WorldWideScience

Sample records for canadensis population situation

  1. Population genetic structure in the eastern population of Greater Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis Tabida)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sandhill Crane (SACR; Grus canadensis) is the most populous of the 15 extant crane species. Their breeding range covers the majority of the continental U.S. and...

  2. Spatio-temporal variations in age structures of a partially re-established population of northern river otters (Lontra canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Dominic A.; Leslie,, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Examination of age structures and sex ratios is useful in the management of northern river otters (Lontra canadensis) and other furbearers. Reintroductions and subsequent recolonizations of river otters have been well documented, but changes in demographics between expanding and established populations have not been observed. As a result of reintroduction efforts, immigration from Arkansas and northeastern Texas, and other efforts, river otters have become partially reestablished throughout eastern and central Oklahoma. Our objective was to examine age structures of river otters in Oklahoma and identify trends that relate to space (watersheds, county) and time (USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service county trapping records). We predicted that river otters in western areas of the state were younger than river otters occurring farther east. From 2005–2007, we obtained salvaged river otter carcasses from federal and state agencies, and we live-captured other river otters using leg hold traps. Seventy-two river otters were sampled. Overall, sex ratios were skewed toward females (1F∶0.8M), but they did not differ among spatiotemporal scales examined. Teeth were removed from salvaged and live-captured river otters (n  =  63) for aging. One-year old river otters represented the largest age class (30.2%). Proportion of juveniles (populations of river otters in Oklahoma contained younger ages than more established eastern populations.

  3. A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggle, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 309 Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior, of different sex and age groups was collected from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway from 1979-1981 and examined for gizzard nematodes and renal coccidia. Three species of nematodes were removed from the gizzards, Amidostomum anseris, A. spatulatum, and Epomidiostomum crami. The latter two species are reported from this population of geese for the first time. Gizzard nematodes were found in 95.2% of all Canada geese examined, with A. anseris being the most abundant of the three species. There was no statistically significant difference between immatures and adults in the abundance of total nematodes species however, immature geese carried significantly more A. anseris and adult geese harbored significantly more A. spatulatum and E. crami infections. No significant difference in gizzard worm infections between male and female birds was observed. The abundance of overall gizzard nematodes was greatest in Canada geese from Winisk, Ontario (11.9), but the abundance of worms in southern Illinois geese (10.0) was similar. Geese from Horicon National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest abundance of infection, 7.5. The overall abundance of nematodes showed a general increase the second year of the study in each sex and age group and at each collection area. Each of three species of nematodes was responsible for some degree of damage to the gizzard lining and koilin, but E. crami was the most pathogenic of the species recovered. The occurrence of renal coccidiosis in Canada geese of this flyway is reported for the first time; the etiologic agent is Eimeria clarkei. The oocysts and/or endogenous stages of E. clarkei were present in 6.8% of the Canada geese sampled and this was the only species found. Male and female geese showed no significant differences in E. clarkei infections, however, significantly more immature geese than adult geese were infected with this species. A cell

  4. Association of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection with population-limiting respiratory disease in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Potter, Kathleen A; VanderSchalie, John; Fischer, Allison; Knowles, Donald P; Herndon, David R; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Weiser, Glen C; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2008-02-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population-limiting disease in bighorn sheep in much of western North America. Previous investigators have isolated diverse bacteria from the lungs of affected sheep, but no single bacterial species is consistently present, even within single epizootics. We obtained high-quality diagnostic specimens from nine pneumonic bighorn sheep in three populations and analyzed the bacterial populations present in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of seven by using a culture-independent method (16S rRNA gene amplification and clone library analyses). Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was detected as a predominant member of the pneumonic lung flora in lambs with early lesions of bronchopneumonia. Specific PCR tests then revealed the consistent presence of M. ovipneumoniae in the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep in this study, and M. ovipneumoniae was isolated from lung specimens of five of the animals. Retrospective application of M. ovipneumoniae PCR to DNA extracted from archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissues of historical adult bighorn sheep necropsy specimens supported the association of this agent with bronchopneumonia (16/34 pneumonic versus 0/17 nonpneumonic sheep were PCR positive [P M. ovipneumoniae antibody-positive animals and the occurrence of current or recent historical bronchopneumonia problems (seropositive animals detected in 9/9 versus 0/9 pneumonic and nonpneumonic populations, respectively [P M. ovipneumoniae is strongly associated with bronchopneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep and is a candidate primary etiologic agent for this disease.

  5. Association of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae Infection with Population-Limiting Respiratory Disease in Free-Ranging Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis)▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Potter, Kathleen A.; VanderSchalie, John; Fischer, Allison; Knowles, Donald P.; Herndon, David R.; Rurangirwa, Fred R.; Weiser, Glen C.; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2008-01-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population-limiting disease in bighorn sheep in much of western North America. Previous investigators have isolated diverse bacteria from the lungs of affected sheep, but no single bacterial species is consistently present, even within single epizootics. We obtained high-quality diagnostic specimens from nine pneumonic bighorn sheep in three populations and analyzed the bacterial populations present in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of seven by using a culture-independent method (16S rRNA gene amplification and clone library analyses). Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was detected as a predominant member of the pneumonic lung flora in lambs with early lesions of bronchopneumonia. Specific PCR tests then revealed the consistent presence of M. ovipneumoniae in the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep in this study, and M. ovipneumoniae was isolated from lung specimens of five of the animals. Retrospective application of M. ovipneumoniae PCR to DNA extracted from archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissues of historical adult bighorn sheep necropsy specimens supported the association of this agent with bronchopneumonia (16/34 pneumonic versus 0/17 nonpneumonic sheep were PCR positive [P M. ovipneumoniae antibody-positive animals and the occurrence of current or recent historical bronchopneumonia problems (seropositive animals detected in 9/9 versus 0/9 pneumonic and nonpneumonic populations, respectively [P M. ovipneumoniae is strongly associated with bronchopneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep and is a candidate primary etiologic agent for this disease. PMID:18057131

  6. Renal coccidiosis in interior Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior Todd, of the Mississippi Valley population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggle, Benjamin N.; Crites, John L.

    1984-01-01

    Kidneys from 309 Interior Canada geese from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway were examined for renal coccidia. Oocysts and/or young zygotes of Eimeria sp. were found in 6.8% of goose kidneys sampled. Only one type of renal coccidian oocyst was observed. Significantly more immature geese were infected than adults; however, there was no significant difference observed between the prevalences of infection in male and female birds. A host cellular response to zygotes and oocysts was noted in the majority of infected adult geese. Heavily infected kidneys were hypertrophic with minute foci on the surface of the organ. Histological examinations showed large numbers of unsporulated oocysts accumulated in distended collecting tubules, resulting in pressure necrosis to adjacent tissue and urate retention. Zygotes were observed in the cytoplasm of tubule cells and extracellularly in interstitial tissue. Infected tubule cells were characterized by the peripheral location of the nuclei, cytoplasmic basophilia, and cellular hypertrophy. This is the first report of an Eimeria sp. in the kidneys of Canada geese of the Mississippi Valley population.

  7. Present situation and prospects of China's population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, R

    1989-06-01

    For a very long time China has been the most populous country in the world. Throughout the last 15-16 years China has achieved great success in checking the excessively rapid growth of its population. However, due to historical reasons as well as current changes, China is still facing a serious situation. As a result of historical evolution, a great number of contradictions exist in China between population on the 1 hand and arable land, food, natural resources, the environment, employment, education, and support of the aged on the other hand. Per capita arable land is now only about .1 hectare. Restricted by the area of arable land, the food supply in China has always been a source of tension. People are reclaiming land on hills and from lakes in ways that are not good for the environment. With rapid population growth, large numbers of young people are reaching working age every year. The ultimate goal of modernization is to promote the well-being of the people. Although the achievements of economic development have been remarkable, the level of goods per person remains low. This has made people realize that population growth must be controlled. The main causes of the rapid fertility decline are 1) socioeconomic development, 2) state guidance, and 3) a strong government policy. Beginning in 1979 in China, the focal point of work has been shifted to economic construction. China's strategic goal of population control is to attain the stationary state through rapid fertility decline. Prospects for the 21st century include 1) an aging population, 2) a more abundant labor force, 3) the further development of cultural and educational undertakings, 4) rapid urbanization, and 5) environmental pollution and resource shortages. PMID:12316068

  8. Population size of Cuban Parrots Amazona leucocephala and Sandhill Cranes Grus canadensis and community involvement in their conservation in northern Isla de la Juventud, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, X.G.; Alvarez, V.B.; Wiley, J.W.; Rosales, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Cuban Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis nesiotes and Cuban Parrot Amazona leucocephala palmarum are considered endangered species in Cuba and the Isla de la Juventud (formerly Isla de Pinos). Coincident with a public education campaign, a population survey for these species was conducted in the northern part of the Isla de la Juventud on 17 December 1995, from 06hoo to 10hoo. Residents from throughout the island participated, manning 98 stations, with 1-4 observers per station. Parrots were observed at 60 (61.2%) of the stations with a total of 1320, maximum (without correction for duplicate observations), and 1100, minimum (corrected), individuals counted. Sandhill cranes were sighted at 38 (38.8%) of the stations, with a total of 115 individuals. Cranes and parrots co-occurred at 20 (20.4%) of the stations.

  9. Study on Population Distribution Pattern of the Invasive Plant Solidago canadensis%外来人侵植物加拿大一枝黄花种群分布格局研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐燕云; 郭水良

    2011-01-01

    加拿大一枝黄花(Solidago canadensis)作为近年来我国外来入侵植物,在我国东部地区广泛分布.试验采用连续小样方法调查了加拿大一枝黄花在不同定居阶段和生境中的盖度,并以盖度为指标进行了其种群的分布格局研究.结果表明,加拿大一枝黄花种群呈明显的集群分布,随着其在新生境中定居年限的增长,其种群斑块呈由少→多→少的变化趋势;强大的无性繁殖能力是加拿大一枝黄花种群扩张和侵占生境的有力武器,其单优种群可连绵数千米.%Solidago canadensis, as a recent invasive plant of China, is widely distributed in East China. The coverage of S. canoderisis in different resident stages and environment was investigated by sequential small sampling method, and the population distribution pattern was studied using the index of the coverage. The result showed that the distribution pattern of S. canadensis belonged to clumped type. And with the increasing of ages in the new resident environment, its population plaques displayed such trend as little -much -little. The strong asexual reproduction ability was a powerful weapon for S. canadensis to expand its population and invade habitats so that its dominant population could extend for thousands of meters.

  10. Floating Population Increase and Its Influence on the Urban Population Situation: A Case Study in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Peilin; Lu Qi

    2005-01-01

    Floating population is a special population group in China resulting from the implementation of household registration system. This paper uses a set of floating population survey data, population censuses data and statistical data to analyze the increase and influence of floating population on the urban population situations in Beijing. It is found that Beijing has experienced a rapid increase of floating population since the 1990s and that the increase of this group has become the key factor of the current population expansion in the city. Its distribution in the urban regions intensified and extended the subutbanization process of the capital. In addition,the population structures of sex, age, education and employment in Beijing have changed to some extent due to the influx of floating population.

  11. HIV Epidemic situation among Small Indigenous Populations of Northeast Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Volova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze and assess the real situation of HIV infection among indigenous peoples established , to investigate the prevalence of risky behavior in relation to HIV also determine the level of awareness of the indigenous population about HIV / AIDS.Materials and Methods 1. Analysis of the data cards of the epidemical investigation hearth HIV data form number 283 «About measures on prevention of HIV , hepatitis B and C , detection and treatment of HIV» , form number 61 «Information on the groups of HIV», outpatients patient. 2. The analysis of the statistical prevalence of HIV infection among men and women , including among indigenous representatives , the structure of HIV transmission , coverage of clinical examination. 3. Data analysis of the sociological study among indigenous representatives. The proposed questionnaire contained both closed and open-ended questions to assess the risk factors of respondents’ behavior and their level of awareness of HIV infection. Evaluation of the reliability of the data performed using Student t-test. Results. In 2000, HIV infection in region penetrated into the population of indigenous peoples and continues to spread. Particular way of life and living conditions, such as seasonal migration within the county, early sexual activity, lack of skills in safe sexual behavior , bad habits contributed to the spread of HIV among this ethnic group. Link transition of HIV infection in a group of indigenous peoples is a high incidence of working shifts and workers, among them 30% are already infected with HIV. In connection with this, the spread of HIV infection among women occurs rapidly. Special role in the spread of HIV infection among women of indigenous peoples plays lifestyle and delated psychosocial problems.Conclusion 1. The most vulnerable to HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections by representatives of indigenous peoples living in the

  12. Reproductive biology in an invasive plant Solidago canadensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hua; GUO Shuiliang; CHEN Guoqi

    2007-01-01

    Solidago canadensis,a perennial Compositae plant originating from North America,was introduced into China as a horticultural plant in 1935.Under natural conditions,S.canadensis allocates large amounts of energy to sexual reproduction and produces many seeds,which reflects an r-strategy with high seed number and small seed size.In addition,naturalized populations have a great capacity to grow clonally with underground stems.S.canadensis has become an invasive weed in eastern China,and has caused serious damages to agricultural production and ecosystems in several provinces in China.In order to understand the reproductive characteristics of S.canadensis and effectively control its spread,we examined soil conditions,seed characteristics,seed germination and the capacity for asexual reproduction in different plant parts.We investigated the population dispersion of S.canadensis in fixed sites for three years,and analyzed the seasonal dynamics of the morphological parameters of the underground parts and the caloric values of different organs of S.canadensis.We also compared differences in the root systems of S.canadensis and composite exotic weeds.The following results were obtained:1)Under natural conditions,the germination season of S.canadensis lasts from March to October,with a peak from April to May.Vegetative growth and asexual reproduction are especially vigorous during summer due to high temperatures and soil drought stress.On the other hand,the rainy season proves suitable for seed germination.Most S.canadensis flower between September and January,and fruit in late October.A mature plant can produce about 20000 seeds.The mean weight of 1000 seeds ranges from 0.045 g to 0.050 g,and the mean seed moisture content ranges from 60% to 80%.The light-winged seeds disperse readily by air,water,vehicles,human activity or through livestock.2)S.canadensis seeds have a wide tolerance for different values of pH,salinity and soil moisture.The mean percent germination of seeds

  13. Genetic Variation of Echinococcus canadensis (G7) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Prado, Ulises; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego Emiliano; Avila, Guillermina; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Martinez-Flores, Williams Arony; Mondragon de la Peña, Carmen; Hernandez-Castro, Rigoberto; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Flisser, Ana; Martinez-Hernandez, Fernando; Maravilla, Pablo; Martinez-Maya, Jose Juan

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the genetic variation of Echinococcus G7 strain in larval and adult stages using a fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gen. Viscera of pigs, bovines, and sheep and fecal samples of dogs were inspected for cystic and canine echinococcosis, respectively; only pigs had hydatid cysts. Bayesian inferences grouped the sequences in an E. canadensis G7 cluster, suggesting that, in Mexico, this strain might be mainly present. Additionally, the population genetic and network analysis showed that E. canadensis in Mexico is very diverse and has probably been introduced several times from different sources. Finally, a scarce genetic differentiation between G6 (camel strain) and G7 (pig strain) populations was identified. PMID:25266350

  14. [Sex structure and seed productivity of Mentha canadensis L. from natural flora of primorye of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronkova, T V; Shelepova, O V; Kondrat'eva, V V; Bidiukova, G F

    2014-01-01

    The sex structure and seed productivity of Mentha canadensis L. from different climatic regioins of Primorye of Russia was studied. We established that M. canadensis is characterized by a homogeneous population structure due to the formation of vegetative clones. The ratio of female and androgynous individuals was 1:5, and it is possible that this is a species-specific trait. Both sexual forms produced fruits under conditions of isolation from cross-pollination. We discuss the possibility of apomixis and the influence of climatic conditions on seed productivity and morphometric characteristics of plants.

  15. Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Bionomics aspects of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana de Oliveira Torres

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar alguns aspectos bionômicos da vespa social neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758. Vinte e seis colônias foram acompanhadas entre abril de 2004 e julho de 2006, no município de Mundo Novo, estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Os resultados encontrados nesse estudo sugerem que o padrão fenológico de Polistes canadensis canadensis é assincrônico nessa região, com fundações e abandonos podendo ocorrer o ano todo. A duração média dos estágios imaturos foi diferente entre as estações climáticas fria-seca e úmida-quente. Diferentes substratos foram escolhidos para nidificação, contudo em ambientes que forneceram condições físicas mais homogêneas durante o dia foram encontradas as maiores freqüências de sucesso. Colônias nessa espécie são fundadas por haplometrose ou pleometrose, no entanto, o sucesso tem sido maior para colônias pleometróticas.Certain aspects of the bionomics of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied. Twenty-six colonies were observed from April 2004 through July 2006, in the municipal district of Mundo Novo, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central-Brazil. The results suggest that the colony phenological pattern of this species is asynchronous, and colonies may be founded or abandoned at any time of the year. The mean duration of the immature stages differed between the cold-dry and warm-rainy seasons. Colonies were founded on several different kinds of substrates, but were more successful in environments that provided more-homogeneous physical conditions during the day. Colonies in this species are founded by haplometrosis or pleometrosis, and pleometrotic colonies were more successful.

  16. Work situation and self-perceived economic situation as predictors of change in burnout - a prospective general population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Norlund, Sofia; Reuterwall, Christina; Höög, Jonas; Janlert, Urban; Slunga-Järvholm, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sick leave rates due to mental and behavioural disorders have increased in Sweden during the last decades. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate changes in the level of burnout in a working subset of the general population and to identify how such changes relate to changes in work situation and self-perceived economic situation. Methods: A cohort of 1000 persons from a subset of the 2004 northern Sweden MONICA (Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in ...

  17. Development of nine new microsatellite loci for the American beaver, Castor canadensis (Rodentia: Castoridae), and cross-species amplification in the European beaver, Castor fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz-Serrano, K.; Munguia-Vega, A.; Piaggio, A.J.; Neubaum, M.; Munclinger, P.; PArtl, A.; van Riper, Charles; Culver, M.

    2009-01-01

    We developed nine new nuclear dinucleotide microsatellite loci for Castor canadensis. All loci were polymorphic, except for one. The number of alleles ranged from two to four and from five to 12 in populations from Arizona and Wisconsin, respectively. Average heterozygosity ranged from 0.13 to 0.86 per locus. Since cross-species amplification in Castor fiber was successful only in four loci, we tested also nine recently published C. canadensis loci in the Eurasian species. Eight of the published loci amplified; however, three were monomorphic. The number of alleles was lower in C. fiber than in C. canadensis at all loci tested. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Populations protection and territories management in nuclear emergency and post-accident situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Twenty seven presentations out of 29 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - radiological and dosimetric consequences in nuclear accident situation: impact on the safety approach and protection stakes (E. Cogez); 2 - organisation of public authorities in case of emergency and in post-event situation (in case of nuclear accident or radiological terror attack in France and abroad), (O. Kayser); 3 - ORSEC plan and 'nuclear' particular intervention plan (PPI), (C. Guenon); 4 - thyroid protection by stable iodine ingestion: European perspective (J.R. Jourdain); 5 - preventive distribution of stable iodine: presentation of the 2009/2010 public information campaign (E. Bouchot); 6 - 2009/2010 iodine campaign: presentation and status (O. Godino); 7 - populations protection in emergency and post-accident situation in Switzerland (C. Murith); 8 - CIPR's recommendations on the management of emergency and post-accident situations (J. Lochard); 9 - nuclear exercises in France - status and perspectives (B. Verhaeghe); 10 - the accidental rejection of uranium at the Socatri plant: lessons learnt from crisis management (D. Champion); 11 - IRE's radiological accident of August 22, 2008 (C. Vandecasteele); 12 - presentation of the CEA's crisis national organisation: coordination centre in case of crisis, technical teams, intervention means (X. Pectorin); 13 - coordination and realisation of environmental radioactivity measurement programs, exploitation and presentation of results: status of IRSN's actions and perspectives (P. Dubiau); 14 - M2IRAGE - measurements management in the framework of geographically-assisted radiological interventions in the environment (O. Gerphagnon and H. Roche); 15 - post-accident management of a nuclear accident - the CODIRPA works (I. Mehl-Auget); 16 - nuclear post-accident: new challenges of crisis expertise (D. Champion); 17 - aid guidebooks

  19. The River Otter (Lontra canadensis) in Clarcke County (Georgia, USA) - Survey, Food Habits and Environmental Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Noordhuis R.

    2002-01-01

    The status of the river otter (Lontra canadensis}. was surveyed in and around Clarcke County (Georgia, USA). Although nearly extinct in the nineteen fifties, the otter population appears to be well developed today. Food habits were analyzed through spraint analysis using spraints collected in winter and summer. Sunfish and crayfish were found to be the most important food items. An attempt was made to find out if otters in the study area are affected by environmental pollution. Literature dat...

  20. Impact assessment of radioactive contamination of the environment on population in existing exposure situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: In the paper the existing exposure situation at Eleshnitsa - a part from of the former shutdown uranium mining industry in Bulgaria has been presented. To assess the impact on the population, stations near populated areas were investigated. The radiation parameters of air, water, bottom sediments and vegetation from this area were studied and the radiation risk for population was estimated. Materials and methods: The radiation parameters of air, water, bottom sediments and vegetation from this area are studied and the radiation risk for population was estimated using mathematical models of irradiation. Analyzed water samples from 21 observation points, including 13 of surface water and 8 of groundwater (including 6 adit and 2 piezometers) and bottom sediments samples from 10 observation points. The bottom sediments were gamma spectrometric analyzed for determination of natural radionuclides and radiochemical water samples for determination of the specific concentration of natural Uranium, Radium and determination of total alpha and beta activity. Results: Uranium - 238 and Radium - 226 in the studied bottom sediments ranged respectively from 52 to 794 Bq/kg, and from 38.5 to 211 Bq/kg. The concentration of natural Uranium in the water sample is less than 0,3 to 57,07 Bq/l, and Radium - 226 from 0.05 to 0,5 Bq/l. Ratio 238U/226Ra for bottom sediments is from 1.0 to 9.7 , and for water – from 7 to 295. The values of the ratio 238U/226Ra in water respectively Ra motility are many times higher than those in the bottom sediments. The estimated risk for use of water is approximately equal to 102. Conclusion: The factor causing the external and internal exposure of the population in uranium mining areas is liquidated with the closure of uranium mining industry in Bulgaria, but mine waters continue to determine the radiation contamination of the environment, which determines the high risk for the population in the area

  1. Sexual and Asexual Reproduction of Salix sitchensis and the Influence of Beaver (Castor canadensis) Herbivory on Reproductive Success

    OpenAIRE

    Travis G. Gerwing; Alyssa M. Allen Gerwing; Rapaport, Eric; Alström-Rapaport, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The influence of beaver (Castor canadensis Kuhl) herbivory on Salix reproduction, specifically the stimulation of asexual reproduction via browsed stem fragments, is relatively unknown. This study aimed to determine if beaver herbivory stimulates asexual reproduction of riparian willows and results in mature populations dominated by clones. The survival of seedlings and asexual propagules produced by beaver browse in populations of the riparian willow Salix sitchensis (Sanson in Bongard) were...

  2. [Studying Marxist theory on population and initiating a new situation in demographic research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, Z

    1983-03-29

    Within Marxist ideology are important population theories that led to the establishment of demography and the work of population control in China. Marxist population theory should be studied in order to build a scientific system of concepts in population theory. Both Marx and Engels spoke of the relationship between human reproduction and material production, and of how the modes of social development determine population development. Marx also established the view that a normal population and surplus population both were mutually adaptable with a certain production basis. In any historical period, the total population is not determined subjectively by man's wishes, but is a product of historical development. The Maoist population theory is derived from Marxist theory. Borrowing from historical materialism, Mao said that of all the objects in the world, man is the most precious. Nevertheless, he continued, while China's large population is good, it brings many difficulties; thus, population must be controlled. The study of demography should follow Marxist and Maoist population theories, even though the study of Marixst population theory is relatively recent and much remains to be learned. PMID:12313010

  3. The Czech Population's Opinions on the Housing Situation and Housing Policy: Does the Czech Republic Have 'Housing Classes'?

    OpenAIRE

    Kostelecký, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the representative survey Housing Attitudes 2001 the author analyses the opinions of the Czech population on the situation in the housing market & general attitudes towards housing-related issues & housing policy. The article focuses on uncovering the connections between attitudes towards various aspects of housing policy & the respondents' positions in the housing market. On the basis of the results of the analyses the usefulness of the theory of 'housing classes' in the Czec...

  4. Solidago canadensis und Solidago gigantea in Frankfurt am Main

    OpenAIRE

    Ottich, Indra

    2015-01-01

    Die beiden nordamerikanischen Goldruten-Arten Solidago canadensis und S. gigantea sind in Mitteleuropa weit verbreitet. Häufig wird nicht zwischen den beiden Arten unterschieden, die Angaben zur Ökologie scheinen für beide Arten weitgehend identisch. Durch eine Rasterkartierung des Stadtgebietes von Frankfurt am Main wird gezeigt, dass die Arten jedoch unterschiedliche Ansprüche haben. Während Solidago canadensis sehr häufig ist und alle typisch städtischen Bereiche besiedelt, wird Solidago g...

  5. Achievements and challenges: Minister Peng on China's population situation and family planning programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P

    1996-04-01

    This article summarizes two speeches made by Minister Peng Peiyun of the China State Family Planning Commission. The Minister discussed the achievements and the challenges during 1991-95 and expected goals for the Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000). The Minister indicated that all provinces fulfilled their population plans. 67.88 million births were added during 1991-95, but this number was 15.79 million lower than expected. The total fertility rate declined to under 2.0 children/woman in 1994. The rate of high-parity births declined from 19.32% in 1990 to 9.5% in 1994. The average age at first marriage increased from 22.12 years in 1990 to 22.73 years in 1994. Valuable lessons were learned and reported during the early 1990s. The most important lesson was that an integrated approach that linked services to improve productivity with family planning services was successful. The Integrated Approach that was practiced in the provinces of Jilin, Jiangsu, and Sichuan was successful in improving women's status, increasing family income, and developing the rural economy. These quality of life improvements helped to change traditional ideas about childbearing. This approach and the dissemination of positive outcomes was the subject of a conference held in October 1995. The challenges ahead for China include reducing the absolute size of a population that is increasing at the rate of 13 million annually. Present low fertility may be unstable due to the strong administrative constraints. Family planning effectiveness varies between more and less developed provinces. Seven less developed provinces still have a high birth rate: Guangxi, Hainan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet, Ningxia, and Xinjiang. New problems will appear with the shift to a market economy. Before the year 2000 China must limit population size to under 1.3 billion, stabilize low fertility, shift the focus to the populous central west, target the floating population, and secure more funding. PMID:12347492

  6. Physiological Responses and Tolerance Mechanisms to Cadmium in Conyza canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuifan; Zhang, Kai; Lin, Jingwen; Li, Ying; Chen, Nailian; Zou, Xianhua; Hou, Xiaolong; Ma, Xiangqing

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different concentrations of Cd on the performance of the Cd accumulator Conyza canadensis. Cd accumulation in roots and leaves (roots>leaves) increased with increasing Cd concentration in soil. High Cd concentration inhibited plant growth, increased the membrane permeability of leaves, and caused a significant decline in plant height and chlorophyll [chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, and total Chl] content. Leaf ultrastructural analysis of spongy mesophyllic cells revealed that excessive Cd concentrations cause adverse effects on the chloroplast and mitochondrion ultrastructures of C. canadensis. However, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, total non-protein SH compounds, glutathione, and phytochelatin (PC) concentrations, showed an overall increase. Specifically, the increase in enzyme activities demonstrated that the antioxidant system may play an important role in eliminating or alleviating the toxicity of Cd in C. canadensis. Furthermore, results demonstrate that PC synthesis in plant cells is related to Cd concentration and that PC production levels in plants are related to the toxic effects caused by soil Cd level. These findings demonstrate the roles played by these compounds in supporting Cd tolerance in C. canadensis.

  7. Organization of first and foremost life security of population in the initial period of liquidation of emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study reviews the questions of increase of readiness of administration bodies, services and teams for first and foremost life security of people in emergency situations. The main trends of settlement of this task and the types of priority measures of life support are determined. A list of normative methodical documents for settlement of the problem of the first and foremost life security is stated. The authors have defined the wording of the requirements to mobile teams and their technical equipment, the realization of which will provide for their high readiness condition to settlement of the tasks of immediate life security of the injured population in liquidation of after-effects of accidents and disasters of technogenic and natural character

  8. New iridoid diesters of glucopyranose from Linaria canadensis (L.) Dum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuochi, Kouichi; Tanaka, Takashi; Kouno, Isao; Fujioka, Toshihiro; Yoshimura, Yuki; Ishimaru, Kanji

    2011-01-01

    Two new iridoid diesters of glucopyranose were isolated from the aerial part of Linaria canadensis (L.) Dum. Eight known flavones, apigenin, diosmetin, genkwanin, luteolin, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, luteolin 7-O-glucuronide, genkwanin 4'-O-rutinoside, and quercetin 7-O-rutinoside were also isolated. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on the analyses of the spectroscopic data. PMID:20635154

  9. [Allelopathic effects of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lingxiao; Chen, Xin; Tang, Jianjun

    2005-12-01

    With growth chamber method, this paper studied the allelopathic potential of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plant species. Different concentration S. canadensis root and rhizome extracts were examined, and the test plants were Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense, Medicago lupulina, Lolium perenne, Suaeda glauca, Plantago virginica, Kummerowia stipulacea, Festuca arundinacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea, and Amaranthus spinosus. The results showed that the allelopathic inhibitory effect of the extracts from both S. canadensis root and rhizome was enhanced with increasing concentration, and rhizome extracts had a higher effect than root extracts. At the lowest concentration (1:60), root extract had little effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of T. repens, but rhizome extract could inhibit the germination of all test plants though the inhibitory effect varied with different species. The inhibition was the greatest for grass, followed by forb and legume. 1:60 (m:m) rhizome extract had similar effects on seed germination and radicel growth, but for outgrowth, the extract could inhibit Kummerowia stipulacea, Amaranthus spinosus and Festuca arundinacea, had no significant impact on Lolium perenne, Plantago virginica, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea and Amaranthus spinosus, and stimulated Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense and Medicago lupulina. PMID:16515192

  10. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, C.N.; Kaur, T.; Koenen, K.; DeStefano, S.; Zajac, A.M.; Lindsay, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystls neurona in a population of beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts. Sixty-two blood samples were collected during the field seasons over 3 consecutive years from different animals. Blood was collected onto filter paper and shipped to the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, for parasite testing. The samples were tested at dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:100 against each parasite antigen by modified agglutination tests to determine whether antibodies to either parasite were present in the blood. Six of 62 samples (10%) were positive for T. gondii, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 4 having titers of 1:50. Four of 62 samples (6%) were positive for S. neurona, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 2 having titers of 1:50. ?? American Society of Pathologists 2005.

  11. Diurnal effects on Mentha canadensis oil yields and composition at two different harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japanese cornmint, also known as menthol mint, (Mentha canadensis L. syn M. arvensis var canadensis L.), is an essential oil crop cultivated in several countries in Asia and South America. The plant is currently the only commercially viable source for natural menthol due to the high concentration of...

  12. Divisão de trabalho em colônias da vespa social neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Division of labor in colonies of the neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana de Oliveira Torres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas 100 horas de observação usando o método "scanning sample" para a qualificação e quantificação dos atos comportamentais de rainhas e operárias de quinze colônias de Polistes canadensis canadensis. Foi descrito um repertório comportamental com 28 atos, no qual rainhas executam 19 atos na colônia, enquanto operárias 26, ocorrendo 17 atos em comum entre as duas castas. Dentre esses atos, dois foram exclusivos do repertório de rainhas e nove de operárias. O resultado do teste do qui-quadrado apontou diferenças significativas entre os repertórios das duas castas, sendo que rainhas permanecem mais tempo no ninho e executam com maior freqüência atividades intra-nidais, ligadas à reprodução, enquanto que as operárias executam mais freqüentemente atividades relacionadas à manutenção das colônias, como a atividade de forrageamento que demanda um maior risco e alto custo energético.Using "scanning sample" methods for qualifying and quantifying behavioral acts of queens and workers belonging to fifteen colonies of Polistes canadensis canadensis, one hundred hours of observation were performed. A behavioral repertoire with twenty-eight acts was described, in which queens perform nineteen acts in the colony, while workers perform twenty-six, and seventeen common acts between the two castes occur. Among those acts, two were exclusive to queen's repertoire and nine to worker's. Chi-square test pointed significant differences between the repertoires of the two castes, where the queens remain longer in the nest and perform the intra-nidal tasks, related to the reproduction, while the workers perform more frequently tasks related to the maintenance of the colonies, such as the foraging, which demands higher risks and high energetic costs.

  13. Neglected zoonotic helminths: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C A

    2015-05-01

    The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control. PMID:25743998

  14. Sanguinaria canadensis: Traditional Medicine, Phytochemical Composition, Biological Activities and Current Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Croaker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sanguinaria canadensis, also known as bloodroot, is a traditional medicine used by Native Americans to treat a diverse range of clinical conditions. The plants rhizome contains several alkaloids that individually target multiple molecular processes. These bioactive compounds, mechanistically correlate with the plant’s history of ethnobotanical use. Despite their identification over 50 years ago, the alkaloids of S. canadensis have not been developed into successful therapeutic agents. Instead, they have been associated with clinical toxicities ranging from mouthwash induced leukoplakia to cancer salve necrosis and treatment failure. This review explores the historical use of S. canadensis, the molecular actions of the benzophenanthridine and protopin alkaloids it contains, and explores natural alkaloid variation as a possible rationale for the inconsistent efficacy and toxicities encountered by S. canadensis therapies. Current veterinary and medicinal uses of the plant are studied with an assessment of obstacles to the pharmaceutical development of S. canadensis alkaloid based therapeutics.

  15. Demographic consequences of greater clonal than sexual reproduction in Dicentra canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hua; Miriti, Maria N; Goodell, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Clonality is a widespread life history trait in flowering plants that may be essential for population persistence, especially in environments where sexual reproduction is unpredictable. Frequent clonal reproduction, however, could hinder sexual reproduction by spatially aggregating ramets that compete with seedlings and reduce inter-genet pollination. Nevertheless, the role of clonality in relation to variable sexual reproduction in population dynamics is often overlooked. We combined population matrix models and pollination experiments to compare the demographic contributions of clonal and sexual reproduction in three Dicentra canadensis populations, one in a well-forested landscape and two in isolated forest remnants. We constructed stage-based transition matrices from 3 years of census data to evaluate annual population growth rates, λ. We used loop analysis to evaluate the relative contribution of different reproductive pathways to λ. Despite strong temporal and spatial variation in seed set, populations generally showed stable growth rates. Although we detected some pollen limitation of seed set, manipulative pollination treatments did not affect population growth rates. Clonal reproduction contributed significantly more than sexual reproduction to population growth in the forest remnants. Only at the well-forested site did sexual reproduction contribute as much as clonal reproduction to population growth. Flowering plants were more likely to transition to a smaller size class with reduced reproductive potential in the following year than similarly sized nonflowering plants, suggesting energy trade-offs between sexual and clonal reproduction at the individual level. Seed production had negligible effects on growth and tuber production of individual plants. Our results demonstrate that clonal reproduction is vital for population persistence in a system where sexual reproduction is unpredictable. The bias toward clonality may be driven by low fitness returns

  16. Resistência de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis ao herbicida glyphosate Glyphosate-resistance in Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Moreira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de curvas de dose-resposta, a ocorrência de biótipos resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em populações de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis, bem como propor tratamentos alternativos para esses biótipos. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se três populações de cada espécie: duas com suspeita de resistência ao herbicida glyphosate, coletadas em pomares de laranja localizados em duas regiões diferentes do Estado de São Paulo; e uma suscetível, coletada em área sem histórico de aplicação do herbicida. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Para cada espécie, os tratamentos foram resultado da combinação fatorial entre as três populações e os tratamentos herbicidas (oito doses de glyphosate ou cinco tratamentos alternativos. As doses de glyphosate foram (g e.a. ha¹: 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 e testemunha sem aplicação. Como alternativas de controle, foram testados os seguintes tratamentos (g ha-1: glyphosate + 2,4-D (1.440 + 1.005, glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 2,4, glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 3,6, glyphosate + metribuzin (1.440 + 480 e testemunha sem aplicação. A partir dos resultados, comprovou-se a existência de populações de ambas as espécies com biótipos resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, com diferentes níveis de resistência. Todos os tratamentos herbicidas alternativos controlaram de forma eficiente as três populações de cada espécie.The objective of this research was to evaluate, through dose-response curves, the occurrence of glyphosate-resistant biotypes in populations of Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis; as well as to propose alternative treatments to these biotypes. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, using three populations of each species: two with suspicion of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate, and collected in orange orchards

  17. Biotic Homogenization Caused by the Invasion of Solidago canadensis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-qi; ZHANG Chao-bin; MA Ling; QIANG Sheng; John A Silander; Li Li Qi

    2013-01-01

    Although studies argue that invasive species can cause biotic differentiation, some cases show that biological invasions actually decrease biodiversity through biotic homogenization. The concept of biotic homogenization through the invasion of a certain serious invasive plant species merit more studies. Hence, we used field surveys to quantitatively compare invasive populations of Solidago canadensis (SC) in China with the control sites (adjacent sites to SC present sites yet without the species) and SC native populations in the USA. We found that plant communities in SC invaded habitats shared similarities with those in SC native ranges. Bray-Curtis similarity clearly showed that the composition of plant communities in SC invaded habitats were similar to those in SC native ranges. Both in the native and introduced range, plant communities with SC present were characterized by SC being dominant, significantly lower species richness,α-diversity andβ-diversity, as well as a decrease in the correlation coefficient between geographic distance and floristic similarities. SC favors fertile and moist loam habitat, while it dominated in various habitats in China, where more than 20 different dominants should have occurred. In conclusion, serious invasive species can quickly remodel and homogenize diverse communities by dominating them.

  18. Antibodies to avian influenza viruses in Canada geese (Branta canadensis): a potential surveillance tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Whitney M; Stallknecht, David E; Deliberto, Thomas J; Swafford, Seth; Pedersen, Kerri; Van Why, Kyle; Wolf, Paul C; Hill, Jerry A; Bruning, Darren L; Cumbee, James C; Mickley, Randall M; Betsill, Carl W; Randall, Adam R; Berghaus, Roy D; Yabsley, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    Traditionally, the epidemiology of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds has been defined by detection of virus or viral RNA through virus isolation or reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Our goals were to estimate AIV antibody prevalence in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and measure effects of age and location on these estimates. We collected 3,205 samples from nine states during June and July 2008 and 2009: Georgia, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Washington, and West Virginia. Serum samples were tested for AIV antibodies with the use of a commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 483 (15%) Canada geese had detectable antibodies to AIV. Significantly higher prevalences were detected in geese collected from northeastern and upper midwestern states compared with southeastern states. This trend is consistent with results from virus isolation studies reporting AIV prevalence in North American dabbling ducks. Within Pennsylvania, significantly higher antibody prevalences were detected in goose flocks sampled in urban locations compared to flocks sampled in rural areas. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in after-hatch-year geese compared to hatch-year geese. No significant differences in prevalence were detected from 10 locations sampled during both years. Results indicate that Canada geese are frequently exposed to AIVs and, with resident populations, may potentially be useful as sentinels to confirm regional AIV transmission within wild bird populations.

  19. Use of exposure history to identify patterns of immunity to pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowright, Raina K.; Manlove, Kezia; Cassirer, E. Frances; Besser, Thomas H.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Individual host immune responses to infectious agents drive epidemic behavior and are therefore central to understanding and controlling infectious diseases. However, important features of individual immune responses, such as the strength and longevity of immunity, can be challenging to characterize, particularly if they cannot be replicated or controlled in captive environments. Our research on bighorn sheep pneumonia elucidates how individual bighorn sheep respond to infection with pneumonia pathogens by examining the relationship between exposure history and survival in situ. Pneumonia is a poorly understood disease that has impeded the recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) following their widespread extirpation in the 1900s. We analyzed the effects of pneumonia-exposure history on survival of 388 radio-collared adults and 753 ewe-lamb pairs. Results from Cox proportional hazards models suggested that surviving ewes develop protective immunity after exposure, but previous exposure in ewes does not protect their lambs during pneumonia outbreaks. Paradoxically, multiple exposures of ewes to pneumonia were associated with diminished survival of their offspring during pneumonia outbreaks. Although there was support for waning and boosting immunity in ewes, models with consistent immunizing exposure were similarly supported. Translocated animals that had not previously been exposed were more likely to die of pneumonia than residents. These results suggest that pneumonia in bighorn sheep can lead to aging populations of immune adults with limited recruitment. Recovery is unlikely to be enhanced by translocating nai¨ve healthy animals into or near populations infected with pneumonia pathogens.

  20. [Effects of Cuscuta australis parasitism on the growth, reproduction and defense of Solidago canadensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei-fen; Du, Le-shan; Li, Jun-min

    2015-11-01

    In order to find out how parasitic Cuscuta australis influences the growth and reproduction of Solidago canadensis, the effects of the parasitism of C. australis on the morphological, growth and reproductive traits of S. canadensis were examined and the relationships between the biomass and the contents of the secondary metabolites were analyzed. The results showed that the parasitism significantly reduced the plant height, basal diameter, root length, root diameter, root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, total biomass, number of inflorescences branches, axis length of inflorescence, and number of inflorescence. In particular, plant height, number of inflorescence and the stem biomass of parasitized S. canadensis were only 1/2, 1/5 and 1/8 of non-parasitized plants, respectively. There was no significant difference of plant height, root length, stem biomass and total biomass between plants parasitized with high and low intensities. But the basal diameter, root volume, leaf biomass, root biomass, the number of inflorescences branches, axis length of inflorescence and number of inflorescence of S. canadensis parasitized with high intensity were significantly lower than those of plants parasitized with low intensity. The parasitism of C. australis significantly increased the tannins content in the root and the flavonoids content in the stem of S. canadensis. The biomass of S. canadensis was significantly negatively correlated with the tannin content in the root and the flavonoids content in the stem. These results indicated that the parasitism of C. australis could inhibit the growth of S. canadensis by changing the resources allocation patterns as well as reducing the resources obtained by S. canadensis.

  1. Radiation monitoring and dosimetry near the semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Radioecological situation, exposure of the population of the semipalatinsk region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of radioecological situation around the nuclear test site as well as estimation of radioecological situation after the underground nuclear test of July 8, 1989 has been carried out. Radiation doses received by the public for the period of surface and atmospheric nuclear tests conducted from 1949 until 1963 about 10000 individuals received additional external and internal doses. The highest accumulated effective doses were estimated in the residuals of Dolon (1.6 Gy the first nuclear test of 1949), Karaul (0.37 Gy), Sarzhal (0.20 Gy). Semenovka (0.02 Gy). Yearly effective doses for the residents of Semipalatinsk during that period did not exceed 0.0056 Gy (maximum value). Collective doses were estimated for different periods from 1949 to 1989 too. Results of measuring of the environmental exposure gamma dose rates in the inspected areas and soil, plants, water, milk, meat radioactive contamination are presented too

  2. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a desert island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Benjamin T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Epps, Clinton W.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Mead, Jim I.; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ~500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476–1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ~1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or) human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct.

