynthetic rate (Pn, stronger stomatal conductance (gs, and lower root to shoot ratio. Three-way analysis of variance revealed geographical origin to significantly affect the basal diameter of S. canadensis, while genotype significantly affected plant height, intercelluar CO2 concentration (Ci, transpiration rate (Tr, and proline content. Significant interactive effects between shade and geographic origin were prevalent for most traits. The phenotypic differentiation coefficient of the plasticity of all traits was below 0.4, indicating that most of all variations can be found among individuals within populations. Phenotypic selection analysis revealed that fitness was significantly positively related to plant height, basal diameter, Ci, total flavonoid content, as well as the plasticity of plant height, leaf length, leaf width, gs, Ci, total flavonoid content, and malondialdehyde content under the control condition. However, subjected to shade, fitness was only significantly positively related to plant height, basal diameter, and the plasticity of basal diameter. Rather than local adaption, these results suggest that individual plasticity played a more prominent role in the shade response of the invasive S. canadensis.

  15. Phylogeography of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, K.T.; Talbot, S.L.; Pearce, J.M.; Pierson, Barbara J.; Bollinger, K.S.; Derksen, D.V.

    2003-01-01

    Using molecular genetic markers that differ in mode of inheritance and rate of evolution, we examined levels and partitioning of genetic variation for seven nominal subspecies (11 breeding populations) of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in western North America. Gene trees constructed from mtDNA control region sequence data show that subspecies of Canada Geese do not have distinct mtDNA. Large- and small-bodied forms of Canada Geese were highly diverged (0. 077 average sequence divergence) and represent monophyletic groups. A majority (65%) of 20 haplotypes resolved were observed in single breeding locales. However, within both large- and small-bodied forms certain haplotypes occurred across multiple subspecies. Population trees for both nuclear (microsatellites) and mitochondrial markers were generally concordant and provide resolution of population and subspecific relationships indicating incomplete lineage sorting. All populations and subspecies were genetically diverged, but to varying degrees. Analyses of molecular variance, nested-clade and coalescence-based analyses of mtDNA suggest that both historical (past fragmentation) and contemporary forces have been important in shaping current spatial genetic distributions. Gene flow appears to be ongoing though at different rates, even among currently recognized subspecies. The efficacy of current subspecific taxonomy is discussed in light of hypothesized historical vicariance and current demographic trends of management and conservation concern.

  16. GENETICS OF MIMICRY IN THE TIGER SWALLOWTAIL BUTTERFLIES, PAPILIO GLAUCUS AND P. CANADENSIS (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriber, J Mark; Hagen, Robert H; Lederhouse, Robert C

    1996-02-01

    The tiger swallowtail butterfly, Papilio glaucus, exhibits a female-limited polymorphism for Batesian mimicry; the Canadian tiger swallowtail, Papilio canadensis, lacks the mimetic (dark) form entirely. The species hybridize to a limited extent where their ranges overlap. Field collections and censuses indicate that mimetic females occur throughout the range of P. glaucus but at lowest frequencies in populations at the latitudinal edges of its geographic range such as the southernmost part of Florida and along the entire northern edge of its distribution from Massachusetts to Minnesota. Frequencies of mimetic females have remained relatively stable over time. Inheritance of the mimetic form is controlled primarily by two interacting sex-linked loci. The typical matrilineal pattern of inheritance in P. glaucus can be explained by polymorphism at a Y-linked locus, b. Analysis of P. glaucus × P. canadensis crosses has also revealed an X-linked locus, s, which controls the expression of the mimetic phenotype. The P. canadensis allele, s can , suppresses the mimetic phenotype in hybrid and backcross females. Results from more than 12 yr of rearing tiger swallowtails, including interspecies hybrids, indicate that the absence of mimetic P. canadensis females is due to both a high frequency of the "suppressing" allele s can and low frequency of the black-pigment-determining b + allele. The frequency of s can (or other suppressing alleles of s) in P. glaucus populations outside the hybrid zone is low. Some males heterozygous at the s locus and some suppressed mimetic females occur within the hybrid zone. A simple genetic model predicts the frequency of daughters that differ in phenotype from their mothers. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Standardization and validation of the Inventory of Situations and Responses of Anxiety (ISRA to Dominican Republic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoilo Emilio Garcia Batista

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present research was the standardization and validation of the Inventory of Situations and Responses of Anxiety ISRA (Miguel - Tobal & Cano -Vindel, 2002 in the population of the Dominican Republic. Additionally, to verify if the ISRA distinguish between healthy individuals and patients diagnosed with bronchial asthma was a key objective too. The total sample of 1074 subjects aged 18 to 69 years was composed by 986 healthy subjects (students and the general population and 88 individuals with bronchial asthma, to whom we applied the Inventory of Situations and Responses of Anxiety (ISRA; Miguel - Tobal & Cano -Vindel, 2002, and the Spanish version of the State-Trait Inventory (STAI, Spielberger, Edwards, Lushene, Montuori & Platzek, 1970. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA, showing significant differences between anxiety levels of the groups assessed. APEs confirm the existence of three sets of responses (cognitive, physiological and motor and 3 situational areas (assessment, interpersonal, phobic and everyday life. High reliability was evidenced by Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest. Significant positive correlations between the ISRA and the STAI for concurrent validity were obtained. These results show that ISRA is a reliable and valid instrument to assess anxiety.

  18. Population, food situation and problems of agricultural development in Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, S

    1991-01-01

    Increased food production in less developed regions of India has been outpaced by unprecedented rapid population growth and a corresponding decline in the quality of life. This study analyses food supply and food requirements in Andhra Pradesh, with consideration of the relationships between population, food, land inequality, and agricultural development. To check population growth, the study found a need to more strongly emphasize family planning programs. More comprehensive measures are, however, recommended to combat widely spread inadequate nutrition. Accounting for 60% of all disease in the region, malnutrition is due to underproduction, lack of purchasing power among the poor, lack of proper spatial distribution, lack of irrigational facilities, and land inequality. Food production should be increased through extensive irrigation where needed, while landless agricultural laborers and small farmers should be assisted through housing, education, health facilities, agricultural subsidies, bank credits, HYV seeds, and other contributory interventions. Finally, land reforms already underway should continue until target goals are reached.

  19. [Population and development. Echo of the spatial situation and of the galloping demography of Rwanda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibomana, J M

    1991-04-01

    Population growth in Rwanda has until now always entailed increasing the cultivated area to the detriment of the savannahs, forests, and virgin lands that once were abundant. Until recently the orientation of the different plans was toward encouraging economic growth through immediate solution of the structural constraints of the moment. This preoccupation prevented environmental protection from assuming its place as an essential element in development planning. Rwanda's fertility rate was very high before colonization, but population growth was slow because of high mortality rates. Unfortunately, by independence the virgin lands had almost disappeared. Improvements in the health infrastructure and continued lowering of mortality rates led to the population explosion. The population, in order to survive, had to cultivate marginal lands, to the detriment of the environment. Many rural dwellers have already been forced out of agriculture by the shortage of lands. Rates of literacy and school attendance have increased more significantly. In 1978, the illiteracy rate among persons over 7 years was 47.4% for males, 66.9% for females, 58.6% for rural dwellers, 34.5% for the urban population, and 57.4% overall. The rates of school enrollment among children 8-14 years were 59.9% for males, 45.0% for females, 46.8% for rural and 64.3% for urban residents, and 47.4% overall. More educated persons are better able to seek employment outside of agriculture and earn higher incomes. Urban residence now offers Rwanda's population better access to education and health care, improved working conditions and income, and even a better diet. Cities can serve as poles of development and can even promote development of the agriculture sector. But the current tendency to favor Kigali creates a risk that this city will be swamped by a massive influx of rural migrants, at the same time that possibilities of development are stifled in smaller cities. Investment should be encouraged in rural

  20. The Effects of Solar Maximum on the Earth's Satellite Population and Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly approaching maximum of Solar Cycle 24 will have wide-ranging effects not only on the number and distribution of resident space objects, but also on vital aspects of space situational awareness, including conjunction assessment processes. The best known consequence of high solar activity is an increase in the density of the thermosphere, which, in turn, increases drag on the vast majority of objects in low Earth orbit. The most prominent evidence of this is seen in a dramatic increase in space object reentries. Due to the massive amounts of new debris created by the fragmentations of Fengyun-1C, Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 during the recent period of Solar Minimum, this effect might reach epic levels. However, space surveillance systems are also affected, both directly and indirectly, historically leading to an increase in the number of lost satellites and in the routine accuracy of the calculation of their orbits. Thus, at a time when more objects are drifting through regions containing exceptionally high-value assets, such as the International Space Station and remote sensing satellites, their position uncertainties increase. In other words, as the possibility of damaging and catastrophic collisions increases, our ability to protect space systems is degraded. Potential countermeasures include adjustments to space surveillance techniques and the resetting of collision avoidance maneuver thresholds.

  1. [Investigation of the situation of vaginal microflora in healthy women population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Fang; Zhang, Ning; Di, Wen; Liao, Qin-ping; Wang, Wen; Zhao, Xiao-ming; Sun, Yun; Liu, Zhao-hui

    2009-01-01

    To assess the distribution of vaginal microflora in healthy women and investigate their cognition of lower reproductive tract infection-related knowledge as well as personal hygiene habits and character of behavior in seeking medical treatment. Total of 1660 healthy women who had physical check-ups at the Medical Center of Renji Hospital were selected and received gynecologic examination, as well as routine examination, pH examination and bacterial culture of the vaginal discharge. In addition, 860 of them were randomly selected for questionnaire survey, in which reproductive tract infection -related knowledge and personal hygiene habits as well as behavior in seeking medical treatment were involved. Among the 1660 censused women, vaginal average pH was 4. 16 +/- 0.21. The positive rate of Candida in vaginal discharge routine examination was 3.86% (64/1660), which was lower than that in aerobes culture 7.71% (128/1660). Candida albicans was the most populous species 78.9% (101/128), followed by 7.8% (10/128) and 7.0% (9/128) for the Candida glabrata and Candida krusei respectively. The most populous species of vaginal microflora were hemolytic streptococcus A (63.80%, 1059/1660), Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.28%, 237/1660), and Enterococcus faecalis (D) group (11.44%, 190/1660). The questionnaire survey showed that 88.4% (760/860) of 860 women took active treatment when feeling unwell, 92.1% (792/860) of them had good hygiene practices, and only 21.2% (182/860) had the habit of vaginal douching. In addition, 50.0% (430/860) of them had the desire to obtain reproductive health knowledge through out-patient consultation. Vulvovaginal Candida disease ranks the first in all types of vaginitis, among which, Candida albicans is the most populous species followed by the Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. Hemolytic streptococcus A and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most common species of vaginal microflora in healthy women. The censused women have high awareness of

  2. [Neisseria gonorrhoeae: antimicrobial resistance and study of population dynamics. Situation in Barcelona in 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Pladevall, Judit; Barberá-Gracia, María Jesús; Roig-Carbajosa, Glòria; Juvé-Saumell, Rosa; Gonzalez-Lopez, Juan José; Bartolomé-Comas, Rosa; Andreu-Domingo, Antònia

    2013-11-01

    Due to the high rates of antimicrobial resistance to certain antibiotics, together with the emergence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) with reduced susceptibility and resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, gonococcal infection is becoming a public health problem. The objectives of the study were: To keep track of the antimicrobial susceptibility of NG strains obtained from January to August 2011. To study the population dynamics. The antimicrobial susceptibility was studied by disk-diffusion and E-test. The genotyping was performed by NG-MAST method. Of a total of 100strains studied, 59% showed intermediate sensitivity to penicillin and 9% were resistant. According to EUCAST, we detected 3gonococci with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone, 10 to cefixime and one with high-level resistance to both antibiotics (MIC 1.5μg/ml). MIC50 and MIC90 to cefixime were 0.016 and 0.125μg/ml, respectively, whereas to ceftriaxone they were <0.016 and 0.064μg/ml, respectively. Almost all (99%) of the strains were resistant to doxycycline, 53% to ciprofloxacin, 3% to azithromycin, and 1% to spectinomycin. The most prevalent ST was ST1407, predominantly associated to resistance or reduced sensitivity to cephalosporins or macrolides. NG has developed significant rates of resistance to various antibiotics. One strain has been detected with high level resistance to third generation cephalosporins, and several strains with reduced susceptibility. An increase in MIC50 and MIC90 to these antibiotics has also been observed. NG population structure remains stable and common to the rest of Europe, although two new ST (ST7226 and ST7227) have been identified that could be selected and acquire high levels of resistance to cephalosporins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Epizootic and epidemiological situation of Trichinella sp. infection in Poland in 2006–2015 in view of wild boar population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flis Marian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective was to evaluate the epizootic and epidemiological situation of Trichinella sp. infection in Poland between 2006 and 2015 against the dynamics of the wild boar population and its primary reservoir host.

  4. Experimental Transmission of Bighorn Sheep Sinus Tumors to Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and Domestic Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, K A; Wootton, S; Marolf, A; Rouse, N; LeVan, I; Spraker, T; Miller, M; Quackenbush, S

    2016-11-01

    Bighorn sheep sinus tumors are a recently described disease affecting the paranasal sinuses of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis). Several features of this disease suggest an infectious cause, although a specific etiologic agent has not been identified. To test the hypothesis that bighorn sheep sinus tumors are caused by an infectious agent, we inoculated 4 bighorn sheep lambs and 4 domestic sheep lambs intranasally with a cell-free filtrate derived from a naturally occurring bighorn sheep sinus tumor; we held 1 individual of each species as a control. Within 18 months after inoculation, all 4 inoculated domestic sheep (100%) and 1 of the 4 inoculated bighorn sheep (25%) developed tumors within the ethmoid sinuses or nasal conchae, with features similar to naturally occurring bighorn sheep sinus tumors. Neither of the uninoculated sheep developed tumors. Histologically, the experimentally transmitted tumors were composed of stellate to spindle cells embedded within a myxoid matrix, with marked bone production. Tumor cells stained positively with vimentin, S100, alpha smooth muscle actin, and osteocalcin, suggesting origin from a multipotent mesenchymal cell. A periosteal origin for these tumors is suspected. Immunohistochemical staining for the envelope protein of JSRV (with cross-reactivity to ENTV) was equivocal, and PCR assays specific for these agents were negative. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Mitochondrial phylogeography, subspecific taxonomy, and conservation genetics of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; Aves: Gruidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhymer, J.M.; Fain, M.G.; Austin, J.E.; Johnson, D.H.; Krajewski, C.

    2001-01-01

    Six subspecies of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) have been denoted based on perceived morphological and/or breeding locality differences among them. Three subspecies are migratory, breeding from the high arctic in North America and Siberia (lesser sandhill, G. c. canadensis), south through central Canada (Canadian sandhill, G. c. rowani) and into the northern United States (greater sandhill, G. c. tabida). A review of sandhill crane taxonomy indicates that the size variation, on the basis of which these subspecies were named, may be clinal and not diagnostic. The other three subspecies, all listed as endangered or threatened, are non-migratory, resident in Florida (G. c. pratensis), Mississippi (G. c. pulla), and Cuba (G. c. nesiotes). We used analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) sequences to determine whether haplotypes representing current subspecies show any genetic cohesion or are more consistent with a pattern of clinal variation in morphology. CR sequences indicate that only two highly divergent (5.3%) lineages of sandhill cranes occur in North America: one lineage composed only of arctic-nesting G. c. canadensis, the other of the remaining North American subspecies (we lack data on the Cuban population). The deep split between lineages is consistent with an estimated isolation of approximately 1.5 Mya (mid-Pleistocene), while the distribution of mutational changes within lineages is consistent with an hypothesis of rapid, post-Pleistocene population expansions. No other phylogeographic structuring is concordant with subspecific boundaries, however, analysis of molecular variance indicates that there is significant population genetic differentiation among all subspecies except G. c. tabida and G. c. rowani, which are indistinguishable. We suggest that recognition of the recently named G. c. rowani be abandoned.

  6. Antiviral activity of Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist extracts grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Conyza Canadensis L. Cronquist were investigated for their antiviral activity against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) AD-169 and Cox-B3 viruses by modification of the widely used shell-vial assay. The results showed that butanol and methanol ...

  7. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Copper Deficiency in a Male Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) in Utah, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, E Jane; Roug, Annette; Jones, Covy; Seamons, Josee; Hall, Jeffery O

    2017-10-04

    In 2015, an emaciated Rocky Mountain bighorn (Ovis canadensis) ram was submitted to the Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for necropsy. There were numerous thick-walled abscesses subcutaneously and internally, and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was isolated in pure culture. In addition, the ram was severely copper deficient, with a liver copper concentration of 1.6 mg/kg.

  8. Are laboratory derived toxicity results informative for field situations? Case study on earthworm populations contaminated with heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, T.C.; Thissen, J.

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of laboratory tests on toxicants for field situations is often disputed given that laboratory tests are conducted under, next to the toxicant stress, optimal conditions which are not expected in field situations. In this paper we confront the results of laboratory tests on growth,

  9. Elevational trends in defense chemistry, vegetation, and reproduction in Sanguinaria canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmore, A K; Hunter, M D

    2001-09-01

    Evaluation of biotic interactions along geographic gradients reveals that pressure on plant populations by herbivores and pathogens increases as latitude decreases, and is accompanied by a parallel increase in the number and toxicity of alkaloid-bearing plants. We compared rhizome alkaloid content with plant reproductive and vegetative characters in Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) along an elevational gradient over two growing seasons to ascertain 1) if alkaloid production in bloodroot varies among populations and systematically with elevation, and 2) if there exists a correlation between isoquinoline alkaloid, vegetative and reproductive production. In general, alkaloid content in bloodroot rhizomes declines with elevation, increases with rhizome water content, varies by site, and fluctuates seasonally with plant growth and reproduction. Alkaloid content was positively correlated with vegetative and reproductive effort with few exceptions. Analysis of total protopine and benzophenanthridine alkaloid concentrations revealed generally similar patterns as those of individual alkaloid concentrations, although significant differences did appear between individual alkaloid concentrations.

  10. Pharmacognostic and physicochemical evaluation of homoeopathic drug: Erigeron canadensis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Padma Rao Pogaku; Subramanian Palani; Sudhakar Penthala; P Sreeman Narayana; Nagaraju Mukkamula

    2017-01-01

    Background: Erigeron canadensis L. is an erect annual herb belonging to the family Asteraceae. Aerial parts are used in Homoeopathy for bruises, cough, dysuria, gonorrhea, haemorrhages, haemorrhoids, spermatorrhea, and wounds. Objective: The pharmacognostic and physicochemical studies have been carried out to facilitate the use of correct species and lay down standards of raw drug materials. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies of the leaf and stem of authentic samples of E. canaden...

  11. Antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the botanical medicine goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph M Egan; Kaur, Amninder; Raja, Huzefa A.; Kellogg, Joshua J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Cech., Nadja B.

    2016-01-01

    The potential of fungal endophytes to alter or contribute to plant chemistry and biology has been the topic of a great deal of recent interest. For plants that are used medicinally, it has been proposed that endophytes might play an important role in biological activity. With this study, we sought to identify antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the medicinal plant goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L., Ranunculaceae), a plant used in traditional medicine to treat infection. A total of 23 funga...

  12. Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis in wolves from western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Janna M; Gesy, Karen M; Elkin, Brett T; Jenkins, Emily J

    2014-02-01

    Echinococcus species are important parasites of wildlife, domestic animals and people worldwide; however, little is known about the prevalence, intensity and genetic diversity of Echinococcus tapeworms in Canadian wildlife. Echinococcus tapeworms were harvested from the intestines of 42% of 93 wolves (Canis lupus) from five sampling regions in the Northwest Territories, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and visually identified to genus level by microscopic examination. Genetic characterization was successful for tapeworms from 30 wolves, and identified both Echinococcus canadensis and Echinococcus multilocularis in all sampling locations. Mixed infections of E. canadensis/E. multilocularis, as well as the G8/G10 genotypes of E. canadensis were observed. These findings suggest that wolves may be an important definitive host for both parasite species in western Canada. This represents the first report of wolves naturally infected with E. multilocularis in North America, and of wolves harbouring mixed infections with multiple species and genotypes of Echinococcus. These observations provide important information regarding the distribution and diversity of zoonotic species of Echinococcus in western North America, and may be of interest from public health and wildlife conservation perspectives.

  13. Variability in the yield of benzophenanthridine alkaloids in wildcrafted vs cultivated bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Tyler N; Levine, Keith E; Andrews, Margaret E; Perlmutter, Jason M; Nielsen, Samara Joy; Davis, Jeanine M; Wani, Mansukh C; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2007-02-21

    Populations of bloodroot [Sanguinaria canadensis L. (Papaveraceae)] are found throughout the eastern forests of North America, with particular abundance in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Increasingly, it is finding use in Europe as a nonantibiotic animal feed supplement to promote weight gain. As efforts to cultivate this herb are underway, there is a need to understand the effect of agronomic permutations on both the dry mass rhizome yield and the yield of benzophenanthridine alkaloids. Month-to-month variability of the concentration of the alkaloids sanguinarine and chelerythrine in both cultivated and wildcrafted bloodroot was examined. The alkaloid yield was consistently higher, but more variable, in wildcrafted plants. On average, cultivated rhizomes were both larger and more consistently sized than those that were wildcrafted. The concentration of a suite of trace elements was measured in soil that was collected concomitantly with each plant accession. Differences in element profiles were compared against alkaloid yields.

  14. A Review of Hypothesized Determinants Associated with Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) Die-Offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David S.; Hoberg, Eric; Weiser, Glen; Aune, Keith; Atkinson, Mark; Kimberling, Cleon

    2012-01-01

    Multiple determinants have been hypothesized to cause or favor disease outbreaks among free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations. This paper considered direct and indirect causes of mortality, as well as potential interactions among proposed environmental, host, and agent determinants of disease. A clear, invariant relationship between a single agent and field outbreaks has not yet been documented, in part due to methodological limitations and practical challenges associated with developing rigorous study designs. Therefore, although there is a need to develop predictive models for outbreaks and validated mitigation strategies, uncertainty remains as to whether outbreaks are due to endemic or recently introduced agents. Consequently, absence of established and universal explanations for outbreaks contributes to conflict among wildlife and livestock stakeholders over land use and management practices. This example illustrates the challenge of developing comprehensive models for understanding and managing wildlife diseases in complex biological and sociological environments. PMID:22567546

  15. Review on the prevalence of diabetes and risk factors and situation of disease management in floating population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kaiyi; Yao, Jingjing; Yin, Xiao; Zhao, Mei; Sun, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    To give a comprehensive and basic understanding of diabetes and its risk factors in floating people in China. We use "(diabetes or type 2 diabetes or chronic disease) and (floating population or employed floating population)" as the key words to search in the China academic literature database (CNKI), Wan Fang database, PubMed and Web of Science for relevant literature and extract the data about the prevalence of diabetes, relevant risk factors and disease management of the floating population in China. Twenty-one literatures are entered into analysis finally, one is English and the rest are Chinese. According to the national survey, the prevalence rate of diabetes in floating population in China was 5. 1% (95%CI, 4.9% - 5.3%), which is lower than that of the general population(11.6%,95%CI, 11.3%-11.8%),and is consistent with the results of the local surveys. The comparison result between the prevalence of floating population and that of local population in each region differs in local surveys. In addition, the prevalence of male floating population is lower than that of the female population. Finally, as the age of the population rises, so does the prevalence of diabetes. As for the risk factors of chronical diseases, the overweight rate in every region is similar but the obesity rate differs in different regions (Ningxia,26.0%;Xiangshan,14.0%), and the obesity rate of the floating population is less than half of that of the general people(4.7%,11.9%). The awareness rate, treatment rate and control rate in the floating patients differ in the regional researches, but they all can't meet the goals set by the local health departments. Compared with the general population, the prevalence of diabetes in the floating population are lower. However, Considering the growing population number and the poor disease management of the floating patients, the potential threat brought by the diabetes in floating population is imponderable. The government should establish the

  16. Avian reservoirs and zoonotic potential of the emerging human pathogen Helicobacter canadensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldenström, J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Ottvall, R.

    2003-01-01

    testing; four strains were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The results clearly identified the bird isolates as Helicobacter canadensis, recently described as an emerging human pathogen. This is the first report of an animal reservoir for this organism and of its presence in Europe...... and confirms the zoonotic potential of H. canadensis....

  17. Neglected zoonotic helminths: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C A

    2015-05-01

    The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Divisão de trabalho em colônias da vespa social neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Division of labor in colonies of the neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana de Oliveira Torres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas 100 horas de observação usando o método "scanning sample" para a qualificação e quantificação dos atos comportamentais de rainhas e operárias de quinze colônias de Polistes canadensis canadensis. Foi descrito um repertório comportamental com 28 atos, no qual rainhas executam 19 atos na colônia, enquanto operárias 26, ocorrendo 17 atos em comum entre as duas castas. Dentre esses atos, dois foram exclusivos do repertório de rainhas e nove de operárias. O resultado do teste do qui-quadrado apontou diferenças significativas entre os repertórios das duas castas, sendo que rainhas permanecem mais tempo no ninho e executam com maior freqüência atividades intra-nidais, ligadas à reprodução, enquanto que as operárias executam mais freqüentemente atividades relacionadas à manutenção das colônias, como a atividade de forrageamento que demanda um maior risco e alto custo energético.Using "scanning sample" methods for qualifying and quantifying behavioral acts of queens and workers belonging to fifteen colonies of Polistes canadensis canadensis, one hundred hours of observation were performed. A behavioral repertoire with twenty-eight acts was described, in which queens perform nineteen acts in the colony, while workers perform twenty-six, and seventeen common acts between the two castes occur. Among those acts, two were exclusive to queen's repertoire and nine to worker's. Chi-square test pointed significant differences between the repertoires of the two castes, where the queens remain longer in the nest and perform the intra-nidal tasks, related to the reproduction, while the workers perform more frequently tasks related to the maintenance of the colonies, such as the foraging, which demands higher risks and high energetic costs.

  19. Sanguinaria canadensis: Traditional Medicine, Phytochemical Composition, Biological Activities and Current Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Croaker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sanguinaria canadensis, also known as bloodroot, is a traditional medicine used by Native Americans to treat a diverse range of clinical conditions. The plants rhizome contains several alkaloids that individually target multiple molecular processes. These bioactive compounds, mechanistically correlate with the plant’s history of ethnobotanical use. Despite their identification over 50 years ago, the alkaloids of S. canadensis have not been developed into successful therapeutic agents. Instead, they have been associated with clinical toxicities ranging from mouthwash induced leukoplakia to cancer salve necrosis and treatment failure. This review explores the historical use of S. canadensis, the molecular actions of the benzophenanthridine and protopin alkaloids it contains, and explores natural alkaloid variation as a possible rationale for the inconsistent efficacy and toxicities encountered by S. canadensis therapies. Current veterinary and medicinal uses of the plant are studied with an assessment of obstacles to the pharmaceutical development of S. canadensis alkaloid based therapeutics.

  20. Sanguinaria canadensis: Traditional Medicine, Phytochemical Composition, Biological Activities and Current Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croaker, Andrew; King, Graham J; Pyne, John H; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra; Liu, Lei

    2016-08-27

    Sanguinaria canadensis, also known as bloodroot, is a traditional medicine used by Native Americans to treat a diverse range of clinical conditions. The plants rhizome contains several alkaloids that individually target multiple molecular processes. These bioactive compounds, mechanistically correlate with the plant's history of ethnobotanical use. Despite their identification over 50 years ago, the alkaloids of S. canadensis have not been developed into successful therapeutic agents. Instead, they have been associated with clinical toxicities ranging from mouthwash induced leukoplakia to cancer salve necrosis and treatment failure. This review explores the historical use of S. canadensis, the molecular actions of the benzophenanthridine and protopin alkaloids it contains, and explores natural alkaloid variation as a possible rationale for the inconsistent efficacy and toxicities encountered by S. canadensis therapies. Current veterinary and medicinal uses of the plant are studied with an assessment of obstacles to the pharmaceutical development of S. canadensis alkaloid based therapeutics.

  1. Situated Transgressiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Sullivan, Katie Rose; Rich, Craig

    2016-01-01

    conversations within queer theory, transgender and organization studies by highlighting how situated contexts mediate the political potential of queer bodies at work. By developing the concept ‘situated transgressiveness’, this article challenges notions of transgender as a stable, ideal disruptive category...

  2. AGRICULTURE AND THE SOCIALECONOMIC SITUATION OF THE RURAL POPULATION IN GEORGIA: A CASE STUDY FOCUSING ON THE KAKHETI-REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris FORKEL

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Like in many other transition countries, agriculture in Georgia is usually termed as subsistence farming. Lack of employment opportunities and insufficient household income make rural people dependent on state-funded pensionschemes and agricultural production. Similarly, the income-disparity between rural households is also noticed remarkably, while citizens of smaller towns possess, on average, higher income. The study presented in this report is intended to explore the situation of rural households concerning parcel size, employment opportunities, income sources and income disparities between citizens of villages and small towns, by presenting findings obtained during a field survey conducted during the months of March and May 2008 in the Kakheti region in eastern Georgia.

  3. Survey of Gross and Histopathologic Findings in Two Wintering Subpopulations of Sandhill Cranes (Antigone canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Martha; Bertram, Miranda; Rech, Raquel; Hamer, Gabriel L; Hamer, Sarah A

    2017-10-20

    Sandhill Cranes (Antigone canadensis) of the midcontinent population (MCP) and Rocky Mountain population (RMP) are migratory game birds with stable populations that travel between Canada and the southern USA and Mexico. In the winters of 2012-14, we performed gross and histologic examinations of 43 hunter-harvested Sandhill Cranes in Texas (MCP) and New Mexico (RMP) to assess the impact of disease on populations. Lesions were significantly more common in the MCP relative to the RMP, likely reflecting differential environmental exposure to pathogens and parasites. Grossly, liver nodules and esophageal granulomas were present in 8-39% of birds. In feces from over half of birds, we found coccidian oocysts with mitochondrial gene sequences identical to those of Eimeria gruis and Eimeria reichenowi previously obtained from sympatric Whooping Cranes (Grus americana). Over one-quarter of birds had liver and cardiac lesions suggestive of disseminated visceral coccidiosis. We documented proliferative colitis due to Cryptosporidium in a wild Sandhill Crane. Additionally, several endoparasites were found in histologic sections from several cranes, including a bird with respiratory trematodiasis and two birds with Tetrameres sp. in the proventriculus associated with ductal ectasia. In addition to describing lesions and parasites that impact Sandhill Crane health, these pathology data may also be relevant for the conservation of endangered Whooping Cranes using a surrogate species approach.

  4. Situational Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Süttö, Marián

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is focused on field of leadership, particularly situational leadership model by Hersey and Blanchard. Thesis is mostly theoretical framework aimed to offer the possibility for reader to get overview in leadership issues. Theoretical framework of the thesis is focused on leadership definition, the most important leadership theories in the past, and especially to situational leadership approach. The focus of this thesis is to get detailed insight in this model and therefore offer in...

  5. Minha Casa, Minha Vida Program: Public Policy Social (ExInclusion of the Population In Street Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos do Nascimento Nonato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to reflect the requirements used by the program Minha Casa, Minha Vida to select beneficiaries with housing units have correspondence with socioeconomic vulnerability experienced by people in the streets. We chose methodologically the bibliographical and documentary research, which was fundamental to deepen reflections on the object and the proposed objective. It was concluded that such requirements do not correlate with the degree of misery to that experienced by population segment, which is excluded from this housing public policy, and has subtracted by the Government itself the possibility of exercising the fundamental right to housing.

  6. Observation of sandhill cranes' (Grus canadensis) flight behavior in heavy fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.; Wellik, Mike J.; Suarez, Manuel J.; Diehl, Robert H.; Lutes, Jim; Woyczik, Wendy; Krapfl, Jon; Sojda, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    The behaviors of birds flying in low visibility conditions remain poorly understood. We had the opportunity to monitor Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) flying in heavy fog with very low visibility during a comprehensive landscape use study of refuging cranes in the Horicon Marsh in southeastern Wisconsin. As part of the study, we recorded flight patterns of cranes with a portable marine radar at various locations and times of day, and visually counted cranes as they departed the roost in the morning. We compared flight patterns during a fog event with those recorded during clear conditions. In good visibility, cranes usually departed the night roost shortly after sunrise and flew in relatively straight paths toward foraging areas. In fog, cranes departed the roost later in the day, did not venture far from the roost, engaged in significantly more circling flight, and returned to the roost site rather than proceeding to foraging areas. We also noted that compared to mornings with good visibility, cranes flying in fog called more frequently than usual. The only time in this 2-year study that observers heard young of the year calling was during the fog event. The observed behavior of cranes circling and lingering in an area while flying in poor visibility conditions suggests that such situations may increase chances of colliding with natural or anthropogenic obstacles in the vicinity.

  7. Situating Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    everyday lives and the spaces we inhabit. Where email and the telephone have broken down barriers of geography, the relationship of technology with physical locations in people’s lives strengthens. From Occupy to the London riots and the Arab Spring, situated technologies offer new ways through which we......’ civic engagement activities in those spatial contexts that are at stake in land use planning. This approach enables engagement activities to be better integrated with people’s everyday lived experiences through connecting to the places that are personally meaningful and relevant to them. A ’research...... a plethora of different means for citizens to engage with planning issues within a plethora of different contexts and situations. The dissertation makes contributions of two kinds. Conceptually, it offers a richer understanding of what is implicated in the design of technologies for situated engagement...

  8. Pyloric trichobezoar in a Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottwitz, Jack; Munsterman, Amelia S

    2013-12-01

    An adult female Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) was presented with a 3-wk history of anorexia and lethargy. Initial examination and diagnostics did not provide a diagnosis. The lynx continued to demonstrate vague clinical signs, including anorexia and an abnormal gait. During follow-up immobilizations 2 wk later, a barium gastrointestinal study revealed a pyloric obstruction. Abdominal exploratory surgery was elected, and a gastrotomy and an enterotomy of the proximal duodenum were performed to remove the pyloric obstruction. The obstruction was determined to be a trichobezoar. Fleas, a likely cause of hair ingestion through grooming, were noted during surgical preparation. The lynx made a full recovery from surgery. Reoccurrence of the trichobezoar was prevented after surgery with the use of monthly flea control and three times a week hairball laxative.

  9. Sesquiterpene lactones from Lactuca canadensis and their chemotaxonomic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Klaudia; Szneler, Edward; Kisiel, Wanda

    2013-06-01

    A total of 19 sesquiterpene lactones were isolated from roots of Lactuca canadensis L., of which 10 were reported for the first time from Lactuca species and two were unknown. This is also the first report on the co-occurrence of three pairs of zaluzanin C-type guaianolides, epimeric at C-3, and on the presence of six eudesmanolides, oxygenated at C-1 and C-3, in Lactuca species. The new compounds were characterized as 3-epizaluzanin C-3-O-β-glucopyranoside and 11,13-dehydrolactuside C using 1D and 2D NMR and high resolution mass spectroscopy. The sesquiterpene lactone profile of this species is dominated by zaluzanin C-type guaianolides (9 compounds) and eudesmanolides (8 compounds). The dissimilarity of this profile compared to that of other taxa of the genus is discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Caracterización fármaco-toxicológica de la planta medicinal Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L. R. Bolli Pharmaceutical-toxicological characterization of medicinal plant Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L. R. Bolli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oneyda Clapé Laffita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la monografía consistió en la caracterización fármaco-toxicológica de Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L. R. Bolli, planta tradicional cubana con actividad antiinflamatoria, entre otras. Se presentan aspectos farmacológicos como composición fitoquímica, propiedades atribuidas popularmente y comprobadas científicamente, posología, reacciones adversas, advertencias, interacciones, toxicidad, precauciones y contraindicaciones. Se concluye que con la monografía fármaco-toxicológica de esta planta medicinal, se dispone de una completa información, como documentación indispensable para actualizar las bases de datos nacionales e internacionales al respecto, con vistas a desarrollar nuevos fitofármacos, en especial antiinflamatorios con bajo potencial de efectos adversos.The objective of the monograph was the pharmacological and toxicological characterization of Sambucus nigra subspecies canadensis(L. R. Bolli, a Cuban traditional plant with anti-inflammatory action, among others. Several pharmacological aspects such as phytochemical composition; scientifically tested properties attributed by the population; posology; adverse reactions; warnings; interactions; toxicity; precautions and counterindications were presented. It was concluded that the pharmaceutical and toxicological monograph of this plant provides full information as indispensable documentation to update national and international databases, with a view to developing new pharmaceuticals, particularly anti-inflammatory drugs with low adverse effect potential.

  11. Resistência de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis ao herbicida glyphosate Glyphosate-resistance in Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Moreira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de curvas de dose-resposta, a ocorrência de biótipos resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em populações de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis, bem como propor tratamentos alternativos para esses biótipos. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se três populações de cada espécie: duas com suspeita de resistência ao herbicida glyphosate, coletadas em pomares de laranja localizados em duas regiões diferentes do Estado de São Paulo; e uma suscetível, coletada em área sem histórico de aplicação do herbicida. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Para cada espécie, os tratamentos foram resultado da combinação fatorial entre as três populações e os tratamentos herbicidas (oito doses de glyphosate ou cinco tratamentos alternativos. As doses de glyphosate foram (g e.a. ha¹: 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 e testemunha sem aplicação. Como alternativas de controle, foram testados os seguintes tratamentos (g ha-1: glyphosate + 2,4-D (1.440 + 1.005, glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 2,4, glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 3,6, glyphosate + metribuzin (1.440 + 480 e testemunha sem aplicação. A partir dos resultados, comprovou-se a existência de populações de ambas as espécies com biótipos resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, com diferentes níveis de resistência. Todos os tratamentos herbicidas alternativos controlaram de forma eficiente as três populações de cada espécie.The objective of this research was to evaluate, through dose-response curves, the occurrence of glyphosate-resistant biotypes in populations of Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis; as well as to propose alternative treatments to these biotypes. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, using three populations of each species: two with suspicion of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate, and collected in orange orchards

  12. Pharmacognostic and physicochemical evaluation of homoeopathic drug: Erigeron canadensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Rao Pogaku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Erigeron canadensis L. is an erect annual herb belonging to the family Asteraceae. Aerial parts are used in Homoeopathy for bruises, cough, dysuria, gonorrhea, haemorrhages, haemorrhoids, spermatorrhea, and wounds. Objective: The pharmacognostic and physicochemical studies have been carried out to facilitate the use of correct species and lay down standards of raw drug materials. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies of the leaf and stem of authentic samples of E. canadensis L. have been carried out. Physicochemical parameters of the raw drug include extractive values, ash value, and formulation; besides weight per mL, total solids, and alcohol content, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC and ultraviolet (UV studies are given. Results: Epidermal cells often possess crystals of calcium oxalate. Stomata are anomocytic, anisocytic, and tetracytic types. Trichomes are uniseriate and conical in structure. The mid vein in transection is flat on adaxial and is ribbed toward abaxial, with a secretory cavity beneath the central vascular bundle. Stem in transection is round. The vascular tissue is made of several vascular bundles in a ring. Crystals of calcium oxalate occur in the epidermis, cortex, and pith of stem. In mature stem, secondary xylem is well developed with a reduced phloem. The determined physicochemical data, namely, extractive values, ash values, and preparation of for raw drug and weight per mL, total solids, and alcohol content besides UV and HPTLC profile for finished product are provided. Conclusions: The presented morphoanatomical features along with powder microscopic and organoleptic characters and physicochemical data are diagnostic to establish the standards for ensuring quality and purity of the drug.

  13. Situated communication:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    the power of mainstream images of "indian-ness" through a representation of Kumeyaay culture as living in the present San Diego county area of the U.S.  This case demonstrates the connection between ideology about Native Americans and the online responses which assert Kumeyaay identity as situated...

  14. Deep situationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matejskova, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    as a Slovak national with immigration experi- ence, a nominal outsider to both the country of research, Germany, and its immigrant subjects, the post-Soviet Russian-speaking migrants. Focusing on the production of time-spaces of proximity as a deeply situational process, I stress in particular the un...

  15. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a desert island

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilder, Benjamin T; Betancourt, Julio L; Epps, Clinton W; Crowhurst, Rachel S; Mead, Jim I; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975...

  16. Soil organic nitrogen endows invasive Solidago canadensis with greater advantages in low‐phosphorus conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Hong‐Wei; Yang, Jian‐Xia; Gao, Yan; He, Wei‐Ming; Peters, D. P. C

    2016-01-01

    .... To do so, we conducted two experiments in which invasive Solidago canadensis and native S. decurrens were either subjected to five amino acids or subjected to organic and inorganic N treatments (i.e...

  17. First Report of Protechinostoma mucronisertulatum (Echinostomatidae) in a Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) from Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a new host record for Protechinostoma mucronisertulatum. These small trematode parasites were found in a debilitated, immature, male sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) during Autumn migration from the Canadian prairies. Necropsy examination identified fibrinonecrotizing and ulcerative jejuni...

  18. Use of exposure history to identify patterns of immunity to pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina K Plowright

    Full Text Available Individual host immune responses to infectious agents drive epidemic behavior and are therefore central to understanding and controlling infectious diseases. However, important features of individual immune responses, such as the strength and longevity of immunity, can be challenging to characterize, particularly if they cannot be replicated or controlled in captive environments. Our research on bighorn sheep pneumonia elucidates how individual bighorn sheep respond to infection with pneumonia pathogens by examining the relationship between exposure history and survival in situ. Pneumonia is a poorly understood disease that has impeded the recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis following their widespread extirpation in the 1900s. We analyzed the effects of pneumonia-exposure history on survival of 388 radio-collared adults and 753 ewe-lamb pairs. Results from Cox proportional hazards models suggested that surviving ewes develop protective immunity after exposure, but previous exposure in ewes does not protect their lambs during pneumonia outbreaks. Paradoxically, multiple exposures of ewes to pneumonia were associated with diminished survival of their offspring during pneumonia outbreaks. Although there was support for waning and boosting immunity in ewes, models with consistent immunizing exposure were similarly supported. Translocated animals that had not previously been exposed were more likely to die of pneumonia than residents. These results suggest that pneumonia in bighorn sheep can lead to aging populations of immune adults with limited recruitment. Recovery is unlikely to be enhanced by translocating naïve healthy animals into or near populations infected with pneumonia pathogens.

  19. Use of exposure history to identify patterns of immunity to pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowright, Raina K.; Manlove, Kezia; Cassirer, E. Frances; Besser, Thomas H.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Individual host immune responses to infectious agents drive epidemic behavior and are therefore central to understanding and controlling infectious diseases. However, important features of individual immune responses, such as the strength and longevity of immunity, can be challenging to characterize, particularly if they cannot be replicated or controlled in captive environments. Our research on bighorn sheep pneumonia elucidates how individual bighorn sheep respond to infection with pneumonia pathogens by examining the relationship between exposure history and survival in situ. Pneumonia is a poorly understood disease that has impeded the recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) following their widespread extirpation in the 1900s. We analyzed the effects of pneumonia-exposure history on survival of 388 radio-collared adults and 753 ewe-lamb pairs. Results from Cox proportional hazards models suggested that surviving ewes develop protective immunity after exposure, but previous exposure in ewes does not protect their lambs during pneumonia outbreaks. Paradoxically, multiple exposures of ewes to pneumonia were associated with diminished survival of their offspring during pneumonia outbreaks. Although there was support for waning and boosting immunity in ewes, models with consistent immunizing exposure were similarly supported. Translocated animals that had not previously been exposed were more likely to die of pneumonia than residents. These results suggest that pneumonia in bighorn sheep can lead to aging populations of immune adults with limited recruitment. Recovery is unlikely to be enhanced by translocating nai¨ve healthy animals into or near populations infected with pneumonia pathogens.

  20. Situation Songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolar-Borsky, Agnes; Holck, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the various therapeutic intentions behind the use of one particular improvisation method applied in pediatric music therapy, called the situation song (from the German term “Situationslied”- Plahl & Koch-Temming, 2008, p. 180). According to Plahl & Koch...... the therapeutic relationship; to enhance experience and development in the fields of emotion, behavior, expression and social skills; to express messages in language and to give structure to the child. The overall aim behind the use of situation songs is to offer essential experiences to the child in order...... to support his or her development. This study attempts to give an impulse to more international exchange of clinical terms applied in music therapy. The study was submitted as the first author’s master thesis in Music Therapy at the Aalborg University in Denmark. The second author supervised the process...

  1. [The health situation of the non-institutionalized elderly urban population of Castro Uridiales and the differentiating characteristics of those attending the health center frequently].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Lesende, I; Salas Martínez, A M; Fernández Fernández, N; Gómez García, M J; García Rodríguez, A; Esteban Pellón, J; Valle García, N; Arnaiz de las Revillas, J

    1998-06-15

    Main: to describe the health situation of the urban non-institutionalised population of 75 or over in Castro Urdiales. Secondary. To analyse the differences in the over-user group. Descriptive, crossover. Primary Care Health Centre. People in the urban area aged 75 or over and with the following inclusion criteria: not institutionalised, who had been at least 6 months in the town, and for whom there was data for locating them. Over-users: people in the upper third of attendance (9 or more consultations per year). A "Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment" was performed, cognitive state (Pfeiffer) and social assessment. The over-user group functioned better, had a better cognitive state and consumed more medication. The results coincided with other studies in most of the items analysed. It is important to be aware of the worse functional and cognitive condition of the group which attended the Health Centre least. Sub-groups of the elderly still need to be studied.

  2. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a desert island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Benjamin T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Epps, Clinton W.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Mead, Jim I.; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ~500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476–1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ~1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or) human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct.

  3. A test of somatic mosaicism in the androgen receptor gene of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Melanie B; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J

    2015-10-26

    The androgen receptor, an X-linked gene, has been widely studied in human populations because it contains highly polymorphic trinucleotide repeat motifs that have been associated with a number of adverse human health and behavioral effects. A previous study on the androgen receptor gene in carnivores reported somatic mosaicism in the tissues of a number of species including Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx). We investigated this claim in a closely related species, Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis). The presence of somatic mosaicism in lynx tissues could have implications for the future study of exonic trinucleotide repeats in landscape genomic studies, in which the accurate reporting of genotypes would be highly problematic. To determine whether mosaicism occurs in Canada lynx, two lynx individuals were sampled for a variety of tissue types (lynx 1) and tissue locations (lynx 1 and 2), and 1,672 individuals of known sex were genotyped to further rule out mosaicism. We found no evidence of mosaicism in tissues from the two necropsied individuals, or any of our genotyped samples. Our results indicate that mosaicism does not manifest in Canada lynx. Therefore, the use of hide samples for further work involving trinucleotide repeat polymorphisms in Canada lynx is warranted.

  4. Role of carriers in the transmission of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Raghavan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of livestock contact, recurring lamb mortality in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis populations previously exposed to pneumonia indicates the likely presence of carriers of pneumonia-causing pathogens, and possibly inadequate maternally derived immunity. To investigate this problem we commingled naïve, pregnant ewes (n=3 with previously exposed rams (n=2. Post-commingling, all ewes and lambs born to them acquired pneumonia-causing pathogens (leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, with subsequent lamb mortality between 4-9 weeks of age. Infected ewes became carriers for two subsequent years and lambs born to them succumbed to pneumonia. In another experiment, we attempted to suppress the carriage of leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae by administering an antibiotic to carrier ewes, and evaluated lamb survival. Lambs born to both treatment and control ewes (n=4 each acquired pneumonia and died. Antibody titers against leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae in all eight ewes were ‘protective’ (>1:800 and no apparent respiratory disease; however their lambs were either born with comparatively low titers, or with high (but non-protective titers that declined rapidly within 2-8 weeks of age, rendering them susceptible to fatal disease. Thus, exposure to pneumonia-causing pathogens from carrier ewes, and inadequate titers of maternally derived protective antibodies, are likely to render bighorn lambs susceptible to fatal pneumonia.