  3. Role of carriers in the transmission of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Raghavan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of livestock contact, recurring lamb mortality in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis populations previously exposed to pneumonia indicates the likely presence of carriers of pneumonia-causing pathogens, and possibly inadequate maternally derived immunity. To investigate this problem we commingled naïve, pregnant ewes (n=3 with previously exposed rams (n=2. Post-commingling, all ewes and lambs born to them acquired pneumonia-causing pathogens (leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, with subsequent lamb mortality between 4-9 weeks of age. Infected ewes became carriers for two subsequent years and lambs born to them succumbed to pneumonia. In another experiment, we attempted to suppress the carriage of leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae by administering an antibiotic to carrier ewes, and evaluated lamb survival. Lambs born to both treatment and control ewes (n=4 each acquired pneumonia and died. Antibody titers against leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae in all eight ewes were ‘protective’ (>1:800 and no apparent respiratory disease; however their lambs were either born with comparatively low titers, or with high (but non-protective titers that declined rapidly within 2-8 weeks of age, rendering them susceptible to fatal disease. Thus, exposure to pneumonia-causing pathogens from carrier ewes, and inadequate titers of maternally derived protective antibodies, are likely to render bighorn lambs susceptible to fatal pneumonia.

  4. Bilateral uric acid nephrolithiasis and ureteral hypertrophy in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Robert A.; Bildfell, Rob; Henny, Charles J.; Buhler, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first case of uric acid nephrolithiasis in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis). A 7 yr old male river otter collected from the Skagit River of western Washington (USA) had bilateral nephrolithiasis and severely enlarged ureters (one of 305 examined [0.33%]). The uroliths were 97% uric acid and 3% protein. Microscopic changes in the kidney were confined to expansion of renal calyces, minor loss of medullary tissue, and multifocal atrophy of the cortical tubules. No inflammation was observed in either kidney or the ureters. The ureters were enlarged due to marked hypertrophy of smooth muscle plus dilation of the lumen. Fusion of the major calyces into a single ureteral lumen was several cm distal to that of two adult male otters used as histopathologic control specimens. This case report is part of a large contaminant study of river otters collected from Oregon and Washington. It is important to understand diseases and lesions of the otter as part of our overall evaluation of this population.

  5. Role of carriers in the transmission of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Bindu; Erickson, Kayla; Kugadas, Abirami; Batra, Sai A; Call, Douglas R; Davis, Margaret A; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of livestock contact, recurring lamb mortality in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations previously exposed to pneumonia indicates the likely presence of carriers of pneumonia-causing pathogens, and possibly inadequate maternally derived immunity. To investigate this problem we commingled naïve, pregnant ewes (n=3) with previously exposed rams (n=2). Post-commingling, all ewes and lambs born to them acquired pneumonia-causing pathogens (leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae), with subsequent lamb mortality between 4-9 weeks of age. Infected ewes became carriers for two subsequent years and lambs born to them succumbed to pneumonia. In another experiment, we attempted to suppress the carriage of leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae by administering an antibiotic to carrier ewes, and evaluated lamb survival. Lambs born to both treatment and control ewes (n=4 each) acquired pneumonia and died. Antibody titers against leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae in all eight ewes were 'protective' (>1:800 and no apparent respiratory disease); however their lambs were either born with comparatively low titers, or with high (but non-protective) titers that declined rapidly within 2-8 weeks of age, rendering them susceptible to fatal disease. Thus, exposure to pneumonia-causing pathogens from carrier ewes, and inadequate titers of maternally derived protective antibodies, are likely to render bighorn lambs susceptible to fatal pneumonia. PMID:27185269

  6. AGRICULTURE AND THE SOCIALECONOMIC SITUATION OF THE RURAL POPULATION IN GEORGIA: A CASE STUDY FOCUSING ON THE KAKHETI-REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris FORKEL

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Like in many other transition countries, agriculture in Georgia is usually termed as subsistence farming. Lack of employment opportunities and insufficient household income make rural people dependent on state-funded pensionschemes and agricultural production. Similarly, the income-disparity between rural households is also noticed remarkably, while citizens of smaller towns possess, on average, higher income. The study presented in this report is intended to explore the situation of rural households concerning parcel size, employment opportunities, income sources and income disparities between citizens of villages and small towns, by presenting findings obtained during a field survey conducted during the months of March and May 2008 in the Kakheti region in eastern Georgia.

  7. Source terms and releases in routine and accidental situations: the scheme implemented at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra for the evaluation of the dose to the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the scheme and the tools implemented for the evaluation of the dose to the population due to the routine and emergency situations of the nuclear installations at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra. In particular, it will be introduced and discussed the use of models provided by commercial software and international technical recommendations. The approach for all the calculations required the usual conservative hypotheses, so that the maximum dose results have been derived. The dose evaluations have been performed retrospectively, for the years 1990-2002. The doses are evaluated net of the doses due to the naturally occurring radioactivity. (author)

  8. Large-scale predation by river otters (Lontra canadensis) on Florida cooter (Pseudemys floridana) and Florida softshell turtles (Apalone ferox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Brian A; Wolf, Dan A; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We observed predation by river otters (Lontra canadensis) on large numbers of Florida cooter (Pseudemys floridana) and Florida softshell turtles (Apalone ferox) in two small lakes in North Central Florida, USA during a period of unusually low water levels. Carcasses were strewn on the shoreline and accumulated around floating boat docks, where some residents observed turtles being killed. We found 76 carcasses, including predominantly skeletons, and two live, severely injured turtles from one lake; however, numerous remains undoubtedly were unrecovered. The otters frequently eviscerated the turtles and removed the head and one or more appendages, including the phallus of mature males. In skeletal remains, injuries inflicted by otters were nonspecific, indistinguishable from damage caused by scavengers, or easily missed in incomplete carcasses. This report of large-scale mortality of freshwater turtles in Florida suggests that otters could have a significant impact on local turtle populations.

  9. Capture myopathy in an endangered sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Thomas, N.J.; Reeves, S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite precautions to protect cranes, a 3-year-old endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) was found caught in a leghold trap in Gautier, Mississippi, on 11 November 1987. The bird could have been in the trap for up to 16 hr and was standing and struggling to escape when it was discovered. Serum chemistries of the crane on 12 November revealed elevated lactic dehydrogenase (2,880 IU/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (152 IU/L), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (>1,000 IU/L) values. Following surgical amputation of a fractured toe, the bird never attempted to stand and was unable to stand even when manually supported. Radiographic and physical examination of both legs did not reveal any anatomical abnormalities. Despite medical care, including supportive therapy, no improvement was observed in the bird's ability to stand and to support itself, and the bird died on 19 November. Serum chemistries and the postmortem and histopathologic findings were compatible with capture myopathy described in other species. Because of the possible susceptibility of long-legged birds such as the Mississippi sandhill crane to capture myopathy, special care must be taken when trapping, handling, chemically immobilizing, and transporting these species. In addition, precautions must be taken when conducting a predator-control program to ensure that nontarget wildlife are unlikely to encounter traps. Capture myopathy has only rarely been observed in wild birds, and this case represents the first report in a Mississippi sandhill crane.

  10. Fusobacterium necrophorum in North American Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Narayanan, Sanjeevkumar; Batra, Sai Arun; Jegarubee, Bavananthasivam; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2016-07-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum has been detected in pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis ) lungs, in addition to the aerobic respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica , Bibersteinia trehalosi , Pasteurella multocida , and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae . Similar to M. haemolytica , F. necrophorum produces a leukotoxin. Leukotoxin-induced lysis and degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and macrophages are responsible for acute inflammation and lung tissue damage characteristic of M. haemolytica -caused pneumonia. As one approach in elucidating the role of F. necrophorum in BHS pneumonia, we determined the frequency of the presence of F. necrophorum in archived pneumonic BHS lung tissues, and susceptibility of BHS leukocytes to F. necrophorum leukotoxin. A species-specific PCR assay detected F. necrophorum in 37% of pneumonic BHS lung tissues (total tested n=70). Sequences of PCR amplicons were similar to the less virulent F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. Fusobacterium necrophorum leukotoxin exhibited cytotoxicity to BHS PMNs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As with the M. haemolytica leukotoxin, F. necrophorum leukotoxin was more toxic to BHS PMNs than domestic sheep PMNs. It is likely that F. necrophorum enters the lungs after M. haemolytica and other aerobic respiratory pathogens enter the lungs and initiate tissue damage, thereby creating a microenvironment that is conducive for anaerobic bacterial growth. In summary, Fusobacterium leukotoxin is highly toxic for BHS leukocytes; however, based on the PCR findings, it is unlikely to play a direct role in the development of BHS pneumonia.

  11. Costs and benefits of group living with disease: a case study of pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Kezia R.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Cross, Paul C.; Plowright, Raina K.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Group living facilitates pathogen transmission among social hosts, yet temporally stable host social organizations can actually limit transmission of some pathogens. When there are few between-subpopulation contacts for the duration of a disease event, transmission becomes localized to subpopulations. The number of per capita infectious contacts approaches the subpopulation size as pathogen infectiousness increases. Here, we illustrate that this is the case during epidemics of highly infectious pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis). We classified individually marked bighorn ewes into disjoint seasonal subpopulations, and decomposed the variance in lamb survival to weaning into components associated with individual ewes, subpopulations, populations and years. During epidemics, lamb survival varied substantially more between ewe-subpopulations than across populations or years, suggesting localized pathogen transmission. This pattern of lamb survival was not observed during years when disease was absent. Additionally, group sizes in ewe-subpopulations were independent of population size, but the number of ewe-subpopulations increased with population size. Consequently, although one might reasonably assume that force of infection for this highly communicable disease scales with population size, in fact, host social behaviour modulates transmission such that disease is frequency-dependent within populations, and some groups remain protected during epidemic events.

  12. Shikimate accumulates in both glyphosate-sensitive and glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas C; Massey, Joseph H; Hayes, Robert M; Main, Chris L; Stewart, C Neal

    2003-01-29

    Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) is a cosmopolitan weed that commonly grows throughout North America. Horseweed that is not completely controlled by normal applications of glyphosate has been reported in western Tennessee. This research had three objectives: (1) to develop and validate an analytical procedure for the quantitative determination of shikimate, an important indicator of glyphosate activity in plants; (2) to confirm resistance to glyphosate in a horseweed population; and (3) to examine the accumulation of shikimate in both glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible horseweed plants. The analytical procedure to determine shikimate used extraction with 1 M HCl for 24 h, followed by liquid chromatography using photodiode array detection, and shikimate recoveries were >or=82%. Glyphosate applications of both 0.84 kg ae/ha (the standard application rate) and 3.8 kg ae/ha to susceptible plants caused complete plant death. The same glyphosate applications to putative resistant populations caused less than 15% growth reduction as determined by visual evaluations, and fresh weights of these resistant plants 17 days after glyphosate treatment (DAT) were reduced an average of 45% in one population and were not affected in a different population. This direct comparison conclusively confirms that horseweed plants collected in western Tennessee in 2002 are resistant to 4 times the normal application dosage of glyphosate. The glyphosate-resistant horseweed biotypes still exhibited some herbicidal effects from the glyphosate, such as yellowing in the most actively growing, apical shoot meristems. The yellowing in the shoot apexes was transitory, and the plants recovered from this damage. Shikimate concentrations in all untreated horseweed plants were less than 100 microg/g, which was significantly less than that in all plants which had been treated with 0.84 kg ae/ha of glyphosate. Unexpectedly, shikimate accumulated (>1000 microg/g) in both resistant populations and

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi facilitate the invasion of Solidago canadensis L. in southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruyi; Zhou, Gang; Zan, Shuting; Guo, Fuyu; Su, Nannan; Li, Jing

    2014-11-01

    The significance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the process of plant invasion is still poorly understood. We hypothesize that invasive plants would change local AMF community structure in a way that would benefit themselves but confer less advantages to native plants, thus influencing the extent of plant interactions. An AMF spore community composed of five morphospecies of Glomus with equal density (initial AMF spore community, I-AMF) was constructed to test this hypothesis. The results showed that the invasive species, Solidago canadensis, significantly increased the relative abundance of G. geosperum and G. etunicatum (altered AMF spore community, A-AMF) compared to G. mosseae, which was a dominant morphospecies in the monoculture of native Kummerowia striata. The shift in AMF spore community composition driven by S. canadensis generated functional variation between I-AMF and A-AMF communities. For example, I-AMF increased biomass and nutrient uptake of K. striata in both monocultures and mixtures of K. striata and S. canadensis compared to A-AMF. In contrast, A-AMF significantly enhanced root nitrogen (N) acquisition of S. canadensis grown in mixture. Moreover, mycorrhizal-mediated 15N uptake provided direct evidence that I-AMF and A-AMF differed in their affinities with native and invading species. The non-significant effect of A-AMF on K. striata did not result from allelopathy as root exudates of S. canadensis exhibited positive effects on seed germination and biomass of K. striata under naturally occurring concentrations. When considered together, we found that A-AMF facilitated the invasion of S. canadensis through decreasing competitiveness of the native plant K. striata. The results supported our hypothesis and can be used to improve our understanding of an ecosystem-based perspective towards exotic plant invasion.

  14. Lead tolerance mechanism in Conyza canadensis: subcellular distribution, ultrastructure, antioxidative defense system, and phytochelatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Zhou, Chuifan; Huang, Meiying; Luo, Jiewen; Hou, Xiaolong; Wu, Pengfei; Ma, Xiangqing

    2016-03-01

    We used hydroponic experiments to examine the effects of different concentrations of lead (Pb) on the performance of the Pb-tolerable plant Conyza canadensis. In these experiments, most of the Pb was accumulated in the roots; there was very little Pb accumulated in stems and leaves. C. canadensis is able to take up significant amounts of Pb whilst greatly restricting its transportation to specific parts of the aboveground biomass. High Pb concentrations inhibited plant growth, increased membrane permeability, elevated antioxidant enzyme activity in roots, and caused a significant increase in root H2O2 and malondialdehyde content. Analysis of Pb content at the subcellular level showed that most Pb was associated with the cell wall fraction, followed by the nucleus-rich fraction, and with a minority present in the mitochondrial and soluble fractions. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis of root cells revealed that the cell wall and intercellular space in C. canadensis roots are the main locations of Pb accumulation. Additionally, high Pb concentrations adversely affected the cellular structure of C. canadensis roots. The increased enzyme activity suggests that the antioxidant system may play an important role in eliminating or alleviating Pb toxicity in C. canadensis roots. However, the levels of non-protein sulfhydryl compounds, glutathione, and phytochelatin did not significantly change in either the roots or leaves under Pb-contaminated treatments. Our results provide strong evidence that cell walls restrict Pb uptake into the root and act as an important barrier protecting root cells, while demonstrating that antioxidant enzyme levels are correlated with Pb exposure. These findings demonstrate the roles played by these detoxification mechanisms in supporting Pb tolerance in C. canadensis.

  15. [The perception of the radiation situation and assessment of their own health status by the population living in an area under strict radiation control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferents, V P; Prilipko, V A; Blizniuk, I D

    1991-01-01

    Studies of subjective perception of the radiation situation, self-estimation of the health status by the population, the attitude of the population to the formal information available were carried out in the strong radiation control areas and in the regions not polluted by radioactive fallout. Before the accident 71.6% of the population were not aware of real danger of radiation for health. During the accident and after it, mass media were the main source of information on the consequences of the accident and the effect of radiation (71.1%). 38% of the information was provided by scientists and specialists. 89.6% of the persons interviewed experience anxiety whatever the intelligence available. Only 13.4% of those who live in the areas polluted by radionuclides feel well. The low self-estimation of the health status, the high level of anxiety together with the deficiency of radiation and hygienic intelligence favour the forcing of the social and psychological tension and reduce the effectiveness of the whole complex of measures carried out in the areas polluted with radionuclides. PMID:1666225

  16. Pacific flyway management plan for the Greater Sandhill Crane population wintering along the Lower Colorado River Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this management plan is to facilitate the cooperative management of the population of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) that winter...

  17. Effects of metal lead on growth and mycorrhizae of an invasive plant species (Solidago canadensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ruyi; YU Guodong; TANG Jianjan; CHEN Xin

    2008-01-01

    It is less known whether and how soil metal lead (Pb) impacts the invasion of exotic plants.A greenhouse experiment was conducted to estimate the effects of lead on the growth and mycorrhizae of an invasive species(Solidago canadensis L.)in a microcosm system. Each microcosm unit was separated into HOST and TEST compartments by a replaceable mesh screen that allowed arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal hyphae rather than plant roots to grow into the TEST compartments.Three Pb levels(control,300,and 600 mg/kg soil)were used in this study to simulate ambient soil and two pollution sites where S. canadensis grows.Mycorrhizal inoculum comprised five indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species (Glomus mosseae,Glomus versiform,Glomus diaphanum,Glomus geosporum,and Glomus etunicatum).The 15N isotope tracer was used to quantify the mycorrhizally mediated nitrogen acquisition of plants.The results showed that S. canadensis was highly dependent on mvcOrrhizae.The Pb additions significantly decreased biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization(root length colonized,RLC%) but did not affect spore numbers,N(including total N and 15N) and P uptake.The facilitating efficiency of mycorrhizae on nutrient acquisition was promoted by Pb treatments.The Pb was mostly sequestered in belowground of plant (root and rhizome).The results suggest that the high efficiency of mycorrhizae on nutrient uptake mightgive S. canadensis a great advantage over native species in Pb polluted softs.

  18. The present situation of echinococcoses in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Budke, C M

    2015-11-01

    This review presents the historical and current situation of echinococcoses in Mongolia. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Mongolia's health surveillance infrastructure has been very poor, especially as it pertains to chronic diseases, including neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). Although there is anecdotal evidence of people dying from hepatic disease due to infection with the larval stage of Echinococcus spp., there are very few published reports. All confirmed cases of echinococcoses in Mongolia are from hospitals located in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar. Cases of cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by either Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto or Echinococcus canadensis are believed to be relatively common throughout Mongolia. In contrast, cases of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, are believed to be rare. Recent wild-animal surveys have revealed that wolves (Canis lupus) are the major definitive hosts of E. canadensis, whereas both wolves and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the primary definitive hosts of E. multilocularis. Although wild-animal surveys have begun to elucidate the transmission of Echinococcus spp. in Mongolia, there have yet to be large-scale studies conducted in domestic dogs and livestock. Therefore, further epidemiological studies, in addition to education-based control campaigns, are needed to help combat this NZD. PMID:26234999

  19. The Floating Population Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Situation%流动人口结核病预防控制现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧君

    2014-01-01

    随着我国社会主义市场经济的不断发展,流动人口数逐年增加,使我国结核病控制又增加了一个难点,特别是耐药结核病、人口流动、艾滋病蔓延和贫穷等因素的影响以及结核病控制效果不佳等因素的影响,使得全球结核病疫情仍很严峻。本文通过对流动人口结核病的流行特点;流动人口结核病预防控制的主要问题:如流动人口肺结核患者治疗管理难度大、流动人口肺结核患者缺乏医防合作和跨区域协作管理、流动人口肺结核患者早期诊断时间延误严重、流动人口结核病防治知识健康教育宣传不够、流动人口是结核菌和艾滋病病毒双重感染的高危人群等;以及流动人口结核病预防控制的主要目的和对策进行分析,为以后有效预防控制结核病在此类人群中蔓延提供依据。%With the development of China's socialist market economy,the floating population has increased year by year,which has added an additional dif icult to TB control in China.Moreover,many factors such as drug resistent TB,floating population,spread of AIDS,poverty and poor quality of TB control make the situation more serious.This study aims to anaylse the objective and policies about TB control through the epidemic characterisics of floating population.There are also many problems in the control to floating population: dif iculties in treatment and management,deficiencies of ef ecitive mechanisms to clinic-prevetion cooperation and trans-regions coopration management,worse delay of early diagnoses,lack of knowledge awareness about TB control and high risk of co-infected by TB and HIV.This objective is to provide estimates about how to control the spreading of TB in floating population.

  20. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis in humans and livestock from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zait, Houria; Kouidri, Mokhtaria; Grenouillet, Florence Elisabeth; Umhang, Gérald; Millon, Laurence; Hamrioui, Boussad; Grenouillet, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In Algeria, previous studies investigated genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in animals and identified E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) genotypes G1 and G3 whereas Echinococcus canadensis genotype G6 was only reported from dromedary cysts. Molecular data on human cystic echinococcosis (CE) were limited. We implemented a large genotyping study of hydatid cysts from humans and livestock animals to specify CE's molecular epidemiology and the genetic diversity in Algeria. Fifty-four human CE cysts from patients predominantly admitted in surgical units from Mustapha Hospital, Algiers, and 16 cysts from livestock animals gathered in two geographically distinct slaughterhouses, Tiaret and Tamanrasset, were collected. Molecular characterization was performed using sequencing of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI). In humans, G1 of E. granulosus s.s. was the main genotype (90.7 %); four samples (7.4 %) were characterized as E. granulosus s.s. G3 and one cyst as E. canadensis G6 (1.8 %). This molecular confirmation of E. canadensis G6 human infection in Algeria was observed in a Tuareg female living in a desertic area in Tamanrasset. All cysts from sheep, cattle, and goat were identified as E. granulosus s.s. G1 and the two cysts originating from dromedary as E. canadensis G6. Twenty concatenated haplotypes (COI + NDI) were characterized. Among E. granulosus s.s., one haplotype (HL1) was highly predominant in both humans and animals cysts (71.6 %). This study revealed main occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. in humans and livestock animals, with description of a predominant shared haplotype corresponding to the main worldwide observed haplotype E.granulosus s.s. G1. E. canadensis G6 was limited to South Algeria, in dromedary as well as in human.

  1. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis in humans and livestock from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zait, Houria; Kouidri, Mokhtaria; Grenouillet, Florence Elisabeth; Umhang, Gérald; Millon, Laurence; Hamrioui, Boussad; Grenouillet, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In Algeria, previous studies investigated genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in animals and identified E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) genotypes G1 and G3 whereas Echinococcus canadensis genotype G6 was only reported from dromedary cysts. Molecular data on human cystic echinococcosis (CE) were limited. We implemented a large genotyping study of hydatid cysts from humans and livestock animals to specify CE's molecular epidemiology and the genetic diversity in Algeria. Fifty-four human CE cysts from patients predominantly admitted in surgical units from Mustapha Hospital, Algiers, and 16 cysts from livestock animals gathered in two geographically distinct slaughterhouses, Tiaret and Tamanrasset, were collected. Molecular characterization was performed using sequencing of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI). In humans, G1 of E. granulosus s.s. was the main genotype (90.7 %); four samples (7.4 %) were characterized as E. granulosus s.s. G3 and one cyst as E. canadensis G6 (1.8 %). This molecular confirmation of E. canadensis G6 human infection in Algeria was observed in a Tuareg female living in a desertic area in Tamanrasset. All cysts from sheep, cattle, and goat were identified as E. granulosus s.s. G1 and the two cysts originating from dromedary as E. canadensis G6. Twenty concatenated haplotypes (COI + NDI) were characterized. Among E. granulosus s.s., one haplotype (HL1) was highly predominant in both humans and animals cysts (71.6 %). This study revealed main occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. in humans and livestock animals, with description of a predominant shared haplotype corresponding to the main worldwide observed haplotype E.granulosus s.s. G1. E. canadensis G6 was limited to South Algeria, in dromedary as well as in human. PMID:27021186

  2. Historic and Current Distributions of River Otters (Lontra canadensis and (Lontra longicaudis in the Río Grande or Río Bravo del Norte Drainage of Colorado and New Mexico, USA and of Chihuahua, Mexico and Adjacent Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Polechla

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Río Grande drainage is an important and imperiled wetland of the US/Mexican border arid lands. There is a desire to restore otter populations in this river by interested parties. In order to follow IUCN guidelines for restoration, biologists need learn more fully the situation prior to implementation of restoration management. A prerequisite for proper restoration conservation is to know the organism’s taxonomy (i.e., what taxa or species and subspecies one is dealing with, distribution, and relative abundance. The historic and current distribution of the Nearctic otter (Lontra canadensis and Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis in the borderlands of US and Mexico are reviewed in this paper. The evidence indicates that otters were native to the Río Grande valley and has been recorded in the languages and customs of Native Americans such as the Pueblo people prior to European settlement of the area. The first Spanish documents we were able to find whereby otters were recorded, date to the middle 16th century. Otters during historical times were probably more numerous than previously thought and one of the first wildlife laws in the borderlands revolved around a moratorium on trapping the otter and beaver. Presently, populations of otters occur in 1 the Río San Pedro of Chihuahua, a tributary of the Río Conchos entering the Río Grande from the southeast, 2 the upper Río Grande near the Colorado/New Mexico border, and 3 the middle Pecos River in southeastern New Mexico entering the Río Grande from the west. These observations are corroborated by multiple observations by competent observers and in the case of the first population, otter photos and sign. These populations are centered on areas with macro-habitats characterized by a river flowing through 1 deep canyons, or 2 ancillary wetlands. Considerable more detailed survey work is needed to determine the full extent of the distribution of otters in the Río Grande drainage. A genetic

  3. ANALYSIS OF HIV EPIDEMIC SITUATION AND IMMIGRANT POPULATION IN SHANDONG%山东省艾滋病疫情与流动人口现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕翠霞; 傅继华; 张晓菲; 董蕾; 苏生利; 钱跃升

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To analysis the HIV epidemic situation and immigrant population in Shandong and provide evidence for controlling the transmission of HIV/AIDS. [Methods] We analyzed the following data with descriptive methods: case reporting data during 1992-2009 and immigrant population data. Statistical analysis of data was performed with the use of SPSS 15.0. [Results] By the end of 2009, 55.6% of the reported HIV/AIDS cases were from other provinces. With the all cases, immigrant women, IDU and MSM accounted for 19.7%, 17.8% and 10.7%, respectively. There were 107 cases who transmitted HIV to their spouses through sexual intercourse, 72 cases were infected through mothers to child transmission of HIV. [Con-Clusion] HIV epidemic among immigrant population cannot be neglected in Shandong province. It is urgent to strengthen intervention measures for HIV/AIDS control and prevention of immigrant population.%[目的]分析山东省艾滋病疫情与流动人口现状,为制定艾滋病防控策略和措施提供依据. [方法]采用SPSS15.0统计软件描述性分析1992~2009年山东省艾滋病疫情报告数据及流动人口资料. [结果]1992~2009年全省报告的艾滋病病毒感染者和艾滋病病人中,户籍地为外省(籍)的病例占报告总数的55.6%.外来妇女、注射吸毒者和男男性行为接触者分别占报告总数的19.7%、17.8%和10.7%,外来妇女感染者的配偶和子女均发现阳性感染者.[结论]流动人口中艾滋病疫情不容忽视,必须采取措施加强流动人口的艾滋病防治.

  4. First molecular evidence of the simultaneous human infection with two species of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato: Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; M'rad, Selim; Ksia, Amine; Lamiri, Rachida; Mekki, Mongi; Nouri, Abdellatif; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a widespread zoonotic parasitic disease especially in Tunisia which is one of the most endemic countries in the Mediterranean area. The etiological agent, Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, implies dogs and other canids as definitive hosts and different herbivore species as intermediate hosts. Human contamination occurs during the consumption of parasite eggs passed in the environment through canid feces. Hydatid cysts coming from a child operated for multiple echinococcosis were collected and analyzed in order to genotype and to obtain some epidemiological molecular information. Three targets, ribosomal DNA ITS1 fragment, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxydase subunit 1 (CO1) genes, were amplified and analyzed by RFLP and sequencing approach. This study presents the first worldwide report in human of a simultaneous infection with Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (genotype G1) and Echinococcus canadensis (genotype G6) species. This is also the first report of the presence of E. canadensis in the Tunisian population which argues in favor of a greater importance of this species in human infestation in Tunisia than previously believed.

  5. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis, Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries, and Goats (Capra hircus in Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries and domestic goat (Capra hircus and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  6. Situated Transgressiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Sullivan, Katie Rose; Rich, Craig

    2016-01-01

    and perceives her trans body and gender identity. In particular, our analysis centres on how Claire's lived experience of personal and professional life shift across three different situated contexts, each enabling and constraining opportunities for political transgression. Our findings contribute to existing......This study investigates the lived experience of one transwoman, Claire, a public advocate and a manager with client services responsibilities. We examine Claire's story in order to discuss how situated contexts, such as different roles, locales and interactions, shape the way she experiences...... conversations within queer theory, transgender and organization studies by highlighting how situated contexts mediate the political potential of queer bodies at work. By developing the concept ‘situated transgressiveness’, this article challenges notions of transgender as a stable, ideal disruptive category...

  7. Situating Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    can participate in the world. We experience a new participatory culture on the go. These developments offer new possibilities for civic engagement in participatory land use planning: to engage people where they are. This dissertation coins the notion of situated engagement, which seeks to ’situate......’ civic engagement activities in those spatial contexts that are at stake in land use planning. This approach enables engagement activities to be better integrated with people’s everyday lived experiences through connecting to the places that are personally meaningful and relevant to them. A ’research...... through design’ approach is applied across four participatory design experiments to explore how to design for situated engagement in land use planning. A notion of a situated engagement infrastructure made up of mobile, stationary, ubiquitous, and remote systems frames the design experiments suggesting...

  8. Situational Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, R A

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that the various theories of economics have the potential to add value when they are applied to the appropriate situation, yet educational institutions each seem overly committed to only a single theory. The resulting intense debates between economists are destructive and should be replaced with attempts to combine multiple theories in situations where they are most appropriate. An econometric example demonstrates that combining the valuable information and relationships in ...

  9. Why does multi-situated ethnography develop new competences for sociological research on the poorest and most excluded populations' health as well as for evidence-based health promotion interventions?

    OpenAIRE

    Lurbe-Puerto, Katia; Baumann, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    When extremely poor and excluded populations are concerned, Multi-Situated Ethnography (MSE) represents a valuable research design for health needs and resources diagnosis* and for the improvement of health promotion programmes. By focusing on the results of our 2-years community-based participatory study on prevention amongst Roma populations living in France**, we will assess the potentials of ethnography-based research for both scientific production and health promotion interventions. M...

  10. The General Situation and Characteristics of Global Population on the Physical Inactivity%全球人口体力活动不足的概况及特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔玉成; 王卫军

    2015-01-01

    Objective :To understand the current worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity and its characteristics ,and provide a reference to relevant departments on the development of pre‐vention and control strategies .Methods :Collecting research reports about physical inactivity published in international journals by WHO in the past 20 years ,this paper horizontally com‐pares the epidemic situation of physical inactivity of different countries and regions ,longitudi‐nally compares the trends of different countries and regions ,and reveals the global situations and characteristics of physical inactivity .Results :Overall incidence rate of physical inactivity for people elder than 15 years old is about 31 .1% globally ,higher in women than men ,higher for adolescents and children than elderly population ,and it is correlated with demographic char‐acteristics such as occupation ,education level ,race/ethnicity ,marital status ,and socioeconomic status .The rate is higher for developed countries than developing countries ,urban than rural areas ,and especially for larger cities in fast‐growing developing countries .Although occupa‐tional ,communication ,and household physical activity are in decline ,they are still a major con‐tributor to the level of physical activity ,and lack of leisure‐time physical activity is the bottle‐neck for improvement of overall physical activity level .Conclusion :Physical inactivity has been prevalent in the world ,and becomes a growing threat to the health of global population .Taking relevant action to slow down and stop it has become a global public health priority .%目的:了解目前全球人口体力活动不足的概况及特征。方法:收集近20年来发表在国内、外期刊和WHO发布的有关体力活动不足的研究报告,横向比较不同国家和地区人口体力活动不足的流行现状,纵向比较不同国家和地区人口体力活动不足的流行趋势,揭示全球体力活动不

  11. Response of Macroarthropod Assemblages to the Loss of Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), a Foundation Species

    OpenAIRE

    Baiser, Benjamin H.; Record, Sydne; Ellison, Aaron M.; Sackett, Tara E.; Bewick, Sharon; Sanders, Nathan J.

    2011-01-01

    In eastern North American forests, eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is a foundation species. As hemlock is lost from forests due to the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) and pre-emptive salvage logging, the structure of assemblages of species associated with hemlock is expected to change. We manipulated hemlock canopy structure at hectare scales to investigate the effects of hemlock death on assemblages of ants, beetles, and spiders in a New England forest. Relative to refere...

  12. Discriminating Tsuga canadensis Hemlock Forest Defoliation Using Remotely Sensed Change Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Royle, D. D.; Lathrop, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    The eastern hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis) is declining in health and vigor in eastern North America due to infestation by an introduced insect, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges isugue). Adelgid feeding activity results in the defoliation of hemlock forest canopy over several years. We investigated the application of Landsat satellite imagery and change-detection techniques to monitor the health of hemlock forest stands in northern New Jersey. We described methods used to correct effects due t...

  13. Detection and Characterization of a Distinct Bornavirus Lineage from Healthy Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Susan; Covaleda, Lina; Jianhua, Guo; Swafford, Seth; Baroch, John; Ferro, Pamela J.; Lupiani, Blanca; Heatley, Jill; Tizard, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV), identified in 2008, infect captive parrots and macaws worldwide. The natural reservoirs of these viruses are unknown. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to screen oropharyngeal/cloacal swab and brain samples from wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) for ABV. Approximately 2.9% of swab samples were positive for bornavirus sequences. Fifty-two percent of brain samples from 2 urban flocks also tested positive, and brain isolates were cultured in duck embryo fi...

  14. Situation Songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolar-Borsky, Agnes; Holck, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    . The findings of the study show that situation songs are regularly used by pediatric music therapists, especially during the work with children at an early developmental age. The various intentions behind the use of situation songs can be summarized as such: to create a therapeutic space; to support...... the therapeutic relationship; to enhance experience and development in the fields of emotion, behavior, expression and social skills; to express messages in language and to give structure to the child. The overall aim behind the use of situation songs is to offer essential experiences to the child in order...... to support his or her development. This study attempts to give an impulse to more international exchange of clinical terms applied in music therapy. The study was submitted as the first author’s master thesis in Music Therapy at the Aalborg University in Denmark. The second author supervised the process...

  15. A microanatomical and histological study of the postcranial dermal skeleton of the Devonian actinopterygian Cheirolepis canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Zylberberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Devonian stem-actinoterygian Cheirolepis canadensis is potentially important to understand the evolution of the dermal skeleton of osteichthyans, but the last detailed histological study on this taxon was published more than forty years ago. Here, we present new data about the morphology and the histological structure of scales, fulcra, and fin-rays in the Devonian actinopterygian Cheirolepis canadensis through SEM and photomicroscopy. The scales have a typical palaeoniscoid organisation, with ganoine layers overlaying dentine and a bony basal plate, but the ganoine surface lacks the characteristic microtubercles that have been described on the ganoine surface of the scales of polypterids and many other actinopterygians. Fin-rays are composed of segmented and ramified lepidotrichia that show a structure reminiscent of scales, with ganoine and dentine components lying on a thick bony base. We describe articular processes between lepidotrichia that are reminiscent of, and plausibly homologous with, the peg-and-socket articulations between the scales. The analysis of the postcranial dermal skeleton of Cheirolepis canadensis shows that structural similarities between scales and lepidotrichia of this basal actinopterygian are greater than in more recent actinopterygians. The new data on histological and microanatomical structure of the dermal skeleton lend additional support to the hypothesis that lepidotichia are derivatives of scales, though they are also compatible with the more general hypothesis that scales, lepidotrichia and fulcra belong to the same morphogenetic system.

  16. Antifreeze proteins in the primary urine of larvae of the beetle Dendroides canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Philip K; Sass, Sandra; Verleye, Dawn; Blumenthal, Edward M; Duman, John G

    2013-05-01

    To avoid freezing while overwintering beneath the bark of fallen trees, Dendroides canadensis (Coleoptera: Pyrochroidae) larvae produce a family of antifreeze proteins (DAFPs) that are transcribed in specific tissues and have specific compartmental fates. DAFPs and associated thermal hysteresis activity (THA) have been shown previously in hemolymph and midgut fluid, but the presence of DAFPs has not been explored in primary urine, a potentially important site that can contain endogenous ice-nucleating compounds that could induce freezing. A maximum mean THA of 2.65±0.33°C was observed in primary urine of winter-collected D. canadensis larvae. THA in primary urine increased significantly through autumn, peaked in the winter and decreased through spring to levels of 0.2-0.3°C in summer, in a pattern similar to that of hemolymph and midgut fluid. THA was also found in hindgut fluid and excreted rectal fluid, suggesting that these larvae not only concentrate AFPs in the hindgut, but also excrete AFPs from the rectal cavity. Based on dafp transcripts isolated from Malpighian tubule epithelia, cDNAs were cloned and sequenced, identifying the presence of transcripts encoding 24 DAFP isoforms. Six of these Malpighian tubule DAFPs were known previously, but 18 are new. We also provide functional evidence that DAFPs can inhibit ice nucleators present in insect primary urine. This is potentially critical because D. canadensis larvae die if frozen, and therefore ice formation in any body fluid, including the urine, would be lethal.

  17. Experiments Are Revealing a Foundation Species: A Case Study of Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M. Ellison

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foundation species are species that create and define particular ecosystems; control in large measure the distribution and abundance of associated flora and fauna; and modulate core ecosystem processes, such as energy flux and biogeochemical cycles. However, whether a particular species plays a foundational role in a system is not simply asserted. Rather, it is a hypothesis to be tested, and such tests are best done with large-scale, long-term manipulative experiments. The utility of such experiments is illustrated through a review of the Harvard Forest Hemlock Removal Experiment (HF-HeRE, a multidecadal, multihectare experiment designed to test the foundational role of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, in eastern North American forests. Experimental removal of T. canadensis has revealed that after 10 years, this species has pronounced, long-term effects on associated flora and fauna, but shorter-term effects on energy flux and nutrient cycles. We hypothesize that on century-long scales, slower changes in soil microbial associates will further alter ecosystem processes in T. canadensis stands. HF-HeRE may indeed continue for >100 years, but at such time scales, episodic disturbances and changes in regional climate and land cover can be expected to interact in novel ways with these forests and their foundation species.

  18. Environmental Conditions Influence Induction of Key ABC-Transporter Genes Affecting Glyphosate Resistance Mechanism in Conyza canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Tani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Conyza canadensis has been reported to be the most frequent weed species that evolved resistance to glyphosate in various parts of the world. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental conditions (temperature and light on the expression levels of the EPSPS gene and two major ABC-transporter genes (M10 and M11 on glyphosate susceptible (GS and glyphosate resistant (GR horseweed populations, collected from several regions across Greece. Real-time PCR was conducted to determine the expression level of the aforementioned genes when glyphosate was applied at normal (1×; 533 g·a.e.·ha−1 and high rates (4×, 8×, measured at an early one day after treatment (DAT and a later stage (four DAT of expression. Plants were exposed to light or dark conditions, at three temperature regimes (8, 25, 35 °C. GR plants were made sensitive when exposed to 8 °C with light; those sensitized plants behaved biochemically (shikimate accumulation and molecularly (expression of EPSPS and ABC-genes like the GS plants. Results from the current study show the direct link between the environmental conditions and the induction level of the above key genes that likely affect the efficiency of the proposed mechanism of glyphosate resistance.

  19. Environmental Conditions Influence Induction of Key ABC-Transporter Genes Affecting Glyphosate Resistance Mechanism in Conyza canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias S; Bilalis, Dimitrios

    2016-04-20

    Conyza canadensis has been reported to be the most frequent weed species that evolved resistance to glyphosate in various parts of the world. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental conditions (temperature and light) on the expression levels of the EPSPS gene and two major ABC-transporter genes (M10 and M11) on glyphosate susceptible (GS) and glyphosate resistant (GR) horseweed populations, collected from several regions across Greece. Real-time PCR was conducted to determine the expression level of the aforementioned genes when glyphosate was applied at normal (1×; 533 g·a.e.·ha(-1)) and high rates (4×, 8×), measured at an early one day after treatment (DAT) and a later stage (four DAT) of expression. Plants were exposed to light or dark conditions, at three temperature regimes (8, 25, 35 °C). GR plants were made sensitive when exposed to 8 °C with light; those sensitized plants behaved biochemically (shikimate accumulation) and molecularly (expression of EPSPS and ABC-genes) like the GS plants. Results from the current study show the direct link between the environmental conditions and the induction level of the above key genes that likely affect the efficiency of the proposed mechanism of glyphosate resistance.

  20. Environmental Conditions Influence Induction of Key ABC-Transporter Genes Affecting Glyphosate Resistance Mechanism in Conyza canadensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias S.; Bilalis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Conyza canadensis has been reported to be the most frequent weed species that evolved resistance to glyphosate in various parts of the world. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental conditions (temperature and light) on the expression levels of the EPSPS gene and two major ABC-transporter genes (M10 and M11) on glyphosate susceptible (GS) and glyphosate resistant (GR) horseweed populations, collected from several regions across Greece. Real-time PCR was conducted to determine the expression level of the aforementioned genes when glyphosate was applied at normal (1×; 533 g·a.e.·ha−1) and high rates (4×, 8×), measured at an early one day after treatment (DAT) and a later stage (four DAT) of expression. Plants were exposed to light or dark conditions, at three temperature regimes (8, 25, 35 °C). GR plants were made sensitive when exposed to 8 °C with light; those sensitized plants behaved biochemically (shikimate accumulation) and molecularly (expression of EPSPS and ABC-genes) like the GS plants. Results from the current study show the direct link between the environmental conditions and the induction level of the above key genes that likely affect the efficiency of the proposed mechanism of glyphosate resistance. PMID:27104532

  1. A complex alloantigen system in Florida sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis pratensis: Evidence for the major histocompatibility (B) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, S.I.; Gee, G.F.; Miller, M.M.; Briles, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    The B blood group system constitutes the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) in birds. The Mhc is a cluster of genes largely devoted to the processing and presentation of antigen. The Mhc is highly polymorphic in many species and, thus, useful in the evaluation of genetic diversity for fitness traits within populations of a variety of animals. Correlations found between particular Mhc haplotypes and resistance to certain diseases emphasize the importance of understanding the functional significance of diversity of the Mhc, particularly in species threatened with extinction. As part of studies focused on genetic diversity in wild birds, serological techniques were used to define a highly polymorphic alloantigen system in seven families of Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis). The results of analyses with antisera produced within the crane families and with chicken Mhc antigen-specific reagents revealed a single major alloantigen system that is likely the Mhc of the Florida sandhill crane. Preliminary experiments indicate that these crane alloantisera will provide a means of defining .the Mhc in other species of cranes.