  5. Bilateral uric acid nephrolithiasis and ureteral hypertrophy in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Robert A.; Bildfell, Rob; Henny, Charles J.; Buhler, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first case of uric acid nephrolithiasis in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis). A 7 yr old male river otter collected from the Skagit River of western Washington (USA) had bilateral nephrolithiasis and severely enlarged ureters (one of 305 examined [0.33%]). The uroliths were 97% uric acid and 3% protein. Microscopic changes in the kidney were confined to expansion of renal calyces, minor loss of medullary tissue, and multifocal atrophy of the cortical tubules. No inflammation was observed in either kidney or the ureters. The ureters were enlarged due to marked hypertrophy of smooth muscle plus dilation of the lumen. Fusion of the major calyces into a single ureteral lumen was several cm distal to that of two adult male otters used as histopathologic control specimens. This case report is part of a large contaminant study of river otters collected from Oregon and Washington. It is important to understand diseases and lesions of the otter as part of our overall evaluation of this population.

  6. Where and How Wolves (Canis lupus) Kill Beavers (Castor canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Thomas D; Windels, Steve K; Bruggink, John G; Homkes, Austin T

    2016-01-01

    Beavers (Castor canadensis) can be a significant prey item for wolves (Canis lupus) in boreal ecosystems due to their abundance and vulnerability on land. How wolves hunt beavers in these systems is largely unknown, however, because observing predation is challenging. We inferred how wolves hunt beavers by identifying kill sites using clusters of locations from GPS-collared wolves in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. We identified 22 sites where wolves from 4 different packs killed beavers. We classified these kill sites into 8 categories based on the beaver-habitat type near which each kill occurred. Seasonal variation existed in types of kill sites as 7 of 12 (58%) kills in the spring occurred at sites below dams and on shorelines, and 8 of 10 (80%) kills in the fall occurred near feeding trails and canals. From these kill sites we deduced that the typical hunting strategy has 3 components: 1) waiting near areas of high beaver use (e.g., feeding trails) until a beaver comes near shore or ashore, 2) using vegetation, the dam, or other habitat features for concealment, and 3) immediately attacking the beaver, or ambushing the beaver by cutting off access to water. By identifying kill sites and inferring hunting behavior we have provided the most complete description available of how and where wolves hunt and kill beavers.

  7. Where and How Wolves (Canis lupus Kill Beavers (Castor canadensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D Gable

    Full Text Available Beavers (Castor canadensis can be a significant prey item for wolves (Canis lupus in boreal ecosystems due to their abundance and vulnerability on land. How wolves hunt beavers in these systems is largely unknown, however, because observing predation is challenging. We inferred how wolves hunt beavers by identifying kill sites using clusters of locations from GPS-collared wolves in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. We identified 22 sites where wolves from 4 different packs killed beavers. We classified these kill sites into 8 categories based on the beaver-habitat type near which each kill occurred. Seasonal variation existed in types of kill sites as 7 of 12 (58% kills in the spring occurred at sites below dams and on shorelines, and 8 of 10 (80% kills in the fall occurred near feeding trails and canals. From these kill sites we deduced that the typical hunting strategy has 3 components: 1 waiting near areas of high beaver use (e.g., feeding trails until a beaver comes near shore or ashore, 2 using vegetation, the dam, or other habitat features for concealment, and 3 immediately attacking the beaver, or ambushing the beaver by cutting off access to water. By identifying kill sites and inferring hunting behavior we have provided the most complete description available of how and where wolves hunt and kill beavers.

  8. Nuclei of Tsuga canadensis: Role of Flavanols in Chromatin Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Treutter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Needle primordia of Tsuga canadensis (hemlock arising from flank meristems of a shoot apex, form cell lineages consisting of four or eight cells. Within a recently established lineage there is striking uniformity in the pattern of nuclear flavanols. This fact points to an identical transcriptional expression of these flavanols during cell cycling. However two lineages, even if located close together within the same meristem, can be very different in the expression of both cell shape and nuclear flavanol pattern, indicating that epigenetic positional signals are operating in a collective specification of cell lineage development. There is a wide range of nuclear flavanol patterning from a mosaic-like distribution in an activated cell type to a homogenous appearance in silenced cell types. Single cells deriving from lineages are desynchronized because they underlie a signaling network at a higher tissue level which results in stronger epigenetic modifications of their nuclear flavanols. As an extreme case of epigenetic modulation, transient drought conditions caused a drastic reduction of nuclear flavanols. Upon treatment with sucrose or cytokinin, these nuclear flavanols could be fully restored. Analytical determination of the flavanols revealed 3.4 mg/g DW for newly sprouting needles and 19.6 mg/g DW for anthers during meiosis. The roughly 6-fold difference in flavanols is apparently a reflection of the highly diverging organogenetic processes. Collectively, the studies provide strong evidence for combinatorial interplay between cell fate and nuclear flavanols.

  9. Nuclei of Tsuga canadensis: Role of Flavanols in Chromatin Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, Walter; Schmid, Markus; Treutter, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Needle primordia of Tsuga canadensis (hemlock) arising from flank meristems of a shoot apex, form cell lineages consisting of four or eight cells. Within a recently established lineage there is striking uniformity in the pattern of nuclear flavanols. This fact points to an identical transcriptional expression of these flavanols during cell cycling. However two lineages, even if located close together within the same meristem, can be very different in the expression of both cell shape and nuclear flavanol pattern, indicating that epigenetic positional signals are operating in a collective specification of cell lineage development. There is a wide range of nuclear flavanol patterning from a mosaic-like distribution in an activated cell type to a homogenous appearance in silenced cell types. Single cells deriving from lineages are desynchronized because they underlie a signaling network at a higher tissue level which results in stronger epigenetic modifications of their nuclear flavanols. As an extreme case of epigenetic modulation, transient drought conditions caused a drastic reduction of nuclear flavanols. Upon treatment with sucrose or cytokinin, these nuclear flavanols could be fully restored. Analytical determination of the flavanols revealed 3.4 mg/g DW for newly sprouting needles and 19.6 mg/g DW for anthers during meiosis. The roughly 6-fold difference in flavanols is apparently a reflection of the highly diverging organogenetic processes. Collectively, the studies provide strong evidence for combinatorial interplay between cell fate and nuclear flavanols. PMID:22072922

  10. Capture myopathy in an endangered sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Thomas, N.J.; Reeves, S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite precautions to protect cranes, a 3-year-old endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) was found caught in a leghold trap in Gautier, Mississippi, on 11 November 1987. The bird could have been in the trap for up to 16 hr and was standing and struggling to escape when it was discovered. Serum chemistries of the crane on 12 November revealed elevated lactic dehydrogenase (2,880 IU/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (152 IU/L), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (>1,000 IU/L) values. Following surgical amputation of a fractured toe, the bird never attempted to stand and was unable to stand even when manually supported. Radiographic and physical examination of both legs did not reveal any anatomical abnormalities. Despite medical care, including supportive therapy, no improvement was observed in the bird's ability to stand and to support itself, and the bird died on 19 November. Serum chemistries and the postmortem and histopathologic findings were compatible with capture myopathy described in other species. Because of the possible susceptibility of long-legged birds such as the Mississippi sandhill crane to capture myopathy, special care must be taken when trapping, handling, chemically immobilizing, and transporting these species. In addition, precautions must be taken when conducting a predator-control program to ensure that nontarget wildlife are unlikely to encounter traps. Capture myopathy has only rarely been observed in wild birds, and this case represents the first report in a Mississippi sandhill crane.

  11. Some aspects of geophagia in Wyoming bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. J. Mincher; J. Mionczynski; P. A. Hnilicka; D. R. Ball; T. P. Houghton

    2008-05-01

    Geophagia has been commonly reported for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and other ungulates worldwide. The phenomenon is often attributed to the need to supplement animal diets with minerals available in the soil at mineral lick locations. Sodium is the mineral most frequently cited as being the specific component sought, although this has not been found universally. In this study area, bighorn sheep left normal summer range to make bimonthly 26-km, 2000-m elevation round-trip migrations, the apparent purpose of which was to visit mineral licks on normal winter-range. Lick soil and normal summer range soil were sampled for their available mineral content, and summer range forage was sampled for total mineral content and comparisons were made to determine the specific components sought at the lick by bighorn sheep consuming soil. It was concluded that bighorn sheep were attracted to the lick by a desire for sodium, but that geophagia also supplemented a diet deficient in the trace element selenium.

  12. Testing for Aleutian mink disease virus in the river otter (Lontra canadensis) in sympatry with infected American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Jeff; Kidd, Anne G; Nituch, Larissa A; Sadowski, Carrie; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2014-07-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) occurs in the American mink (Neovison vison) in wild populations and on mink farms and can cause illness and death. The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) may be exposed to AMDV because of shared space and habitat with mink. Using serology and real-time PCR, we tested river otters across Ontario for AMDV infection. We found no evidence of infection in otters, a surprising finding given the sympatric distribution, niche overlap, and close phylogenetic relationship of the river otter and the American mink. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the major point of spillover of AMDV between mink farms and wildlife is manure and composting carcasses on mink farms. Mink farms in Ontario are generally in agricultural landscapes; it is unlikely that river otter use these habitats and thus are likely not exposed to AMDV. We found no evidence that AMD is an important disease for the river otters in Ontario.

  13. Canada lynx Lynx canadensis habitat and forest succession in northern Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, C.L.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.; Jakubas, W.J.; McCollough, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The contiguous United States population of Canada lynx Lynx canadensis was listed as threatened in 2000. The long-term viability of lynx populations at the southern edge of their geographic range has been hypothesized to be dependent on old growth forests; however, lynx are a specialist predator on snowshoe hare Lepus americanus, a species associated with early-successional forests. To quantify the effects of succession and forest management on landscape-scale (100 km2) patterns of habitat occupancy by lynx, we compared landscape attributes in northern Maine, USA, where lynx had been detected on snow track surveys to landscape attributes where surveys had been conducted, but lynx tracks had not been detected. Models were constructed a priori and compared using logistic regression and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), which quantitatively balances data fit and parsimony. In the models with the lowest (i.e. best) AIC, lynx were more likely to occur in landscapes with much regenerating forest, and less likely to occur in landscapes with much recent clearcut, partial harvest and forested wetland. Lynx were not associated positively or negatively with mature coniferous forest. A probabilistic map of the model indicated a patchy distribution of lynx habitat in northern Maine. According to an additional survey of the study area for lynx tracks during the winter of 2003, the model correctly classified 63.5% of the lynx occurrences and absences. Lynx were more closely associated with young forests than mature forests; however, old-growth forests were functionally absent from the landscape. Lynx habitat could be reduced in northern Maine, given recent trends in forest management practices. Harvest strategies have shifted from clearcutting to partial harvesting. If this trend continues, future landscapes will shift away from extensive regenerating forests and toward landscapes dominated by pole-sized and larger stands. Because Maine presently supports the only verified

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi facilitate the invasion of Solidago canadensis L. in southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruyi; Zhou, Gang; Zan, Shuting; Guo, Fuyu; Su, Nannan; Li, Jing

    2014-11-01

    The significance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the process of plant invasion is still poorly understood. We hypothesize that invasive plants would change local AMF community structure in a way that would benefit themselves but confer less advantages to native plants, thus influencing the extent of plant interactions. An AMF spore community composed of five morphospecies of Glomus with equal density (initial AMF spore community, I-AMF) was constructed to test this hypothesis. The results showed that the invasive species, Solidago canadensis, significantly increased the relative abundance of G. geosperum and G. etunicatum (altered AMF spore community, A-AMF) compared to G. mosseae, which was a dominant morphospecies in the monoculture of native Kummerowia striata. The shift in AMF spore community composition driven by S. canadensis generated functional variation between I-AMF and A-AMF communities. For example, I-AMF increased biomass and nutrient uptake of K. striata in both monocultures and mixtures of K. striata and S. canadensis compared to A-AMF. In contrast, A-AMF significantly enhanced root nitrogen (N) acquisition of S. canadensis grown in mixture. Moreover, mycorrhizal-mediated 15N uptake provided direct evidence that I-AMF and A-AMF differed in their affinities with native and invading species. The non-significant effect of A-AMF on K. striata did not result from allelopathy as root exudates of S. canadensis exhibited positive effects on seed germination and biomass of K. striata under naturally occurring concentrations. When considered together, we found that A-AMF facilitated the invasion of S. canadensis through decreasing competitiveness of the native plant K. striata. The results supported our hypothesis and can be used to improve our understanding of an ecosystem-based perspective towards exotic plant invasion.

  15. The General Situation and Characteristics of Global Population on the Physical Inactivity%全球人口体力活动不足的概况及特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔玉成; 王卫军

    2015-01-01

    Objective :To understand the current worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity and its characteristics ,and provide a reference to relevant departments on the development of pre‐vention and control strategies .Methods :Collecting research reports about physical inactivity published in international journals by WHO in the past 20 years ,this paper horizontally com‐pares the epidemic situation of physical inactivity of different countries and regions ,longitudi‐nally compares the trends of different countries and regions ,and reveals the global situations and characteristics of physical inactivity .Results :Overall incidence rate of physical inactivity for people elder than 15 years old is about 31 .1% globally ,higher in women than men ,higher for adolescents and children than elderly population ,and it is correlated with demographic char‐acteristics such as occupation ,education level ,race/ethnicity ,marital status ,and socioeconomic status .The rate is higher for developed countries than developing countries ,urban than rural areas ,and especially for larger cities in fast‐growing developing countries .Although occupa‐tional ,communication ,and household physical activity are in decline ,they are still a major con‐tributor to the level of physical activity ,and lack of leisure‐time physical activity is the bottle‐neck for improvement of overall physical activity level .Conclusion :Physical inactivity has been prevalent in the world ,and becomes a growing threat to the health of global population .Taking relevant action to slow down and stop it has become a global public health priority .%目的:了解目前全球人口体力活动不足的概况及特征。方法:收集近20年来发表在国内、外期刊和WHO发布的有关体力活动不足的研究报告,横向比较不同国家和地区人口体力活动不足的流行现状,纵向比较不同国家和地区人口体力活动不足的流行趋势,揭示全球体力活动不

  16. September 2016 Survey of the Rocky Mountain Population of Greater Sandhill Cranes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Greater sandhill cranes (Antigone canadensis tabida) of the Rocky Mountain Population (RMP) were counted at fall premigration staging areas in Colorado, Idaho,...

  17. Multiple crossings of a large glacial river by Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Feierabend; K. Kielland

    2014-01-01

    Rivers may act as barriers to the movement of terrestrial mammals, which could limit dispersal and gene flow. Glacial rivers are particularly hazardous because of the cold water temperature and swift current. Yet, we determined that 2 Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis) equipped with GPS collars repeatedly swam across the main channel of the Tanana River in interior Alaska...

  18. Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr, mortality will impact hydrologic processes in southern Appalachian forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelcy R. Ford; James M. Vose

    2007-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) is one of the principal riparian and cove canopy species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Throughout its range, eastern hemlock is facing potential widespread mortality from the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA). If HWA-induced eastern hemlock mortality alters hydrologic function, land managers...

  19. Nesting biology of Lesser Canada Geese, Branta canadensis parvipes, along the Tanana River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig R. Ely; John M. Pearce; Roger W. Ruess

    2008-01-01

    Lesser Canada Geese (Brania canadensis parvipes) are widespread throughout interior regions of Alaska and Canada, yet there have been no published studies documenting basic aspects of their nesting biology. We conducted a study to determine reproductive parameters of Lesser Canada Geese nesting along the Tanana River near the city of Fairbanks, in...

  20. Effects of metal lead on growth and mycorrhizae of an invasive plant species (Solidago canadensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruyi; Yu, Guodong; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2008-01-01

    It is less known whether and how soil metal lead (Pb) impacts the invasion of exotic plants. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to estimate the effects of lead on the growth and mycorrhizae of an invasive species (Solidago canadensis L.) in a microcosm system. Each microcosm unit was separated into HOST and TEST compartments by a replaceable mesh screen that allowed arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal hyphae rather than plant roots to grow into the TEST compartments. Three Pb levels (control, 300, and 600 mg/kg soil) were used in this study to simulate ambient soil and two pollution sites where S. canadensis grows. Mycorrhizal inoculum comprised five indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species (Glomus mosseae, Glomus versiform, Glomus diaphanum, Glomus geosporum, and Glomus etunicatum). The 15N isotope tracer was used to quantify the mycorrhizally mediated nitrogen acquisition of plants. The results showed that S. canadensis was highly dependent on mycorrhizae. The Pb additions significantly decreased biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization (root length colonized, RLC%) but did not affect spore numbers, N (including total N and 15N) and P uptake. The facilitating efficiency of mycorrhizae on nutrient acquisition was promoted by Pb treatments. The Pb was mostly sequestered in belowground of plant (root and rhizome). The results suggest that the high efficiency of mycorrhizae on nutrient uptake might give S. canadensis a great advantage over native species in Pb polluted soils.

  1. Incidence of mink, Mustela vison, and river otter, Lutra canadensis, in a highly urbanized area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2003-01-01

    Mink (Musela vison ) frequently inhabited or traversed a residential, business, and industrial part of the Twin Cities, Minnesota, with little water or natural vegetation. At least one River Otter (Lutra canadensis ) also resided on a small pond on a golf course in the area for several winter months.

  2. Effect of social mobility in family financial situation and housing tenure on mental health conditions among South Australian adults: results from a population health surveillance system, 2009 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Grande, Eleonora; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Wu, Jing; Shi, Zumin; Goldney, Robert D; Taylor, Anne W

    2015-07-17

    To assess the association of socioeconomic position (SEP), measured by family financial situation and housing tenure in childhood and adulthood, with mental health conditions in adulthood. Representative cross-sectional population data were collected using a risk factor surveillance system in South Australia, Australia. Each month, a random sample were selected from the Electronic White Pages. Participants aged 25 years and above (n = 10429) were asked about doctor diagnosed anxiety, stress or depression, suicidal ideation, psychological distress, demographic and socioeconomic factors using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). Social mobility measures were derived from housing status and perceived financial situation during adulthood and at 10 years of age. The prevalence of psychological distress was 8.1 %, current diagnosed mental health condition was 14.8 % and suicidal ideation was 4.3 %. Upward mobility in family financial situation and housing tenure was experienced by 28.6 % and 19.3 %, of respondents respectively. Downward mobility was experienced by 9.4 % for housing tenure and 11.3 % for family financial situation. In the multivariable analysis, after adjusting for age, sex, childhood family structure and adult education, downward social mobility and stable low SEP (both childhood and adulthood), in terms of both housing tenure and financial situation, were positively associated with all three mental health conditions. People with low SEP in adulthood had poor mental health outcomes regardless of their socioeconomic circumstances in childhood. Policies to improve SEP have the potential to reduce mental health conditions in the population.

  3. Evolutionary analysis of a key floral trait in aquilegia canadensis (ranunculaceae): genetic variation in herkogamy and its effect on the mating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Christopher R; Eckert, Christopher G

    2007-07-01

    The mating system of flowering plant populations evolves through selection on genetically based phenotypic variation in floral traits. The physical separation of anthers and stigmas within flowers (herkogamy) is expected to be an important target of selection to limit self-fertilization. We investigated the pattern of phenotypic and genetic variation in herkogamy and its effect of self-fertilization in a broad sample of natural populations of Aquilegia canadensis, a species that is highly selfing despite strong inbreeding depression. Within natural populations, plants exhibit substantial phenotypic variation in herkogamy caused primarily by variation in pistil length rather than stamen length. Compared to other floral traits, herkogamy is much more variable and a greater proportion of variation is distributed among rather than within individuals. We tested for a genetic component of this marked phenotypic variation by growing naturally pollinated seed families from five populations in a common greenhouse environment. For three populations, we detected a significant variation in herkogamy among families, and a positive regression between parental herkogamy measured in the field and progeny herkogamy in the greenhouse, suggesting that there is often genetic variation in herkogamy within natural populations. We estimated levels of self-fertilization for groups of flowers that differed in herkogamy and show that, as expected, herkogamy was associated with reduced selfing in 13 of 19 populations. In six of these populations, we performed floral emasculations to show that this decrease in selfing is due to decreased autogamy (within-flower selfing), the mode of selfing that herkogamy should most directly influence. Taken together, these results suggest that increased herkogamy should be selected to reduce the production of low-quality selfed seed. The combination of high selfing and substantial genetic variation for herkogamy in A. canadensis is enigmatic, and

  4. The IRSN 2006 barometer. The opinion on risks and security of the French population. Global results; Barometre IRSN 2006. La perception des situations a risques par les Francais. Resultats d'ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This report presents and comments the results of a survey during which a sample of the French population has been questioned on their current concerns (about the society, about the environment, about their opinion on industrial risks, on scientific expertise, on who should control a risky installation), the opinion on 28 risk situations (risks to which French people feel exposed, confidence in authorities, truth of information on hazards, hierarchy of the 28 situations, acceptability of installations), the opinion on the nuclear activity and industry (the nuclear risk, the credibility and expertise of interveners, and the issue of radioactive wastes and public debate)

  5. Disease and predation: Sorting out causes of a bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua B.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating survival and documenting causes and timing of mortality events in neonate bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) improves understanding of population ecology and factors influencing recruitment. During 2010–2012, we captured and radiocollared 74 neonates in the Black Hills, South Dakota, of which 95% (70) died before 52 weeks of age. Pneumonia (36%) was the leading cause of mortality followed by predation (30%). We used known fate analysis in Program MARK to estimate weekly survival rates and investigate the influence of intrinsic variables on 52-week survival. Model {S1 wk, 2–8 wks, >8 wks} had the lowest AICc (Akaike’s Information Criterion corrected for small sample size) value, indicating that age (3-stage age-interval: 1 week, 2–8 weeks, and >8 weeks) best explained survival. Weekly survival estimates for 1 week, 2–8 weeks, and >8 weeks were 0.81 (95% CI = 0.70–0.88), 0.86 (95% CI = 0.81–0.90), and 0.94 (95% CI = 0.91–0.96), respectively. Overall probability of surviving 52 weeks was 0.02 (95% CI = 0.01–0.07). Of 70 documented mortalities, 21% occurred during the first week, 55% during weeks 2–8, and 23% occurred >8 weeks of age. We found pneumonia and predation were temporally heterogeneous with lambs most susceptible to predation during the first 2–3 weeks of life, while the greatest risk from pneumonia occurred from weeks 4–8. Our results indicated pneumonia was the major factor limiting recruitment followed by predation. Mortality from predation may have been partly compensatory to pneumonia and its effects were less pronounced as alternative prey became available. Given the high rates of pneumonia-caused mortality we observed, and the apparent lack of pneumonia-causing pathogens in bighorn populations in the western Black Hills, management activities should be geared towards eliminating contact between diseased and healthy populations.

  6. Landscape location affects genetic variation of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. K. Schwartz; L. S. Mills; Y. Ortega; L. F. Ruggiero; F. W. Allendorf

    2003-01-01

    The effect of a population's location on the landscape on genetic variation has been of interest to population genetics for more than half a century. However, most studies do not consider broadscale biogeography when interpreting genetic data. In this study, we propose an operational definition of a peripheral population, and then explore whether peripheral...

  7. Timing, numbers, and habitat requirements of cackling Canada geese (Branta canadensis minima) staging along the Alaska Peninsula in Fall

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Field studies of fall staging cackling Canada geese (Branta canadensis minima) were conducted along the Alaska Peninsula at Ugashik Bay and Cinder River, Alaska,...

  8. Selection and drift influence genetic differentiation of insular Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) on Newfoundland and Cape Breton Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Melanie B; Bowman, Jeff; Khidas, Kamal; Koen, Erin L; Row, Jeffrey R; Murray, Dennis L; Wilson, Paul J

    2017-05-01

    Island populations have long been important for understanding the dynamics and mechanisms of evolution in natural systems. While genetic drift is often strong on islands due to founder events and population bottlenecks, the strength of selection can also be strong enough to counteract the effects of drift. Here, we used several analyses to identify the roles of genetic drift and selection on genetic differentiation and diversity of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) across eastern Canada, including the islands of Cape Breton and Newfoundland. Specifically, we assessed whether we could identify a genetic component to the observed morphological differentiation that has been reported across insular and mainland lynx. We used a dinucleotide repeat within the promoter region of a functional gene that has been linked to mammalian body size, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We found high genetic differentiation at neutral molecular markers but convergence of allele frequencies at the IGF-1 locus. Thus, we showed that while genetic drift has influenced the observed genetic structure of lynx at neutral molecular markers, natural selection has also played a role in the observed patterns of genetic diversity at the IGF-1 locus of insular lynx.

  9. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis, Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries, and Goats (Capra hircus in Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries and domestic goat (Capra hircus and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  10. Shared bacterial and viral respiratory agents in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), domestic sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra hircus) in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David S.; Weiser, Glen C.; Aune, Keith; Roeder, Brent; Atkinson, Mark; Anderson, Neil; Roffe, Thomas J.; Keating, Kim A.; Chapman, Phillip L.; Kimberling, Cleon; Rhyan, Jack C.; Clarke, P. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  11. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis), Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus) in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David S; Weiser, Glen C; Aune, Keith; Roeder, Brent; Atkinson, Mark; Anderson, Neil; Roffe, Thomas J; Keating, Kim A; Chapman, Phillip L; Kimberling, Cleon; Rhyan, Jack; Clarke, P Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  12. Experiments Are Revealing a Foundation Species: A Case Study of Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M. Ellison

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foundation species are species that create and define particular ecosystems; control in large measure the distribution and abundance of associated flora and fauna; and modulate core ecosystem processes, such as energy flux and biogeochemical cycles. However, whether a particular species plays a foundational role in a system is not simply asserted. Rather, it is a hypothesis to be tested, and such tests are best done with large-scale, long-term manipulative experiments. The utility of such experiments is illustrated through a review of the Harvard Forest Hemlock Removal Experiment (HF-HeRE, a multidecadal, multihectare experiment designed to test the foundational role of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, in eastern North American forests. Experimental removal of T. canadensis has revealed that after 10 years, this species has pronounced, long-term effects on associated flora and fauna, but shorter-term effects on energy flux and nutrient cycles. We hypothesize that on century-long scales, slower changes in soil microbial associates will further alter ecosystem processes in T. canadensis stands. HF-HeRE may indeed continue for >100 years, but at such time scales, episodic disturbances and changes in regional climate and land cover can be expected to interact in novel ways with these forests and their foundation species.

  13. A microanatomical and histological study of the postcranial dermal skeleton of the Devonian actinopterygian Cheirolepis canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Zylberberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Devonian stem-actinoterygian Cheirolepis canadensis is potentially important to understand the evolution of the dermal skeleton of osteichthyans, but the last detailed histological study on this taxon was published more than forty years ago. Here, we present new data about the morphology and the histological structure of scales, fulcra, and fin-rays in the Devonian actinopterygian Cheirolepis canadensis through SEM and photomicroscopy. The scales have a typical palaeoniscoid organisation, with ganoine layers overlaying dentine and a bony basal plate, but the ganoine surface lacks the characteristic microtubercles that have been described on the ganoine surface of the scales of polypterids and many other actinopterygians. Fin-rays are composed of segmented and ramified lepidotrichia that show a structure reminiscent of scales, with ganoine and dentine components lying on a thick bony base. We describe articular processes between lepidotrichia that are reminiscent of, and plausibly homologous with, the peg-and-socket articulations between the scales. The analysis of the postcranial dermal skeleton of Cheirolepis canadensis shows that structural similarities between scales and lepidotrichia of this basal actinopterygian are greater than in more recent actinopterygians. The new data on histological and microanatomical structure of the dermal skeleton lend additional support to the hypothesis that lepidotichia are derivatives of scales, though they are also compatible with the more general hypothesis that scales, lepidotrichia and fulcra belong to the same morphogenetic system.

  14. A complex alloantigen system in Florida sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis pratensis: Evidence for the major histocompatibility (B) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, S.I.; Gee, G.F.; Miller, M.M.; Briles, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    The B blood group system constitutes the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) in birds. The Mhc is a cluster of genes largely devoted to the processing and presentation of antigen. The Mhc is highly polymorphic in many species and, thus, useful in the evaluation of genetic diversity for fitness traits within populations of a variety of animals. Correlations found between particular Mhc haplotypes and resistance to certain diseases emphasize the importance of understanding the functional significance of diversity of the Mhc, particularly in species threatened with extinction. As part of studies focused on genetic diversity in wild birds, serological techniques were used to define a highly polymorphic alloantigen system in seven families of Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis). The results of analyses with antisera produced within the crane families and with chicken Mhc antigen-specific reagents revealed a single major alloantigen system that is likely the Mhc of the Florida sandhill crane. Preliminary experiments indicate that these crane alloantisera will provide a means of defining .the Mhc in other species of cranes.

  15. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C; Rhyan, Jack C; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P; Hennager, Steven G; Pavuk, Alana A; Sprino, Phillip J; Boyle, Stephen M; Berrier, Randall J; Salman, Mo D

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further, work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk.

  16. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental Brucella abortus challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eNol

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosytransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk

  17. The invasion and expansion of three North American species of goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L. sensu lato. S. gigantea Ait. and S. graminifolia (L Salisb in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Guzikowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distributions of three adventive species of North American goldenrods (S. canadensis L. s.l., S. gigantea Ait. and S. graminifolin (L. Salisb. throughout Poland are presented. The history of escape, initial establishent and subsequent spread are documented on the basis of almost 1400 herbarium collections and site records of the authors. Of the three species S. gigantea is the most aggressive S. cunadensis has continued to spread vigorously. but S. graminifolia has barely moved beyond its initial area of establishment. The first two species occur essentially throughout Poland. having expanded from centers in southwestern Poland in the decade between 1840 to 1850. Both of these plants are spreading rapidly and producing vigorous populations which thrive in disturbed and semi-disturbed environments and S. gigantea seems to have now attained the capability of invading stabilized habitats and communities. They are in the process of becoming a serious threat to many natural environments and ecosystems in Poland.

  18. Demographic and Socio-Economic Situation of the Nomadic Population of Chervleny Yar Area in the Middle of the 14th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr P. Nikitin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to identify the probable number of people who could have lived in the Don-Khoper interfluve in the middle of the 14th century. The results of demographic observations are based on natural resources, historical and archaeological realities of the region, special characteristics of nomadic economy. The area between the Don and the Khoper in the middle of the 14th century was an administrative unit of the ulus of Jochi (the Horde. The information about the territorial entity was preserved in the Metropolitan Charters for Sarai and Ryazan eparchies. Thanks to contemporary archaeological studies of this area, the nomadic and sedentary population can be claimed to have existed in that area in the middle of the 14th century. The nomadic territory of Chervleny Yar was bounded by the Don in the West, by Khoper in the East, by the mouth of the Hopper in the South, and by the most northern nomadic burials of that period. The information about natural resources of the steppes can be the basis of the demographic model designed. The data of ethnology, history, archaeology and ecology are used as a basis. The author analyzes the provision of the nomads with food as biological resources of the ecosystem between the Don and the Khoper rivers. To calculate the probable number of the population, the author takes into account the health calorie intake, the average number of livestock per person in nomadic communities, the size of territory under consideration and the availability of forage for livestock. All the data for calculating the number of population are collected in the Table. Possible number of nomadic population of the Chervleny Yar in the middle of the 14th century can make 26,042–69,444 people, on the condition of the minimum possible yield and optimal load on the ecosystem between the Don and the Khoper. The indicated number refers to the group of the population that never left the area between the Don and the Khoper and

  19. The Relationship Between Maternal Awareness, Socioeconomic Situation of Families and Metabolic Control in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Miletus in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheilipour

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is one of the most common chronic pediatric conditions, with potentially life-threatening sequels. However, good metabolic control can protect the patients against sequels. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between awareness of the mothers about this disease on improving diabetic children metabolic control and also, to examine the relationship between socioeconomic situations of families and control of diabetes in this group of patients. Patients and Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive analytic study on 80 diabetic children and their mothers, who were registered in the diabetes association of Iran, for outpatient control of disease. Diabetes knowledge was measured by Michigan diabetes knowledge test and glycemic control was assessed by glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. To assess the socio-economic status of a diabetic child’s family, educational level, occupational and marital status of parents were asked and the socioeconomic status (SES was evaluated with Hollingshed four-factor index of SES. Results Mothers’ mean knowledge score was 17.72, children’s mean HbA1c was 7.77 and mean of SES was 27.89. There was no significant correlation between children’s HbA1c and mother’s SES. Also, there was an inverse linear relationship between mothers’ knowledge score and children’s HbA1c and there was a direct linear relationship between the mothers’ knowledge score and SES. Conclusions Finally, based on the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that the awareness of mothers of T1DM children has a good impact on blood sugar control, whereas the SES of families has no direct effect on blood sugar control. Additionally, SES can indirectly impact on the consciousness of mothers and lead to the reduction of HbA1c.

  20. About Stressful Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... situation for you right now? It can help to write down your thoughts. For example: My family just ... you feel, given your situation. It can help to write down your feelings, too. For example: I feel ...

  1. Agoraphobia: A Situational Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Austin; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Agoraphobia patients answered a questionnaire describing anxiety-producing situations. Home environment was associated with supportive company. Situations requiring patients to venture out alone were most anxiety-producing. The overriding importance of a significant other suggests treatment implications. (JAC)

  2. Researches concerning the situation of reproductive isolation and relatedness with immigrants of Furioso North Star population from Beclean pe Somes stud farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Lapuste

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive isolation is the main criteria for approval of populations. Creates the potential compliance and fulfillment of other criteria: morphological and physiological differentiation, differentiation of the requirements for the environment and the effective size. Thus, the main taxonomic differences are a consequence of reproductive isolation. Biological material used is represented by the entire livestock of the stud farm Beclean pe Someş (transferred in October of 2011 from the Slatina stud farm, belonging to the Furioso-North Star (and not just evidence of it, existing at the time of analysis (30.11.2011. To determine the reproductive isolation status, have used the coefficient of reproductive isolation presented by Drăgănescu (1979. To determine the average relatedness, have used The Numerator Relationship Matrix method, proposed by Henderson and Cunningham in 1971 and presented for the first time in Romania by Grosu in 1997. Results reflect the existence of a population with its own evolutionary way that has not suffered massive and systematic immigration.

  3. Mycotoxin-induced disease in captive whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Carpenter, J.W.; Gee, G.F.; Thomas, N.J.; Dein, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    In 1987, an epizootic in cranes at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA, caused illness in 80% of 300 captive whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and death of 15 of these cranes. Gross pathology findings were inconclusive and consisted of dehydration, atrophy of fat, renal insufficiency, and small spleens. Extensive testing resulted in isolation of Fusarium sp. mold from constituents of the grain-based diet. Low levels of two mycotoxins, T2 (1-2 ppm) and deoxynivalenol (0.4 ppm), were isolated from the pelleted feed.

  4. Environmental and genotypic influences on isoquinoline alkaloid content in Sanguinaria canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmore, A K; Hunter, M D

    2001-09-01

    In a common garden, we investigated genetic and environmental influences on alkaloid production using Sanguinaria canadensis as a model. Nutrient and shade regimes were applied to replicated clones over one growing season, and induction of alkaloid production in bloodroot was tested on a whole-plant basis using jasmonic acid as an elicitor. Alkaloid concentrations increased with decreasing light intensity and fertilizer levels. Induction was not achieved by foliar application of jasmonic acid. Genetic influences represented by clone effects may be indicated by variation in alkaloid concentration by clone, but this experimental design did not allow us to distinguish genetic from pre-experiment environmental influences on the rhizomes.

  5. Hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis delta (HDV) viruses in the Colombian population--how is the epidemiological situation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Mora, Mónica Viviana; Fernandez, María Fernanda Gutierrez; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; de Azevedo Neto, Raymundo Soares; Carrilho, Flair José; Pinho, João Renato Rebello

    2011-04-29

    Viral hepatitis B, C and delta still remain a serious problem worldwide. In Colombia, data from 1980s described that HBV and HDV infection are important causes of hepatitis, but little is known about HCV infection. The aim of this study was to determine the currently frequency of HBV, HCV and HDV in four different Colombian regions. This study was conducted in 697 habitants from 4 Colombian departments: Amazonas, Chocó, Magdalena and San Andres Islands. Epidemiological data were obtained from an interview applied to each individual aiming to evaluate risk factors related to HBV, HCV or HDV infections. All samples were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs and anti-HCV markers. Samples that were positive to HBsAg and/or anti-HBc were tested to anti-HDV. Concerning the geographical origin of the samples, the three HBV markers showed a statistically significant difference: HBsAg (p = 0.033) and anti-HBc (pMagdalena departments. Isolated anti-HBs (a marker of previous vaccination) frequencies were: Chocó (53.26%), Amazonas (32.88%), Magdalena (17.0%) and San Andrés (15.33%)--pMagdalena department. In conclusion, HBV, HCV and HDV infections are detected throughout Colombia in frequency levels that would place some areas as hyperendemic for HBV, especially those found in Amazonas and Magdalena departments. Novel strategies to increase HBV immunization in the rural population and to strengthen HCV surveillance are reinforced by these results.

  6. Hepatitis B (HBV, hepatitis C (HCV and hepatitis delta (HDV viruses in the Colombian population--how is the epidemiological situation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Viviana Alvarado-Mora

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis B, C and delta still remain a serious problem worldwide. In Colombia, data from 1980s described that HBV and HDV infection are important causes of hepatitis, but little is known about HCV infection. The aim of this study was to determine the currently frequency of HBV, HCV and HDV in four different Colombian regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study was conducted in 697 habitants from 4 Colombian departments: Amazonas, Chocó, Magdalena and San Andres Islands. Epidemiological data were obtained from an interview applied to each individual aiming to evaluate risk factors related to HBV, HCV or HDV infections. All samples were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs and anti-HCV markers. Samples that were positive to HBsAg and/or anti-HBc were tested to anti-HDV. Concerning the geographical origin of the samples, the three HBV markers showed a statistically significant difference: HBsAg (p = 0.033 and anti-HBc (p<0.001 were more frequent in Amazonas and Magdalena departments. Isolated anti-HBs (a marker of previous vaccination frequencies were: Chocó (53.26%, Amazonas (32.88%, Magdalena (17.0% and San Andrés (15.33%--p<0.001. Prevalence of anti-HBc increased with age; HBsAg varied from 1.97 to 8.39% (p = 0.033. Amazonas department showed the highest frequency for anti-HCV marker (5.68%, while the lowest frequency was found in San Andrés Island (0.66%. Anti-HDV was found in 9 (5.20% out of 173 anti-HBc and/or HBsAg positive samples, 8 of them from the Amazonas region and 1 from them Magdalena department. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, HBV, HCV and HDV infections are detected throughout Colombia in frequency levels that would place some areas as hyperendemic for HBV, especially those found in Amazonas and Magdalena departments. Novel strategies to increase HBV immunization in the rural population and to strengthen HCV surveillance are reinforced by these results.

  7. Carsharing situation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Erceg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing is becoming very popular in the western world as an effective method to contain rising prices of fuel and vehicles. It was brought about as a possible solution to the changing condition of growing economies and population where there is an increased need for travel but there is also a need for expense economizing. Due to its role in reducing fuel consumption, controlling pollution and traffic congestion, there is an increased usage of carsharing services as an alternative transportation option in big cities. Today, worldwide several different carsharing methods are being used. This paper examines the current situation of carsharing in the world and two initiatives for starting carsharing programs in Croatia. The main goal of this paper is to define what carsharing is, how successful it is in the world and if there is potential for it in Croatia. The most developed carsharing regions in the world are Western Europe and North America. In the last several years Asia, Australia and South America have started carsharing projects and have the biggest growth in members and vehicles. Carsharing is still not recognized in Croatia. There were a few initiatives for starting the program but they failed. In order to determine the possibility and potential of carsharing in Croatia it is necessary to conduct further market research.

  8. Projected Future Distribution of Tsuga canadensis across Alternative Climate Scenarios in Maine, U.S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Dunckel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is having an impact on forest ecosystems around the world and is expected to alter the suitable habitat of individual tree species. Forest managers require resources about potential impacts of climate change at the regional scale to aid in climate mitigation efforts. By understanding the geographic distribution of changes in suitable habitat, migration corridors can be identified for conservation and active management. With the increased availability of climate projection data, ancillary Geographic Information Systems data, and field observations, modeling efforts at the regional scale are now possible. Here, we modeled and mapped the continuous distribution of Tsuga canadensis throughout the state of Maine at the regional scale(30 m with high precision (89% of pixels had a coefficient of variation ≤ 4.0%. The random forest algorithm was used to create a strong prediction of suitable habitat for the years 2050 and 2100 from both high and low emission climate projections. The results clearly suggest a significant gain in suitable habitat for Tsuga canadensis range with a general northwest expansion.

  9. Situational method engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson-Sellers, Brian; Ågerfalk, Pär J; Rossi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    While previously available methodologies for software ? like those published in the early days of object technology ? claimed to be appropriate for every conceivable project, situational method engineering (SME) acknowledges that most projects typically have individual characteristics and situations. Thus, finding the most effective methodology for a particular project needs specific tailoring to that situation. Such a tailored software development methodology needs to take into account all the bits and pieces needed for an organization to develop software, including the software process, the

  10. Cranfield situation awareness scale :

    OpenAIRE

    Dennehy, K.

    1997-01-01

    Training to enhance situation awareness depends upon having satisfactory quantitative methods for measuring situation awareness. Until the development of the Cranfield-SAS, there was no direct subjective rating scale to measure the situation awareness of student (ab initio) civil pilots (see appendix 4 for an overview of the measurement guidelines for an overview of the measurement guidelines for scale development). The development of the scale was part requirement for a Ph.D. at Cranfield Un...

  11. Soil nitrogen accretion along a floodplain terrace chronosequence in northwest Alaska: Influence of the nitrogen-fixing shrub Shepherdia Canadensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Rhoades; Dan Binkley; Hlynur Oskarsson; Robert Stottlemyer

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen enters terrestrial ecosystems through multiple pathways during primary succession. We measured accumulation of total soil nitrogen and changes in inorganic nitrogen (N) pools across a 300-y sequence of river terraces in northwest Alaska and assessed the contribution of the nitrogen-fixing shrub Shepherdia canadensis. Our work compared 5...

  12. Estimating detection probability for Canada lynx Lynx canadensis using snow-track surveys in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Lucretia E. Olson; David L. Turner; Nicholas J. DeCesare; Jay A. Kolbe

    2012-01-01

    We used snow-tracking surveys to determine the probability of detecting Canada lynx Lynx canadensis in known areas of lynx presence in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA during the winters of 2006 and 2007. We used this information to determine the minimum number of survey replicates necessary to infer the presence and absence of lynx in areas of similar lynx...

  13. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from naturally infected Canada goose (Branta canadensis) detected two new atypical strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild birds are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis because they can serve as reservoir hosts, and vectors of zoonotic pathogens including Toxoplasma gondii. Canada goose (Branta canadensis) is the most widespread goose in North America. Little is known concerning T. gondii infection in bo...

  14. Toxoplasmosis in geese and detection of two new atypical Toxoplasma gondii strains from naturally infected Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat infected with T. gondii is considered an important source of infection in humans. Canada goose (Branta canadensis), the most ...

  15. Temporal and spatial variation of terpenoids in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) in relation to feeding by Adelges tsugae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony F. Lagalante; Nyssa Lewis; Michael E. Montgomery; Kathleen S. Shields

    2006-01-01

    The terpenoid content of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) foliage was measured over an annual cycle of development from bud opening, shoot elongation, shoot maturation, to bud-break at the start of the next growing season. The objective was to determine if variation in terpenoid composition is linked with spatial and temporal feeding preferences of...

  16. Species groups occupying different trophic levels respond differently to the invasion of semi-natural vegetation by Solidago canadensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de M.; Kleijn, D.; Jogan, N.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the impact of the invasive plant species Solidago canadensis on the species richness of vascular plants and the abundance, species richness and diversity of butterflies, hoverflies and carabid beetles in herbaceous semi-natural habitats near Ljubljana, Slovenia. The species groups were

  17. Improving germination of red elm (Ulmus rubra), gray alder (Alnus incana), and buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) seeds with gibberellic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenda Morales; Charles Barden; Cheryl Boyer; Jason Griffin; Lillian Fisher; Joni Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Red elm (Ulmus rubra), gray alder (Alnus incana), and buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) are considered important plants for many Native American tribes in the United States. Native Americans use these 3 species for a variety of traditional and medicinal purposes. For example, red elm is still the preferred firewood for the cultural ceremonies of several tribes....

  18. A Situational Maintenance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxhoj, James T.; Thorsteinsson, Uffe; Riis, Jens Ove

    1997-01-01

    An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance.......An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance....

  19. Assessing Operational Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin

    In spite of the high level of automation commonly applied to today’s engineering system, humans’ skill and knowledge still plays a central role in the systems’ daily operation, critical decision making, and accident management. The complexity of the engineered system poses great challenge for human...... operators to perceive and understand the operational situation. The research domain of situation awareness approaches the operational challenges from the human cognition perspective while the presented thesis aims at supporting situation assessment from the system perspective. The thesis has reviewed...... different perspectives on situation awareness in the human factor studies and uses the knowledge reflectively for system representation and analysis. The human cognitive activities during complex plant operation and how they perceive a situation and what kind of knowledge has to be established in the human...

  20. Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Abts, Koenraad; Van Kessel, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Populism is a concept applied to a wide range of political movements and actors across the globe. There is, at the same time, considerable confusion about the attributes and manifestation of populism, as well as its impact on democracy. This contribution identifies the defining elements of the populist ideology and discusses the varieties in which populism manifests itself, for instance as a component of certain party families. We finally discuss various normative interpretations of populism,...

  1. Species associations and habitat influence the range-wide distribution of breeding Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) on Western Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthew E.; Andersen, David E.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2017-01-01

    Inter- and intra-specific interactions are potentially important factors influencing the distribution of populations. Aerial survey data, collected during range-wide breeding population surveys for Eastern Prairie Population (EPP) Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior), 1987–2008, were evaluated to assess factors influencing their nesting distribution. Specifically, associations between nesting Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and EPP Canada Geese were quantified; and changes in the spatial distribution of EPP Canada Geese were identified. Mixed-effects Poisson regression models of EPP Canada Goose nest counts were evaluated within a cross-validation framework. The total count of EPP Canada Goose nests varied moderately among years between 1987 and 2008 with no long-term trend; however, the total count of nesting Lesser Snow Geese generally increased. Three models containing factors related to previous EPP Canada Goose nest density (representing recruitment), distance to Hudson Bay (representing brood-habitat), nesting habitat type, and Lesser Snow Goose nest density (inter-specific associations) were the most accurate, improving prediction accuracy by 45% when compared to intercept-only models. EPP Canada Goose nest density varied by habitat type, was negatively associated with distance to coastal brood-rearing areas, and suggested density-dependent intra-specific effects on recruitment. However, a non-linear relationship between Lesser Snow and EPP Canada Goose nest density suggests that as nesting Lesser Snow Geese increase, EPP Canada Geese locally decline and subsequently the spatial distribution of EPP Canada Geese on western Hudson Bay has changed.

  2. Fatal clostridium septicum myonecrosis in a captive canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izer, Jenelle M; Wilson, Ronald P; Cooper, Timothy K

    2014-09-01

    A 1-yr-old female Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) presented for sudden onset of rapidly progressive bilateral pelvic limb paralysis. The lynx was chemically immobilized to perform a physical examination but expired shortly thereafter. On postmortem radiographs, there were myriad small irregular, round-to-spherical gas densities within the skeletal muscle of the right thigh and epaxial musculature. At gross necropsy, the muscles of the right thigh, right lateral abdominal wall, and epaxial region were emphysematous and necrohemorrhagic, with subcutaneous and muscular crepitant swelling. Multiple skin puncture wounds, consistent with bites, were present over the affected tissues. Clostridium septicum was isolated in pure anaerobic culture from the musculature of the right hind limb. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of acute, severe necrohemorrhagic and gangrenous myositis and cellulitis. Gram stains demonstrated large gram-positive bacilli with subterminal spores. This is the first known documented case of C. septicum myonecrosis in a nondomestic felid.