  2. Environmental Conditions Influence Induction of Key ABC-Transporter Genes Affecting Glyphosate Resistance Mechanism in Conyza canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias S; Bilalis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Conyza canadensis has been reported to be the most frequent weed species that evolved resistance to glyphosate in various parts of the world. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental conditions (temperature and light) on the expression levels of the EPSPS gene and two major ABC-transporter genes (M10 and M11) on glyphosate susceptible (GS) and glyphosate resistant (GR) horseweed populations, collected from several regions across Greece. Real-time PCR was conducted to determine the expression level of the aforementioned genes when glyphosate was applied at normal (1×; 533 g·a.e.·ha(-1)) and high rates (4×, 8×), measured at an early one day after treatment (DAT) and a later stage (four DAT) of expression. Plants were exposed to light or dark conditions, at three temperature regimes (8, 25, 35 °C). GR plants were made sensitive when exposed to 8 °C with light; those sensitized plants behaved biochemically (shikimate accumulation) and molecularly (expression of EPSPS and ABC-genes) like the GS plants. Results from the current study show the direct link between the environmental conditions and the induction level of the above key genes that likely affect the efficiency of the proposed mechanism of glyphosate resistance. PMID:27104532

  3. Emergence phenology of Osmia lignaria subsp. lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), its parasitoid Chrysura kyrae (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae), and bloom of Cercis canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, M E; Favi, F D

    2010-04-01

    Emergence patterns of a natural population of Osmia lignaria subsp. lignaria Say were monitored during a 5-yr period (2003-2007) in relation to air temperature, bloom of eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.), and emergence of the parasitoid Chysura kyrae Krombein. Bee cocoons were placed in gelatin capsules and overwintered within shelters in their natural habitat. Mean emergence of female O. l. lignaria was observed at approximately 2 d after redbud bloom began; mean male emergence was approximately 1 wk earlier than for females and was nearly identical to that of C. kyrae. Horticultural models used to predict budburst for several tree species were evaluated with respect to redbud bloom and O. l. lignaria emergence. Each model indicated that both sexes of the bee and redbud had similar chill unit requirements. Differences in emergence and bloom dates were attributed to the different requirements for growing degree hours (GDHs) after chilling requirements were met. The close phenological relationship observed between eastern redbud and bee emergence suggests an important role for this common understory tree in the early nesting success of O. l. lignaria. PMID:20388263

  4. Situated communication:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    the power of mainstream images of "indian-ness" through a representation of Kumeyaay culture as living in the present San Diego county area of the U.S.  This case demonstrates the connection between ideology about Native Americans and the online responses which assert Kumeyaay identity as situated...

  5. Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Abts, Koenraad; van Kessel, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Populism is a concept applied to a wide range of political movements and actors across the globe. There is, at the same time, considerable confusion about the attributes and manifestation of populism, as well as its impact on democracy. This contribution identifies the defining elements of the populist ideology and discusses the varieties in which populism manifests itself, for instance as a component of certain party families. We finally discuss various normative interpretations of populism,...

  6. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental Brucella abortus challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eNol

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosytransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk

  7. Clinical analysis of anaemia and nutritional situation in the elderly population%老年人贫血及营养状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞爱琳; 卢惠茹; 梁刚; 王小飞

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察分析老年人贫血发生率及营养状况.方法 选择门诊健康查体的离退休老年人2052例,按年龄分为4组,65~69岁(528例)、70~74岁(593例)、75~79岁(423例),≥80岁(508例),检测体质指数(BMI)、血红蛋白(Hb)、红细胞平均体积(MCV)、三酰甘油(TG)、血肌酐(Cr)、血浆白蛋白(ALB)、血清铁蛋白(Fer)等指标,统计贫血发生率及对各营养指标进行分析.结果 (1)老年人贫血发生率为4.4%,其中男性4.0%,女性6.1%,>80岁组为9.5%.Hb<90 g/L者5例,均为80岁以上高龄患者.(2)各年龄组营养相关指标BMI、TG、Cr、ALB、Hb、MCV、Fer差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01),且Hb、ALB在4组间差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01),TG、Cr、MCV在多组间差异也有统计学意义(均P<0.05).(3)经Pearson相关性分析,Hb与TG、ALB、Fer、MCV呈正相关,相关系数r值分别为0.12、0.21、0.11、0.10(均P<0.01).结论 老年人随着年龄增长,贫血发生率逐渐增加,女性多于男性,尤以80岁以上高龄者发生率最高,且营养状况随着年龄增长而逐渐恶化.%Objective To observe the incidence rate of anaemia and analyze the nutritional situation in the elderly population.Methods From April to August 2010,a total of 2052 elderly persons from out-department of Tianjin First Center Hospital were divided into four age groups:65-69years group (n=528),70-74 years group (n=593),75-79 years group (n=423) and 80 years and over group (n= 508).The body mass index (BMI),haemoglobin (Hb),mean corpuscular volume (MCV),triglyceride (TG),creatinine (Cr),serum albumin (ALB) and ferritin (Fer) were tested and evaluated using K-W test.Results (1) Anaemia was found in 90 subjects (4.4 %),4.0% in men and 6.l% in women,9.5% in 80 years and over group.The subjects with Hb level less than 90g/L were all 80 years and over.(2)There were significant differences among the groups in BMI,TG,Cr,ALB,Hb,MCV and Fer levels (all P<0.01).There were significant

  8. Deep situationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matejskova, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    as a Slovak national with immigration experi- ence, a nominal outsider to both the country of research, Germany, and its immigrant subjects, the post-Soviet Russian-speaking migrants. Focusing on the production of time-spaces of proximity as a deeply situational process, I stress in particular the un......- expected bases for convergence with particular subjects. I argue here that the omission of the more elusive experiential and emotional aspects of relationality at the expense of dominant categories of identity, however intersectionally conceived, produces an impoverished conception of insiderness...

  9. Two non-target mechanisms are involved in glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.) biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torralva, Fidel; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Luque de Castro, María D; Mülleder, Norbert; De Prado, Rafael

    2012-11-15

    The physiological and biochemical bases for glyphosate resistance and susceptibility in horseweed (Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.) populations collected from Córdoba, Huelva, Málaga, Jaén and Seville in southern Spain were investigated. Screening 25 populations treated with glyphosate (238gacidequivalentha(-1)) at the rosette stage (BBCH 14-15) revealed reductions in fresh weight (fw) of 9-99%. The resistant biotype (R C004) was 6.1 times more resistant than the susceptible biotype (S). Shikimate accumulation in both biotypes increased until 72h after treatment (HAT), and then continued to increase (to 61.2%) in the S biotype, but decreased by 40% in the R (C004) biotype. Differential glyphosate spray retention and foliar uptake of applied (14)C-glyphosate between the R (C004) and S biotype had no effect on resistance to this herbicide. Quantitative and qualitative tests showed greater (14)C-glyphosate mobility in the S biotype than in the R (C004) biotype. Glyphosate was metabolized faster in the R (C004) biotype than in the S biotype. The herbicide disappeared completely from the R (C004) biotype by conversion into glyoxylate, sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid within 96 HAT. On the other hand, 41.43nmolg(-1)fw of all glyphosate applied remained in the S biotype and glyoxylate was its only non-toxic metabolite. These results suggest that glyphosate resistance in horseweed is due to two different non-target mechanisms, namely: (a) impaired glyphosate translocation and (b) glyphosate metabolism to other compounds.

  10. 对人口安全大势的几点认识%Several Recognitions on the General Situation of Population Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆光宗

    2016-01-01

    Population security is not a traditional definition of security. Chinese population security has already been in a worse trend. The paper discussed both the definition of population security and the relationship between the population security and the national security. The security of population development basically is one of the structural and periodic population security problems. Based on the literature review the paper got several judgments through analyzing the relationship between the population and the environment, resources, society and economics. In the end, the paper pointed out that in order to maintain and improve the population security the principles of people oriented, overall coordination and sustainable development should be emphasized in the coordinating process of population and development. The coordinating process includes six kinds of relationships which are the relationship between the population size and population structure, the relationship between the male and the female population, the relationship between the young and the old population, the relationship between population at present and population in the future, the relationship between family population and society population, the relationship between the population inside the area and outside the area.%人口安全属于非传统安全概念,在我国人口安全已经出现严峻态势。讨论了人口安全概念及其与国家安全的关系。人口自身发展的安全基本上属于结构性、周期性的人口安全问题,基于研究文献梳理了我国人口与资源环境、经济社会的关系,并得出了若干判断。最后指出:维护和促进人口安全需要凸显以人为本、全面协调、可持续发展的原则,在协调人口与发展的过程中需要妥善处理好6组关系。

  11. Understory Vegetation in Old-Growth and Second-Growth Tsuga Canadensis Forests in Western Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    D’Amato, Anthony W.; Orwig, David A.; Foster, David Russell

    2009-01-01

    We compared the understory communities (herbs, shrubs, and tree seedlings and saplings) of old-growth and second-growth eastern hemlock forests (Tsuga canadensis) in western Massachusetts, USA. Second-growth hemlock forests originated following clear-cut logging in the late 1800s and were 108–136 years old at the time of sampling. Old-growth hemlock forests contained total ground cover of herbaceous and shrub species that was approximately 4 times greater than in second-growth forests (4.02 ±...

  12. Detection and characterization of a distinct bornavirus lineage from healthy Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Susan; Covaleda, Lina; Jianhua, Guo; Swafford, Seth; Baroch, John; Ferro, Pamela J; Lupiani, Blanca; Heatley, Jill; Tizard, Ian

    2011-11-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV), identified in 2008, infect captive parrots and macaws worldwide. The natural reservoirs of these viruses are unknown. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to screen oropharyngeal/cloacal swab and brain samples from wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) for ABV. Approximately 2.9% of swab samples were positive for bornavirus sequences. Fifty-two percent of brain samples from 2 urban flocks also tested positive, and brain isolates were cultured in duck embryo fibroblasts. Phylogenetic analyses placed goose isolates in an independent cluster, and more notably, important regulatory sequences present in Borna disease virus but lacking in psittacine ABVs were present in goose isolates. PMID:21900161

  13. Mycotoxin-induced disease in captive whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Carpenter, J.W.; Gee, G.F.; Thomas, N.J.; Dein, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    In 1987, an epizootic in cranes at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA, caused illness in 80% of 300 captive whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and death of 15 of these cranes. Gross pathology findings were inconclusive and consisted of dehydration, atrophy of fat, renal insufficiency, and small spleens. Extensive testing resulted in isolation of Fusarium sp. mold from constituents of the grain-based diet. Low levels of two mycotoxins, T2 (1-2 ppm) and deoxynivalenol (0.4 ppm), were isolated from the pelleted feed.

  14. [Water supply for civilian populations in crisis and post-war situations: example of Mitrovica city (Kosovo) in 1999-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevelde, T

    2002-01-01

    After reviewing the effects of water shortage on sanitation, the author describes minimum water requirement in terms of both quantity and quality during emergency situations and recovery periods. This article also gives general guidelines for water treatment to cover vital needs and provide adequate sanitation to the victimized community. To illustrate his point, the author cites the water management program implemented by the humanitarian action branch of an industrial group in Mitrovica, Kosovo in 1999 and 2000.

  15. Sequential processing of mannose-containing glycans by two α-mannosidases from Solitalea canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang F; Kulinich, Anna; Du, Ya M; Liu, Li; Voglmeir, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Two putative α-mannosidase genes isolated from the rather unexplored soil bacterium Solitalea canadensis were cloned and biochemically characterised. Both recombinant enzymes were highly selective in releasing α-linked mannose but no other sugars. The α-mannosidases were designated Sca2/3Man2693 and Sca6Man4191, and showed the following biochemical properties: the temperature optimum for both enzymes was 37 °C, and their pH optima lay at 5.0 and 5.5, respectively. The activity of Sca2/3Man2693 was found to be dependent on Ca(2+) ions, whereas Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions almost completely inhibited both α-mannosidases. Specificity screens with various substrates revealed that Sca2/3Man2693 could release both α1-2- and α1-3-linked mannose, whereas Sca6Man4191 only released α1-6-linked mannose. The combined enzymatic action of both recombinant α-mannosidases allowed the sequential degradation of high-mannose-type N-glycans. The facile expression and purification procedures in combination with strict substrate specificities make α-mannosidases from S. canadensis promising candidates for bioanalytical applications. PMID:26864077

  16. Herbicidas alternativos para controle de biótipos de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis resistentes ao glyphosate Alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Moreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Após sucessivos anos, aplicações do herbicida glyphosate em pomares de citros no Estado de São Paulo selecionaram biótipos resistentes de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis. Na ocorrência de plantas daninhas resistentes em uma área agrícola, tornam-se necessárias mudanças nas práticas de manejo para obtenção de adequado controle das populações resistentes, bem como para a redução da pressão de seleção sobre outras espécies. Assim, este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar herbicidas alternativos para controle de biótipos de Conyza spp. resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, com aplicações em diferentes estádios fenológicos da planta daninha. Três experimentos foram conduzidos em campo, em pomares de citros em formação, sobre plantas de buva em estádio fenológico de dez folhas e no pré-florescimento. Para plantas no estádio de dez folhas, controle satisfatório foi obtido com aplicações de glyphosate + bromacil + diuron (1.440 + 1.200 + 1.200 g ha-1, glyphosate + atrazina (1.440 + 1.500 g ha-1 e glyphosate + diuron (1.440 + 1.500 g ha-1. Quando em estádio de pré-florescimento de Conyza spp., a aplicação do herbicida amônio-glufosinato, na dose de 400 g ha-1, isolado ou associado a MSMA, bromacil+diuron, metsulfuron, carfentrazone e paraquat, foi a alternativa viável para controle dos biótipos resistentes ao glyphosate.After successive years, glyphosate applications on São Paulo-Brazil citrus orchards selected resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis. The occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes at some agricultural area makes it necessary to change the management practices to reach effective control of the selected resistant populations, as well as to reduce selection pressure on the other species. Thus, this work aimed to identify the alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza spp., with applications at different weed phenological

  17. Allelopathic effects of extracts from Solidago canadensis L.against seed germination and seedling growth of some plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the potential role of allelopathy in plant interference and in the successful invasion of alien species Solidago canadensis, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from rhizomes, stems and leaves of S. canadensis were prepared and used as treatment solutions to assess their effects on seed germination and seedling growth in four target species, mulberry (Morus alba); morning glory (Pharbitis nil), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rape (Brassica campestris). Reduction and/or growth in germination and growth of the target plant species in the presence of both aqueous and ethanolic extracts at different concentrations indicated that the responses were species-specific and concentration-dependent. Generally, ethanolic extracts (especially from leaves) imposed stronger effects on both seed germination and seedling growth. Extracts with lower concentration at 0.001 g/ml dw could stimulate the seedling growth of rape and morning glory, whereas extracts at any given concentrations have inhibitory effects on wheat and mulberry. It is suggested that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of all the three parts ofS. canadensis have significant allelopathic effects. Although both inhibition and stimulation occurred in the germination and growth of the target species, extracts with higher concentrations definitely inhibit seed germination and seedling growth of all target plants. We suggest that allelopathy plays a more important role than other mechanisms do in the out-competition of S. canadensis over other plants, and make it invasive in new habitats.

  18. Elodea canadensis under N and CO2 limitation : Adaptive changes in Rubisco and PEPCase activity in a bicarbonate user

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ginkel, LC; Schutz, [No Value; Prins, HBA

    2000-01-01

    Diffusion of CO2 in water is 10,000 times slower than in air. Because of this photosynthesis in submerged aquatic macrophytes is often limited by CO2 availability. Elodea canadensis shows HCO3- utilization under conditions of CO2 limitation. A closely related species, Hydrilla verticillata, which al

  19. Toxoplasmosis in geese and detection of two new atypical Toxoplasma gondii strains from naturally infected Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat infected with T. gondii is considered an important source of infection in humans. Canada goose (Branta canadensis), the most ...

  20. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from naturally infected Canada goose (Branta canadensis) detected two new atypical strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild birds are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis because they can serve as reservoir hosts, and vectors of zoonotic pathogens including Toxoplasma gondii. Canada goose (Branta canadensis) is the most widespread goose in North America. Little is known concerning T. gondii infection in bo...

  1. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae–free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). On...

  2. [The assessment of the epidemiologic situation of echinococcosis in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug based on data from a dynamic serologic examination of the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageeva, N G

    1989-01-01

    Paper presents the RIHA and EIA data of an annual 3-year survey of populations of two reindeer breeders' settlements in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug of Arkhangelsk Province with the use of intact Echinococcus antigen (RIHA) and fractions of Echinococcus multilocularis antigens (EIA). In 1984-1986, seropositivity has been established by 2 immunoassays for 98 (21.6 +/- 1.9%) out of 454 apparently healthy subjects. The annual Echinococcus invasion rate in population varied within 2.8-3.7%, as estimated by RIHA, and 4.6-4.8%, according to EIA data. The highest invasion rate was observed among the those engaged in reindeer breeding, hunting, animal breeding as well as among the aboriginal populations the Nentsi and the Komi.

  3. Echinococcus canadensis, E. borealis, and E. intermedius. What's in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymbery, Alan J; Jenkins, Emily J; Schurer, Janna M; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the G6, G7, G8, and G10 genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus are well defined, but their taxonomic status is currently unresolved. We apply an evolutionary species concept to infer that the G6 and G7 genotypes represent a single species that is different to both the G8 and G10 genotypes, and that the G8 and G10 genotypes are also on different evolutionary trajectories and, therefore, should be regarded as separate species. The names Echinococcus intermedius, Echinococcus canadensis, and Echinococcus borealis have been previously proposed for these three taxa (G6/7, G10 and G8, respectively) and we argue that it may be appropriate to resurrect these names. The correct delimitation and formal recognition of species of Echinococcus may have important veterinary and public health consequences.

  4. Development of an HPLC post-column antioxidant assay for Solidago canadensis radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marksa, Mindaugas; Radušienė, Jolita; Jakštas, Valdas; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Marksienė, Rūta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to modify and validate the post-column high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ABTS and DPPH methods for evaluating the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of Solidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod) leaves and flowers. Separation of the analytes was performed via the HPLC-PDA method on a YMC analytical column using a gradient elution program. Three compounds with antioxidant properties - chlorogenic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin - and two unidentified antioxidants were established. The research showed that the coil temperature regimes and loop length combinations influence the optimised post-column assay method for detecting the antioxidant activity of goldenrod radical scavengers. Investigations established that the temperature in the reaction coil was a substantial factor contributing to the signal strength of the analytes after reacting with the DPPH and ABTS radicals. PMID:25835071

  5. Antifungal Activity and Composition of Essential Oils of Conyza canadensis Herbs and Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Veres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from herbs and roots of Conyza canadensis (horseweed, collected in Hungary, were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical compositions of the oils were analysed by combination of GC and GC/MS. The major constituent of the oil obtained from the aerial parts of horseweed was limonene (78%, while the main component of root oil was 2Z,8Z-matricaria ester. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were tested on Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes, Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria, reference fungal strains, and fungal strains isolated from patients (Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichophyton, Rhodotorula, and Aspergillus by agar disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. None of the oils showed any activity against the tested bacterial strains, but exhibited moderate-to-strong activity against all fungi with the only exception of A. fumigatus. The highest zone of inhibition was observed in case of Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichophyton interdigitalis

  6. Echinococcus canadensis (G7) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in swine of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D U; Botton, S A; Tonin, A A; Azevedo, M I; Graichen, D A S; Noal, C B; de la Rue, M L

    2014-05-28

    The cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus spp. In Brazil, this parasite is present in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, border with Argentina and Uruguay, causing several damages to human and animal health. This study aimed to identify Echinococcus spp. in hydatid cysts of swine and evaluate the similarity of the genotypes through the phylogenetic analysis. A total of 3,101,992 swine were slaughtered in the central/northern region of RS/Brazil, during 2008-2012. Five isolates were characterized as hydatid cyst by molecular analysis, based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-I). The genotypes E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) (n=3) were identified in the hydatid cysts. The swine represents a potential intermediate host for different genotypes of Echinococcus spp., besides it can contribute to the perpetuation of the parasite's life cycle in rural areas.

  7. Plague as a mortality factor in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) reintroduced to Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Margaret A; Shenk, Tanya M; Spraker, Terry R

    2006-07-01

    As part of a species recovery program, 129 Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) originating from British Columbia, the Yukon, Manitoba, and Quebec, Canada, and Alaska, USA, were reintroduced to southwestern Colorado, USA, from 1999 to 2003. Of 52 lynx mortalities documented by October 2003, six lynx, including a female and her 5-mo-old kitten, had evidence of Yersinia pestis infection as determined by fluorescent antibody test and/or culture. Postmortem findings in these lynx were characterized by pneumonia, ranging from acute suppurative pneumonia, to multifocal necrotizing pneumonia, to fibrinous bronchopneumonia. Histopathologic examination of lung revealed multiple areas of inflammation and consolidation, areas of edema and hemorrhage, and bacteria surrounded by extensive inflammation. Spleens had severe lymphoid depletion and hypocellular red pulp. Lymphadenomegaly was observed in only one plague-affected lynx. We hypothesize that these Canada lynx were exposed to Y. pestis by infected prey, and these are the first reports of plague in this species. PMID:17092896

  8. Researches concerning the situation of reproductive isolation and relatedness with immigrants of Furioso North Star population from Beclean pe Somes stud farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Lapuste

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive isolation is the main criteria for approval of populations. Creates the potential compliance and fulfillment of other criteria: morphological and physiological differentiation, differentiation of the requirements for the environment and the effective size. Thus, the main taxonomic differences are a consequence of reproductive isolation. Biological material used is represented by the entire livestock of the stud farm Beclean pe Someş (transferred in October of 2011 from the Slatina stud farm, belonging to the Furioso-North Star (and not just evidence of it, existing at the time of analysis (30.11.2011. To determine the reproductive isolation status, have used the coefficient of reproductive isolation presented by Drăgănescu (1979. To determine the average relatedness, have used The Numerator Relationship Matrix method, proposed by Henderson and Cunningham in 1971 and presented for the first time in Romania by Grosu in 1997. Results reflect the existence of a population with its own evolutionary way that has not suffered massive and systematic immigration.

  9. The Relationship Between Maternal Awareness, Socioeconomic Situation of Families and Metabolic Control in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Miletus in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheilipour

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is one of the most common chronic pediatric conditions, with potentially life-threatening sequels. However, good metabolic control can protect the patients against sequels. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between awareness of the mothers about this disease on improving diabetic children metabolic control and also, to examine the relationship between socioeconomic situations of families and control of diabetes in this group of patients. Patients and Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive analytic study on 80 diabetic children and their mothers, who were registered in the diabetes association of Iran, for outpatient control of disease. Diabetes knowledge was measured by Michigan diabetes knowledge test and glycemic control was assessed by glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. To assess the socio-economic status of a diabetic child’s family, educational level, occupational and marital status of parents were asked and the socioeconomic status (SES was evaluated with Hollingshed four-factor index of SES. Results Mothers’ mean knowledge score was 17.72, children’s mean HbA1c was 7.77 and mean of SES was 27.89. There was no significant correlation between children’s HbA1c and mother’s SES. Also, there was an inverse linear relationship between mothers’ knowledge score and children’s HbA1c and there was a direct linear relationship between the mothers’ knowledge score and SES. Conclusions Finally, based on the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that the awareness of mothers of T1DM children has a good impact on blood sugar control, whereas the SES of families has no direct effect on blood sugar control. Additionally, SES can indirectly impact on the consciousness of mothers and lead to the reduction of HbA1c.

  10. 加拿大一枝黄花的防控措施%Controlling Measures of Solidago canadensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查国贤; 张国彪; 徐建方; 郝建华

    2011-01-01

    The measure of Solidago canadensis artificial removal should be combined with that of chemical control in spring. The tillage cropping was an effective and economic measure to control the regeneration of Solidago canadensis. Application of glyphosate plus sulfonylurea herbicide during whole growth season was efficient to control the ground part and the underground rhizome of S. Canadensis, but which can not be applied in cultivated lands. NJW001, which is developed by Weeds Research Laboratory of Nanjing Agricultural University can obviously suppress florescence development and flower bud opening, as well as the S. Canadensis plant growth.%加拿大一枝黄花人工拔除需与春季化除结合起来配套实施.耕翻复种是一项经济有效的防除措施,可有效控制加拿大一枝黄花再生.草甘膦+磺酰脲类除草剂在加拿大一枝黄花生长期内使用,对地上部分和地下根状茎都有很好的杀伤效果,但需注意的是,这类除草剂仅限在非耕地使用.南京农业大学杂草研究室研制的NJW001抑制剂能明显抑制加拿大一枝黄花花序的伸展和花蕾的开放,同时对株高也有明显的抑制作用.

  11. Long live the wasp: adult longevity in captive colonies of the eusocial paper wasp Polistes canadensis (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southon, Robin J; Bell, Emily F; Graystock, Peter; Sumner, Seirian

    2015-01-01

    Insects have been used as an exemplary model in studying longevity, from extrinsic mortality pressures to intrinsic senescence. In the highly eusocial insects, great degrees of variation in lifespan exist between morphological castes in relation to extreme divisions of labour, but of particular interest are the primitively eusocial insects. These species represent the ancestral beginnings of eusociality, in which castes are flexible and based on behaviour rather than morphology. Here we present data on the longevity of the primitively eusocial Neotropical paper wasp P. canadensis, in a captive setting removed of environmental hazards. Captive Polistes canadensis had an average lifespan of 193 ± 10.5 days; although this average is shorter than most bee and ant queens, one individual lived for 506 days in the lab-longer than most recorded wasps and bees. Natal colony variation in longevity does exist between P. canadensis colonies, possibly due to nutritional and genetic factors. This study provides a foundation for future investigations on the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on longevity in primitively eusocial insects, as well as the relationship with natal group and cohort size. PMID:25825677

  12. Situated affective and social neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Ibanez, Agustin; Kotz, Sonja A.; Barrett, Louise; Moll, Jorge; Ruz, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This Research Topic features several papers tapping the situated nature of emotion and social cognition processes. The volume covers a broad scope of methodologies [behavioral assessment, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), structural neuroimaging, event-related potentials (ERPs), brain connectivity, and peripheral measures], populations (non-human animals, neurotypical participants, developmental studies, and neuropsychiatric and pathological conditions), and article types (origina...

  13. Mass Spectrometry and Antibody-Based Characterization of Blood Vessels from Brachylophosaurus canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Timothy P; Schroeter, Elena R; Zamdborg, Leonid; Zheng, Wenxia; Lee, Ji Eun; Tran, John C; Bern, Marshall; Duncan, Michael B; Lebleu, Valerie S; Ahlf, Dorothy R; Thomas, Paul M; Kalluri, Raghu; Kelleher, Neil L; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2015-12-01

    Structures similar to blood vessels in location, morphology, flexibility, and transparency have been recovered after demineralization of multiple dinosaur cortical bone fragments from multiple specimens, some of which are as old as 80 Ma. These structures were hypothesized to be either endogenous to the bone (i.e., of vascular origin) or the result of biofilm colonizing the empty osteonal network after degradation of original organic components. Here, we test the hypothesis that these structures are endogenous and thus retain proteins in common with extant archosaur blood vessels that can be detected with high-resolution mass spectrometry and confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two lines of evidence support this hypothesis. First, peptide sequencing of Brachylophosaurus canadensis blood vessel extracts is consistent with peptides comprising extant archosaurian blood vessels and is not consistent with a bacterial, cellular slime mold, or fungal origin. Second, proteins identified by mass spectrometry can be localized to the tissues using antibodies specific to these proteins, validating their identity. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001738. PMID:26595531

  14. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) from three areas in western North America; initial results and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Erica H; Adams, Jennifer R.; Waits, Lisette P.; Fuller, Mark R.; Whittington, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles. Our results indicate high genetic diversity, low genetic structure and high connectivity. Nuclear DNA Fst values between Idaho and California were low but significantly different from zero (0.026). Bayesian clustering methods indicated a single population, and we were unable to distinguish summer breeding residents from different regions. Results of the mtDNA AMOVA showed that most of the haplotype variation (97%) was within the geographic populations while 3% variation was partitioned among them. One haplotype was common to all three areas. One region-specific haplotype was detected in California and one in Idaho, but additional sampling is required to determine if these haplotypes are unique to those geographic areas or a sampling artifact. We discuss potential sources of the high gene flow for this species including natal and breeding dispersal, floaters, and changes in migratory behavior as a result of environmental factors such as climate change and habitat alteration. Our preliminary findings can help inform the USFWS in development of golden eagle management strategies and provide a basis for additional research into the complex dynamics of the North American subspecies.

  15. Efficacy of two canine distemper vaccines in wild Nearctic river otters (Lontra canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Steven T; Peper, Randall L; Kollias, George V; Brooks, Robert P; Stevens, Sadie S; Serfass, Thomas L

    2014-09-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a contagious morbillivirus, infects families in the order Carnivora, including Nearctic river otters (Lontra canadensis). As a preventative measure, vaccinations against CDV are frequently given to mustelids in captive environments. The Pennsylvania River Otter Reintroduction Project (PRORP) used wild-caught river otters to evaluate the efficacy and need for vaccinations against CDV as part of any reintroduction project. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate the prevalence of exposure to CDV in wild river otters, 2) determine the immunologic response of river otters (i.e., seroconversion) after vaccination with a single (primary) vaccine dose compared to a second (booster) dose of Galaxy-D, a modified live-virus canine distemper (CD) vaccine (MLV CDV), and 3) determine the immunologic response after being vaccinated with a primary vaccination compared to a booster dose of Fervac-D, an MLV CDV. River otters were injected subcutaneously in the nape of the neck with their designated vaccine. Timeframes for collection of blood samples and/or injection of booster vaccines varied depending on the parameters of PRORP. Ten of the 22 river otters had positive prevaccination titer levels to CD. Both vaccines, Galaxy-D and Fervac-D, produced sufficient seroconversion or rise of titer levels (86% and 57%, respectively) to recommend the use of vaccines in wild river otters. Future studies are recommended to evaluate currently produced CD vaccines. Future research should also focus on the number of days required between administration of primary and booster vaccines to achieve sufficient immune response. If only a primary dose is required, then hard-release reintroduction projects for river otters could be recommended. If primary and booster vaccines are required then soft-release reintroduction projects should be recommended. Soft-release projects should include captive management periods that allow for appropriate vaccination intervals

  16. Developmental toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment in Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Heinz, Gary H.; Sileo, Louis; Audet, Daniel J.; Campbell, Juile K.; Obrecht, Holly H.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion has recently been identified as an important exposure route for toxicants in waterfowl. The effects of lead-contaminated sediment from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho on posthatching development of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) were examined for 6 wk. Day-old goslings received either untreated control diet, clean sediment (48%) supplemented control diet, or CDARB sediment (3449 mug/g lead) supplemented diets at 12%, 24%, or 48%. The 12% CDARB diet resulted in a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 0.68 ppm (ww), with over 90% depression of red blood cell ALAD activity and over fourfold elevation of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration. The 24% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 1.61 ppm with decreased hematocrit, hemoglobin, and plasma protein in addition to the effects just described. The 48% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 2.52 ppm with 22% mortality, decreased growth, and elevated plasma lactate dehydrogenase-L (LDH-L) activity. In this group the liver lead concentration was 6.57 ppm (ww), with twofold increases in hepatic lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS) and in reduced glutathione concentration; associated effects included elevated glutathione reductase activity but lower protein-bound thiols concentration and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) activity. The kidney lead concentration in this group was 14.93 ppm with subacute renal tubular nephrosis in one of the surviving goslings. Three other geese in this treatment group exhibited calcified areas of marrow, and one of these displayed severe chronic fibrosing pancreatitis. Lead from CDARB sediment accumulated less readily in gosling blood and tissues than reported in ducklings but at given concentrations was generally more toxic to goslings. Many of these effects were similar to those reported in wild geese and mallards within the Coeur d'Alene River Basin.

  17. Juvenile hormone, reproduction, and worker behavior in the neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giray, Tugrul; Giovanetti, Manuela; West-Eberhard, Mary Jane

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of the division of labor in colonies of eusocial Hymenoptera (wasps and bees) have led to two hypotheses regarding the evolution of juvenile hormone (JH) involvement. The novel- or single-function hypothesis proposes that the role of JH has changed from an exclusively reproductive function in primitively eusocial species (those lacking morphologically distinct queen and worker castes), to an exclusively behavioral function in highly eusocial societies (those containing morphologically distinct castes). In contrast, the split-function hypothesis proposes that JH originally functioned in the regulation of both reproduction and behavior in ancestral solitary species. Then, when reproductive and brood-care tasks came to be divided between queens and workers, the effects of JH were divided as well, with JH involved in regulation of reproductive maturation of egg-laying queens, and behavioral maturation, manifested as age-correlated changes in worker tasks, of workers. We report experiments designed to test these hypotheses. After documenting age-correlated changes in worker behavior (age polyethism) in the neotropical primitively eusocial wasp Polistes canadensis, we demonstrate that experimental application of the JH analog methoprene accelerates the onset of guarding behavior, an age-correlated task, and increases the number of foraging females; and we demonstrate that JH titers correlate with both ovarian development of queens and task differentiation in workers, as predicted by the split-function hypothesis. These findings support a view of social insect evolution that sees the contrasting worker and queen phenotypes as derived via decoupling of reproductive and brood-care components of the ancestral solitary reproductive physiology. PMID:15728373

  18. Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the North American Beaver (Castor canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruninger, Robert J.; McAllister, Tim A.; Forster, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The North American Beaver (Castor canadensis) is the second largest living rodent and an iconic symbol of Canada. The beaver is a semi-aquatic browser whose diet consists of lignocellulose from a variety of plants. The beaver is a hindgut fermenter and has an enlarged ceacum that houses a complex microbiome. There have been few studies examining the microbial diversity in gastrointestinal tract of hindgut fermenting herbivores. To examine the bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of the beaver, the microbiome of the ceacum and feaces was examined using culture-independent methods. DNA from the microbial community of the ceacum and feaces of 4 adult beavers was extracted, and the16S rRNA gene was sequenced using either bacterial or archaeal specific primers. A total of 1447 and 1435 unique bacterial OTUs were sequenced from the ceacum and feaces, respectively. On average, the majority of OTUs within the ceacum were classified as Bacteroidetes (49.2%) and Firmicutes (47.6%). The feaces was also dominated by OTUs from Bacteroidetes (36.8%) and Firmicutes (58.9%). The composition of bacterial community was not significantly different among animals. The composition of the ceacal and feacal microbiome differed, but this difference is due to changes in the abundance of closely related OTUs, not because of major differences in the taxonomic composition of the communities. Within these communities, known degraders of lignocellulose were identified. In contrast, to the bacterial microbiome, the archaeal community was dominated by a single species of methanogen, Methanosphaera stadtmanae. The data presented here provide the first insight into the microbial community within the hindgut of the beaver. PMID:27227334

  19. About Stressful Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... situation for you right now? It can help to write down your thoughts. For example: My family just ... you feel, given your situation. It can help to write down your feelings, too. For example: I feel ...

  20. Situated Entrepreneurial Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dew, Nicholas; Grichnik, Dietmar; Mayer-Haug, Katrin; Read, Stuart; Brinckmann, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijmr.12051 This paper reviews and integrates research from both within and outside the entrepreneurship field under the label of ‘situated cognition’. Situated cognition is the notion that cognitive activity inherently involves perception and action in the context of a human body situated in a real-world environment. The review concentrates on three areas of the situated cognition literature that hav...

  1. Challenging Fieldwork Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Thomas; Østergaard Steenfeldt, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    situations, the authors withdrew physically or mentally from the situation without wanting to do so, feeling emotionally affected by the uncertainty of the situations, not fully grasping the meaning of what was going on. In a strange way they felt awkwardly detached from their research activities...

  2. Research Progress of Chemical Compositions and Pharmacological Actions of Mentha canadensis%薄荷化学成分与药理作用研究新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈梅芳; 李小萌; 单琪媛

    2012-01-01

    Through searching literatures about Mentha canadensis at home and abroad in recent years,it is to summarize the chemical compositions,pharmacological actions and modern application in clinic, providing theory foundation for further developing of Mentha canadensis.%通过对薄荷在近几年国内外化学研究、药理作用方面相关文献的查阅,以及现代临床应用等方面的研究情况进行了总结,为进一步合理开发利用薄荷提供理论依据.

  3. Resistência ao glyphosate em biótipos de Conyza bonariensis e Conyza canadensis no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Resistance to glyphosate in Conyza bonariensis and Conyza canadensis biotypes in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Lamego

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos de curva de dose-resposta foram conduzidos para avaliar a ocorrência de resistência ao glyphosate em biótipos de Conyza canadensis e Conyza bonariensis oriundos de municípios do Rio Grande do Sul. Para cada espécie foi realizado um experimento com dois biótipos um suscetível e outro com suspeita de resistência. Glyphosate nas doses de 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 800 e 1.200 g ha-1 foi aplicado em plantas no estádio de 8-10 folhas. Curvas sigmoidais foram ajustadas para todos os biótipos testados. Confirmou-se a resistência ao glyphosate em biótipos de ambas as espécies, com fator de resistência em torno de 2,3.Dose-response experiments were conducted to evaluate the occurrence of resistance to glyphosate in Conyza canadensis and Conyza bonariensis biotypes originated from Rio Grande do Sul counties. For each species, one experiment was conducted with two biotypes, one susceptible and one suspected of resistance. Glyphosate rates of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 800 and 1200 g ha-1 were sprayed on the plants after reaching the 8-10 leaf growth stage. Sigmoidal curves were adjusted to each biotype tested. Resistance to glyphosate was confirmed for biotypes of both species with resistance factor of 2.3.

  4. Assessing Operational Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin

    different perspectives on situation awareness in the human factor studies and uses the knowledge reflectively for system representation and analysis. The human cognitive activities during complex plant operation and how they perceive a situation and what kind of knowledge has to be established in the human...... operators to perceive and understand the operational situation. The research domain of situation awareness approaches the operational challenges from the human cognition perspective while the presented thesis aims at supporting situation assessment from the system perspective. The thesis has reviewed...... mental model for the operators to be aware of the situations has motivated the utilization of functional representation in system level of situation assessment. The thesis has summarized the MFM syntax and provides detail instructions of how to model by using the modeling technique. A PWR primary system...

  5. Substrate-Driven Convergence of the Microbial Community in Lignocellulose-Amended Enrichments of Gut Microflora from the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American Moose (Alces americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mabel T; Wang, Weijun; Lacourt, Michael; Couturier, Marie; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Master, Emma R

    2016-01-01

    Strategic enrichment of microcosms derived from wood foragers can facilitate the discovery of key microbes that produce enzymes for the bioconversion of plant fiber (i.e., lignocellulose) into valuable chemicals and energy. In this study, lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms from the digestive systems of Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American moose (Alces americanus) were enriched under methanogenic conditions for over 3 years using various wood-derived substrates, including (i) cellulose (C), (ii) cellulose + lignosulphonate (CL), (iii) cellulose + tannic acid (CT), and (iv) poplar hydrolysate (PH). Substantial improvement in the conversion of amended organic substrates into biogas was observed in both beaver dropping and moose rumen enrichment cultures over the enrichment phases (up to 0.36-0.68 ml biogas/mg COD added), except for enrichments amended with tannic acid where conversion was approximately 0.15 ml biogas/mg COD added. Multiplex-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed systematic shifts in the population of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi, and Elusimicrobia in response to the enrichment. These shifts were predominantly substrate driven, not inoculum driven, as revealed by both UPGMA clustering pattern and OTU distribution. Additionally, the relative abundance of multiple OTUs from poorly defined taxonomic lineages increased from less than 1% to 25-50% in microcosms amended with lignocellulosic substrates, including OTUs from classes SJA-28, Endomicrobia, orders Bacteroidales, OPB54, and family Lachnospiraceae. This study provides the first direct comparison of shifts in microbial communities that occurred in different environmental samples in response to multiple relevant lignocellulosic carbon sources, and demonstrates the potential of enrichment to increase the abundance of key lignocellulolytic microorganisms and encoded activities. PMID:27446004

  6. Substrate-driven convergence of the microbial community in lignocellulose-amended enrichments of gut microflora from the Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis and North American moose (Alces americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Ting eWong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Strategic enrichment of microcosms derived from wood foragers can facilitate the discovery of key microbes that produce enzymes for the bioconversion of plant fibre (i.e. lignocellulose into valuable chemicals and energy. In this study, lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms from the digestive systems of Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis and North American moose (Alces americanus were enriched under methanogenic conditions for over three years using various wood-derived substrates, including i cellulose (C, ii cellulose + lignosulphonate (CL, iii cellulose + tannic acid (CT, and iv poplar hydrolysate (PH. Substantial improvement in the conversion of amended organic substrates to biogas was observed in both beaver dropping and moose rumen enrichment cultures over the enrichment phases (up to 0.36 to 0.68 ml biogas/ mg COD added, except for enrichments amended with tannic acid where conversion was only about 0.15 ml biogas/ mg COD added. Multiplex-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed systematic shifts in the population of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi and Elusimicrobia in response to the enrichment. These shifts were predominantly substrate-driven, not inoculum driven, as revealed by both UPGMA clustering pattern and OTU distribution. Additionally, the relative abundance of multiple OTUs from poorly-defined taxonomic lineages increased from less than 1% to 25-50% in microcosms amended with lignocellulosic substrates, including OTUs from classes SJA-28, Endomicrobia, orders Bacteroidales, OPB54 and family Lachnospiraceae. This study provides the first direct comparison of shifts in microbial communities that occurred in different environmental samples in response to multiple relevant lignocellulosic carbon sources, and demonstrates the potential of enrichment to increase the abundance of key lignocellulolytic microorganisms and encoded activities.

  7. Substrate-Driven Convergence of the Microbial Community in Lignocellulose-Amended Enrichments of Gut Microflora from the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American Moose (Alces americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mabel T.; Wang, Weijun; Lacourt, Michael; Couturier, Marie; Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Master, Emma R.

    2016-01-01

    Strategic enrichment of microcosms derived from wood foragers can facilitate the discovery of key microbes that produce enzymes for the bioconversion of plant fiber (i.e., lignocellulose) into valuable chemicals and energy. In this study, lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms from the digestive systems of Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American moose (Alces americanus) were enriched under methanogenic conditions for over 3 years using various wood-derived substrates, including (i) cellulose (C), (ii) cellulose + lignosulphonate (CL), (iii) cellulose + tannic acid (CT), and (iv) poplar hydrolysate (PH). Substantial improvement in the conversion of amended organic substrates into biogas was observed in both beaver dropping and moose rumen enrichment cultures over the enrichment phases (up to 0.36–0.68 ml biogas/mg COD added), except for enrichments amended with tannic acid where conversion was approximately 0.15 ml biogas/mg COD added. Multiplex-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed systematic shifts in the population of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi, and Elusimicrobia in response to the enrichment. These shifts were predominantly substrate driven, not inoculum driven, as revealed by both UPGMA clustering pattern and OTU distribution. Additionally, the relative abundance of multiple OTUs from poorly defined taxonomic lineages increased from less than 1% to 25–50% in microcosms amended with lignocellulosic substrates, including OTUs from classes SJA-28, Endomicrobia, orders Bacteroidales, OPB54, and family Lachnospiraceae. This study provides the first direct comparison of shifts in microbial communities that occurred in different environmental samples in response to multiple relevant lignocellulosic carbon sources, and demonstrates the potential of enrichment to increase the abundance of key lignocellulolytic microorganisms and encoded activities.