  3. Antifungal Activity and Composition of Essential Oils of Conyza canadensis Herbs and Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Veres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from herbs and roots of Conyza canadensis (horseweed, collected in Hungary, were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical compositions of the oils were analysed by combination of GC and GC/MS. The major constituent of the oil obtained from the aerial parts of horseweed was limonene (78%, while the main component of root oil was 2Z,8Z-matricaria ester. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were tested on Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes, Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria, reference fungal strains, and fungal strains isolated from patients (Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichophyton, Rhodotorula, and Aspergillus by agar disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. None of the oils showed any activity against the tested bacterial strains, but exhibited moderate-to-strong activity against all fungi with the only exception of A. fumigatus. The highest zone of inhibition was observed in case of Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichophyton interdigitalis

  4. Seasonal variation of biomass and bioactive alkaloid content of goldenseal, Hydrastis canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, James A; Follett, John M; Parmenter, Graeme A; Sansom, Catherine E; Perry, Nigel B; Littler, Ray A

    2010-10-01

    Seasonal variations in biomass and alkaloid contents of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) were investigated. Five-year-old plants gave 5x the yield of roots and rhizomes of two-year-old plants, and summer growth gave significant increases in root biomass but not rhizomes. Berberine contents of roots plus rhizomes did not vary significantly and were >3.4% in all samples. Hydrastine contents of 5 y roots plus rhizomes showed significant seasonal variation. These variations were due to significant changes in the hydrastine contents of the roots (1.3-1.9%), but not the rhizomes (2.2-2.8%). Goldenseal leaves plus stems had lower contents of hydrastine (0.4-0.8%) and berberine (1.0-1.5%). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Uptake of metals and metalloids by Conyza canadensis L. from a thermoelectric power plant landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen metals and metalloids were determined in Conyza canadensis L. harvested from the fly ash landfill of the thermoelectric power plant “Kolubara” (Serbia. Fly ash samples were collected together with the plant samples and subjected to sequential extraction according to the three-step sequential extraction scheme proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR; now the Standards, Measurements and Testing Program. The contents of metals and metalloids were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES in plant root and the aboveground part and correlated with their contents in the fly ash samples. The bioconcentration factor (BCF and translocation factors (TF were calculated to access uptake of metals from fly ash and their translocation to the aboveground part. Results regarding As revealed that fly ash samples in the proximity of the active cassette had higher amounts of the element. Principal component analysis (PCA showed that As had no impact on the classification of plant parts. BCF for As ranged from 1.44 to 23.8 and varied, depending on the investigated area; TF for As ranged from 0.43 to 2.61, indicating that the plant translocated As from root to shoot. In addition to As, Conyza canadensis L. exhibited efficient uptake of other metals from fly ash. According to the calculated BCF and TF, the plant retained Al, Fe and Cr in the root and translocated Zn, Cd, Cu and As from root to shoot in the course of the detoxifying process. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172030 i br. 172017

  6. A Situational Change Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Kotze, Robin

    1972-01-01

    The trainer or internal change agent in a firm undergoing an organizational development program may be instrumental in designing the implementation of a change strategy. Proposes a situational change typology which may be of use as a training instrument. (Author)

  7. Situational major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, R M; Klerman, G L; Andreasen, N C; Clayton, P J; Keller, M B

    1985-11-01

    Fifty-seven patients with situational major depression diagnosed by the Research Diagnostic Criteria were compared with 72 subjects with nonsituational major depression on demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables. The situational patients tended to be younger and had fewer prior episodes of depression and fewer hospitalizations. No differences were found in categories of life events, in overall clinical picture, in social supports, or in family history.

  8. The population dynamics of goldenseal by habitat type on the Hoosier National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. P. Meyer; G. R. Parker

    2003-01-01

    Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) is an herbaceous species found throughout the central hardwood forest ecosystem that is harvested from the wild for the medicinal herb trade. A total of 147 goldenseal populations were classified according to the Ecological Classification Guide developed for the Hoosier National Forest, and change in population...

  9. Solidago canadensis L. Essential Oil Vapor Effectively Inhibits Botrytis cinerea Growth and Preserves Postharvest Quality of Strawberry as a Food Model System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Shumin; Shao, Xingfeng; Wei, Yanzhen; Li, Yonghua; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hongfei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-fungal properties of Solidago canadensis L. essential oil (SCLEO) against Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and its ability to control gray mold and maintain quality in strawberry fruits...

  10. Transcription of putative tonoplast transporters in response to glyphosate and paraquat stress in Conyza bonariensis and Conyza canadensis and selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Marcelo L; Alárcon-Reverte, Rocio; Pearce, Stephen; Morran, Sarah; Hanson, Bradley D

    2017-01-01

    Herbicide resistance is a challenge for modern agriculture further complicated by cases of resistance to multiple herbicides. Conyza bonariensis and Conyza canadensis are invasive weeds of field crops, orchards, and non-cropped areas in many parts of the world. In California, USA, Conyza populations resistant to the herbicides glyphosate and paraquat have recently been described. Although the mechanism conferring resistance to glyphosate and paraquat in these species was not elucidated, reduced translocation of these herbicides was observed under experimental conditions in both species. Glyphosate and paraquat resistance associated with reduced translocation are hypothesized to be a result of sequestration of herbicides into the vacuole, with the possible involvement of over-expression of genes encoding tonoplast transporters of ABC-transporter families in cases of glyphosate resistance or cationic amino acid transporters (CAT) in cases of paraquat resistance. However, gene expression in response to herbicide treatment has not been studied in glyphosate and paraquat resistant populations. In the current study, we evaluated the transcript levels of genes possibly involved in resistance using real-time PCR. First, we evaluated eight candidate reference genes following herbicide treatment and selected three genes that exhibited stable expression profiles; ACTIN, HEAT-SHOCK-PROTEIN-70, and CYCLOPHILIN. The reference genes identified here can be used for further studies related to plant-herbicide interactions. We used these reference genes to assay the transcript levels of EPSPS, ABC transporters, and CAT in response to herbicide treatment in susceptible and resistant Conyza spp. lines. No transcription changes were observed in EPSPS or CAT genes after glyphosate or paraquat treatment, suggesting that these genes are not involved in the resistance mechanism. Transcription of the two ABC transporter genes increased following glyphosate treatment in all Conyza spp. lines

  11. Planning as situated design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    and situated, too. In this presentation it will be argued that the investigation of systematic planning as conflictual cooperation will help us see that situated activity is not only based on the present conditions, but also relates them to events spread out in time and space, thereby opening up for another......It is common to associate situated activity with concrete, craftlike or manual activity here and now and to reserve theoretical and abstract thinking for activities like theoretical experimentation and systematic planning. Much work has gone into demonstrating that these activities are concrete...... understanding of theoretical thinking. Some material from the empirical research project developed with Klaus Nielsen on the design and engineering of a house will be presented. On this basis a conception of planning will be unfolded. It will be understood differently from the way it is understood...

  12. Personalizing situation awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Linn Marks [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Powell, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roman, Jorge R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Mark L B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mane, Ketan K [RENCI

    2009-01-01

    Emergency responders need access to information but what counts as actionable information depends on their role, task, location, and other variables. For example, experts who have unique knowledge and experience and are called on to serve as scientific and teclmical responders, require correspondingly unique situation awareness in order to do their work. In our research-in-progress we leverage emerging and evolving web and digital library technologies to create personalized situation awareness tools that address the needs of these scientific and technical responders in real time, through focused information collection, extraction, integration, representation, and dissemination. We describe three personalized situation awareness tools in this paper: the Theme Awareness Tool (THEMAT), Social Awareness Tool (SAT), and Expertise Awareness Tool (EXPAT). The concepts and technologies we are developing in collaboration with experts apply to those who use the Web, in general, and offer an approach to the general issue of HCI design for emergencies.

  13. Situational theory of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D J; Smith, S R; Warnock, J T

    1989-11-01

    The situational theory of leadership and the LEAD instruments for determining leadership style are explained, and the application of the situational leadership theory to the process of planning for and implementing organizational change is described. Early studies of leadership style identified two basic leadership styles: the task-oriented autocratic style and the relationship-oriented democratic style. Subsequent research found that most leaders exhibited one of four combinations of task and relationship behaviors. The situational leadership theory holds that the difference between the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the four leadership styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to the particular situation in which it is used. The task maturity of the individual or group being led must also be accounted for; follower readiness is defined in terms of the capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness or ability to accept responsibility, and possession of the necessary education or experience for a specific task. A person's leadership style, range, and adaptability can be determined from the LEADSelf and LEADOther questionnaires. By applying the principles of the situational leadership theory and adapting their managerial styles to specific tasks and levels of follower maturity, the authors were successful in implementing 24-hour pharmacokinetic dosing services provided by staff pharmacists with little previous experience in clinical services. The situational leadership model enables a leader to identify a task, set goals, determine the task maturity of the individual or group, select an appropriate leadership style, and modify the style as change occurs. Pharmacy managers can use this model when implementing clinical pharmacy services.

  14. Situations of dwelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen; Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2006-01-01

    values and needs in differnet situations, lifestyles and stages. The study is based on information from users in new housing schemes in and around Copenhagen - 'open building' dwellings that reveal a variety of approaches to these problems? The analysis of the dwellings show that the architecture...... of the 'open dwelling' is dependent on three basic conditions: the static condition, the suitable condition and the situational condition. Each condition has its own powerful way of articulation. Our aim is to translate the observations of the projects in concepts and models that are applicable in new projects....

  15. Comparative analysis of the anatomical structure of heartwood and sapwood selected Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. trees in Srpska Crnja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilotić Dragica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results obtained from the study of the macroscopic-microscopic structure (capillary system in the growth stem of Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. originating from North America, which grows in “Muzljanski rit” in the area of Srpska Crnja. Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. falls under the ring-porous species according to its porosity, with large tracheas in its early zone. The early zone trachea lumens, contained in the sapwood, reach dimensions of up to 160 μm, while early zone trachea lumens in the growth stem rings of the sapwood reach dimensions of up to 120 μm. Examination of the microscopic structure of this tree show good properties of the tree.

  16. Cadmium uptake in Elodea canadensis leaves and its interference with extra- and intra-cellular pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, M T; Lindberg, S; Greger, M

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated cadmium (Cd) uptake in Elodea canadensis shoots under different photosynthetic conditions, and its effects on internal (cytosolic) and external pH. The plants were grown under photosynthetic (light) or non-photosynthetic (dark or in the presence of a photosynthetic inhibitor) conditions in the presence or absence of CdCl2 (0.5 μm) in a medium with a starting pH of 5.0. The pH-sensitive dye BCECF-AM was used to monitor cytosolic pH changes in the leaves. Cadmium uptake in protoplasts and leaves was detected with a Cd-specific fluorescent dye, Leadmium Green AM, and with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. During cultivation for 3 days without Cd, shoots of E. canadensis increased the pH of the surrounding water, irrespective of the photosynthetic conditions. This medium alkalisation was higher in the presence of CdCl2 . Moreover, the presence of Cd also increased the cation exchange capacity of the shoots. The total Cd uptake by E. canadensis shoots was independent of photosynthetic conditions. Protoplasts from plants exposed to 0.5 μm CdCl2 for 3 days did not exhibit significant change in cytosolic [Cd(2+)] or pH. However, exposure to CdCl2 for 7 days resulted in increased cytosolic [Cd(2+) ] as well as pH. The results suggest that E. canadensis subjected to a low CdCl2 concentration initially sequesters Cd into the apoplasm, but under prolonged exposure, Cd is transported into the cytosol and subsequently alters cytosolic pH. In contrast, addition of 10-50 μm CdCl2 directly to protoplasts resulted in immediate uptake of Cd into the cytosol. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Leadership: Dispositional and Situational. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    block number) For over four decades, leadership research has examined the issue of whether internal dispositions ( traits ), situational characteristics... leadership research has examined the issue of whether internal dispositions ( traits ), situational characteristics (contexts), or some combination of...Situational 3 Leadership : Dispositional and Situational The person-situation debate has been a key issue in several areas of psychology and management

  18. Towards artificial situation awareness by autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    McAree, O.; Aitken, J M; Veres, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to artificial situation awareness for an autonomous vehicle operating in complex dynamic environments populated by other agents. A key aspect of situation awareness is the use of mental models to predict future states of the environment, allowing safe and rational routing decisions to be made. We present a technique for predicting future discrete state transitions (such as the commencement of a turn) by other agents, based upon an uncertain mental model. P...

  19. Learning through Situated Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Eriksén, Sara; Wessels, Bridgette

    2014-01-01

    Specific, situated participatory design (PD) practices have always been at the heart of Participatory Design research. The role of the very situatedness and specificity of PD practice for theory-building within PD research is, however, seldom discussed explicitly. In this article, we explore why...

  20. Dealing with Problematic Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to outline a holistic answer to the following question: How to deal with problematic situations? A framework of a modern approach, a new meta-discipline, based on knowledge and experience from several other disciplines will be presented. We are focusing in those...

  1. Challenging Fieldwork Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Thomas; Østergaard Steenfeldt, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    Researching two different work settings, police work and hospice care, the authors experienced a strange sense of discomfort in their bodies during their fieldwork when investigating professional training and work situations, especially in encounters with citizens and patients. In some of those...

  2. Hierarchical structure and compressive deformation mechanisms of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Zaheri, Alireza; Jung, Jae-Young; Espinosa, Horacio D; Mckittrick, Joanna

    2017-12-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) rams hurl themselves at each other at speeds of ∼9 m/s (20 mph) to fight for dominance and mating rights. This necessitates impact resistance and energy absorption mechanisms, which stem from material-structure components in horns. In this study, the material hierarchical structure as well as correlations between the structure and mechanical properties are investigated. The major microstructural elements of horns are found as tubules and cell lamellae, which are oriented with (∼30⁰) angle with respect to each other. The cell lamellae contain keratin cells, in the shape of pancakes, possessing an average thickness of ∼2 µm and diameter of ∼20-30 µm. The morphology of keratin cells reveals the presence of keratin fibers and intermediate filaments with diameter of ∼200 nm and ∼12 nm, respectively, parallel to the cell surface. Quasi-static and high strain rate impact experiments, in different loading directions and hydration states, revealed a strong strain rate dependency for both dried and hydrated conditions. A strong anisotropy behavior was observed under impact for the dried state. The results show that the radial direction is the most preferable impact orientation because of its superior energy absorption. Detailed failure mechanisms under the aforementioned conditions are examined by bar impact recovery experiments. Shear banding, buckling of cell lamellae, and delamination in longitudinal and transverse direction were identified as the cause for strain softening under high strain rate impact. While collapse of tubules occurs in both quasi-static and impact tests, in radial and transverse directions, the former leads to more energy absorption and impact resistance. Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) horns show remarkable impact resistance and energy absorption when undergoing high speed impact during the intraspecific fights. The present work illustrates the hierarchical structure of bighorn sheep horn at

  3. Flow cytometric assessment of fresh and frozen-thawed Canada goose (Branta canadensis) semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Agnieszka; Łukaszewicz, Ewa; Niżański, Wojciech

    2011-09-15

    The present study was conducted to investigate spermatozoal membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity, and chromatin structure in fresh and frozen-thawed Canada goose (Branta canadensis) semen with the use of the flow cytometry. The experiment was carried out on ten, 2-year-old, Canada goose ganders. The semen was collected twice a week, by a dorso-abdominal massage method, then pooled and subjected to cryopreservation in straws, in a programmable freezing unit with the use of dimethyloformamide (DMF) as a cryoprotectant. Frozen samples were thawed in a water bath at 60 °C. The freezing procedure was performed ten times. For the cytometric analysis the fresh and the frozen-thawed semen was extended with EK extender to a final concentration of 50 million spermatozoa per mL. Sperm membrane integrity was assessed with SYBR-14 and propidium iodide (PI), acrosomal damage was evaluated with the use of PNA-Alexa Fluor®488 conjugate, mitochondrial activity was estimated with Rhodamine 123 (R123), and spermatozoal DNA integrity was measured by the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). The cryopreservation of Canada goose semen significantly decreased the percentage of live cells, from 76.3 to 50.4% (P < 0.01). Moreover, we observed the significant decrease in the percentage of live spermatozoa with intact acrosomes (P < 0.01), but we did not detect significant changes in the percentage of live spermatozoa with ruptured acrosomes. However, after thawing 50% of Canada goose live spermatozoa retained intact acrosomes. Furthermore, the percentage of live spermatozoa with active mitochondria was significantly lower in the frozen-thawed semen than in the fresh semen (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, after thawing the mitochondria remained active in almost 50% of live cells. In the present study, we observed no changes in the percentage of sperm with fragmented DNA after freezing-thawing of Canada goose semen. In conclusion, the present study indicates that even

  4. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. ASAT will create an Advanced Situation...

  5. Characterisation of Antigen B Protein Species Present in the Hydatid Cyst Fluid of Echinococcus canadensis G7 Genotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maite Folle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The larva of cestodes belonging to the Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l. complex causes cystic echinococcosis (CE. It is a globally distributed zoonosis with significant economic and public health impact. The most immunogenic and specific Echinococcus-genus antigen for human CE diagnosis is antigen B (AgB, an abundant lipoprotein of the hydatid cyst fluid (HF. The AgB protein moiety (apolipoprotein is encoded by five genes (AgB1-AgB5, which generate mature 8 kDa proteins (AgB8/1-AgB8/5. These genes seem to be differentially expressed among Echinococcus species. Since AgB immunogenicity lies on its protein moiety, differences in AgB expression within E. granulosus s.l. complex might have diagnostic and epidemiological relevance for discriminating the contribution of distinct species to human CE. Interestingly, AgB2 was proposed as a pseudogene in E. canadensis, which is the second most common cause of human CE, but proteomic studies for verifying it have not been performed yet. Herein, we analysed the protein and lipid composition of AgB obtained from fertile HF of swine origin (E. canadensis G7 genotype. AgB apolipoproteins were identified and quantified using mass spectrometry tools. Results showed that AgB8/1 was the major protein component, representing 71% of total AgB apolipoproteins, followed by AgB8/4 (15.5%, AgB8/3 (13.2% and AgB8/5 (0.3%. AgB8/2 was not detected. As a methodological control, a parallel analysis detected all AgB apolipoproteins in bovine fertile HF (G1/3/5 genotypes. Overall, E. canadensis AgB comprised mostly AgB8/1 together with a heterogeneous mixture of lipids, and AgB8/2 was not detected despite using high sensitivity proteomic techniques. This endorses genomic data supporting that AgB2 behaves as a pseudogene in G7 genotype. Since recombinant AgB8/2 has been found to be diagnostically valuable for human CE, our findings indicate that its use as antigen in immunoassays could contribute to false negative

  6. Situating beyond the social

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soffer, Ann Katrine Bønnelykke

    2016-01-01

    it is applied to contemporary Danish nursing education are introduced. One issue that has arisen is the analytical requirement for an educational program to be a homogeneous, singular, and social phenomenon thereby discounting the varied and different sites and materialities found within nursing education......Situated learning serves as an analytical framework for learning in a community of practice and has been widely used to understand the learning process that is entailed in becoming a nurse. Yet in this paper, the difficulties encountered with the original notion of situated learning once...... framework. I suggest the notion of multi-configured learning, which captures the heterogeneity and materiality encountered during ethnographic fieldwork at a Danish nursing school....

  7. Situated Formative Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech; Wahl, Christian; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    This study addresses the conceptual challenge of providing students with good quality feedback to enhance student learning in an online community of practice (COP). The aim of the study is to identify feedback mechanisms in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and to create a full formative...... feedback episode (FFE) through an online dialogue. The paper argues that dialogue is crucial for student learning and that feedback is not only something the teacher gives to the student. Viewing good quality feedback as social, situated, formative, emphasis is put on the establishment of dialogue. We...... refer to this type of feedback as, Situated Formative Feedback (SFF). As a basis for exploring, identifying and discussing relevant aspects of SFF the paper analyses qualitative data from a Moodle dialogue. Data are embedded in the qualitative analytic program Nvivo and are analysed with a system...

  8. Den retoriske situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Barnholdt

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen, som er skrevet på baggrund af et oplæg, som jeg holdt på  Årsmødet for Sektionen for Gymnasium og HF i Helsingør, oktober 2009, plæderer for anvendelsen af Lloyd F. Bitzers teori om den retoriske situation i retorikundervisningen i gymnasiet. I artiklen benytter jeg Bitzers teori som en...

  9. Discriminating Tsuga canadensis Hemlock Forest Defoliation Using Remotely Sensed Change Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, D D; Lathrop, R G

    2002-09-01

    The eastern hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis) is declining in health and vigor in eastern North America due to infestation by an introduced insect, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges isugue). Adelgid feeding activity results in the defoliation of hemlock forest canopy over several years. We investigated the application of Landsat satellite imagery and change-detection techniques to monitor the health of hemlock forest stands in northern New Jersey. We described methods used to correct effects due to atmospheric conditions and monitor the health status of hemlock stands over time. As hemlocks defoliate, changes occur in the spectral reflectance of the canopy in near infrared and red wavelengths-changes captured in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. By relating the differences in this index over time to hemlock defoliation on the ground, four classes of hemlock forest health were predicted across spatially heterogeneous landscapes with 82% accuracy. Using a time series of images, we are investigating temporal and spatial patterns in hemlock defoliation across the study area over the past decade. Based on the success of this methodology, we are no expanding out study to monitor hemlock health across the entire Mid-Atlantic region.

  10. Efficacy of selected coccidiostats in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) following challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Novilla, M.N.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    The anticoccidial efficacy of amprolium, clazuril, and monensin were studied in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) infected with a mixture of Eimeria spp. oocysts. Five groups of four 1-day-old sandhill crane chicks were maintained on a crumbled ration containing no coccidiostat, amprolium at 2.2 ppm, clazuril at 1.1 ppm, clazuril at 5.5 ppm, or monensin at 99 ppm. After 2 wk on their respective feeding regimens, birds in each of the five groups were administered 25 ? 103 pooled sporulated Eimeria spp. oocysts per os and observed for another 3 wk. A sixth group of four chicks served as nonmedicated, nonchallenged control during the study. Clinical signs and lesions consistent with disseminated visceral coccidiosis were observed in all challenged controls and birds fed amprolium and clazuril. Birds in these groups died 9?10 days after challenge. In contrast, only one monensin-medicated bird had clinical signs of disseminated visceral coccidiosis, and it died 13 days after challenge (DAC). This and an asymptomatic bird that were necropsied at study termination had less-severe gross and microscopic lesions of disseminated visceral coccidiosis. Two of three monensin-treated birds that survived challenge passed from 50 to 500 coccidial oocysts 11 to 18 DAC but were negative at study termination. Of the coccidiostats tested, monensin, at the dietary level of 99 ppm, was the only anticoccidial drug that provided protection against experimentally induced disseminated visceral coccidiosis in sandhill cranes.

  11. Quercetin-induced benzophenanthridine alkaloid production in suspension cell cultures of Sanguinaria canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahady, G B; Beecher, C W

    1994-12-01

    Addition of micromolar concentrations of quercetin or rutin to suspension cell cultures of Sanguinaria canadensis L. (bloodroot) induced the biosynthesis of sanguinarine and chelerythrine in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, related compounds: baicalein, naringin, naringenin, catechin, caffeic acid and benzoic acid displayed very weak inductive activity. Of the two active flavonoids, quercetin was the most effective for inducing benzophenanthridine alkaloid biosynthesis, with doses of 100 microM increasing alkaloid production over 375% as compared to negative controls. Quercetin's inductive effects were similar to that of an elicitor derived from fungus Penicillium expansum (PE-elicitor). Suppression of quercetin and PE-induced alkaloid biosynthesis by low doses of actinomycin D (5 micrograms/ml, alpha-amanitin (20 micrograms/ml), or cycloheximide (1 microgram/ml) demonstrate a requirement for both RNA and de novo cytoplasmic protein synthesis and suggest that alterations in gene expression are involved in the inductive mechanism. Furthermore, quercetin-induced alkaloid biosynthesis was significantly reduced by pretreatment of the cells with the calcium chelator, EGTA (3 mM), or the calcium channel inhibitor, verapamil (100 microM), suggesting that this process was calcium dependent.

  12. Evidence for enhanced mutualism hypothesis: Solidago canadensis plants from regular soils perform better.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Kai Sun

    Full Text Available The important roles of plant-soil microbe interactions have been documented in exotic plant invasion, but we know very little about how soil mutualists enhance this process (i.e. enhanced mutualism hypothesis. To test this hypothesis we conducted two greenhouse experiments with Solidago canadensis (hereafter Solidago, an invasive forb from North America, and Stipa bungeana (hereafter Stipa, a native Chinese grass. In a germination experiment, we found soil microbes from the rhizospheres of Solidago and Stipa exhibited much stronger facilitative effects on emergence of Solidago than that of Stipa. In a growth and competition experiment, we found that soil microbes strongly facilitated Solidago to outgrow Stipa, and greatly increased the competitive effects of Solidago on Stipa but decreased the competitive effects of Stipa on Solidago. These findings from two experiments suggest that in situ soil microbes enhance the recruitment potential of Solidago and its ability to outcompete native plants, thereby providing strong evidence for the enhanced mutualism hypothesis. On the other hand, to some extent this outperformance of Solidago in the presence of soil microbes seems to be unbeneficial to control its rapid expansion, particularly in some ranges where this enhanced mutualism dominates over other mechanisms.

  13. Cadmium triggers Elodea canadensis to change the surrounding water pH and thereby Cd uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, M Tariq; Greger, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the influence of Elodea canadensis shoots on surrounding water pH in the presence of cadmium and the effect of plant-induced pH on cadmium uptake. The pH change in the surrounding nutrient solution and Cd uptake by Elodea shoots were investigated after cultivation of various plant densities (1, 3, 6 plants per 500 ml) in hydroponics at a starting pH of 4.0 and in the presence of different concentrations of cadmium (0, 0.1, 0.5 microM). Cadmium uptake was also investigated at different constant pH (4.0, 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5). To investigate if the pH change arose from photosynthetic activities, plants were grown under light, darkness or in the presence of a photosynthetic inhibitor, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), and 0.5 microM cadmium in the solution. Elodea had an ability to increase the surrounding water pH, when the initial pH was low, which resulted in increased accumulation of Cd. The higher the plant density, the more pronounced was the pH change. The pH increase was not due to the photosynthetic activity since the pH rise was more pronounced under darkness and in the presence of DCMU. The pH increase by Elodea was triggered by cadmium.

  14. Intestinal helminths of river otters (Lutra canadensis) from the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, Eric P.; Henny, Charles J.; Hedstrom, O.R.; Grove, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    The intestinal helminth fauna of river otters, Lutra canadensis, from the Pacific Northwest was characterized by low species richness and intensity of infection. River otters from the lower Columbia River (n = 23) were infected with 9 species of helminths (83% prevalence); those from a relatively undisturbed reference area near the headwaters of the Trask and Wilson rivers on the Oregon coast (n = 6) were infected by 5 species of helminths (100% prevalence). Single species of Eucestoda (Schistocephalus solidus), Digenea (Euparyphium inerme), Acanthocephala (Corynosoma strumosum), and 8 species of Nematoda (Strongyloides lutrae; larvae of Eustrongylides sp., Anisakis sp., and Contracaecum sp.; 3 of Cystidicolidae, and Hedruris sp.) were collected. Most species are typical of piscine definitive hosts and were present as incidental parasites of river otters. Notably, specimens of Euparyphium inerme are reported for the first time in river otters from North America; occurrence of other helminths constitutes new host or geographic records for parasites in river otters in Oregon and Washington. Parasites with marine life cycles were acquired by river otters in freshwater habitats at a great distance from the ocean. The helminth fauna of river otters in the Pacific Northwest was influenced primarily by ecological factors and was indicative of eclectic food habits and the relatively extensive home ranges occupied by these mustelids.

  15. Considering transient population dynamics in the conservation of slow life-history species: An application to the sandhill crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Brian D.; Kendall, William L.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of transient dynamics of structured populations is increasingly recognized in ecology, yet these implications are not largely considered in conservation practices. We investigate transient and long-term population dynamics to demonstrate the process and utility of incorporating transient dynamics into conservation research and to better understand the population management of slow life-history species; these species can be theoretically highly sensitive to short- and long-term transient effects. We are specifically interested in the effects of anthropogenic removal of individuals from populations, such as caused by harvest, poaching, translocation, or incidental take. We use the sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) as an exemplar species; it is long-lived, has low reproduction, late maturity, and multiple populations are subject to sport harvest. We found sandhill cranes to have extremely high potential, but low likelihood for transient dynamics, even when the population is being harvested. The typically low population growth rate of slow life-history species appears to buffer against many perturbations causing large transient effects. Transient dynamics will dominate population trajectories of these species when stage structures are highly biased towards the younger and non-reproducing individuals, a situation that may be rare in established populations of long-lived animals. However, short-term transient population growth can be highly sensitive to vital rates that are relatively insensitive under equilibrium, suggesting that stage structure should be known if perturbation analysis is used to identify effective conservation strategies. For populations of slow life-history species that are not prone to large perturbations to their most productive individuals, population growth may be approximated by equilibrium dynamics.

  16. Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Analyses of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis from Three Areas in Western North America; Initial Results and Conservation Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica H Craig

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles. Our results indicate high genetic diversity, low genetic structure and high connectivity. Nuclear DNA Fst values between Idaho and California were low but significantly different from zero (0.026. Bayesian clustering methods indicated a single population, and we were unable to distinguish summer breeding residents from different regions. Results of the mtDNA AMOVA showed that most of the haplotype variation (97% was within the geographic populations while 3% variation was partitioned among them. One haplotype was common to all three areas. One region-specific haplotype was detected in California and one in Idaho, but additional sampling is required to determine if these haplotypes are unique to those geographic areas or a sampling artifact. We discuss potential sources of the high gene flow for this species including natal and breeding dispersal, floaters, and changes in migratory behavior as a result of environmental factors such as climate change and habitat alteration. Our preliminary findings can help inform the USFWS in development of golden eagle management strategies and provide a basis for additional research into the complex dynamics of the North American subspecies.

  17. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) from three areas in western North America; initial results and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Erica H; Adams, Jennifer R.; Waits, Lisette P.; Fuller, Mark R.; Whittington, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles. Our results indicate high genetic diversity, low genetic structure and high connectivity. Nuclear DNA Fst values between Idaho and California were low but significantly different from zero (0.026). Bayesian clustering methods indicated a single population, and we were unable to distinguish summer breeding residents from different regions. Results of the mtDNA AMOVA showed that most of the haplotype variation (97%) was within the geographic populations while 3% variation was partitioned among them. One haplotype was common to all three areas. One region-specific haplotype was detected in California and one in Idaho, but additional sampling is required to determine if these haplotypes are unique to those geographic areas or a sampling artifact. We discuss potential sources of the high gene flow for this species including natal and breeding dispersal, floaters, and changes in migratory behavior as a result of environmental factors such as climate change and habitat alteration. Our preliminary findings can help inform the USFWS in development of golden eagle management strategies and provide a basis for additional research into the complex dynamics of the North American subspecies.

  18. Modelling remediation options for urban contamination situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Charnock, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    The impact on a population from an event resulting in dispersal and deposition of radionuclides in an urban area could be significant, in terms of both the number of people affected and the economic costs of recovery. The use of computer models for assessment of urban contamination situations and...

  19. De Novo Genome and Transcriptome Assembly of the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Si; Paton, Tara A; Wang, Zhuozhi; Kaur, Gaganjot; Walker, Susan; Yuen, Ryan K C; Sung, Wilson W L; Whitney, Joseph; Buchanan, Janet A; Trost, Brett; Singh, Naina; Apresto, Beverly; Chen, Nan; Coole, Matthew; Dawson, Travis J; Ho, Karen; Hu, Zhizhou; Pullenayegum, Sanjeev; Samler, Kozue; Shipstone, Arun; Tsoi, Fiona; Wang, Ting; Pereira, Sergio L; Rostami, Pirooz; Ryan, Carol Ann; Tong, Amy Hin Yan; Ng, Karen; Sundaravadanam, Yogi; Simpson, Jared T; Lim, Burton K; Engstrom, Mark D; Dutton, Christopher J; Kerr, Kevin C R; Franke, Maria; Rapley, William; Wintle, Richard F; Scherer, Stephen W

    2017-02-09

    The Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) is the largest indigenous rodent in North America. We report a draft annotated assembly of the beaver genome, the first for a large rodent and the first mammalian genome assembled directly from uncorrected and moderate coverage (genome size is 2.7 Gb estimated by k-mer analysis. We assembled the beaver genome using the new Canu assembler optimized for noisy reads. The resulting assembly was refined using Pilon supported by short reads (80 ×) and checked for accuracy by congruency against an independent short read assembly. We scaffolded the assembly using the exon-gene models derived from 9805 full-length open reading frames (FL-ORFs) constructed from the beaver leukocyte and muscle transcriptomes. The final assembly comprised 22,515 contigs with an N50 of 278,680 bp and an N50-scaffold of 317,558 bp. Maximum contig and scaffold lengths were 3.3 and 4.2 Mb, respectively, with a combined scaffold length representing 92% of the estimated genome size. The completeness and accuracy of the scaffold assembly was demonstrated by the precise exon placement for 91.1% of the 9805 assembled FL-ORFs and 83.1% of the BUSCO (Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs) gene set used to assess the quality of genome assemblies. Well-represented were genes involved in dentition and enamel deposition, defining characteristics of rodents with which the beaver is well-endowed. The study provides insights for genome assembly and an important genomics resource for Castoridae and rodent evolutionary biology. Copyright © 2017 Lok et al.

  20. De Novo Genome and Transcriptome Assembly of the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Lok

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis is the largest indigenous rodent in North America. We report a draft annotated assembly of the beaver genome, the first for a large rodent and the first mammalian genome assembled directly from uncorrected and moderate coverage (< 30 × long reads generated by single-molecule sequencing. The genome size is 2.7 Gb estimated by k-mer analysis. We assembled the beaver genome using the new Canu assembler optimized for noisy reads. The resulting assembly was refined using Pilon supported by short reads (80 × and checked for accuracy by congruency against an independent short read assembly. We scaffolded the assembly using the exon–gene models derived from 9805 full-length open reading frames (FL-ORFs constructed from the beaver leukocyte and muscle transcriptomes. The final assembly comprised 22,515 contigs with an N50 of 278,680 bp and an N50-scaffold of 317,558 bp. Maximum contig and scaffold lengths were 3.3 and 4.2 Mb, respectively, with a combined scaffold length representing 92% of the estimated genome size. The completeness and accuracy of the scaffold assembly was demonstrated by the precise exon placement for 91.1% of the 9805 assembled FL-ORFs and 83.1% of the BUSCO (Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs gene set used to assess the quality of genome assemblies. Well-represented were genes involved in dentition and enamel deposition, defining characteristics of rodents with which the beaver is well-endowed. The study provides insights for genome assembly and an important genomics resource for Castoridae and rodent evolutionary biology.

  1. Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the North American Beaver (Castor canadensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Gruninger

    Full Text Available The North American Beaver (Castor canadensis is the second largest living rodent and an iconic symbol of Canada. The beaver is a semi-aquatic browser whose diet consists of lignocellulose from a variety of plants. The beaver is a hindgut fermenter and has an enlarged ceacum that houses a complex microbiome. There have been few studies examining the microbial diversity in gastrointestinal tract of hindgut fermenting herbivores. To examine the bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of the beaver, the microbiome of the ceacum and feaces was examined using culture-independent methods. DNA from the microbial community of the ceacum and feaces of 4 adult beavers was extracted, and the16S rRNA gene was sequenced using either bacterial or archaeal specific primers. A total of 1447 and 1435 unique bacterial OTUs were sequenced from the ceacum and feaces, respectively. On average, the majority of OTUs within the ceacum were classified as Bacteroidetes (49.2% and Firmicutes (47.6%. The feaces was also dominated by OTUs from Bacteroidetes (36.8% and Firmicutes (58.9%. The composition of bacterial community was not significantly different among animals. The composition of the ceacal and feacal microbiome differed, but this difference is due to changes in the abundance of closely related OTUs, not because of major differences in the taxonomic composition of the communities. Within these communities, known degraders of lignocellulose were identified. In contrast, to the bacterial microbiome, the archaeal community was dominated by a single species of methanogen, Methanosphaera stadtmanae. The data presented here provide the first insight into the microbial community within the hindgut of the beaver.

  2. Developmental toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment in Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Heinz, Gary H.; Sileo, Louis; Audet, Daniel J.; Campbell, Juile K.; Obrecht, Holly H.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion has recently been identified as an important exposure route for toxicants in waterfowl. The effects of lead-contaminated sediment from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho on posthatching development of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) were examined for 6 wk. Day-old goslings received either untreated control diet, clean sediment (48%) supplemented control diet, or CDARB sediment (3449 mug/g lead) supplemented diets at 12%, 24%, or 48%. The 12% CDARB diet resulted in a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 0.68 ppm (ww), with over 90% depression of red blood cell ALAD activity and over fourfold elevation of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration. The 24% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 1.61 ppm with decreased hematocrit, hemoglobin, and plasma protein in addition to the effects just described. The 48% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 2.52 ppm with 22% mortality, decreased growth, and elevated plasma lactate dehydrogenase-L (LDH-L) activity. In this group the liver lead concentration was 6.57 ppm (ww), with twofold increases in hepatic lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS) and in reduced glutathione concentration; associated effects included elevated glutathione reductase activity but lower protein-bound thiols concentration and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) activity. The kidney lead concentration in this group was 14.93 ppm with subacute renal tubular nephrosis in one of the surviving goslings. Three other geese in this treatment group exhibited calcified areas of marrow, and one of these displayed severe chronic fibrosing pancreatitis. Lead from CDARB sediment accumulated less readily in gosling blood and tissues than reported in ducklings but at given concentrations was generally more toxic to goslings. Many of these effects were similar to those reported in wild geese and mallards within the Coeur d'Alene River Basin.

  3. Propagation of goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L. from leaf and nodal explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L. is an invasive plant species in many countries except North America but a cut-flower species worldwide. There is a need to generate and propagate goldenrod clones efficiently for research and commercial purposes. A callus induction and plantlet regeneration system was developed by studying the influence of explant type and different concentrations of plant growth regulators. The highest callus production from leaf segments was obtained on Murashige and Skoog’s medium (MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and 1.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BA. Adventitious shoots could be regenerated directly from leaf explants without an intermediate callus phase with the highest shoot induction percentage of 87.2%. The largest number of adventitious shoots per leaf explant (3.2 was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.4 mg/L NAA and 2.0 mg/L BA. MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L NAA and 1.0 mg/L BA was the best medium for axillary shoot regeneration from nodal segments. The highest root number and longest roots occurred on half-strength MS without the addition of any growth regulator. Rooted plantlets were then transferred to a soil-based growth medium, placed in a greenhouse, and acclimatized with 100% success. All surviving plants grew normally without showing any morphological varia­tion when compared to those grow from seed. This regeneration protocol may be used to produce certain biotypes of goldenrod suitable for genetic transformation rapid propagation of goldenrod for commercial purposes or for screening fungi and toxins as potential biocontrol agents against this weed.

  4. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the productions of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...... and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces. Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become...

  5. Situation based housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Welling, Helen; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2007-01-01

    In the Nordic countries, there is a century-old tradition of dwellings that can be adapted, rebuilt and recycled regardless of time and place. Functionalism broke with this tradition and created the function-determined dwelling, which was planned on the basis of functional analyses and analyses...... of the average family's lifestyle. These dwellings were ground-breaking when they were built, but today are clearly a product of their time. The reaction to functionalism and the postwar mass production gave rise to flexible dwelling with countless possibilities for room division. The housing of this period has...... for living. The suitable condition consists of the dwelling's ability for physical displacement, spatial changes that can suit changing life styles. The situational condition is the not defined, the unfinished and the transitory, which continuously challenges the imagination and calls for the experiment. Our...

  6. Management Re-situated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    The purpose of this paper is to examine ways to situate management within philosophy, that is, ways to analyze the philosophical assumptions in management history, theory and practice. Since Burrell and Morgan suggested the idea that “all theories of organization are based upon philosophy...... of science“ (Burrell & Morgan, 1979:1), philosophical reflections in terms of a series of “isms” informed by different schools or paradigms (such as positivism, structuralism, phenomenology, critical theory, and so on and so forth) have been a central part of management studies. Thus, today, it has become...... common sense to categorize different approaches to management according to their assumptions of ontology, epistemology and methodology. My paper will argue first (1) that, although sometimes very abstract and obtuse writing that seems to owe more to competition among academics than to illumination...

  7. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...

  8. Sizing Up the Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Hailstorm damage to the Space Shuttle's External Tank inspired a NASA innovation with extensive photography applications. In order to measure the defects caused by the storm, Kennedy Space Center used telephoto lenses to zoom in on the tank and view the damage clearly. However, since there was no reference object in the image, the engineers could not determine the scale of the damage. In photographic situations similar to this, an object, such as a ruler, is placed within the field of view. This allows a person to look at a photograph and have a visual indication of the scale of the objects in it. In the External Tank situation, however, this procedure was not possible. As a solution, Kennedy developed the Scaling and Measurement Device for Photographic Images, which provides a non-intrusive means of adding a scale to a photograph. In addition to meeting Kennedy's needs, scaling images is extremely important in crime and accident scene investigations, oil and chemical tank monitoring, and aerial photography. The innovation consists of a tool that attaches directly to a camera or charge coupled device using a standard screw. Two lasers fitted to the device provide parallel beams that are set 1 inch apart. These lasers enable the device to project a pattern into the field of view. When a photograph is taken, the image of the laser pattern appears, along with the image of the object under investigation, allowing the viewer quantifiable information as to the size of the object. The laser beams are accurate to approximately 200 feet. Windows-based software was developed to work with the scaling device tool. The software provides further techniques to measure objects in photographs and digital images. By using the software, any object in the image can be measured diagonally, vertically, and horizontally. The device and its software enable the user to determine two-dimensional measurements within a photograph.

  9. DEBATING ABOUT SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen CÎRSTEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the cirumstances of every day life which requires the need to adapt the leadership style. Leadership needs a lot of abilities and skills, including the capability to communicate. The paper deals with leader’s need of changing the style of leading as organizational circumstances change. The process is efficient only when the leaders and the followers have the right climate. The importance of this process is reflected in the productivity of the organization. As the economic climate changes the leadership style needs to be changed and also the style of communication throughout the leader coaches, coordinates, evaluates and supervises. Leadership is about organizing a group of people to achieve a goal. The leader may or may not have any formal authority. Students of leadership have produced theories involving traits, situational interaction, function, behavior, power, vision and values, charisma, and intelligence, among others. This paper describes the styles of leadership which the leaders must use and switch when is needed in comparison with what leadership is about.

  10. Solutions for Hot Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    From the company that brought the world an integral heating and cooling food service system after originally developing it for NASA's Apollo Program, comes yet another orbital offshoot: a product that can be as thin as paper and as strong as steel. Nextel Ceramic Textiles and Composites from 3M Company offer space-age protection and innovative solutions for hot situations, ranging from NASA to NASCAR. With superior thermal protection, Nextel fabrics, tape, and sleevings outperform other high temperature textiles such as aramids, carbon, glass, and quartz, permitting engineers and manufacturers to handle applications up to 2,500 F (1,371 C). The stiffness and strength of Nextel Continuous Ceramic Fibers make them a great match for improving the rigidity of aluminum in metal matrix composites. Moreover, the fibers demonstrate low shrinkage at operating temperatures, which allow for the manufacturing of a dimensionally stable product. These novel fibers also offer excellent chemical resistance, low thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, low porosity, and unique electrical properties.

  11. Carsharing situation in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandar Erceg

    2014-01-01

    Carsharing is becoming very popular in the western world as an effective method to contain rising prices of fuel and vehicles. It was brought about as a possible solution to the changing condition of growing economies and population where there is an increased need for travel but there is also a need for expense economizing. Due to its role in reducing fuel consumption, controlling pollution and traffic congestion, there is an increased usage of carsharing services as an alternative transport...

  12. The role of endogenous antifreeze protein enhancers in the hemolymph thermal hysteresis activity of the beetle Dendroides canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, John G.; Serianni, Anthony S.

    2002-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) lower the freezing point of water by a non-colligative mechanism, but do not lower the melting point, therefore producing a difference between the freezing and melting points termed thermal hysteresis. Thermal hysteresis activity (THA) of AFPs from overwintering larvae of the beetle Dendroides canadensis is dependent upon AFP concentration and the presence of enhancers of THA which may be either other proteins or low molecular mass enhancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of endogenous enhancers in winter D. canadensis hemolymph.Winter hemolymph collected over four successive winters (1997-1998 to 2000-2001) was tested. The first three of these winters were the warmest on record in this area, while December of the final year was the coldest on record. Protein and low molecular mass enhancers raised hemolymph THA 60-97% and 35-55%, respectively, based on hemolymph with peak THA for each year collected over the four successive winters. However, the hemolymph AFPs were not maximally enhanced since addition of the potent enhancer citrate (at non-physiologically high levels) resulted in large increases in THA. (13)NMR showed that glycerol was the only low molecular mass solute present in sufficiently high concentrations in the hemolymph to function as an enhancer. Maximum THA appears to be approximately 8.5 degrees C.

  13. METHODOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana KOVALCHUK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of theoretical and methodological principles of situational analysis. The necessity of situational analysis is proved in modern conditions. The notion “situational analysis” is determined. We have concluded that situational analysis is a continuous system study which purpose is to identify dangerous situation signs, to evaluate comprehensively such signs influenced by a system of objective and subjective factors, to search for motivated targeted actions used to eliminate adverse effects of the exposure of the system to the situation now and in the future and to develop the managerial actions needed to bring the system back to norm. It is developed a methodological approach to the situational analysis, its goal is substantiated, proved the expediency of diagnostic, evaluative and searching functions in the process of situational analysis. The basic methodological elements of the situational analysis are grounded. The substantiation of the principal methodological elements of system analysis will enable the analyst to develop adaptive methods able to take into account the peculiar features of a unique object which is a situation that has emerged in a complex system, to diagnose such situation and subject it to system and in-depth analysis, to identify risks opportunities, to make timely management decisions as required by a particular period.

  14. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  15. An individual-based modelling approach to estimate landscape connectivity for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrie H. Allen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Preserving connectivity, or the ability of a landscape to support species movement, is among the most commonly recommended strategies to reduce the negative effects of climate change and human land use development on species. Connectivity analyses have traditionally used a corridor-based approach and rely heavily on least cost path modeling and circuit theory to delineate corridors. Individual-based models are gaining popularity as a potentially more ecologically realistic method of estimating landscape connectivity. However, this remains a relatively unexplored approach. We sought to explore the utility of a simple, individual-based model as a land-use management support tool in identifying and implementing landscape connectivity. Methods. We created an individual-based model of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis that simulates a bighorn sheep traversing a landscape by following simple movement rules. The model was calibrated for bighorn sheep in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada, a region containing isolated herds that are vital to conservation of the species in its northern range. Simulations were run to determine baseline connectivity between subpopulations in the study area. We then applied the model to explore two land management scenarios on simulated connectivity: restoring natural fire regimes and identifying appropriate sites for interventions that would increase road permeability for bighorn sheep. Results. This model suggests there are no continuous areas of good habitat between current subpopulations of sheep in the study area; however, a series of stepping-stones or circuitous routes could facilitate movement between subpopulations and into currently unoccupied, yet suitable, bighorn habitat. Restoring natural fire regimes or mimicking fire with prescribed burns and tree removal could considerably increase bighorn connectivity in this area. Moreover, several key road crossing sites that could benefit from

  16. Wind-mediated horseweed (Conyza canadensis) gene flow: pollen emission, dispersion, and deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiyan; Ye, Rongjian; Qi, Meilan; Li, Xiangzhen; Miller, David R; Stewart, Charles Neal; DuBois, David W; Wang, Junming

    2015-07-01

    Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) is a problem weed in crop production because of its evolved resistance to glyphosate and other herbicides. Although horseweed is mainly self-pollinating, glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed can pollinate glyphosate-susceptible (GS) horseweed. To the best of our knowledge, however, there are no available data on horseweed pollen production, dispersion, and deposition relative to gene flow and the evolution of resistance. To help fill this knowledge gap, a 43-day field study was performed in Champaign, Illinois, USA in 2013 to characterize horseweed atmospheric pollen emission, dispersion, and deposition. Pollen concentration and deposition, coupled with atmospheric data, were measured in a source field (180 m by 46 m) and its surrounding areas up to 1 km downwind horizontally and up to 100 m vertically. The source strength (emission rate) ranged from 0 to 140 pollen grains per plant per second (1170 to 2.1×10(6) per plant per day). For the life of the study, the estimated number of pollen grains generated from this source field was 10.5×10(10) (2.3×10(6) per plant). The release of horseweed pollen was not strongly correlated to meteorological data and may be mainly determined by horseweed physiology. Horseweed pollen reached heights of 80 to100 m, making long-distance transport possible. Normalized (by source data) pollen deposition with distance followed a negative-power exponential curve. Normalized pollen deposition was 2.5% even at 480 m downwind from the source edge. Correlation analysis showed that close to or inside the source field at lower heights (≤3 m) vertical transport was related to vertical wind speed, while horizontal pollen transport was related to horizontal wind speed. High relative humidity prevented pollen transport at greater heights (3-100 m) and longer distances (0-1000 m) from the source. This study can contribute to the understanding of how herbicide-resistance weeds or invasive plants affect ecology

  17. Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii, molecular characterization, and seroprevalence in elk (Cervus canadensis) in Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Brown, J; Verma, S K; Cerqueira-Cézar, C K; Banfield, J; Kwok, O C H; Ying, Y; Murata, F H A; Pradhan, A K; Su, C

    2017-08-30

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. The ingestion of uncooked/undercooked meat and consumption of water contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts excreted by felids are the main modes of transmission of this parasite. T. gondii has been reported in multiple cervid species; however, little is known of the parasite in North American elk (Cervus canadensis). In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were detected in serum of wild elk from Pennsylvania collected during 2013-2016 by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25); 221 of 317 (69.7%) had MAT titers of 1:25 in 19, 1:50 in 28, 1:100 in 34, and 1:200 or higher in 140. Thus most (44.1%) elk had relatively high titers. Seroprevalence was slightly higher in males (76.9%) than females (67.5%, not statistically significant, Chi-square tests, P<0.0001) and was higher in adults (76.5%) than yearlings (46.4%, Odds ratio 3.82; 95% CL 1.72-8.47; P=0.001) or calves (21.7%, Odds ratio 12.58; 95% CL 4.51-35.10; P<0.0001). Annual seroprevalence was relatively stable throughout the period tested and ranged from 66.6% to 72.2%. Of the 101 elk harvested in 2016, hearts were bioassayed from 20 elk and tongues were bioassayed from 56; all tongue samples were negative. Viable T. gondii was isolated from hearts of two female elk, one of these was a seronegative adult and the other was a calf with no serum available for testing. Both T. gondii isolates were cultivated in cell culture and DNA derived from tachyzoites was characterized using the PCR-RFLP markers including SAG1, SAG2 (5'- 3'SAG2 and altSAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. One isolate belongs to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #2 and the other is genotype #5. Both genotypes are frequently identified in animals in North America. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. In vitro prion protein conversion suggests risk of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Morawski, A.R.; Carlson, C.M.; Chang, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affect both domestic sheep (scrapie) and captive and free-ranging cervids (chronic wasting disease; CWD). The geographical range of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis; BHS) overlaps with states or provinces that have contained scrapie-positive sheep or goats and areas with present epizootics of CWD in cervids. No TSEs have been documented in BHS, but the susceptibility of this species to TSEs remains unknown. Results: We acquired a library of BHS tissues and found no evidence of preexisting TSEs in these animals. The prion protein gene (Prnp) in all BHS in our library was identical to scrapie-susceptible domestic sheep (A136R 154Q171). Using an in vitro prion protein conversion assay, which has been previously used to assess TSE species barriers and, in our study appears to recollect known species barriers in mice, we assessed the potential transmissibility of TSEs to BHS. As expected based upon Prnp genotype, we observed BHS prion protein conversion by classical scrapie agent and evidence for a species barrier between transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and BHS. Interestingly, our data suggest that the species barrier of BHS to white-tailed deer or wapiti CWD agents is likely low. We also used protein misfolding cyclic amplification to confirm that CWD, but not TME, can template prion protein misfolding in A136R 154Q171genotype sheep. Conclusions: Our results indicate the in vitro conversion assay used in our study does mimic the species barrier of mice to the TSE agents that we tested. Based on Prnp genotype and results from conversion assays, BHS are likely to be susceptible to infection by classical scrapie. Despite mismatches in amino acids thought to modulate prion protein conversion, our data indicate that A136R154Q171 genotype sheep prion protein is misfolded by CWD agent, suggesting that these animals could be susceptible to CWD. Further investigation of TSE transmissibility to BHS, including

  19. PCR assay detects Mannheimia haemolytica in culture-negative pneumonic lung tissues of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) from outbreaks in the western USA, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Goldy, Andrea; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Subramaniam, Renuka; Batra, Sai Arun; Kugadas, Abirami; Raghavan, Bindu; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica E; Killion, Halcyon J; Edwards, William H; Ramsey, Jennifer M; Anderson, Neil J; Wolff, Peregrine L; Mansfield, Kristin; Bruning, Darren; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica consistently causes severe bronchopneumonia and rapid death of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) under experimental conditions. However, Bibersteinia trehalosi and Pasteurella multocida have been isolated from pneumonic bighorn lung tissues more frequently than M. haemolytica by culture-based methods. We hypothesized that assays more sensitive than culture would detect M. haemolytica in pneumonic lung tissues more accurately. Therefore, our first objective was to develop a PCR assay specific for M. haemolytica and use it to determine if this organism was present in the pneumonic lungs of bighorns during the 2009-2010 outbreaks in Montana, Nevada, and Washington, USA. Mannheimia haemolytica was detected by the species-specific PCR assay in 77% of archived pneumonic lung tissues that were negative by culture. Leukotoxin-negative M. haemolytica does not cause fatal pneumonia in bighorns. Therefore, our second objective was to determine if the leukotoxin gene was also present in the lung tissues as a means of determining the leukotoxicity of M. haemolytica that were present in the lungs. The leukotoxin-specific PCR assay detected leukotoxin gene in 91% of lung tissues that were negative for M. haemolytica by culture. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, an organism associated with bighorn pneumonia, was detected in 65% of pneumonic bighorn lung tissues by PCR or culture. A PCR assessment of distribution of these pathogens in the nasopharynx of healthy bighorns from populations that did not experience an all-age die-off in the past 20 yr revealed that M. ovipneumoniae was present in 31% of the animals whereas leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica was present in only 4%. Taken together, these results indicate that culture-based methods are not reliable for detection of M. haemolytica and that leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica was a predominant etiologic agent of the pneumonia outbreaks of 2009-2010.

  20. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Central Platte River

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution to the Platte River, but of unknown human health risk. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and fecal bacteria were exa...

  1. Canada lynx-bobcat (Lynx canadensis x L. rufus) hybrids at the southern periphery of lynx range in Maine, Minnesota and New Brunswick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica A. Homyack; Jennifer H. Vashon; Cade Libby; Edward L. Lindquist; Steve Loch; Donald F. McAlpine; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Michael K. Schwartz

    2008-01-01

    Hybridization between federally threatened Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and bobcat (L. rufus) was recently documented in the United States, but little is known regarding physical characteristics of hybrids compared to parent species. We report on the morphology and physical characteristics of five of seven Canada lynx-bobcat...

  2. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental brucella abortus challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the d...

  3. Macro-scale assessment of demographic and environmental variation within genetically derived evolutionary lineages of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), an imperiled conifer of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantha M. Prasad; Kevin M. Potter

    2017-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) occupies a large swath of eastern North America and has historically undergone range expansion and contraction resulting in several genetically separate lineages. This conifer is currently experiencing mortality across most of its range following infestation of a non-native insect. With the goal of better...

  4. The effects of moose (Alces alces L.) on hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) seedling establishment in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Vasiliauskas; L. W. Aarssen

    2000-01-01

    The effects of moose on eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) natural seedling establishment in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, were examined. Two thousand seedlings were tagged on 56 sites in 1992 and monitored for six years. Initial data collected included seedling height, browsing history and percent crown closure. At the end of the growing...

  5. First report of powdery mildew caused by Golovinomyces sp. (Euoidium sp. on the exotic ornamental plant Solidago canadensis (Asterales: Asteraceae in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin V. Thite

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In September 2013, leaves of Solidagocanadensis with typical symptoms of powdery mildew were collected in the Botanical Garden of Yashvantrao Chavan Institute of Science, Satara (M.S, India. The pathogen was identified as Euoidiumanamoph of Golovinomyces. This is the first report of powdery mildew on S. canadensis in India.

  6. Echinococcus canadensis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) is a valid species consisting of the mitochondrial genotypes G6, G7, G8 and G10

    Science.gov (United States)

    The species status of Echinococcus canadensis has long been controversial, mainly because it consists of the mitochondrial genotypes G6, G7, G8 and G10 with different host affinity: G6 (camel strain) and G7 (pig strain) with domestic cycles and G8 (cervid strain) and G10 (Fennoscandian cervid strain...

  7. The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhao, Lulu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yanchun; Du, Daolin

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species can exhibit allelopathic effects on native species. Meanwhile, the types of acid deposition are gradually changing. Thus, the allelopathic effects of invasive species on seed germination and growth of native species may be altered or even enhanced under conditions with diversified acid deposition. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaves extracts) of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of native species Lactuca sativa treated with five types of acid deposition with different SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 5:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:5, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid). Solidago canadensis leaf extracts exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. High concentration of S. canadensis leaf extracts also similarly exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on root length of L. sativa. This may be due to that S. canadensis could release allelochemicals and then trigger allelopathic effects on seed germination and growth of L. sativa. Acid deposition exhibited significantly negative effects on seedling biomass, root length, seedling height, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be ascribed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could produce toxic effects on seedling growth. Sulfuric acid deposition triggered more toxic effects on seedling biomass and vigor index of L. sativa than nitric acid deposition. This may be attributing to the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4(2-) and NO3(-) as well as the fertilizing effects mediated by nitric deposition. All types of acid deposition significantly enhanced the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on root length, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be due to the negatively synergistic effects of

  8. How to lead complex situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Pingel

    2013-01-01

    The military leader is experiencing increasingly more complex situations, whether it is as leader in a foreign combat environment or in the home-based public administration. Complex situations like these call for a special set of managerial responses and a special way of leading organisations....... The proposition of this article is that the methods that drive innovative processes, strengthening the creative culture, are necessary to manage complex situations in military contexts....

  9. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  10. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. This powerful technology will also find...

  11. Stress situations in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, M; Baylard, J F

    1994-01-01

    Several studies indicate that stress is inherently present in dental practice. The present study was conducted to help identify the factors underlying this stress and the relative contribution of each factor. A questionnaire presented participating dentists with 52 potentially-stressful situations related to dental practice. Respondents were asked to rate each situation on a five-point scale, using a range of responses that varied from "not stressful" to "exceedingly stressful," and "I don't know" to "not applicable." The present data are based on the ratings given by the 1,332 dentists practicing in Québec who answered the questionnaire (52 per cent). Ten situations received a mean score of greater than 3.0, and were therefore considered as above average stress-producing situations. The majority of these situations could be classified as being related either to dental procedures and office organization or to interpersonal relationships involving patients and/or office personnel. It was found that the older age groups showed significantly less stress for six of the 10 most stressful situations. This study has indicated the specific situations that most frequently lead to stress in dentists. The precise identification of these situations could lead to reduced stress through the elimination of its vague and insidious character. Furthermore, an understanding of the most common stress-causing situations allows the practitioner to take preventive measures to eliminate its damaging effects in the dental practice.

  12. Situational Awareness and Logistics Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Situational Awareness and Logistics Division researches, develops, implements, and analyzes advanced systems to protect, enhance, and ensure resilienceof the...

  13. Medical exposure to ionizing radiations at diagnosis aim of the French population: situation at the end of 2002 in order to implement a surveillance system;Exposition medicale aux rayonnements ionisants a visee diagnostique de la population francaise: etat des lieux fin 2002 en vue de la mise en place d'un systeme de surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donadieu, J.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut de veille sanitaire, Saint-Maurice (France); Scanff, P.; Aubert, B. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2006-04-15

    The principal result of this study, in the perspective of the implementation of an epidemiological follow-up of radiological practices, is to show that the scanner and the interventional radiology, that regroup about 8% and 1.5% of the examinations number, represent respectively about 35% and 19% of the dose to the population. These examinations are in regular progression these last years. A such evaluation allows to better adapt the efforts of the epidemiological surveillance of radiological practices. Our evaluation of the situation in France in 2002 allows a comparison with the previous data registered in France but also international comparisons. The comparison of French data during the twenty last years is based, firstly, on the comparison of the number of examinations. on this period, we observe a reduction of abdomen examinations with injection of contrast product without substitution at the profit of abdomen scanner but likely at the profit of non irradiating examinations such MRI or echography. Conversely, other indications of the scanner have been developed (head and thorax). The resultant of changes in the radiological practice in term of exposure to X radiation of the population is more difficult to analyse. In addition of the number of examinations, the radiological technique has reduced the exposure. More, the coefficient of weighting used for the calculation of efficient dose have been changed in 1990 with the passage of the ICRP 26 to the ICRP 60 recommendation. The international comparisons are also a problem of method: different approaches to compare acts, values of average efficient doses by examination are referred to doses established in Great britain when the real average efficient doses by examination vary from a country to another. An European project called 'Dose Datamed' is underway to homogenize the methods of collection. The strategies of examinations uses can be different in each country. The cumulative exposure of patients

  14. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    the purpose to do science and not to participate in polemics or litigations. For this reason, ESO has until now been silent in these matters, but we have now become obliged to make our opinion known". The ESO representative also made it clear, that "ESO does not question the rights of the claimants to recur to the Chilean Tribunals which must decide on the matter of ownership, and that ESO cannot be party to this lawsuit". He added that "ESO fully trusts that the Chilean Government will do whatever is necessary to defend the immunity of ESO". THE CURRENT SITUATION During the past few days, declarations from high officials at the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs have been made which clearly confirm ESO's immunity of jurisdiction from Chilean Courts. The same opinion has been ventured by Chilean experts in international law, quoted in various Chilean newspapers. On Friday, February 17, the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose M. Insulza, made a similar, very eloquent statement. ESO welcomes these articulate expressions that support its official position and trusts that the current situation will be speedily resolved by the competent Chilean authorities, so that the construction work at Paranal will not be stopped. During the past three decades, ESO's presence in Chile has been characterised by good relations to all sides. The development of astronomy in Chile during the past decades has reached such a level that it will now benefit from a new quality of cooperation. In addition to its past and numerous services to Chilean astronomy, ESO has recently considered to establish a "guaranteed" observing time for astronomers from this country, both at La Silla and the future VLT observatory on Paranal. With a proposed 10 percent quota for the VLT, Chilean astronomers will in fact have free access to the equivalent of 40 percent of one 8.2-metre telescope; the associated, not insignificant cost is entirely carried by ESO. ESO has also considered to incorporate

  15. Testing a West Nile virus vaccine in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.; Docherty, D.; Sileo, L.; Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    Eight sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) were vaccinated with a commercial equine West Nile virus vaccine (Fort Dodge Animal Health, Fort Dodge, Iowa, USA) at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA. Three doses of the vaccine were given, the first dose (day 0) was followed by a second 21 days later and the third dose 7 days after the second day 28 after the first dose). All doses were 0.50 ml. In addition, 5 sandhill cranes were given injections of similar amounts of sterile water on the same schedule. Blood for complete blood counts, serum chemistries, and serological testing was collected at weekly intervals. Ten weeks after the first injection of the vaccine and 6 weeks after the last of the 3 injections of the vaccine, the cranes were shipped to the USGS National Wildlife Heath Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. After a two-week adjustment period, 11 of these cranes were injected intramuscularly with one mosquito dose of West Nile virus. Two of the vaccinated cranes were not challenged and acted as uninfected controls. One week post challenge the only abnormal findings were slight weight loss (average 6% loss since the time of challenge with West Nile virus) and elevated white blood cell counts (heterophilic leukocytosis). There were no deaths and no clinically ill cranes (unvaccinated or vaccinated cranes) among the 11 challenged birds. All cranes were euthanized 6 weeks post challenge, and necropsies were performed. Pre-challenge titers showed no titer response to the vaccinations. However, when challenged, vaccinated cranes developed titers more quickly (within 7-10 days), and were viremic and shed virus via the cloaca for a shorter period of time than the unvaccinated cranes (2-7 days for vaccinated cranes versus 2-10 days for unvaccinated cranes). No remarkable lesions were noted in any of the cranes during the necropsy examinations. Histopathological findings are available for only four of the cranes at this time. Three of those

  16. Canine distemper virus-associated encephalitis in free-living lynx (Lynx canadensis) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) of eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoust, Pierre-Yves; McBurney, Scott R; Godson, Dale L; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2009-07-01

    Between 1993 and 1999, encephalitis caused by morbillivirus was diagnosed by immunohistochemistry and histology in six lynx (Lynx canadensis) and one bobcat (Lynx rufus) in the eastern Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Five of the six cases in lynx occurred within an 11-mo period in 1996-97. A second bobcat with encephalitis caused by unidentified protozoa and a nematode larva also had immunohistochemical evidence of neurologic infection by morbillivirus. The virus was identified as canine distemper virus (CDV) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing in four of five animals from which frozen tissue samples were available, and it was isolated in cell culture from one of them. To our knowledge, this is the first report of disease caused by CDV in free-living felids in North America.

  17. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Yamada, Catherine; Potter, Kathleen A; Herndon, Caroline; Foreyt, William J; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). One bighorn sheep died with acute pneumonia 90 days after commingling, but the other three remained healthy for >100 days. This unprecedented survival rate is significantly different (P=0.002) from that of previous bighorn-domestic sheep contact studies but similar to (P>0.05) bighorn sheep survival following commingling with other ungulates. The absence of epizootic respiratory disease in this experiment supports the hypothesized role of M. ovipneumoniae as a key pathogen of epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep commingled with domestic sheep.

  18. RNA sequencing of Populus x canadensis roots identifies key molecular mechanisms underlying physiological adaption to excess zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Andrea; Di Baccio, Daniela; Romeo, Stefania; Lombardi, Lara; Andreucci, Andrea; Lux, Alexander; Horner, David Stephen; Sebastiani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Populus x canadensis clone I-214 exhibits a general indicator phenotype in response to excess Zn, and a higher metal uptake in roots than in shoots with a reduced translocation to aerial parts under hydroponic conditions. This physiological adaptation seems mainly regulated by roots, although the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are still poorly understood. Here, differential expression analysis using RNA-sequencing technology was used to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to excess Zn in root. In order to maximize specificity of detection of differentially expressed (DE) genes, we consider the intersection of genes identified by three distinct statistical approaches (61 up- and 19 down-regulated) and validate them by RT-qPCR, yielding an agreement of 93% between the two experimental techniques. Gene Ontology (GO) terms related to oxidation-reduction processes, transport and cellular iron ion homeostasis were enriched among DE genes, highlighting the importance of metal homeostasis in adaptation to excess Zn by P. x canadensis clone I-214. We identified the up-regulation of two Populus metal transporters (ZIP2 and NRAMP1) probably involved in metal uptake, and the down-regulation of a NAS4 gene involved in metal translocation. We identified also four Fe-homeostasis transcription factors (two bHLH38 genes, FIT and BTS) that were differentially expressed, probably for reducing Zn-induced Fe-deficiency. In particular, we suggest that the down-regulation of FIT transcription factor could be a mechanism to cope with Zn-induced Fe-deficiency in Populus. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in adaption to excess Zn in Populus spp., but could also constitute a starting point for the identification and characterization of molecular markers or biotechnological targets for possible improvement of phytoremediation performances of poplar trees.

  19. RNA sequencing of Populus x canadensis roots identifies key molecular mechanisms underlying physiological adaption to excess zinc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ariani

    Full Text Available Populus x canadensis clone I-214 exhibits a general indicator phenotype in response to excess Zn, and a higher metal uptake in roots than in shoots with a reduced translocation to aerial parts under hydroponic conditions. This physiological adaptation seems mainly regulated by roots, although the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are still poorly understood. Here, differential expression analysis using RNA-sequencing technology was used to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to excess Zn in root. In order to maximize specificity of detection of differentially expressed (DE genes, we consider the intersection of genes identified by three distinct statistical approaches (61 up- and 19 down-regulated and validate them by RT-qPCR, yielding an agreement of 93% between the two experimental techniques. Gene Ontology (GO terms related to oxidation-reduction processes, transport and cellular iron ion homeostasis were enriched among DE genes, highlighting the importance of metal homeostasis in adaptation to excess Zn by P. x canadensis clone I-214. We identified the up-regulation of two Populus metal transporters (ZIP2 and NRAMP1 probably involved in metal uptake, and the down-regulation of a NAS4 gene involved in metal translocation. We identified also four Fe-homeostasis transcription factors (two bHLH38 genes, FIT and BTS that were differentially expressed, probably for reducing Zn-induced Fe-deficiency. In particular, we suggest that the down-regulation of FIT transcription factor could be a mechanism to cope with Zn-induced Fe-deficiency in Populus. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in adaption to excess Zn in Populus spp., but could also constitute a starting point for the identification and characterization of molecular markers or biotechnological targets for possible improvement of phytoremediation performances of poplar trees.

  20. EVALUATION OF THE AMERICAN WATERWEED (ELODEA CANADENSIS MICHX. AS SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD FOR THE NOBLE CRAYFISH, ASTACUS ASTACUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’AGARO E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a preliminary study to evaluate the capacity of summerling Astacus astacus to consume the American waterweed (Elodea canadensis Michx..under artificial rearing conditions. Summerling A. astacus (initial b.w.: 0.32 ± 0.02 g were cultured (50 crayfish/m2 in 600l tanks for 89 days. The experimental design was composed of three treatments as follows: control diet (D (crude protein: 40.9% DM; ether extract: 7.4% DM, elodea (E (crude protein: 25.8% DM; ether extract: 1.4% DM and control diet + elodea (D + E with three replicates per treatment. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, and other water parameters were measured weekly (T: 20.1°C; O2: 7.2 mg/l; pH: 7.5; N-NH4: 0.05 mg/l; N-NO2: 0.01 mg/l; N-NO3: 29.9 mg/l. The relative growth rate was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in treatment D + E (195% and D (143% than in E (65%. The reduced growth observed in crayfish fed elodea only can probably be due to the lower dietary lipid level of the plant respect to the standard crayfish requirements. At the end of the experiment, the survival rate of A. astacus was higher (P < 0.05 for the treatment D + E (87% and D (81%, compared to E (56%. Our results suggest that E. canadensis can be used as a non-expensive supplemental food in order to increase growth and survival in summerling noble crayfish. They also showed that A. astacus has the potential to consume this macrophyte in nature.

  1. Emergency situations; Les situations d'urgence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  2. Predictive Situational Awareness Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Situational Awareness is the key element of performing safe and effective operations, and the space vehicle operations carried out by NASA is by no means an...

  3. Situational Prevention of Organised Crimes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, KA; Clarke, R.(Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America); Tilley, N

    2010-01-01

    Situational crime prevention is the art and science of reducing opportunities for crime. Despite accumulating evidence of its value in reducing many different kinds of crime - such as burglary, fraud, robbery, car theft, child sexual abuse and even terrorism - little has previously been published about its role in reducing organised crimes. This collection of case studies, by a distinguished international group of researchers, fills this gap by documenting the application of a situational pre...

  4. MEDIA INFLUENCE ON OPERATIVE SITUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail M. Ardavov

    2016-01-01

    The problems regarding the influence of the media on various aspects of society are viewed in the article. Historical facts of the media influence on large groups of people are given. Concerning the discussed problem views on the concept of operative situation are set out. Analysis of factors affecting the operative situation is given. Based on the analysis of publications devoted to the problem of the media influence on the processes in society, a generalization of areas of their impact on t...

  5. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  6. The Economic Situation in Contemporary Africa: Comment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic situation in contemporary Africa is highly problematic, creating populations that are in general much discontented with matters as they now stand. Africa's populations are now assailed by negative phenomena such as high unemployment; low wages in an environment of high prices (Third World wages and ...

  7. Differences in blood haptoglobin and length-mass relationships in river otters (Lutra canadensis) from oiled and nonoiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, L.K.; Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W.; Faro, J.B. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Significant differences in levels of blood haptoglobin occurred between river otters (Lutra canadensis) inhabiting oiled (mean = 361 mg/100 ml, SD = 38, n = 6) and nonoiled (mean = 306 mg/100 ml, SD = 87, n = 8) areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Additionally, male river otters from oiled areas had significantly lower body mass (1.13 kg) than male otters from nonoiled areas. We propose oil-related causes for these differences.

  8. Identificación de los mecanismos subyacentes a la invasión de Castor canadensis (Rodentia en el archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego, Chile Identifying the mechanisms underlying the invasion of Castor canadensis (Rodentia into Tierra del Fuego archipelago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRA K WALLEM

    2007-09-01

    conceptual sobre el cual se pueden desarrollar futuras investigaciones referentes a esta invasiónCastor canadensis is considered an archetypical ecosystem engineer, which modifies the state of biotic and abiotic factors through non-trophic interactions. This species was introduced by the Argentinean government into Tierra del Fuego island in 1946, and subsequently colonized autonomously the neighboring islands of Navarino, Dawson and Hoste. Currently this invader occupies contrasting ecosystems such as the Magellan subpolar beech forest and Patagonian scrub and steppe. This ability to colonize contrasting habitats suggests that beaver expansion will be limited mainly by hydrological resources, threatening to colonize the complete extent of temperate beech forests on the mainland (from 35 to 55° S. The present review proposes three hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms to this successful invasion: natural enemy escape, resource opportunities, and self-facilitation through non-trophic interactions. Current knowledge regarding beaver colonization and foraging behavior (e.g., habitat selection independently of forest availability, irruptive population growth, and apparent selective exploitation of Nothofagus pumilio, dominant species in the Magellan forest suggests that enemy escape and resource opportunity are the main mechanisms underlying this invasion. The observation of higher densities of active colonies, where the extent of beaver habitat modification is larger, suggests that self-facilitation may be relevant to the success of this invasion. Current information does not allow testing these hypotheses, but it provides a framework to develop future investigations regarding this invasion in Tierra del Fuego

  9. The situation in Italy; La situation en Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-09-01

    Italy is the market leader for Autogas in Europe. It still has major potential for development in a context where environmental concerns are increasing, particularly in cities. Gianni Silvestrini, from the Italian Ministry of the Environment, outlined the situation in his country at the AEGPL Congress held in Prague. This article presents some extracts from his paper.

  10. The France energy situation; La situation energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  11. [Situational reactions in suicidologic practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrumova, A G; Vrono, E M

    1985-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the description of suicidal manifestations in mentally normal adolescents among typical behavioural disorders characteristic of situational reactions of this age. Three types of suicido-dangerous situational responses of adolescents were specified with regard to their age and auto-and heteaggressiveness ratio: reaction of deprivation, explosive reaction and reaction of auto-elimination. Suicidogenic conflicts were analyzed and spheres of age-specific suicidal conflicts were defined. It is advisable that outpatient management of mentally normal adolescents with a history of a suicidal attempt be conducted in a special room of presentive suicidological service.

  12. Upper secondary students’ situational interest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    ’ interest was investigated by a descriptive interpretive approach, based on data from classroom and field trip observations, video recording, and interviews. The findings provided evidence that substantial situational interest can be generated during a fieldtrip to a zoo. Students’ interest was triggered......This paper comprises a presentation of the findings of a case study that investigated how situational factors triggered 12th grade students’ interest during a field trip to a zoo. The purpose was to identify sources of interest and to investigate the attributes that make them interesting. Students...

  13. Cyber defense and situational awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Kott, Alexander; Erbacher, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for th

  14. Situated Learning: Conceptualization and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Lakshmi; Johnson, Norman; Junglas, Iris; Ives, Blake

    2010-01-01

    A focus on the interaction between cognitive schemas and context in situ has been suggested as fundamental in organizational decision making and information interpretation. Past research suggests that the situation and the social interaction that occur during learning at the cognitive level consist of factors that affect the process, but the…

  15. Average Convexity in Communication Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we study inheritance properties of average convexity in communication situations. We show that the underlying graph ensures that the graphrestricted game originating from an average convex game is average convex if and only if every subgraph associated with a component of the

  16. Albanian: Basic Course. Basic Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    The purpose of this volume is to provide the student with a vehicle for reviewing the grammar and vocabulary of Lessons 1-120 of "Albanian: Basic Course," and, with practice and the help of new words and idioms, increasing his fluency and scope of expression. The volume contains eleven units, each unit describing a situation, which in turn is…

  17. The Language Situation in Macao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xi

    2017-01-01

    In postcolonial societies, forces associated with globalization operate along with local geopolitical changes. The complex and multifaceted interactions between local, national, and global forces may take different sociolinguistic shapes in postcolonial societies. This study provides an overview of the language situation in Macao. The Portuguese…

  18. Nuclear situation in Japan; La situation du nucleaire au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis takes stock on the nuclear situation in Japan. It discusses the ambitious equipment program in collaboration with the France, the destabilization of the japanese nuclear industry following the accidents and the energy policy evolutions. It presents the projects of the japanese nuclear industry: the Monju reactor restart, the Pluthermal project, the reprocessing power plant of Rokkasho Mura, the new reactors, the russian weapons dismantling, the ITER site selection and the buy out of Westinghouse by Toshiba. (A.L.B.)

  19. Post-disturbance plant community dynamics following a rare natural-origin fire in a Tsuga canadensis forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Murray

    Full Text Available Opportunities to directly study infrequent forest disturbance events often lead to valuable information about vegetation dynamics. In mesic temperate forests of North America, stand-replacing crown fire occurs infrequently, with a return interval of 2000-3000 years. Rare chance events, however, may have profound impacts on the developmental trajectories of forest ecosystems. For example, it has been postulated that stand-replacing fire may have been an important factor in the establishment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis stands in the northern Great Lakes region. Nevertheless, experimental evidence linking hemlock regeneration to non-anthropogenic fire is limited. To clarify this potential relationship, we monitored vegetation dynamics following a rare lightning-origin crown fire in a Wisconsin hemlock-hardwood forest. We also studied vegetation in bulldozer-created fire breaks and adjacent undisturbed forest. Our results indicate that hemlock establishment was rare in the burned area but moderately common in the scarified bulldozer lines compared to the reference area. Early-successional, non-arboreal species including Rubus spp., Vaccinium angustifolium, sedges (Carex spp., grasses, Epilobium ciliatum, and Pteridium aquilinium were the most abundant post-fire species. Collectively, our results suggest that competing vegetation and moisture stress resulting from drought may reduce the efficacy of scarification treatments as well as the usefulness of fire for preparing a suitable seedbed for hemlock. The increasing prevalence of growing-season drought suggests that silvicultural strategies based on historic disturbance regimes may need to be reevaluated for mesic species.

  20. Nesting ecology of Greater Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) in riparian and palustrine wetlands of eastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWethy, D.B.; Austin, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Little information exists on breeding Greater Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) in riparian wetlands of the Intermountain West. We examined the nesting ecology of Sandhill Cranes associated with riparian and palustrine wetlands in the Henry's Fork Watershed in eastern Idaho in 2003. We located 36 active crane nests, 19 in riparian wetlands and 17 in palustrine wetlands. Nesting sites were dominated by rushes (Juncus spp.), sedges (Carex spp.), Broad-leaved Cattail (Typha latifolia) and willow (Salix spp.), and adjacent foraging areas were primarily composed of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), cinquefoil (Potentilla spp.),Rabbitbrush (Ericameria bloomeri) bunch grasses, upland forbs, Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides) and cottonwood (Populus spp.). Mean water depth surrounding nests was 23 cm (SD = 22). A majority of nests (61%) were surrounded by vegetation between 3060 cm, 23% by vegetation 60 cm in height. We were able to determine the fate of 29 nests, of which 20 were successful (69%). Daily nest survival was 0.986 (95% LCI 0.963, UCI 0.995), equivalent to a Mayfield nest success of 0.654 (95% LCI 0.324, UCI 0.853). Model selection favored models with the covariates vegetation type, vegetation height, and water depth. Nest survival increased with increasing water depth surrounding nest sites. Mean water depth was higher around successful nests (30 cm, SD = 21) than unsuccessful nests (15 cm, SD 22). Further research is needed to evaluate the relative contribution of cranes nesting in palustrine and riparian wetlands distributed widely across the Intermountain West.

  1. Signatures of self-assembly in size distributions of wood members in dam structures of Castor canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Blersch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Beavers (Castor canadensis construct dams on rivers throughout most of their historical range in North America, and their impact on water patterns in the landscape is considerable. Dam formation by beavers involves two processes: (1 intentional construction through the selection and placement of wood and sediment, which facilitates (2 the passive capture and accretion of suspended wood and sediment. The second process is a self-assembly mechanism that the beavers leverage by utilizing energy subsidies of watershed transport processes. The relative proportion of beaver activity to self-assembly processes in dam construction, however, is unknown. Here we show that lotic self-assembly processes account for a substantial portion of the work expended in beaver dam construction. We found through comprehensive measurement of the stick dimensions that the distributions for diameter, length, and volume are log-normal. By noting evidence of teeth markings, we determined that size distributions skewed significantly larger for wood handled by beavers compared to those that were not. Subsequent mass calculations suggest that beavers perform 50%–70% of the work of wood member placement for dam assembly, with riparian self-assembly processes contributing the remainder. Additionally, our results establish a benchmark for assessing the proportion of self-assembly work in similar riparian structures.

  2. Pathogenicity of West Nile virus and response to vaccination in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) using a killed vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.; Miller, Kimberli J.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Sileo, Louis

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus was introduced into the United States in the vicinity of New York, New York, USA in 1999. The virus has since killed large numbers of birds nationwide, especially, but not limited to, crows (Corvus brachyrhinchos). One sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) at the Bridgeport Zoo (Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA) reportedly died from West Nile virus, so sandhill cranes and endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana), both in the wild and in captive breeding colonies at United States Geological Service (USGS) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Laurel, Maryland, USA) were considered at risk. A killed vaccine in sandhill cranes was evaluated by vaccinating and then challenging these cranes with live West Nile virus. No sandhill cranes inoculated with the killed vaccine developed significant titers when compared with unvaccinated controls. No sandhill cranes inoculated with the vaccine and challenged with the virus died from West Nile virus infection. In addition, no unvaccinated challenged sandhill cranes died. However, 2 days postchallenge, vaccinated cranes had significantly less viremia (P virus (P < 0.05) than unvaccinated cranes and significantly less weight loss (P < 0.05) as compared with unvaccinated cranes. Vaccinated sandhill cranes developed significantly higher titers 14 days postchallenge and were viremic for shorter periods of time after challenge than unvaccinated individuals. Unvaccinated challenged cranes had glial cell aggregates in both the brain and brain stem areas, and this was not observed in vaccinated challenged cranes or in vaccinated unchallenged cranes.

  3. Consequences of intratumoral injection of a herbal preparation containing blood root (Sanguinaria canadensis) extract in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Michael O; Burgess, Richard C F; Holland, Christine H; Gelb, Hylton R

    2011-08-01

    2 dogs were referred for surgical removal of cutaneous tumors that had previously been treated by intratumoral injection of a herbal preparation containing blood-root (Sanguinaria canadensis) extract. 11 days following injection of bloodroot extract into a small dermal tumor, dog 1 developed a large, soft, fluctuant cutaneous mass at the site of injection. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the mass revealed a fluid-filled central cavity with increased echogenicity of the surrounding subcutaneous tissues. Dog 2 had a small dermal tumor under the left mandible that had been treated in similar fashion. However, an exuberant reaction was not observed following injection of bloodroot extract in this dog. Both dogs underwent surgical excision of the cutaneous tumors. Histologic evaluation revealed severe necrosis and inflammation in the excised tissues from dog 1. This dog experienced postsurgical wound complications and had a prolonged postsurgical recovery. Similar, although less severe, histopathologic findings were apparent in the excised tissues from dog 2; this dog recovered without complications. Various products containing bloodroot are marketed on the Internet for topical and parenteral treatment of cutaneous neoplasms in domestic animals. However, the antineoplastic properties, therapeutic efficacy, and adverse effects of these products are poorly described in the veterinary literature. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for harm caused by the use of these products.

  4. Antibacterial properties of extracts of Solidago canadensis and their potential use as dietary supplements in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manhong YE,Lei ZHANG,Jiaqi GE,Haifeng SUN,Jingjing NI,Shengmei YANG,Wanhong WEI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis is one of the most destructive invasive weeds in South-eastern China. To evaluate its potential application as dietary supplement in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, the antibacterial properties of aqueous and ethanol extracts of this plant against three major pathogenic bacteria in crayfish aquaculture were examined. Inhibition zone tests and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration revealed that the extracts had lower antibacterial activity than extracts from two traditional medicinal plants that possess antibacterial properties, garlic (Allium sativum and cortex phellodendri (Phellodendron chinense. However, they did exhibit greater antibacterial effects than extracts from another widely used medicinal plant, Sophora flavescens, and an aquatic weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides. Aqueous extracts of Canadian goldenrod gave greater inhibition than the ethanol extracts. Crayfish fed a diet with 2% these aqueous extracts exhibited significantly higher enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase, catalase and phenoloxidase (P<0.05. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that aqueous extracts of Canadian goldenrod are highly promising for the development of new dietary supplement for use in crayfish aquaculture.

  5. Variations of selected soil properties in the grass fields invaded and uninvaded by invasive goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranová Beáta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the invasion of exotic plants has been recognised as the serious cause of the biodiversity loss and natural habitats degradation and threat to the ecosystems functions, just the little attention has been paid to the potential impacts of the goldenrod invasion on the soil properties. Equally, currently obtained results are contrary and ambiguous. We tested whether the grass fields invaded and uninvaded by Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L. differ in pH, soil moisture, organic carbon (Cox, humus and P, K and Mg contents and related the variations to the chosen environmental variables. We did not find significant distinctions of the studied types of habitats in the selected physico-chemical soil properties as well as the relation between the goldenrod invasion and the changes in soil properties. Nevertheless, whereas the soil reaction, soil moisture and Mg content were higher in the invaded soils, the Cox, humus and P and K contents were higher in the uninvaded ones. Doubtless, further attention need to be paid to this problem.

  6. Volatile Organic Compounds from the Clone Populus x canadensis “Conti” Associated with Megaplatypus mutatus Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis (Coleoptera, Platypodidae is an ambrosia beetle native to South America. It builds internal galleries that weaken the tree trunks, causing them severe stem breakage and mortality in commercial poplar plantations. The host selection by male M. mutatus has previously been correlated with the increasing diameter. This work explores the possibility that differential susceptibility of individual plants to M. mutatus could be associated with volatiles emitted. The comparison of the VOCs profiles of attacked and nonattacked P. x canadensis “Conti” 12 during M. mutatus flying season showed both qualitative and quantitative differences. The attacked plants, but not the nonattacked ones, showed the following compounds: a long chain aldehyde, α-ylangene, δ-cadinene, α-gurjunene, and β-cubebene; on the other side, β-sesquiphellandrene and β-chamigrene were detected only in nonattacked plants. α-Copaene is a common component of all the samples analyzed, but its proportion is increased in attacked individuals. Behavioral bioassays showed that males but not females M. mutatus are attracted to α-copaene. The relative increase of α-copaene in attacked individuals and the positive behavioral answer of males to it suggest that this compound could play a role in the orientation of the pioneer male towards the most suitable host.

  7. The Impact of Different Habitat Conditions on the Variability of Wild Populations of a Medicinal Plant Betonica officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Kostrakiewicz-Gierałt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are important source of beneficial bioactive compounds which may find various applications as functional ingredients, such as components of food supplements, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. One such medicinal plant is Betonica officinalis, populations of which were investigated in 2012‒13. The studies were conducted in patches of Molinietum caeruleae dominated by: small meadow taxa (patch I; the shrub willow Salix repens ssp. rosmarinifolia (patch II; large tussock grasses Deschampsia caespitosa and Molinia caerulaea (patch III; tall-growing macroforbs Filipendula ulmaria and Solidago canadensis (patch IV. Over successive patches, the average height of plant cover increased, as did soil moisture, while light availability at ground level decreased. Much greater abundance and density of the Betonica officinalis population were found in patches I, III and IV, while lower values for these parameters were noted in patch II. Individuals in pre-reproductive stages were absent during whole study period in all study plots, vegetative ramet clusters were observed in plots situated in patches I and III in the first year of observations, while only generative ramet clusters occurred in plots set in patches II and IV. The number of rosettes per ramet cluster, number and dimensions of rosette leaves, height of flowering stems, number of cauline leaves, length of inflorescences, as well as number and length of flowers increased gradually over successive patches, whereas the number of generative stems per ramet cluster did not differ remarkably among populations. On the basis of the performed studies it might be concluded that the condition of populations deteriorated from patches overgrown by large-tussock grasses and characterized by considerable share of native and alien tall-growing macroforbs, via patch dominated by small meadow taxa, to patch prevailed by shrub willows.

  8. Patterns of ovarian and luteal activity in captive and wild Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry V. Fanson; Nadja C. Wielebnowski; Tanya M. Shenk; Jennifer H. Vashon; John R. Squires; Jeffrey R. Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Canada lynx face some unique breeding restrictions, which may have implications for population viability and captive management. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of basic reproductive physiology in Canada lynx. Using fecal hormone metabolite analysis, we established normative patterns of fecal estrogen (fE) and progestagen (fP)...

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Quantitative PCR Assay Targeting Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) Fecal Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    While the microbial water quality in the Platte River is seasonally impacted by excreta from migrating cranes, there are no methods available to study crane fecal contamination. Here we characterized microbial populations in crane feces using phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gen...

  10. Upper secondary students’ situational interest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    This paper comprises a presentation of the findings of a case study that investigated how situational factors triggered 12th grade students’ interest during a field trip to a zoo. The purpose was to identify sources of interest and to investigate the attributes that make them interesting. Students......’ interest was investigated by a descriptive interpretive approach, based on data from classroom and field trip observations, video recording, and interviews. The findings provided evidence that substantial situational interest can be generated during a fieldtrip to a zoo. Students’ interest was triggered....... The study implies that zoo visits can provide students with affective experiences, which can be a powerful way to stimulate students’ learning motivation....

  11. Situational Analysis of Engineering Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    STS inspired studies of engineering work practices provide new material for a richer understanding of engineering culture. However, the specific and strictly situated focus of many of these studies threatens to limit discussions of engineering practices to departmental and discrete institutional...... settings. This micro perspective potentially overlooks the inherent and overarching normativities that inform engineering culture. Furthermore, the micro perspective has difficulties in transgressing institutional boundaries in order to investigate the dynamics of cultural reproduction in engineering....... The paper will propose a research agenda that – inspired by George Marcus’ multi-sited ethnographic methodology (Marcus 1998) and Adele Clarke’s situational analysis (Clarke 2005) – analyze (and contrasts) engineering practices in diverse settings (e.g. engineering education and engineering work) in order...

  12. On viewing culture as situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    Practicing technical communicators deal with culture as an integral part of language and communication practices. Yet, etic models of culture based on dimensions of culture related to values (i.e. Hofstede, Trompenaars, Edward T. Hall, Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck) are so abstract that they are difficult......, the cultural dimension of power distance from Hofstede helps technical communicators approach the notion of context, but cannot be directly operationalized in design decisions for translating a product manual. To undo the reversal of scope which renders etic dimensions of cultures difficult to operationalize...... participate in social action (Bazerman 1988 & Miller 1984, 1994). To begin to define culture as situation, I will engage the cultural systems perspective (Kampf & Kastberg 2005). This perspective is based on the interaction between norms of behaviour and context in which Hofstede situated his dimensions...

  13. A tutorial on situated learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Clancey, William J.

    1995-01-01

    The theory of situated learning claims that every idea and human action is a generalization, adapted to the ongoing environment, because what people see and what they do arise together. From this perspective, thinking is a physical skill. As we create names for things, shuffle around sentences in a paragraph, and interpret what our statements mean, every step is controlled not by reinstantiated grammars and previously constructed plans, but adaptively recoordinated from previous ways of seein...

  14. Cognitive empathy in conflict situations

    OpenAIRE

    Gauer, Florian; Kuzmics, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Two individuals are involved in a conflict situation in which preferences are ex ante uncertain. While they eventually learn their own preferences, they have to pay a small cost if they want to learn their opponent's preferences. We show that, for sufficiently small positive costs of information acquisition, in any Bayesian Nash equilibrium of the resulting game of incomplete information the probability of getting informed about the opponent's preferences is bounded away from zero and one.

  15. Population Genetics with Fluctuating Population Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R.

    2017-05-01

    Standard neutral population genetics theory with a strictly fixed population size has important limitations. An alternative model that allows independently fluctuating population sizes and reproduces the standard neutral evolution is reviewed. We then study a situation such that the competing species are neutral at the equilibrium population size but population size fluctuations nevertheless favor fixation of one species over the other. In this case, a separation of timescales emerges naturally and allows adiabatic elimination of a fast population size variable to deduce the fluctuation-induced selection dynamics near the equilibrium population size. The results highlight the incompleteness of the standard population genetics with a strictly fixed population size.

  16. Patterns of ovarian and luteal activity in captive and wild Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanson, Kerry V; Wielebnowski, Nadja C; Shenk, Tanya M; Vashon, Jennifer H; Squires, John R; Lucas, Jeffrey R

    2010-12-01

    Canada lynx face some unique breeding restrictions, which may have implications for population viability and captive management. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of basic reproductive physiology in Canada lynx. Using fecal hormone metabolite analysis, we established normative patterns of fecal estrogen (fE) and progestagen (fP) expression in captive and wild female Canada lynx. Our results indicate that Canada lynx have persistent corpora lutea, which underlie their uncharacteristic fP profiles compared to other felids. Thus, fP are not useful for diagnosing pregnancy in Canada lynx. We also found that Canada lynx are capable of ovulating spontaneously. Captive females had higher concentrations of fE and fP than wild females. Both populations exhibit a seasonal increase in ovarian activity (as measured by fE) between February and April. Finally, there was evidence of ovarian suppression when females were housed together. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine intended to protect Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) from plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L.; Shenk, Tanya M.; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing restoration program in Colorado, USA, we evaluated adverse reactions and seroconversion in captive Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) after vaccination with a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine against Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague. Ten adult female lynx received the F1-V vaccine; 10 source- and age-matched lynx remained unvaccinated as controls. All of the vaccinated and control lynx remained apparently healthy throughout the confinement period. We observed no evidence of injection site or systemic reactions to the F1-V vaccine. Among vaccinated lynx, differences in log10 reciprocal antibody titers measured in sera collected before and after vaccination (two doses) ranged from 1.2 to 5.2 for anti-F1 antibodies and from 0.6 to 5.2 for anti-V antibodies; titers in unvaccinated lynx did not change appreciably over the course of confinement prior to release, and thus differences in anti-F1 (P=0.003) and anti-V (P=0.0005) titers were greater among vaccinated lynx than among controls. Although our findings suggest that the F1-V fusion protein vaccine evaluated here is likely to stimulate antibody responses that may help protect Canada lynx from plague, we observed no apparent differences in survival between vaccinated and unvaccinated subject animals. Retrospectively, 22 of 50 (44%; 95% confidence interval 29–59%) unvaccinated lynx captured or recaptured in Colorado during 2000–08 had passive hemagglutination antibody titers >1:16, consistent with exposure to Y. pestis; paired pre- and postrelease titers available for eight of these animals showed titer increases similar in magnitude to those seen in response to vaccination, suggesting at least some lynx may naturally acquire immunity to plague in Colorado habitats.