  8. PCR assay detects Mannheimia haemolytica in culture-negative pneumonic lung tissues of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) from outbreaks in the western USA, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Goldy, Andrea; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Subramaniam, Renuka; Batra, Sai Arun; Kugadas, Abirami; Raghavan, Bindu; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica E; Killion, Halcyon J; Edwards, William H; Ramsey, Jennifer M; Anderson, Neil J; Wolff, Peregrine L; Mansfield, Kristin; Bruning, Darren; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica consistently causes severe bronchopneumonia and rapid death of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) under experimental conditions. However, Bibersteinia trehalosi and Pasteurella multocida have been isolated from pneumonic bighorn lung tissues more frequently than M. haemolytica by culture-based methods. We hypothesized that assays more sensitive than culture would detect M. haemolytica in pneumonic lung tissues more accurately. Therefore, our first objective was to develop a PCR assay specific for M. haemolytica and use it to determine if this organism was present in the pneumonic lungs of bighorns during the 2009-2010 outbreaks in Montana, Nevada, and Washington, USA. Mannheimia haemolytica was detected by the species-specific PCR assay in 77% of archived pneumonic lung tissues that were negative by culture. Leukotoxin-negative M. haemolytica does not cause fatal pneumonia in bighorns. Therefore, our second objective was to determine if the leukotoxin gene was also present in the lung tissues as a means of determining the leukotoxicity of M. haemolytica that were present in the lungs. The leukotoxin-specific PCR assay detected leukotoxin gene in 91% of lung tissues that were negative for M. haemolytica by culture. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, an organism associated with bighorn pneumonia, was detected in 65% of pneumonic bighorn lung tissues by PCR or culture. A PCR assessment of distribution of these pathogens in the nasopharynx of healthy bighorns from populations that did not experience an all-age die-off in the past 20 yr revealed that M. ovipneumoniae was present in 31% of the animals whereas leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica was present in only 4%. Taken together, these results indicate that culture-based methods are not reliable for detection of M. haemolytica and that leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica was a predominant etiologic agent of the pneumonia outbreaks of 2009-2010.

  9. Short-term effects of carbon dioxide on carnation callus cell respiration. [Dianthus Caryophyllus L. ; Elodea canadensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palet, A.; Ribas-Carbo, M.; Argiles, J.M.; Azcon-Bieto, J. (Univ. de Barcelona (Spain))

    1991-06-01

    The addition of potassium bicarbonate to the electrode cuvette immediately stimulated the rate of dark O{sub 2} uptake of photomixotrophic and heterotrophic carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) callus, of Elodea canadensis (Minchx) leaves, and of other plant tissues. This phenomenon occurred at pH values lower than 7.2 to 7.8, and the stimulation depended on the concentration of gaseous CO{sub 2} in the solution. These stimulatory responses lasted several minutes and then decreased, but additional bicarbonate or gaseous CO{sub 2} again stimulated respiration, suggesting a reversible effect. Carbonic anhydrase in the solution increased the stimulatory effect of potassium bicarbonate. The CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate dependent stimulation of respiration did not occur in animal tissues such as rat diaphragm and isolated hepatocytes, and was inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid in carnation callus cells and E. canadensis leaves. This suggested that the alternative oxidase was engaged during the stimulation in plant tissues. The cytochrome pathway was severely inhibited by CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate either in the absence or in the presence of the uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase of callus tissue homogenates was also inhibited by CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate. The results suggested that high carbon dioxide levels (mainly free CO{sub 2}) partially inhibited the cytochrome pathway (apparently at the oxidase level), and this block in electron transport elicited a large transient engagement of the alternative oxidase when present uninhibited.

  10. Toxicity and hazard of vanadium to mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; McKernan, M.A.; Eisenreich, K.M.; Link, W.A.; Olsen, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Knowles, K.A.; McGowan, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    A recent Canada goose (Branta canadensis) die-off at a petroleum refinery fly ash pond in Delaware was attributed to vanadium (V) toxicity. Because of the paucity of V toxicity data for wild birds, a series of studies was undertaken using the forms of V believed to have resulted in this incident. In 7-d single oral dose trials with mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos), the estimated median lethal dose (LD50) for vanadium pentoxide was 113 mg/kg body weight, while the LD50 for sodium metavanadate was 75.5 mg/kg. Sodium metavanadate was found to be even more potent (LD50 = 37.2 mg/kg) in male Canada geese. The most distinctive histopathological lesion of both forms of V was Iympho-granulocytic enteritis with hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen. Vanadium accumulation in liver and kidney was proportional to the administered dose, and predictive analyses based on these data suggest that V concentrations of 10 :g/g dry weight (dw) in liver and 25 ug/g dw in kidney are associated with mortality (>90% confidence that exposure is >LD50) in mallards acutely exposed to sodium metavanadate. Chronic exposure to increasing dietary concentrations of sodium metavanadate (38.5 to 2651 ppm) over 67 d resulted in V accumulation in liver and kidney (25.2 and 13.6 ug/g dw, respectively), mild intestinal hemorrhage, blood chemistry changes, and evidence of hepatic oxidative stress in mallards, although some of these responses may have been confounded by food avoidance and weight loss. Dietary exposure of mallards to 250 ppm sodium metavanadate for 4 wk resulted in modest accumulation of V in liver and kidney <5 ug/g dw) and mild intestinal hemorrhage. Based on these data and other observations, it is unlikely that chronic low-level dietary exposure to V poses a direct lethal hazard to wildlife. However, point sources, such as the V-laden fly ash pond encountered by geese at the petroleum refinery in Delaware, may pose a significant hazard to water birds.

  11. An individual-based modelling approach to estimate landscape connectivity for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Corrie H; Parrott, Lael; Kyle, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background. Preserving connectivity, or the ability of a landscape to support species movement, is among the most commonly recommended strategies to reduce the negative effects of climate change and human land use development on species. Connectivity analyses have traditionally used a corridor-based approach and rely heavily on least cost path modeling and circuit theory to delineate corridors. Individual-based models are gaining popularity as a potentially more ecologically realistic method of estimating landscape connectivity. However, this remains a relatively unexplored approach. We sought to explore the utility of a simple, individual-based model as a land-use management support tool in identifying and implementing landscape connectivity. Methods. We created an individual-based model of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that simulates a bighorn sheep traversing a landscape by following simple movement rules. The model was calibrated for bighorn sheep in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada, a region containing isolated herds that are vital to conservation of the species in its northern range. Simulations were run to determine baseline connectivity between subpopulations in the study area. We then applied the model to explore two land management scenarios on simulated connectivity: restoring natural fire regimes and identifying appropriate sites for interventions that would increase road permeability for bighorn sheep. Results. This model suggests there are no continuous areas of good habitat between current subpopulations of sheep in the study area; however, a series of stepping-stones or circuitous routes could facilitate movement between subpopulations and into currently unoccupied, yet suitable, bighorn habitat. Restoring natural fire regimes or mimicking fire with prescribed burns and tree removal could considerably increase bighorn connectivity in this area. Moreover, several key road crossing sites that could benefit from wildlife overpasses were

  12. In vitro prion protein conversion suggests risk of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Morawski, A.R.; Carlson, C.M.; Chang, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affect both domestic sheep (scrapie) and captive and free-ranging cervids (chronic wasting disease; CWD). The geographical range of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis; BHS) overlaps with states or provinces that have contained scrapie-positive sheep or goats and areas with present epizootics of CWD in cervids. No TSEs have been documented in BHS, but the susceptibility of this species to TSEs remains unknown. Results: We acquired a library of BHS tissues and found no evidence of preexisting TSEs in these animals. The prion protein gene (Prnp) in all BHS in our library was identical to scrapie-susceptible domestic sheep (A136R 154Q171). Using an in vitro prion protein conversion assay, which has been previously used to assess TSE species barriers and, in our study appears to recollect known species barriers in mice, we assessed the potential transmissibility of TSEs to BHS. As expected based upon Prnp genotype, we observed BHS prion protein conversion by classical scrapie agent and evidence for a species barrier between transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and BHS. Interestingly, our data suggest that the species barrier of BHS to white-tailed deer or wapiti CWD agents is likely low. We also used protein misfolding cyclic amplification to confirm that CWD, but not TME, can template prion protein misfolding in A136R 154Q171genotype sheep. Conclusions: Our results indicate the in vitro conversion assay used in our study does mimic the species barrier of mice to the TSE agents that we tested. Based on Prnp genotype and results from conversion assays, BHS are likely to be susceptible to infection by classical scrapie. Despite mismatches in amino acids thought to modulate prion protein conversion, our data indicate that A136R154Q171 genotype sheep prion protein is misfolded by CWD agent, suggesting that these animals could be susceptible to CWD. Further investigation of TSE transmissibility to BHS, including

  13. Toxicity and hazard of vanadium to mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A; McKernan, Moira A; Eisenreich, Karen M; Link, William A; Olsen, Glenn H; Hoffman, David J; Knowles, Kathy A; McGowan, Peter C

    2006-02-01

    A recent Canada goose (Branta canadensis) die-off at a petroleum refinery fly ash pond in Delaware was attributed to vanadium (V) toxicity. Because of the paucity of V toxicity data for wild birds, a series of studies was undertaken using the forms of V believed to have resulted in this incident. In 7-d single oral dose trials with mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos), the estimated median lethal dose (LD50) for vanadium pentoxide was 113 mg/kg body weight, while the LD50 for sodium metavanadate was 75.5 mg/kg. Sodium metavanadate was found to be even more potent (LD50 = 37.2 mg/kg) in male Canada geese. The most distinctive histopathological lesion of both forms of V was lympho-granulocytic enteritis with hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen. Vanadium accumulation in liver and kidney was proportional to the administered dose, and predictive analyses based on these data suggest that V concentrations of 10 microg/g dry weight (dw) in liver and 25 microg/g dw in kidney are associated with mortality (>90% confidence that exposure is >LD50) in mallards acutely exposed to sodium metavanadate. Chronic exposure to increasing dietary concentrations of sodium metavanadate (38.5 to 2651 ppm) over 67 d resulted in V accumulation in liver and kidney (25.2 and 13.6 microg/g dw, respectively), mild intestinal hemorrhage, blood chemistry changes, and evidence of hepatic oxidative stress in mallards, although some of these responses may have been confounded by food avoidance and weight loss. Dietary exposure of mallards to 250 ppm sodium metavanadate for 4 wk resulted in modest accumulation of V in liver and kidney (<5 microg/g dw) and mild intestinal hemorrhage. Based on these data and other observations, it is unlikely that chronic low-level dietary exposure to V poses a direct lethal hazard to wildlife. However, point sources, such as the V-laden fly ash pond encountered by geese at the petroleum refinery in Delaware, may pose a significant hazard to water birds.

  14. Situating Emotional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D Wilson-Mendenhall

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake, but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking. Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation. In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multimodal sensory regions and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the default mode network would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing

  15. Situating emotional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the "default mode" network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional life

  16. Challenging Fieldwork Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Thomas; Østergaard Steenfeldt, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    understanding on the phenomenon of awkwardness as a natural way for researchers to respond to challenging fieldwork situations. Finally, they propose and unfold mutual interviewing and cooperative analysis as methods of investigating researcher’s subjectivity in facing such situations.......Researching two different work settings, police work and hospice care, the authors experienced a strange sense of discomfort in their bodies during their fieldwork when investigating professional training and work situations, especially in encounters with citizens and patients. In some of those...... situations, the authors withdrew physically or mentally from the situation without wanting to do so, feeling emotionally affected by the uncertainty of the situations, not fully grasping the meaning of what was going on. In a strange way they felt awkwardly detached from their research activities...

  17. Situational method engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson-Sellers, Brian; Ågerfalk, Pär J; Rossi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    While previously available methodologies for software ? like those published in the early days of object technology ? claimed to be appropriate for every conceivable project, situational method engineering (SME) acknowledges that most projects typically have individual characteristics and situations. Thus, finding the most effective methodology for a particular project needs specific tailoring to that situation. Such a tailored software development methodology needs to take into account all the bits and pieces needed for an organization to develop software, including the software process, the

  18. Implementing situational awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Hulkkonen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of situational awareness system became an objective when Finnish national regulations for A-class systems, in the context of healthcare systems were updated. The updated criteria require IT service providers to have a capability to detect anomalies in information systems. Situational awareness was selected to meet those criteria because situational awareness can be used as a tool which helps the organization to improve its service. The objective was to implement a cost effe...

  19. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental brucella abortus challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the d...

  20. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Central Platte River

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution to the Platte River, but of unknown human health risk. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and fecal bacteria were exa...

  1. A Situational Maintenance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxhoj, James T.; Thorsteinsson, Uffe; Riis, Jens Ove

    1997-01-01

    An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance.......An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance....

  2. The Rhetorical Situation Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garret, Mary; Xiao, Xiaosui

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and redefines a concept known as the "rhetorical situation" through an examination of the political discourse of China during the 19th-century Opium Wars. Arrives at three alterations to the "rhetorical situation" concerning the role of the audience, the role of the culture's discourse tradition, and the interactive and organic nature of…

  3. Speech Situations and TEFL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴树奇; 高建国

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with how speech situations or ratherspeech implicatures affect TEFL.As far as the writer is concerned,they have much influence on many aspect of language teaching.To illustrate this point explicitly,the writer focuses on the influence of speech situations upon pronunciation,intonation,lexical meanings,sentence comprehension and the grammatical study of the English language.

  4. Herbicidas alternativos para controle de biótipos de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis resistentes ao glyphosate Alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, M. S.; M.S.C. Melo; S.J.P. Carvalho; Nicolai, M.; P.J. Crhistoffoleti

    2010-01-01

    Após sucessivos anos, aplicações do herbicida glyphosate em pomares de citros no Estado de São Paulo selecionaram biótipos resistentes de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis. Na ocorrência de plantas daninhas resistentes em uma área agrícola, tornam-se necessárias mudanças nas práticas de manejo para obtenção de adequado controle das populações resistentes, bem como para a redução da pressão de seleção sobre outras espécies. Assim, este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar herb...

  5. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Yamada, Catherine; Potter, Kathleen A; Herndon, Caroline; Foreyt, William J; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). One bighorn sheep died with acute pneumonia 90 days after commingling, but the other three remained healthy for >100 days. This unprecedented survival rate is significantly different (P=0.002) from that of previous bighorn-domestic sheep contact studies but similar to (P>0.05) bighorn sheep survival following commingling with other ungulates. The absence of epizootic respiratory disease in this experiment supports the hypothesized role of M. ovipneumoniae as a key pathogen of epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep commingled with domestic sheep.

  6. RNA sequencing of Populus x canadensis roots identifies key molecular mechanisms underlying physiological adaption to excess zinc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ariani

    Full Text Available Populus x canadensis clone I-214 exhibits a general indicator phenotype in response to excess Zn, and a higher metal uptake in roots than in shoots with a reduced translocation to aerial parts under hydroponic conditions. This physiological adaptation seems mainly regulated by roots, although the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are still poorly understood. Here, differential expression analysis using RNA-sequencing technology was used to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to excess Zn in root. In order to maximize specificity of detection of differentially expressed (DE genes, we consider the intersection of genes identified by three distinct statistical approaches (61 up- and 19 down-regulated and validate them by RT-qPCR, yielding an agreement of 93% between the two experimental techniques. Gene Ontology (GO terms related to oxidation-reduction processes, transport and cellular iron ion homeostasis were enriched among DE genes, highlighting the importance of metal homeostasis in adaptation to excess Zn by P. x canadensis clone I-214. We identified the up-regulation of two Populus metal transporters (ZIP2 and NRAMP1 probably involved in metal uptake, and the down-regulation of a NAS4 gene involved in metal translocation. We identified also four Fe-homeostasis transcription factors (two bHLH38 genes, FIT and BTS that were differentially expressed, probably for reducing Zn-induced Fe-deficiency. In particular, we suggest that the down-regulation of FIT transcription factor could be a mechanism to cope with Zn-induced Fe-deficiency in Populus. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in adaption to excess Zn in Populus spp., but could also constitute a starting point for the identification and characterization of molecular markers or biotechnological targets for possible improvement of phytoremediation performances of poplar trees.

  7. Population Genetics with Fluctuating Population Sizes

    CERN Document Server

    Chotibut, Thiparat

    2016-01-01

    Standard neutral population genetics theory with a strictly fixed population size has important limitations. An alternative model that allows independently fluctuating population sizes and reproduces the standard neutral evolution is reviewed. We then study a situation such that the competing species are neutral at the equilibrium population size but population size fluctuations nevertheless favor fixation of one species over the other. In this case, a separation of timescales emerges naturally and allows adiabatic elimination of a fast population size variable to deduce the fluctuations-induced selection dynamics near the equilibrium population size. The results highlight the incompleteness of the standard population genetics with a strictly fixed population size.

  8. Identificación de los mecanismos subyacentes a la invasión de Castor canadensis (Rodentia en el archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego, Chile Identifying the mechanisms underlying the invasion of Castor canadensis (Rodentia into Tierra del Fuego archipelago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRA K WALLEM

    2007-09-01

    conceptual sobre el cual se pueden desarrollar futuras investigaciones referentes a esta invasiónCastor canadensis is considered an archetypical ecosystem engineer, which modifies the state of biotic and abiotic factors through non-trophic interactions. This species was introduced by the Argentinean government into Tierra del Fuego island in 1946, and subsequently colonized autonomously the neighboring islands of Navarino, Dawson and Hoste. Currently this invader occupies contrasting ecosystems such as the Magellan subpolar beech forest and Patagonian scrub and steppe. This ability to colonize contrasting habitats suggests that beaver expansion will be limited mainly by hydrological resources, threatening to colonize the complete extent of temperate beech forests on the mainland (from 35 to 55° S. The present review proposes three hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms to this successful invasion: natural enemy escape, resource opportunities, and self-facilitation through non-trophic interactions. Current knowledge regarding beaver colonization and foraging behavior (e.g., habitat selection independently of forest availability, irruptive population growth, and apparent selective exploitation of Nothofagus pumilio, dominant species in the Magellan forest suggests that enemy escape and resource opportunity are the main mechanisms underlying this invasion. The observation of higher densities of active colonies, where the extent of beaver habitat modification is larger, suggests that self-facilitation may be relevant to the success of this invasion. Current information does not allow testing these hypotheses, but it provides a framework to develop future investigations regarding this invasion in Tierra del Fuego

  9. Personalizing situation awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Linn Marks [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Powell, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roman, Jorge R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Mark L B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mane, Ketan K [RENCI

    2009-01-01

    Emergency responders need access to information but what counts as actionable information depends on their role, task, location, and other variables. For example, experts who have unique knowledge and experience and are called on to serve as scientific and teclmical responders, require correspondingly unique situation awareness in order to do their work. In our research-in-progress we leverage emerging and evolving web and digital library technologies to create personalized situation awareness tools that address the needs of these scientific and technical responders in real time, through focused information collection, extraction, integration, representation, and dissemination. We describe three personalized situation awareness tools in this paper: the Theme Awareness Tool (THEMAT), Social Awareness Tool (SAT), and Expertise Awareness Tool (EXPAT). The concepts and technologies we are developing in collaboration with experts apply to those who use the Web, in general, and offer an approach to the general issue of HCI design for emergencies.

  10. Situated Learning Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2007-01-01

    Adult Learners' Formation of Identity in a Situated Learning Perspective In a situated learning perspective we do not only acquire professional qualifications in learning situations, we also work on our identity when we engage in change processes. Identity formation is part of our change as we...... learn through our participation in communities of practice. In this view, learning entails both personal and social transformation. In late modernity the concept of qualification has been replaced by the concept of competence pointing to several changes in our view of work, education and labour. One...... education facilitate the learners' process of both qualifying and negotiating their identity? To which extent and in what way do they actually support the identity work of the learners? And to which degree are the institutional and the personal perspectives compatible? Applying a social learning approach...

  11. Situational theory of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D J; Smith, S R; Warnock, J T

    1989-11-01

    The situational theory of leadership and the LEAD instruments for determining leadership style are explained, and the application of the situational leadership theory to the process of planning for and implementing organizational change is described. Early studies of leadership style identified two basic leadership styles: the task-oriented autocratic style and the relationship-oriented democratic style. Subsequent research found that most leaders exhibited one of four combinations of task and relationship behaviors. The situational leadership theory holds that the difference between the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the four leadership styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to the particular situation in which it is used. The task maturity of the individual or group being led must also be accounted for; follower readiness is defined in terms of the capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness or ability to accept responsibility, and possession of the necessary education or experience for a specific task. A person's leadership style, range, and adaptability can be determined from the LEADSelf and LEADOther questionnaires. By applying the principles of the situational leadership theory and adapting their managerial styles to specific tasks and levels of follower maturity, the authors were successful in implementing 24-hour pharmacokinetic dosing services provided by staff pharmacists with little previous experience in clinical services. The situational leadership model enables a leader to identify a task, set goals, determine the task maturity of the individual or group, select an appropriate leadership style, and modify the style as change occurs. Pharmacy managers can use this model when implementing clinical pharmacy services.

  12. Situational theory of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D J; Smith, S R; Warnock, J T

    1989-11-01

    The situational theory of leadership and the LEAD instruments for determining leadership style are explained, and the application of the situational leadership theory to the process of planning for and implementing organizational change is described. Early studies of leadership style identified two basic leadership styles: the task-oriented autocratic style and the relationship-oriented democratic style. Subsequent research found that most leaders exhibited one of four combinations of task and relationship behaviors. The situational leadership theory holds that the difference between the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the four leadership styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to the particular situation in which it is used. The task maturity of the individual or group being led must also be accounted for; follower readiness is defined in terms of the capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness or ability to accept responsibility, and possession of the necessary education or experience for a specific task. A person's leadership style, range, and adaptability can be determined from the LEADSelf and LEADOther questionnaires. By applying the principles of the situational leadership theory and adapting their managerial styles to specific tasks and levels of follower maturity, the authors were successful in implementing 24-hour pharmacokinetic dosing services provided by staff pharmacists with little previous experience in clinical services. The situational leadership model enables a leader to identify a task, set goals, determine the task maturity of the individual or group, select an appropriate leadership style, and modify the style as change occurs. Pharmacy managers can use this model when implementing clinical pharmacy services. PMID:2589352

  13. Situations of dwelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen; Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Wiell Nordberg, Lene;

    2006-01-01

    values and needs in differnet situations, lifestyles and stages. The study is based on information from users in new housing schemes in and around Copenhagen - 'open building' dwellings that reveal a variety of approaches to these problems? The analysis of the dwellings show that the architecture...... of the 'open dwelling' is dependent on three basic conditions: the static condition, the suitable condition and the situational condition. Each condition has its own powerful way of articulation. Our aim is to translate the observations of the projects in concepts and models that are applicable in new projects....

  14. Vertical Stratification and Co-Occurrence Patterns of the Psocoptera Community Associated with Eastern Hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, in the Southern Appalachians

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Mockford; Rusty Rhea; Paris Lambdin; Jerome Grant; Carla Coots

    2012-01-01

    Of the more than 300 species of Psocoptera described in North America, 44 species have been documented on eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, in the southern Appalachians. However, the distribution and co-occurrence patterns of these species throughout the tree canopy are unknown. This study was initiated to evaluate specimen abundance, species richness and species composition among three designated strata in the canopy of eastern hemlock, assess species for vertical stratificati...

  15. The Promise of Situated Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Arthur L.

    1993-01-01

    Situated cognition, the concept that learning is integrally situated in everyday activity, enables more accurate understanding of adult learning. Authentic activity, involving situations requiring actual rather than simulated cognitive processes, may be a better basis for adult education. (SK)

  16. Modelling remediation options for urban contamination situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Charnock, T.W.;

    2009-01-01

    The impact on a population from an event resulting in dispersal and deposition of radionuclides in an urban area could be significant, in terms of both the number of people affected and the economic costs of recovery. The use of computer models for assessment of urban contamination situations...

  17. The France energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  18. Predicting distribution patterns and recent northward range shift of an invasive aquatic plant: Elodea canadensis in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Heikkinen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate data and distribution data for the Canadian waterweed Elodea canadensis Michx. from North America, whole Europe and Finland were used to investigate the ability of bioclimatic envelope models to predict the distribution range and recent northward range shift of the species in Europe. Four different main types of models were developed using the North American data, including either three ‘baseline’ climate variables (growing degrees days, temperature of the coldest month, water balance or an extended set of seven climate variables, both averaged either over a 30 year time slice or a longer 90 year time slice. Ten different random selections of pseudo-absences were generated from the North American data, on the basis of which ten separate generalized additive models (GAMs were developed for each main model type. All the 40 developed GAMs were applied first to North America and then transferred to whole Europe and Finland. All the models showed a statistically highly significant accuracy in the three study areas. Although the differences among the four main model types were only minor, the two extended model types showed on average statistically better performance than the two baseline models based on Bayesian information criterion (BIC values, the amount of deviance explained by the models, resubstitution validation and four-fold cross-validation in North America. They also provided slightly more accurate predictions of climatically suitable area for Elodea canadensis in Finland both in 1961–1984 and 1985–2006. However, the projections from the individual extended models were more variable than projections from the baseline models. Thus model predictions based on a variety of predictor variables but only one selection of pseudoabsences may be subject to biases, and outputs from multiple models should be investigated to better account for uncertainties in modelling. Overall, our results suggest that more attention should be paid to the

  19. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. ASAT will create an Advanced Situation...

  20. Situated clinical cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, T

    1995-10-01

    The features characterizing study of clinical cognition in situ are formulated as: Re-cognition of context, culture, history and affect. Socializing and phenomenalistic elements are again included in the research agenda. Interest for representations: an analysis level is reserved for the symbols, rules and images relevant to define in models of clinical cognition. De-emphasis on computer modeling: investigations focus on the 'functional systems' in which computers are involved. Rootedness in classical philosophical problems: issues concerning situated clinical cognition are connected to the width of available theoretical literature. Belief in interdisciplinary studies: productive interactions between the new and traditional disciplines is anticipated, implying that new shared methods have to be developed. When scientific perspectives are broadened, a new balance has to be found between the relevance of the subject of study and methodological rigor. The situated clinical cognition framework is to allow for moving between models, theories, and perspectives, as it does not presuppose a singular model of clinical thinking.

  1. Learning through Situated Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Eriksén, Sara; Wessels, Bridgette

    2014-01-01

    Specific, situated participatory design (PD) practices have always been at the heart of Participatory Design research. The role of the very situatedness and specificity of PD practice for theory-building within PD research is, however, seldom discussed explicitly. In this article, we explore why...... and in which ways the specificity and situatedness of PD practices are crucial for PD research. We do so by developing the notion of PD as situated innovation based on a pragmatic epistemology. PD research aims at devel oping and continuously unfolding what PD can, might and should be. We show implications...... of such a pragmatic epistemology of PD on understanding and arguing for PD research approaches. These concepts are illustrated referring to PD practices as experienced in PD research projects. Our epistemological argumentation supports the emphasis on exploring new PD practices and learning and theorizing about PD...

  2. Den retoriske situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Barnholdt

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen, som er skrevet på baggrund af et oplæg, som jeg holdt på  Årsmødet for Sektionen for Gymnasium og HF i Helsingør, oktober 2009, plæderer for anvendelsen af Lloyd F. Bitzers teori om den retoriske situation i retorikundervisningen i gymnasiet. I artiklen benytter jeg Bitzers teori som en...

  3. Pathogenicity of West Nile virus and response to vaccination in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) using a killed vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.; Sileo, L.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus was introduced into the United States in the vicinity of New York, New York, USA in 1999. The virus has since killed large numbers of birds nationwide, especially, but not limited to, crows (Corvus brachyrhinchos). One sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) at the Bridgeport Zoo (Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA) reportedly died from West Nile virus, so sandhill cranes and endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana), both in the wild and in captive breeding colonies at United States Geological Service (USGS) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Laurel, Maryland, USA) were considered at risk. A killed vaccine in sandhill cranes was evaluated by vaccinating and then challenging these cranes with live West Nile virus. No sandhill cranes inoculated with the killed vaccine developed significant titers when compared with unvaccinated controls. No sandhill cranes inoculated with the vaccine and challenged with the virus died from West Nile virus infection. In addition, no unvaccinated challenged sandhill cranes died. However, 2 days postchallenge, vaccinated cranes had significantly less viremia (P cell aggregates in both the brain and brain stem areas, and this was not observed in vaccinated challenged cranes or in vaccinated unchallenged cranes.

  4. Density of river otters (Lontra canadensis) in relation to energy development in the Green River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, B.L.; Albeke, S.E.; Bergman, H.L.; Walters, Annika W.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-01-01

    Exploration and extraction of oil and natural gas have increased in recent years and are expected to expand in the future. Reduction in water quality from energy extraction may negatively affect water supply for agriculture and urban use within catchments as well as down river. We used non-invasive genetic techniques and capture–recapture modeling to estimate the abundance and density of North American river otters (Lontra canadensis), a sentinel species of aquatic ecosystems, in Southwestern Wyoming. While densities in two of three river reaches were similar to those reported in other freshwater systems in the western US (1.45–2.39 km per otter), otters appeared to avoid areas near energy development. We found no strong difference in habitat variables, such as overstory cover, at the site or reach level. Also, fish abundance was similar among the three river reaches. Otter activity in our study area could have been affected by elevated levels of disturbance surrounding the industrial gas fields, and by potential surface water contamination as indicated by patterns in water conductivity. Continued monitoring of surface water quality in Southwestern Wyoming with the aid of continuously recording devices and sentinel species is warranted.

  5. Microbial water quality during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the central Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    The central Platte River is an important resource in Nebraska. Its water flows among multiple channels and supports numerous beneficial uses such as drinking water, irrigation for agriculture, groundwater recharge, and recreational activities. The central Platte River valley is an important stopover for migratory waterfowl and cranes, such as the Whooping (Grus americana) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis), in their annual northward traversal of the Central Flyway. Waterfowl, cranes, and other migratory birds moving across international and intercontinental borders may provide long-range transportation for any microbial pathogen they harbor, particularly through the spread of feces. Samples were collected weekly in the study reach from three sites (upstream, middle, and downstream from the roosting locations) during the spring of 2009 and 2010. The samples were analyzed for avian influenza, Escherichia coli, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Campylobacter, and Legionella. Analysis indicates that several types of fecal indicator bacteria and a range of viral, protozoan, and bacterial pathogens were present in Sandhill Crane excreta. These bacteria and pathogens were present at a significantly higher frequency and densities in water and sediments when the Sandhill Cranes were present, particularly during evening roosts within the Platte River environment.

  6. Post-disturbance plant community dynamics following a rare natural-origin fire in a Tsuga canadensis forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Murray

    Full Text Available Opportunities to directly study infrequent forest disturbance events often lead to valuable information about vegetation dynamics. In mesic temperate forests of North America, stand-replacing crown fire occurs infrequently, with a return interval of 2000-3000 years. Rare chance events, however, may have profound impacts on the developmental trajectories of forest ecosystems. For example, it has been postulated that stand-replacing fire may have been an important factor in the establishment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis stands in the northern Great Lakes region. Nevertheless, experimental evidence linking hemlock regeneration to non-anthropogenic fire is limited. To clarify this potential relationship, we monitored vegetation dynamics following a rare lightning-origin crown fire in a Wisconsin hemlock-hardwood forest. We also studied vegetation in bulldozer-created fire breaks and adjacent undisturbed forest. Our results indicate that hemlock establishment was rare in the burned area but moderately common in the scarified bulldozer lines compared to the reference area. Early-successional, non-arboreal species including Rubus spp., Vaccinium angustifolium, sedges (Carex spp., grasses, Epilobium ciliatum, and Pteridium aquilinium were the most abundant post-fire species. Collectively, our results suggest that competing vegetation and moisture stress resulting from drought may reduce the efficacy of scarification treatments as well as the usefulness of fire for preparing a suitable seedbed for hemlock. The increasing prevalence of growing-season drought suggests that silvicultural strategies based on historic disturbance regimes may need to be reevaluated for mesic species.

  7. Scale-Dependent Browsing Patterns on Canada Yew (Taxus canadensis by White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve K. Windels

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada yew (Taxus canadensis is a clonal shrub that forms discrete patches and was formerly an important component of forest understories in much of northeastern North America. Following Euro-American settlement, Canada yew has been extirpated or reduced in abundance throughout much of its former range, particularly in the USA; winter browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus has been implicated as responsible for much of its decline. Little is known about the factors affecting deer browsing intensity on Canada yew. We examined factors related to browsing intensity on Canada yew across three spatial scales in 29 forest stands in Michigan, USA. Browsing intensity on stems was related principally to two factors acting simultaneously across multiple spatial scales. Browsing intensity was negatively related to amount of Canada yew at the scale of the forest stand and negatively related to distance from the edge of Canada yew patches, effectively creating refugia from browsing. The browsing patterns we observed suggest that yew exists in two alternate stable states: (1 as loose aggregations of small stems or (2 large, dense patches of large stems. The implications of changes in deer density or snow cover to the probability of local persistence of Canada yew are discussed.

  8. Bioenergetics assessment of fish and crayfish consumption by river otter (Lontra canadensis): integrating prey availability, diet, and field metabolic rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekar, Matthew P.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; Beringer, J.

    2010-01-01

    River otters (Lontra canadensis) are important predators in aquatic ecosystems, but few studies quantify their prey consumption. We trapped crayfish monthly as an index of availability and collected otter scat for diet analysis in the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas, USA. We measured otter daily energy expenditure (DEE) with the doubly labeled water method to develop a bioenergetics model for estimating monthly prey consumption. Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki) catch-per-unit-effort was positively related to stream temperature, indicating that crayfish were more available during warmer months. The percentage frequency of occurrence for crayfish in scat samples peaked at 85.0% in summer and was lowest (42.3%) in winter. In contrast, the percentage occurrence of fish was 13.3% in summer and 57.7% in winter. Estimates of DEE averaged 4738 kJ·day-1 for an otter with a body mass of 7842 g. Total biomass consumption ranged from 35 079 to 52 653 g·month-1 (wet mass), corresponding to a high proportion of fish and crayfish in the diet, respectively. Otter consumption represents a large fraction of prey production, indicating potentially strong effects of otters on trophic dynamics in stream ecosystems.

  9. Volatile Organic Compounds from the Clone Populus x canadensis “Conti” Associated with Megaplatypus mutatus Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis (Coleoptera, Platypodidae is an ambrosia beetle native to South America. It builds internal galleries that weaken the tree trunks, causing them severe stem breakage and mortality in commercial poplar plantations. The host selection by male M. mutatus has previously been correlated with the increasing diameter. This work explores the possibility that differential susceptibility of individual plants to M. mutatus could be associated with volatiles emitted. The comparison of the VOCs profiles of attacked and nonattacked P. x canadensis “Conti” 12 during M. mutatus flying season showed both qualitative and quantitative differences. The attacked plants, but not the nonattacked ones, showed the following compounds: a long chain aldehyde, α-ylangene, δ-cadinene, α-gurjunene, and β-cubebene; on the other side, β-sesquiphellandrene and β-chamigrene were detected only in nonattacked plants. α-Copaene is a common component of all the samples analyzed, but its proportion is increased in attacked individuals. Behavioral bioassays showed that males but not females M. mutatus are attracted to α-copaene. The relative increase of α-copaene in attacked individuals and the positive behavioral answer of males to it suggest that this compound could play a role in the orientation of the pioneer male towards the most suitable host.

  10. Signatures of self-assembly in size distributions of wood members in dam structures of Castor canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Blersch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Beavers (Castor canadensis construct dams on rivers throughout most of their historical range in North America, and their impact on water patterns in the landscape is considerable. Dam formation by beavers involves two processes: (1 intentional construction through the selection and placement of wood and sediment, which facilitates (2 the passive capture and accretion of suspended wood and sediment. The second process is a self-assembly mechanism that the beavers leverage by utilizing energy subsidies of watershed transport processes. The relative proportion of beaver activity to self-assembly processes in dam construction, however, is unknown. Here we show that lotic self-assembly processes account for a substantial portion of the work expended in beaver dam construction. We found through comprehensive measurement of the stick dimensions that the distributions for diameter, length, and volume are log-normal. By noting evidence of teeth markings, we determined that size distributions skewed significantly larger for wood handled by beavers compared to those that were not. Subsequent mass calculations suggest that beavers perform 50%–70% of the work of wood member placement for dam assembly, with riparian self-assembly processes contributing the remainder. Additionally, our results establish a benchmark for assessing the proportion of self-assembly work in similar riparian structures.

  11. Population Profiles: A Series of Units on Specific Topics for the Study of Demography. Number 17. The Family - What Is Its Situation Today? Is It Imperilled as an Institution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Townsend, Ed.

    The sociological factors related to marriage and divorce are discussed in this Population Profile. Statistics concerning marital status, marriage stability, divorce, and remarriage are presented and discussed. Alternate life styles are included in the publication, as well as predictions for the future based on present trends. This publication is…

  12. International Energy Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Hongtu

    2007-01-01

    The international energy situation has entered a new phase of change and readjustment. On the one hand, while imbalances in petroleum market supply-demand have been alleviated , the consuming states are now focusing on demand side management and development of new and renewable energy. There has been great progress in international energy security dialogue and cooperation. On the other hand , supply-demand market balance remains fragile , and restrictions due to insufficient energy investment are more evident. The concerned states have taken a stronger grip over their own resources. Implementation of energy diplomacy has also further complicated the relationship between energy and geo-politics, causing an upsurge of competition.

  13. A Study on Situation and Characteristics of the Age Structure of Tibet Population:Based on the Analysis of the Sixth Census Data%西藏人口年龄结构现状与特征分析--基于第六次人口普查数据的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖桂蓉; 刘子菁

    2014-01-01

    人口年龄结构是人口最基本、最重要的结构之一。本文在对第六次人口普查数据汇总分析的基础上,将西藏2010年人口年龄结构状况与2000年第五次人口普查年龄结构进行对比研究,深入分析西藏人口年龄结构的现状和变动特征,并提出对策思考,试图为科学规划和制定西藏中长期人口政策、就业发展战略以及社会公共管理政策等提供科学依据。%The population age structure is one of the most basic and important structures of population. Based on the analysis of the sixth census data,this paper has a comparative study on the age structure of Tibet population in 2000 and in 2010. This paper also has an analysis of the current situation and the changing characteristics of the age structure of Tibet population , and put forward some valuable countermeasures, trying to provide a scientific basis on planning and formulating of the long-term population policy、employment and social development strategy and public management policies.

  14. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  15. Basic Situation and Spatial Distribution of the Aged Population of the Farms of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps%新疆生产建设兵团团场老年人口分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚东; 伍维模

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data obtained from the Sixth Population Census in 2010,age structure,gender structure and population regional distributions for old people aged 65 and over of thirteen Divisions of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (hereinafter referred to as the XPCC) were studied. The proportion of the old people was 10.4%,and the number of elderly persons was 183000 of XPCC with the sex ratio of 113.3 that indicated that the amount of the male of the old population was larger than that of the female. The median age for the old people was 72.1. XPCC is an aging society ,and its spatial distribu-tions of aging population,the ratios of elderly to young,and the old-age dependence ratios were uneven. These maps of aging population,the ratios of elderly to young,and the old-age dependence ratios of the XPCC revealed that the problems of aging society of Farms in Northern Xinjiang region were worse than that of Farms in Southern Xinjiang. We also found that the spa-tial distribution of the elderly population density (old people per sq.km of land area) was unbalance with value of 2.7 persons/km2,however,the spatial distribution of the elderly population density (old people per sq.km of arable land area) was balance with value of 17.6 person/km2. The growth of aging population and the severe aging problems,especially in Northern Xinjiang will pose an increasing pressure for the Farms economic and social development, and the age security system ,then results in the weakness of the role of the XPCC in reclamation and safeguard peace and stability.%基于2010年第六次人口普查数据,研究了新疆生产建设兵团(简称兵团)十三个师所属团场65岁及以上老年人口的年龄分布、性别分布和地域分布。兵团团场2010年老年人口总数为18.3万人,占团场总人口的10.4%,性别比为113.3,年龄中位数为72.1岁。兵团团场的人口年龄结构属于老年型,老年人口比重、老少比和老年抚养比

  16. Assessment of a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine intended to protect Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) from plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L.; Shenk, Tanya M.; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing restoration program in Colorado, USA, we evaluated adverse reactions and seroconversion in captive Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) after vaccination with a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine against Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague. Ten adult female lynx received the F1-V vaccine; 10 source- and age-matched lynx remained unvaccinated as controls. All of the vaccinated and control lynx remained apparently healthy throughout the confinement period. We observed no evidence of injection site or systemic reactions to the F1-V vaccine. Among vaccinated lynx, differences in log10 reciprocal antibody titers measured in sera collected before and after vaccination (two doses) ranged from 1.2 to 5.2 for anti-F1 antibodies and from 0.6 to 5.2 for anti-V antibodies; titers in unvaccinated lynx did not change appreciably over the course of confinement prior to release, and thus differences in anti-F1 (P=0.003) and anti-V (P=0.0005) titers were greater among vaccinated lynx than among controls. Although our findings suggest that the F1-V fusion protein vaccine evaluated here is likely to stimulate antibody responses that may help protect Canada lynx from plague, we observed no apparent differences in survival between vaccinated and unvaccinated subject animals. Retrospectively, 22 of 50 (44%; 95% confidence interval 29–59%) unvaccinated lynx captured or recaptured in Colorado during 2000–08 had passive hemagglutination antibody titers >1:16, consistent with exposure to Y. pestis; paired pre- and postrelease titers available for eight of these animals showed titer increases similar in magnitude to those seen in response to vaccination, suggesting at least some lynx may naturally acquire immunity to plague in Colorado habitats.

  17. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine; Krogh Groth, Sanne

    2017-01-01

    This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback Environm......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...... integrated within the analysis, pursuing the most comprehensive interpretation of the pieces possible....

  18. Management Re-situated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    The purpose of this paper is to examine ways to situate management within philosophy, that is, ways to analyze the philosophical assumptions in management history, theory and practice. Since Burrell and Morgan suggested the idea that “all theories of organization are based upon philosophy...... of science“ (Burrell & Morgan, 1979:1), philosophical reflections in terms of a series of “isms” informed by different schools or paradigms (such as positivism, structuralism, phenomenology, critical theory, and so on and so forth) have been a central part of management studies. Thus, today, it has become...... common sense to categorize different approaches to management according to their assumptions of ontology, epistemology and methodology. My paper will argue first (1) that, although sometimes very abstract and obtuse writing that seems to owe more to competition among academics than to illumination...

  19. Simulation, situated conceptualization, and prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2009-01-01

    Based on accumulating evidence, simulation appears to be a basic computational mechanism in the brain that supports a broad spectrum of processes from perception to social cognition. Further evidence suggests that simulation is typically situated, with the situated character of experience in the environment being reflected in the situated character of the representations that underlie simulation. A basic architecture is sketched of how the brain implements situated simulation. Within this fra...