  18. A global review on the influence of beavers (Castor fiber, Castor canadensis) on river and floodplain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Annegret; Lane, Stuart; Larsen, Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Beavers (Castor fiber, Castor canadensis) have the ability to actively engineer their habitat, which they can do most effectively in lower order streams and their floodplains. Hence, this engineering has the potential to alter the hydrology, geomorphology, biogeochemistry, and ecology of river systems and the feedbacks between them. Thus, the beaver is often referred to as an 'ecosystem engineer' and is reflected in their recognition as a key species when restoring ecosystems. This capacity to engineer low order streams also shapes a range of positive and negative perceptions on their influence. On the one hand they may be perceived as capable of undermining existing river engineering schemes and the land use of associated floodplains, and on the other hand beavers may provide an alternative to traditional 'hard' engineering, potentially improving river restoration success. The aim of this review is to summarize research to date on the impacts of beavers on stream and floodplain hydrology, geomorphology, water-quality and ecology, and the feedbacks between them. Our review shows that: (1) research has been focused heavily on North American streams, with far less research outside this North American context; (2) there is a tendency to investigate beaver impacts from the perspective of individual disciplines, to the detriment of considering broader process feedbacks, notably at the interface of hydro-geomorphology and riparian ecology; (3) it remains unclear to which extent beavers genuinely engineered streams prior to human impact, pointing to the need for longer term (millennium scale) studies on how beavers have changed river-floodplain systems. Crucially, we conclude that the investigation of the effects of beavers on streams and floodplains, especially in a longer-term, and their use for river restoration can only be understood through the thorough investigation of antecedent hydro-geomorphic conditions which takes account of the ways in which beavers and humans

  19. Physiological and molecular responses to heavy metal stresses suggest different detoxification mechanism of Populus deltoides and P. x canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyó, Dániel; Horváth, Edit; Németh, Edit; Leviczky, Tünde; Takács, Kinga; Lehotai, Nóra; Feigl, Gábor; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Ördög, Attila; Gallé, Róbert; Csiszár, Jolán; Szabados, László; Erdei, László; Gallé, Ágnes

    2016-08-20

    Plants have divergent defense mechanisms against the harmful effects of heavy metals present in excess in soils and groundwaters. Poplars (Populus spp.) are widely cultivated because of their rapid growth and high biomass production, and members of the genus are increasingly used as experimental model organisms of trees and for phytoremediation purposes. Our aim was to investigate the copper and zinc stress responses of three outstanding biomass producer bred poplar lines to identify such transcripts of genes involved in the detoxification mechanisms, which can play an important role in the protection against heavy metals. Poplar cuttings were grown hydroponically and subjected to short-term (one week) mild and sublethal copper and zinc stresses. We evaluated the effects of the applied heavy metals and the responses of plants by detecting the changes of multiple physiological and biochemical parameters. The most severe cellular oxidative damage was caused by 30μM copper treatment, while zinc was less harmful. Analysis of stress-related transcripts revealed genotype-specific differences that are likely related to alterations in heavy metal tolerance. P. deltoides clones B-229 and PE 19/66 clones were clearly more effective at inducing the expression of various genes implicated in the detoxification process, such as the glutathione transferases, metallothioneins, ABC transporters, (namely PtGSTU51, PxMT1, PdABCC2,3), while the P. canadensis line M-1 accumulated more metal, resulting in greater cellular oxidative damage. Our results show that all three poplar clones are efficient in stress acclimatization, but with different molecular bases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine intended to protect Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) from plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Shenk, Tanya M; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E

    2011-10-01

    As part of an ongoing restoration program in Colorado, USA, we evaluated adverse reactions and seroconversion in captive Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) after vaccination with a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine against Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague. Ten adult female lynx received the F1-V vaccine; 10 source- and age-matched lynx remained unvaccinated as controls. All of the vaccinated and control lynx remained apparently healthy throughout the confinement period. We observed no evidence of injection site or systemic reactions to the F1-V vaccine. Among vaccinated lynx, differences in log(10) reciprocal antibody titers measured in sera collected before and after vaccination (two doses) ranged from 1.2 to 5.2 for anti-F1 antibodies and from 0.6 to 5.2 for anti-V antibodies; titers in unvaccinated lynx did not change appreciably over the course of confinement prior to release, and thus differences in anti-F1 (P=0.003) and anti-V (P=0.0005) titers were greater among vaccinated lynx than among controls. Although our findings suggest that the F1-V fusion protein vaccine evaluated here is likely to stimulate antibody responses that may help protect Canada lynx from plague, we observed no apparent differences in survival between vaccinated and unvaccinated subject animals. Retrospectively, 22 of 50 (44%; 95% confidence interval 29-59%) unvaccinated lynx captured or recaptured in Colorado during 2000-08 had passive hemagglutination antibody titers >1:16, consistent with exposure to Y. pestis; paired pre- and postrelease titers available for eight of these animals showed titer increases similar in magnitude to those seen in response to vaccination, suggesting at least some lynx may naturally acquire immunity to plague in Colorado habitats.

  1. Spatiotemporal dynamics of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Audrey; Bigras Poulin, Michel; Rousseau, Alain N; Dubey, Jitender P; Ogden, Nicholas H

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, one of the more common zoonotic parasites in the world, can cause serious illness in humans and other animals worldwide. Felids are the only known host that can shed T. gondii oocysts, which are essential to the perpetuation of the parasite. In much of boreal Canada, the Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) is the only wild felid host that could contribute to environmental contamination with T. gondii oocysts. We estimated the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in Canadian lynx from western Québec and compared our results with earlier findings in the same region 12 yr earlier. We investigated factors associated with seroconversion, including age, sex, geographic location, and possible co-occurrence with domestic cats (Felis catus), and we assessed the proportion of lynx shedding T. gondii oocysts. Blood and fecal samples were collected from 84 lynx harvested by trappers in the eastern part of the study area during winter 2009-2010. Sera were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (cutoff titer 1:50) and fecal samples for parasite eggs by fecal flotation. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in sera of 14% of 84 lynx. Numerous helminth ova and coccidian oocysts were found in feces, whereas T. gondii-like oocysts were not detected. Antibody prevalence increased with age class (odds ratio [OR]=4.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.57-11.99, Plynx (36%) trapped in the western part of the study area during winter 1997-1998 (OR=0.18, 95% CI=0.08-0.44, Plynx in Canada, and we review possible abiotic and biotic ecologic factors supporting these findings.

  2. Harnessing cross-species alignment to discover SNPs and generate a draft genome sequence of a bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua M; Moore, Stephen S; Stothard, Paul; Liao, Xiaoping; Coltman, David W

    2015-05-20

    Whole genome sequences (WGS) have proliferated as sequencing technology continues to improve and costs decline. While many WGS of model or domestic organisms have been produced, a growing number of non-model species are also being sequenced. In the absence of a reference, construction of a genome sequence necessitates de novo assembly which may be beyond the ability of many labs due to the large volumes of raw sequence data and extensive bioinformatics required. In contrast, the presence of a reference WGS allows for alignment which is more tractable than assembly. Recent work has highlighted that the reference need not come from the same species, potentially enabling a wide array of species WGS to be constructed using cross-species alignment. Here we report on the creation a draft WGS from a single bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) using alignment to the closely related domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Two sequencing libraries on SOLiD platforms yielded over 865 million reads, and combined alignment to the domestic sheep reference resulted in a nearly complete sequence (95% coverage of the reference) at an average of 12x read depth (104 SD). From this we discovered over 15 million variants and annotated them relative to the domestic sheep reference. We then conducted an enrichment analysis of those SNPs showing fixed differences between the reference and sequenced individual and found significant differences in a number of gene ontology (GO) terms, including those associated with reproduction, muscle properties, and bone deposition. Our results demonstrate that cross-species alignment enables the creation of novel WGS for non-model organisms. The bighorn sheep WGS will provide a resource for future resequencing studies or comparative genomics.

  3. Effect of vaccination against pneumonia on the survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with carrier animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Bindu; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Kugadas, Abirami; Haldorson, Gary J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2017-05-01

    Leukotoxin producing (lkt+) members of Pasteurellaceae, particularly Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi are important pathogens of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis), causing fatal disease. Predisposing or concurrent infection with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae enhances the severity of the disease, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Several studies have investigated the effectiveness of vaccines against lkt+ members of Pasteurellaceae in preventing fatal pneumonia in BHS. In all of these studies, however, vaccinated animals were challenged experimentally, by direct inoculation of the pathogens, rather than by natural challenge. Moreover, none has investigated the efficacy of the vaccines under conditions of concurrent infection with M. ovipneumoniae. We immunized three bighorn rams and one pregnant ewe with an experimental multivalent vaccine along with a commercial vaccine. The immunized animals were then commingled with two bighorn ewes known to be carriers of lkt+ members of Pasteurellaceae, to simulate natural infection or disease transmission. All vaccinated animals remained healthy. We then inoculated the two carrier ewes with nasal washings from domestic sheep containing M. ovipneumoniae. Within a week, all animals developed mild to moderate signs of pneumonia. While the rams died within two-three months post-inoculation (p.i.), the vaccinated ewe and her lamb died five and eight months p.i., respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that vaccination of BHS against lkt+ members of Pasteurellaceae alone can protect them from natural challenge by these pathogens. However, it may not be adequate to protect them against pneumonia compounded by concurrent infection with M. ovipneumoniae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Personality and the Construal of Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Elysia Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The same situation may be perceived to have different qualities depending on who is making the assessment of the situation. Since situations have important implications for behavior, there is clearly value in pursuing an understanding of how people's perceptions of situations differ and what the predictors of these differences might be. However, few researchers have investigated this topic and none have examined its relationship to situations in a comprehensive manner. Following the developme...

  5. Retrospective dosimetry for the population in emergency situations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woda, Clemens; Fiedler, Irene; Urso, Laura; Kaiser, Jan Christian

    2012-01-15

    In this project, certain encapsulations of chip card modules, that find use in debit, credit, health insurance and SIM-cards and electronic components in portable electronic devices were identified as materials that are useful for reconstruction of individual radiation exposures in radiological emergencies. The developed measurement protocols allow the determination of individual doses within one day, with minimum detectable doses of 10-20 mGy for up to 10 days after exposure. All materials have the common feature of showing a linear dose response up to approx. 10 Gy but also a long-term signal instability for storage at room temperature. This implies that the time of exposure has to be known, in order to correct the signal using the fading curves determined in the project. Further, a maintenance-free BeO based luminescence detector was developed, showing high sensitivity and an essential flat photon energy response. Two computational procedures for two different cases were developed, in order to produce maps of contamination or effective dose from the localized dose measurements. (orig.)

  6. Steps towards a situational ethic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, P J

    1978-08-01

    The Australian Royal Commission on Human Relationships summarized the problems of adolescents and family planning by declaring there is a level of teenage sexual activity that cannot be ignored. Young single people have a low rate of effective contraception. Teenagers suffer a very high proportion of unwanted pregnancies and abortions. Placing the ethical questions in a contemporary social context enables society to face the issues in a practical, realistic fashion. Historically preserved traditions, like the taboo against premarital sex, are and will continue to be important in the bonding of families, individuals, and societies. A situational ethic applies to changes in the social fabric and addresses them. Society has changed from rural to urban, from agrarian to technological, from literacy to mass media, from superstitious knowledge of reproduction to scientific methods of birth control. The realities of change should be faced with a sense of ethics that is grounded in tradition and adjusted to the needs of the actual situation which is that too many teenagers have too many unwanted pregnancies. They can be helped.

  7. A traffic situation analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidla, Oliver; Rosner, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The observation and monitoring of traffic with smart visions systems for the purpose of improving traffic safety has a big potential. For example embedded vision systems built into vehicles can be used as early warning systems, or stationary camera systems can modify the switching frequency of signals at intersections. Today the automated analysis of traffic situations is still in its infancy - the patterns of vehicle motion and pedestrian flow in an urban environment are too complex to be fully understood by a vision system. We present steps towards such a traffic monitoring system which is designed to detect potentially dangerous traffic situations, especially incidents in which the interaction of pedestrians and vehicles might develop into safety critical encounters. The proposed system is field-tested at a real pedestrian crossing in the City of Vienna for the duration of one year. It consists of a cluster of 3 smart cameras, each of which is built from a very compact PC hardware system in an outdoor capable housing. Two cameras run vehicle detection software including license plate detection and recognition, one camera runs a complex pedestrian detection and tracking module based on the HOG detection principle. As a supplement, all 3 cameras use additional optical flow computation in a low-resolution video stream in order to estimate the motion path and speed of objects. This work describes the foundation for all 3 different object detection modalities (pedestrians, vehi1cles, license plates), and explains the system setup and its design.

  8. ASIA and OCEANIA: Literacy Experts Discuss the Current Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literacy Work, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A study of the literacy situation in the Asian region served as the basis for a Unesco regional conference. Findings of the study indicate that more than half of the world's illiterate population is in the Asia and Oceania regions. Factors contributing to successful literacy programs are presented. (LRA)

  9. Situational Leadership: Conscious Criteria Applied in Educational Leaders' Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Alan R.; Bentley, Ernest L., Jr.

    To test a situational leadership model, this study sought to determine (1) whether, among a population of educational administrators in East Tennessee, individuals possessing high flexibility/high effectiveness leadership characteristics can be identified and (2) whether those leaders consciously apply Hersey and Blanchard's concept of maturity…

  10. ANT, tourism and situated globality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; van der Duim, René

    2015-01-01

    are used to define as the separate spheres of nature and culture. This paper explores and relates the central tenets of ANT in tourism with regard to the concept of the Anthropocene. It presents the ANT approach as a flat and object-oriented ontology and methodology and explores its potentials to carve out...... viable descriptions of the collective condition of humans and more-than-humans in the Anthropocene. Also and moving past a merely descriptive approach, it discusses it as a useful tool to engage with the situated globalities which come into being through the socio-spatial coupling of tourism...... and the Anthropocene through, as we propose improvisation, valuing and caring....

  11. VACCINES AND IMMUNIZATION: WORLD SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Brundtland

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The last issue of the report «vaccines and immunization: world situation» stresses considerable success in immunization at the global level since the mid 90 s — completely total eradication of poliomyelitis across the world, as well as the drastic reduction of the new measles and tetanus cases among mothers and newborns in some poor countries. The report also briefly describes the progress in the development and implementation of the new life saving vaccines, which may save millions of lives annually. The authors have explained some of the reasons, why the global community should invest in immunization, as well as the perspectives for the use of vaccines and immunization in future.Key words: vaccine, immunization, children.

  12. Power restoration in emergency situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, B.R.; Mann, L.; Triantaphyllou, E.; Mahankali, S. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses a problem of assigning electric power repair crews and depots to various locations (cells) in a damaged area during emergency situations such as natural disasters. The problem takes into account the damage levels and consequent demand for various resources at different cells in the area, along with the capacity restrictions of the depots. Two mixed integer quadratic programming models - one for single resource and another for multiple resources allocation are presented in this paper. The objective is to locate the depots, and assigning the crews and other resources to depots to various cells, at a minimum cost. The problem is solved optimally for various dimensions of the problem (e.g., number of cells in the region, number of depots considered and the number of resources) for a limited instance. (UK)

  13. Situating forensic traces in time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyermann, Céline; Ribaux, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Situating events and traces in time is an essential problem in investigations. To date, among the typical questions issued in forensic science, time has generally been unexplored. The reason for this can be traced to the complexity of the overall problem, addressed by several scientists in very limited projects usually stimulated by a specific case. Considering that such issues are recurrent and transcending the treatment of each trace separately, the formalisation of a framework to address dating issues in criminal investigation is undeniably needed. Through an iterative process consisting of extracting recurrent aspects discovered from the study of problems encountered by practitioners and reported in the literature, common mechanisms were extracted and provide understanding of underlying factors encountered in forensic practise. Three complementary approaches are thus highlighted and described to formalise a preliminary framework that can be applied for the dating of traces, objects, persons and indirectly events. Copyright © 2011 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Innovative teaching in situational awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Audrey; Hogg, George; Ker, Jean

    2015-10-01

    In the UK the publication of the Health Select Committee Report highlighted the need to incorporate human factors training in health care education. In response there has been a rise in health care professional training in human factors, focusing on non-technical skills, such as teamwork, leadership and situational awareness. Using simulation and contextualised learning, we have developed a non-technical skills programme for undergraduate medical students that introduces situational awareness training in the first year. Early integration of human factors into the undergraduate programme can be built upon in a constructivist approach throughout the undergraduate curriculum. Initially no formal ethical approval was required as this was an integral part of the undergraduate teaching programme and did not involve patients; however, ethical approval was gained for the analyses of this session from the local University Research Ethics Committee. Approval included the information sheets and consent forms provided to students, which permitted use of data 'in future posters/publications/presentations'. Students were introduced to hazards and cues that they may find in clinical areas, encouraged to explore the simulated clinical areas gathering information, interpret their findings and then consider future states. There has been a rise in health care professional training in human factors, focusing on non-technical skills Initial feedback from both the students and the tutors involved has been positive. In addition, the opportunity for linking this to other non-technical skills developments in different clinical settings and in interprofessional settings is being considered. The next stage is to explore students' perceptions of this session and their learning through questionnaires and focus-group interviews before developing further. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Modeling sandhill crane population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    The impact of sport hunting on the Central Flyway population of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) has been a subject of controversy for several years. A recent study (Buller 1979) presented new and important information on sandhill crane population dynamics. The present report is intended to incorporate that and other information into a mathematical model for the purpose of assessing the long-range impact of hunting on the population of sandhill cranes.The model is a simple deterministic system that embodies density-dependent rates of survival and recruitment. The model employs four kinds of data: (1) spring population size of sandhill cranes, estimated from aerial surveys to be between 250,000 and 400,000 birds; (2) age composition in fall, estimated for 1974-76 to be 11.3% young; (3) annual harvest of cranes, estimated from a variety of sources to be about 5 to 7% of the spring population; and (4) age composition of harvested cranes, which was difficult to estimate but suggests that immatures were 2 to 4 times as vulnerable to hunting as adults.Because the true nature of sandhill crane population dynamics remains so poorly understood, it was necessary to try numerous (768 in all) combinations of survival and recruitment functions, and focus on the relatively few (37) that yielded population sizes and age structures comparable to those extant in the real population. Hunting was then applied to those simulated populations. In all combinations, hunting resulted in a lower asymptotic crane population, the decline ranging from 5 to 54%. The median decline was 22%, which suggests that a hunted sandhill crane population might be about three-fourths as large as it would be if left unhunted. Results apply to the aggregate of the three subspecies in the Central Flyway; individual subspecies or populations could be affected to a greater or lesser degree.

  16. Cognitive dynamic logic algorithms for situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, L. I.; Ilin, R.

    2010-04-01

    Autonomous situational awareness (SA) requires an ability to learn situations. It is mathematically difficult because in every situation there are many objects nonessential for this situation. Moreover, most objects around are random, unrelated to understanding contexts and situations. We learn in early childhood to ignore these irrelevant objects effortlessly, usually we do not even notice their existence. Here we consider an agent that can recognize a large number of objects in the world; in each situation it observes many objects, while only few of them are relevant to the situation. Most of situations are collections of random objects containing no relevant objects, only few situations "make sense," they contain few objects, which are always present in these situations. The training data contains sufficient information to identify these situations. However, to discover this information all objects in all situations should be sorted out to find regularities. This "sorting out" is computationally complex; its combinatorial complexity exceeds by far all events in the Universe. The talk relates this combinatorial complexity to Gödelian limitations of logic. We describe dynamic logic (DL) that quickly learns essential regularities-relevant, repeatable objects and situations. DL is related to mechanisms of the brain-mind and we describe brain-imaging experiments that have demonstrated these relations.

  17. Modeling intrinsic potential for beaver (Castor canadensis) habitat to inform restoration and climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittbrenner, Benjamin J; Pollock, Michael M; Schilling, Jason W; Olden, Julian D; Lawler, Joshua J; Torgersen, Christian E

    2018-01-01

    Through their dam-building activities and subsequent water storage, beaver have the potential to restore riparian ecosystems and offset some of the predicted effects of climate change by modulating streamflow. Thus, it is not surprising that reintroducing beaver to watersheds from which they have been extirpated is an often-used restoration and climate-adaptation strategy. Identifying sites for reintroduction, however, requires detailed information about habitat factors-information that is not often available at broad spatial scales. Here we explore the potential for beaver relocation throughout the Snohomish River Basin in Washington, USA with a model that identifies some of the basic building blocks of beaver habitat suitability and does so by relying solely on remotely sensed data. More specifically, we developed a generalized intrinsic potential model that draws on remotely sensed measures of stream gradient, stream width, and valley width to identify where beaver could become established if suitable vegetation were to be present. Thus, the model serves as a preliminary screening tool that can be applied over relatively large extents. We applied the model to 5,019 stream km and assessed the ability of the model to correctly predict beaver habitat by surveying for beavers in 352 stream reaches. To further assess the potential for relocation, we assessed land ownership, use, and land cover in the landscape surrounding stream reaches with varying levels of intrinsic potential. Model results showed that 33% of streams had moderate or high intrinsic potential for beaver habitat. We found that no site that was classified as having low intrinsic potential had any sign of beavers and that beaver were absent from nearly three quarters of potentially suitable sites, indicating that there are factors preventing the local population from occupying these areas. Of the riparian areas around streams with high intrinsic potential for beaver, 38% are on public lands and 17% are

  18. Modeling intrinsic potential for beaver (Castor canadensis) habitat to inform restoration and climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittbrenner, Benjamin J.; Pollack, Michael M.; Schilling, Jason W.; Olden, Julian D.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Torgersen, Christian E.

    2018-01-01

    Through their dam-building activities and subsequent water storage, beaver have the potential to restore riparian ecosystems and offset some of the predicted effects of climate change by modulating streamflow. Thus, it is not surprising that reintroducing beaver to watersheds from which they have been extirpated is an often-used restoration and climate-adaptation strategy. Identifying sites for reintroduction, however, requires detailed information about habitat factors—information that is not often available at broad spatial scales. Here we explore the potential for beaver relocation throughout the Snohomish River Basin in Washington, USA with a model that identifies some of the basic building blocks of beaver habitat suitability and does so by relying solely on remotely sensed data. More specifically, we developed a generalized intrinsic potential model that draws on remotely sensed measures of stream gradient, stream width, and valley width to identify where beaver could become established if suitable vegetation were to be present. Thus, the model serves as a preliminary screening tool that can be applied over relatively large extents. We applied the model to 5,019 stream km and assessed the ability of the model to correctly predict beaver habitat by surveying for beavers in 352 stream reaches. To further assess the potential for relocation, we assessed land ownership, use, and land cover in the landscape surrounding stream reaches with varying levels of intrinsic potential. Model results showed that 33% of streams had moderate or high intrinsic potential for beaver habitat. We found that no site that was classified as having low intrinsic potential had any sign of beavers and that beaver were absent from nearly three quarters of potentially suitable sites, indicating that there are factors preventing the local population from occupying these areas. Of the riparian areas around streams with high intrinsic potential for beaver, 38% are on public lands and 17

  19. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: Relationship to age and parasitism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klenavic, Katherine [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Champoux, Louise [Service Canadien de la Faune Environnement Canada, 1141 Route de l' Eglise, c.p. 10100, Sainte-Foy, QC G1V 4H5 (Canada)], E-mail: louise.champoux@ec.gc.ca; Mike, O' Brien [Furbearers and Upland Game, Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, NS B4N 4E5 (Canada)], E-mail: obrienms@gov.ns.ca; Daoust, Pierre-Y. [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of P.E.I., 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 4P3 (Canada)], E-mail: daoust@upei.ca; Evans, R. Douglas [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Evans, Hayla E. [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada)], E-mail: hevans@trentu.ca

    2008-11-15

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink. - Mercury (Hg) concentrations in liver, brain and fur are correlated in mink (Mustela vison) and otters (Lontra canadensis), allowing the use of fur as an indicator of internal tissue concentrations.

  20. System dynamics modelling of situation awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the requirements for effective Command and Control is good situation awareness. As situation awareness is a complex phenomenon due to social and cognitive interaction factors, its modelling, prediction and calculation can be difficult...

  1. Diagnosing Educational Leadership Problems: A Situational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Philip E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Discusses Situational Leadership Theory, a conceptual framework that can help managers improve their performance by varying their leadership style in various situations to fit the needs and capabilities of their subordinates. (JG)

  2. Characterizing the morphological complexity of North American beaver (Castor canadensis) habitats using ground-based LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, S. B.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bouwes, N. W.; Pollock, M. M.; Demeurichy, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    Beavers (Castor canadensis) are frequently referred to as ‘ecosystem engineers’ in part because of the profound influence their dams and associated networks of dens, side-channels and pools have on habitat heterogeneity and the complexity of the environments they occupy. Recently, beaver have been incorporated into stream restoration efforts to help reconnect incised streams to their floodplains and improve physical habitat for fish and other species of concern. Although these ecosystem engineers produce rich and complex habitats, they do not provide as-built drawings of their work and the dynamic habitats they construct are very difficult to survey and characterize for monitoring their effectiveness. Traditional ground-based topographic, vegetation and habitat surveys are often inadequate to properly characterize such habitats or detect change. Similarly, traditional remotely sensed data may lack the resolution and accuracy to detect important changes through time. To better understand the character and dynamics of these complex habitats created by beaver, we will present some data and new techniques for describing their structure using a hybrid ground-based and remote-sensing technology: ground-based LiDaR (a.k.a. terrestrial laser scanning - TLS). Specifically, we are seeking to use this data to explore the feedbacks between key components - beaver, riparian vegetation, channel complexity and their collective influence on salmonid habitat. The combination of high resolution and high accuracy 3D point clouds from TLS data provides new opportunities for characterizing physical habitat and detecting changes with repeat surveys. However, TLS also presents significant methodological challenges in how we manage and analyze data, which may be 2 to 5 orders of magnitude greater in size then traditional ground-based or remotely sensed data sets. Preliminary data and analyses from algorithms under on-going development will be presented. The data is from the first year

  3. [Situational panorama of Mexico against the chikungunya virus pandemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Abisai; Martínez-Ramos, Ericay Berenice; Chávez-Angeles, Manuel Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of emerging diseases emphasize the vulnerability of health systems, as is the case of chikungunya fever. The wide geographical incidence of the virus in the last years requires alerting systems for the prevention, diagnosis, control and eradication of the disease. Given the ecological, epidemiological and socio-economic characteristic of Mexico, this disease affects directly or indirectly the health of the population and development of agricultural, livestock, industrial, fishing, oil and tourism activities in the country. Due to this situation it is essential to make a brief analysis on the main clinical data, epidemiological and preventive measures with which our country counts with to confront the situation.

  4. [The demographic situation in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeck, R A

    1984-01-01

    The population census in 1976 and the Cameroon Fertility Survey (CFS) of 1978 have allowed the population profile of Cameroon to be better known, but data are still scarce on many topics. Several hypotheses were adopted for the elaboration of population estimates for 1983: mortality was assumed constant between 1976-86 despite constant improvements in the health infrastructure, fertility was assumed to be constant despite increases over the previous 2 decades, net migration was assumed to be negligible, and different structures such as education and employment were assumed constant in the absence of data. The population of Cameroon was estimated at about 9,540,000 as of June 1984. 42.8% was under 15 years of age. Children of school age (6-14 years) represented 23.7% of the total population, and 4.9% was over 60 years of age. The masculinity ratio was 99.6. In some rural areas the sex ratio was under 70 between ages 20-30. According to the 1976 census, in 1976 among men and women respectively, 39.5 and 15.9% were single, 55.8% and 66.8% were married, 2.1% and 13.9% were widowed, and 2.6% and 3.4% were divorced. According to CFS data, among men and women in 1978, 36.0% and 13.6% were single, 58.5% and 69.6% were married, 2.2% and 13.5% were widowed, and 3.0% and 3.6% were divorced. CFS data indicated that 63% of women and 46% of men had never attended school. 39.9% of the population was economically active in 1976. Unemployment reached 17.2% in urban areas and 4.3% in rural areas. The birth rate increased from 43/1000 in 1960-65 to 45/1000 in 1976. The mortality rate declined from 23/1000 in 1960-65 to 20/1000 in 1976, and life expectancy at birth increased from 37.5 to 44.6 in the same period (47 years for women and 42.3 for men). The infant mortality rate was 113/1000 in 1978, and the rate of natural increase was estimated at 2.5%.

  5. Situated Learning : Rethinking a Ubiquitous Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rod Pederson

    2012-01-01

    .... The purpose of this paper is to unpack how the basic theory of situated learning is related to a wide array of theories that use the basic concept of situating knowledge as a central tenet. In doing so, the author suggests that a more inclusive theory of situated learning is warranted.

  6. Emergency situations in SMEs : Are entrepreneurs prepared?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, E.; Montfort, van K.; Masurel, E.

    2012-01-01

    The article examines how entrepreneurs prepare for emergency situations in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Netherlands. It identifies the characteristics of SMEs and the theory related to emergency situations and the preparations for such situations. It also provides a detailed

  7. Understanding the Situation in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-15

    provides situational awareness refinement in the visualization of the battlefield. "The staff helps the commander communicate his battlefield... technolgy that enable situational awareness and situational understanding cannot be decisive. Explain how to obtain analysis and judgment. In obtaining the...Experience is best gained through training. An Additional Study The Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences conducted an Infantry

  8. Haïti, en situation post-séisme : quelques effets de la catastrophe du 12 janvier 2010 sur la population locale Haïti, in post-earthquake mode: some effects of the earthquake of January 12 2010 on the local population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evens Jabouin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Le violent séisme qui a secoué Haïti et sa capitale le 12 janvier 2010 dernier a laissé des séquelles au sein de la population haïtienne déjà fragilisée par la violence, la pauvreté et aussi par des catastrophes naturelles répétées (ouragans, inondations, érosion, etc.. Ce séisme, aussi prévisible qu’il soit, est une catastrophe naturelle et humanitaire sans précédent dont les principales causes sont l’absence de constructions et d’infrastructures solides, bâties selon les normes parasismiques, l’occupation anarchique de l’espace urbain par les populations et les nombreuses irrégularités incontestées observées dans le domaine de l’urbanisme. En outre, ce séisme s’est produit à un moment où l’on commençait à observer dans le pays un élan de stabilisation sur le plan politique, un mouvement de croissance économique ainsi qu’un début d’amélioration des conditions de vie des populations. La catastrophe est venue freiner cette dynamique socioéconomique tout en amplifiant les problèmes existants et en engendrant d’autres difficultés et d’autres défis. Cet article analyse, à travers des témoignages de première main et un état des lieux, les différents impacts de cette catastrophe sur la population locale ainsi que les interrogations et les incertitudes diverses de cette population concernant son avenir.On January the twelfth 2010, Haiti and its capital have been devastated by a very strong earthquake that has provoked many aftereffects among the local population since that population had already been weakened before by street violence, poverty and by frequent natural disasters such as hurricanes, floods... That earthquake, even foreseeable, has given way to an important disaster whose causes are the absence of well built infrastructures and buildings, the anarchic use of urban spaces by the population, and multiple irregularities in town planning issues. Furthermore, that earthquake took

  9. Employing Honeynets For Network Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barford, Paul; Chen, Yan; Goyal, Anup; Li, Zhichun; Paxson, Vern; Yegneswaran, Vinod

    Effective network security administration depends to a great extent on having accurate, concise, high-quality information about malicious activity in one’s network. Honeynets can potentially provide such detailed information, but the volume and diversity of this data can prove overwhelming. We explore ways to integrate honeypot data into daily network security monitoring with a goal of sufficiently classifying and summarizing the data to provide ongoing “situational awareness.” We present such a system, built using the Bro network intrusion detection system coupled with statistical analysis of numerous honeynet “events”, and discuss experiences drawn from many months of operation. In particular, we develop methodologies by which sites receiving such probes can infer—using purely local observation—information about the probing activity: What scanning strategies does the probing employ? Is this an attack that specifically targets the site, or is the site only incidentally probed as part of a larger, indiscriminant attack? One key aspect of this environment is its ability to provide insight into large-scale events. We look at the problem of accurately classifying botnet sweeps and worm outbreaks, which turns out to be difficult to grapple with due to the high dimensionality of such incidents. Using datasets collected during a number of these events, we explore the utility of several analysis methods, finding that when used together they show good potential for contributing towards effective situational awareness. Our analysis draws upon extensive honeynet data to explore the prevalence of different types of scanning, including properties, such as trend, uniformity, coordination, and darknet-avoidance. In addition, we design schemes to extrapolate the global properties of scanning events (e.g., total population and target scope) as inferred from the limited local view of a honeynet. Cross-validating with data from DShield shows that such inferences

  10. MAPPING A COMPLEX DECISIONAL SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin OGARCA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Any organization is confronted with a multitude of problems in a dynamic andcomplex environment. These problems can be independent, but, many times,they are interconnected. In this myriad of situations, it is difficult to identify thecausality relations between problems, which, logically, should also determinethe solving order. An organization is faced with a cash crisis, a substantialloss of clients, production equipment wear, poorly qualified personnel, andunsuitable products from a quality- related perspective. And in this context,what is the original problem, primary, and through its solving, the solution tothe other problems could be found? Is this the loss of clients, or cash crisis?Are we facing a cash crisis because the products are of poor quality anddon’t sell, or is it because we are facing a cash crisis we are unable to investin research- development, in order to increase product quality?We will try to find an answer to such dilemmas in this material. The problemis not a new one in the specialized literature. In the first part of the article wewill present a couple of previous solutions this problem has been given, andduring the second part we will propose a model derived from those known inthe specialized literature.

  11. Measuring the Evolutionarily Important Goals of Situations: Situational Affordances for Adaptive Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Nicolas A; Neel, Rebecca; Sherman, Ryne A

    2015-01-01

    .... This article introduces the Situational Affordances for Adaptive Problems (SAAP), a measure of situation characteristics that promotes or prevents the achievement of these evolutionarily important goals...

  12. Extreme situations due to gender violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Meneghel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of the third Critical Paths Seminar, held in Porto Alegre/Brazil in 2011, whose focus was extreme situations of gender violence. The extreme situations are human rights violations that include femicide or murder motivated by the situation of gender; LGBT murders, human rights violations of ethnic and racial minorities, sexual exploitation, violence to women in vulnerable situations and other violence caused by gender. The meeting objective was given space to share experiences, reflect critically and build strategies for facing violence and extreme situations resulting from gender systems.

  13. Sharing Space Situational Awareness Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, D.

    2010-09-01

    The Commander, United States Strategic Command (CDRUSSTRATCOM) accepted responsibility for sharing space situational awareness (SSA) information/services with commercial & foreign entities from the US Air Force on 22 Dec 09 (formerly the Commercial & Foreign Entities Pilot Program). The requirement to share SSA services with non-US Government (USG) entities is derived from Title 10, United States Code, Section 2274 (2010) and is consistent with the new National Space Policy. US Strategic Command’s (USSTRATCOM’s) sharing of SSA services consists of basic services (Two-Line Elements, decay data and satellite catalog details) available on www.space-track.org and advanced services (conjunction assessment, launch support, etc) available with a signed agreement. USSTRATCOM has requested USG permission to enter into international agreements to enable SSA data exchange with our foreign partners. USSTRATCOM recently authorized Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC SPACE) to share Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs) with satellite owner/operators whose satellites have been identified as closely approaching another space object. CSMs contain vector and covariance data computed using Special Perturbations theory. To facilitate the utility of the CSMs, USSTRATCOM has and is hosting CSM Workshops to ensure satellite operators fully understand the data contained in the CSM in order to provide an informed recommendation to their leadership. As JFCC SPACE matures its ability to accept ephemeris data from a satellite operator, it will be necessary to automatically transfer that data from one security level to another. USSTRATCOM and Air Force Space Command are coordinating the integration of a cross domain solution that will allow JFCC SPACE to do just that. Finally, USSTRATCOM is also working with commercial and governmental organizations to develop an internationally-accepted conjunction assessment message. The United States Government (USG), specifically the

  14. Learning situation models in a smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdiczka, Oliver; Crowley, James L; Reignier, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of learning situation models for providing context-aware services. Context for modeling human behavior in a smart environment is represented by a situation model describing environment, users, and their activities. A framework for acquiring and evolving different layers of a situation model in a smart environment is proposed. Different learning methods are presented as part of this framework: role detection per entity, unsupervised extraction of situations from multimodal data, supervised learning of situation representations, and evolution of a predefined situation model with feedback. The situation model serves as frame and support for the different methods, permitting to stay in an intuitive declarative framework. The proposed methods have been integrated into a whole system for smart home environment. The implementation is detailed, and two evaluations are conducted in the smart home environment. The obtained results validate the proposed approach.

  15. Situation Change: Stability and Change of Situation Variables between and within Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauthmann, John F; Sherman, Ryne A

    2015-01-01

    When, how, and why situations flow into one another is important for understanding dynamic personality processes, but the topic of situation change has traditionally been a thorny issue in personality/social psychology. We explore conceptual and methodological issues in research on situation change: (1) What is situation change, which variables could we measure, and how can situation change be methodologically captured and analyzed (at between- and within-person levels)? (2) Which person-situation transaction mechanisms (situation management strategies) could entail stability and change of situations in daily life? (3) How do single or repeated instances of situation change impact short-, middle-, and long-term outcomes (e.g., intra- and interpersonal adjustment)? Besides laying out a research program for situation change, we present preliminary data from participants who wore mini-video cameras recording their situations so that they could be rated later in the lab. We demonstrate rater consensus on when situations change, mean-level changes of situation characteristics across situations, similarity of situation characteristics across adjacent situations, and inter-individual differences in intra-individual situation change in change networks.

  16. Situation Change: Stability and Change of Situation Variables Between and Within Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Rauthmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When, how, and why situations flow into one another is important for understanding dynamic personality processes, but the topic of situation change has traditionally been a thorny issue in personality/social psychology. We explore conceptual and methodological issues in research on situation change: (1 What is situation change, which variables could we measure, and how can situation change be methodologically captured and analyzed (at between- and within-person levels? (2 Which person-situation transaction mechanisms (situation management strategies could entail stability and change of situations in daily life? (3 How do single or repeated instances of situation change impact short-, middle-, and long-term outcomes (e.g., intra- and interpersonal adjustment? Besides laying out a research program for situation change, we present preliminary data from participants who wore mini-video cameras recording their situations so that they could be rated later in the lab. We demonstrate rater consensus on when situations change, mean-level changes of situation characteristics across situations, similarity of situation characteristics across adjacent situations, and inter-individual differences in intra-individual situation change in change networks.

  17. Collaborative Commercial Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, T. S.; Hendrix, D.; Sibert, D.; Hall, R. A.; Therien, W.

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing recognition by commercial and civil space operators of the need for space situational awareness (SSA) data to support ongoing conjunction analysis, maneuver planning, and radio frequency interference mitigation as part of daily operations. While some SSA data is available from the Joint Space Operations Center via the Space Track web site, access to raw observations and photometric data is limited due to national security considerations. These data, however, are of significant value in calibrating intra- and inter-operator orbit determination results, determining inter-system biases, and assessing operating profiles in the geostationary orbit. This paper details an ongoing collaborative effort to collect and process optical observations and photometric data using a network of low-cost telescope installations and shows how these data are being used to support ongoing operations in the Space Data Center. This presentation will demonstrate how by leveraging advance photometric processing algorithms developed for Missile Defense Agency and the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) mission ExoAnalytic and AGI have been able to provide actionable SSA for satellite operators from small telescopes in less than optimal viewing conditions. Space has become an increasingly cluttered environment requiring satellite operators to remain forever vigilant in order to prevent collisions to preserve their assets and prevent further cluttering the space environment. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which tracks all objects in earth orbit, reports possible upcoming conjunctions to operators by providing Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs). However due to large positional uncertainties in the forward predicted position of space objects at the time closest approach the volume of CSMs is excessive to the point that maneuvers in response to CSMs without additional screening is cost prohibitive. CSSI and the Space Data Association have been able to screen most

  18. POBLACIÓN EN SITUACIÓN DE DESPLAZAMIENTO EN ANTIOQUIA. EL PAPEL DEL ENFOQUE DE DERECHOS EN LOS ASPECTOS TÉCNICOS PARA EL DISEÑO Y MEDICIÓN DE INDICADORES. (PARTE I POPULATION IN SITUATION OF DISPLACEMENT IN ANTIOQUIA: THE ROLE OF THE APPROACH OF RIGHTS IN THE TECHNICAL ASPECTS FOR THE DESIGN AND THE MEASUREMENT OF INDICATORS (PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Espinosa Menéndez

    2011-06-01

    was carried out as a response to the Proceedings of Follow-up and the orders given in the sentence T-025 as of 2004 of the Constitutional Court. The Proceeding 116 of 2008 established the parameters of measurement to be adopted by the territorial entities, in order to render accounts about the guarantee of the rights of such a population. With the object of offering elements of analysis both for the institutions and the organizations of the civil society, both national and international ones, which analyze and follow the behavior of the socioeconomic situation of the victims of the armed conflict in Colombia, in a series of four articles, the methodology of measurement and some results found in the Full Possession of Rights in Antioquia will be covered. In this issue, in particular, the normative framework of the report, the theoretical approach of the indicators treated and the main technical and methodological considerations for their measurement will be exposed. By way of result of research, in this issue, both methodological and figure differences, which are used for the measurement of the socio-economicsituation of the population who is in a situation of displacement carried out by the National Planning Department and itsmeasurement carriedo

  19. A Study of User's Acceptance on Situational Mashups in Situational Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Angus F. M.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Liaw, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Situational awareness and mashups are two key factors influencing the success of situational language teaching. However, traditional situational language teaching cannot smoothly conduct relevant learning activities in changing learning context. This study developed a situational mashups system for detecting users' context and proposed a research…

  20. Public health nutrition practice in Canada: a situational assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ann; Chenhall, Cathy; Traynor, Marie; Scythes, Cindy; Bellman, Jane

    2008-08-01

    Renewed focus on public health has brought about considerable interest in workforce development among public health nutrition professionals in Canada. The present article describes a situational assessment of public health nutrition practice in Canada that will be used to guide future workforce development efforts. A situational assessment is a planning approach that considers strengths and opportunities as well as needs and challenges, and emphasizes stakeholder participation. This situational assessment consisted of four components: a systematic review of literature on public health nutrition workforce issues; key informant interviews; a PEEST (political, economic, environmental, social, technological) factor analysis; and a consensus meeting. Information gathered from these sources identified key nutrition and health concerns of the population; the need to define public health nutrition practice, roles and functions; demand for increased training, education and leadership opportunities; inconsistent qualification requirements across the country; and the desire for a common vision among practitioners. Findings of the situational assessment were used to create a three-year public health nutrition workforce development strategy. Specific objectives of the strategy are to define public health nutrition practice in Canada, develop competencies, collaborate with other disciplines, and begin to establish a new professional group or leadership structure to promote and enhance public health nutrition practice. The process of conducting the situational assessment not only provided valuable information for planning purposes, but also served as an effective mechanism for engaging stakeholders and building consensus.

  1. Current Situation of Edible Snails in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 7, 1995 to April 16, 1995 du ring the rainy season the utilisation of edible snails was investigated in Indonesia. To assess the current situation, the focus was put to answer the following questions : - Is it feasible under the present circumstances to domesticate these snails with the aim to conserve the natural resources ? - Could any individual or private initiative be enhanced or utilized ? - Would local disadvantaged groups (traditional animal farmers, women oryouths be benefitted through domestication of these snails ? - Is there any existing private organisation or NGO, which already gathers and trades the snails or would be interested to do this in the future ? Snails gatherers, -dealers and -farmers were visited and interviewed on the following topics using standardised questionnaires : Spreading and ecology ways of marketing, consumption habits, breeding and rearing. Diotopes were also visited and investigated. Results Spreading and ecology : Achatina fulica, Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea and Bellamia javanica are eaten. The snails can be found ail overJava. Ways of marketing : The snails gathered in the biotope are either marketed directly or through various marketing paths. A. fulica is exported in large quantifies. The population is therefore endangered. Consumption habits : Snails are not eaten regularly. Snail meat is known to be healthy. The consumption depends on the consumer's ethnie background. Breeding and rearing experience : with simple breeding systems for A. fulica and P. canaliculata are seldom found. The breeding of P. canaliculata is forbidden in Indonesia. There is no interest in breeding P. ampullacea or B. javanica. The breeding of A. fulica can ben-efit disadvantaged groups financially and help to conserving the natural snail population.

  2. [Mental health in situations of armed conflict].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jorge; De La Torre, Alejandro; Miranda, Claudio T

    2002-12-01

    Mental health is a serious problem in Latin America where many communities have been directly affected by armed conflict, communities in which large population groups have been displaced or have sought refuge. Research studies and epidemiological statistics are summarized to emphasize the psychosocial consequences of traumatic events associated with armed conflict. In addition to specific psychological disorders, other more generalized are considered such as fear, affliction, diseases, social disorder, violence and psychoactive substance consumption. Finally, the main points of a mental health plan for emergency situations are described which include the following: (1) preliminary diagnosis, (2) increase, decentralize and strengthen mental health public services, (3) psychosocial attention to the prevailing disorders--with emphasis on childhood problems, (4) initiate training and use of non-specialized personnel, and (5) identification of special needs requiring attention by psychologists and psychiatrists. Other aspects emphasized were community education, training, social communication, community organization, social participation, interinstitutional coordination, flexibility, sustainability, and specific actions in accordance with local needs.

  3. TB situation in Albania, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, H; Tafaj, S; Bardhi, D; Dilko, E; Aliko, A

    2009-01-01

    Albania, population 3.4 million. To describe DOTS (directly observed treatment-short course chemotherapy) implementation, treatment outcomes and epidemiological situation in Albania from 2001 to 2008. DOTS strategy was introduced in 2001 and gradually expanded. A retrospective analysis of treatment outcomes and epidemiological data on TB patients was analyzed for this period. DOTS was expanded to 76% of the country in 2008. Treatment success among new smear-positive patients ranged from 82% in 2001 to 86% in 2007. The incidence of TB in Albania decreased from 17 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2001 to 12/100,000 in 2008 and estimated case detection for smear positive cases improved from 42% in 2001 to 75% in 2007. The TB incidence has fallen progressively since DOTS was initiated. Treatment outcome was better in DOTS areas compared to Non-DOTS areas and overall treatment outcome was improved during DOTS implementation. Despite gradually, DOTS was successfully implemented and full expansion is necessary.

  4. Optimal Control Applications in Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Marcus J.

    There are currently more than 19,000 trackable objects in Earth orbit, 1,300 of which are active. With so many objects populating the space object catalog and new objects being added at an ever increasing rate, ensuring continued access to space is quickly becoming a cornerstone of national security policies. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) supports space operations, space flight safety, implementing international treaties and agreements, protecting of space capabilities, and protecting of national interests. With respect to objects in orbit, this entails determining their location, orientation, size, shape, status, purpose, current tasking, and future tasking. For active spacecraft capable of propulsion, the problem of determining these characteristics becomes significantly more difficult. Optimal control techniques can be applied to object correlation, maneuver detection, maneuver/spacecraft characterization, fuel usage estimation, operator priority inference, intercept capability characterization, and fuel-constrained range set determination. A detailed mapping between optimal control applications and SSA object characterization support is reviewed and related literature visited. Each SSA application will be addressed starting from first-principles using optimal control techniques. For each application, several examples of potential utility are given and discussed.

  5. Current situation of lipoprotein apheresis in Saxony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, U; Taseva, K; Fischer, S; Passauer, J; Bornstein, S R

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the situation pertinent to treatment via lipoprotein apheresis in the federal state of Saxony, Germany in 2010. In total, 119 predominately male patients were treated in 10 centers; the majority of the patients was older than the mean age of the general population. Several risk factors were present, particularly a familial predisposition and hypertension. All patients had experienced cardiovascular events and the majority was taking statins. Patient data from the University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus in Dresden concurred with data derived from patients treated at nephrological practices. In the mean, patients attended the centers for about 6 years, the majority weekly. LDL cholesterol concentrations prior to apheresis were clearly higher than target levels; apheresis sessions decreased LDL cholesterol by 69%. Lipoprotein(a) levels could be measured in 75 patients and were effectively reduced by lipoprotein apheresis. In Saxony, 29 patients per 1 million inhabitants received lipoprotein apheresis, which is higher than the proportion of patients treated in Germany as a whole. The need for this extracorporeal treatment seems to be much greater than its current utilization. Among the patients only one homozygous patient with familial hypercholesterolemia was observed. Physicians should be actively informed about this therapeutic possibility to reduce the cardiovascular risk efficiently. The introduction of new drugs may alter the position of lipoprotein apheresis within the therapeutic spectrum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Managing and engineering in complex situations

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa-Poza, Andres

    2013-01-01

    With so many terms available to define the same thing, it would seem nearly irresponsible to introduce yet another term (complex situation) to describe a phenomenological state of such as a system. However, a complex situation infers both a broader meaning and imposes a different perspective. Complex in this context is dependent on understanding and reality rather than observer and knowledge.   Situation imposes a gestalt that cannot be characterized within a singular perspective that relegates paradox to a superior/subordinate hierarchy. This also infers that complex situation has no monotonic definition or each definition is by default incomplete. Therefore the perennial derivations for systems such as complex systems, system of systems, federation of systems is no longer a sufficient descriptor for complex situation.  Ergo system and its genealogy lack the constitution to define complex situations. The books' intent is to explore this pathology through a series of papers written by authors that work in ...

  7. Situative Space Tracking within Smart Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surie, Dipak; Jäckel, Florian; Janlert, Lars-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes our efforts in modeling and tracking a human agent’s situation based on his/her possibilities to perceive and act upon objects (both physical and virtual) within smart environments. A Situative Space Model is proposed. WLAN signal-strength-based situative space tracking syste......-laboratory smart home environment where a global precision of 83.4% and a global recall of 88.6% were obtained.......This paper describes our efforts in modeling and tracking a human agent’s situation based on his/her possibilities to perceive and act upon objects (both physical and virtual) within smart environments. A Situative Space Model is proposed. WLAN signal-strength-based situative space tracking system...

  8. Reconsideration of the simulated work task situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia; Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2010-01-01

    The present paper reports on the initial study and the preliminary findings of how the concept of simulated work task situation is reported used in the research literature. The overall objective of the study is in a systematic manner to learn how and for what types of evaluations the concept...... is applied. In particular we are interested to learn whether the recommendations for how to apply simulated work task situations are followed. The preliminary findings indicate a need for clarifications of the recommendations of how to use simulated work task situations. Particularly with respect to ‘realism......’ of the simulated work task situations, which is emphasised through the need for tailoring of the simulated work task situations towards the group of study participant to ensure the depicted situations are realistic and interesting from the participants’ point of view. Likewise it seems that the recommendation...

  9. Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

  10. Situation Report--Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 11 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Bermuda, Boliva, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, and Panama. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  11. Situation Report--Argentina, France, Gambia, Grenada, Hungary, Nepal, and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in seven foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, France, Gambia, Grenada, Hungary, Nepal, and Paraguay. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General…

  12. Situated Cognition and Strategies for Meaningful Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Díaz Barriga Arceo

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the principles underlying situated cognition linked to the Vygotskian sociocultural perspective, which state that situated cognition is both a part and the result of activity, context and culture. It highlights the importance of mediation, the joint construction of meaning and the mechanism of adapted assistance. There are examples of instructional approaches which vary in cultural relevance and the type of social activity they elicit. It also presents a number of meaningful learning strategies based on situated experiential teaching (authentic problem solving, learning while in service, case studies, projects, situated simulation, among others. Finally, the paper deals with the potentiality of empowerment.

  13. Situated Learning in Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2004-06-01

    Sociocultural theories of learning such as Wenger and Lave's situated learning have been suggested as alternatives to cognitive theories of learning like constructivism. This article examines situated learning within the context of computer science (CS) education. Situated learning accurately describes some CS communities like open-source software development, but it is not directly applicable to other CS communities, especially those that deal with non-CS application areas. Nevertheless, situated learning can inform CS education by analyzing debates on curriculum and pedagogy within this framework. CS educators should closely examine professional CS communities of practice and design educational activities to model the actual activities of those communities.

  14. Caracterización fármaco-toxicológica de la planta medicinal Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L. R. Bolli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oneyda Clapé Laffita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la monografía consistió en la caracterización fármaco-toxicológica de Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L. R. Bolli, planta tradicional cubana con actividad antiinflamatoria, entre otras. Se presentan aspectos farmacológicos como composición fitoquímica, propiedades atribuidas popularmente y comprobadas científicamente, posología, reacciones adversas, advertencias, interacciones, toxicidad, precauciones y contraindicaciones. Se concluye que con la monografía fármaco-toxicológica de esta planta medicinal, se dispone de una completa información, como documentación indispensable para actualizar las bases de datos nacionales e internacionales al respecto, con vistas a desarrollar nuevos fitofármacos, en especial antiinflamatorios con bajo potencial de efectos adversos.

  15. Solidago canadensis L essential oil vapor effectively inhibits Botrytis cinerea growth and preserves postharvest quality of strawberry as a food model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the anti-fungal properties of Solidago canadensis L essential oil (SCLEO against Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and its ability to control gray mold and maintain quality in strawberry fruits. SCLEO exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and profoundly altered mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, and membrane permeability as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. SCLEO vapor at 0.1 mL/L maintained higher sensory acceptance and reduced decay of fresh strawberry fruit, and also reduced gray mold in artificially inoculated fruit. SCLEO treatment did not however, stimulate phenylalanin ammonia-lyase (PAL, polyphenol oxidase (POD, or chitinase (CHI, enzymes related to disease resistance. This suggests that SCLEO reduces gray mold by direct inhibition of pathogen growth. SCLEO vapor may provide a new and effective strategy for controlling postharvest disease and maintaining quality in strawberries.

  16. 'Do you smell rotten eggs?' Evaluating interactions with mobile agents in crisis response situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winterboer, A.; Cramer, H.S.M.; Pavlin, G.; Groen, F.C.A.; Evers, V.; Oppermann, R.; Eisenhauer, M.; Jarke, M.; Wulf, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present ongoing research concerning the interaction between users and autonomous mobile agents in the environmental monitoring domain. The overarching project, DIADEM, deals with developing a system that detects potentially hazardous situations in populated industrial areas using

  17. Situational pressures on aviation decision making: goal seduction and situation aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Chris; Paletz, Susannah B F; Orasanu, Judith

    2009-06-01

    The context in which a decision is made can shape the decision process in important ways. Of particular interest here are 'strong' situations, that is, contexts where the situation itself exerts an influence on decision making. Borrowing concepts from field theory and approach/avoidance theory, this paper explores the influence of strong situations on pilot decision making. There were 28 pilots flying in Alaska who were interviewed using a critical incident technique where participants were asked to relate stories about challenging flying situations. A bottom-up qualitative analysis of reported social and psychological pressures revealed a range of types, including strong situations, which are described in this paper. Strong situations were mentioned in 67% of the interviews and included situations likely to motivate the pilot toward unsafe behavior (goal seduction) and situations likely to motivate the pilot away from safe behavior (situation aversion). Goal seduction situations included rescuing others, meeting a significant other, time-related constraints, financial pressures, and unspecified goal seduction; aversive situations included physical discomfort, not having maintenance or facilities for the airplane, and a lack of basic necessities (e.g., lodging) for the pilot. Goal seduction describes one broad, unspecified influence on pilot decision making, but situation aversion is also an important motivator for some pilots. Goal seduction and situation aversion may well underlie the phenomena of plan continuation errors, the tendency for pilots to continue despite evidence suggesting it is imprudent. This study suggests some specific factors that constrain decision making for pilots in challenging situations.

  18. Towards Situation-Oriented Programming Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Tin, Erkan; Akman, Varol; Ersan, Murat

    1995-01-01

    Recently, there have been some attempts towards developing programming languages based on situation theory. These languages employ situation-theoretic constructs with varying degrees of divergence from the ontology of the theory. In this paper, we review three of these programming languages.

  19. Audience and Situational Context in Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeTourneau, Mark S.

    Audience and situational context, the latter defined as a pairing of time and place coordinates, have passed through stages of union, separation, and identification in the history of rhetoric. From Aristotle through Cicero and Quintilian to Hugh Blair and George Campbell, audience was a synecdoche for the situations of utterance that defined…

  20. Situational Influences on Reactions to Observed Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Leonard

    1986-01-01

    Examines data on what situational factors influence people's desire to view violent television programming. Surveys research on the effects on viewer's behavior of the presence of other observers, the nature of the available target, situational features operating as retrieval cues, the viewers' interpretations of the violent scenes, and the…

  1. Cooperative Games arising from Information Sharing Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.; Timmer, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Relations are established between information sharing (IS) situations and IS-games on one hand and information collecting (IC) situations and IC-games on the other hand. It is shown that IC-games can be obtained as convex combinations of so-called local games. Properties are described which IC-games

  2. Leadership in Sport: The Situational Leadership Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    Situational leadership theory suggests that to reach maximum leadership effectiveness, the leader must adapt his/her behavior to different situations. For athletic coaches, this means that the amount of direction provided for students should increase or decrease according to the students' maturity levels. Applications of the theory are discussed.…

  3. Situation criticality and basketball officials' stress levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Jason; Basevitch, Itay; Rodenberg, Ryan; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2017-11-01

    Officials are expected to perform impeccably despite the wide range of stressors they experience. A stressor that officials frequently report is situation criticality. Situation criticality is comprised of score differential (i.e., more pressure in close games) and time remaining in a game (i.e., more pressure as time expires), which affects athletes' stress levels. The present study explored the effect of situation criticality on officials' stress levels. High school basketball officials (n = 108) with an average of 18.1 (SD = 11.2) years of officiating experience were given a survey packet containing game situations that varied in criticality. For each game situation (n = 9) officials completed the overall stress and appraisal portions of the Stress Appraisal Measure (SAM). Results revealed that situation criticality has an effect on officials' perceived stress levels. Both threat and challenge appraisals were positively correlated with perceived stress. Overall, these findings indicate that officials' stress levels fluctuate within games depending on score differential and time of game. The findings encourage officials to recognise and manage their stress, possibly through their appraisals. Additionally, the findings can affect the training of officials in the management of stress, as well as prompt the consideration of potential rule changes that reflect the increased situational demands on officials in critical situations (e.g., expanded instant replay).

  4. Employment in Perspective: The Negro Employment Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report analyzes recent developments in the labor-force status of blacks and examines their job situation relative to whites. The recent slowdown in economic activity has had serious repercussions for Negro workers although their situation has deteriorated less than in previous economic declines. Tables provide employment, unemployment, and…

  5. Management by Grid Principles or Situationalism: Which?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Robert R.; Mouton, Jane S.

    1981-01-01

    Attempts to resolve the leadership theory controversy between situationalism and the one-best-way approach. Indicates the validity of the latter and the lack of predictive value of the former. Results indicated administrators chose the 9,9 alternative and rejected situationally prescribed answers, reflecting a management by principles (behavioral…

  6. Hippocampal frequency shifts in different behavioural situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, A.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Storm van Leeuwen, W.

    1971-01-01

    Electrical activity of the dog's hippocampus was recorded in (a) an operant behaviour situation, and (b) a field situation by a radio-telemetering system. The dominant frequency of the theta rhythm shifted consistently from 4–5 c/sec to 6–7 c/sec when a dog (a) withdrew from a pedal after being

  7. The Language Planning Situation in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coperahewa, Sandagomi

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines the language planning situation in Sri Lanka with particular emphasis on the planning of Sinhala as an official language of the country. It explores the historical, social, ideological and political processes, changes in language policy decisions, as well as the complexities of the language policy and planning situation in…

  8. Situating Gendered Learning in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to situate the concept of gendered learning in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the results of two closely related, qualitative studies of apprenticeship learning in two major industrial companies in Denmark. Findings: The paper finds that the creation of a situated-gendered…

  9. Sexual Arousal, Situational Restrictiveness, and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodi, Ann

    1977-01-01

    Eighty male college freshmen participated in an experiment designed to investigate the hypothesis that enhanced arousal will facilitate subsequent aggressive behavior and that an increase in aggressive behavior will be more likely to occur in a setting of situational permissiveness rather than situational restrictiveness. (Editor)

  10. Situational Leadership: "Different Strokes for Different Folks."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Kenneth; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the Situational Leadership II model and the four leadership styles and four development levels identified as important components in the development of situational leadership in school administrators. The model is used to teach principals how to vary their leadership style to fit the responses and capacities of their teachers. (MD)

  11. Representation of Objective Situations in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Ye. Veraksa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the types of representations of objective situations, that is, situations which are defined independently of the subject, by certain external perceptible circumstances and social expectations or rules. The author distinguishes between three types of objective situations in which children act: normative, developing and ambiguous. For each of these types there is a corresponding form of representation: sign, dialectical and symbolic. Each form is a product of the subject's cognitive activity, at the core of which lie cognitive abilities — a system of culturally specific means and ways of using them. The paper outlines normative and stabilizing abilities, transformation abilities, and symbolic mediation abilities. They help categorize different objects and features, enable transformation of situations and provide possibilities for orientation in ambiguous situations

  12. Normalization and Personalization of Learning Situation: NPLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia Abik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The personalization of learning is a major pedagogical challenge solicited by pedagogues and didacts. There are several projects about the production of personalizable learning situations such as Reload-LDE and Alfanet. These projects are interested in producing new standardized and personalizable learning situations. However, on the Web, an important number of learning situations exist. These situations are rich in information but don't consider all the characteristics of participants taking part in the learning, nor their technical environments. In this paper we suggest a help system that can transform an existing learning situation to another structure standardized and personalizable depending on the context of learning personalization that we have defined.

  13. Population genetic structure in natural and reintroduced beaver (Castor fiber populations in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kautenburger, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758 is the only indigenous species of the genus Castor in Europe and Asia. Due to extensive hunting until the beginning of the 20th century, the distribution of the formerly widespread Eurasian beaver was dramatically reduced. Only a few populations remained and these were in isolated locations, such as the region of the German Elbe River. The loss of genetic diversity in small or captive populations throughgenetic drift and inbreeding is a severe conservation problem. However, the reintroduction of beaver populations from several regions in Europe has shown high viability and populations today are growing fast. In the present study we analysed the population genetic structure of a natural and two reintroduced beaver populations in Germany and Austria. Furthermore, we studied the genetic differentiation between two beaver species, C. fiber and the American beaver (C. canadensis, using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA as a genetic marker. The reintroduced beaver populations of different origins and the autochthonous population of the Elbe River showed a similar low genetic heterogeneity. There was an overall high genetic similarity in the species C. fiber, and no evidence was found for a clear subspecific structure in the populations studied.

  14. Breastfeeding status as a predictor of mortality among refugee children in an emergency situation in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne; Sodemann, Morten; Nylén, Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    To identify the population risk factors in emergency situations, we studied breastfeeding status as a predictor for child mortality during a war in Guinea-Bissau.......To identify the population risk factors in emergency situations, we studied breastfeeding status as a predictor for child mortality during a war in Guinea-Bissau....

  15. Situational panic attacks in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Carrie M; Wong, Judy; Heimberg, Richard G; Blanco, Carlos; Liu, Shang-Min; Wang, Shuai; Schneier, Franklin R

    2014-01-01

    Panic attacks (PAs) are common in many psychiatric disorders other than panic disorder, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD). PAs have been associated with increased severity, comorbidity, and impairment in many disorders; therefore, PAs can now be used as a descriptive specifier across all DSM-5 disorders. However, the clinical implications of PAs in SAD remain unclear. The aim of the present investigation was to examine demographic and clinical characteristics associated with SAD-related situational panic attacks in a large, representative epidemiological sample of individuals with SAD (N=1138). We compared individuals with SAD who did and did not endorse situational PAs in terms of demographic factors, fear/avoidance of social situations, distress, impairment, and diagnostic comorbidity. Being male, black, Asian, or over 65 years old was associated with a decreased likelihood of experiencing situational PAs, whereas being unemployed was associated with an increased likelihood. Individuals with situational PAs also exhibited greater fear and avoidance of social situations, impairment, coping-oriented substance use, treatment utilization, and concurrent and longitudinal psychiatric comorbidity. Consistent with most epidemiologic studies, the information collected relied on self-report, and not all participants were available for both waves of assessment. The present findings suggest that SAD-related situational PAs are associated with more severe and complex presentations of SAD. Implications for the assessment and treatment of SAD, as well as for the use of PAs as a descriptive specifier for SAD, are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards an ethical theory in disaster situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Health Care professionals working in disaster situations have to face urgent choices which diverge from their normal deontological ethos and are more utilitarian. Such is the triage system used to choose whom to treat. Instead of entering a crisis these professionals should be thought that ethics is not harmonizable to all situations and that there are situations in which saving as many lives as possible mean sacrificing others. This calls for defining a perimeter zone in which such choices occur, and a time frame (a space-time niche) in which it ought to be considered ethical and legitimate to use such value laden choices.

  17. Toward a Situated Stance in Organizational Institutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boxenbaum, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Organizational Institutionalism is gradually embracing a more situated, actor-centered stance that is prompting empirical inquiry into how embedded actors respond to institutional complexity. French Pragmatist Sociology can contribute to this endeavor because it provides a situated, relational......, and practice-oriented framework for studying how actors negotiate and justify actions through shared moral “worlds” that are akin to institutional logics. French Pragmatist Sociology can help illuminate three questions that are key to a situated stance in Organizational Institutionalism: (a) How free...

  18. [A functional subsystem of sanitary-and-epidemiological situation surveillance of the unified state system for prevention and elimination of emergence situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Smolenskiĭ, V Iu

    2011-01-01

    Mass destructions of the social infrastructure and household systems under stressors in the areas of emergency situations involve marked sanitary-and-epidemiological problems in a region's population, which in turn give rise to the activation of routes of transmission and formation of infectious and parasitic diseases. The most important lines of activities of supervising the sanitary-and-epidemiological situation under emergencies are to timely assess the sanitary-and-epidemiological situation, to predict, to organize, and to correct sanitary-and-antiepidemic measures.

  19. [Population education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, M

    1992-12-01

    Africa has the highest population growth rate in the world (3%). It has 650 million people (about 900 million in 2000). Rapid population growth has serious consequences which, if not addressed, will be disastrous. This worrisome situation has led some governments to adopt demographic policies to slow down population growth. The UN Economic, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recommends that schools provide population education. Various population conferences have popularized population education in schools among African countries. UNESCO began its regional program on population education in Africa in 1969. National family life and population education (FL/PE) projects have increased from 4 in 1970 to 32 in 1990 (17 in French- and Portuguese-speaking Africa and 5 in English-speaking Africa). These projects teach students about the links between demographic problems and socioeconomic factors and contemporary culture. They aim for total development of the individual and improvement of the quality of life for the individual, family, and community. Topics covered in FL/PE are birth rate; fertility; health; and maternal, infant, and child mortality; unwanted pregnancy; illegal abortion; sexually transmitted diseases; rural-urban migration; and urbanization. Benin introduced FL/PE at all levels of its education system while Senegal, Guinea, Mauritania, and Zaire introduced it to only the primary and secondary school levels. Some countries teach FL/PE as one discipline while most countries (e.g., Senegal) have integrated it into other disciplines (e.g., geography). FL/PE should begin in primary schools because they have the most students and prepare students for middle schools, which provide FL/PE. Elementary education in Senegal is being overhauled to introduce current major problems bit by bit. Senegal also wants to incorporate FL/PE into literacy and adult education programs. Integration of FL/PE into other disciplines should be encouraged.

  20. New summer areas and mixing of two greater sandhill crane populations in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Daniel P.; Grisham, Blake A.; Conring, Courtenay M.; Knetter, Jeffrey M.; Conway, Warren C.; Carleton, Scott A.; Boggie, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Population delineation throughout the annual life cycle for migratory birds is needed to formulate regional and national management and conservation strategies. Despite being well studied continentally, connectivity of sandhill crane Grus canadensis populations throughout the western portion of their North American range remains poorly described. Our objectives were to 1) use global positioning system satellite transmitter terminals to identify summer distributions for the Lower Colorado River Valley Population of greater sandhill cranes Grus canadensis tabida and 2) determine whether intermingling occurs among any of the western greater sandhill crane populations: Rocky Mountain Population, Lower Colorado River Valley Population, and Central Valley Population. Capture and marking occurred during winter and summer on private lands in California and Idaho as well as on two National Wildlife Refuges: Cibola and Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuges. A majority of marked greater sandhill cranes summered in what is established Lower Colorado River Valley Population breeding areas in northeastern Nevada and southwestern Idaho. A handful of greater sandhill cranes summered outside of traditional breeding areas in west-central Idaho around Cascade Reservoir near Donnelly and Cascade, Idaho. For example, a greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly in July 2014 survived to winter migration and moved south to areas associated with the Rocky Mountain Population. The integration of the greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly provides the first evidence of potential intermingling between the Lower Colorado River Population and Rocky Mountain Population. We suggest continued marking and banding efforts of all three western populations of greater sandhill cranes will accurately delineate population boundaries and connectivity and inform management decisions for the three populations.

  1. A improved Network Security Situation Awareness Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fangwei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to reflect the situation of network security assessment performance fully and accurately, a new network security situation awareness model based on information fusion was proposed. Network security situation is the result of fusion three aspects evaluation. In terms of attack, to improve the accuracy of evaluation, a situation assessment method of DDoS attack based on the information of data packet was proposed. In terms of vulnerability, a improved Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS was raised and maked the assessment more comprehensive. In terms of node weights, the method of calculating the combined weights and optimizing the result by Sequence Quadratic Program (SQP algorithm which reduced the uncertainty of fusion was raised. To verify the validity and necessity of the method, a testing platform was built and used to test through evaluating 2000 DAPRA data sets. Experiments show that the method can improve the accuracy of evaluation results.

  2. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE AUDIT OF FINANCIAL SITUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Madalina, Salomia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a business world situated on a market that is becoming more and more active both on an international and national level, the audit of financial situations embodies a veritable varied research domain and with favorable advantages for the Romanian business society, as well as for the interest of the business society located outside the Romanian space.From the result of the auditing of financial situations of a entity, various information may be obtained which is used by different groups that present opinions, knowledge and divergent interests such as:managers, investors, financial creditors, commercial creditors, clients, suppliers, employees, the government and its institutions, bankers, financial analysts, the public, the business community and other entities who base themselves on the objectivity and integrity of the financial situations audited.

  3. Guidance for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document addresses the types of asbestos issues that may arise during catastrophic events and how EPA has addressed such issues. It replaces the Guidelines for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos which was issued in 1992.

  4. Situational leadership and persons with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, Christopher G

    2007-01-01

    Does situational leadership style impact workers with disabilities? Situational leadership as a model and style of organizational management is defined. With a concentration on workers with disabilities, employer and employee perceptions of the workplace environment are analyzed as a contributing factor to the choice of leadership styles. Leadership style and its potential impact on workers with disabilities are included. Advantages of situational leadership style as an organizational model for managers that matches the intricate needs of workers with disabilities are argued. Methods for increasing awareness of the needs of persons with disabilities in the workplace and improving leadership models are discussed. Implications and potential outcomes for workers with disabilities based on the use of situational leadership by managers are discussed.

  5. Observations on the Alaska reindeer situation, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses various topics regarding the situation of Alaskan reindeer in 1968. The production of reindeer by Alaskan natives is discussed, including their...

  6. Issues of the Theory of Criminalistics Situations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snieguole Matuliene; Rolandas Kriksciunas

    2011-01-01

    ... theoretic meaning, purpose, function and practical application. In the present article, the authors examine the criminalistics situation--one of the most significant categories of the theory of criminalistics and crime investigation techniques...

  7. Nursing home negotiations and narrations in challenging, transnational situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora; Swane, Christine E.; Algreen-Petersen, Eva

    Nursing home negotiations and narrations in challenging, transnational situations In the city of Copenhagen a public nursing home is developing a new profile that aims at attracting older migrants and refugees together with other ethnic Danes in order to spend their last months or years in an ins......Nursing home negotiations and narrations in challenging, transnational situations In the city of Copenhagen a public nursing home is developing a new profile that aims at attracting older migrants and refugees together with other ethnic Danes in order to spend their last months or years...... and municipalities. However, the migration populations in Denmark do not utilize public help and care in old age at any significant level.This is the reason why the municipality of Copenhagen is developing a specific ‘diversity profile’ in an existing public nursing home in Copenhagen; Peder Lykke Centeret...

  8. Decoupling, situated cognition and immersion in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Situated cognition seems incompatible with strong decoupling, where representations are deployed in the absence of their targets and are not oriented toward physical action. Yet, in art consumption, the epitome of a strongly decoupled cognitive process, the artwork is a physical part of the environment and partly controls the perception of its target by the audience, leading to immersion. Hence, art consumption combines strong decoupling with situated cognition.

  9. Mental health: the current situation and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Rodríguez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Information regarding the mental health situation, both at global and national levels, is updated. In the first place, the basic concepts and problems regarding mental health are presented. The burden of disease is also presented, bearing in mind that in developed countries deeper depression occupies second place and in developing countries comes fourth. On the other hand, depressive disorders represent 17% of DALYs. The mental health situation in Colombia is also presented, including its epi...

  10. [Postural control depends on testing situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbanski, Stephan; Schmidtbleicher, Ditmar

    2010-09-01

    Most often postural control is evaluated in posturography, i. e. in a static testing condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate correlations and differences between posturography and dynamic testing situations to get information about the informative value of static testing situations on dynamic conditions. 40 healthy subjects participated in this study (m=23; w=17; age: 23.8±2.9 years; height: 177.0±8.5 cm; weight: 71.5±10.5 kg). Subjects were tested on their ability to maintain postural stability on a force platform (posturography, static condition) and on a movable and instable plate (dynamic condition). Furthermore, we analyzed balance correcting responses to a standardised disturbance of postural stability. EMG-activity was recorded of the following muscles: m. tibialis anterior, m. gastrocnemius lateralis, m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps femoris, and m. erector spinae. Pearson's Correlations were used to examine the relationship between postural control in static and in dynamic testing situations. Student's t-tests were used to examine differences in several parameters between static and dynamic testing situations. Comparisons of postural control in static and in dynamic conditions lead to marginal correlations between performances in these test situations (r=-0.02 to r=0.45). Moreover, EMGactivity showed changes concerning quantitative parameters and coordination patterns. Regarding correlations and analyses of EMG-activity we hypothesised different postural control strategies depending on each testing situation. Therefore, postural control seems not to be a generalizable ability. These data suggest that there is doubt on the use of posturography in static condition to predict performance in dynamic situations that could induce falls in elderly people or injuries in athletes. It appears comprehensible that dynamic testing situations are more suitable.

  11. Postural correlates of viewing painful situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry eLelard

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional context may play a crucial role in movement production. According to simulation theories, emotional states affect motor systems. The aim of this study was to compare postural responses assessed by posturography and electromyography when subjects were instructed to imagine themselves in a painful or a non-painful situation.Methods: Twenty-nine subjects (22.3 ± 3.7 years participated in this study. While standing quietly on a posturographic platform, they were instructed to imagine themselves in a painful or non-painful situation. Displacement of the centre of pressure (COP, leg muscle electromyographic activity, heart rate, and electrodermal activity were assessed in response to painful and non-painful situations.Results:The anteroposterior path was shorter (p<0.05 when subjects imagined themselves in a painful situation (M = 148.0 ± 33.4 mm compared to a non-painful situation (158.2 ± 38.7 mm. Higher Tibialis Anterior (TA activity (RMS-TA = 3.38 ± 1.95 % vs 3.24 ± 1.85 %; p < 0.001 and higher variability of Soleus (SO activity (variation coefficient of RMS-SO = 13.5 ± 16.2 % vs M = 9.0% ± 7.2 %; p<0.05 were also observed in painful compared to non-painful situations. No significant changes were observed for other physiological data Conclusion: This study demonstrates that simulation of painful situations induces changes in postural control and leg muscle activation compared to non-painful situations, as increased stiffness was demonstrated in response to aversive pictures in accordance with previous results.

  12. Action Based Object Separation with Situated Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Visual scene analysis can be augmented by proper manipulative actions like changing perspective or interacting with elements of the environment. They reveal some of the non-obvious (e.g. non-visual or visually ambiguous) intrinsic qualities of the scene's setting. A framing for actions is formalizable using situation semantics notification. This supports a non-classic view of perception: the perception of the situation is the action taken to inspect it, or is at least inseparably connected to...

  13. Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R.; Ek, Asa; Akselsson, Roland

    2007-01-01

    In high-risk environments such as air traffic control, leadership on different levels plays a certain role in establishing, promoting, and maintaining a good safety culture. The current study aimed to investigate how leadership styles, leadership style adaptability, and over and under task leadership behavior differed across situations, operative conditions, leadership structures, and working tasks in an air traffic control setting. Study locations were two air traffic control centers in Sweden with different operational conditions and leadership structures, and an administrative air traffic management unit. Leadership was measured with a questionnaire based on Leader Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD; Blanchard, Zigarmi & Zigarmi, 2003; Hersey & Blanchard, 1988). The results showed that the situation had strong impact on the leadership in which the leadership behavior was more relationship oriented in Success and Group situations than in Hardship and Individual situations. The leadership adaptability was further superior in Success and Individual situations compared with Hardship and Group situations. Operational conditions, leadership structures and working tasks were, on the other hand, not associated with leadership behavior.

  14. Estimating bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) abundance using noninvasive sampling at a mineral lick within a National Park Wilderness Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenecker, Kathryn A.; Watry, Mary Kay; Ellison, Laura E.; Schwarz, Michael A.; Luikart, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of species requires accurate population estimates. We used genetic markers from feces to determine bighorn sheep abundance for a herd that was hypothesized to be declining and in need of population status monitoring. We sampled from a small but accessible portion of the population's range where animals naturally congregate at a natural mineral lick to test whether we could accurately estimate population size by sampling from an area where animals concentrate. We used mark-recapture analysis to derive population estimates, and compared estimates from this smaller spatial sampling to estimates from sampling of the entire bighorn sheep range. We found that estimates were somewhat comparable; in 2009, the mineral lick sample and entire range sample differed by 20 individuals, and in 2010 they differed by only one individual. However, we captured 13 individuals in the entire range sample that were not captured at the mineral lick, and thus violated a model assumption that all individuals had an equal opportunity of being captured. This eliminated the possibility of inferring a total population estimate from just animals visiting the mineral lick, but because estimates were relatively similar, monitoring at the mineral lick can provide a useful index for management and conservation. We compared our results to a radio-collar study conducted in 2003–2004 and confirmed that the population remained stable since 2004. Our population estimates were 78 (CI 62–114) in 2009 and 95 (CI 77–131) in 2010. Between 7 and 11 sampling dates were needed to achieve a CV of 20% for population estimates, assuming a capture probability between 0.09 and 0.13. We relied on citizen science volunteers to maximize data collection and reduce costs; 71% of all fecal samples were collected by volunteers, compared to 29% collected by paid staff. We conclude that our technique provides a useful monitoring tool for managers. The technique could be tested and applied in similar

  15. Intercultural Communication as a Situated, Culturally Complex, Interactional Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Донал Карбо

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of intercultural communication includes a variety of productive theoretical approaches as well as different methodological commitments. Some studies are built on the basis of self-report measures, aggregate tendencies, and/or resulting scores within and across national populations. This article focuses on a different kind of empirical study that is based upon careful observations of actual intercultural interactions and interpretations which honor the participants’ views of those interactions. The article first diagrams the process of intercultural communication as a situated, cultural accomplishment. Next, distinct and complementary modes of analyses for phases of such study are presented. Finally, specific goals and eventual insights are discussed.

  16. Situational depression: validity of the concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, R M

    1981-10-01

    The validity of the concept of situational (i.e. reactive) depression as distinct from other major depressive subtypes is examined in terms of psychosocial stressors, personality features, current symptomatology, and clinical course and follow-up. Thirty-eight patients with a recent onset of situational major depressive disorder (i.e. the disorder developed after an event or in a situation the diagnostician deemed likely to have contributed to the episode at that time) were compared with 68 non-situational major depressive patients. These patients were participants in the clinical studies of the NIMH-Clinical Research Branch Collaborative Program on the Psychobiology of Depression. No significant differences between the two groups were found in the total number, content areas, or other categorizations of life events, experienced prior to onset. Some statistically significant differences in current symptomatology and in clinical course and follow-up measures were obtained, but there were none in personality traits. Implications of these results in relation to previously published reports are discussed and caution is recommended in the use of the term situational depression until more definitive data become available.

  17. Working memory, situation models, and synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Gibson, Bradley S; McNerney, M Windy

    2014-01-01

    Research on language comprehension suggests a strong relationship between working memory span measures and language comprehension. However, there is also evidence that this relationship weakens at higher levels of comprehension, such as the situation model level. The current study explored this relationship by comparing 10 grapheme-color synesthetes who have additional color experiences when they read words that begin with different letters and 48 normal controls on a number of tests of complex working memory capacity and processing at the situation model level. On all tests of working memory capacity, the synesthetes outperformed the controls. Importantly, there was no carryover benefit for the synesthetes for processing at the situation model level. This reinforces the idea that although some aspects of language comprehension are related to working memory span scores, this applies less directly to situation model levels. This suggests that theories of working memory must take into account this limitation, and the working memory processes that are involved in situation model construction and processing must be derived.

  18. Community of practice and situated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Ličen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of everyday life learning or situated learning is growing, and new models for interpretation and re- search are being developed in concordance with new knowledge concepts and theories of learning. The article brings an analysis of situated learning as a type of learning without a fixed structure which develops (transforms into an organized and structured learning form. The first part examines the concept of situated learning and the theoretical context of the model of communities of practice. The second part presents a comparative analysis of two models of situ- ated learning, action learning and the community of practice, as the forms which support transmission of information and knowledge and imply innovation development. Both models are rooted in the context of poststructuralist practice theory and transformative learning theories. Advantages and deficiencies of the analysed models direct the practical use of action learning or communities of practice.

  19. Situational leadership: a model for leading telecommuters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Leigh Ann

    2005-11-01

    To describe a leadership model aimed at assisting health care leaders to incorporate situational leadership into their practice when leading telecommuters. Technological developments have grown in two areas, including medicine and communication, which have facilitated an enhanced information exchange in health care. These technological enhancements have allowed the health care arena to expand and improve its capabilities, including the delivery of health care and the information exchange among patients, providers and workers. Traditional leadership styles must be modified to respond to the needs of telecommuters. Situational leadership gives structured guidance to the nursing leader when managing telecommuters. Situational leadership has been used in the traditional work setting and can be used in the virtual workplace. The strategies and techniques used have to be modified for the telecommuter and must focus on increasing communication.

  20. Situation awareness with systems of systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tretmans, Jan; Borth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security.  Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier selection, rule-based anomaly detection, an ontology-based event model for semantic reasoning, new methods for semi-automatic generation of adapters bridging communication gaps, security policies for systems-of-systems, trust assessment, and methods to deal with the dynamics of systems-of-systems in run-time monitoring, testing, and diagnosis. Architectural considerations for designing information-centric systems-of-systems such as situation awareness systems, and an integrated demonstrator implementing many of the investigated aspects, complete the book.

  1. Implementation synergies that exploit situational knowledge strategically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    This paper illustrates how strategic and situated forms of knowledge may increase capacity to implement energy strategies in local urban development projects. Through analysis of front runner implementation projects, we show that the involved planners utilize situational learning processes...... strategically to develop more viable implementation trajectories. These findings resonate well with relational and network orienteered research in contemporary planning theory. In the selected case studies, we can see that planners deliberately seek to extend traditional planning approaches, like e.......g. regulation, with broader context‐specific learning processes. In doing so, we argue that – what we call – an implementation synergy is established by interlacing different forms of situational knowledge with strategic knowledge about how to reach a desired energy target. In conclusion, the paper identifies...

  2. Renovating Situation Taxonomies: Exploring the Construction and Content of Fundamental Motive Situation Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Patrick J; Neel, Rebecca; Todd, Elysia; Funder, David

    2015-08-01

    The present work demonstrates a method for constructing theoretically based situational classifications and exploring their behavioral implications. Fundamental motives theory (FMT; Kenrick, Griskevicius, Neuberg, & Schaller, 2010; Kenrick, Neuberg, Griskevicius, Becker, & Schaller, 2010) proposes that humans have evolved seven specific social motives that would be differentially evoked by different situations. Experts in FMT used the Riverside Situational Q-sort (RSQ) to describe prototypic motive-relevant situations and the Riverside Behavioral Q-sort (RBQ) to construct templates representing predictions of how people would behave in them. A sample of 201 undergraduate participants used the RSQ to describe situations they had experienced within the past 24 hours, and they described their behavior in each situation using the RBQ. For both the RSQ and RBQ, self-protection and disease avoidance templates were highly similar to each other and different from mate-seeking and affiliation templates. Participants more often reported experiencing situations similar to the mate-seeking, affiliation, and kin care templates and less often reported experiencing situations similar to the self-protection and disease avoidance templates. Participants' reported behavior was consistent with expectations from FMT. This study illustrates how relations between situations and behavior can be illuminated through the use of theoretically derived templates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Putting judging situations into situational judgment tests: evidence from intercultural multimedia SJTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstuhl, Thomas; Ang, Soon; Ng, Kok-Yee; Lievens, Filip; Van Dyne, Linn

    2015-03-01

    Although the term situational judgment test (SJT) implies judging situations, existing SJTs focus more on judging the effectiveness of different response options (i.e., response judgment) and less on how people perceive and interpret situations (i.e., situational judgment). We expand the traditional SJT paradigm and propose that adding explicit assessments of situational judgment to SJTs will provide incremental information beyond that provided by response judgment. We test this hypothesis across 4 studies using intercultural multimedia SJTs. Study 1 uses verbal protocol analysis to discover the situational judgments people make when responding to SJT items. Study 2 shows situational judgment predicts time-lagged, peer-rated task performance and interpersonal citizenship among undergraduate seniors over and above response judgment and other established predictors. Study 3 shows providing situational judgment did not affect the predictive validity of response judgment. Study 4 replicates Study 2 in a working adult sample. We discuss implications for SJT theory as well as the practical implications of putting judging situations back into SJTs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. The Bonding Situation in Metalated Ylides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Lennart T; Andrada, Diego M; Frenking, Gernot; Gessner, Viktoria H

    2017-03-28

    Quantum chemical calculations have been carried out to study the electronic structure of metalated ylides particularly in comparison to their neutral analogues, the bisylides. A series of compounds of the general composition Ph3 P-C-L with L being either a neutral or an anionic ligand were analyzed and the impact of the nature of the substituent L and the total charge on the electronics and bonding situation was studied. The charge at the carbon atom as well as the dissociation energies, bond lengths, and Wiberg bond indices strongly depend on the nature of L. Here, not only the charge of the ligand but also the position of the charge within the ligand backbone plays an important role. Independent of the substitution pattern, the NBO analysis reveals the preference of unsymmetrical bonding situations (P=C-L or P-C=L) for almost all compounds. However, Lewis structures with two lone-pair orbitals at the central carbon atom are equally valid for the description of the bonding situation. This is confirmed by the pronounced lone-pair character of the frontier orbitals. Energy decomposition analysis mostly reveals the preference of several bonding situations, mostly with dative and ylidic electron-sharing bonds (e.g., P→C- -L). In general, the anionic systems show a higher preference of the ylidic bonding situations compared to the neutral analogues. However, in most of the cases different resonance structures have to be considered for the description of the "real" bonding situation. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  5. Use of monoclonal antibodies developed against chicken coccidia (Eimeria) to study invasion and development of Eimeria reichenowi in Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, P.C.; Olsen, G.H.; Danforth, H.D.; Gee, G.F.; Novilla, M.

    2001-01-01

    Eimeria gruis and Eimeria reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of species of cranes. Until recently, little was known about either the site for invasion or the dynamics of early development of the crane coccidia because of the difficulty of identifying sporozoites and early developmental stages of these parasites by conventional staining methods. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys were found to cross-react with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. reichenowi in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). With these Mabs, E. reichenowi sporozoites were found in specimens taken at 6 hr postinoculation (PI) from just proximal to Meckel's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer were found in the ceca and rectum and none in the duodenal loop. At 24 hr PI, there were markedly fewer sporozoites and their location had shifted to the duodenum. No stages were seen in intestinal cells at 5 days PI (DPI), but trophozoites had developed in the liver and spleen. At 10 DPI, sexual stages were detected in the intestine from the duodenal loop through Meckel's diverticulum but not in other organs. By 14 DPI, numerous developmental stages were detected in the intestine (ceca and jejunum), liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. The number, location, and maturity of the stages in the ceca differed markedly from those in the jejunum.

  6. Adverse health effects in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) associated with waste from zinc and lead mines in the Tri-State Mining District (Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Deon; Carpenter, James W; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Miesner, John F

    2011-07-01

    Lead and zinc poisoning have been recorded in a variety of bird species, including migrating waterfowl such as Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), at sites contaminated with mine waste from lead and zinc mines in the Tri-State Mining District, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA. The adverse health impacts from mine waste on these birds may, however, be more extensive than is apparent from incidental reports of clinical disease. To characterize health impacts from mine waste on Canada Geese that do not have observable signs of poisoning, four to eight apparently healthy birds per site were collected from four contaminated sites and an uncontaminated reference site, and examined for physical and physiologic evidence of metals poisoning. Tissue concentrations of silver, aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Adverse health effects due to lead were characterized by assessing blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) enzyme activity. Adverse effects associated with zinc poisoning were determined from histologic examination of pancreas tissues. Elevated tissue lead concentrations and inhibited blood ALAD enzyme activities were consistently found in birds at all contaminated sites. Histopathologic signs of zinc poisoning, including fibrosis and vacuolization, were associated with elevated pancreatic zinc concentrations at one of the study sites. Adverse health effects associated with other analyzed elements, or tissue concentrations indicating potentially toxic exposure levels to these elements, were not observed.

  7. Mortality associated with melarsomine dihydrochloride administration in two North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) and a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiffer, Donald L; Klein, Edwin C; Calle, Paul P; Linn, Michael; Terrell, Scott P; Walker, Rodney L; Todd, Donna; Vice, Carol C; Marks, Steven K

    2002-09-01

    Two adult North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) and an adult red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) at three separate institutions died within 22 hr after receiving single 2.5- to 2.7-mg/kg doses of melarsomine dihydrochloride administered in the epaxial musculature as a treatment for filarid nematodes. One otter had a suspected Dirofilaria immitis infection, the other had a confirmed D. lutrae infection, and the red panda had a confirmed Dirofilaria sp. infection, presumably with D. immitis. Postmortem examinations revealed similar gross lesions, although they were less severe in the red panda. The trachea and primary bronchi contained abundant foamy fluid, the lungs were mottled with areas of consolidation, and the pulmonary parenchyma exuded abundant fluid at the cut section. Histologic evaluation revealed acute pulmonary edema, which resulted in respiratory failure and death. There may have been direct pulmonary cellular toxicity of melarsomine dihydrochloride or a severe systemic anaphylactic reaction to antigens released after parasite death. An idiosyncratic drug reaction or a low therapeutic index of melarsomine probably caused the death of the three individuals. Melarsomine dihydrochloride use should be avoided in North American river otters and red pandas.

  8. Modeling Behavior by Coastal River Otter (Lontra Canadensis in Response to Prey Availability in Prince William Sound, Alaska: A Spatially-Explicit Individual-Based Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon E Albeke

    Full Text Available Effects of climate change on animal behavior and cascading ecosystem responses are rarely evaluated. In coastal Alaska, social river otters (Lontra Canadensis, largely males, cooperatively forage on schooling fish and use latrine sites to communicate group associations and dominance. Conversely, solitary otters, mainly females, feed on intertidal-demersal fish and display mutual avoidance via scent marking. This behavioral variability creates "hotspots" of nutrient deposition and affects plant productivity and diversity on the terrestrial landscape. Because the abundance of schooling pelagic fish is predicted to decline with climate change, we developed a spatially-explicit individual-based model (IBM of otter behavior and tested six scenarios based on potential shifts to distribution patterns of schooling fish. Emergent patterns from the IBM closely mimicked observed otter behavior and landscape use in the absence of explicit rules of intraspecific attraction or repulsion. Model results were most sensitive to rules regarding spatial memory and activity state following an encounter with a fish school. With declining availability of schooling fish, the number of social groups and the time simulated otters spent in the company of conspecifics declined. Concurrently, model results suggested an elevation of defecation rate, a 25% increase in nitrogen transport to the terrestrial landscape, and significant changes to the spatial distribution of "hotspots" with declines in schooling fish availability. However, reductions in availability of schooling fish could lead to declines in otter density over time.

  9. Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L., Papaveraceae) Enhances Proliferation and Cytokine Production by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in an In Vitro Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senchina, David S; Flinn, Gina N; McCann, Dustin A; Kohut, Marian L; Shearn, Colin T

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that phytomedicinal preparations from bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.) may harbor immunomodulatory properties. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of alcohol tinctures and water infusions generated from bloodroot flowers, leaves, rhizomes, and roots on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine production and proliferation in vitro. PBMCs were collected from 16 healthy young adults and cultured with bloodroot extracts or respective controls for interleukins-1β, -2, -8, -10, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor. Proliferative capabilities of both PBMCs and K562 cells (an immortalized human myelogenous leukemia cell line) following extract treatment were determined. High-pressure liquid chromatography was used to quantify berberine, chelerythrine, and sanguinarine in the extracts and to correlate extract composition with observed effects. Overall, infusions demonstrated greater immunomodulatory capabilities than tinctures, and flower- and root-based extracts showed greater immunomodulatory properties than leaf- or rhizome-based extracts (some effects seen with root-based extracts may be due to endotoxin). Several extracts were able to augment PBMC proliferation and diminish K562 proliferation, suggesting a selective anti-carcinogenic activity. The rhizome alcohol tincture had a markedly stronger effect against K562 cells than other extracts. Chelerythrine, sanguinarine, and endotoxin (but not berberine) sometimes correlated with observed effects. The in vitro activities demonstrated here suggest bloodroot extracts may have potential as therapeutic immunomodulators.

  10. Low temperature induces different cold sensitivity in two poplar clones (Populus x canadensis Monch 'I-214' and P. deltoides Marsh. 'Dvina').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Claudia; Lasserre, Bruno; Giovannelli, Alessio; Castro, Gaetano; Fragnelli, Giuseppe; Tognetti, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Changes of stem diameter were continuously monitored during winter in two field-grown poplar clones, using automatic point dendrometers. The objective of this study was to find an analytical solution to seasonal synchronization of stem diameter oscillations and low air temperatures. The study identified to what extent and with what frequency low air temperature induced stem diameter variation in 'Dvina' (P. deltoides) and 'I-214' (Populus x canadensis) poplar clones, after exposure to summer drought. The patterns of reversible stem shrinkage were related to the cycles of low air temperature. Hourly and daily evidence showed that 'I-214' was more sensitive to low air temperatures than 'Dvina'. The analysis of raw data and graphic details implemented with the study of derivative tests allowed an increase in the general sensitivity of the investigation applied to describe the response of poplar clones to environmental conditions. Given these diameter fluctuation patterns, automatic point dendrometers were confirmed to be a reliable non-invasive method for testing the sensitivity of diameter variation to cold temperature. Variation in rate and duration of daily stem shrinkage in response to low air temperature in winter appeared to occur independently of the effects of water deficit suffered by plants the previous summer.

  11. Differential Susceptibility of Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) and Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries) Neutrophils to Mannheimia haemolytica Leukotoxin is not due to Differential Expression of Cell Surface CD18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Liu, Weiguo; Casas, Eduardo; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2017-07-01

    Bighornsheep ( Ovis canadensis ) are more susceptible to pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica than are domestic sheep ( Ovis aries ). Leukotoxin produced by M. haemolytica is the principal virulence factor involved in pneumonia pathogenesis. Although leukotoxin is cytolytic to all subsets of ruminant leukocytes, neutrophils are the most susceptible subset. Bighorn sheep neutrophils are four- to eightfold more susceptible to leukotoxin-induced cytolysis than are domestic sheep neutrophils. We hypothesized that the higher susceptibility of bighorn sheep neutrophils, in comparison to domestic sheep neutrophils, is due to higher expression of CD18, the receptor for leukotoxin on leukocytes. Our objective was to quantify CD18 expression on neutrophils of bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Cell-surface CD18 expression on bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils was measured as antibody binding capacity of cells by flow cytometric analysis with two fluorochrome-conjugated anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (BAQ30A and HUH82A) and microspheres. Contrary to our expectations, CD18 expression was higher (Psheep neutrophils in comparison to bighorn sheep neutrophils. These findings suggest that the higher in vitro susceptibility to leukotoxin of bighorn sheep neutrophils compared to domestic sheep neutrophils is not due to higher expression of the leukotoxin receptor CD18 on bighorn sheep neutrophils.