  20. Situational simulations in interactive video

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company Advanced Training Technologies section is using situational simulations in several Interactive Video training courses. Two applications of situational simulations will be discussed. In the first, used in the Hanford General Employee Training course, the student evaluates employee's actions in simulations of possible workplace situations. In the second, used in the Criticality Safety course, students must follow well-defined procedures to complete tasks. Design and incorporation of situational simulations will be discussed. 3 refs

  1. METHODOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana KOVALCHUK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of theoretical and methodological principles of situational analysis. The necessity of situational analysis is proved in modern conditions. The notion “situational analysis” is determined. We have concluded that situational analysis is a continuous system study which purpose is to identify dangerous situation signs, to evaluate comprehensively such signs influenced by a system of objective and subjective factors, to search for motivated targeted actions used to eliminate adverse effects of the exposure of the system to the situation now and in the future and to develop the managerial actions needed to bring the system back to norm. It is developed a methodological approach to the situational analysis, its goal is substantiated, proved the expediency of diagnostic, evaluative and searching functions in the process of situational analysis. The basic methodological elements of the situational analysis are grounded. The substantiation of the principal methodological elements of system analysis will enable the analyst to develop adaptive methods able to take into account the peculiar features of a unique object which is a situation that has emerged in a complex system, to diagnose such situation and subject it to system and in-depth analysis, to identify risks opportunities, to make timely management decisions as required by a particular period.

  2. Simulation, situated conceptualization, and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2009-05-12

    Based on accumulating evidence, simulation appears to be a basic computational mechanism in the brain that supports a broad spectrum of processes from perception to social cognition. Further evidence suggests that simulation is typically situated, with the situated character of experience in the environment being reflected in the situated character of the representations that underlie simulation. A basic architecture is sketched of how the brain implements situated simulation. Within this framework, simulators implement the concepts that underlie knowledge, and situated conceptualizations capture patterns of multi-modal simulation associated with frequently experienced situations. A pattern completion inference mechanism uses current perception to activate situated conceptualizations that produce predictions via simulations on relevant modalities. Empirical findings from perception, action, working memory, conceptual processing, language and social cognition illustrate how this framework produces the extensive prediction that characterizes natural intelligence.

  3. Radioecological situation in Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Center for Ecotoxicological Researches realize the Republic program of systematic survey of radionuclide contents in the environment of Montenegro. These measurements showed that radioecological situation in Montenegro is quite good. Everyday measurements of absorbed doses in air in the town of Podgorica give results on level of natural radiation background, and all measured concentrations of radionuclides in air and in fall-out in Podgorica have normal values. Radionuclides in water of the Scadar Lake and in sea water near the town of Bar and town of Herceg Novi have concentrations even less than maximum permitted ones in drinking water. This should be stressed because of a rumor that our sea water is radioactively contaminated, which appears before and during summer touristic season. Concentrations of radionuclides in drinking water of the public pipeline in Podgorica are far below the permitted maximums. Analysed samples of the different kind of food produced in Montenegro showed good radiological quality. Soil samples taken from the area of Podgorica have an usual content of radionuclides, and samples of surveyed building materials that is produced in Montenegro satisfy the regulations for permitted radioactivity. Radon Concentration, absorbed dose rate and surface contamination were measured in dwellings and workplaces in Podgorica. Radon is surveyed at 33 locations, four times during the year. Among locations where radon reference level was exceeded, unfortunately are some number of children gardens

  4. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: Relationship to age and parasitism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klenavic, Katherine [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Champoux, Louise [Service Canadien de la Faune Environnement Canada, 1141 Route de l' Eglise, c.p. 10100, Sainte-Foy, QC G1V 4H5 (Canada)], E-mail: louise.champoux@ec.gc.ca; Mike, O' Brien [Furbearers and Upland Game, Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, NS B4N 4E5 (Canada)], E-mail: obrienms@gov.ns.ca; Daoust, Pierre-Y. [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of P.E.I., 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 4P3 (Canada)], E-mail: daoust@upei.ca; Evans, R. Douglas [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Evans, Hayla E. [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada)], E-mail: hevans@trentu.ca

    2008-11-15

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink. - Mercury (Hg) concentrations in liver, brain and fur are correlated in mink (Mustela vison) and otters (Lontra canadensis), allowing the use of fur as an indicator of internal tissue concentrations.

  5. Effects of diurnal temperature range on adult size and emergence times from diapausing pupae in Papilio glaucus and p.canadensis (Papilionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Mark Scriber; Brittany Sonke

    2011-01-01

    With recent climate warming trends,both the increase in thermal variance (i.e.,diurnal temperature range; DTR) as well as increased mean temperature may impact many different organisms,especially poikilothermic invertebrates.Predictions of insect developmental rates using degree-days (thermal unit accumulations above the developmental base threshold of the insect) are based on daily mean temperatures,regardless of DTR.However,non-linearity and variance in the means and extremes are often ignored.The role of thermal variance (e.g.,daily temperature extremes and DTR) was evaluated experimentally for two swallowtail butterfly sister species using a common day/night photoperiod of 18:6 h photo:scoto-phase and corresponding daytime thermophase and nighttime cryophase periods of 22:22℃ (constant 22℃),24:16℃,and 26:10℃ (all three treatments had the same daily mean and the same degree-day accumulations).Although developmental rates ofpost-diapause pupae were largely unaffected for both species,our results show that sizes in P.canadensis females (but not males) were smaller in the treatments with more variance (26℃:10℃) compared to constant 22℃.Such potentially significant impacts of size reduction in P.canadensis females were not observed in P.glaucus males or females under the same series ofthermo-period treatments.

  6. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  7. Population genetic structure in natural and reintroduced beaver (Castor fiber populations in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kautenburger, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758 is the only indigenous species of the genus Castor in Europe and Asia. Due to extensive hunting until the beginning of the 20th century, the distribution of the formerly widespread Eurasian beaver was dramatically reduced. Only a few populations remained and these were in isolated locations, such as the region of the German Elbe River. The loss of genetic diversity in small or captive populations throughgenetic drift and inbreeding is a severe conservation problem. However, the reintroduction of beaver populations from several regions in Europe has shown high viability and populations today are growing fast. In the present study we analysed the population genetic structure of a natural and two reintroduced beaver populations in Germany and Austria. Furthermore, we studied the genetic differentiation between two beaver species, C. fiber and the American beaver (C. canadensis, using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA as a genetic marker. The reintroduced beaver populations of different origins and the autochthonous population of the Elbe River showed a similar low genetic heterogeneity. There was an overall high genetic similarity in the species C. fiber, and no evidence was found for a clear subspecific structure in the populations studied.

  8. Cyber situation awareness and teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy. J. Cooke; Michael Champion; Prashanth Rajivan; Shree Jariwala

    2013-01-01

    Cyber analysis is a complex task that requires the coordination of a large sociotechnical system of human analysts working together with technology. Adequate situation awareness of such a complex system requires more than aggregate situation awareness of individuals. Teamwork in the form of communication and information coordination is at the heart of team-level situation awareness. In this position paper, we report observations from previously conducted cognitive task analyses that suggest t...

  9. Stellar Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-10-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on nearby galaxies, which are best suited to study this theme. Of course, the understanding of stellar populations is intimately connected to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, one of the great outstanding problems of astronomy. We are currently in a situation where very large observational advances have been made in recent years. Galaxies have been detected up to a redshift of ten. A huge effort has to be made so that stellar population theory can catch up with observations. Since most galaxies are far away, information about them has to come from stellar population synthesis of integrated light. Here I will discuss how stellar evolution theory, together with observations in our Milky Way and Local Group, are used as building blocks to analyse these integrated stellar populations.

  10. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. This powerful technology will also...

  11. 加拿大一枝黄花与一枝黄花解热镇痛抗炎作用比较%Comparation of Solidago Canadensis and Solidago Decurrens in Antipyretic Analgesics and Anti-inflammatory Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许金国; 赵晓莉; 崔小兵

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察加拿大一枝黄花与中药一枝黄花对小鼠的解热镇痛抗炎作用的影响.方法:用热板法测定小鼠的痛觉反应时间,二甲苯耳肿胀法.结果:加拿大一枝黄花与中药一枝黄花具有解热镇痛抗炎作用.结论:加拿大一枝黄花的解热镇痛作用相较于中药一枝黄花的作用相当,加拿大一枝黄花的抗炎作用相较于一枝黄花的作用要强.%Objective:Observation of the mice solidago canadensis and Solidago decurrens antipyretic, analgesics anti-inflammatory effect. Methods : Using hot-plate tests for determination of mice pain reaction time, Xylene auricular swelling. Results: Solidago canadensis and Solidago decurrens have antipyretic, analgesics anti-inflammatory effect. Conclusion : Solidago canadensis is equal to Solidago decurrens in antipyretic, analgesics and anti-inflammatory effect, Solidago canadensis anti-inflammatory effects compared with Solidago decurrens is stronger.

  12. Dimensions of Philippine population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Major findings of a 2 1/2 year research program on Philippine population are presented. The population situation is described with respect to fertility, mortality, life expectancy, migration, labor force, and family formation. Policy recommendations addressing problems in each of these areas are made.

  13. Nutrition situation in metro Manila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentino, R F; Villavieja, G M; Boquecosa, J P; Bacos, F F

    1992-01-01

    . There is therefore an "urban bias" of food supply to Metro Manila, that is, there is a much higher demand capacity for Metro Manila to draw food supply because of its higher income level and bigger population. The impact of this situation in terms of nutrition and food supply in the rural areas should be carefully examined so as not to put the rural areas in extreme disadvantage. FNRI nutrition surveys have shown that dietary energy inadequacy remains rampant in Metro Manila, while protein continues to be a marginal problem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1342756

  14. An investigation of the current situation of AIDS/HIV related knowledge and its impact factors among the floating population of different occupations in Fengtai District of Beijing%丰台区不同职业流动人口艾滋病认知情况及影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣心; 李彦奇; 谢彧洋; 史文雅; 刘超; 赵建忠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand AIDS related knowledge situation among the floating population and to provide scientific evidence for developing AIDS related service for this population. Methods Cross-sectional study and questionnaire survey were conducted among the floating population of four different occupations! that is, construction workers, factory workers, three star hotel service people and the job-wanted people in labor market, selection was done by cluster sampling. Results The rate of knowledge for AIDS/HIV was 76. 9% , and the impact factors on AIDS related knowledge level among the floating population of different occupations were significantly different. Conclusions The impact factors for AIDS related knowledge are significantly different in the floating population of different occupations. Depending on the needs of different occupational floating populations, targeted health education and behavioral interventions for AIDS should be urgently developed for this specific population.%目的 了解北京市丰台区不同职业流动人口的艾滋病相关知识知晓率及其影响因素,针对性地开展流动人口艾滋病预防工作.方法 采取横断面研究设计,分段整群抽样方法选取四类不同职业类别的流动人口,即建筑工人、企业工人、三星级宾馆服务人员及劳务市场寻工人员,进行问卷调查.结果 共调查1625人,艾滋病相关知识知晓率为76.9%.不同职业人群艾滋病相关知识知晓率的影响因素有所不同.结论 不同职业类别流动人口对艾滋病相关知识知晓率的影响因素有所差别.因此,需要针对不同职业的流动人口开展有针对性的艾滋病相关宣传教育和行为干预.

  15. Situated Cognition: Describing the Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altalib, Hasan

    This paper presents an overview of the theory of situated cognition by providing its origin, a listing of its main principles and then discussing in detail the principles of, authentic learning environments, legitimate peripheral participation, and assessment. It also provides two examples of the application of situated cognition principles. The…

  16. How to lead complex situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Pingel

    2013-01-01

    The military leader is experiencing increasingly more complex situations, whether it is as leader in a foreign combat environment or in the home-based public administration. Complex situations like these call for a special set of managerial responses and a special way of leading organisations...

  17. Cases, adverbs, situations and events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, P.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we discuss two approaches to adverbial quantification, the so-called `bound variable approach' and the `situation-based approach', and we address the suggestion that has been made in the literature that the latter reduces to the former as soon as the underlying structure of situations

  18. Situated Processing of Pronominal Anaphora

    OpenAIRE

    TIN, Erkan; AKMAN, Varol

    1994-01-01

    We describe a novel approach to the analysis of pronominal anaphora in Turkish. A computational medium which is based on situation theory is used as our implementation tool. The task of resolving pronominal anaphora is demonstrated in this environment which employs situation-theoretic constructs for processing.

  19. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    the purpose to do science and not to participate in polemics or litigations. For this reason, ESO has until now been silent in these matters, but we have now become obliged to make our opinion known". The ESO representative also made it clear, that "ESO does not question the rights of the claimants to recur to the Chilean Tribunals which must decide on the matter of ownership, and that ESO cannot be party to this lawsuit". He added that "ESO fully trusts that the Chilean Government will do whatever is necessary to defend the immunity of ESO". THE CURRENT SITUATION During the past few days, declarations from high officials at the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs have been made which clearly confirm ESO's immunity of jurisdiction from Chilean Courts. The same opinion has been ventured by Chilean experts in international law, quoted in various Chilean newspapers. On Friday, February 17, the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose M. Insulza, made a similar, very eloquent statement. ESO welcomes these articulate expressions that support its official position and trusts that the current situation will be speedily resolved by the competent Chilean authorities, so that the construction work at Paranal will not be stopped. During the past three decades, ESO's presence in Chile has been characterised by good relations to all sides. The development of astronomy in Chile during the past decades has reached such a level that it will now benefit from a new quality of cooperation. In addition to its past and numerous services to Chilean astronomy, ESO has recently considered to establish a "guaranteed" observing time for astronomers from this country, both at La Silla and the future VLT observatory on Paranal. With a proposed 10 percent quota for the VLT, Chilean astronomers will in fact have free access to the equivalent of 40 percent of one 8.2-metre telescope; the associated, not insignificant cost is entirely carried by ESO. ESO has also considered to incorporate

  20. Identificación de los mecanismos subyacentes a la invasión de Castor canadensis (Rodentia) en el archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego, Chile Identifying the mechanisms underlying the invasion of Castor canadensis (Rodentia) into Tierra del Fuego archipelago, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    PETRA K WALLEM; Jones, Clive G; Marquet, Pablo A.; Fabián M. Jaksic

    2007-01-01

    Castor canadensis es considerado un ingeniero ecosistémico arquetípico, ya que altera el estado de factores bióticos y abióticos, mediante interacciones no tróficas, modificando sustancialmente los ecosistemas que habita. Esta especie fue introducida en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego en 1946 por el gobierno argentino, con el fin de estimular la industria peletera. Actualmente se encuentra presente en las principales islas del archipiélago, incluyendo Tierra del Fuego, Navarino, Dawson y H...

  1. Emergency situations; Les situations d'urgence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  2. Results and financial situation of firms in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    David Vivet

    2014-01-01

    The article looks at the financial situation of non-financial corporations in Belgium over the period from 1 January to 31 December 2013. After briefly describing the methodology and the population studied, it presents an extrapolation of the main operating result items for 2013, with a breakdown by sector and size. The article then goes on to assess the financial situation of companies as regards profitability, solvency and investment. This year, a separate section presents an analysis of th...

  3. Solidago canadensis L. Essential Oil Vapor Effectively Inhibits Botrytis cinerea Growth and Preserves Postharvest Quality of Strawberry as a Food Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shumin; Shao, Xingfeng; Wei, Yanzhen; Li, Yonghua; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hongfei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-fungal properties of Solidago canadensis L. essential oil (SCLEO) against Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and its ability to control gray mold and maintain quality in strawberry fruits. SCLEO exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and profoundly altered mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, and membrane permeability as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. SCLEO vapor at 0.1 mL/L maintained higher sensory acceptance and reduced decay of fresh strawberry fruit, and also reduced gray mold in artificially inoculated fruit. SCLEO treatment did not, however, stimulate phenylalanin ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, or chitinase, enzymes related to disease resistance. This suggests that SCLEO reduces gray mold by direct inhibition of pathogen growth. SCLEO vapor may provide a new and effective strategy for controlling postharvest disease and maintaining quality in strawberries. PMID:27531994

  4. Effects of reintroduced beaver (Castor canadensis) on riparian bird community structure along the upper San Pedro River, southeastern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Glenn E.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 1.—We measured bird abundance and richness along the upper San Pedro River in 2005 and 2006, in order to document how beavers (Castor canadensis) may act as ecosystem engineers after their reintroduction to a desert riparian area in the Southwestern United States. In areas where beavers colonized, we found higher bird abundance and richness of bird groups, such as all breeding birds, insectivorous birds, and riparian specialists, and higher relative abundance of many individual species—including several avian species of conservation concern. Chapter 2.—We conducted bird surveys in riparian areas along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona (United States) and northern Sonora (Mexico) in order to describe factors influencing bird community dynamics and the distribution and abundance of species, particularly those of conservation concern. These surveys were also used to document the effects of the ecosystem-altering activities of a recently reintroduced beavers (Castor canadensis). Chapter 3.—We reviewed Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nest records and investigated the potential for future breeding along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona, where in July 2005 we encountered the southernmost verifiable nest attempt for the species. Continued conservation and management of the area’s riparian vegetation and surface water has potential to contribute additional breeding sites for this endangered Willow Flycatcher subspecies. Given the nest record along the upper San Pedro River and the presence of high-density breeding sites to the north, the native cottonwood-willow forests of the upper San Pedro River could become increasingly important to E. t. extimus recovery, especially considering the anticipated effect of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on riparian habitat north of the region.

  5. Enhancing heat tolerance of the little dogwood Cornus canadensis L. f. with introduction of a superoxide reductase gene from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmin eGeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS can be accelerated under various biotic and abiotic stresses causing lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, enzyme inactivation, and DNA damage. Superoxide reductase (SOR is a novel antioxidant enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus and is employed by this anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon for efficient detoxification of ROS. In this study, SOR was introduced into a flowering plant Cornus canadensis to enhance its heat tolerance and reduce heat induced damage. A fusion construct of the SOR gene and Green Fluorescent Protein gene (GFP was introduced into C. canadensis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Heat tolerance of the GFP-SOR expressing transgenic plants was investigated by observing morphological symptoms of heat injury and by examining changes in photosynthesis, malondialdehyde (MDA, and proline levels in the plants. Our results indicate that the expression of the P. furiosus SOR gene in the transgenic plants alleviated lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and photoinhibition of PS II, and decreased the accumulation of proline at 40°C. After a series of exposures to increasing temperatures, the SOR transgenic plants remained healthy and green whereas most of the non-transgenic plants dried up and were unable to recover. While it had previously been reported that expression of SOR in Arabidopsis enhanced heat tolerance, this is the first report of the successful demonstration of improved heat tolerance in a non-model plant resulting from the introduction of P. furiosus SOR. The study demonstrates the potential of SOR for crop improvement and that inherent limitations of plant heat tolerance can be ameliorated with P. furiosus SOR.

  6. Enhancing Heat Tolerance of the Little Dogwood Cornus canadensis L. f. with Introduction of a Superoxide Reductase Gene from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xing-Min; Liu, Xiang; Ji, Mikyoung; Hoffmann, William A; Grunden, Amy; Xiang, Qiu-Yun J

    2016-01-01

    Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be accelerated under various biotic and abiotic stresses causing lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, enzyme inactivation, and DNA damage. Superoxide reductase (SOR) is a novel antioxidant enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus and is employed by this anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon for efficient detoxification of ROS. In this study, SOR was introduced into a flowering plant Cornus canadensis to enhance its heat tolerance and reduce heat induced damage. A fusion construct of the SOR gene and Green Fluorescent Protein gene (GFP) was introduced into C. canadensis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Heat tolerance of the GFP-SOR expressing transgenic plants was investigated by observing morphological symptoms of heat injury and by examining changes in photosynthesis, malondialdehyde (MDA), and proline levels in the plants. Our results indicate that the expression of the P. furiosus SOR gene in the transgenic plants alleviated lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and photoinhibition of PS II, and decreased the accumulation of proline at 40°C. After a series of exposures to increasing temperatures, the SOR transgenic plants remained healthy and green whereas most of the non-transgenic plants dried up and were unable to recover. While it had previously been reported that expression of SOR in Arabidopsis enhanced heat tolerance, this is the first report of the successful demonstration of improved heat tolerance in a non-model plant resulting from the introduction of P. furiosus SOR. The study demonstrates the potential of SOR for crop improvement and that inherent limitations of plant heat tolerance can be ameliorated with P. furiosus SOR.

  7. Predictive Situational Awareness Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Situational Awareness is the key element of performing safe and effective operations, and the space vehicle operations carried out by NASA is by no means an...

  8. Effects of Solidago canadensis invasion on dynamics of native plant communities and their mechanisms%加拿大一枝黄花入侵对本土植物群落动态的影响及其机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彤; 刘文莉; 张崇邦; 王江

    2012-01-01

    Aims Understanding the impacts of invasive plants on the dynamics of native plants in invaded communities is important for the control of the invasives. Our objectives were to analyze the dynamics of native plants in communities invaded by Solidago canadensis.Methods We selected native plant communities that had experienced different densities of S. Canadensis invasion. Four different invasive stages (based on S. Canadensis densities of 0, 5-7, 11-13 and >18 ind. Plant·m2) were determined, and 10 plots were randomly distributed in each invasive stage. The plant height, density and aboveground biomass of native species in each plot were measured. The niche breadths and niche overlap coefficients of seven common native species were determined for each plot. Nitrate nitrogen (N), ammonia N, available phosphorus (P), total P and total N of soil were measured, as was total N of plant tissue for the seven common native species.Important findings Solidago canadensis had more N accumulation than all seven common native species. The invasion of S. Canadensis significantly decreased native species richness. With greater intensification of 5. Canadensis invasion, niche breadth significantly increased for native species with higher plant tissue total N but significantly decreased for native species with lower plant tissue total N, and the average value of niche overlap coefficients of each native species decreased. The invasion of 5. Canadensis significantly increased soil nitrate N, but decreased soil ammonia N, available P, total P and total N. Results indicated that the ability to accumulate nitrogen determined the dynamics of native plant species when communities were invaded by 5. Canadensis.%了解外来植物入侵对本土植物群落种群动态的影响对于植物入侵的防控极为重要.该文以加拿大一枝黄花(solidago canadensis)入侵不同阶段的植物群落为研究对象,对本土植物物种多样性以及常见优势种群的生态位变化进

  9. Haïti, en situation post-séisme : quelques effets de la catastrophe du 12 janvier 2010 sur la population locale Haïti, in post-earthquake mode: some effects of the earthquake of January 12 2010 on the local population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evens Jabouin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Le violent séisme qui a secoué Haïti et sa capitale le 12 janvier 2010 dernier a laissé des séquelles au sein de la population haïtienne déjà fragilisée par la violence, la pauvreté et aussi par des catastrophes naturelles répétées (ouragans, inondations, érosion, etc.. Ce séisme, aussi prévisible qu’il soit, est une catastrophe naturelle et humanitaire sans précédent dont les principales causes sont l’absence de constructions et d’infrastructures solides, bâties selon les normes parasismiques, l’occupation anarchique de l’espace urbain par les populations et les nombreuses irrégularités incontestées observées dans le domaine de l’urbanisme. En outre, ce séisme s’est produit à un moment où l’on commençait à observer dans le pays un élan de stabilisation sur le plan politique, un mouvement de croissance économique ainsi qu’un début d’amélioration des conditions de vie des populations. La catastrophe est venue freiner cette dynamique socioéconomique tout en amplifiant les problèmes existants et en engendrant d’autres difficultés et d’autres défis. Cet article analyse, à travers des témoignages de première main et un état des lieux, les différents impacts de cette catastrophe sur la population locale ainsi que les interrogations et les incertitudes diverses de cette population concernant son avenir.On January the twelfth 2010, Haiti and its capital have been devastated by a very strong earthquake that has provoked many aftereffects among the local population since that population had already been weakened before by street violence, poverty and by frequent natural disasters such as hurricanes, floods... That earthquake, even foreseeable, has given way to an important disaster whose causes are the absence of well built infrastructures and buildings, the anarchic use of urban spaces by the population, and multiple irregularities in town planning issues. Furthermore, that earthquake took

  10. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  11. Cyber situation awareness and teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Cooke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyber analysis is a complex task that requires the coordination of a large sociotechnical system of human analysts working together with technology. Adequate situation awareness of such a complex system requires more than aggregate situation awareness of individuals. Teamwork in the form of communication and information coordination is at the heart of team-level situation awareness. In this position paper, we report observations from previously conducted cognitive task analyses that suggest that teamwork is lacking in many cyber analysis organizations. Communication is ineffective, team roles are inconsistent across organizations, reward structures and selection may thwart collaboration, and the environment is conducive to individual work. Suggestions for improving teamwork in the cyber domain are offered.

  12. Situation Assessment for Mobile Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anders Billesø

    sensor systems, the growth potential for mobile robot applications are enormous. Many new technological components are available to move the limits of commercial mobile robot applications, but a key hindrance is reliability. Natural environments are complex and dynamic, and thus the risk of robots...... are presented, which applies an Extensible Markov Model (EMM) to represent the spatio-temporal nature of situations. On-line data-streams from the robot sensors and algorithms are processed using stream-based clustering to build the spatio-temporal structure or match the situation of the robot to existing...... states. Situation prediction is proposed using an on-line graph-search of maximum likelihoods in the EMM. The developed software modules are integrated in a new software architecture, which facilitates integration into any robotic control framework and uses on-line visualization of the spatio...

  13. Situational Analysis of Engineering Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    STS inspired studies of engineering work practices provide new material for a richer understanding of engineering culture. However, the specific and strictly situated focus of many of these studies threatens to limit discussions of engineering practices to departmental and discrete institutional....... The paper will propose a research agenda that – inspired by George Marcus’ multi-sited ethnographic methodology (Marcus 1998) and Adele Clarke’s situational analysis (Clarke 2005) – analyze (and contrasts) engineering practices in diverse settings (e.g. engineering education and engineering work) in order...... to uncover the material-discursive transformations in these practices. Thus the research agenda intends to suspend the micro-macro dichotomy by making the situation the ultimate unit and point of departure of analysis. The paper will outline the research design of my studies and elaborate on my...

  14. The France energy situation; La situation energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  15. Situated Modeling of Epistemic Puzzles

    CERN Document Server

    Ersan, M; Ersan, Murat; Akman, Varol

    1994-01-01

    Situation theory is a mathematical theory of meaning introduced by Jon Barwise and John Perry. It has evoked great theoretical and practical interest and motivated the framework of a few `computational' systems. PROSIT is the pioneering work in this direction. Unfortunately, there is a lack of real-life applications on these systems and this study is a preliminary attempt to remedy this deficiency. Here, we examine how much PROSIT reflects situation-theoretic concepts and solve a group of epistemic puzzles using the constructs provided by this programming language.

  16. Cyber defense and situational awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Kott, Alexander; Erbacher, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for th

  17. Effect of Solidago canadensis invasions on soil nematode communities in Hangzhou Bay%加拿大一枝黄花入侵对杭州湾地区土壤线虫群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许湘琴; 王莹莹; 陆强; 林植华; 陈慧丽

    2011-01-01

    近年来随着地下生态学的发展,生态学家们逐渐重视生物入侵导致的地下生物多样性及其相关生态系统功能的改变.为探究加拿大一枝黄花(Solidago canadensis)入侵对土壤线虫的影响,我们在杭州湾地区选取镇海、平湖、慈溪、奉贤、海盐和杭州6个研究地点,比较外来种加拿大一枝黄花群落与土著种芦苇(Phragmites australis)群落土壤中的线虫群落结构和功能.结果显示:两种植物群落土壤中的线虫属数和多样性没有显著差异,而线虫营养多样性、大多数营养类群百分比以及线虫群落结构均存在显著差异,表明加拿大一枝黄花的入侵在一定程度上改变了杭州湾地区土壤线虫的群落结构;加拿大一枝黄花群落中土壤食真菌线虫比例趋于增加,植食性线虫比例降低,表明加拿大一枝黄花的入侵可能对土壤生态系统的能流途径产生影响,在入侵地抗寄生线虫能力强于土著植物芦苇;采样地点与植物的交互作用对线虫多样性和群落结构的影响显著,表明入侵地点是决定加拿大一枝黄花对土壤生物影响的重要因素之一;土壤颗粒组成、碳含量和氮含量是影响线虫群落结构的主要环境因子.%Ecologists are increasingly focusing on the effects of biological invasions on soil biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. We compared soil nematodes under plant communities dominated by invasive Soli-dago canadensis and native plant Phragmites australis at 6 sites (Zhenhai, Fengxian, Pinghu, Haiyan, Cixi and Hangzhou) in Hangzhou Bay to assess the effects of 5. Canadensis invasions on soil nematode communities. The total number of genera and diversity of soil nematode did not differ between S. Canadensis and P. Australis communities. Trophic diversity, most of the proportions of trophic groups and nematode community structure varied between the two plant communities. These results suggested that the invasion of S

  18. The Relative Contributions of Seed Bank, Seed Rain, and Understory Vegetation Dynamics to the Reorganization of Tsuga Canadensis Forests After Loss due to Logging or Simulated Attack by Adelges tsugae

    OpenAIRE

    Farnsworth, Elizabeth Jean; Barker-Plotkin, Audrey A.; Ellison, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Profound changes are occurring in forests as native insects, nonnative insects, or pathogens irrupt on foundation tree species; comprehensive models of vegetation responses are needed to predict future forest composition. We experimentally simulated hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) infestation (by girdling trees) and preemptive logging of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière) and compared vegetation dynamics in replicate 90 m × 90 m treatment plots and intact hemlock...

  19. The Language Situation in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    This monograph examines the language situation in Cameroon, a Central African country where fewer than 20 million people speak close to 250 languages. Specifically, the monograph addresses the issues of language use and spread, language policy and planning, and language maintenance and prospects. The study is divided into five parts. The…

  20. Situated Learning: Conceptualization and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Lakshmi; Johnson, Norman; Junglas, Iris; Ives, Blake

    2010-01-01

    A focus on the interaction between cognitive schemas and context in situ has been suggested as fundamental in organizational decision making and information interpretation. Past research suggests that the situation and the social interaction that occur during learning at the cognitive level consist of factors that affect the process, but the…

  1. Average Convexity in Communication Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we study inheritance properties of average convexity in communication situations. We show that the underlying graph ensures that the graphrestricted game originating from an average convex game is average convex if and only if every subgraph associated with a component of the underlyin

  2. Photosynthetic Water Use Efficiency in it Sorghastrum nutans (C4) and it Solidago canadensis (C3) in Three Soils Along a CO2 Concentration Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, P. A.; Hui, D.; Procter, A.; Johnson, H. B.; Polley, H. W.; Jackson, R. B.

    2006-12-01

    The water use efficiency (WUE) of leaf photosynthetic carbon uptake is a key regulator of ecosystem carbon cycles and is strongly sensitive to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations [CO2]. However WUE responses to [CO2] typically differ between C3 and C4 species and may differ on varying soil types because of differences in soil moisture retention and plant uptake efficiency. We measured leaf-level photosynthesis (ACO2), stomatal conductance (gS), and transpiration (E) with an infrared gas analyzer to estimate WUE for the C4 grass Sorghastrum nutans and the C3 forb Solidago canadensis in constructed grassland species assemblages growing in three soils arrayed along a 200 560 ppm [CO2] gradient in the LYCOG Experiment, in central Texas, USA. LYCOG consists of eighty intact soil monoliths (1 m X 1 m X 1.5 m) representing 3 soil series, Austin (Udorthentic Haplustolls, a mollisol), Bastrop (Udic Paleustalfs, a sandy loam alfisol) and Houston Black (Udic Haplusterts, a vertisol). The monoliths were vegetated by transplanting 8 native perennial prairie species (5 grasses and 3 forbs), including S. nutans and S. canadensis. Both are abundant and widespread; S. nutans is a dominant species throughout much of North American tallgrass prairie, and S. canadensis is one of the most abundant and widespread forbs in North America. ACO2, gS, and E were measured three times during the growing season. Dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence (FvFm) was measured concurrently to assess photosynthetic capacity, and leaf water potential (Ψ leaf) and soil water content were measured to assess plant water status and soil moisture availability. WUE increased strongly (pincreasing ACO2 (p = 0.0055). This pattern was the same in both species (species x [CO2] ns). There was a corresponding increase in Ψ leaf (p = 0.01) at higher [CO2], but no [CO2] effect on FvFm. E and gS were lower on Houston than Austin or Bastrop soils (p ≤ 0.03), however there were no differences in the other leaf

  3. Haïti, en situation post-séisme : quelques effets de la catastrophe du 12 janvier 2010 sur la population locale Haïti, in post-earthquake mode: some effects of the earthquake of January 12 2010 on the local population

    OpenAIRE

    Evens Jabouin

    2012-01-01

    Le violent séisme qui a secoué Haïti et sa capitale le 12 janvier 2010 dernier a laissé des séquelles au sein de la population haïtienne déjà fragilisée par la violence, la pauvreté et aussi par des catastrophes naturelles répétées (ouragans, inondations, érosion, etc.). Ce séisme, aussi prévisible qu’il soit, est une catastrophe naturelle et humanitaire sans précédent dont les principales causes sont l’absence de constructions et d’infrastructures solides, bâties selon les normes parasismiqu...

  4. Nuclear situation in Japan; La situation du nucleaire au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis takes stock on the nuclear situation in Japan. It discusses the ambitious equipment program in collaboration with the France, the destabilization of the japanese nuclear industry following the accidents and the energy policy evolutions. It presents the projects of the japanese nuclear industry: the Monju reactor restart, the Pluthermal project, the reprocessing power plant of Rokkasho Mura, the new reactors, the russian weapons dismantling, the ITER site selection and the buy out of Westinghouse by Toshiba. (A.L.B.)

  5. [Current malaria situation in Turkmenistan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amangel'diev, K A

    2001-01-01

    Malaria is one of the main health problems facing most developing countries having a hot climate. It is a problem in Turkmenistan. The country is situated in Central Asia, north of the Kopetdag mountains, between the Caspian Sea to the west and the Amu-Darya river to the east. Turkmenistan stretches for a distance of 1,100 km from west to east and 650 km from north to south. It borders Kazakhstan in the north, Uzbekistan in the east and north-east, Iran in the south, and Afghanistan in the south-east. Seven malaria vector species are found in Turkmenistan, the main ones being Anopheles superpictus, An. pulcherrimus, and An. martinius. The potentially endemic area consists of the floodplains of the Tejen and Murgab rivers, with a long chain of reservoirs built along them. In 1980 most cases of imported malaria were recorded in military personnel who had returned from service in Afghanistan. In the past years, only tertian (Plasmodium vivax) malaria has been recorded and there have been no death from malaria over that period. In the Serkhetabad (Gushgi) district there are currently 5 active foci of malaria infection, with a population of 22,000 people. In 1999, forty nine cases of P. vivax malaria were recorded in Turkmenistan. Of them, 36 cases, including 4 children under 14 years were diagnosed for the first time while 13 were relapses. There were 88 fewer cases than those in the previous year (by a factor of 2.8). There were 17 more cases of imported malaria than those in 1998 (by a factor of 1.7), most of which occurred in the foci of malaria infection (Serkhetabad, Tagtabazar, and Kerki districts), in the city of Ashkhabat and in Lebap, Dashkhovuz and Akhal Regions. The emergence of indigenous malaria in the border areas was due to the importation of the disease at intervals by infected mosquitoes flying in from neighbouring countries (e.g. Afghanistan), the lack of drugs to treat the first cases and the lack of alternative insecticides. Most patients suffer

  6. Environmental management as situated practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar; Krause, Franz; Hartmann, Niklas Klaus

    2015-01-01

    We propose an analysis of environmental management (EM) as work and as practical activity. This approach enables empirical studies of the diverse ways in which professionals, scientists, NGO staffers, and activists achieve the partial manageability of specific “environments”. In this introduction...... important departures towards a more critical approach. Developing these further, into a cosmopolitical direction, we propose studying EM as sets of socially and materially situated practices. This enables a shift away from established approaches which treat EM either as a toolbox whose efficiency has...... to be assessed, or as simply the implementation of dominant projects and the materialisation of hegemonic discourse. Such a shift renders EM as always messy practices of engagement, critique and improvisation. We conclude that studying the distributed and situated managing agencies, actors and their practices...

  7. Upper secondary students’ situational interest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    ’ interest was investigated by a descriptive interpretive approach, based on data from classroom and field trip observations, video recording, and interviews. The findings provided evidence that substantial situational interest can be generated during a fieldtrip to a zoo. Students’ interest was triggered......This paper comprises a presentation of the findings of a case study that investigated how situational factors triggered 12th grade students’ interest during a field trip to a zoo. The purpose was to identify sources of interest and to investigate the attributes that make them interesting. Students....... The study implies that zoo visits can provide students with affective experiences, which can be a powerful way to stimulate students’ learning motivation....

  8. On viewing culture as situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    to operationalize for technical communication and translation. One of the issues inherent in these models goes back to Pike's coining of the notions of emic and etic stemming from phonemics and phonetics in linguistic theory. He makes the distinction between etic tools which apply across cultures as the phonetic...... participate in social action (Bazerman 1988 & Miller 1984, 1994). To begin to define culture as situation, I will engage the cultural systems perspective (Kampf & Kastberg 2005). This perspective is based on the interaction between norms of behaviour and context in which Hofstede situated his dimensions...... and well as cultural consequences in terms of formats and standards. Looking underneath the forms of genre through the cultural systems perspective offers technical communicators a systematic method for combining cultural, rhetorical and linguistics approaches to produce effective documents for different...

  9. Remembering (Handbook of Situated Cognition)

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, J

    2006-01-01

    The case of remembering poses a particular challenge to theories of situated cognition, and its successful treatment within this framework will require a more dramatic integration of levels, fields, and methods than has yet been achieved. 1. Introduction: the interdisciplinary framework 2. Remembering as constructive activity and interpersonal skill 3. Remembering as social interaction and joint attention to the past 4. Shared remembering 5. Distributed cognition and exograms ...

  10. Interactive behavior in conflict situations

    OpenAIRE

    Quant, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with interactive behavior in conflict situations. The first chapters consider several issues in relation to bankruptcy theory. Thereafter, several operations research problems are modeled within the framework of cooperative game theory. The main focus is on what is optimal for a group of cooperating players and how to divide cost savings or benefits achieved by cooperation. Finally, the last chapter is about non-cooperative game theory, treating properness and protectiveness...

  11. Rapid Identification of Echinococcus granulosus and E. canadensis Using High-Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis by Focusing on a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safa, Ahmad Hosseini; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Tajaddini, Mohammadhasan; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Mohtashami-Pour, Mehdi; Pestehchian, Nader

    2016-07-22

    High-resolution melting (HRM) is a reliable and sensitive scanning method to detect variation in DNA sequences. We used this method to better understand the epidemiology and transmission of Echinococcus granulosus. We tested the use of HRM to discriminate the genotypes of E. granulosus and E. canadensis. One hundred forty-one hydatid cysts were collected from slaughtered animals in different parts of Isfahan-Iran in 2013. After DNA extraction, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was amplified using PCR coupled with the HRM curve. The result of HRM analysis using partial the sequences of cox1 gene revealed that 93, 35, and 2 isolates were identified as G1, G3, and G6 genotypes, respectively. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found in locus 9867 of the cox1 gene. This is a critical locus for the differentiation between the G6 and G7 genotypes. In the phylogenic tree, the sample with a SNP was located between the G6 and G7 genotypes, which suggest that this isolate has a G6/G7 genotype. The HRM analysis developed in the present study provides a powerful technique for molecular and epidemiological studies on echinococcosis in humans and animals. PMID:26567833

  12. Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) infestation affects water and carbon relations of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; Rivera, Laura N; King, John S; Peszlen, Ilona; Hain, Fred; Smith, Benjamin; Frampton, John

    2013-07-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) is an exotic insect pest causing severe decimation of native hemlock trees. Extensive research has been conducted on the ecological impacts of HWA, but the exact physiological mechanisms that cause mortality are not known. Water relations, anatomy and gas exchange measurements were assessed on healthy and infested eastern (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina (Tsuga caroliniana) hemlock trees. These data were then used in a mechanistic model to test whether the physiological responses to HWA infestation were sufficiently significant to induce changes in whole-plant water use and carbon uptake. The results indicated coordinated responses of functional traits governing water relations in infested relative to healthy trees. In response to HWA, leaf water potential, carbon isotope ratios, plant hydraulic properties and stomatal conductance were affected, inducing a reduction in tree water use by > 40% and gross primary productivity by 25%. Anatomical changes also appeared, including the activation of traumatic cells. HWA infestation had a direct effect on plant water relations. Despite some leaf compensatory mechanisms, such as an increase in leaf hydraulic conductance and nitrogen content, tree water use and carbon assimilation were diminished significantly in infested trees, which could contribute to tree mortality.

  13. [Situational panorama of Mexico against the chikungunya virus pandemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Abisai; Martínez-Ramos, Ericay Berenice; Chávez-Angeles, Manuel Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of emerging diseases emphasize the vulnerability of health systems, as is the case of chikungunya fever. The wide geographical incidence of the virus in the last years requires alerting systems for the prevention, diagnosis, control and eradication of the disease. Given the ecological, epidemiological and socio-economic characteristic of Mexico, this disease affects directly or indirectly the health of the population and development of agricultural, livestock, industrial, fishing, oil and tourism activities in the country. Due to this situation it is essential to make a brief analysis on the main clinical data, epidemiological and preventive measures with which our country counts with to confront the situation. PMID:25760749

  14. Environmental monitoring in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual gives technical guidance on emergency monitoring procedures to those who would have to assess the situation after an accident leading to the uncontrolled release of radioactive substances to the environment. Its aim is to draw attention to the important factors that should be considered in formulating emergency plans. The seven annexes contain inventories of fission products and possible releases; dispersion, deposition and dose-exposure relationships for airborne releases; α-, β- and γ-radiation surveys; information on sample collection and field evaluation; and brief descriptions of the environmental monitoring procedures adopted in previous emergencies (Windscale 1957, AERE Harwell 1961 and NRTS Idaho 1961).

  15. The German power supply situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first key statement of this paper runs like this: The situation of power supply in Germany basically is good. However, two qualifications should be added: The current situation is still good. Power outages as a consequence of power plant failures of the kind experienced in other countries must not be expected to occur in Germany. German utilities work hard to offer this assurance also for the future. This is where politics comes in with the need to guarantee reliable framework conditions. After deregulation of the electricity market, reregulation resulting from government interventions is becoming potentially more and more problematic. Energy issues remain at the top of the political agenda, e.g. with the amendment to the Power Economy Act. This is a matter involving a variety of questions and projects on the part of legislators which require delicate handling because, in addition to the prices to be paid by consumers, they also involve as the most important factor the continuity of supply. Nuclear power today covers a major part of our baseload supply, in addition to lignite and hard coal which are used mainly in the medium-load range. Supported by the findings of recent studies, such as the dena Study, the Prognos and EWI Energy Report, the problem is how to replace this share reliably, in a way protecting the climate and economically viable, in line with the political conditions stipulating residual electricity outputs of nuclear power plants. Other countries can be seen to pursue different policies in using nuclear power. (orig.)