  12. Teachers' professional judgement in real teaching situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sidse Hølvig; Daugbjerg, Peer; Sommer, Lise

    2017-01-01

    -prepared, well-rehearsed, and experience based. Disturbances, unexpected ruptures or deviations from plan demand that teachers improvise regarding which actions to carry out. The considerations the teachers make in these situations are not directly available for investigation. The actions can be conscious...... as well as unconscious and they are expressed bodily and verbally. The presentation will discuss methodological approach on how to investigate teachers' professional judgement. We will use video recordings of actual teaching situations to generate dialogue with the participating teachers. The dialogue...

  13. Human-computer interaction in multitask situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Human-computer interaction in multitask decisionmaking situations is considered, and it is proposed that humans and computers have overlapping responsibilities. Queueing theory is employed to model this dynamic approach to the allocation of responsibility between human and computer. Results of simulation experiments are used to illustrate the effects of several system variables including number of tasks, mean time between arrivals of action-evoking events, human-computer speed mismatch, probability of computer error, probability of human error, and the level of feedback between human and computer. Current experimental efforts are discussed and the practical issues involved in designing human-computer systems for multitask situations are considered.

  14. Designing to support situation awareness across distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Whitton, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    . The foundation for this framework is previous research in situation awareness and virtual reality, combined with our analysis of interviews with and observations of collaborating scientists. The framework suggests that situation awareness is comprised of contextual, task and process, and socio-emotional...... information. Research in virtual reality systems suggests control, sensory, distraction and realism attributes of technology contribute to a sense of presence [Presence 7 (1998) 225]. We suggest that consideration of these attributes with respect to contextual, task and process, and socio-emotional...

  15. Situational Strategies for Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Exercising self-control is often difficult, whether declining a drink in order to drive home safely, passing on the chocolate cake to stay on a diet, or ignoring text messages to finish reading an important paper. But enacting self-control isn’t always difficult, particularly when it takes the form of proactively choosing or changing situations in ways that weaken undesirable impulses or potentiate desirable ones. Examples of situational self-control include the partygoer who chooses a seat far from where drinks are being poured, the dieter who asks the waiter not to bring around the dessert cart, and the student who goes to the library without a cell phone. Using the process model of self-control, we argue that the full range of self-control strategies can be organized by considering the timeline of the developing tempting impulse. Because impulses tend to grow stronger over time, situational self-control strategies—which can nip a tempting impulse in the bud— may be especially effective in preventing undesirable action. Ironically, we may underappreciate situational self-control for the same reason it is so effective, namely that by manipulating our circumstances to advantage we are often able to minimize the in-the-moment experience of intrapsychic struggle typically associated with exercising self-control. The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting.—Sun Tzu, The Art of War PMID:26817725

  16. Exploring Situated Ambiguity in Students' Entrepreneurial Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubberød, Elin; Pettersen, Inger Beate

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Building on entrepreneurial learning research, the purpose of this paper is to argue that the students participating in foreign entrepreneurial education programmes can have realistic entrepreneurial learning experiences. This research addresses two specific questions: how situated ambiguity induced by a foreign culture may contribute to…

  17. Situated Language Learning: Concept, Significance and Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a shift in language learning from the "acquisition" metaphor to the "participation" metaphor. This involves viewing learners as active constructors of knowledge who can collaborate together to create meaningful language learning situations and contextualised practices. Thus, this worksheet aims at exploring…

  18. A Situational Alignment Framework for PACS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wetering, Rogier; Batenburg, Ronald; Oudkerk, Matthijs; van Ooijen, Peter; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Scheper, Wim

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the outcomes of a study on an integrated situational alignment framework for picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) labeled as PISA. Following the design research cycle, complementary validation methods and pilot cases were used to assess the proposed framework and its

  19. Effect of situation on mother infant interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.J.B.M.; Vreeswijk, C.M.J.M.; van Bakel, H.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that the early parent–infant relationship is of critical importance for children's developmental outcomes. While the effect of different settings on mother–infant interactive behavior is well studied, only few researchers systematically examined the effect of situational variables

  20. Psychosocial situation of seniors with disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiserová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Kaiserová:Psychosocial situation of seniors with physical disability. Praha, PedF UK, 2011. Presented bachelor thesis deals with problems acquired physical disability in the adulthood and the old age and its impact on personality of individual. It also deals with problems of diabetes, its complications and syndrom of diabetic foot.

  1. Faculty Development Using the Situational Leadership Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Michael C.

    1995-01-01

    The situational leadership model developed by Hersey and Blanchard is described, and the task-specific model is then applied to the four primary tasks of college faculty--teaching, research, community service, and institutional service. The model combines directive and supportive behavior as they are reflected in four distinctive leadership…

  2. Teaching Decision-Making Using Situational Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Daniel W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the basic tenets of the Situational Leadership model, examines the steps of the Conflict Model for decision making, and presents a conceptual model that integrates the two. The integrated model aims to provide a systematic means for allowing individuals to learn how to participate in organizational decisions. (JDD)

  3. The Role of the Situation in Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroom, Victor H.; Jago, Arthur G.

    2007-01-01

    Leadership depends on the situation. Few social scientists would dispute the validity of this statement. But the statement can be interpreted in many different ways, depending, at least in part, on what one means by leadership. This article begins with a definition of leadership and a brief description of 3 historically important theories of…

  4. Locally Situated Digital Representation of Indigenous Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Jensen, Kasper Løvborg; Rodil, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    representation based on experiences from a longitudinal community-centred research project in rural Africa. In a quest to shape design from a locally situated viewpoint, we co-design a 3D visualization of an African village with its inhabitants. Prior invisible local perspectives, as well as dominant designer...

  5. Situational Strategies for Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J

    2016-01-01

    Exercising self-control is often difficult, whether declining a drink in order to drive home safely, passing on the chocolate cake to stay on a diet, or ignoring text messages to finish reading an important paper. But enacting self-control is not always difficult, particularly when it takes the form of proactively choosing or changing situations in ways that weaken undesirable impulses or potentiate desirable ones. Examples of situational self-control include the partygoer who chooses a seat far from where drinks are being poured, the dieter who asks the waiter not to bring around the dessert cart, and the student who goes to the library without a cell phone. Using the process model of self-control, we argue that the full range of self-control strategies can be organized by considering the timeline of the developing tempting impulse. Because impulses tend to grow stronger over time, situational self-control strategies-which can nip a tempting impulse in the bud-may be especially effective in preventing undesirable action. Ironically, we may underappreciate situational self-control for the same reason it is so effective-namely, that by manipulating our circumstances to advantage, we are often able to minimize the in-the-moment experience of intrapsychic struggle typically associated with exercising self-control. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Rethinking Situated and Embodied Social Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouw, W.; Looren De Jong, H.

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to explore the scope of a Situated and Embodied Social Psychology (ESP). At first sight, social cognition seems embodied cognition par excellence. Social cognition is first and foremost a supra-individual, interactive, and dynamic process (Semin & Smith, 2013). Radical approaches

  7. The Sign Language Situation in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyst, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This article gives a first overview of the sign language situation in Mali and its capital, Bamako, located in the West African Sahel. Mali is a highly multilingual country with a significant incidence of deafness, for which meningitis appears to be the main cause, coupled with limited access to adequate health care. In comparison to neighboring…

  8. Seeking Sustainable Solutions in Protracted Refugee Situations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refugees in Africa are forced to fl ee their homelands because of ongoing conflicts, persecution and humanitarian crises in their countries. Refugees constitute one of Africa's most complex challenges, and in many regions protracted refugee situations (PRSs) have developed. This means that refugees have lived in host ...

  9. African Tobacco Situational Analysis : Development Grants | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) is partnering with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) in the African Tobacco Situational Analyses (ATSA), an initiative to understand the critical determinants for tobacco control in Africa. This grant will allow up to 15 national teams or consortiums whose ...

  10. Assessing Vessel Traffic Service Operator Situation Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes my study of situation awareness assessment of Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) operators. VTS operators are the traffic controllers on the water. They are responsible for a safe and efficient handling of vessel traffic. They monitor traffic, provide information on request and

  11. Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Brandt, Summer L.; Bacon, Paige; Kraut, Josh; Nguyen, Jimmy; Minakata, Katsumi; Raza, Hamzah; Rozovski, David; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts. The Concepts varied in terms of the allocation of traffic avoidance responsibility between the pilot on the flight deck, the air traffic controllers, and a conflict resolution automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to fully handle the responsibility of weather avoidance and maintaining separation between ownship and surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, pilots were not responsible for traffic separation, but were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but conflict detection tools were disabled. In this concept pilots were dependent on ground based automation for conflict detection and resolution. Situation awareness of the pilots was measured using online probes. Results showed that individual situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that for conflict resolution tasks, situation awareness is improved when pilots remain in the decision-making loop.

  12. Situating asynchronous voice in rural Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bidwell, NJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available to be oriented by theory that contrasts the mental functions of oral and literate users, rather than by local practices in social situations. We describe designing an Audio Repository (AR) based on practices, priorities and phone-use in rural Africa. The AR...

  13. A situational alignment framework for PACS.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, R. van de; Batenburg, R.; Oudkerk, M.; Ooijen, P. van; Brinkkemper, S.; Scheper, W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the outcomes of a study on an integrated situational alignment framework for picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) labeled as PISA. Following the design research cycle, complementary validation methods and pilot cases were used to assess the proposed framework and its

  14. Experiences with the Situation Approach in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Jurgen

    This paper relates the experiences of an early childhood professor from the Freie University of Berlin on a trip through East Asia to provide advice and assistance on the situational approach to preschool education. Impressions of the sociopolitical and educational environment and needs of Thailand, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, and…

  15. Current situation of fish farming in Togo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Togo, fish farming is faced with several problems which oblige farmers to develop local production techniques that explain the low level of production. To assess the current situation, a survey was conducted to collect information on this activity in 91 Togolese fish farms located in the five regions of the country. The.

  16. Crisis Situations in Engineering Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muenzberg, Christopher; Hammer, Jens; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    and experts. Result of this research is a situation specific approach for crises. The evaluated methods are clustered considering the main steps of problem solving. Results indicate that TRIZ methods support especially the idea generation process with structured and detailed approaches....

  17. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...

  18. Stakeholders Perception of Current Health Education Situation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    similarities to contemporary ideas on health strategies and on the importance of health improvement in developing countries .... perceptions of the various stakeholders' current health education situation under Ghana's HPC program. The purpose of the ..... of study should be interesting and of some value. Having dealt with ...

  19. Situational interest in engineering design activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present mixed-method study was to investigate task-based situational interest of sixth grade students (n=46), between 12 and 14 years old, during an eight-week engineering design programme in a Science & Technology-class. Students’ interests were investigated by means...

  20. All in a day's work – variability in person-situation interactions in daily life situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Meinert

    effect of persons’ situational concerns and intentions upon fluctuations in quality of experience. This paper will argue that the combination of findings (a) and (b) goes against the interpretation that persons merely “react” to situational features, and instead points to how subjective and agentic...

  1. Situations in 140 Characters: Assessing Real-World Situations on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Serfass

    Full Text Available Over 20 million Tweets were used to study the psychological characteristics of real-world situations over the course of two weeks. Models for automatically and accurately scoring individual Tweets on the DIAMONDS dimensions of situations were developed. Stable daily and weekly fluctuations in the situations that people experience were identified. Predicted temporal trends were found, providing validation for this new method of situation assessment. On weekdays, Duty peaks in the midmorning and declines steadily thereafter while Sociality peeks in the evening. Negativity is highest during the workweek and lowest on the weekends. pOsitivity shows the opposite pattern. Additionally, gender and locational differences in the situations shared on Twitter are explored. Females share both more emotionally charged (pOsitive and Negative situations, while no differences were found in the amount of Duty experienced by males and females. Differences in the situations shared from Rural and Urban areas were not found. Future applications of assessing situations using social media are discussed.

  2. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. Data Sources: CINAHL (1982–2002), MEDLINE (1990–2001), SPORT Discus (1949–2002), ERIC (1966–2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. Data Synthesis: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. Conclusions/Recommendations: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession. PMID:12937555

  3. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL (1982-2002), MEDLINE (1990-2001), SPORT Discus (1949-2002), ERIC (1966-2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. DATA SYNTHESIS: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession.

  4. Estimating population parameters for northern and southern breeding populations of Canada geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestbeck, J.B.; Rusch, Donald H.; Samuel, Michael D.; Humburg, Dale D.; Sullivan, Brian D.

    1998-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have been managed largely as a migratory resource. In the 1960's, Canada goose flocks were restored to historic breeding ranges in the United States and southern Canada to enhance recreational opportunity for observation and harvest. These populations of southern breeding geese have rapidly expanded, increasing conflicts with social and economic interests and causing the Midwinter Waterfowl Survey to be less effective as a management tool to monitor migrant populations. Wildlife agencies need methods to control local, southern breeding geese that reduce conflicts while providing adequate protection to populations of northern breeding geese. New techniques have been developed using mark-resight data from neck-banded geese to estimate distribution and population size during the late summer, fall, and mid-winter. Survival and movement rates can be estimated over special early or late hunting seasons, traditional fall-winter hunting season, and nonharvest periods. Direct recovery rates can be estimated for special and traditional harvest periods and these recovery rates can be related to survival and movement rates. Changes in harvest regulations can be related to changes in recovery, survival, and movement rates for specific cohorts of Canada geese. These techniques can be used to monitor population status and determine more appropriate harvest strategies.

  5. Pleasure in decision-making situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasko Marta

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explores the role of pleasure in decision making. Results In Experiment 1, 12 subjects were presented with a questionnaire containing 46 items taken from the literature. Twenty-three items described a situation where a decision should be made and ended with a suggested solution. The other items served as filler items. The subjects were requested not to make a decision but to rate the pleasure or displeasure they experienced when reading the situation described in the item. The subjects' ratings were then compared to the decisions on the same situations made by the other subjects of the studies published by other workers. The ratings of pleasure/displeasure given by our subjects correlated significantly with the choices published by other authors. This result satisfies a necessary condition for pleasure to be the key of the decision making process in theoretical situations. In Experiment 2, a new group of 12 subjects rated their experience of pleasure/displeasure when reading various versions of 50 situations taken from daily life where an ethical decision had to be made (Questionnaire I including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice test with the 50 situations (Questionnaire II using the same 200 items and offering the various behaviors. Subjects tended to choose ethical and unethical responses corresponding to their highest pleasure rating within each problem. In all cases the subjects' behavior was higher than chance level, and thus, followed the trend to maximize pleasure. In Experiment 3, 12 subjects reading 50 mathematical short problems followed by correct and incorrect versions of the answer to the problem (Questionnaire III, including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice mathematical test with the 50 problems (Questionnaire IV using the same 200 items and offering the correct and incorrect answers. In questionnaire IV, subjects tended to choose correct as well as incorrect

  6. Pleasure in decision-making situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanac, Michel; Guillaume, Jacqueline; Balasko, Marta; Fleury, Adriana

    2002-05-29

    This study explores the role of pleasure in decision making. In Experiment 1, 12 subjects were presented with a questionnaire containing 46 items taken from the literature. Twenty-three items described a situation where a decision should be made and ended with a suggested solution. The other items served as filler items. The subjects were requested not to make a decision but to rate the pleasure or displeasure they experienced when reading the situation described in the item. The subjects' ratings were then compared to the decisions on the same situations made by the other subjects of the studies published by other workers. The ratings of pleasure/displeasure given by our subjects correlated significantly with the choices published by other authors. This result satisfies a necessary condition for pleasure to be the key of the decision making process in theoretical situations. In Experiment 2, a new group of 12 subjects rated their experience of pleasure/displeasure when reading various versions of 50 situations taken from daily life where an ethical decision had to be made (Questionnaire I) including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice test with the 50 situations (Questionnaire II) using the same 200 items and offering the various behaviors. Subjects tended to choose ethical and unethical responses corresponding to their highest pleasure rating within each problem. In all cases the subjects' behavior was higher than chance level, and thus, followed the trend to maximize pleasure. In Experiment 3, 12 subjects reading 50 mathematical short problems followed by correct and incorrect versions of the answer to the problem (Questionnaire III), including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice mathematical test with the 50 problems (Questionnaire IV) using the same 200 items and offering the correct and incorrect answers. In questionnaire IV, subjects tended to choose correct as well as incorrect responses corresponding to their highest hedonic

  7. Reproductive and morphological condition of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) in relation to chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, L E; Harris, M L; Stephen, C R; Elliott, J E

    1999-01-01

    We assessed chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of mink and river otters on the Columbia and Fraser River systems of northwestern North America, in relation to morphological measures of condition. We obtained carcasses of mink and river otters from commercial trappers during the winters 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Necropsies included evaluation of the following biological parameters: sex, body mass and length, age, thymus, heart, liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gonad, omentum, adrenal gland and baculum masses, baculum length, and stomach contents. Livers were analyzed, individually or in pools, for residues of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans. Contaminant levels were relatively low compared to those documented in other North American populations, although they ranged higher than those detected during an earlier survey (1990-1992) of these regional populations. Body condition varied slightly among collection regions, but showed no relationship with contaminant burden. Mink from the upper Fraser River had less fat stores and also had some of the lowest OC contamination levels observed. Similarly, a few individuals with enlarged livers and kidneys had low contaminant levels. Although a few individual animals with gross abnormalities of reproductive systems did not show high levels of contamination, there was a significant negative correlation between total PCB concentrations (as Aroclor 1260) and baculum length in juvenile mink (r = 0.707; p = 0.033; n = 8). The association of juvenile baculum length with eventual reproductive success is unknown, but further characterization of reproductive organ morphology and relationship to contaminants should be undertaken in a larger subset of these populations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9924010

  8. Situation Model for Situation-Aware Assistance of Dementia Patients in Outdoor Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Kristina; Koldrack, Philipp; Heine, Christina; Henkel, Ron; Martin, Mike; Teipel, Stefan; Kirste, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Dementia impairs spatial orientation and route planning, thus often affecting the patient's ability to move outdoors and maintain social activities. Situation-aware deliberative assistive technology devices (ATD) can substitute impaired cognitive function in order to maintain one's level of social activity. To build such a system, one needs domain knowledge about the patient's situation and needs. We call this collection of knowledge situation model. To construct a situation model for the outdoor mobility of people with dementia (PwD). The model serves two purposes: 1) as a knowledge base from which to build an ATD describing the mobility of PwD; and 2) as a codebook for the annotation of the recorded behavior. We perform systematic knowledge elicitation to obtain the relevant knowledge. The OBO Edit tool is used for implementing and validating the situation model. The model is evaluated by using it as a codebook for annotating the behavior of PwD during a mobility study and interrater agreement is computed. In addition, clinical experts perform manual evaluation and curation of the model. The situation model consists of 101 concepts with 11 relation types between them. The results from the annotation showed substantial overlapping between two annotators (Cohen's kappa of 0.61). The situation model is a first attempt to systematically collect and organize information related to the outdoor mobility of PwD for the purposes of situation-aware assistance. The model is the base for building an ATD able to provide situation-aware assistance and to potentially improve the quality of life of PwD.

  9. Beaver-mediated methane emission: The effects of population growth in Eurasia and the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Colin J; Baulch, Helen M; Chun, Kwok P; Westbrook, Cherie J

    2015-02-01

    Globally, greenhouse gas budgets are dominated by natural sources, and aquatic ecosystems are a prominent source of methane (CH(4)) to the atmosphere. Beaver (Castor canadensis and Castor fiber) populations have experienced human-driven change, and CH(4) emissions associated with their habitat remain uncertain. This study reports the effect of near extinction and recovery of beavers globally on aquatic CH4 emissions and habitat. Resurgence of native beaver populations and their introduction in other regions accounts for emission of 0.18-0.80 Tg CH(4) year(-1) (year 2000). This flux is approximately 200 times larger than emissions from the same systems (ponds and flowing waters that became ponds) circa 1900. Beaver population recovery was estimated to have led to the creation of 9500-42 000 km(2) of ponded water, and increased riparian interface length of >200 000 km. Continued range expansion and population growth in South America and Europe could further increase CH(4) emissions.

  10. Situated learning - beyond apprenticeship and social constructionism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the theoretical and philosophical fundament of Jean Lave & Etienne Wenger’s theory of ’situated learning’. In Denmark, the theory has been categorized under as different paradigms as a theory of learning as ‘apprenticeship’ and as ‘social constructionism......’. This may seem as a theoretical discussion without any implications for an actual practice. But, as it will be argued in the paper, the perception of the theory has fundamental consequences for how it is considered to contribute to the understanding of learning and to analyses of learning in an actual...... context. The paper can, thus, be considered as not only a contribution to a narrow discussion of ‘situated learning’, but also to the wider discussion of how to conceptualize ‘learning’ as such. In addition, the paper discusses some of the analytical perspectives, which are at stake in some of the other...

  11. From Knowledge Transfer to Situated Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Eriksén, Sara; Wessels, Bridgette

    Innovation systems, ‘triple helix’, and similar expressions, are used to conceptualise the growing need for more integrated forms of co-operation between academia and other societal actors, such as governmental agencies and industry, in order to produce knowledge relevant for society. However......, developers and domain experts that form constituencies and where scientific knowledge is confronted by requirements, constraints and possibilities of the specific situation. In this context innovation of, or involving, ICT requires a significant amount of imagination, represents a relatively sharp break...... with established ways of doing things, and requires artful integration of different professional practices, communities, and technologies. We define these creative processes of co-development of work practices, organisations and technology as ‘situated innovation’....

  12. Situational Analysis and Engineering Work Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    Studies of work practices of scientists and engineers inspired by Science and Technology Studies (STS) provide new material for a richer understanding of expert cultures and expert work practices. However, the specific and strictly situated focus of many of these studies threatens to limit...... discussions of work practices to departmental and discrete institutional settings. This micro perspective potentially overlooks the inherent and overarching normativities that inform expert culture and expert work practices. Furthermore, the micro perspective has difficulties in transgressing institutional...... boundaries in order to investigate the dynamics of cultural reproduction in expert work practices. The paper will propose a new research agenda that – inspired by George Marcus’ multi-sited ethnographic methodology (Marcus 1998) and Adele Clarke’s situational analysis (Clarke 2005) – analyze (and contrasts...

  13. Situated ethics in collaborative research with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    That research ethics are to be renegotiated with the respective participants throughout the research process is a demand strongly promoted throughout feminist research. Ethics are to be re-situated according to the concrete interrelationships, including the power relations and positionings in play......, the agendas, accountabilities and responsibilities at stake. Due to the insight that human beings are situated beings, who have limited possibilities for understanding their respective being in the world, it emerges that a collaborative and yet conflictual exploration of joint becomings is both...... an epistemological as well as an ontological necessity. The paper discusses how a renegotiation of ethics is particularly difficult whilst engaging in a project investigating everyday media experiences of young children (aged 3-6) at a German day care centre. Albeit the children were explicitly considered co-researchers...

  14. The role of the situation in leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroom, Victor H; Jago, Arthur G

    2007-01-01

    Leadership depends on the situation. Few social scientists would dispute the validity of this statement. But the statement can be interpreted in many different ways, depending, at least in part, on what one means by leadership. This article begins with a definition of leadership and a brief description of 3 historically important theories of leadership. The most recent of these, contingency theories, is argued to be most consistent with existing evidence and most relevant to professional practice. The Vroom, Yetton, and Jago contingency models of participation in decision making are described in depth, and their work provides the basis for identifying 3 distinct ways in which situational or contextual variables are relevant to both research on and the practice of leadership. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved)

  15. The development of virtue through Situated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele BALDUZZI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to underline the educative potential of the teaching method called «Situated learning». Thanks to the introduction of Tablets and iPads into the school environment, teachers have more instruments (i.e. interactive slides, video and audio support, Internet based sources to let knowledge, abilities and skills grow into their students’ mind: this is «Situated learning». Although the learning potential of these new learning instruments is clear, there must be the support of the students’ and teachers’ qualities and virtues (in particular the virtue of sharing knowledge, otherwise the whole potential would be nullified anyway: students with no will to learn will not learn, with or without an iPad, and the same is for a teacher with no will to teach.

  16. Collaborative product development and situated knowledge contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Munksgaard, Kristin B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding how problem formulation, information search and division of work in new product development (NPD) activities is shaped by mind sets vested in organizations with diverging positions in the value chain and correspondingly...... situated knowledge contexts. The authors aim to focus on how this influences the marketability of new product ideas. Design/methodology/approach - The empirical data are derived from exploratory observation studies of NPD meetings and interviews of involved managers and specialists in three business dyads...... concerns the atmosphere of the relationship, involving emotions and attitudes of the actors involved from foregone exchange situations. Practical implications - For managers of NPD activities, the relationship between the knowledge contexts involved, the concept development outcomes and the marketability...

  17. Gamification for Measuring Cyber Security Situational Awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Best, Daniel M.; Manz, David O.; Popovsky, V. M.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2013-03-01

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. This paper describes how one regional competition, the PRCCDC, a participant in the national CCDC program, conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the annual competition for later analysis. The intent is to create an ongoing research agenda that expands on this current work and incorporates augmented cognition and gamification methods for measuring cybersecurity situational awareness under the stress of cyber attack.

  18. Knowledge-based driver assistance systems traffic situation description and situation feature relevance

    CERN Document Server

    Huelsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The comprehension of a traffic situation plays a major role in driving a vehicle. Interpretable information forms a basis for future projection, decision making and action performing, such as navigating, maneuvering and driving control. Michael Huelsen provides an ontology-based generic traffic situation description capable of supplying various advanced driver assistance systems with relevant information about the current traffic situation of a vehicle and its environment. These systems are enabled to perform reasonable actions and approach visionary goals such as injury and accident free driv

  19. Assessment of internal doses in emergency situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahola, T.; Muikku, M. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK (Finland); Falk, R.; Johansson, J. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority - SSI (Sweden); Liland, A.; Thorshaug, S. [NRPA (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    The need for assessing internal radiation doses in emergency situations was demonstrated after accidents in Brazil, Ukraine and other countries. Lately more and more concern has been expressed regarding malevolent use of radiation and radioactive materials. The scenarios for such use are more difficult to predict than for nuclear power plant or weapons accidents. Much of the results of the work done in the IRADES project can be adopted for use in various accidental situations involving radionuclides that are not addressed in this report. If an emergency situation occurs in only one or a few of the Nordic countries, experts from the other countries could be called upon to assist in monitoring. A big advantage is then our common platform. In the Nordic countries much work has been put down on quality assurance of measurements and on training of dose assessment calculations. Attention to this was addressed at the internal dosimetry course in October 2005. Nordic emergency preparedness exercises have so far not included training of direct measurements of people in the early phase of an emergency. The aim of the IRADES project was to improve the preparedness especially for thyroid measurements. The modest financial support did not enable the participants to make big efforts but certainly acted as a much appreciated reminder of the importance of being prepared also to handle situations with malevolent use of radioactive materials. It was left to each country to decide to which extent to improve the practical skills. There is still a need for detailed national implementation plans. Measurement strategies need to be developed in each country separately taking into account national regulations, local circumstances and resources. End users of the IRADES report are the radiation protection authorities. (au)

  20. Algeria. Energy situation 2004; Algerien. Energiewirtschaft 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-01

    The energy situation of Algeria is reviewed on the basis of selected data. This includes statistics on the country's national and international energy policy, energy sources, and electric power generation. Key data are presented on foreign trade. [German] Unter Angabe einiger markanter Daten wird ein Ueberblick ueber die Energiesituation Algeriens gegeben. Nach einigen Anmerkungen zur nationalen und internationalen Energiepolitik werden die Entwicklungen bezueglich der einzelnen Energietraeger und der Stromerzeugung beschrieben. Ausserdem werden einige wichtige Zahlen zum Aussenhandel angegeben.

  1. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership ...

  2. COMMUNICATION IN THE EMERGENCY SITUATIONS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Aurel GHIUȚĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is talking about communication use in emergency situations management from a marketing perspective. We have analyzed if this communication is different from the communication of a company with her publics; the legislation which provides the framework for this type of communication in Romania, when is applicable and who is in charge. As methodology we have utilized documentary research. We mention similarities and differences between this type of communication and Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC.

  3. Situational Leadership And Diversity Management Coaching Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Bahaudin G. Mujtaba; Jatuporn Sungkhawan

    2011-01-01

    Leadership and diversity management have been part of the work life since the beginning of formal organizations and a critical element of globalization. The authors provide an overview of situational leadership and link it to diversity management so the focus can remain on productivity rather than personalities and biases which are part of each society and individual. Based on personal training experiences of the authors, this conceptual and practical paper provides a model to link situationa...

  4. Big data for space situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Pugh, Mark; Sheaff, Carolyn; Raquepas, Joe; Rocci, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Recent advances in big data (BD) have focused research on the volume, velocity, veracity, and variety of data. These developments enable new opportunities in information management, visualization, machine learning, and information fusion that have potential implications for space situational awareness (SSA). In this paper, we explore some of these BD trends as applicable for SSA towards enhancing the space operating picture. The BD developments could increase in measures of performance and measures of effectiveness for future management of the space environment. The global SSA influences include resident space object (RSO) tracking and characterization, cyber protection, remote sensing, and information management. The local satellite awareness can benefit from space weather, health monitoring, and spectrum management for situation space understanding. One area in big data of importance to SSA is value - getting the correct data/information at the right time, which corresponds to SSA visualization for the operator. A SSA big data example is presented supporting disaster relief for space situation awareness, assessment, and understanding.

  5. Relative accuracy of spatial predictive models for lynx Lynx canadensis derived using logistic regression-AIC, multiple criteria evaluation and Bayesian approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley M. ALEXANDER

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We compared probability surfaces derived using one set of environmental variables in three Geographic Information Systems (GIS-based approaches: logistic regression and Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC, Multiple Criteria Evaluation (MCE, and Bayesian Analysis (specifically Dempster-Shafer theory. We used lynx Lynx canadensis as our focal species, and developed our environment relationship model using track data collected in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada, during winters from 1997 to 2000. The accuracy of the three spatial models were compared using a contingency table method. We determined the percentage of cases in which both presence and absence points were correctly classified (overall accuracy, the failure to predict a species where it occurred (omission error and the prediction of presence where there was absence (commission error. Our overall accuracy showed the logistic regression approach was the most accurate (74.51%. The multiple criteria evaluation was intermediate (39.22%, while the Dempster-Shafer (D-S theory model was the poorest (29.90%. However, omission and commission error tell us a different story: logistic regression had the lowest commission error, while D-S theory produced the lowest omission error. Our results provide evidence that habitat modellers should evaluate all three error measures when ascribing confidence in their model. We suggest that for our study area at least, the logistic regression model is optimal. However, where sample size is small or the species is very rare, it may also be useful to explore and/or use a more ecologically cautious modelling approach (e.g. Dempster-Shafer that would over-predict, protect more sites, and thereby minimize the risk of missing critical habitat in conservation plans[Current Zoology 55(1: 28 – 40, 2009].

  6. Evaluating potential overlap between pack stock and Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae) in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Robert C.; Few, Alexandra P.; Knox, Kathleen A.; Hatfield, Brian E.; Clark, Jonathan; German, David W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Pack stock (horses, mules, burros, llamas, and goats) are frequently assumed to have negative effects on public lands, but there is a general lack of data to be able to quantify the degree to which this is actually the case. Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks have received complaints that pack stock may affect Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae; SNBS), a federally endangered subspecies that occurs in largely disjunct herds in the Sierra Nevada Range of California. The potential effects are thought to be displacement of SNBS from meadows on their summer range (altered habitat use) or, more indirectly, through changes in SNBS habitat or forage quality. Our goals were to conduct an association analysis to quantify the degree of potential spatial overlap in meadow use between SNBS and pack stock and to compare differences in vegetation community composition, structure, and diversity among meadows with different levels of use by bighorn sheep and pack stock. For the association analysis, we used two approaches: (1) we quantified the proportion of meadows that were within the herd home ranges of bighorn sheep and were potentially open to pack stock, and, (2) we used Monte Carlo simulations and use-availability analyses to compare the proportion of meadows used by bighorn sheep relative to the proportional occurrence or area of meadows available to bighorn sheep that were used by pack stock. To evaluate potential effects of pack stock on meadow plant communities and SNBS forage, we sampled vegetation in 2011 and 2012 at 100 plots to generate data that allowed us to compare:

  7. Transmission of Mannheimia haemolytica from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): unequivocal demonstration with green fluorescent protein-tagged organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Paulraj K; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Knowles, Donald P; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Foreyt, William J; Wayman, Gary; Marciel, Ann Marie; Highlander, Sarah K; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) died of pneumonia when commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) but did not conclusively prove that the responsible pathogens were transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep. The objective of this study was to determine, unambiguously, whether Mannheimia haemolytica can be transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep when they commingle. Four isolates of M. haemolytica were obtained from the pharynx of two of four domestic sheep and tagged with a plasmid carrying the genes for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ampicillin resistance (AP(R)). Four domestic sheep, colonized with the tagged bacteria, were kept about 10 m apart from four bighorn sheep for 1 mo with no clinical signs of pneumonia observed in the bighorn sheep during that period. The domestic and bighorn sheep were then allowed to have fence-line contact for 2 mo. During that period, three bighorn sheep acquired the tagged bacteria from the domestic sheep. At the end of the 2 mo of fence-line contact, the animals were allowed to commingle. All four bighorn sheep died 2 days to 9 days following commingling. The lungs from all four bighorn sheep showed gross and histopathologic lesions characteristic of M. haemolytica pneumonia. Tagged M. haemolytica were isolated from all four bighorn sheep, as confirmed by growth in ampicillin-containing culture medium, PCR-amplification of genes encoding GFP and Ap(R), and immunofluorescent staining of GFP. These results unequivocally demonstrate transmission of M. haemolytica from domestic to bighorn sheep, resulting in pneumonia and death of bighorn sheep.

  8. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in livers of American mink (Mustela vison) and river otter (Lutra canadensis) from the Columbia and Fraser River Basins, 1990-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.E.; Henny, Charles J.; Harris, M.L.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in aquatic mustelid species on the Fraser and Columbia Rivers of northwestern North America. Carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis) (N=24) and mink (Mustela vison) (N=34) were obtained from commercial trappers during the winters of 1990-91 and 1991a??92. Pooled liver samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Most samples contained detectable concentrations of DDE, PCBs, although there was substantial variability in patterns and trends among neighboring samples. Concentrations of DDE were in some mink and several otter samples from the lower Columbia River elevated (to 4700 g/kg wet weight); excluding one mink sample from the Wenatchee area, mean DDE levels generally decreased between 1978a??79 and 1990a??92. PCBs were present in all samples. PCB concentrations in otter livers collected from the lower Columbia were ten-fold lower than measured a decade previously; nevertheless, a sample taken near Portland had a mean concentration of 1500 g/kg, within a range of concentrations associated with reproductive effects in captive mink. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and TCDF were generally below detection limits, except for one otter collected near a pulp mill at Castlegar, on the upper Columbia, with 11 ng TCDD/kg in liver. Elevated concentrations of higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs, probably resulting from use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives, were found in both species; one otter sample from the lower Columbia had 2200 ng OCDD/kg. International TCDD toxic equivalent levels in mink (31 ng/kg) and otter (93 ng/kg) from the lower Columbia River approached toxicity thresholds for effects on reproduction in ranch mink.

  9. Intuitive steering assistance in critical understeer situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Christoph; Schmidt, Mario; Sedlmayr, Martin; Pion, Olivier; Büyükyildiz, Görkem; Küçükay, Ferit

    2015-01-01

    To develop and verify a driver assistance function, working on the electric power steering of passenger cars, to support the driver on handling critical understeer situations. The main objectives of the so-called understeer assistance are reinforcing the driver's awareness of the driving conditions and giving support to handle the situation correctly without inducing irritation by abnormal steering behavior. The system was designed in consideration of psychological aspects of human decision making while operating a vehicle in unfamiliar understeer situations. Using a comparison of vehicle dynamics with a reference model computed in the car, the level of understeer is calculated. Depending on the understeer level, the steering wheel restoring torque is increased while a vibration is applied to the steering wheel at the same time. To verify the achievement of the objectives, the standard steering system is compared to the developed understeer assistance in an active driving study on a test track. Not only objective measurement data but also subjective ratings delivered by 63 unbiased participants were used. The subjects follow the offered steering recommendation by steering less when the assistance function is activated (Δγmax = 44.38°, p = 2.5°·10⁻³%). In the sequel, an enhanced vehicle reaction arises that is validated by analyzing the achieved maximum lateral offset (ΔSy,res = 0.16m, p = 0.07%). In addition, the evaluation of subjective ratings clearly indicates a better awareness of the understeer situation with the assistance function (χ= +0.44, p = 0.89%). Furthermore the subjects rate the understeer assistance better than the standard steering system (χ= +0.43, p = 3.03%). By measuring vehicle data and eliciting subjective opinions of the participants, the effectiveness regarding an improved handling of an understeering vehicle as well as the acceptance of the understeer assistance by the driver is confirmed. Larger subject groups and more realistic

  10. Parámetros reproductivos y distribución geográfica potencial de las áreas de anidación de Grus canadensis nesiotes (Aves, Gruidae en Cuba: implicaciones para su conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrer–Sánchez, Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive parameters and potential geographical distribution of nesting areas of Grus canadensis nesiotes (Aves, Gruidae in Cuba: conservation implications Grus canadensis nesiotes (Cuban sandhill crane is an endemic and endangered subspecies from Cuba. Protection of wetland habitats is essential for survival of this species, but studies that could contribute to its management and conservation are lacking. In this study we recorded the reproductive parameters of Grus canadensis nesiotes in eight breeding seasons between 2005 and 2015 in a wetland of Cuba. We modeled and characterized the potential geographical distribution of the nesting areas, analyzing its representation within protected areas. Maximum entropy algorithm and habitat variables were used for modeling (100 m of pixel size. To characterize the potential distribution we calculated each land–use–vegetation within the potential distribution. We used the same procedure to determine the extent of the protected area. A hundred and fifty–one nests were located in marsh grasslands. These nests were simple platforms built on wet soil/water; the largest nests were observed in 2006. Seventy percent of nests had two eggs (1.7 eggs/nest and 63.5% were successful with 1.6 chicks per successful nest. The potential nesting habitat is a narrow stretch (242 km2 located in the center of the wetland. The area with high probability of presence makes up 13.8% of the predicted distribution. Sixty percent of marsh grassland of the study area was included in the potential distribution, while the proportion of crops (1.2% and pastures (2.1% was low. Managed protected areas cover only 39.1% of the potential distribution of the nesting sites and 12% of the high probability areas. We propose three priority sites to study and monitor nesting of the subspecies. Species conservation actions should consider the potential geographical distribution of nesting sites both inside and outside the protected

  11. Resource Management in Constrained Dynamic Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jinwoo

    Resource management is considered in this dissertation for systems with limited resources, possibly combined with other system constraints, in unpredictably dynamic environments. Resources may represent fuel, power, capabilities, energy, and so on. Resource management is important for many practical systems; usually, resources are limited, and their use must be optimized. Furthermore, systems are often constrained, and constraints must be satisfied for safe operation. Simplistic resource management can result in poor use of resources and failure of the system. Furthermore, many real-world situations involve dynamic environments. Many traditional problems are formulated based on the assumptions of given probabilities or perfect knowledge of future events. However, in many cases, the future is completely unknown, and information on or probabilities about future events are not available. In other words, we operate in unpredictably dynamic situations. Thus, a method is needed to handle dynamic situations without knowledge of the future, but few formal methods have been developed to address them. Thus, the goal is to design resource management methods for constrained systems, with limited resources, in unpredictably dynamic environments. To this end, resource management is organized hierarchically into two levels: 1) planning, and 2) control. In the planning level, the set of tasks to be performed is scheduled based on limited resources to maximize resource usage in unpredictably dynamic environments. In the control level, the system controller is designed to follow the schedule by considering all the system constraints for safe and efficient operation. Consequently, this dissertation is mainly divided into two parts: 1) planning level design, based on finite state machines, and 2) control level methods, based on model predictive control. We define a recomposable restricted finite state machine to handle limited resource situations and unpredictably dynamic environments

  12. Applying Cognitive Fusion to Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, S.; Shaw, M.; Chan, M.

    With recent increases in capability and frequency of rocket launches from countries across the world, maintaining a state-of-the-art Space Situational Awareness model is all the more necessary. We propose a fusion of real-time, natural language processing capability provided by IBM cognitive services with ground-based sensor data of positions and trajectories of satellites in all earth orbits. We believe such insight provided by cognitive services could help determine context to missile launches, help predict when a satellite of interest could be in danger, either by accident or by intent, and could alert interested parties to the perceived threat. We seek to implement an improved Space Situational Awareness model by developing a dynamic factor graph model informed by the fusion of ground-based ”structured” sensor data with ”unstructured” data from the public domain, such as news articles, blogs, and social media, in real time. To this end, we employ IBM’s Cognitive services, specifically, Watson Discovery. Watson Discovery allows real-time natural language processing of text including entity extraction, keyword search, taxonomy classification, concept tagging, relation extraction, sentiment analysis, and emotion analysis. We present various scenarios that demonstrate the utility of this new Space Situational Awareness model, each of which combine past structured information with related open source data. We demonstrate that should the model come to estimate a satellite is ”of interest”, it will indicate it as so, based on the most pertinent data, such as a reading from a sensor or by information available online. We present and discuss the most recent iterations of the model for satellites currently available on Space-Track.org.

  13. Investigating Situational Interest in Primary Science Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukomies, Anni; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari

    2015-12-01

    Pupils' interest has been one of the major concerns in science education research because it can be seen as a gateway to more personalised forms of interest and motivation. However, methods to investigate situational interest in science teaching and learning are not broadly examined. This study compares the pupils' observed situational interest and their expressed situational interest. One class of Finnish fourth-graders (N = 22, age 9-10 years) participated in a heat transfer lesson. The lesson encompassed an interactive demonstration with a thermal camera, teacher-led discussions and the conduct and presentation of a collaborative inquiry task. Pupils expressed their interest levels (scale: 1 = very boring, 5 = very interesting) by using an electronic response system called a 'clicker'. The measurement took place 15 times during the lesson, with 1 measurement being just a rehearsal. The lesson was video recorded, and visible aspects of interest at the measurement time points were analysed. Reported and observational data were compared. In most cases, the observations did not yield data compatible with the pupils' own evaluations, indicating that most pupils' expressed interest is not easily interpreted through observation of their facial expressions and behaviour. In general, the interest of the group as a whole seems to diminish during the lesson. We argue that in order to maintain and increase pupils' interest, their evaluations should be taken into account in lesson planning. Video-based research might also be further enriched and validated by employing the participants' own expressions. The clicker is a suitable means of collecting primary pupils' experiences concerning their interest levels.

  14. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Operating complex plants is an increasingly demanding task for human operators. Diagnosis of and reaction to on-line events requires the interpretation of real time data. Vast amounts of sensor data as well as operational knowledge about the state and design of the plant are necessary to deduct reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator’s task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools for designing robust systems, the models become too complex when considering the interactions on a plant-wide level. The alarm systems meant to support human operators in the diagnosis of the plant-wide situation on the other hand fail regularly in situations where these interactions of systems lead to many related alarms overloading the operator with alarm floods. Functional modelling can provide a middle way to reduce the complexity of plant-wide models by abstracting from physical details to more general functions and behaviours. Based on functional models the propagation of failures through the interconnected systems can be inferred and alarm floods can potentially be reduced to their root-cause. However, the desired behaviour of a complex system changes due to operating procedures that require more than one physical and functional configuration. In this paper a consistent representation of possible configurations is deduced from the analysis of an exemplary start-up procedure by functional models. The proposed interpretation of the modelling concepts simplifies the functional modelling of distinct modes. The analysis further reveals relevant links between the quantitative sensor data and the qualitative perspective of the diagnostics tool based on functional models. This will form the basis for the ongoing development of a novel real-time diagnostics system based

  15. Situational Strategic Planning in primary care: troubleshooting and reinventing actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Graças de Campos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To apply the Strategic Situational Planning (SSP in a problem selected by the Family Health team, aiming at proposing intervention strategies to correct this deficiency. Methods: A field research of quantitative nature, applied in a family health unit of a town in the countryside of São Paulo state, using the steps of SSP in the period from April to October, 2008. Results: The selected problem was that of underreporting of production in the unit, thereby undermining the efficiency of obtaining positive results regarding the access, effectiveness of the strategies and changes in the context of health in the coverage area. After intervention with the team focusing awareness on the importance of maintaining updated data and information on the population served, it understood the importance of formalizing all procedures performed in the Unit. Conclusion: The Strategic Situational Planning brought to light the relevance in learning more about the community of which the unit is responsible, its complexity and heterogeneity, making effective the quality of rendered services, linking them to the recovery of professional activities and of the health service as a whole.

  16. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...... out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients were randomised to targeted temperature management. Patients were randomised before NOK could be informed, and proxy consent was obtained as soon as possible. Written consent from NOK and GP were our study data. RESULTS: We obtained all legally required...

  17. Dangerous situations in a synchronized flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Wu, Qing-Song

    2007-04-01

    This paper studies the dangerous situation (DS) in a synchronized flow model. The DS on the two branches of the fundamental diagram are investigated, respectively. It is shown that different relationship between DS probability and the density exists in the synchronized flow and in the jams. Moreover, we prove that there is no DS caused by non-stopped car although the model itself is a non-exclusion process. We classify the DS into four sub-types and study the probability of these four sub-types. The simulation result is consistent with the real traffic.

  18. [Water and sanitation in disaster situations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    When implementing water and sanitation in a disaster situation, it is of crucial importance that the intervention is grounded in the local cultural and socioeconomic context. The assistance provided in the response phase should facilitate short and long-term recovery and sustainable development...... of the affected community. The new model for disaster management which comprises an integrated continuous risk reduction phase, calls for a cross-disciplinary approach which combines the known life-saving response methods with modern development practices. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Jan...

  19. Situational psychogenic anejaculation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Rajesh; Thangadurai, Packirisamy; Kuruvilla, Anju; Jacob, Kuruthukulangara Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    Anejaculation is an uncommon clinical entity that may result from a variety of causes, both organic and psychological. Psychogenic anejaculation is influenced by relationship, behavioral, and psychological factors. We present a clinical case of situational anejaculation, which was managed with a combination of techniques that addressed these factors including changes in masturbatory technique, improved marital communication and quality, and reduction of anxiety using cognitive behavioral techniques. It is suggested that the standard techniques of sex therapy be modified and tailored to manage the specific problems of the individual patient.

  20. Energy efficiency: The Italian situation and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, Alessandro; Beccarello, Massimo; Gallanti, Massimo

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports the results of a study led by Confindustria (Italian Federation of Industrial Associations) on the Italian situation with respect to energy efficiency policies and their effective implementations. The study is being continuously updated with the contributions of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) and ERSE (previously CESI Ricerca) and highlights the obtainable savings through efficient technologies now already available for applications in the final uses of energy for both the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors.

  1. Bringing the Psychology of Situations into Flow Research: Personality and Situation Characteristics as Predictors of Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaja Zager Kocjan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to extend the existing findings on environmental flow precursors by adopting the DIAMONDS taxonomy of psychologically meaningful situation characteristics as a comprehensive theoretical framework. It was hypothesized that an individual's perception of the flow-related situation, particularly the dimensions of duty, intellect and positivity, would represent a more powerful predictor of the intensity of flow as compared to his or her basic personality traits. The first sample consisted of 169 employees who had to focus on the most engaging work-related event they had experienced in the past three months. They rated the characteristics of that situation and estimated the intensity of their flow experience. The second sample consisted of 96 students who participated in a challenging group activity. After the activity, they filled-in the same questionnaires as the first sample. Participants from both samples also rated their basic personality traits. Despite differences in the settings and flow-related situations evaluated, the obtained findings were similar for the two samples studied. While the association between flow and personality was weak, the situation characteristics were more strongly related to flow. Although the two samples differed with respect to the mean levels of the flow-related situation characteristics, regression analyses yielded similar results, suggesting that the intensity of flow at work and in studying is most prominently determined by situation characteristics related to intellect and positivity. Stable personality characteristics, on the other hand, had low predictive power in explaining the intensity of flow.