  16. Wellbeing in the Netherlands : the SCP life situation index since 1974

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelhouwer, J

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been a lot of interest in achieving a broader perspective on prosperity and the development of countries. This study is about a composite index for describing and monitoring developments in the life situation of the Dutch population. Since 1974 this Life Situation Index (LSI) is

  17. Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

  18. Situation Report--Argentina, France, Gambia, Grenada, Hungary, Nepal, and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in seven foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, France, Gambia, Grenada, Hungary, Nepal, and Paraguay. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General…

  19. Predictors and Outcomes of Job Search Behavior: The Moderating Effects of Gender and Family Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Born, Marise Ph.; Taris, Toon W.; van der Flier, Henk

    2005-01-01

    This study explored differences in the antecedents and consequences of job search behavior depending on gender and family situation in a large, nationwide sample of the Dutch population. Using Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB), we found no gender differences in the antecedents of job seeking. However, family situation did affect the…

  20. Situation Report--Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 11 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Bermuda, Boliva, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, and Panama. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  1. 一般人群育龄妇女外阴阴道假丝酵母菌携带情况及相关行为因素分析%Analysis on the carrier situation and related behavioral factors of vulvovaginal candidiasis in women of child bearing age among the general population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁秀; 肖敏; 郭爱华; 李汉金; 胡序怀

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解一般人群育龄妇女外阴阴道假丝酵母菌携带情况和不同避孕方法、行为因素对女性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌携带的影响.方法:通过对育龄妇女体检采集的阴道分泌物进行培养,诊断女性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌携带情况,并对所有对象进行问卷调查,了解相关的行为因素.结果:深圳地区一般人群育龄妇女阴道假丝酵母菌携带率15.4%.初中文化程度以下妇女阴道假丝酵母菌检出率为16.4%,高中及以上文化程度妇女的检出率为15.1%.采取不同避孕方法的妇女阴道假丝酵母菌携带率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).对外阴阴道假丝酵母菌携带有影响的因素分别有:洗澡时采用盆浴(P=0.011)、内裤与袜子混洗(P=0.020)、浴盆与洗脚盆共用(P=0.049)和非经期使用卫生护垫(P=0.001),而其他调查相关因素差异无统计学意义.结论:采用阴道分泌物培养的方式检测假丝酵母菌检出率高.深圳市一般人群育龄妇女外阴阴道假丝酵母菌携带率在正常范围内.文化程度、避孕方法对外阴阴道假丝酵母菌携带无影响(P>0.05).盆浴、内裤袜子混洗、浴盆与洗脚盆共用及非经期使用卫生护垫是妇女外阴阴道假丝酵母菌携带的危险因素.%Objective: To understand the carrier situation of vulvovaginal candidiasis in women of child bearing age among the general population and the effects of different contraceptive methods and behavioral factors on vulvovaginal candidiasis carrier. Methods: The vaginal secretion samples of women of child bearing age were obtained during physical examination and cultured, the carrier situation of female vulvovaginal candidiasis was diagnosed, and all the objects were surveyed by a questionnaire, the related behavioral factors were understood. Results:The carrying rate of vulvovaginal candidiasis in women of child bearing age among the general population in Shenzhen was 15.4%. The detection rates

  2. Task-oriented situation recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Fischer, Yvonne

    2010-04-01

    From the advances in computer vision methods for the detection, tracking and recognition of objects in video streams, new opportunities for video surveillance arise: In the future, automated video surveillance systems will be able to detect critical situations early enough to enable an operator to take preventive actions, instead of using video material merely for forensic investigations. However, problems such as limited computational resources, privacy regulations and a constant change in potential threads have to be addressed by a practical automated video surveillance system. In this paper, we show how these problems can be addressed using a task-oriented approach. The system architecture of the task-oriented video surveillance system NEST and an algorithm for the detection of abnormal behavior as part of the system are presented and illustrated for the surveillance of guests inside a video-monitored building.

  3. Experimental situation of beauty oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental situation of the evidences for beauty oscillations is reviewed. After a brief description of the formalism the results from the CERN proton-antiproton collider are described and compared with the results from electron-positron colliders. Whereas the experiments on the continuum measure a mixture of χs and χd the experiments on the Υ (4s) are only sensitive to χd. A forecast for 1992 is given and a method is described which allows to measure χs. A precision measurement of χs would allow to further constrain the CKM matrix and would eventually lead to a determination of the phase in the matrix

  4. ANT, tourism and situated globality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; van der Duim, René

    2015-01-01

    are used to define as the separate spheres of nature and culture. This paper explores and relates the central tenets of ANT in tourism with regard to the concept of the Anthropocene. It presents the ANT approach as a flat and object-oriented ontology and methodology and explores its potentials to carve out......In recent years Actor-network theory (ANT) has increasingly been felt in the field of tourism studies (Van der Duim, Ren, & Jóhannesson, 2012). An important implication of the meeting between ANT and tourism studies is the notion of tourism being described as a heterogeneous assemblage of what we...... viable descriptions of the collective condition of humans and more-than-humans in the Anthropocene. Also and moving past a merely descriptive approach, it discusses it as a useful tool to engage with the situated globalities which come into being through the socio-spatial coupling of tourism...

  5. Obstacles to Understanding Cognitions As Situated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, David; Whitson, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the current state of situated cognition theory. Points to underlying issues that remain to be clarified in order for the substantive differences between situative and cognitive approaches to be appreciated. (MMU)

  6. Diagnosing Educational Leadership Problems: A Situational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Philip E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Discusses Situational Leadership Theory, a conceptual framework that can help managers improve their performance by varying their leadership style in various situations to fit the needs and capabilities of their subordinates. (JG)

  7. Toward a Situated Stance in Organizational Institutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boxenbaum, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Organizational Institutionalism is gradually embracing a more situated, actor-centered stance that is prompting empirical inquiry into how embedded actors respond to institutional complexity. French Pragmatist Sociology can contribute to this endeavor because it provides a situated, relational, a...

  8. 加拿大一支黄花基乙酰丙酸的制备研究%Study on the production of levulinic acid from Solidago Canadensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨再福; 薛金莲

    2012-01-01

    Solidago Canadensis was used as the raw material to extract α-cellulose and then to prepare levulinic acid. The effects of reaction time, temperature, acid concentration and ratio of solid to liquid on the yield of levulinic acid and reducing sugar were investigated. This process was consistent with the notion of biorefinery. Gas chromatography was used to analyze the yield of levulinic acid. The results showed that the optimum reaction condition at the 2.0 MPa pressure were as follows:reaction temperature 230℃ .reaction time 45 min, solid-liquid ratio 1: 20, acid concentration 6% and the yield of levulinic acid was 27.62%. When the reaction ended, the reducing sugar was almost entirely degradated with 1.02% remained.%以加拿大一枝黄花为原材料,提取α-纤维素,并制备乙酰丙酸.在符合生物炼制观念的基础上,考察温度、时间、酸浓度、固液比对乙酰丙酸的产率和还原糖残留量的影响.采用气相色谱法进行产率的分析.结果表明,压力为2.0 MPa时,在最佳温度230℃,时间45 min,硫酸浓度为6%,固液比1∶20的条件下,乙酰丙酸的产率为27.62%.反应结束之后,还原糖基本完全转化,残留量为1.02%.

  9. Relative accuracy of spatial predictive models for lynx Lynx canadensis derived using logistic regression-AIC, multiple criteria evaluation and Bayesian approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hejun KANG; Shelley M.ALEXANDER

    2009-01-01

    We compared probability surfaces derived using one set of environmental variables in three Geographic Information Systems (GIS) -based approaches: logistic regression and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC),Multiple Criteria Evaluation (MCE),and Bayesian Analysis (specifically Dempster-Shafer theory). We used lynx Lynx canadensis as our focal species,and developed our environment relationship model using track data collected in Banff National Park,Alberta,Canada,during winters from 1997 to 2000. The accuracy of the three spatial models were compared using a contingency table method. We determined the percentage of cases in which both presence and absence points were correctly classified (overall accuracy),the failure to predict a species where it occurred (omission error) and the prediction of presence where there was absence (commission error). Our overall accuracy showed the logistic regression approach was the most accurate (74.51% ). The multiple criteria evaluation was intermediate (39.22%),while the Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory model was the poorest (29.90%). However,omission and commission error tell us a different story: logistic regression had the lowest commission error,while D-S theory produced the lowest omission error. Our results provide evidence that habitat modellers should evaluate all three error measures when ascribing confidence in their model. We suggest that for our study area at least,the logistic regression model is optimal. However,where sample size is small or the species is very rare,it may also be useful to explore and/or use a more ecologically cautious modelling approach (e.g. Dempster-Shafer) that would over-predict,protect more sites,and thereby minimize the risk of missing critical habitat in conservation plans.

  10. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in livers of American mink (Mustela vison) and river otter (Lutra canadensis) from the Columbia and Fraser River Basins, 1990-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.E.; Henny, Charles J.; Harris, M.L.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in aquatic mustelid species on the Fraser and Columbia Rivers of northwestern North America. Carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis) (N=24) and mink (Mustela vison) (N=34) were obtained from commercial trappers during the winters of 1990-91 and 1991a??92. Pooled liver samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Most samples contained detectable concentrations of DDE, PCBs, although there was substantial variability in patterns and trends among neighboring samples. Concentrations of DDE were in some mink and several otter samples from the lower Columbia River elevated (to 4700 g/kg wet weight); excluding one mink sample from the Wenatchee area, mean DDE levels generally decreased between 1978a??79 and 1990a??92. PCBs were present in all samples. PCB concentrations in otter livers collected from the lower Columbia were ten-fold lower than measured a decade previously; nevertheless, a sample taken near Portland had a mean concentration of 1500 g/kg, within a range of concentrations associated with reproductive effects in captive mink. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and TCDF were generally below detection limits, except for one otter collected near a pulp mill at Castlegar, on the upper Columbia, with 11 ng TCDD/kg in liver. Elevated concentrations of higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs, probably resulting from use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives, were found in both species; one otter sample from the lower Columbia had 2200 ng OCDD/kg. International TCDD toxic equivalent levels in mink (31 ng/kg) and otter (93 ng/kg) from the lower Columbia River approached toxicity thresholds for effects on reproduction in ranch mink.

  11. Evaluating potential overlap between pack stock and Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae) in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Robert C.; Few, Alexandra P.; Knox, Kathleen A.; Hatfield, Brian E.; Clark, Jonathan; German, David W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Pack stock (horses, mules, burros, llamas, and goats) are frequently assumed to have negative effects on public lands, but there is a general lack of data to be able to quantify the degree to which this is actually the case. Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks have received complaints that pack stock may affect Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae; SNBS), a federally endangered subspecies that occurs in largely disjunct herds in the Sierra Nevada Range of California. The potential effects are thought to be displacement of SNBS from meadows on their summer range (altered habitat use) or, more indirectly, through changes in SNBS habitat or forage quality. Our goals were to conduct an association analysis to quantify the degree of potential spatial overlap in meadow use between SNBS and pack stock and to compare differences in vegetation community composition, structure, and diversity among meadows with different levels of use by bighorn sheep and pack stock. For the association analysis, we used two approaches: (1) we quantified the proportion of meadows that were within the herd home ranges of bighorn sheep and were potentially open to pack stock, and, (2) we used Monte Carlo simulations and use-availability analyses to compare the proportion of meadows used by bighorn sheep relative to the proportional occurrence or area of meadows available to bighorn sheep that were used by pack stock. To evaluate potential effects of pack stock on meadow plant communities and SNBS forage, we sampled vegetation in 2011 and 2012 at 100 plots to generate data that allowed us to compare:

  12. An Ontology For Mobile Situation Aware Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Paul F O'Brien

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel design artefact, namely a generic situation management ontology based on situation theory. This ontology contributes to the foundation knowledge base of mobile service delivery systems for future research and systems design. It demonstrates the applicability, and feasibility of using situation theory in the design of reactive information systems. The support within the ontology for context based filtering for situation detection also contributes to the efficiency...

  13. Designing to support situation awareness across distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Whitton, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    When collaborating, individuals rely on situation awareness (the gathering, incorporation and utilization of environmental information) to help them combine their unique knowledge and skills and achieve their goals. When collaborating across distances, situation awareness is mediated by technology....... There are few guidelines to help system analysts design systems or applications that support the creation and maintenance of situation awareness for teams or groups. We propose a framework to guide design decisions to enhance computer-mediated situation awareness during scientific research collaboration...

  14. Extreme situations due to gender violence

    OpenAIRE

    Stela Meneghel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of the third Critical Paths Seminar, held in Porto Alegre/Brazil in 2011, whose focus was extreme situations of gender violence. The extreme situations are human rights violations that include femicide or murder motivated by the situation of gender; LGBT murders, human rights violations of ethnic and racial minorities, sexual exploitation, violence to women in vulnerable situations and other violence caused by gender. The meeting objective was given space to sh...

  15. Research on preparation of cellulose diacetate from invasive plant: Solidago Canadensis L.%入侵植物加拿大一枝黄花制备二醋酸纤维素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莲莲; 杨再福; 朱丹丹

    2013-01-01

    Solidago Canadensis L.is used as the raw material to prepare highly purified α-cellulose and cellulose diacetate(CDA).Result shows that the best liquid-solid ratio during activation is 1∶7,the optimum dosage of catalyst and acetic anhydride respectively is 9% ~ 11% and 550% during acetified reaction,the esterification time was 2 h,and the temperature was 50 ℃,and the best AA concentration is 70% during saponification,the best temperature of saponification was 80 ℃ and the time was 2 h.The result of FTIR and XRD analysis shows that the cellulose from Solidago Canadensis L.is acetylated partly,and the crystallinity of the production is decreasing.%利用加拿大一枝黄花(Solidago Canadensis L.)茎干为原料,提取高纯度α-纤维素浆粕,制备二醋酸纤维素(CDA),并对其制备工艺进行优化.结果表明,制备醋酸纤维素的工艺最优条件为:活化最佳液固比:1∶7,醋化过程催化剂最佳用量为9%~11%,醋酸酐用量为550%,醋化时间2h,温度为50℃,皂化过程醋酸最佳浓度为70%,皂化最佳温度80℃,时间2h.红外和X射线分析表明,加拿大一枝黄花纤维素的羟基被部分醋酸酯化,经过醋化和皂化后结晶度下降为29.88%.

  16. Situational Analysis of Flood and Drought in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Rufangura, Patrick; Jayaweera, MPC Herath; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a situational analysis of flood and drought in Rwanda were assessed using AQUEDUCT Global Flood Analyzer based on the population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and urban damage for current and future projections (2030). In order to estimate future changes, three scenarios from: Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) and Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSP) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 5th Assessment Report which represents climate change and socioecono...

  17. Characterization of Innovation Situation in a Remote Rural Region

    OpenAIRE

    Minna Sarkkinen; Tuomo Kässi

    2013-01-01

    Innovation debates dealing with regional economic development have generally focused on densely populated, technologically advanced areas and areas around university cities, undervaluing rural regions and their integration in national innovation systems. However, some statistics indicate that remote and rural regions may also have good innovation potential. This study examines more closely the innovation situation of the firms located in a remote rural region in Finland. The...

  18. School and Situated Knowledge: Travel or Tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarin, Suzanne K.

    1993-01-01

    Examines issues related to situated cognition and learning, both in the classroom and in the world. Topics discussed include educational theories; the situated nature of knowledge; the perception of experts; and the role of technology in situated learning, including virtual reality, hypertext, and telecommunications. (26 references) (LRW)

  19. Situated Learning in Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theories of learning such as Wenger and Lave's situated learning have been suggested as alternatives to cognitive theories of learning like constructivism. This article examines situated learning within the context of computer science (CS) education. Situated learning accurately describes some CS communities like open-source software…

  20. Allelopathic Potential and Mechanism of Erigeron canadensis on Maize%入侵种加拿大蓬对玉米的化感潜力及机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莉; 韩梅; 肖春萍; 杨利民

    2011-01-01

    The pot experiments were conducted to study the effect of exotic invasive plant Erigeron cana-densis L. On mature plants of maize, Zea mays L. The result showed that the plant height, stem diameter and the dry matter accumulation in roots, stems, leaves and corncob were reduced in the plants treated with aqueous leachates of E. Canadensis, and the decrease in grain mass per plant was down to 27. 46%. Leaf area of maize decreased by 12. 58%. The content of chlorophyll had a significant difference compared with the control. At silking and filling stages of corn, the net photosynthetic rate declined significantly, which was consistent with the change of transpiration rate and stomatal conductance, which suggested that the diffusion obstruction of C02 or vapor in plant stomata was the main reason for decrease in net photosynthetic rate, and affecting photosythetic capacity of maize was an important mechanism of the aqueous leachates of E. Canadensis.%采用盆栽法研究了入侵杂草加拿大蓬Erigeron canadensis L.对玉米Zea mays L.成熟植株的化感作用,并对其作用机制进行了探讨.结果发现,经加拿大蓬水提液处理后,玉米植株有矮化、弱化的趋势,生物量积累受阻,单株减产可达27.46%.分析玉米叶片的结构参数和气体交换参数发现,受试玉米叶面积减小12.58%以上,叶绿素a含量显著降低且与对照差异达显著水平;吐丝期、灌浆期净光合速率明显下降,其变化趋势与蒸腾速率、气孔导度一致,说明水汽、CO2进出气孔受阻是导致净光合速率降低的主要原因.而影响受体的光合作用是加拿大蓬水提液对玉米产生化感作用的一种重要途径.

  1. Environmental catalysis: the Canadian situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, T.; Christensen, D.; Gostick, J.; Mogharei, A.; Oskin, G. O.; Won, W.; Aida, T. [Waterloo Univ. ON (Canada)

    2000-10-01

    The Canadian situation with respect to research in environmental catalysis was investigated by analyzing catalysis papers appearing in the 1999 and 2000 issues of major journals devoted to research in catalysis (Journal of Catalysis; Catalysis Today; Applied Catalysis A: General and B: Environmental). A total of 2150 papers were surveyed; of these 34 were by Canadian authors, with Canada ranking twentieth in the world in terms of research in this field. About 40 per cent of the catalysis papers were related to the environment, with nitrogen and sulphur emissions being the most important topics and energy conversion second. Hydrodesulphurization of petroleum oil, use of low sulphur coal and flue gas desulphurization are the principal processes for controlling sulfur emissions into the air, while nitrogen oxides emissions in automobiles are ccontrolled bt three-way catalysts. In power generation, selective catalytic reduction is the preferred method, although not in Canada, where installing low-NOx burners or using low nitrogen fuels such as natural gas are favored. The control of volatile organic compounds is also a serious problem. The two most promising processes for the Canadian situation are adsorption by activated carbon and catalysis using low-temperature catalysts. Water treatment of textile mill effluents, a favorite topics by Canadian authors, includes photocatalytic oxidation with titanium oxide photocatalyst, ozonation with activated carbons and a combination of photocatalysis and biological treatment. Carbon dioxide conversion was also a favoured topic by Canadian researchers; not surprising in view if the fact that Canada is the highest per capita producer of carbon dioxide emissions. Nearly two-thirds of the carbon dioxide emissions is due to the transportation and energy production sectors, therefore, any carbon dioxide mitigation strategies should be applied initially in these areas. Catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide into methanol, which then

  2. Current Situation of Edible Snails in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 7, 1995 to April 16, 1995 du ring the rainy season the utilisation of edible snails was investigated in Indonesia. To assess the current situation, the focus was put to answer the following questions : - Is it feasible under the present circumstances to domesticate these snails with the aim to conserve the natural resources ? - Could any individual or private initiative be enhanced or utilized ? - Would local disadvantaged groups (traditional animal farmers, women oryouths be benefitted through domestication of these snails ? - Is there any existing private organisation or NGO, which already gathers and trades the snails or would be interested to do this in the future ? Snails gatherers, -dealers and -farmers were visited and interviewed on the following topics using standardised questionnaires : Spreading and ecology ways of marketing, consumption habits, breeding and rearing. Diotopes were also visited and investigated. Results Spreading and ecology : Achatina fulica, Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea and Bellamia javanica are eaten. The snails can be found ail overJava. Ways of marketing : The snails gathered in the biotope are either marketed directly or through various marketing paths. A. fulica is exported in large quantifies. The population is therefore endangered. Consumption habits : Snails are not eaten regularly. Snail meat is known to be healthy. The consumption depends on the consumer's ethnie background. Breeding and rearing experience : with simple breeding systems for A. fulica and P. canaliculata are seldom found. The breeding of P. canaliculata is forbidden in Indonesia. There is no interest in breeding P. ampullacea or B. javanica. The breeding of A. fulica can ben-efit disadvantaged groups financially and help to conserving the natural snail population.

  3. Extreme situations due to gender violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Meneghel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of the third Critical Paths Seminar, held in Porto Alegre/Brazil in 2011, whose focus was extreme situations of gender violence. The extreme situations are human rights violations that include femicide or murder motivated by the situation of gender; LGBT murders, human rights violations of ethnic and racial minorities, sexual exploitation, violence to women in vulnerable situations and other violence caused by gender. The meeting objective was given space to share experiences, reflect critically and build strategies for facing violence and extreme situations resulting from gender systems.

  4. Increasing situational awareness using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddhu, Sanjay K.; Williams, Robert L.; Wasser, Edward; Kode, Niranjan

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the United States Armed Services and various law enforcement agencies have shown increasing interest in evaluating the feasibility of using smartphones and hand-held devices as part of the standard gear for its personnel, who are actively engaged on battlefield or in crime-prone areas. The primary motive driving analysis efforts to employ smartphone-based technologies is the prospect of the increased "Situational Awareness" achievable thru a digitally connected network of armed personnel. Personnel would be equipped with customized smart applications that use the device's sensors (GPS, camera, compass, etc...) to sense the hostile environments as well as enabling them to perform collaborative tasks to effectively complete a given mission. In this vein, as part of the Summer At The Edge (SATE) program, a group of student interns under the guidance of mentors from Qbase and AFRL, have employed smartphones and built three smart applications to tackle three real-world scenarios: PinPoint, IStream, and Cooperative GPS. This paper provides implementation details for these prototype applications, along with the supporting visualization and sensor cloud platforms and discusses results obtained from field testing of the same. Further, the paper concludes by providing the implications of the present work and insights into future work.

  5. Population dynamics and angler exploitation of the unique muskellunge population in Shoepack Lake, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohnauer, N.K.; Pierce, C.L.; Kallemeyn, L.W.

    2007-01-01

    A unique population of muskellunge Esox masquinongy inhabits Shoepack Lake in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Little is known about its status, dynamics, and angler exploitation, and there is concern for the long-term viability of this population. We used intensive sampling and mark-recapture methods to quantify abundance, survival, growth, condition, age at maturity and fecundity and angler surveys to quantify angler pressure, catch rates, and exploitation. During our study, heavy rain washed out a dam constructed by beavers Castor canadensis which regulates the water level at the lake outlet, resulting in a nearly 50% reduction in surface area. We estimated a population size of 1,120 adult fish at the beginning of the study. No immediate reduction in population size was detected in response to the loss of lake area, although there was a gradual, but significant, decline in population size over the 2-year study. Adults grew less than 50 mm per year, and relative weight (W r) averaged roughly 80. Anglers were successful in catching, on average, two fish during a full day of angling, but harvest was negligible. Shoepack Lake muskellunge exhibit much slower growth rates and lower condition, but much higher densities and angler catch per unit effort (CPUE), than other muskellunge populations. The unique nature, limited distribution, and location of this population in a national park require special consideration for management. The results of this study provide the basis for assessing the long-term viability of the Shoepack Lake muskellunge population through simulations of long-term population dynamics and genetically effective population size. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  6. Uranium production cycle: Argentine situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Argentina, nuclear power plants at Atucha and Embalse are in operation with very high plant load factors. Atucha II is under construction with the expected start-up in 2012. The long term nuclear power plan of Argentina envisages additional seven units in the next 25 years. It is estimated that the cumulative uranium requirements for these nuclear power plants will be about 30000 tU. However the estimated uranium reserves of Argentina at present in different categories is only approximately 15000 tU. Sierra Pintada mine, south west of the Mendoza province, was in production from 1975 to 1995 and was kept in stand-by from 1995. Quartz, feldspar, calcite, and kaolinite are the most abundant minerals in the ore. The rock is formed by moderately well-sorted grains of quartz, feldspar, and rock fragments, all cemented by calcite with minor clay replacement. The mine is an open pit and at 0.025%U cut off about 6500 tU reserves were estimated. Average grade is 0.076% U. The barren - ore rock ratio is 10:1 and barren benches are 10m and ore benches 2.5 m in height. So far 13400000 m3 of barren rock, 376000 t low grade ore and 2500000t plant feed ore has been mined out. The Sierra Pintada mine is expected to restart operations by 2010. The major problems in restarting this mine are the mining laws, community issues and apprehensions of the local tourism and wine industries. The paper will discuss the mining law in Argentina vis-a-vis the uranium situation and exploration programme for the the next years. (author)

  7. Situational Language Teaching in Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus F.M. Huang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Situational language teaching (SLT is an effective instruction paradigm for English teaching in terms of providing vocabularies and sentence patterns with their frequent situations through learning materials. With the growth of educational technology, we need powerful and suitable techniques to embody SLT’s features in ubiquitous learning (u-learning and thus to benefit teachers and learners. Although researchers have proposed several innovative types of u-learning scenarios, the improved SLT paradigm in u-learning environment has been rarely investigated. This study indicated a framework of ubiquitous learning school to promote the concept of u-learning and employ SLT pedagogy in u-learning environment; it is called U-SLT. In order to support its innovation and provide situational learning services on demand, situational mashups was suggested to identify learners’ situation and learning requirement by means of integrating situation awareness with service mashups. The comparison between two u-learning modes, learning with situational mashups and learning without situation awareness support, were discussed. Experimental results showed that the students with the situational mashups support had a better learning performance and improved behaviours. Therefore, situational mashups was perceived to be a useful and desirable system for supporting U-SLT as well as the fundamental issue of a ubiquitous learning school.

  8. Current situation of antiretroviral therapy for the foreign spouses of cross-border marriage families resided in the border areas of Yunnan Province and study on the needs of the population%云南省定居边境地区外籍跨境婚姻人群AIDS抗病毒治疗现状及需求研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳云飞; 李惠琴; 陈庆玲; 赵红梅; 安靓; 周曾全

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解云南省定居在边境地区的外籍跨境婚姻人群AIDS抗病毒治疗现状及需求,为政策制定提供依据.方法 采用定性和定量研究相结合的方法,收集云南省边境地区外籍跨境婚姻人群HIV感染流行病学、随访管理和治疗的数据,并设计半结构问卷对部分县的78名行政管理和卫生人员以及感染HIV的外籍跨境婚姻人群进行访谈调查.对定性和定量资料进行分析.结果 ①跨境婚姻家庭在云南边境地区很普遍,多数当地人不把外籍跨境婚姻人群作为外来人员看待;多数跨境婚姻家庭未进行婚姻登记,属于事实婚姻;②边境地区外籍跨境婚姻人群中AIDS流行状况不容乐观;③跨境婚姻人群HIV检测及抗病毒治疗开展情况各地不均衡;④已感染HIV的外籍跨境婚姻人群非常需要免费抗病毒治疗.结论 云南省在防治AIDS决策时要正视和重视边境外籍人员的HIV感染问题,应该把因为婚姻关系定居在边境地区的外籍人员纳入与中国居民同等的防治AIDS管理(包括免费进行抗病毒治疗)的范畴,在防治政策上给以保障,在资金上给予支持.%Objective To learn about the current situation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the foreign spouses of cross-border marriage families resided in the border areas of Yunnan Province and their needs, so as to provide evidence for policy-making. Methods Qualitative and quantitative methods were applied to collect and analyze the data related to HIV epidemiology, follow-up and treatment of cross-border marriage families resided in the border areas of Yunnan Province. In addition, semi-structured interviews of 78 local administration personnel, health professionals and foreign spouses of cross-border marriage families were carried out. The qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed. Results Cross-border marriages were common and received in the border areas of Yunnan Province, and most marriages

  9. Ultra-highly diluted plant extracts of Hydrastis canadensis and Marsdenia condurango induce epigenetic modifications and alter gene expression profiles in HeLa cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santu Kumar Saha; Sourav Roy; Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Methylation-specific epigenetic process and gene expression profiles of HeLa cel s treated with ultra-high dilutions (HDs) of two plant extracts, Hydrastis canadensis (HC-30) and Marsdenia condurango (Condu-30), diluted 1060 times, were analyzed against placebo 30C (Pl-30) for alterations in gene profiles linked to epigenetic modifications. METHODS: Separate groups of cel s were subjected to treatment of Condu-30, HC-30, and Pl-30 prepared by serial dilutions and succussions. Global microarray data recorded on Affymetrix platform, using 25-mer probes were provided by iLifeDiscoveries, India. Slides were scanned with 3000 7G microarray scanner and raw data sets were extracted from Cel (raw intensity) files. Analyses of global microarray data profile, differential gene expression, fold change and clusters were made using GeneSpring GX12.5 software and standard normalization procedure. Before microarray study, concentration of RNA (ng/μL), RIN value and rRNA ratio for al the samples were analysed by Agilant Bioanalyzer 2100. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR were done for analyzing SMAD-4 expression. Fluorescence-activated cel sorting study was further made to elucidate fate of cel s at divisional stages. Methylation-specific restriction enzyme assay was conducted for ascertaining methylation status of DNA at specific sites. RESULTS: HDs of HC-30 and Condu-30 differential y altered methylation in specific regions of DNA and expression profiles of certain genes linked to carcinogenesis, as compared to Pl-30. Two separate cut sites were found in genomic DNA of untreated and placebo-treated HeLa cel s when digested with McrBC, compared to a single cut observed in Condu-30-treated genomic DNA. SMAD-4 gene expression validated the expression pattern observed in microarray profile. Methylation-specific restriction enzyme assay elucidated differential epigenetic modifications in drug-treated and control cel s

  10. Managing and engineering in complex situations

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa-Poza, Andres

    2013-01-01

    With so many terms available to define the same thing, it would seem nearly irresponsible to introduce yet another term (complex situation) to describe a phenomenological state of such as a system. However, a complex situation infers both a broader meaning and imposes a different perspective. Complex in this context is dependent on understanding and reality rather than observer and knowledge.   Situation imposes a gestalt that cannot be characterized within a singular perspective that relegates paradox to a superior/subordinate hierarchy. This also infers that complex situation has no monotonic definition or each definition is by default incomplete. Therefore the perennial derivations for systems such as complex systems, system of systems, federation of systems is no longer a sufficient descriptor for complex situation.  Ergo system and its genealogy lack the constitution to define complex situations. The books' intent is to explore this pathology through a series of papers written by authors that work in ...

  11. Situational analysis of parental socialization in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lorence Lara, Bárbara; Menéndez Álvarez-Dardet, Susana; Hidalgo García, María Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research consisted of examining parental socialization taking into account the nature and variability of daily situations. The objectives of this study were: to explore parent´ behavior according to the degree of importance of diverse situations included in the Parental Socialization Scale in Adolescence (ESPA29); and to analyze whether the importance of these situations is associated with parents´ different socialization practices. Using the information provide...

  12. [Setting up situated learning in vascular rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Lascoux, Léa; Puchault, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    A pedagogical tool as well as a concept, situated learning describes the skills used in a situation in a given context, structuring the reflection, analysis and choice of nursing procedures, based on theoretical knowledge, know-how and interpersonal skills. A vascular rehabilitation team has chosen to formalise two situations from among the most common care procedures carried out in the department: the changing of complex dressings and ensuring the personal hygiene and comfort of a dependent patient with skin wounds.

  13. Situated Learning in Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2004-06-01

    Sociocultural theories of learning such as Wenger and Lave's situated learning have been suggested as alternatives to cognitive theories of learning like constructivism. This article examines situated learning within the context of computer science (CS) education. Situated learning accurately describes some CS communities like open-source software development, but it is not directly applicable to other CS communities, especially those that deal with non-CS application areas. Nevertheless, situated learning can inform CS education by analyzing debates on curriculum and pedagogy within this framework. CS educators should closely examine professional CS communities of practice and design educational activities to model the actual activities of those communities.

  14. Situated Cognition and Strategies for Meaningful Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Díaz Barriga Arceo

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the principles underlying situated cognition linked to the Vygotskian sociocultural perspective, which state that situated cognition is both a part and the result of activity, context and culture. It highlights the importance of mediation, the joint construction of meaning and the mechanism of adapted assistance. There are examples of instructional approaches which vary in cultural relevance and the type of social activity they elicit. It also presents a number of meaningful learning strategies based on situated experiential teaching (authentic problem solving, learning while in service, case studies, projects, situated simulation, among others. Finally, the paper deals with the potentiality of empowerment.

  15. Current situation analysis of blood pressure and blood lipids in overweight and obese population from coastal areas of Fujian province%福建沿海地区超重及肥胖人群血压、血脂现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林慧榕; 朱鹏立; 肖华贞; 韦信暖; 林帆; 黄峰

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate current situation of overweight and obesity among population from coastal areas of Fujian province ,and study their correlation with blood pressure (BP) and blood lipids . Methods :A total of 3343≥30 years people from coastal areas of Fujian province were enrolled using cross -sectional survey .Body height and mass ,BP ,waist circumference (WC) ,blood glucose and blood lipids etc .were measured .The correlation among BP ,blood lipids and BMI were statistically analyzed . Results:Detection rates of overweight and obesity were 34.6% and 10.0% respectively .Overweight rate of men was significantly higher than that of women (40.4% vs . 30.7% , P40 years) , P<0.05 or <0.01. Partial correlation analysis indicated that BMI was positively correlated with WC ,SBP ,DBP ,TC ,LDL‐C and HbA1c levels ( r=0.701 ,0.218 ,0.238 ,0.068 ,0.120 , 0.135 ,P<0.01 all) ,and inversely correlated with TG and HDL‐C levels (r= -0.069 both ,P<0.01 both) .Mul‐tifactor linear regression analysis indicated that BMI was significantly correlated with WC ,sex ,age ,DBP ,HDL‐C and FBG levels .After controlling age ,sex and blood glucose etc .,binary Logistic regression analysis indicated that overweight (OR=2.283 ,95% CI 1.915~2.721) and obesity (OR=4.419 ,95% CI 3.329~5.865) were risk fac‐tors for hypertension and dyslipidemia [overweight (OR= 1.356 ,95% CI 1.160~ 1.584) ,obesity (OR= 1.691 , 95% CI 1.319~2.167 )] , P<0.01 all .Conclusion:Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity are high in coastal population in Fujian province .Percentages of hypertension ,dyslipidemia ,DM and cardiovascular risk factor aggre‐gation significantly rise among overweight and obese people ,so controlling body mass is of important significance for prevention and treatment of chronic diseases ,including hypertension ,DM and dyslipidemia etc .%目的:调查福建沿海地区人群超重和肥胖的现状及其与血压、血脂的相关性。方法:通过横断面调查方法

  16. Analysis of radiation situation in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper the analysis of radiation situation in the republic is carried out. It is noted, that the country posses the first place in the world by the nuclear explosions density per country's squire unit. The Semipalatinsk region remains to be the most unsuccessful in republic by the general parameters both health status and morbidity. In formation of radiation loads on Kazakhstan's population a huge uranium ore resources is taking place as well. Presence of uranium anomalies on the territory results the increased doses of natural radionuclides in the drinking water, increased radon emanation from soil and it release into the atmosphere. During few last years in the republic a certain work by the radiation situation improving is fulfilled. Up present time the serious problem of radioactive wastes disposal remains

  17. The Language Planning Situation in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coperahewa, Sandagomi

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines the language planning situation in Sri Lanka with particular emphasis on the planning of Sinhala as an official language of the country. It explores the historical, social, ideological and political processes, changes in language policy decisions, as well as the complexities of the language policy and planning situation in…

  18. Leadership in Sport: The Situational Leadership Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    Situational leadership theory suggests that to reach maximum leadership effectiveness, the leader must adapt his/her behavior to different situations. For athletic coaches, this means that the amount of direction provided for students should increase or decrease according to the students' maturity levels. Applications of the theory are discussed.…

  19. Public Congestion Network Situations, and Related Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleppe, J.; Reijnierse, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes congestion effects on network situations from a cooperative game theoretic perspective. In network situations players have to connect themselves to a source. Since we consider publicly available networks any group of players is allowed to use the entire network to establish their

  20. Situating Gendered Learning in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to situate the concept of gendered learning in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the results of two closely related, qualitative studies of apprenticeship learning in two major industrial companies in Denmark. Findings: The paper finds that the creation of a situated-gendered…

  1. Situating Cognition: Knowledge and Power in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansman, Catherine A.; Wilson, Arthur L.

    Although adult education as a field has shown interest in theories of situated cognition, it has misappropriated some of its central concepts. Proponents of situated cognition posit that learning is not something that happens in independent isolation, or just inside the head, but instead is shaped by the context, culture, and tools of the learning…

  2. Towards Situation-Oriented Programming Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Tin, Erkan; Akman, Varol; Ersan, Murat

    1995-01-01

    Recently, there have been some attempts towards developing programming languages based on situation theory. These languages employ situation-theoretic constructs with varying degrees of divergence from the ontology of the theory. In this paper, we review three of these programming languages.

  3. Response of Root Border Cells of Vicia faba L.to Volatile Oil from Erigeron canadensis L.%蚕豆根缘细胞对加拿大蓬挥发油的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 贾贵芳; 王亚男; 李群; 马丹炜

    2011-01-01

    Allelopathy is one of the mechanisms by which an invasive alien species, Erigeron canadensis L.(horseweed) invades successfully and spreads rapidly.In order to further explore allelopathic and invasion mechanisms of this species, allelopathic effects ofvolatile oil from this species on root border cells and the activity of pectin methylesterase(PME) of broad bean were studied by aeroponic culture.The results showed that the volatile oil from E.canadensis inhibited the root growth, and the survival rate of root border cells decreased, and the activity of root pectin methylesterase increased.But the stimulating effect gradually lowered down along with the increasing doses of the volatile oil and treatment times.These results suggested that volatile oil from this species caused root border cells death and inhibited the growth of ambient plants.%化感作用是入侵植物加拿大蓬(Erigeron canadensis L.)成功入侵和快速扩散的机制之一.为了深入探讨加拿大蓬的化感机制和入侵枧制,以蚕豆为材料,采用悬空气法研究了加拿大蓬挥发油对根边缘细胞和果胶甲基酯酶的化感效应.结果表明在加拿大蓬挥发油作用下,蚕豆根的生长受到抑制,根缘细胞存活率下降,根果胶甲基酯酶活性升高,但随着挥发油剂量增大和作用时间延长,这种促进效应逐渐降低.这些结果说明加拿大蓬挥发油对根边缘细胞具有致死效应,从而抑制了周围植物的生长发育.

  4. The World at 7:00: Comparing the Experience of Situations Across 20 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Esther; Baranski, Erica; Todd, Elysia; Bastian, Brock; Bronin, Igor; Ivanova, Christina; Cheng, Joey T; de Kock, François S; Denissen, Jaap J A; Gallardo-Pujol, David; Halama, Peter; Han, Gyuseog Q; Bae, Jaechang; Moon, Jungsoon; Hong, Ryan Y; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Izdebski, Paweł; Lundmann, Lars; Penke, Lars; Perugini, Marco; Costantini, Giulio; Rauthmann, John; Ziegler, Matthias; Realo, Anu; Elme, Liisalotte; Sato, Tatsuya; Kawamoto, Shizuka; Szarota, Piotr; Tracy, Jessica L; van Aken, Marcel A G; Yang, Yu; Funder, David C

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to quantitatively compare everyday situational experience around the world. Local collaborators recruited 5,447 members of college communities in 20 countries, who provided data via a Web site in 14 languages. Using the 89 items of the Riverside Situational Q-sort (RSQ), participants described the situation they experienced the previous evening at 7:00 p.m. Correlations among the average situational profiles of each country ranged from r = .73 to r = .95; the typical situation was described as largely pleasant. Most similar were the United States/Canada; least similar were South Korea/Denmark. Japan had the most homogenous situational experience; South Korea, the least. The 15 RSQ items varying the most across countries described relatively negative aspects of situational experience; the 15 least varying items were more positive. Further analyses correlated RSQ items with national scores on six value dimensions, the Big Five traits, economic output, and population. Individualism, Neuroticism, Openness, and Gross Domestic Product yielded more significant correlations than expected by chance. Psychological research traditionally has paid more attention to the assessment of persons than of situations, a discrepancy that extends to cross-cultural psychology. The present study demonstrates how cultures vary in situational experience in psychologically meaningful ways. PMID:25808415

  5. Parental Discipline Behaviors, Subjective Parental Situation Perceptions and Objective Characteristics of Discipline Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerris, Jan R. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    In this attempt to explain parental discipline behaviors from an interactionist viewpoint that includes person and situation factors, the relationship of parental discipline behaviors to situation-specific feelings and cognitions and objective situational characteristics were examined. Data obtained from 300 families included (1) social…

  6. Socio-economic situation as the determinant of internal migration in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Wilk; Michal Bernard Pietrzak; Stanislaw Matusik

    2013-01-01

    Internal population migration flows constitute an inherent element of the market economy. Under relatively stable political conditions, the nature of internal migration is reflected in economic reasons as a result of the regional socio-economic situation. The subject of this paper was to examine relationships between socio-economic situation and internal migration phenomena in Poland. The investigation covers the period of time after Poland’s accession to the EU, with two sub-periods reflect ...

  7. Predictors and outcomes of job search behavior: The moderating effects of gender and family situation

    OpenAIRE

    Hooft, Edwin; Born, Marise; Taris, Toon; Flier, Henk

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis study explored differences in the antecedents and consequences of job search behavior depending on gender and family situation in a large, nationwide sample of the Dutch population. Using Ajzen’s (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB), we found no gender differences in the antecedents of job seeking. However, family situation did affect the relations in the TPB, such that personal attitude was a slightly weaker, and perceived social pressure a stronger predictor of job seeki...

  8. Implementation synergies that exploit situational knowledge strategically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    This paper illustrates how strategic and situated forms of knowledge may increase capacity to implement energy strategies in local urban development projects. Through analysis of front runner implementation projects, we show that the involved planners utilize situational learning processes.......g. regulation, with broader context‐specific learning processes. In doing so, we argue that – what we call – an implementation synergy is established by interlacing different forms of situational knowledge with strategic knowledge about how to reach a desired energy target. In conclusion, the paper identifies...

  9. Towards an ethical theory in disaster situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Health Care professionals working in disaster situations have to face urgent choices which diverge from their normal deontological ethos and are more utilitarian. Such is the triage system used to choose whom to treat. Instead of entering a crisis these professionals should be thought that ethics is not harmonizable to all situations and that there are situations in which saving as many lives as possible mean sacrificing others. This calls for defining a perimeter zone in which such choices occur, and a time frame (a space-time niche) in which it ought to be considered ethical and legitimate to use such value laden choices.