  2. Pedagogical and conflict situations of teacher of physical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pechko O.M.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of pedagogical and conflict situations between teacher and student. Considered ways of solving and preventing pedagogical and conflict situations in school. Principal reasons of conflict situations are selected, situations of activity, conduct and relations. The receptions of influence of teacher of physical culture are separated on personality of schoolchildren. It is well-proven that the profession of teacher of physical culture supposes possibility of conflict situations.

  3. Global panorama of energy access: Current situation, challenges and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galichon, Ines; Lacroix, Olivier; Wiedmer, Damien

    2014-07-15

    Globally 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity. If this figure is projected to decline 1 billion by 2030, the global population who relies on the traditional use of biomass for cooking is expected to substantially increase, from 2.6 billion to 2.7 billion people. In its commitment to energy access, ENEA published a synthesis on the current situation and the further development perspectives of energy access worldwide, a crucial issue of human and economic development and an opportunity for the private sector. This synthesis present the ecosystem of the actors involved in the improvement of energy access and the technical solutions that serve the needs of this high-potential market. The five main challenges energy access has to address are presented in this publication: energy prices, equipment financing, distribution, change of scale and environmental performances.

  4. [Gender plays a role in the young physicians work situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Lisa; Hammarström, Anne

    2015-09-22

    The purpose of this study was to examine medical interns' experiences of being a female versus a male physician in various work situations. The population consisted of interns within Umeå health care district (n=38). Data was collected using a questionnaire with open-ended questions that were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Our results revealed that the participants experienced different expectations on female and male practitioners from both patients and staff. We also found distinct experiences of discrimination of female practitioners in areas such as patient and staff conduct, service, division of labour and employment. Our conclusion is that there is a need to promote gender equality within the health care system as well as to strengthen research and education regarding gender in medicine.

  5. Situational leadership style adopted by nurses in the hospital field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Cristina Kades Andrigue

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze Situational Leadership styles adopted by hospital nurses and their association with their personal and professional profile. This is a quantitative and descriptive study and the Hersey and Blanchard leadership model was used with nurses who work in hospitals. Data were collected through sociodemographic questionnaire and the Leadership Effectiveness and Adaptability Description. The more directive leadership style focused on persuasion was the most present. The activity sector showed a significant relation to the leadership style (p=00.1, demonstrating approximation between assistance and leadership profile. Although the population is composed of young group with a short time of performance, the predominance of the Coaching leadership style may limit the creativity and potential of team members for the focus to be focused on the task. Strategies to achieve high levels of maturity, can assist nurses in adopting more flexible leadership practices.

  6. Production Situation and Technology Prospect of Medical Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Feng;LIN Li;LIU Yu-hao;MA Xing-jun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The isotope production technology was overviewed, including traditional and newest technology. The current situation of medical isotope production was introduced. The problems faced by isotope supply and demand were analyzed. The future development trend of medical isotopes and technology prospect were put forward. As the most populous country, nuclear medicine develops rapidly, however, domestic isotope mainly relies on imports. The highly productive and relatively safe MIPR is expected to be an effective way to breakthrough the bottleneck of the development of nuclear medicine. Traditional isotope production technologies with reactor can be improved. It's urgent to research and promote new isotope production technologies with reactor. Those technologies which do not depend on reactor will have a bright market prospects.

  7. SERVICES IN GORJ COUNTY IN ECONOMIC CRISIS SITUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RĂBONTU CECILIA IRINA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a synthetic analysis of the evolution of the tertiary sector in Gorj county under the pressure of the economic crisis that is felt now more than ever, the tertiary sector whos activities resulted in extremely diverse and constantly expanding services in our county as well. Like other regions of Romania, Gorj county is facing a new situation: after the period 2001-2008 when there has been growth, started a period marked by crisis, outcome of the effect of economic and financial crisis that broke out in the U.S. in October 2008. The economic crisis raises even more problems further enhancing poverty due to lower employment, as well as the decline in purchasing power especially among low-income population, under the impact of inflation and restrictive policies in wages, issues that are consequential to the stage of development of services in Gorj County.

  8. The situation of space education in the unified Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Muldau, Hans H.

    Because of the unique situation of the unified Germany it is worth discussing the state of the art and the future aspects of space education in this country. Two different social and educational systems of the F.R.G. (Federal Republic of Germany) and the G.D.R. (German Democratic Republic) have to be synchronized. The increase of the population by the unification affected the space science related people. So the majorities change. At the moment the severe unemployment situation in eastern Germany hides this fact. But we have to be prepared for this in years to come. The different relation to the space science programs of the U.S.A. and Russia for the German scientist gives a chance for more international understanding and cooperation. This becomes a subject of educational approach to the international cooperation problem. The start of DARA (the German national space administration) in 1989 accompanied by dramatic concentration of space knowledge in DASA (the cooperation of the German national space industry) in the late eighties, shows that Germany has begun to concentrate its capabilities. On such a background, space education for the majority of the population becomes understandable and desirable. European commercial unification on an open market at the beginning of 1993 helps to concentrate the Germans on their historical part and task in the European market. Therefore, many solutions to establish effective space education becomes visible which were hidden behind walls of emotions and prejudices in the past. So the forecast for space education in Germany for the nineties has never been better. The only remaining problem—funding—has to be solved by unconventional ways, e.g. a foundation by the industry as in other countries.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF ANXIETY UPON NEGOTATION SITUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mihaela NICOLAU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes to distinguish some aspects related by the influence that the level of negotiator’sanxiety1 in the negotation situation, respective, in the used strategies and obtained results. Practical, this research paper willtry to prove if anxiety plays or not a role in the negotation process, and will be a study at the border of psy-social science andthe economic ones (because the communication and the negotiation domain itself can be approched under the psychologicalaspect, as well as under the economic one. Moreover, the negotiation is an important part of reallity, it is a part of our life.We negociate daily and over all, in different social context, and is situated on varius positions.We negociate the salary withthe boss or with our subaltern, the product’s and service’s price,a pleassent place in a resstaurant, a better room in an hotel,the children promissed roller skate and the bicycle, better work conditions in an workshop and the new collective contractwith the unions. We can’t obtain anything without negotiating.

  10. EOS situational data shared service mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, L.; Xu, Q.; Lan, C. Z.; Shi, Q. S.; Lu, W. J.; Wu, W. Q.

    2016-11-01

    With the rapid development of aerospace and remote sensing technology, various high-resolution Earth Observation Systems (EOS) are widely used in economic, social, military and other fields and playing an increasingly prominent role in the construction of Digital Earth and national strategic planning. The normal operation of the system is the premise of high quality data acquisition. Compared with the ground observation mode, EOS itself and the surrounding environment are more complex, and its operation control mainly depends on all kinds of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data acquisition and analysis. SSA data has more extensive sources, larger volume, stronger time-effectiveness and more complicated structure than traditional geographical spatial data. For effective data sharing and utilization, combined with the analysis of data types and structures, a SSA data sharing identity language SSDSML is designed based on the extensible mark-up language XML, which realizes a comprehensive description of satellites and their attributes, space environment, ground stations, etc. Then EOS situational data shared service mechanism is established and provides a powerful data support for the normal operation of the system.

  11. Financial Situation in Regional Energy Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Viktorovna Chaika

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important to monitor the financial condition of energy supply organizations in regional management and development of energy infrastructure. This condition depends on economic factors, tariff regulation and budget subsidies. The article presents indicators of aggregated financial statistics on energy supply in the regions of Russia’s European North. For the purpose of comparative analysis, the author formed a comprehensive indicator of financial stability and evaluated trends in the dynamics of past due debt and profitability. The analysis shows the following sectoral and regional characteristics: the financial situation in the electric power sector is relatively stable, but it is unsatisfactory in heat supply; the increase in negative trends, such as the decrease in repayment ability, low and negative profitability, and the accumulation of considerable arrears. Financial instability becomes a system-wide characteristic of heat supply. It is necessary to introduce a multi-step process of financial recovery of the industry as a whole. In the first place, external factors such as poor repayment discipline, inefficient tariff regulation and insufficient provision of budget subsidies for tariff misbalances must be resolved; otherwise, they will further aggravate financial instability. Strategically, a stable financial situation in energy supply can be achieved only through technological modernization. Specific features of heat supply in northern regions make it impossible to rely only on tariff sources of investment; large-scale renovation requires governmental financial support and the creation of conditions for attracting private investment

  12. Modeling Being "Lost": Imperfect Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Victor E.

    2011-01-01

    Being "lost" is an exemplar of imperfect Situation Awareness/Situation Understanding (SA/SU) -- information/knowledge that is uncertain, incomplete, and/or just wrong. Being "lost" may be a geo-spatial condition - not knowing/being wrong about where to go or how to get there. More broadly, being "lost" can serve as a metaphor for uncertainty and/or inaccuracy - not knowing/being wrong about how one fits into a larger world view, what one wants to do, or how to do it. This paper discusses using agent based modeling (ABM) to explore imperfect SA/SU, simulating geo-spatially "lost" intelligent agents trying to navigate in a virtual world. Each agent has a unique "mental map" -- its idiosyncratic view of its geo-spatial environment. Its decisions are based on this idiosyncratic view, but behavior outcomes are based on ground truth. Consequently, the rate and degree to which an agent's expectations diverge from ground truth provide measures of that agent's SA/SU.

  13. Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS) becomes a new computerized EDH form from October 2005 In accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, Staff Members and Fellows, married or separated, must notify any changes in their spouse's income or health insurance cover in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change. This is necessary for the Organization to determine if a supplementary contribution is payable to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) for the spouse's coverage and, if so, the amount. Until now a paper form called « Confidential Declaration of Family Situation » (CDFS) was used for that purpose.  From early October 2005 the CDFS will be computerized for the whole Organization. Henceforth, any changes in a spouse's income or health insurance cover must be notified using EDH (Electronic Document Handling). Additionally, annual updates of the declaration will be required and will be requested by automatic e-mail. Early October an email will be sent to...

  14. Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS) becomes a new computerized EDH form from October 2005 In accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, Staff Members and Fellows, married or separated, must notify any changes in their spouse's income or health insurance cover in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change. This is necessary for the Organization to determine if a supplementary contribution is payable to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) for the spouse's coverage and, if so, the amount. Until now a paper form called « Confidential Declaration of Family Situation » (CDFS) was used for that purpose.  From early October 2005 the CDFS will be computerized for the whole Organization. Henceforth, any changes in a spouse's income or health insurance cover must be notified using EDH (Electronic Document Handling). Additionally, annual updates of the declaration will be required and will be requested by automatic e-mail. Early October an email will be...

  15. Situating math word problems: the story matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarella-Micke, Andrew; Beilock, Sian L

    2010-02-01

    In two experiments, we explored how the situation model of a math story problem impacts math problem performance. Participants completed multiplication story problems in which a set of objects was associated with or dissociated from a protagonist, making them more or less accessible in memory during answer retrieval. On the basis of previous findings that the sum of two numbers interferes with retrieval of their product, the number of objects in the math problem was either highly interfering ("9" for 4 x 5) or less interfering ("8" for 4 x 5) for multiplication retrieval in the problem. Participants made more errors in problem solving when highly interfering numerical content was associated with the protagonist and, thus, foregrounded. Moreover, the lower one's working memory, the bigger this effect. In sum, small changes in the situation model of a math story problem can harm performance. These changes shift the balance of factors that influence math performance away from math knowledge and toward individual differences in general cognitive capacity.

  16. Road traffic injuries in Thailand: current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadbunchachai, Witaya; Suphanchaimaj, Weraphan; Settasatien, Anuchar; Jinwong, Thanapong

    2012-07-01

    Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem in Thailand. The number of mortalities, morbidities and disabilities are huge, greatly affecting the individual victims, the families, society and the nation as a whole. To study the current situation regarding traffic injuries in Thailand. Retrospective study from multiple national data sources For over ten years, the annual death toll due to road accidents has been more than ten thousand Thais. The situation remains critical with a higher mortality and morbidity than many other low or middle income countries. Two-thirds of the victims were males: 80% were under 40 years of age. Most (80%) of the injured and dead were motorcyclists. The large number of traffic crashes, injuries, disabilities and deaths resulted in more than 168 thousand million Baht in economic losses in 2002. These losses are trending to increase. Traffic injuries are a persistent major public health concern primarily because of a lack of adherence to the use of safety restraints and obedience of traffic laws. The nation must not hesitate to increase efforts to address these problems, as they are costing life and limb of Thais every hour of every day, as well as adding a huge economic burden.

  17. Specific Features of Life Situations in Teenagers and Young People, Predisposed to Deviant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotova, Larisa Ed.; Prjazhnikov, Nikolaj S.; Berezhnaja, Marija S.; Ermakov, Vjacheslav A.; Melamud, Marina R.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the studied problem is determined by the fact that the influence of the deviant environment on society, the spread of its morality, a psychological "exposure" of a less stable part of the population, that is teenagers and young adults, all this is--a reality of the contemporary social situation. The study of problems…

  18. Predictors and outcomes of job search behavior: The moderating effects of gender and family situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis study explored differences in the antecedents and consequences of job search behavior depending on gender and family situation in a large, nationwide sample of the Dutch population. Using Ajzen’s (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB), we found no gender differences in

  19. STANDARDIZATION OF UNCERTAINTY SITUATIONS IN TRAINING MODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Safontsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the description of modular structure of the academic discipline in accordance with the requirements of Federal State Educational Standards.Methods. The authors use the methods of standardization of the educational system that are based on educational theory quality measurement. As the process of learning does not depend on the perspective of the diagnostician, the objectification of the results has been achieved by using relative units, allowing the authors to compare the effectiveness of different stages of education quality assessment with quantitative methods. Furthermore, sampling method, correlation and comparative analysis of statistical significance of the obtained distributions have been used to exclude from analytical data the results that were not confirmed experimentally.Results. Statistical methods are presented in a complex, allowing the authors to receive experimental result at level of the statistical importance of psychological and pedagogical researches. According to ideas of the competence-based education and general theory of systems and educational qualimetry, it is shown that constructs of vocational training are problem, test and detailed designs included in structure of educational modules. Funds of estimated means have been used to measure the level of trainee’s competences: – problematic situation of uncertainty orientation for current control; – situations of test and project orientation for boundary control at the end of each module, intermediate control in the form of the exam held at the end of the semester, as well as state certification of control at the end of the study at the university. Validity of the degree of interest of the learning process, reliability of coincidences constructive reflection of students’ own achievements with independent project performance and efficiency as the ratio of the result obtained to the costs of implementing the target function of the educational

  20. SOCIAL POLICY AND DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION OF THE LIPETSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Pavlova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2016–2018 are carried out actions of the second stage of a demographic policy of the Russian Federation for the period till 2025. During the look-ahead period it is supposed to develop and pass the federal law provided by articles 133 and 421 Labor codes of the Russian Federation by which the order of finishing of the minimum wage rate till the size of a living wage of able-bodied population of subjects will be established. In the Law of the Russian Federation from April, 19th, 1991 N 1032-1 “changes will be passed About population employment in the Russian Federation”, providing entering of specifications into an order and terms of payment of the unemployment benefits directed on an exception of abusing’s at reception of the unemployment benefit, and also essentially increasing the size of the given grant for separate categories of citizens. In the Law of the Russian Federation “changes will be passed About population employment in the Russian Federation” regarding an establishment of powers of enforcement authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation, employers on placing of the information on conditions of attraction of citizens for realization of labor activity with a view of perfection of an information portal “Work in Russia” and to filling by its trustworthy information. In state and the level subjectsof programs join problems and actions which urged to improve a demographic situation. Federal and regional programs of social and economic development join the questions connected with revealing of problem directions. On the basis of the received information perspective lines of activity and actions for management of a situation are developed. In subject’s programs of social and economic development are developed and take root. The accepted programs allow to reveal in due time demographic tendencies during the current period and to react by means of acceptance of administrative decisions. On the levelsubject’sit is

  1. A novel social situation and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, G E

    2000-06-01

    Although social isolation has been shown to have a negative long-term influence on feelings of loneliness, there has been no systematic investigation of situational influences on loneliness. The purpose of this study was to compare scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the loneliness which people feel prior to performing a novel task, with those on the same scale after engaging in the task. 31 college freshmen were divided into those working alone (n = 14) and those working in a group (n = 17). Those who performed the novel task within a group felt significantly less lonely after than prior to performing the task and reported less loneliness than the students who performed the same task in isolation. An important implication of this study is that group interaction may directly and immediately reduce the amount of loneliness individuals feel.

  2. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    related alarms overloading the operator with alarm floods. Functional modelling can provide a middle way to reduce the complexity of plant-wide models by abstracting from physical details to more general functions and behaviours. Based on functional models the propagation of failures through......Operating complex plants is an increasingly demanding task for human operators. Diagnosis of and reaction to on-line events requires the interpretation of real time data. Vast amounts of sensor data as well as operational knowledge about the state and design of the plant are necessary to deduct...... reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator's task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools...

  3. A situated model of creative learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    on three key concepts or learning principles which can take different forms in particular settings and social practices. These are respectively: (1) Immersion in the topic of interest, in traditions and in the subject matter, (2) Experimentation and inquiry learning and (3) Resistance from the material...... creatively leads to creative learning, suggesting that there is a need to describe the concept of creative learning and to analyse its possible constituents. Accordingly, this presentation introduces an empirically based and theoretically informed model of a creative learning community. The model is based...... of interest. As a theoretical point of departure, this presentation will outline a situated model of creativity and learning, and following this, will introduce a model of creative learning. This presentation will include several empirical examples. In the final part, the model will be discussed in relation...

  4. Parents’ experience confronting child burning situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdira Vieira de Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand experiences of parents in a child burning situation during the hospitalization process. Methods: phenomenological research in view of Martin Heidegger, held with seven assisting parents at a pediatrics unit of a general hospital in Montes Claros. The information was obtained by phenomenological interview, containing the question guide: “What does it mean to you being with a son who is suffering with burns?”. Results: during the experience, parents revealed anguish, fear, helplessness, concerns and expectations of “being-in-the-world”. Conclusion: respect, understanding and care from the health team were fundamental for the adaptation and the confrontation demanded by the consequent suffering of the event.

  5. Knowledge Communication as Situated Strategic Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    in discourse communities.   Bazerman, (1988, p.10) states that "Writing is a social action; texts help organize social activities and social structure, and reading is a form of social participation..."   Working from Bazerman's definition of writing as social action, and combining it with Wenger's (1998......) definition for communities of practice which relies on participation and reification occurring in conjunction with written documents, we can understand Internet texts as reifications in an ongoing social action of producing knowledge.  In other words, we can see written aspects of knowledge communication...... as situated strategic action through which genres are (re)formed.  The medium of the Internet offers a space where the reification of this action can be observed, and its interactive potential offers academics insight into knowledge communication processes.  Thus, we propose that Bazerman's definition...

  6. Modeling Control Situations in Power System Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten; Singh, Sri Niwas

    2010-01-01

    Increased interconnection and loading of the power system along with deregulation has brought new challenges for electric power system operation, control and automation. Traditional power system models used in intelligent operation and control are highly dependent on the task purpose. Thus, a model...... of explicit principles for model construction. This paper presents a work on using explicit means-ends model based reasoning about complex control situations which results in maintaining consistent perspectives and selecting appropriate control action for goal driven agents. An example of power system...... for intelligent operation and control must represent system features, so that information from measurements can be related to possible system states and to control actions. These general modeling requirements are well understood, but it is, in general, difficult to translate them into a model because of the lack...

  7. Data Quality Assessment for Maritime Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iphar, C.; Napoli, A.; Ray, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) initially designed to ensure maritime security through continuous position reports has been progressively used for many extended objectives. In particular it supports a global monitoring of the maritime domain for various purposes like safety and security but also traffic management, logistics or protection of strategic areas, etc. In this monitoring, data errors, misuse, irregular behaviours at sea, malfeasance mechanisms and bad navigation practices have inevitably emerged either by inattentiveness or voluntary actions in order to circumvent, alter or exploit such a system in the interests of offenders. This paper introduces the AIS system and presents vulnerabilities and data quality assessment for decision making in maritime situational awareness cases. The principles of a novel methodological approach for modelling, analysing and detecting these data errors and falsification are introduced.

  8. [Applying situational leadership in emergency nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Grasiela; Galvão, Cristina Maria; Galvão, Maria Cristina

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the correspondence of opinions between nurses and nursing staff members who work at the emergency unit regarding the leadership style performed by nurses and the style nurses must adopt considering the maturity level of nursing staff members and the care provided at the unit. Situational Leadership was adopted as a theoretical reference framework. In order to achieve these goals, instruments were elaborated and applied to 24 research participants. Results demonstrated that the leadership style nurses most frequently perform was E3 (participating), and that nurses should adopt leadership style E4 (delegating) in view of the nursing staff's level of maturity, suggesting that staff members present a high level of maturity (M4).

  9. Situational Interest in Engineering Design Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonderup Dohn, Niels

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present mixed-method study was to investigate task-based situational interest of sixth grade students (n = 46), between 12 and 14 years old, during an eight-week engineering design programme in a Science & Technology-class. Students' interests were investigated by means of a descriptive interpretative analysis of qualitative data from classroom observations and informal interviews. The analysis was complemented by a self-report survey to validate findings and determine prevalence. The analysis revealed four main sources of interest: designing inventions, trial-and-error experimentation, achieved functionality of invention, and collaboration. These sources differ in terms of stimuli factors, such as novelty, autonomy (choice), social involvement, self-generation of interest, and task goal orientation. The study shows that design tasks stimulated interest, but only to the extent that students were able to self-regulate their learning strategies.

  10. Situated Techno-Ethics in Businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupret, Katia

    2015-01-01

    The continuous inclusion of new technologies in organizations challenges business ethics and creates new problematics in work life. Managers in particular are challenged insofar as they must learn how to adapt general technological hardware to local organizational needs and work habits. Based...... on new empirical research conducted in Danish health care organizations, it investigates how managers experience technologies and how these experiences affect their professional ethics; it asks: a) What kinds of ethics do managers consider when using new technologies? b) How are these ethics negotiated......? Using a techno-human practice approach—which takes into account both human and non-human entities as the basis of moral judgment—the new technologically-induced ethical dilemmas faced by managers are discussed. A typology of techno-ethics is introduced, which presents situated ways of engaging...

  11. Situational Awareness of Network System Roles (SANSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffer, Kelly M [ORNL; Reed, Joel W [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    In a large enterprise it is difficult for cyber security analysts to know what services and roles every machine on the network is performing (e.g., file server, domain name server, email server). Using network flow data, already collected by most enterprises, we developed a proof-of-concept tool that discovers the roles of a system using both clustering and categorization techniques. The tool's role information would allow cyber analysts to detect consequential changes in the network, initiate incident response plans, and optimize their security posture. The results of this proof-of-concept tool proved to be quite accurate on three real data sets. We will present the algorithms used in the tool, describe the results of preliminary testing, provide visualizations of the results, and discuss areas for future work. Without this kind of situational awareness, cyber analysts cannot quickly diagnose an attack or prioritize remedial actions.

  12. A situated knowledge representation of geographical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahegan, Mark N.; Pike, William A.

    2006-11-01

    In this paper we present an approach to conceiving of, constructing and comparing the concepts developed and used by geographers, environmental scientists and other earth science researchers to help describe, analyze and ultimately understand their subject of study. Our approach is informed by the situations under which concepts are conceived and applied, captures details of their construction, use and evolution and supports their ultimate sharing along with the means for deep exploration of conceptual similarities and differences that may arise among a distributed network of researchers. The intent here is to support different perspectives onto GIS resources that researchers may legitimately take, and to capture and compute with aspects of epistemology, to complement the ontologies that are currently receiving much attention in the GIScience community.

  13. Hypothetical conflict situations with friends and peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with age and sex differences in preferred strategies of conflict resolution in friendship and peer relationships. The study was conducted on the sample of 286 adolescents. Conflict resolution strategies have been investigated by the method of hypothetical conflict situations. For the purposes of this research, we have created an instrument consisting of 20 hypothetical situations, with the following subjects of conflict: breaking the agreement, non-compliance with opinion differences, provocations, dishonesty and stubbornness. Conflict resolution strategies we examined were giving in, withdrawal, competition and problem solving. The results have shown that problem solving is the dominant strategy of adolescents in conflict with friends, while in peer conflicts they more often opt for competition. Age differences are reflected in the fact that older adolescents are more likely to choose problem solving than younger, whereas younger adolescents are more likely to choose a retreat (withdrawal strategy than older. Girls are more prone to choosing problem solving than boys, who, on the other hand, tend to withdraw more than girls. Also, gender of the other person in the conflict is proved to be important - in conflict with male peers, adolescents choose competition to a greater extent and withdraw to a minor extent, compared to when they are in conflict with female peers. The results have practical implications as well. In programs for teaching constructive conflict resolution that are designed for younger adolescents there should be more emphasis on empowerment and training for assertive behaviour. In addition, when teaching about constructive conflict resolution strategies, it is important to consider the gender of adolescents as well as the gender of the person with whom they are in conflict.

  14. Register as the Situational Variety of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya B. Boyeva-Omelechko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem discussed in the article is topical due to the interest of scientists to different types of language variations and especially registers or situational dialects treated by M.A.K. Halliday as use-related varieties of language or varieties used in a particular social setting. As discourse categorization is a very complex problem scholarly consensus has not been reached for the definitions of the term «register». The universal criteria for defining and discriminating registers have not been worked out either. The authors of the article give the review of scientific works devoted to the problem in question especially works by M.A.K. Halliday, R. Quirk, M. Joos, D. Hymes P. Trudgill, E.I. Belyaeva and others and analyze different definitions of the term «register», spectrums of registers and criteria for their discriminating. It enables the authors to come to the conclusion that only registers with the same field (religious, political, business etc. and mode (oral/written, dialogue/monologue can be compared. The difference lies in the sphere of tenor which depends on the degree of formality, distance of power and socio-psychological distance between speakers. The authors believe that it is also necessary to take into account the cooperative/ uncooperative character of conversation and para-verbal and non-verbal components of the speech situation. With this in mind they offer their definition of the register and describe main characteristics of registers in the sphere of oral communication.

  15. Interactive analysis of situational awareness metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Derek; Wall, Jim; Keyser, John

    2012-01-01

    Digital systems are employed to maintain situational awareness of people in various contexts including emergency response, disaster relief, and military operations. Because these systems are often operated in wireless environments and are used to support real-time decision making, the accuracy of the SA data provided is important to measure and evaluate in the development of new systems. Our work has been conducted in conjunction with analysts in the evaluation and performance comparison of different systems designed to provide a high degree of situational awareness in military operations. To this end, we defined temporal and spatial metrics for measuring the accuracy of the SA data provided by each system. In this paper we discuss the proposed temporal and spatial metrics for SA data and show how we provided these metrics in a linked coordinated multiple view environment that enabled the analysts we worked with to effectively perform several critical analysis tasks. The temporal metric is designed to help determine when network performance has a significant effect on SA data, and therefore identify specific time periods in which individuals were provided inaccurate position data for their peers. Temporal context can be used to determine the local or global nature of any SA data inaccuracy, and the spatial metric can then be used to identify geographic effects on network performance of the wireless system. We discuss the interactive software implementation of our metrics and show how this analysis capability enabled the analysts to evaluate the observed effects of network latency and system performance on SA data during an exercise.

  16. The sanitation situation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S

    1993-10-15

    In India, interviews with and observations of members of 100 households with a latrine were done in the towns of Satna and Khandwa, in Madhya Pradesh State, to examine the sanitation situation, to evaluate the maintenance and performance of the 2 pit pour-flush water seal (PF) latrines of poor households, and to recommend actions to improve the sanitation situation. The upper caste Hindus and Muslims tended to use the PF latrines, while the low caste Hindus tended not to use them. Few dry latrines existed in Satna. More than 75% of the households used the PF latrines, especially in Khandwa. The latrines generally were in disrepair, because more families did not receive either instruction or back-up latrine maintenance. Other apparent reasons for poor maintenance were limited water, illiteracy, limited knowledge of how the PF latrine works, poor construction, excreta adhering to the squatting pan, rain entering the leach pits through the squatting pan causing overflow of the pits contents, clogged outlets and Y-junctions, difficulty in emptying the pits, and collapsed brick drains. Children did not use the latrines in more than 50% of households were the latrines were used. Uncomfortable seats were the reason the children chose to defecate in the open. These findings led the author to recommend that the government adopt laws addressing sanitation in low-cost housing settlements, slums, and other areas. A PF latrine must be constructed for each new building. Dry or bucket latrines must be connected to sewers, if available. Leach pits must be constructed for converting latrines into PF latrines. There should be a ban on new dry or bucket latrines. The government should provide the local authorities the power to enforce these regulations. PF latrines should be free for the poor.

  17. In Defence of Situational Morality: Genetic, Dispositional and Situational Determinants of Children's Donating to Charity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Pannebakker, Fieke; Out, Dorothee

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we argue that moral behaviour is largely situation-specific. Genetic make-up, neurobiological factors, attachment security and rearing experiences have only limited influence on individual differences in moral performance. Moral behaviour does not develop in a linear and cumulative fashion and individual morality is not stable across…

  18. Medical exposure of French population to ionizing radiations. Situation for the setting up of a perennial information system on medical exposure of the patients to ionizing radiations; Exposition medicale de la population francaise aux rayonnements ionisants. Etat des lieux pour la mise en place d'un systeme perenne d'information sur l'exposition medicale des patients aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaff, P.; Aubert, B. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Donadieu, J.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint Maurice (France)

    2006-07-01

    The necessity of a information gathering system allowing to globally evaluate the contribution of medical exposure to the French population exposure and to know more particularly the most irradiating practices and these ones that reach the most sensitive populations has been emphasized in the 'Vrousos' report on the priorities in radiation protection and detailed in the actions planning for the patients surveillance to ionizing radiation exposure by the general direction of nuclear safety and radiation protection. So, the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety and the institute of health surveillance have decided to co-ordinate their efforts to implement an observatory of medical practice in radiology. This study should allow to know the average radiation dose delivered for each act and to know the nature and frequency of these acts. for example the average radiation dose in conventional radiology has been estimated between .66 to .83 mSv by year according to the lowest or highest hypothesis. The examinations of conventional radiology would contribute to 35% of the total dose delivered to population, scanography examinations to 40% and the nuclear medicine acts and interventional radiology for 20 to 25%. (N.C.)

  19. [Harm reduction interventions in drug users: current situation and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Brugal, María Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Harm reduction encompasses interventions, programmes and policies that seek to reduce the negative consequences of the consumption of both legal and illegal drugs on the individual and public health. Harm reduction looks to mitigate the harm suffered by drug users through drug use monitoring and prevention, and promotes initiatives that respect and protect the human rights of this population. The harm reduction policies that have proven effective and efficient are: opioid substitution maintenance therapy (methadone); needle and syringe exchange programmes; supervised drug consumption rooms; and overdose prevention through peer-based naloxone distribution. In order to be effective, these policies must have comprehensive coverage and be implemented in areas where the target population is prevalent. Resident-based opposition to the implementation of these policies is known as the NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) phenomenon, which is characterised by being against the implementation of new measures in a particular place, but does not question their usefulness. Given that any NIMBY phenomenon is a complex social, cultural and political phenomenon, it is important to conduct a thorough analysis of the situation prior to implementing any of these measures. Harm reduction policies must be extended to other substances such as alcohol and tobacco, as well as to other conditions beyond infectious/contagious diseases and overdose. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. The Alcoholism Situation in a Northern City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, M. Iu.; Martynova, D. Iu.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia has been increasing in recent years, especially in northern regions, as has the incidence of alcohol-related disease rates. A survey was conducted in Surgut (the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) that determined the factors lending to the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the population of the northern city and assessed the…

  1. The situation of consultation practice in pathology in Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usubütün, Alp; Balci, Serdar; Yörükoğlu, Kutsal

    2012-01-01

    .... There are no standards for consultations in Turkey. The standardization committee of the Federation of Turkish Pathology Societies has conducted a survey to detect the current situation, determine the problematic aspects, compare the situation...

  2. Creating effective leader’s through situational leadership approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mwai, Esther

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to discuss situational leadership model as an approach to leading followers, as well as help the student to understand ways to implement different leadership styles in practice. It shares a few tips on how to be a situational leader hence being effective and how to apply different leadership style on different situations. The theoretical framework focuses on explaining situational leadership model and the different leadership styles there is as well as matc...

  3. Clinical features of situational and nonsituational major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, R T; Levitt, A J; Bagby, R M; Regan, J J

    1993-01-01

    Clinical lore has long supported the subtype of situational or reactive depression. To date, however, there has been limited empirical research support for this subtype of major depression. We examined demographic, clinical and personality features of situational and nonsituational depression in 89 outpatients with unipolar nonpsychotic major depressive disorder. Situational depressives had a less recurrent course of illness and appeared to respond more completely to the antidepressant used for their current episode. Demographic and personality measures did not distinguish situational and nonsituational depression.

  4. Pedagogical and conflict situations of teacher of physical training

    OpenAIRE

    Pechko O.M.

    2011-01-01

    The article reveals the essence of pedagogical and conflict situations between teacher and student. Considered ways of solving and preventing pedagogical and conflict situations in school. Principal reasons of conflict situations are selected, situations of activity, conduct and relations. The receptions of influence of teacher of physical culture are separated on personality of schoolchildren. It is well-proven that the profession of teacher of physical culture supposes possibility of confli...

  5. Seeking Health Information Online: The Moderating Effects of Problematic Situations on User Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan Xia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study investigates how online user intention in searching health information is affected by problematic situations. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action, the Technology Acceptance Model, and Sense-making theory, we propose two dimensions of problematic situations: urgency and severity of health issues being searched online. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey among 214 Wuhan University students and analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. Findings: Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and subjective norm can influence user intention to seek health information online. The urgency of problematic situations has a negative moderating effect on the relationship between perceived ease of use and user intention and the relationship between subjective norm and user intention. The severity of problematic situations has a negative moderating effect on the relationship between subjective norm and user intention. Research limitations: The respondents of the survey are limited to students in one Chinese university, so whether this study’s results can be applied to another population or not remains to be verified. In addition, only two dimensions of problematic situations are considered in this study. Practical implications: The paper puts forward the moderating effect of problematic situations and verifies it, which is the compensation for online health information-seeking behavior research. Besides, our analyses have implications for professional design of health care systems and related consumer information searches, and improve their performance. Originality/value: Previous work has reported the effects of problematic situation on user intention to seek health information online, ignoring its influence on other factors. This empirical study extends that work to identify the influence of problematic situation when seeking intention-behavior data in two dimensions, urgency and

  6. The use of authentic situations in foreign language classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Asatryan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with communicative activity characterized by a wide variety of communicative situations. The key factor of successful teaching of a foreign language is the use of authentic linguistic material in communicative situations as much as possible close to real situations of communication.

  7. Taxonomies of situations from a trait psychological perspective. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Berge, MA; De Raad, B

    1999-01-01

    In this article we review studies of situations and situation taxonomies from the perspective of trait psychology. Objections to trait psychology are discussed and several refutations are recapitulated The relation between traits and situations is analysed, as well as the affinity that both concepts

  8. Game theoretic analysis of maximum cooperative purchasing situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote Schaarsberg, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Reijnierse, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces maximum cooperative purchasing (MCP)-situations, a new class of cooperative purchasing situations. Next, an explicit alternative mathematical characterization of the nucleolus of cooperative games is provided. The allocation of possible cost savings in MCP-situations, in

  9. Demographic and health situation of children in conditions of economic destabilization in the Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantyley, Viktoriya

    2014-01-01

    In new conditions of socio-economic development in the Ukraine, the health of the population of children is considered as the most reliable indicator of socio-economic development of the country. The primary goal of the study was analysis of the effect of contemporary socio-economic transformations, their scope, and strength of effect on the demographic and social situation of children in various regions of the Ukraine. The methodological objectives of the study were as follows: development of a synthetic measure of the state of health of the population of children, based on the Hellwig's method, and selection of districts in the Ukraine according to the present health-demographic situation of children. The study was based on statistical data from the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, Centre of Medical Statistics in Kiev, Ukrainian Ministry of Defence, as well as Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine. The following research methods were used: analysis of literature and Internet sources, selection and analysis of statistical materials, cartographic and statistical methods. Basic indices of the demographic and health situation of the population of children were analyzed, as well as factors of a socio-economic nature which affect this situation. A set of variables was developed for the synthetic evaluation of the state of health of the population of children. The typology of the Ukrainian districts was performed according to the state of health of the child population, based on the Hellwig's taxonomic method. Deterioration was observed of selected quality parameters, as well as a change in the strength and directions of effect of factors of organizational-institutional, socioeconomic, historical and cultural nature on the population of children potential.

  10. Human development, poverty, health & nutrition situation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, G M; Laxmaiah, A

    2008-08-01

    Human development index (HDI) is extensively used to measure the standard of living of a country. India made a study progress in the HDI value. Extreme poverty is concentrated in rural areas of northern States while income growth has been dynamic in southern States and urban areas. This study was undertaken to assess the trends in HDI, human poverty index (HPI) and incidence of poverty among Indian states, the socio-economic, health, and diet and nutritional indicators which determine the HDI, changes in protein and calorie adequacy status of rural population, and also trends in malnutrition among children in India. The variations in socio-economic, demographic and dietary indicators by grades of HDI were studied. The trends in poverty and nutrition were also studied. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis were done to analyse data. While India's HDI value has improved over a time; our rank did not improve much compared to other developing countries. Human poverty has not reduced considerably as per the HPI values. The undernutrition among preschool children is still a major public health problem in India. The incidence of poverty at different levels of calorie requirement has not reduced in both rural and urban areas. The time trends in nutritional status of pre-school children showed that, even though, there is an improvement in stunting over the years, the trend in wasting and underweight has not improved much. Proper nutrition and health awareness are important to tackle the health hazards of developmental transition. Despite several national nutrition programmes in operation, we could not make a significant dent in the area of health and nutrition. The changing dietary practices of the urban population, especially the middle class, are of concern. Further studies are needed to measure the human development and poverty situation of different sections of the population in India using an index, which includes both income indicators and non income

  11. Students’ Creativity: Problem Posing in Structured Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalina, I. K.; Amirudin, M.; Budiarto, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    This is a qualitative research concerning on students’ creativity on problem posing task. The study aimed at describing the students’ creative thinking ability to pose the mathematics problem in structured situations with varied condition of given problems. In order to find out the students’ creative thinking ability, an analysis of mathematics problem posing test based on fluency, novelty, and flexibility and interview was applied for categorizing students’ responses on that task. The data analysis used the quality of problem posing and categorized in 4 level of creativity. The results revealed from 29 secondary students grade 8, a student in CTL (Creative Thinking Level) 1 met the fluency. A student in CTL 2 met the novelty, while a student in CTL 3 met both fluency and novelty and no one in CTL 4. These results are affected by students’ mathematical experience. The findings of this study highlight that student’s problem posing creativity are dependent on their experience in mathematics learning and from the point of view of which students start to pose problem.

  12. Prostitution as a Psychiatric Situation: Ethical Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiosavljević, Danijela; Djukić-Dejanović, Slavica; Turza, Karel; Jovanović, Aleksandar; Jeremić, Vida

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the morally controversial phenomenon of prostitution. As the basis for contemplating the prostitution issue the most important is revealing and understanding its primitive ethical root. For understanding its "soul", its essence, also important is comprehending sexual, "elementary thoughts" of mankind, through the relationship between prostitution and religious, social, political and spiritual life, and its nature as a reflection of the sexual-ethical concepts in different epochs and nations. We emphasize the connection between prostitution and psychiatry. Placing a special focus on importance of personality for deciding to become a prostitute, and by pulling it through a moral prism we define prostitution as a new medical situation. In favor of that, we stress the importance of the presence, position and role of psychiatrists within an indispensable multidisciplinary team, which is complementary despite its heterogeneousness, synergistically and simultaneously dealing with psychological, physical and social health-problems of women engaged in prostitution. We propose peer education as a way of promoting healthy and safer behaviors among the subculture of prostitutes, where we see another important role of psychiatrists in selecting/recruiting, training and motivating peer educators among them.

  13. Creating Affording Situations: Coaching through Animate Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Chris; Khattab, Ahmad; Russell, Martin; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Wing, Alan

    2017-10-11

    We explore the ways in which animate objects can be used to cue actions as part of coaching in Activities of Daily Living (ADL). In this case, changing the appearance or behavior of a physical object is intended to cue actions which are appropriate for a given context. The context is defined by the intention of the users, the state of the objects and the tasks for which these objects can be used. We present initial design prototypes and simple user trials which explore the impact of different cues on activity. It is shown that raising the handle of a jug, for example, not only cues the act of picking up the jug but also encourages use of the hand adjacent to the handle; that combinations of lights (on the objects) and auditory cues influence activity through reducing uncertainty; and that cueing can challenge pre-learned action sequences. We interpret these results in terms of the idea that the animate objects can be used to create affording situations, and discuss implications of this work to support relearning of ADL following brain damage or injury, such as might arise following a stroke.

  14. Creating Affording Situations: Coaching through Animate Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Baber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the ways in which animate objects can be used to cue actions as part of coaching in Activities of Daily Living (ADL. In this case, changing the appearance or behavior of a physical object is intended to cue actions which are appropriate for a given context. The context is defined by the intention of the users, the state of the objects and the tasks for which these objects can be used. We present initial design prototypes and simple user trials which explore the impact of different cues on activity. It is shown that raising the handle of a jug, for example, not only cues the act of picking up the jug but also encourages use of the hand adjacent to the handle; that combinations of lights (on the objects and auditory cues influence activity through reducing uncertainty; and that cueing can challenge pre-learned action sequences. We interpret these results in terms of the idea that the animate objects can be used to create affording situations, and discuss implications of this work to support relearning of ADL following brain damage or injury, such as might arise following a stroke.

  15. Grounding explanations in evolving, diagnostic situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, Leila J.; Cook, Richard I.; Woods, David D.

    1994-01-01

    Certain fields of practice involve the management and control of complex dynamic systems. These include flight deck operations in commercial aviation, control of space systems, anesthetic management during surgery or chemical or nuclear process control. Fault diagnosis of these dynamic systems generally must occur with the monitored process on-line and in conjunction with maintaining system integrity.This research seeks to understand in more detail what it means for an intelligent system to function cooperatively, or as a 'team player' in complex, dynamic environments. The approach taken was to study human practitioners engaged in the management of a complex, dynamic process: anesthesiologists during neurosurgical operations. The investigation focused on understanding how team members cooperate in management and fault diagnosis and comparing this interaction to the situation with an Artificial Intelligence(AI) system that provides diagnoses and explanations. Of particular concern was to study the ways in which practitioners support one another in keeping aware of relevant information concerning the state of the monitored process and of the problem solving process.

  16. Current Economic Situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Mirascic

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the current economic situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Beginning in the second half of 2008, macroeconomic conditions in B&H began precipitating a decline in economic activity. While the global financial crisis was among the factors contributing to this decline, it was far from the only factor. Problematic macroeconomic conditions were also a result of B&H’s own structural and political problems, caused largely by the shortcomings of a political entity comprising two autonomous entities. Due to such problems, the governments of B&H turned to the International Monetary Fund for assistance. This article analyzes the effects of the first two “stand by” arrangements made between the IMF and B&H and discusses implications for further, ongoing stand by arrangements made between the IMF and B&H. This paper also examines the lack of unified economic space between The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and The Republic of Srpska, which has resulted not only in ineffective monetary policy but also in different fiscal and taxation systems between the two entities. While various existing analyses claim that B&H has little hope of resolving its economic woes due to its current political and economic structure, this article offers solutions and measures that, if successfully implemented, would lead to more efficient recovery and self-sustainable economic growth.

  17. Australian Space Situational Awareness Capability Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreale, B.; Bessell, T.; Rutten, M.; Cheung, B.

    Australia is increasing its contribution to the global space situational awareness (SSA) problem by committing to acquire and operate SSA sensors. Over the last year, a series of collaborative SSA experiments have been undertaken to demonstrate the capabilities of Australian sensors. These experiments aimed to demonstrate how existing Australian sensors could perform in a surveillance of space role, prove passive radar’s capability to observe low earth orbit (LEO) satellites and perform SSA handoffs to optical sensors. The trials established a data sharing and communications protocol that bridged defence, academia, and industry partners. Geographically dispersed optical assets, including the Falcon telescope in Canberra, Raven telescopes in Exmouth (Western Australia) and Defence Science and Technology (DST) Telescopes in Adelaide (South Australia) collected on LEO satellites and established cueing protocols. The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) located in Western Australia, demonstrated the capability of passive radar as an SSA asset after successfully observing LEO satellites based on reflected terrestrial radio signals. The combination of radar and optical SSA assets allows for the exploitation of each sensors unique advantages and locations across the Australian continent. This paper outlines the capabilities and diversity of Australian optical and radar sensors as demonstrated by field trials in 2016 and 2017. It suggests future potential for harnessing novel radar and optical integration techniques to supplement high-value assets such as the Space Surveillance Telescope as part of the Space Surveillance Network.

  18. Enabling GEODSS for Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, S.

    2016-09-01

    The Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) System has been in operation since the mid-1980's. While GEODSS has been the Space Surveillance Network's (SSN's) workhorse in terms of deep space surveillance, it has not undergone a significant modernization since the 1990's. This means GEODSS continues to operate under a mostly obsolete, legacy data processing baseline. The System Program Office (SPO) responsible for GEODSS, SMC/SYGO, has a number of advanced Space Situational Awareness (SSA)-related efforts in progress, in the form of innovative optical capabilities, data processing algorithms, and hardware upgrades. Each of these efforts is in various stages of evaluation and acquisition. These advanced capabilities rely upon a modern computing environment in which to integrate, but GEODSS does not have one—yet. The SPO is also executing a Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) to modernize the various subsystems within GEODSS, along with a parallel effort to implement a complete, modern software re-architecture. The goal is to use a modern, service-based architecture to provide expedient integration as well as easier and more sustainable expansion. This presentation will describe these modernization efforts in more detail and discuss how adopting such modern paradigms and practices will help ensure the GEODSS system remains relevant and sustainable far beyond 2027.

  19. Human echolocation in different situations and rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkman, Bo N

    2017-05-01

    People, especially when blind, use echolocation to detect obstacles, orient themselves, and get an awareness of their environment. I and coworkers have, with mostly psychophysical methods, studied perceptual aspects of how people accomplish echolocation. Echolocation with long canes while walking was possible but difficult. The effects of the spectral composition of the emitted sounds had no effects. Sound recordings in anechoic and conference rooms from non-walking, static situations, later presented in a laboratory showed a better performance in an ordinary room with reflections, than in an anechoic room. We also found that there was a higher performance with longer sounding sounds than for short clicks. Among the difficulties for the blind are how to avoid masking of sounds. A few blind are exceptionally high performing. An "information-surplus principle" has been proposed. Various information sources are used, but repetition pitch seems more important than loudness for echolocation. Among other sources, timbre may also provide information. There may exist a time gap, acoustic gaze, for how blind people use clicks. It is likely also that there are at least two processes taking place in the hearing system when listening for echoes, one attuned to short sounds and one to long sounds.

  20. Present situation of refractories in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittencourt, P. (Magnesita S.A., (Brazil))

    1992-11-10

    This paper outlines the present situation of refractories in Brazil, particularly the use of refractories in the steel industry which is one of the major industries in this country. Brazil is the 8th largest steel producer in the world, and about 64% of all the production is exported. Because of increasing competitions in the world market, high-level production techniques are required, and active improvements of refractories are also being carried out. The specific consumption of refractories in 1 ton of steel has gradually decreased to produce high-quality refractories. In Brazil, 95% of all demand except for special items such as submerged nozzles and blast furnace carbon blocks can be provided domestically. It is characteristic that raw materials for refractories, such as magnesite, bauxite, and graphite can also be self-supporting. Compositions and physical properties of typical refractories used for various purposes in iron and steel manufactures including blast furnaces, torpedo cars, BOF converters, electric are furnaces, and electric arc ladles are described, and the direction toward their conversion into new materials is shown. Moreover, the trends of refractories for the cement industry and for nonferrous metals such as aluminum are introduced. 6 figs., 15 tabs.