  10. Towards an ethical theory in disaster situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Health Care professionals working in disaster situations have to face urgent choices which diverge from their normal deontological ethos and are more utilitarian. Such is the triage system used to choose whom to treat. Instead of entering a crisis these professionals should be thought that ethics is not harmonizable to all situations and that there are situations in which saving as many lives as possible mean sacrificing others. This calls for defining a perimeter zone in which such choices occur, and a time frame (a space-time niche) in which it ought to be considered ethical and legitimate to use such value laden choices. PMID:25028162

  11. Dynamics of the radioecological situation in Kiev before and after the disaster on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of long standing observations of radioecological situation in Kiev, which were carried out from the beginning of 60-th and till today in 12 selected points of control are presented in this work. The dynamics of changes of main radiation situation parameters before and after Chernobyl disaster was investigated: the γ-exposure dose rate; the activity of global precipitations, atmosphere sediments and settling dust; radioactive pollution of soil and vegetation. The comparison of the radioecological situations in Kiev and dose loads due to internal and external irradiation for Kiev population in 1985 and 1992 was carried out

  12. A scalable model for network situational awareness based on Endsley's situation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Wei; Li Jianhua; Chen Xiuzhen; Jiang Xinghao; Zuo Min

    2007-01-01

    The paper introduces the Endsley's situation model into network security to describe the network security situation,and improves Endsley'S data processing to suit network alerts.The proposet model contains the information of incident frequency.incident time and incident space.The HoneyNet dataset is selected to evaluate the proposed model in the evaluation.The paper pmposes three definitions to depict and predigest the whole situation extraction in detail.and a fusion component to reduce the influence of alert redundancy on the total security situation.The less complex extraction makes the situation analysismore efficient,and the fine-grained model makes the analysis have a better expansibility.Finally,the situational variation curves are simulated,and the evaluation results prove the situation model applicable and efficient.

  13. Surgery and refugee populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, A L; Groen, R S; Kingham, T P

    2009-01-01

    Although infectious diseases, malnutrition and diarrhea account for the vast majority of deaths in many crisis situations, many individuals also suffer from traumatic injuries and other surgically treatable conditions. Understanding the determinants involved in surgical interventions is facilitated by defining baseline, emergent and chronic phases for refugees and internally displaced populations. International aid organizations often expend vast resources on surgical interventions. More detailed assessments and further study may help provide insight into optimizing the success and minimizing the cost of such interventions. This article is a review of the surgical and disaster literature and defines issues for further study. PMID:19447737

  14. 48 CFR 805.205 - Special situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Special situations. (a) A contracting officer may procure paid advertising in a daily newspaper circulated... procure paid advertising in a daily newspaper circulated in the local area or in professional journals...

  15. An Event Based Approach To Situational Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Ashish, Naveen; Mehrotra, Sharad; Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    2009-01-01

    Many application domains require representing interrelated real-world activities and/or evolving physical phenomena. In the crisis response domain, for instance, one may be interested in representing the state of the unfolding crisis (e.g., forest fire), the progress of the response activities such as evacuation and traffic control, and the state of the crisis site(s). Such a situation representation can then be used to support a multitude of applications including situation monitoring, analysis, and planning. In this paper, we make a case for an event based representation of situations where events are defined to be domain-specific significant occurrences in space and time. We argue that events offer a unifying and powerful abstraction to building situational awareness applications. We identify challenges in building an Event Management System (EMS) for which traditional data and knowledge management systems prove to be limited and suggest possible directions and technologies to address the challenges.

  16. Observations on the Alaska reindeer situation, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses various topics regarding the situation of Alaskan reindeer in 1968. The production of reindeer by Alaskan natives is discussed, including their...

  17. Decision-making situations in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdach, A D

    1995-08-01

    Social workers in health care settings are constantly required to make clinical decisions about patient care and treatment. Although much attention has been devoted to the normative or ethical aspects of decision making in such settings, little attention has been given to the typical situational aspects of decisions social workers must make in health care. This article discusses four types of clinical decision situations--operational, strategic, authoritative, and crisis--and presents a model to assist in analyzing their components and requirements. Case vignettes drawn from practice experience illustrate each type of decision-making situation. The article concludes that knowledge of the situational aspects of practice decision making can be helpful to practitioners by enabling them to sort out courses of action and intervention.

  18. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE AUDIT OF FINANCIAL SITUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Madalina, Salomia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a business world situated on a market that is becoming more and more active both on an international and national level, the audit of financial situations embodies a veritable varied research domain and with favorable advantages for the Romanian business society, as well as for the interest of the business society located outside the Romanian space.From the result of the auditing of financial situations of a entity, various information may be obtained which is used by different groups that present opinions, knowledge and divergent interests such as:managers, investors, financial creditors, commercial creditors, clients, suppliers, employees, the government and its institutions, bankers, financial analysts, the public, the business community and other entities who base themselves on the objectivity and integrity of the financial situations audited.

  19. Prediction and Situational Option Generation in Soccer

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Paul Ward, Michigan Technological University Naturalistic models of decision making, such as the Recognition- Primed Decision (RPD) model (e.g., Klein, Calderwood, & Clinton-Cirocco, 1986; Klein, 1997), suggest that as individuals become more experienced within a domain they automatically recognize situational patterns as familiar which, in turn, activates an associated situational response. Typically, this results in a workable course of action being generated first, and...

  20. Decoupling, situated cognition and immersion in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Situated cognition seems incompatible with strong decoupling, where representations are deployed in the absence of their targets and are not oriented toward physical action. Yet, in art consumption, the epitome of a strongly decoupled cognitive process, the artwork is a physical part of the environment and partly controls the perception of its target by the audience, leading to immersion. Hence, art consumption combines strong decoupling with situated cognition.

  1. Report on TENORM. National and international situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present report, the situation of TENORM materials around the world is analyzed in order to plan future steps regarding this subject in our country. The different regulatory criteria adopted are presented and the national situation is analyzed from the legal point of view. The report is fundamentally focused on petroleum and gas industry, due to, as it was exposed in a preliminary report, this industry would have the most important TENORM content. (author)

  2. SELF-DEFENCE IN SPECIAL SITUATIONS (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamya-Diana HĂRĂTĂU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the reality of practical cases and in certain special situations, self-defence may present some complex forms consisting either in accidental amplification of the issue in fact when self-defence is claimed, or in the correlation in fact of self-defence to other cases which remove the criminal nature of act1. For these reasons, we decided to analyse few of such special situations.

  3. Situational Language Teaching in Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Angus F.M. Huang; Stephen J.H. Yang; Gwo-Jen Hwang

    2010-01-01

    Situational language teaching (SLT) is an effective instruction paradigm for English teaching in terms of providing vocabularies and sentence patterns with their frequent situations through learning materials. With the growth of educational technology, we need powerful and suitable techniques to embody SLT’s features in ubiquitous learning (u-learning) and thus to benefit teachers and learners. Although researchers have proposed several innovative types of u-learning scenarios, the improved S...

  4. Reflectivity, reflexivity and situated reflective practice

    OpenAIRE

    Malthouse, R; Roffey-Barentsen, J; Watts, DM

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aspect of reflective practice referred to as ‘Situated Reflective Practice’ (SRP). The overarching theory is derived from social theories of structuration and reflexivity. In particular, from Giddens’s (1984) theory of structuration, this sees social life as interplay of agency and structure. Discussion of the research reported here centres on the nature of such situated reflection, considers related literature and presents the data collected in a recent small-scale st...

  5. SELF-DEFENCE IN SPECIAL SITUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamya-Diana HĂRĂTĂU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the reality of practical cases and in certain special situations, self-defence may present some complex forms consisting either in accidental amplification of the issue in fact when self-defence is claimed, or in the correlation in fact of self-defence to other cases which remove the criminal nature of act1. For these reasons, we decided to analyse few of such special situations.

  6. Modeling Situation Awareness and Crash Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Donald L.; Strayer, David L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we develop a model of the relationship between crash risk and a driver’s situation awareness. We consider a driver’s situation awareness to reflect the dynamic mental model of the driving environment and to be dependent upon several psychological processes including Scanning the driving environment, Predicting and anticipating hazards, Identifying potential hazards in the driving scene as they occur, Deciding on an action, and Executing an appropriate Response (SPIDER). Togeth...

  7. Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R.; Ek, Asa; Akselsson, Roland

    2007-01-01

    In high-risk environments such as air traffic control, leadership on different levels plays a certain role in establishing, promoting, and maintaining a good safety culture. The current study aimed to investigate how leadership styles, leadership style adaptability, and over and under task leadership behavior differed across situations, operative conditions, leadership structures, and working tasks in an air traffic control setting. Study locations were two air traffic control centers in Sweden with different operational conditions and leadership structures, and an administrative air traffic management unit. Leadership was measured with a questionnaire based on Leader Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD; Blanchard, Zigarmi & Zigarmi, 2003; Hersey & Blanchard, 1988). The results showed that the situation had strong impact on the leadership in which the leadership behavior was more relationship oriented in Success and Group situations than in Hardship and Individual situations. The leadership adaptability was further superior in Success and Individual situations compared with Hardship and Group situations. Operational conditions, leadership structures and working tasks were, on the other hand, not associated with leadership behavior.

  8. Situation of cancerology in tunisia 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is a worldwide problem. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 12.4 million of new cancer cases and 7.6 million of deaths have been registered worldwide, during 2012-2013. The trend is still rising. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), report that by 2030 there will be between 20 and 25 million cases of cancer, and 13 to 16 million of annual deaths due to cancer. Cancer remains the second cause of deaths in developed countries after cardiovascular diseases. This situation is beginning to be observed in emerging countries. Three main factors are advanced to explain the development of cancer: The population aging, the adoption of western lifestyle (bad eating habits, physical inactivity, obesity ...) and tobacco. In our country, the number of new cases of cancers per year is estimated to be 10300 (5900 for males and 4400 for females). The crude incidence rate for all localities is about 117.9 / 100 000, for male and 87.6 / 100,000, for females. We list the main achievements registered until now: The first program planed for the cancer was performed in the city of Jerba, in August 1995. The second cancer plan was done in 1995-1998, in Carthage. In December 1996, a cancer plan was established for the period between 2006 and 2010. About the cancer registration: three population-based cancer registries were set up (in the North, Sfax and Sousse). Regarding infrastructure, we count in the public sector: The Salah Azaiez Instiute of cancer (SAI), in Tunis, the two cancer centers (in Sousse and Sfax), the four units of oncological medicine (Jendouba, Gafsa, Gabes, Kairouan). Projects concerning radio and chemotherapy units are currently in progress, in Ariana, and two units of oncological medicine, in Beja and Monastir. In the private sector, three clinics are mentioned: 02 clinics are already active, the third is under construction and 04 clinics for radiotherapy (02 in Tunis and 02 in Sfax). There is a clear reduction in the time of

  9. Promoting Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    THE world's population reached 5 billion in 1987,then 6 billion in 1999;now,in 2011,it is 7 billion.For a country with a set birth control policy,the way in which Chinese people and the media view this number has greatly changed.People are increasingly reflecting on the concept of population from a more scientific and rational perspective.This shift is a change from how people perceived population in the past.

  10. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the revised Home Situations Questionnaire for autism spectrum disorder: The Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Monali; Aman, Michael G; Lecavalier, Luc; Smith, Tristram; Johnson, Cynthia; Swiezy, Naomi; McCracken, James T; King, Bryan; McDougle, Christopher J; Bearss, Karen; Deng, Yanhong; Scahill, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Previously, we adapted the Home Situations Questionnaire to measure behavioral non-compliance in everyday settings in children with pervasive developmental disorders. In this study, we further revised this instrument for use in autism spectrum disorder and examined its psychometric properties (referred to as the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder). To cover a broader range of situations and improve reliability, we prepared seven new items describing situations in which children with autism spectrum disorder might display non-compliance. Parents completed ratings of 242 children with autism spectrum disorder with accompanying disruptive behaviors (ages 4-14 years) participating in one of two randomized clinical trials. Results from an exploratory factor analysis indicated that the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder consists of two 12-item factors: Socially Inflexible (α = 0.84) and Demand Specific (α = 0.89). One-to-two-week test-retest reliability was statistically significant for all scored items and also for subscale totals. The pattern of correspondence between the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder and parent-rated problem behavior, clinician-rated repetitive behavior, adaptive behavior, and IQ provided evidence for concurrent and divergent validity of the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder. Overall, the results suggest that the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder is an adequate measure for assessing non-compliance in a variety of situations in this population, and use of its two subscales will likely provide a more refined interpretation of ratings. PMID:26187059

  11. All in a day's work – variability in person-situation interactions in daily life situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Meinert

    effect of persons’ situational concerns and intentions upon fluctuations in quality of experience. This paper will argue that the combination of findings (a) and (b) goes against the interpretation that persons merely “react” to situational features, and instead points to how subjective and agentic...... features of the person shape experience by way of guiding the person’s interaction with the situations of everyday life....

  12. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  13. Recovery of radioactive sources in irregular situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of some aspects of the hazards presented by sources in an irregular situation have been made. This situation is defined in the following manner: a radioactive source is in an irregular situation when it has inadvertently left its storage or transport container, or when it cannot be placed back in it because the container itself has been damaged. In a utilisation position, a source, although dangerous, is not in an irregular situation so long as it is under the control of a qualified user. The situation becomes irregular as soon as the source is abandoned without surveillance. The dangers presented by sources are twofold: - external irradiation, in the case of so-called sealed sources, some of which are called in ''special form'', in the meaning of the transport regulations. In theory, where such sources are concerned, the radioactive substances they contain cannot be dispersed, even in the event of an accident to the source itself; - radioactive contamination due to the dispersion of the substances they contain, and their being carried away by water, air or contact with the hands. Some sources can present both kinds of hazards. Some aspects of the organization set up in the CEA to intervene in the event of a radioactive incident or accident were described

  14. Putting judging situations into situational judgment tests: evidence from intercultural multimedia SJTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstuhl, Thomas; Ang, Soon; Ng, Kok-Yee; Lievens, Filip; Van Dyne, Linn

    2015-03-01

    Although the term situational judgment test (SJT) implies judging situations, existing SJTs focus more on judging the effectiveness of different response options (i.e., response judgment) and less on how people perceive and interpret situations (i.e., situational judgment). We expand the traditional SJT paradigm and propose that adding explicit assessments of situational judgment to SJTs will provide incremental information beyond that provided by response judgment. We test this hypothesis across 4 studies using intercultural multimedia SJTs. Study 1 uses verbal protocol analysis to discover the situational judgments people make when responding to SJT items. Study 2 shows situational judgment predicts time-lagged, peer-rated task performance and interpersonal citizenship among undergraduate seniors over and above response judgment and other established predictors. Study 3 shows providing situational judgment did not affect the predictive validity of response judgment. Study 4 replicates Study 2 in a working adult sample. We discuss implications for SJT theory as well as the practical implications of putting judging situations back into SJTs. PMID:25285384

  15. Situation awareness with systems of systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tretmans, Jan; Borth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security.  Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier selection, rule-based anomaly detection, an ontology-based event model for semantic reasoning, new methods for semi-automatic generation of adapters bridging communication gaps, security policies for systems-of-systems, trust assessment, and methods to deal with the dynamics of systems-of-systems in run-time monitoring, testing, and diagnosis. Architectural considerations for designing information-centric systems-of-systems such as situation awareness systems, and an integrated demonstrator implementing many of the investigated aspects, complete the book.

  16. Study on Current Situation of HIV/AIDS-related KAP and Its Influencing Factors Among Floating Population in Changping District in 2010%2010年昌平区流动人口艾滋病KAP现状及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张崛; 刘红新; 李芬; 侯钊; 马树波

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解昌平区流动人口艾滋病相关知识、态度、行为现状及其影响因素,为进一步有效地开展流动人口艾滋病预防和控制工作提供依据.方法 对辖区建筑工人、工厂工人、个体经营者、住宿餐饮从业人员、家政从业人员、临时雇佣劳动力、娱乐场所从业人员7类流动人口进行问卷调查.结果 流动人口艾滋病相关知识知晓率为84.8%,不同性别、不同行业人群艾滋病相关知识知晓率差异均有统计学意义.Binary Logistic回归分析显示,不同性别、年龄、户籍、文化程度、是否做过免费HIV检测等因素对其知晓率有显著影响;流动人口现有的艾滋病相关知识通过多途径获得,从高到低依次是电视、免费宣传材料、广播等,但流动人u最希望获得艾滋病相关知识的途径从高到低依次是电视、免费宣传材料、书籍等;有3.6%的流动人口做过免费HIV检测;仅22.1%的人不歧视HIV/AIDS;有4.7%流动人口有商业性行为,仅18.1%的人能每次坚持用套;有7.3%的流动人口与临时性伴发生过性关系,仅18.1%的人能坚持每次用套;有0.5%的男性有同性行为,仅16.7%的人能坚持每次用套.结论 昌平区流动人口艾滋病知识掌握不全面,存在对HIV/AIDS的歧视态度和感染艾滋病的高危性行为.需要进一步加强对当地流动人口的艾滋病综合干预.%Objective To learn knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP) and influencing factors related to AIDS among the floating population in Changping District, and to provide a scientific basis for further effective prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in floating population. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among the floating population in Changping District, including builders, factory workers, self - employers, restaurant workers, home service workers, temporary wage labors, and employees in public entertainment places in Changping. Results The awareness rate of HIV

  17. Imaginary populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martínez–Abraín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A few years ago, Camus & Lima (2002 wrote an essay to stimulate ecologists to think about how we define and use a fundamental concept in ecology: the population. They concluded, concurring with Berryman (2002, that a population is "a group of individuals of the same species that live together in an area of sufficient size to permit normal dispersal and/or migration behaviour and in which population changes are largely the results of birth and death processes". They pointed out that ecologists often forget "to acknowledge that many study units are neither natural nor even units in terms of constituting a population system", and hence claimed that we "require much more accuracy than in past decades in order to be more effective to characterize populations and predict their behaviour". They stated that this is especially necessary "in disciplines such as conservation biology or resource pest management, to avoid reaching wrong conclusions or making inappropriate decisions". As a population ecologist and conservation biologist I totally agree with these authors and, like them, I be¬lieve that greater precision and care is needed in the use and definition of ecological terms. The point I wish to stress here is that we ecologists tend to forget that when we use statistical tools to infer results from our sample to a population we work with what statisticians term "imaginary", "hypothetical" or "potential" popula¬tions. As Zar (1999 states, if our sample data consist of 40 measurements of growth rate in guinea pigs "the population about which conclusions might be drawn is the growth rates of all the guinea pigs that conceivably might have been administered the same food supplement under identical conditions". Such a population does not really exist, and hence it is considered a hypothetical or imaginary population. Compare that definition with the population concept that would be in our minds when performing such measurements. We would probably

  18. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...... situations. The Ethics Committees' approval of the trial justified by their competence and authority, combined with the NOK´s insight into the patient's wishes may be a relevant and feasible alternative to the current consent procedure. FUNDING: This work was supported by the European Regional Development...

  19. Situational Leadership And Diversity Management Coaching Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaudin G. Mujtaba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Leadership and diversity management have been part of the work life since the beginning of formal organizations and a critical element of globalization. The authors provide an overview of situational leadership and link it to diversity management so the focus can remain on productivity rather than personalities and biases which are part of each society and individual. Based on personal training experiences of the authors, this conceptual and practical paper provides a model to link situational leadership to diversity in the workplace through effective coaching skills.  

  20. Alternativas de propagação na produção de óleo essencial de Mentha canadensis L. no Litoral Norte Catarinense Propagation alternatives for the production of Mentha canadensis L. essential oil at the Santa Catarina State northern coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M.C.S. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Mentha é cultivado mundialmente para a produção de óleo essencial, com ênfase no constituinte mentol, amplamente utilizado nas indústrias farmacêutica, cosmética, alimentícia e de higiene pessoal. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da utilização de diferentes estruturas de propagação e épocas de colheita de Mentha canadensis L. no Litoral Norte Catarinense. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 4x2, comparando quatro estruturas de propagação (estolões com 10, 15 e 20 cm de comprimento e estacas com 5 cm de comprimento e duas épocas de colheita (95 dias após o plantio e 60 dias após a rebrota. Em cada colheita foi avaliado o crescimento vegetativo e produtividade de óleo essencial e de mentol. Na primeira colheita, houve maior acúmulo de massa seca de folhas, caules e total; produtividade de óleo essencial e de mentol quando o plantio foi realizado com mudas obtidas por estaquia. Na segunda colheita, no entanto, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para todas as variáveis analisadas. A primeira colheita resultou em médias superiores em relação à segunda colheita à exceção do plantio por estolão com 10 cm em todas as variáveis e estolão com 20 cm para a massa seca de caules. Os constituintes majoritários do óleo essencial foram mentol, mentona e neomentol. Os teores de mentol foram significativamente superiores na segunda colheita e de mentona na primeira colheita, sendo que o neomentol não apresentou diferença significativa em ambas as colheitas. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a colheita antecipada da rebrota proporciona maior concentração de mentol no óleo essencial. O uso de estolões como estrutura de propagação pode ser considerada uma alternativa viável para menta, pois além de apresentar níveis similares de produção de óleo essencial e de mentol a partir da segunda colheita ao de áreas implantadas com mudas

  1. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  2. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  3. Population neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paus, T

    2016-01-01

    Population neuroscience endeavors to identify influences shaping the human brain from conception onwards, thus generating knowledge relevant for building and maintaining brain health throughout the life span. This can be achieved by studying large samples of participants drawn from the general population and evaluated with state-of-the-art tools for assessing (a) genes and their regulation; (b) external and internal environments; and (c) brain properties. This chapter reviews the three elements of population neuroscience (principles, tools, innovations, limitations), and discusses future directions in this field. PMID:27637950

  4. [Issues on the strategy of population development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z

    1986-03-01

    The author, who works at the Population Institute of Sichuan Financial University, deals with issues regarding the strategy of population development in China and applies the population theories of Marxist and Leninist thought. The importnace of establishing a strategy of population development, in order to create an "optimum situation" for China's population in the future, specifically within the next 50-100 years is stressed. In addition to emphasizing the value of family planning and the use of birth control as a means of achieving this optimum population, it is reommeneded that the central government as well as the local governments of each province set up a strategic plan spanning 10, 20, 50, or 100 years with the aim of creating such optimum situation. The Marxist term optimum population is used to refer to a situation in which an area's population is o foptimum quality, quantity, and geographical distribution. The Marxist principle of 2 types of production are noted: production of material and production of population. General as well as local strategies are of extreme importance for the development of productive strength in China now and in the next 50-100 years. PMID:12341131

  5. Predicting performance and situation awareness of robot operators in complex situations by unit task tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mioch, T.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Human-in-the-loop field tests of human-robot operations in high-demand situations provide serious constraints with respect to costs and control. A set of relatively simple unit tasks might be used to do part of the testing and to establish a benchmark for human-robot performance and situation awaren

  6. Evidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in three species of sympatric wild ungulates in Nevada: life history strategies may maintain endemic infections in wild populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peregrine Lee Wolff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infection was detected in 2009-10 while investigating a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis, and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 was 81% (N=32 in the bighorns and 100% (N=3 in the mountain goats. Serosurveillance from 2011 to 2015 of surviving bighorns and mountain goats as well as sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, indicated a prevalence of 72% (N=45, 45% (N=51, and 51% (N=342 respectively. All species had antibody titers to BVDV1 and BVDV2. BVDV1 was isolated in cell culture from three bighorn sheep and a mountain goat kid. BVDV2 was isolated from two mule deer. Six deer (N=96 sampled in 2013 were positive for BVDV by antigen-capture ELISA on ear notch. Wild ungulates and cattle concurrently graze public and private lands in these two mountain ranges, thus providing potential for interspecies viral transmission. Like cattle, mule deer, mountain goats, and bighorn sheep can be infected with BVDV and can develop clinical disease including immunosuppression. Winter migration patterns that increase densities and species interaction during the first and second trimester of gestation may contribute to the long term maintenance of the virus in these wild ungulates. More studies are needed to determine the population level impacts of BVDV infection on these three species.

  7. Evidence of Bovine viral diarrhea virus Infection in Three Species of Sympatric Wild Ungulates in Nevada: Life History Strategies May Maintain Endemic Infections in Wild Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Peregrine L; Schroeder, Cody; McAdoo, Caleb; Cox, Mike; Nelson, Danielle D; Evermann, James F; Ridpath, Julia F

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was detected in 2009-2010 while investigating a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, canadensis), and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum) in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 was 81% (N = 32) in the bighorns and 100% (N = 3) in the mountain goats. Serosurveillance from 2011 to 2015 of surviving bighorns and mountain goats as well as sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), indicated a prevalence of 72% (N = 45), 45% (N = 51), and 51% (N = 342) respectively. All species had antibody titers to BVDV1 and BVDV2. BVDV1 was isolated in cell culture from three bighorn sheep and a mountain goat kid. BVDV2 was isolated from two mule deer. Six deer (N = 96) sampled in 2013 were positive for BVDV by antigen-capture ELISA on a single ear notch. Wild ungulates and cattle concurrently graze public and private lands in these two mountain ranges, thus providing potential for interspecies viral transmission. Like cattle, mule deer, mountain goats, and bighorn sheep can be infected with BVDV and can develop clinical disease including immunosuppression. Winter migration patterns that increase densities and species interaction during the first and second trimester of gestation may contribute to the long term maintenance of the virus in these wild ungulates. More studies are needed to determine the population level impacts of BVDV infection on these three species. PMID:27014215

  8. Population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooch, E. G.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases or decreases in the size of populations over space and time are, arguably, the motivation for much of pure and applied ecological research. The fundamental model for the dynamics of any population is straightforward: the net change over time in the abundance of some population is the simple difference between the number of additions (individuals entering the population minus the number of subtractions (individuals leaving the population. Of course, the precise nature of the pattern and process of these additions and subtractions is often complex, and population biology is often replete with fairly dense mathematical representations of both processes. While there is no doubt that analysis of such abstract descriptions of populations has been of considerable value in advancing our, there has often existed a palpable discomfort when the ‘beautiful math’ is faced with the often ‘ugly realities’ of empirical data. In some cases, this attempted merger is abandoned altogether, because of the paucity of ‘good empirical data’ with which the theoretician can modify and evaluate more conceptually–based models. In some cases, the lack of ‘data’ is more accurately represented as a lack of robust estimates of one or more parameters. It is in this arena that methods developed to analyze multiple encounter data from individually marked organisms has seen perhaps the greatest advances. These methods have rapidly evolved to facilitate not only estimation of one or more vital rates, critical to population modeling and analysis, but also to allow for direct estimation of both the dynamics of populations (e.g., Pradel, 1996, and factors influencing those dynamics (e.g., Nichols et al., 2000. The interconnections between the various vital rates, their estimation, and incorporation into models, was the general subject of our plenary presentation by Hal Caswell (Caswell & Fujiwara, 2004. Caswell notes that although interest has traditionally

  9. Predictors and outcomes of job search behavior: The moderating effects of gender and family situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis study explored differences in the antecedents and consequences of job search behavior depending on gender and family situation in a large, nationwide sample of the Dutch population. Using Ajzen’s (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB), we found no gender differences in the antecede

  10. 'Do you smell rotten eggs?' Evaluating interactions with mobile agents in crisis response situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Winterboer; H.S.M. Cramer; G. Pavlin; F.C.A. Groen; V. Evers

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present ongoing research concerning the interaction between users and autonomous mobile agents in the environmental monitoring domain. The overarching project, DIADEM, deals with developing a system that detects potentially hazardous situations in populated industrial areas using i

  11. Faculty Development Using the Situational Leadership Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Michael C.

    1995-01-01

    The situational leadership model developed by Hersey and Blanchard is described, and the task-specific model is then applied to the four primary tasks of college faculty--teaching, research, community service, and institutional service. The model combines directive and supportive behavior as they are reflected in four distinctive leadership…

  12. Present Situation of Refractories for Baosteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAI Li; SHEN Keyin

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the present situation of refractories for Baosteel, including refractories for iron-making system, converters, ladles and tundishes. Descriptions have been also conducted on the environment protection and reutilization of refractories in Baosteel, together with somesuggestions for refractories suppliers to meet the advancement in iron and steel making technology of Baosteel.

  13. Situational Marketing: Application for Higher Education Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Raymond E.; Reed, Rosetta R.

    1995-01-01

    Marketing higher education has been criticized for its consumer (interpreted as student) orientation. An alternative concept, situational marketing, considers the student as one of a number of environmental forces on which the marketing mix focuses. Other forces include funding and regulatory agencies, businesses, alumni, faculty, parents, the…

  14. Situated Learning in a Classroom Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitri, Eliza

    2004-01-01

    Situated thought and action are facilitated according to specific children, negotiated among classroom community members, and placed in a specific place and time. Through action research, the author worked for about a year with a group of 15 elementary school children between the ages of 7 and 10, during a Cub Scout program in Lefkosia, Cyprus.…

  15. Reading as Situated Language: A Sociocognitive Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    2001-01-01

    Situates reading within a broad perspective that integrates work on cognition, language, social interaction, society, and culture. Argues that reading and writing cannot be separated from speaking, listening, and interacting, on the one hand, or using language to think about and act on the world, on the other. Introduces "social languages" as a…

  16. Mathematical and Pedagogical Understanding as Situated Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Judith A.

    2003-01-01

    One mathematics lesson was planned by two Grade 2 teachers together. Their separate teaching of it was videotaped, and each teacher was interviewed before and after her lesson. The "same" lesson resulted in different sets of worthwhile learning outcomes. In this research report, the notion of situated cognition is used as a tool for analysis of…

  17. Reconsideration of the simulated work task situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia; Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2010-01-01

    The present paper reports on the initial study and the preliminary findings of how the concept of simulated work task situation is reported used in the research literature. The overall objective of the study is in a systematic manner to learn how and for what types of evaluations the concept is a...

  18. Situative Space Tracking within Smart Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surie, Dipak; Jäckel, Florian; Janlert, Lars-Erik;

    2010-01-01

    that positions objects within individual situative spaces (without tracking their absolute positions) distributed across multiple modalities like vision, audio, and touch is presented. As a proofof- concept, a preliminary evaluation of the tracking system was performed by two subjects within a living...

  19. Reflectivity, Reflexivity and Situated Reflective Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malthouse, Richard; Roffey-Barentsen, Jodi; Watts, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aspect of reflective practice referred to as situated reflective practice. The overarching theory is derived from social theories of structuration and reflexivity. In particular, from Giddens' theory of structuration, which sees social life as an interplay of agency and structure. Discussion of the research reported…

  20. Biological Analogs for Language Contact Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliger, Herbert W.

    1977-01-01

    This article proposes that language contact can be best understood if the entire range of such situations from second language learning to evolution of dialects and creoles is studied within a framework analogical to the symbiosis of living organisms. Language contact is viewed in terms of dynamic evolutionary stages. (CHK)

  1. Situational Strategies for Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J

    2016-01-01

    Exercising self-control is often difficult, whether declining a drink in order to drive home safely, passing on the chocolate cake to stay on a diet, or ignoring text messages to finish reading an important paper. But enacting self-control is not always difficult, particularly when it takes the form of proactively choosing or changing situations in ways that weaken undesirable impulses or potentiate desirable ones. Examples of situational self-control include the partygoer who chooses a seat far from where drinks are being poured, the dieter who asks the waiter not to bring around the dessert cart, and the student who goes to the library without a cell phone. Using the process model of self-control, we argue that the full range of self-control strategies can be organized by considering the timeline of the developing tempting impulse. Because impulses tend to grow stronger over time, situational self-control strategies-which can nip a tempting impulse in the bud-may be especially effective in preventing undesirable action. Ironically, we may underappreciate situational self-control for the same reason it is so effective-namely, that by manipulating our circumstances to advantage, we are often able to minimize the in-the-moment experience of intrapsychic struggle typically associated with exercising self-control. PMID:26817725

  2. The Role of the Situation in Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroom, Victor H.; Jago, Arthur G.

    2007-01-01

    Leadership depends on the situation. Few social scientists would dispute the validity of this statement. But the statement can be interpreted in many different ways, depending, at least in part, on what one means by leadership. This article begins with a definition of leadership and a brief description of 3 historically important theories of…

  3. Situations of Applied Psycholinguistics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies related to applied psycholinguistics in China have been published in the past two decades. So the present study reviewed the situations of applied psycholinguistics and by discussing the results, existing problems are dipped and suggestions for further research are proposed.

  4. [Drawing with children in situations of war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozio, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    In situations of conflict, children are subjected to or witness acts of violence and traumatic events. In the care systems put in place in this context, drawing is an effective means of enabling children to express their emotions and favours a process of restoration. PMID:27015699

  5. A Situational Approach to Training and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachhuber, Dieter

    1980-01-01

    Comparing goal-oriented v human relations-oriented management theories, it becomes apparent that effective leadership is determined by flexible approaches appropriate to the given situation. For trainers, this "effectiveness dimension" encompasses both the achievement of learning goals and the maintenance of human relationships with learners. (SK)

  6. The Sign Language Situation in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyst, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This article gives a first overview of the sign language situation in Mali and its capital, Bamako, located in the West African Sahel. Mali is a highly multilingual country with a significant incidence of deafness, for which meningitis appears to be the main cause, coupled with limited access to adequate health care. In comparison to neighboring…

  7. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1058 - Special situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special situations. 404.1058 Section 404.1058 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... active duty or on active duty for training. (4) Compensation. “Compensation” refers to the...

  9. Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, John Seely; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Conventional schooling too often ignores the influence of school culture on what is learned in school. Knowledge is situated, being in part a product of the activity, context, and culture in which it is developed and used; this is known as cognitive apprenticeship. Implications for understanding learning and teaching are discussed. (Author/BJV)

  10. [Situated learning for the construction of knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury-Zing, Céline

    2012-11-01

    The way in which knowledge is learned is a key element at the heart of the learning system. Situated learning can help the trainer to guide the student in his or her learning in action. It encourages the student as well as the professional to question their way of and their desire for learning together.

  11. Situated Language Learning: Concept, Significance and Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a shift in language learning from the "acquisition" metaphor to the "participation" metaphor. This involves viewing learners as active constructors of knowledge who can collaborate together to create meaningful language learning situations and contextualised practices. Thus, this worksheet aims at exploring…

  12. A Situated Model of Creative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    This article puts forward a situated model of creative learning. Most educational studies on creativity tend to concentrate on explaining the relation between teaching and creativity while keeping learning as a secondary concept. However, it has been stated that it is likely that teaching creatively leads to creative learning, suggesting that…

  13. Assessing Vessel Traffic Service Operator Situation Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes my study of situation awareness assessment of Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) operators. VTS operators are the traffic controllers on the water. They are responsible for a safe and efficient handling of vessel traffic. They monitor traffic, provide information on request and coord

  14. Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Brandt, Summer L.; Bacon, Paige; Kraut, Josh; Nguyen, Jimmy; Minakata, Katsumi; Raza, Hamzah; Rozovski, David; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts. The Concepts varied in terms of the allocation of traffic avoidance responsibility between the pilot on the flight deck, the air traffic controllers, and a conflict resolution automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to fully handle the responsibility of weather avoidance and maintaining separation between ownship and surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, pilots were not responsible for traffic separation, but were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but conflict detection tools were disabled. In this concept pilots were dependent on ground based automation for conflict detection and resolution. Situation awareness of the pilots was measured using online probes. Results showed that individual situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that for conflict resolution tasks, situation awareness is improved when pilots remain in the decision-making loop.

  15. 曲沃县大中型水库移民人口核定及确定扶持方式的基本情况%The Basic Situation of the Approval of Emigrant Population and the Determination of Supporting Pattern of Large and Medium-sized Reservoirs in Quwo County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国锋

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:This paper introduces the relevant regulations and working process of the population approval work for the later-emigrant support of large and medium-sized reservoirs in Quwo County, expounds the determination of the supporting pattern and the settlement of treatment of directly subsidized population’s natural change, and makes summary and evaluation on these works.%介绍了曲沃县大中型水库移民后期扶持人口核定工作的有关规定和工作过程,阐述了扶持方式的确定及直补人口自然变化的处理等工作,并对其进行了总结评价。

  16. Population dynamics in variable environments

    CERN Document Server

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    1990-01-01

    Demography relates observable facts about individuals to the dynamics of populations. If the dynamics are linear and do not change over time, the classical theory of Lotka (1907) and Leslie (1945) is the central tool of demography. This book addresses the situation when the assumption of constancy is dropped. In many practical situations, a population will display unpredictable variation over time in its vital rates, which must then be described in statistical terms. Most of this book is concerned with the theory of populations which are subject to random temporal changes in their vital rates, although other kinds of variation (e. g. , cyclical) are also dealt with. The central questions are: how does temporal variation work its way into a population's future, and how does it affect our interpretation of a population's past. The results here are directed at demographers of humans and at popula­ tion biologists. The uneven mathematical level is dictated by the material, but the book should be accessible to re...

  17. Global panorama of energy access: Current situation, challenges and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galichon, Ines; Lacroix, Olivier; Wiedmer, Damien

    2014-07-15

    Globally 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity. If this figure is projected to decline 1 billion by 2030, the global population who relies on the traditional use of biomass for cooking is expected to substantially increase, from 2.6 billion to 2.7 billion people. In its commitment to energy access, ENEA published a synthesis on the current situation and the further development perspectives of energy access worldwide, a crucial issue of human and economic development and an opportunity for the private sector. This synthesis present the ecosystem of the actors involved in the improvement of energy access and the technical solutions that serve the needs of this high-potential market. The five main challenges energy access has to address are presented in this publication: energy prices, equipment financing, distribution, change of scale and environmental performances.

  18. Production Situation and Technology Prospect of Medical Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Feng;LIN Li;LIU Yu-hao;MA Xing-jun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The isotope production technology was overviewed, including traditional and newest technology. The current situation of medical isotope production was introduced. The problems faced by isotope supply and demand were analyzed. The future development trend of medical isotopes and technology prospect were put forward. As the most populous country, nuclear medicine develops rapidly, however, domestic isotope mainly relies on imports. The highly productive and relatively safe MIPR is expected to be an effective way to breakthrough the bottleneck of the development of nuclear medicine. Traditional isotope production technologies with reactor can be improved. It's urgent to research and promote new isotope production technologies with reactor. Those technologies which do not depend on reactor will have a bright market prospects.

  19. SERVICES IN GORJ COUNTY IN ECONOMIC CRISIS SITUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RĂBONTU CECILIA IRINA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a synthetic analysis of the evolution of the tertiary sector in Gorj county under the pressure of the economic crisis that is felt now more than ever, the tertiary sector whos activities resulted in extremely diverse and constantly expanding services in our county as well. Like other regions of Romania, Gorj county is facing a new situation: after the period 2001-2008 when there has been growth, started a period marked by crisis, outcome of the effect of economic and financial crisis that broke out in the U.S. in October 2008. The economic crisis raises even more problems further enhancing poverty due to lower employment, as well as the decline in purchasing power especially among low-income population, under the impact of inflation and restrictive policies in wages, issues that are consequential to the stage of development of services in Gorj County.

  20. Having quality population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, F V

    1993-06-01

    This speech was delivered during Population and Development Week in the Philippines. Attention was drawn to population statistics: an annual growth rate of 2.3%, density of 202 persons/sq km, and an expected population of 75 million by the year 2000. Coupled with rapid population growth is the uneven distribution of wealth: the top 20% have over 50% of the total income and the lowest 20% have only 5% of the income. In such a social situation, it is women and children who are the most vulnerable. In cities, unemployment is high due to population growth and the migration of the rural poor. The rural poor living in areas of declining resources also move onto marginal uplands, which adds pressure to the already fragile ecology. Everyone must accept that the nation's problems are due to overpopulation. The government's development plans aim for sustainable growth, poverty alleviation, reduction in equality, generation of job opportunities, and achievement of social justice. People in government are determined to lead the Philippines toward a higher standard comparable with other dynamic Asian neighbors. The strategy is empowerment of the people. THe value is in the welfare of individuals and their families and the welfare of the nation. Couples have the right to manage their family size voluntarily and responsibly. The government's role is to provide adequate information on family planning in accordance with individual's religious convictions. Policies will also be directed to improved access to quality education, child survival, and maternal health, employment opportunities, and access and control over resources for people. There must be fuller participation of women in development. Support for the government's population program is sought from government officials, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. All provincial governors, city and municipal mayors, and all local executives will be directed to formulate population plans and to provide family

  1. 广州市正常体检人群高血压前期及其合并的糖脂代谢异常情况%Situations of prehypertension and the accompanying blood sugar and lipid metabolism dysfunction among health check-up population in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞; 芦夏; 由天辉; 胡艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between prehypertension and the accompanying blood sugar and lipid metabolism dysfunction among health check-up population in Guangzhou.Methods Using an age and gender stratified random sample method, 5 170 urban adults aged 18-70 years undergoing health examination in Guangzhou city were selected.Their body measurements and biochemical indexes were analyzed.Results The incidence of prehyperten-sion ( P-HTN ) among health check-up population in Guangzhou was 35.15%, while it was significantly higher in males (43.75%vs 23.56%, P=0.000).The incidence of prehypertension was high in participants above 25 years old (30%-40%).The mean age, FPG, TC, TG, LDL-C, UA and BMI of Group P-HTN were significantly higher, with HDL-C significantly lower than Group Normal ( P=0.000 ) .The incidence of P-HTN with abnormal glucose metabo-lism was 6.38%, while there was no significant difference between sexes ( P>0.05) .The incidence of P-HTN with ab-normal glucose metabolism was increased with the increase of age, as it was significantly higher in participants above 45 years old ( P=0.000 ) .The incidence of P-HTN with dyslipidemia was 53.82%, while it was significantly higher in males (P44%).The incidences of high TG in males and high TC in females were significantly most prominent ( 23.27% and 23.12%, respectively ) .There were significantly higher mean age, DBP, TC, TG, LDL-C and BMI, as well as lower HDL-C, observed in Group (P<0.05).Con-clusion P-HTN is closely correlated with glucose and lipid metabolism dysfunction, and the investigation on the preva-lence of P-HTN complicated with blood sugar and lipid metabolism dysfunction among health check-up population in Guangzhou is unpromising and the population is getting younger.People with abnormal glucose metabolism have more car-diovascular risk factors.The screening of P-HTN should be advocated, and those with blood sugar and lipid metabolism dysfunction should be considered as high

  2. 人口结构转变、产业及就业结构调整背景下劳动力供求关系分析%An Empirical Study on Labor Force Supply and Demand under the Situation of Population, Industrial and Employment Structure Adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欢; 黄健元; 王薇

    2014-01-01

    Based on the prediction of population from the United Nations and data dating from the reform and opening up , this paper analyzes the variation of relationship between our national labor force demand and supply under the assumption of variation of labor participation rate , growth rate of Based on the prediction of population from the United Nations and data dating from the reform and opening up , this paper analyzes the variation of relationship between our national labor force demand and supply under the assumption of variation of labor participation rate , growth rate of three tertiary industry production value and employment structure adjustment before 2030.The results show that the turning point of the labor force is approaching and the limitless for labor force supply has come to the end as the negative effect of the population structure on labor force participation rate is increasing and the labor participate rate of the youth is decreasing .In the long term, the secondary and the tertiary industry will absorb labor force efficiently with the adjustment of the industry structure , while the primary industry will crowd out the labor force; the prediction results show that the relationship between labor force demand and supply will be inversed at the end of 13th five-year-plan, and the relationship will face much more challenge by structural unemployment which has occurred currently .%本文基于联合国对中国人口预测的调整结果和我国改革开放以来的经济数据,对劳动参与率、三次产业增加值增长率和就业弹性等关键因素在2030年前的变动趋势做出了相关假设,并结合人口结构转变、产业结构和就业结构调整情况对我国劳动力供给和需求的变动关系进行了较为全面的分析。研究表明:劳动年龄人口增长历史拐点的到来决定了我国劳动力供给持续减少趋势的必然性,而低年龄别劳动参与率的大幅下降和人口结构转变对总

  3. Career situation of female astronomers in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    Fohlmeister, J; 10.1002/asna.201211656

    2012-01-01

    We survey the job situation of women in astronomy in Germany and of German women abroad and review indicators for their career development. Our sample includes women astronomers from all academic levels from doctoral students to professors, as well as female astronomers who have left the field. We find that networking and human support are among the most important factors for success. Experience shows that students should carefully choose their supervisor and collect practical knowledge abroad. We reflect the private situation of female German astronomers and find that prejudices are abundant, and are perceived as discriminating.We identify reasons why women are more likely than men to quit astronomy after they obtain their PhD degree. We give recommendations to young students on what to pay attention to in order to be on the successful path in astronomy.

  4. Situational interest in engineering design activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present mixed-method study was to investigate task-based situational interest of sixth grade students (n=46), between 12 and 14 years old, during an eight-week engineering design programme in a Science & Technology-class. Students’ interests were investigated by means of a descript......The aim of the present mixed-method study was to investigate task-based situational interest of sixth grade students (n=46), between 12 and 14 years old, during an eight-week engineering design programme in a Science & Technology-class. Students’ interests were investigated by means...... of a descriptive interpretative analysis of qualitative data from classroom observations and informal interviews. The analysis was complemented by a self-report survey to validate findings and determine prevalence. The analysis revealed four main sources of interest: designing inventions, trial...... that students were able to self-regulate their learning strategies....

  5. Gamification for Measuring Cyber Security Situational Awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Best, Daniel M.; Manz, David O.; Popovsky, V. M.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2013-03-01

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. This paper describes how one regional competition, the PRCCDC, a participant in the national CCDC program, conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the annual competition for later analysis. The intent is to create an ongoing research agenda that expands on this current work and incorporates augmented cognition and gamification methods for measuring cybersecurity situational awareness under the stress of cyber attack.

  6. Biosimilars in Dermatology: Current Situation (Part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, L; Carretero, G; Daudén, E; Ferrándiz, C; Marrón, S E; Martorell, A; Pérez-Suárez, B; Rodriguez-Cerdeira, C; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Sánchez-Carazo, J L; Velasco, M

    2015-09-01

    The first biosimilar version of a biologic agent used to treat psoriasis (infliximab) entered the Spanish market on February 16 of this year, and more biosimilars can be expected to follow in the coming months and years. Logically, this new situation will have economic repercussions and alter prescribing patterns among dermatologists. In this article, we review regulatory issues related to the approval of biosimilars, with a particular focus on the situation in the European Union. We will examine analytical characterization studies and special considerations for clinical trials with biosimilars, and also look at several somewhat contentious issues, such as the extrapolation of indications, interchangeability, and automatic substitution. Finally, we will review the biosimilars with indications for psoriasis currently in the clinical development pipeline and assess their potential to offer comparable efficacy and safety to the reference product while contributing to the sustainability of the public health care system. PMID:25987472

  7. The development of virtue through Situated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele BALDUZZI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to underline the educative potential of the teaching method called «Situated learning». Thanks to the introduction of Tablets and iPads into the school environment, teachers have more instruments (i.e. interactive slides, video and audio support, Internet based sources to let knowledge, abilities and skills grow into their students’ mind: this is «Situated learning». Although the learning potential of these new learning instruments is clear, there must be the support of the students’ and teachers’ qualities and virtues (in particular the virtue of sharing knowledge, otherwise the whole potential would be nullified anyway: students with no will to learn will not learn, with or without an iPad, and the same is for a teacher with no will to teach.

  8. Situated learning - beyond apprenticeship and social constructionism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the theoretical and philosophical fundament of Jean Lave & Etienne Wenger’s theory of ’situated learning’. In Denmark, the theory has been categorized under as different paradigms as a theory of learning as ‘apprenticeship’ and as ‘social constructionism...... context. The paper can, thus, be considered as not only a contribution to a narrow discussion of ‘situated learning’, but also to the wider discussion of how to conceptualize ‘learning’ as such. In addition, the paper discusses some of the analytical perspectives, which are at stake in some of the other......’. This may seem as a theoretical discussion without any implications for an actual practice. But, as it will be argued in the paper, the perception of the theory has fundamental consequences for how it is considered to contribute to the understanding of learning and to analyses of learning in an actual...

  9. A situated model of creative learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    This article puts forward a situated model of creative learning. Most educational studies on creativity tend to concentrate on explaining the relation between teaching and creativity while keeping learning as a secondary concept. However, it has been stated that it is likely that teaching...... of interest. As a theoretical point of departure, this presentation will outline a situated model of creativity and learning, and following this, will introduce a model of creative learning. This presentation will include several empirical examples. In the final part, the model will be discussed in relation...... creatively leads to creative learning, suggesting that there is a need to describe the concept of creative learning and to analyse its possible constituents. Accordingly, this presentation introduces an empirically based and theoretically informed model of a creative learning community. The model is based...

  10. Situational Analysis and Engineering Work Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    Studies of work practices of scientists and engineers inspired by Science and Technology Studies (STS) provide new material for a richer understanding of expert cultures and expert work practices. However, the specific and strictly situated focus of many of these studies threatens to limit...... boundaries in order to investigate the dynamics of cultural reproduction in expert work practices. The paper will propose a new research agenda that – inspired by George Marcus’ multi-sited ethnographic methodology (Marcus 1998) and Adele Clarke’s situational analysis (Clarke 2005) – analyze (and contrasts......) expert work practices. Our study will focus on engineering practices in diverse settings (e.g. engineering education and engineering work) in order to uncover the material-discursive transformations in these practices. Expert work practices cannot be adequately understood by delimiting the research focus...

  11. Situated Learning: The case in the city

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Trang Hong Thi

    2006-01-01

    Mobile learning provides many positive effects on learning with handheld devices and applications. Especially educational mobile technologies have been an interesting subject in the learning business, and its purpose is to provide low-cost interactive computers to every student to improve learning. These efforts of mobile technology could help situated learning to be more flexible in the city. Now we have an explosion of mobile devices, and in the future they will create the opportunities fo...

  12. On the Brazilian energetic situation 1970 - 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report, first, the Brazilian energy situation from the major oil crisis in the 1970s.Next, we discuss the period from the 1980s until 2005.Finally, it is projected scenarios from recent past (2005-2013), to the future that begins today and runs until 2030.This is a work for educational purposes, in which we provide compiled data for school research in all levels. (author)

  13. Assessment of internal doses in emergency situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahola, T.; Muikku, M. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK (Finland); Falk, R.; Johansson, J. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority - SSI (Sweden); Liland, A.; Thorshaug, S. [NRPA (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    The need for assessing internal radiation doses in emergency situations was demonstrated after accidents in Brazil, Ukraine and other countries. Lately more and more concern has been expressed regarding malevolent use of radiation and radioactive materials. The scenarios for such use are more difficult to predict than for nuclear power plant or weapons accidents. Much of the results of the work done in the IRADES project can be adopted for use in various accidental situations involving radionuclides that are not addressed in this report. If an emergency situation occurs in only one or a few of the Nordic countries, experts from the other countries could be called upon to assist in monitoring. A big advantage is then our common platform. In the Nordic countries much work has been put down on quality assurance of measurements and on training of dose assessment calculations. Attention to this was addressed at the internal dosimetry course in October 2005. Nordic emergency preparedness exercises have so far not included training of direct measurements of people in the early phase of an emergency. The aim of the IRADES project was to improve the preparedness especially for thyroid measurements. The modest financial support did not enable the participants to make big efforts but certainly acted as a much appreciated reminder of the importance of being prepared also to handle situations with malevolent use of radioactive materials. It was left to each country to decide to which extent to improve the practical skills. There is still a need for detailed national implementation plans. Measurement strategies need to be developed in each country separately taking into account national regulations, local circumstances and resources. End users of the IRADES report are the radiation protection authorities. (au)

  14. Environmental actual situation in Guatemala. Executive brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this brief prepared by the Consejo Permanente de Cambio y Variabilidad Climatica the climate in Guatemala is described including the current situation on variation of rainy season, air humidity, influence of the Nino current. This brief was prepared in order to plan a strategy to be adopted by all the institutions that are involved in environmental issues and in this way to deal with the climate change and the impact of the different energy sources in the environment

  15. Lithuania. Energy situation 2002; Litauen. Energiewirtschaft 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The energy situation of Lithuania is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. [German] Unter Angabe einiger markanter Daten wir ein kurzer Ueberblick ueber die Energiesituation von Litauen gegeben. Nach einigen Anmerkungen zur nationalen und internationalen Energiepolitik werden die Entwicklungen bezueglich der einzelnen Energietraeger und der Stromerzeugung beschrieben.

  16. Lithuania. Energy situation 2003; Litauen. Energiewirtschaft 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The energy situation of Lithuania is reviewed in detail on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. [German] Unter Angabe einiger markanter Daten wird ein ausfuehrlicher Ueberblick ueber die Energiesituation Litauens gegeben. Nach einigen Anmerkungen zur nationalen und internationalen Energiepolitik werden die Entwicklungen bezueglich der einzelnen Energietraeger und der Stromerzeugung beschrieben.

  17. Lithuania. Energy situation 2001; Litauen. Energiewirtschaft 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The energy situation of Lithuania is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. [German] Unter Angabe einiger markanter Daten wir ein kurzer Ueberblick ueber die Energiesituation von Litauen gegeben. Nach einigen Anmerkungen zur nationalen und internationalen Energiepolitik werden die Entwicklungen bezueglich der einzelnen Energietraeger und der Stromerzeugung beschrieben.

  18. Culture moderates children's responses to ostracism situations

    OpenAIRE

    Over, Harriet; Uskul, Ayse K.

    2016-01-01

    Across a series of studies, we investigate cultural differences in children’s responses to ostracism situations. Working with the children of farmers and herders, we focus on how painful children estimate ostracism to be. Study 1a showed that that 3- to 8-year-old children from a socially interdependent farming community estimated ostracism to be less painful than did children from an independent herding community. Study 1b showed that this cultural difference was specific to social pain and ...

  19. Amateur Astronomy in Armenia: Current Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buniatyan, Rouben; Melikyan, Gagik

    2015-07-01

    This report describes the current situation about the amateur astronomy in Armenia and briefly outlines the activities of "Goodricke John" amateur astronomers NGO in 2013 and 2014. Particular attention is paid to the project supported by Ministry of Education for organization of open classes on astronomy and practical stargazing exercises in schools. Similarly, the report highlights the projects developed with and funded by the RA Ministry of Defense, which enabled organization of stargazing exercises in several military units in Armenia in August 2014.

  20. From Knowledge Transfer to Situated Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Eriksén, Sara; Wessels, Bridgette

    Innovation systems, ‘triple helix’, and similar expressions, are used to conceptualise the growing need for more integrated forms of co-operation between academia and other societal actors, such as governmental agencies and industry, in order to produce knowledge relevant for society. However...... with established ways of doing things, and requires artful integration of different professional practices, communities, and technologies. We define these creative processes of co-development of work practices, organisations and technology as ‘situated innovation’....

  1. COMMUNICATION IN THE EMERGENCY SITUATIONS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu Aurel GHIUȚĂ; Gabriela PRELIPCEAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper is talking about communication use in emergency situations management from a marketing perspective. We have analyzed if this communication is different from the communication of a company with her publics; the legislation which provides the framework for this type of communication in Romania, when is applicable and who is in charge. As methodology we have utilized documentary research. We mention similarities and differences between this type of communication and Integrated Ma...

  2. An Analysis of Oral English Teaching Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁煦

    2016-01-01

    With the development of economy and culture, the interaction between countries is increasingly closer; English communication is becoming more and more important. But, the oral English teaching in China tends to have some disadvantages, how to change the present situation of college English teaching is particularly important. Aimed at these questions, this article analyses the deficiency of the current spoken English teaching, and put forward rational suggestions.

  3. LIDAR design for space situational awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Gast, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is a growing concern for National Security. Among the many methods of increasing SSA is the use of space-based Laser Imaging, Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) sensors to detect, track, classify or image other spacecraft. This Thesis explores the unique trade-spaces and design decisions faced by an engineer designing such a system. It provides an overview of the basic operational principles, the major components, the impact of one design choice on all other deci...

  4. Roles, responsabilities and situations faced by supervisor

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca VLASA

    2010-01-01

    Supervision is a dinamic proces which includes changes, acquisitions which have as a result the improving of work conditions, the rise of eficiency, the satisfactions of the employees and the avoiding of professional exhaustion. Nowadays, supervisors are permanently challenged with continuous transformations. The success criteria of the leaders is no longer their capacity to manage teams and unexpected situations, but their real capacity to anticipate and guide their actions. A supervisor doe...

  5. COMMUNICATION IN THE EMERGENCY SITUATIONS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Aurel GHIUȚĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is talking about communication use in emergency situations management from a marketing perspective. We have analyzed if this communication is different from the communication of a company with her publics; the legislation which provides the framework for this type of communication in Romania, when is applicable and who is in charge. As methodology we have utilized documentary research. We mention similarities and differences between this type of communication and Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC.

  6. Radioactive wastes management: what is the situation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation takes stock on the situation of the radioactive wastes management in France. It gives information on the deep underground disposal, the public information, the management of the radioactive wastes in France, the researches in the framework of the law of the 30 december 1991, the underground laboratory of Meuse/Haute-Marne, the national agency for the radioactive wastes management (ANDRA) and its sites. (A.L.B.)

  7. Parents’ experience confronting child burning situation

    OpenAIRE

    Valdira Vieira de Oliveira; Ariadne da Silva Fonseca; Maísa Tavares de Souza Leite; Luciana Soares dos Santos; Adélia Dayane Guimarães Fonseca; Conceição Vieira da Silva Ohara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to understand experiences of parents in a child burning situation during the hospitalization process. Methods: phenomenological research in view of Martin Heidegger, held with seven assisting parents at a pediatrics unit of a general hospital in Montes Claros. The information was obtained by phenomenological interview, containing the question guide: “What does it mean to you being with a son who is suffering with burns?”. Results: during the experience, parents revealed anguish, fe...

  8. Crisis Situations in Engineering Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muenzberg, Christopher; Hammer, Jens; Brem, Alexander;

    2016-01-01

    and experts. Result of this research is a situation specific approach for crises. The evaluated methods are clustered considering the main steps of problem solving. Results indicate that TRIZ methods support especially the idea generation process with structured and detailed approaches........ Regarding the main steps of problem solving, evaluation criteria are identified and considered. This bases on standardized method descriptions and is evaluated by criteria regarding training effort, usability, time, quality of solutions, required resources, and effort for application by 12 TRIZ users...

  9. Stellar Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-01-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on ne

  10. Population success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    "The commitment to population programs is now widespread," says Rafael Salas, Executive Director of the UNFPA, in its report "State of World Population." About 80% of the total population of the developing world live in countries which consider their fertility levels too high and would like them reduced. An important impetus came from the World Conference of 1974. The Plan of Action from the conference projected population growth rates in developing countries of 2.0% by 1985. Today it looks as though this projection will be realized. While in 1969, for example, only 26 developing countries had programs aimed at lowering or maintaining fertility levels, by 1980 there were 59. The International Population Conference, recently announced by the UN for 1984, will, it is hoped, help sustain that momentum. Cuba is the country which has shown the greatest decline in birth rate so far. The birth rate fell 47% between 1965-1970 and 1975-1980. Next came China with a 34% decline in the same period. After these came a group of countries--each with populations of over 10 million--with declines of between 15 and 25%: Chile, Colombia, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Though birth rates have been dropping significantly the decline in mortality rates over recent years has been less than was hoped for. The 1974 conference set 74 years as the target for the world's average expectation of life, to be reached by the year 2000. But the UN now predicts that the developing countries will have only reached 63 or 64 years by then. High infant and child mortality rates, particularly in Africa, are among the major causes. The report identifies the status of women as an important determinant of family size. Evidence from the UNFPA-sponsored World Fertility Survey shows that in general the fertility of women decreases as their income increases. It also indicates that women who have been educated and who work outside the home are likely to have smaller families

  11. Pedagogical and conflict situations of teacher of physical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pechko O.M.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of pedagogical and conflict situations between teacher and student. Considered ways of solving and preventing pedagogical and conflict situations in school. Principal reasons of conflict situations are selected, situations of activity, conduct and relations. The receptions of influence of teacher of physical culture are separated on personality of schoolchildren. It is well-proven that the profession of teacher of physical culture supposes possibility of conflict situations.

  12. Tree-connected Peer Group Situations and Peer Group Games

    OpenAIRE

    Brânzei, R.; Fragnelli, V.; Tijs, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    A class of cooperative games is introduced which arises from situations in which a set of agents is hierarchically structured and where potential individual economic abilities interfere with the behavioristic rules induced by the organization structure.These games form a cone generated by a specific class of unanimity games, namely those based on coalitions called peer groups. Different economic situations like auctions, communication situations, sequencing situations and flow situations are ...

  13. Situation of Iron Deficiency and Its Management Prioritizing Dietary Intervention in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, BK; Koirala, U; Lama, STA;

    2012-01-01

    the extent of iron deficiency anemia and intake of dietary iron among the general population in Nepal. Materials and methods Published research articles, books, bulletins, and online materials regarding iron deficiency were studied in both national and international scenarios. Results Nearly 46 percent......Background Control of iron deficiency disorders is prioritized in the nutrition policies of Nepal. The situation is still threatening the public health in both rural and urban areas. Objective There are limited reviews on the iron deficiency situation in Nepal. This study was undertaken to find out...

  14. Disabilities among refugees and conflict-affected populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Reilly

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 the Women’s Refugee Commission launched a major research project to assess the situation for those living with disabilities among displaced and conflict-affected populations.

  15. Population Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Population aging is primarily the result of past declines in fertility, which produced a decades long period in which the ratio of dependents to working age adults was reduced. Rising old-age dependency in many countries represents the inevitable passing of this %u201Cdemographic dividend.%u201D Societies use three methods to transfer resources to people in dependent age groups: government, family, and personal saving. In developed countries, families are predominant in supporting children, w...

  16. 上海市杨浦区社区居民灾难医学知识现状及需求分析%Current situation and training needs of disaster medicine-related knowledge in community-based populations in Yangpu district of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩雪; 张蓉; 曹广文; 蒲蕊; 丁一波; 石韶俊; 杜琰; 李自雄; 刘文斌; 张宏伟; 谢梦

    2015-01-01

    Objective] To explore disaster response capability and the vulnerability as well as the current level and training needs of disaster medicine knowledge in urban populations . [ Methods] Five communities in Yangpu District of Shanghai were randomly enrolled in this study .The study populations were then stratified by age groups .A total of 1700 residents were recruited , 1643 of which completed a structured questionnaire designed by the investigators . [ Results] Eight-nine percent of the residents be-lieved the importance of understanding disaster medicine -related knowledge .The correct answer rates of “pro-tective measures of nuclear leakage issues” and “self-rescue measures in a high building fire” reached over 80%;however , the overall correct answer rate of “cardiorespiratory resuscitation operation” was less than 40%.The main channels of community residents accessing disaster medicine knowledge were mainly news -papers, magazines, and internet (52.1%);whereas only 5.3%of them obtained the knowledge from school education .Community residents most liked to obtain “first aid skills”and“basic theory of disaster medicine”through formal lectures (72.4%). [Conclusion] School education lacks disaster-related knowledge , pos-sibly resulting in the fact that community residents have a limited ability to save both oneself and others in disaster .There are significant differences between residents with different education levels .Community resi-dents have limited knowledge of disaster occurrence and development , and lack capabilities of self-rescue and mutual aid .Colleges should increase the contents of disaster medicine education in their curriculum .Disaster education should be enforced in school education .Continued education and simulation of disaster-related knowledge should be regularly offered to community residents to greatly reduce their vulnerability to disasters .%[目的]探索城市居民应对灾难的能力和脆弱性,明确城

  17. Investigating Situational Interest in Primary Science Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukomies, Anni; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari

    2015-12-01

    Pupils' interest has been one of the major concerns in science education research because it can be seen as a gateway to more personalised forms of interest and motivation. However, methods to investigate situational interest in science teaching and learning are not broadly examined. This study compares the pupils' observed situational interest and their expressed situational interest. One class of Finnish fourth-graders (N = 22, age 9-10 years) participated in a heat transfer lesson. The lesson encompassed an interactive demonstration with a thermal camera, teacher-led discussions and the conduct and presentation of a collaborative inquiry task. Pupils expressed their interest levels (scale: 1 = very boring, 5 = very interesting) by using an electronic response system called a 'clicker'. The measurement took place 15 times during the lesson, with 1 measurement being just a rehearsal. The lesson was video recorded, and visible aspects of interest at the measurement time points were analysed. Reported and observational data were compared. In most cases, the observations did not yield data compatible with the pupils' own evaluations, indicating that most pupils' expressed interest is not easily interpreted through observation of their facial expressions and behaviour. In general, the interest of the group as a whole seems to diminish during the lesson. We argue that in order to maintain and increase pupils' interest, their evaluations should be taken into account in lesson planning. Video-based research might also be further enriched and validated by employing the participants' own expressions. The clicker is a suitable means of collecting primary pupils' experiences concerning their interest levels.

  18. Commentary: Situated learning in the Network society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Krumsvik

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to develop a broader view of knowledge for dealing with the way in which new digital trends influence the underlying conditions for schools, pedagogy and subjects. This short commentary article, based on my paper at the NVU-conference 2008, will therefore highlight whether a broader view of knowledge - situated learning, digital literacy and the digital revolution can generate new ways of how we perceive pedagogy within the new educational reform in Norway in particular and the digitized school in general. The focus is particularly angled towards the implications this may have for developing new practises for teachers and students.

  19. [Water and sanitation in disaster situations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    When implementing water and sanitation in a disaster situation, it is of crucial importance that the intervention is grounded in the local cultural and socioeconomic context. The assistance provided in the response phase should facilitate short and long-term recovery and sustainable development...... of the affected community. The new model for disaster management which comprises an integrated continuous risk reduction phase, calls for a cross-disciplinary approach which combines the known life-saving response methods with modern development practices. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Jan...

  20. Doping in Contest-Like Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Kräkel, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Individuals who compete in a contest-like situation (for example, in sports, in promotion tournaments, or in an appointment contest) may have an incentive to illegally utilize resources in order to improve their relative positions. We analyze such doping within a tournament game between two heterogeneous players. Three major effects are identified which determine a player’s doping decision — a cost effect, a likelihood effect and a windfall-profit effect. Moreover, we discuss whether the ...

  1. Modeling Control Situations in Power System Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten; Singh, Sri Niwas

    2010-01-01

    Increased interconnection and loading of the power system along with deregulation has brought new challenges for electric power system operation, control and automation. Traditional power system models used in intelligent operation and control are highly dependent on the task purpose. Thus, a model...... of explicit principles for model construction. This paper presents a work on using explicit means-ends model based reasoning about complex control situations which results in maintaining consistent perspectives and selecting appropriate control action for goal driven agents. An example of power system...

  2. Comportement en situation d'urgence

    OpenAIRE

    Perrin, C.; Canu, B.; Magnin, J.; Roynard, M.

    2009-01-01

    Étude du comportement du couple conducteur / deux roues motorisé en situation d'urgence. Matériel : les Études Détaillées d'Accidents (EDA). Méthode utilisée pour l'analyse des cas d'accidents : Le modèle séquentiel de l'Inrets ; Reconstruction d'accident impliquant un Deux Roues Motorisé (DRM) ; Analyse spécifique. Résultats : Les accidents de type perte de contrôle ; Les accidents avec interaction multi usagers.

  3. E-Commerce Assessment in Fuzzy Situation

    OpenAIRE

    Fasanghari, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is proposing a ranking method for assessing the ecommerce under uncertain situations. In fact, combination of fuzzy triangular rubbers, TOPSIS method, and e-commerce indexes is proposed in this paper. Hence we can assess the customer satisfaction of e-commerce, and we run a case study in which the 5 ecommerce websites are assessed with 10 experts of e-commerce who are familiar with the selected websites. Fortunately, all of the experts are pleased of the ob...

  4. Assessing communicative intents: a situated pragmatics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, L E

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of communicative intents is described as it has developed over time, beginning with J.L. Austin's work published in 1975. Recommendations for best practice are offered in which a situated approach is advocated. Key elements of this approach are a focus on contextual variables and open-ended, rather than list-oriented, assessments of range of intents. It is argued that intents must be assessed relative to the environment, with documentation of environmental variables such as barriers to communicative opportunity. Further, caution is urged in using lists of intents as the sole guide to analysis, because such lists serve to limit awareness of individual differences and multifunctionality of utterances.

  5. Can we improve on situational judgement tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affleck, P; Bowman, M; Wardman, M; Sinclair, S; Adams, R

    2016-01-15

    Situational judgement tests (SJTs) are multiple-choice psychological assessments that claim to measure professional attributes such as empathy, integrity, team involvement and resilience. One of their attractions is the ability to rank large numbers of candidates. Last year SJTs formed a major component (50% of the assessment marks) of the selection process for dental foundation training (DFT). However, it is not clear what SJTs are actually assessing. There is also the concern that applicants who have developed ethical reasoning skills may be disadvantaged by such tests. The DFT selection process needs to explicitly recognise the importance of ethical reasoning. PMID:26768457

  6. The Saami Language Situation in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Scheller, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    The article gives an overview of the Saami language situation in Russia, there people use four Kola Saami languages or at least have some competence in them (Kildin Saami, Ter Saami, Skolt Saami and Akkala Saami). Since the 1990's, also North Saami has been used among Kola Saami community members. Today, all four Kola Saami languages are seriously threatened by a language shift from Saami to Russian. However, a revitalization process of Kildin Saami is going on. The article starts with a gen...

  7. From situation modelling to a distributed rule-based platform for situation awareness: an ontological framework for disaster management applications

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, João Luiz Rebelo

    2015-01-01

    Situation-aware (SA) applications are particularly useful for disaster management. The complex nature of emergency scenarios presents challenges to the development of collaborative and distributed SA solutions. These challenges concern the whole lifecycle, from specification to implementation phases, such as how to model the reaction behavior of a detected situation and how to provide an interoperable situation notification service. In addition, treating unforeseen situations, i.e. situations...

  8. Fitness and Physiology of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae, in Relation to the Health of the Eastern Hemlock, Tsuga canadensis

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Adelgidae) is a small invasive insect that frequently causes hemlock (Tsugae spp.) mortality in the eastern United States. Studies have shown that once healthy hemlocks become infested by the adelgid, nutrients are depleted from the tree, leading to both tree decline and a reduction of the adelgid population. Since A. tsugae is dependent on hemlock for nutrients, feeding on trees in poor health may affect the ...

  9. Reducing Reliance on Supplemental Winter Feeding in Elk (Cervus canadensis): An Applied Management Experiment at Deseret Land and Livestock Ranch, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Mangus, Dax L

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife managers have fed elk in North America for nearly 100 years. Giving winter feed to elk can compensate for a shortage of natural winter range and may boost elk populations while also helping prevent commingling with livestock and depredation of winter feed intended for livestock. In contrast to these benefits of supplemental feeding, there are economic and environmental costs associated with feeding, and elk herds that winter on feeding grounds have a higher risk of contracting and ...

  10. Rational group decision making in risk situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk management has received increasing attention recently as methods of quantifying risk have been evolving. This is considered a legitimate tendency in the context of the entirety of risk evaluation which connotes both risk quantification and decisions making thereon. A risk-free society does not appear possible; neither could one have zero competing risks or cost versus benefit resulting out of a risk-abatement effort. What further complicates the risk-decision problem is that there exists more than a single decision maker, who claim their own interests associated with risk decision. Furthermore, their risk perceptions are not at all same that the threshold risk levels for a particular actions are varying. In this dissertation, a brief survey on existing action levels for various sort of risk situations including carcinogens, toxic chemicals, etc., is reported on, with emphasis on nuclear risk situation. A decision theoretic approach is then adopted in both individual and group-level risk management. For the purpose of exemplification, multiplicative utility theory is applied for nuclear power risk; attributes derived for this specific purpose are discussed

  11. Actively learning object names across ambiguous situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that people can use the co-occurrence of words and objects in ambiguous situations (i.e., containing multiple words and objects) to learn word meanings during a brief passive training period (Yu & Smith, 2007). However, learners in the world are not completely passive but can affect how their environment is structured by moving their heads, eyes, and even objects. These actions can indicate attention to a language teacher, who may then be more likely to name the attended objects. Using a novel active learning paradigm in which learners choose which four objects they would like to see named on each successive trial, this study asks whether active learning is superior to passive learning in a cross-situational word learning context. Finding that learners perform better in active learning, we investigate the strategies and discover that most learners use immediate repetition to disambiguate pairings. Unexpectedly, we find that learners who repeat only one pair per trial--an easy way to infer this pair-perform worse than those who repeat multiple pairs per trial. Using a working memory extension to an associative model of word learning with uncertainty and familiarity biases, we investigate individual differences that correlate with these assorted strategies. PMID:23335580

  12. Situated learning in the practice placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, P; Cuthbertson, P; Stoddart, B

    2000-04-01

    Nurses who had just completed their training in Scotland were interviewed with regard to their experiences on placements. The nurses had either completed a traditional training course or came from the first cohort of the Project 2000 diploma level course. The interviews focused on the way in which the student nurses had learned in their practice placements. The results suggest that the placement is a complex social and cognitive experience in which there are elements of situated learning. Acceptance into the community of practice is important but this can be separated, conceptually at least, into a social acceptance which might be extended to any student and a professional acceptance which relies on the display of appropriate competence. The nurses described the way in which their mentors had interacted with them in terms which suggested that cognitive apprenticeship strategies had been used to further their learning in practice. It is concluded that, in view of the central importance of the placement for training nurses, explicit use of mentoring techniques derived from situated learning and cognitive apprenticeship might be beneficial.

  13. Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS) becomes a new computerized EDH form from October 2005 In accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, Staff Members and Fellows, married or separated, must notify any changes in their spouse's income or health insurance cover in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change. This is necessary for the Organization to determine if a supplementary contribution is payable to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) for the spouse's coverage and, if so, the amount. Until now a paper form called « Confidential Declaration of Family Situation » (CDFS) was used for that purpose.  From early October 2005 the CDFS will be computerized for the whole Organization. Henceforth, any changes in a spouse's income or health insurance cover must be notified using EDH (Electronic Document Handling). Additionally, annual updates of the declaration will be required and will be requested by automatic e-mail. Early October an email will be sent to...

  14. Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS) becomes a new computerized EDH form from October 2005 In accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, Staff Members and Fellows, married or separated, must notify any changes in their spouse's income or health insurance cover in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change. This is necessary for the Organization to determine if a supplementary contribution is payable to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) for the spouse's coverage and, if so, the amount. Until now a paper form called « Confidential Declaration of Family Situation » (CDFS) was used for that purpose.  From early October 2005 the CDFS will be computerized for the whole Organization. Henceforth, any changes in a spouse's income or health insurance cover must be notified using EDH (Electronic Document Handling). Additionally, annual updates of the declaration will be required and will be requested by automatic e-mail. Early October an email will be...

  15. Modeling Being "Lost": Imperfect Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Victor E.

    2011-01-01

    Being "lost" is an exemplar of imperfect Situation Awareness/Situation Understanding (SA/SU) -- information/knowledge that is uncertain, incomplete, and/or just wrong. Being "lost" may be a geo-spatial condition - not knowing/being wrong about where to go or how to get there. More broadly, being "lost" can serve as a metaphor for uncertainty and/or inaccuracy - not knowing/being wrong about how one fits into a larger world view, what one wants to do, or how to do it. This paper discusses using agent based modeling (ABM) to explore imperfect SA/SU, simulating geo-spatially "lost" intelligent agents trying to navigate in a virtual world. Each agent has a unique "mental map" -- its idiosyncratic view of its geo-spatial environment. Its decisions are based on this idiosyncratic view, but behavior outcomes are based on ground truth. Consequently, the rate and degree to which an agent's expectations diverge from ground truth provide measures of that agent's SA/SU.

  16. Indian populations

    CERN Multimedia

    Spahni,J

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. J.C. Spahni qui a parcouru les Andes, Vénezuela etc. parle de ses expériences et connaissances qu'il a vécu au cours des 14 ans parmi les populations indiennes de la Cordillière des Andes. Il a ramené des objets artisanals indiens lesquels l'auditoire peut acquérir. L'introduction-conférence est suivi d'un film, commenté par lui-même; après l'entracte il y un débat-dialogue avec le public.

  17. Comparative analysis of distribution and abundance of West Nile and Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis virus vectors in Suffolk County, New York, using human population density and land use/cover data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, I.; Harding, K.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Campbell, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    Five years of CDC light trap data from Suffolk County, NY, were analyzed to compare the applicability of human population density (HPD) and land use/cover (LUC) classification systems to describe mosquito abundance and to determine whether certain mosquito species of medical importance tend to be more common in urban (defined by HPD) or residential (defined by LUC) areas. Eleven study sites were categorized as urban or rural using U.S. Census Bureau data and by LUC types using geographic information systems (GISs). Abundance and percent composition of nine mosquito taxa, all known or potential vectors of arboviruses, were analyzed to determine spatial patterns. By HPD definitions, three mosquito species, Aedes canadensis (Theobald), Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker), and Culiseta melanura (Coquillett), differed significantly between habitat types, with higher abundance and percent composition in rural areas. Abundance and percent composition of these three species also increased with freshwater wetland, natural vegetation areas, or a combination when using LUC definitions. Additionally, two species, Ae. canadensis and Cs. melanura, were negatively affected by increased residential area. One species, Aedes vexans (Meigen), had higher percent composition in urban areas. Two medically important taxa, Culex spp. and Aedes triseriatus (Say), were proportionally more prevalent in residential areas by LUC classification, as was Aedes trivittatus (Coquillett). Although HPD classification was readily available and had some predictive value, LUC classification resulted in higher spatial resolution and better ability to develop location specific predictive models.

  18. The Alcoholism Situation in a Northern City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, M. Iu.; Martynova, D. Iu.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia has been increasing in recent years, especially in northern regions, as has the incidence of alcohol-related disease rates. A survey was conducted in Surgut (the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) that determined the factors lending to the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the population of the northern city and assessed the…

  19. China's Employment Situation and Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Excerpts

    2004-01-01

    With a large working-age population with a relatively low average level of education, China is facing severe challenges in employment. These include: the contradiction between workforce supply and demand; irrational employment structure;increasing pressure on the urban labor market;

  20. Situation Analysis Report. City of Richmond, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Contains demographic data on population, household income, health, social and economic conditions, environment, education, business and employment. Topics of concern among interviewed community leaders include parenting skills, early childhood development, financial management, decline in school accreditation, youth violence, workforce development, and leadership development for youth and adults.

  1. STANDARDIZATION OF UNCERTAINTY SITUATIONS IN TRAINING MODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Safontsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the description of modular structure of the academic discipline in accordance with the requirements of Federal State Educational Standards.Methods. The authors use the methods of standardization of the educational system that are based on educational theory quality measurement. As the process of learning does not depend on the perspective of the diagnostician, the objectification of the results has been achieved by using relative units, allowing the authors to compare the effectiveness of different stages of education quality assessment with quantitative methods. Furthermore, sampling method, correlation and comparative analysis of statistical significance of the obtained distributions have been used to exclude from analytical data the results that were not confirmed experimentally.Results. Statistical methods are presented in a complex, allowing the authors to receive experimental result at level of the statistical importance of psychological and pedagogical researches. According to ideas of the competence-based education and general theory of systems and educational qualimetry, it is shown that constructs of vocational training are problem, test and detailed designs included in structure of educational modules. Funds of estimated means have been used to measure the level of trainee’s competences: – problematic situation of uncertainty orientation for current control; – situations of test and project orientation for boundary control at the end of each module, intermediate control in the form of the exam held at the end of the semester, as well as state certification of control at the end of the study at the university. Validity of the degree of interest of the learning process, reliability of coincidences constructive reflection of students’ own achievements with independent project performance and efficiency as the ratio of the result obtained to the costs of implementing the target function of the educational

  2. Demographic situation and development in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhanang, A L

    1983-01-01

    In Nepal economic development has not kept pace with population growth. The government must develop a vigorous dual program to promote economic development and to reduce population growth. Previous efforts to promote economic development, using a macrolevel approach, failed to improve the economic conditions for the majority of Nepal's citizens. The macrolevel approach required large capital outlays and resulted in an influx of foreign investors and the importation of inappropriate technologies from the developed countries. As a result, urbanization and pollution increased, and both the proportion and the absolute number of poor persons increased. A microlevel approach is now being instituted by the government, and an emphasis is being placed on meeting the basic needs of the poor and on promoting economic self-sufficiency. The country has extensive water resources which can be tapped for irrigation purposes. Nepal also has rich mineral deposits which should be exploited in such a way as to ensure that the profits accrue to the Nepalese. The country has an abundance of manpower resources, but there is a dearth of skilled workers. Unemployment, especially in rural areas, is a serious problem, and efforts should be made to either develop the agricultural sector or create new jobs in other sectors. Nepal's demographic problems include rapid population growth, the influx of a large number of migrants from India, and a high rural to urban migration rate. In 1981, the population size was 15 million, the annual growth rate was 2.6%, the crude birth rate was 38.5, the crude death rate was 18.4, and life expectancy was 47.5 years. The government is currently developing plans 1) to promote the development of core sectors of the economy, 2) to provide family planning services for the poor, 3) to meet the basic needs of rural residents in order to stem the flow of migration to urban areas, 4) to mobilize women to play an active role in the country's development and population

  3. Improvement of actions on emergency situations at transportation of dangerous freights by rail transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. Ya. Kosenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Improvement of actions of emergency-and-rescue services during elimination of emergency aftermaths on railway. The extraordinary situations of anthropogenic character on railway are determined by the features of striking factors and are divided into accidents (catastrophes, accompanied by exhausts (blow-outs, spills of hazardous substances, fires, explosions, failures on engineering networks and systems of life-support, by destruction of buildings and structures, by accidents of transport vehicles, etc. At present, there is a problem of co-operation planning of troops and facilities, ministries and departments, which are ordered for eliminating the aftermaths of extraordinary situations, particularly at transporting dangerous freights by rail. Methodology. During the research the method of search optimization of existing systems improvement of analysis and forecast of extraordinary situations as well as the supervision and hour-by-hour registration of rescue services actions during trainings and in the real conditions of aftermaths eliminating of extraordinary situations were used. Findings. The problems to solve are notifying the population on the threat of extraordinary situations arising, informing in time about a current situation, maintaining emergency-and-rescue services in readiness to functioning in extraordinary situations, organizing the life-support of population in conditions of accidents, catastrophes, or a natural calamity. Originality. The features of civil defense organization at dangerous freights transportation are explored; the order of co-operation of emergency-and-rescue services during the elimination of emergency aftermaths of anthropogenic origin on railway is developed. It is resulted in creating the conditions of relative diminishment of losses and expenditures because of transport accidents, catastrophes, explosions, conflagrations and natural calamities. Practical value. It is necessary to plan emergency

  4. A study about lithium - the Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geoeconomical analysis of lithium is carried out, from its natural occurrence to its final application as a commercial product. General geological aspects such as the most important lithium mines, their minerals and their world distribution are taken into account. Also discussed is the viewpoint of enterprises regarding the various economical sectors associated with the production, consumption, marketing, installed industrial capacity, preparation of new products, development programs and installation of new plants. The applications of lithium, its several alloys and other chemical compounds are considered. Conclusions from these studies and from the data acquired are drawn, regarding the present Brazilian situation and its perspectives towards a future demand for lithium. (C.L.B.)

  5. A situated knowledge representation of geographical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahegan, Mark N.; Pike, William A.

    2006-11-01

    In this paper we present an approach to conceiving of, constructing and comparing the concepts developed and used by geographers, environmental scientists and other earth science researchers to help describe, analyze and ultimately understand their subject of study. Our approach is informed by the situations under which concepts are conceived and applied, captures details of their construction, use and evolution and supports their ultimate sharing along with the means for deep exploration of conceptual similarities and differences that may arise among a distributed network of researchers. The intent here is to support different perspectives onto GIS resources that researchers may legitimately take, and to capture and compute with aspects of epistemology, to complement the ontologies that are currently receiving much attention in the GIScience community.

  6. Biosimilars in Dermatology: Current Situation (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, L; Carretero, G; Daudén, E; Ferrándiz, C; Marrón, S E; Martorell, A; Pérez-Suárez, B; Rodriguez-Cerdeira, C; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Sánchez-Carazo, J L; Velasco, M

    2015-09-01

    The first biosimilar version of a biologic agent used to treat psoriasis (infliximab) entered the Spanish market on February 16 of this year, and more biosimilars can be expected to follow in the coming months and years. Logically, this new situation will have economic repercussions and alter prescribing patterns among dermatologists. In this second part of the review, we will look at several somewhat contentious issues, such as the extrapolation of indications, interchangeability, and automatic substitution. We will also review the biosimilars with indications for psoriasis currently in the clinical development pipeline and assess their potential to offer comparable efficacy and safety to the reference product while contributing to the sustainability of the public health care system. PMID:26049964

  7. Energy access. Current situation, challenges and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globally over 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity and 2.6 billion people rely on the traditional use of biomass for cooking. Energy access is one of the major challenges of the 21. century as it is a lever for both economic and human development, at individual and national level. Moreover, energy access represents a high-potential market and offers a lot of opportunities for private companies and industrials. In this publication, ENEA lays out the current situation of energy access (actors, actual and future needs, existing technological solutions, markets). The publication addresses the main issues energy access has to face: energy price, equipment financing, distribution, scale-up, and environmental performances

  8. Locally Situated Digital Representation of Indigenous Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Jensen, Kasper Løvborg; Rodil, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Digital re-presentation of indigenous knowledge remains an absurdity as long as we fail to deconstruct the prevalent design paradigm and techniques continuously re-framing technology within a western epistemology. This paper discusses key challenges in attempts of co-constructing a digital repres......’s views are brought to light within the design interactions. A new digital reality is created at the periphery of the situated knowledge through continuous negotiations and joint meaning making.......Digital re-presentation of indigenous knowledge remains an absurdity as long as we fail to deconstruct the prevalent design paradigm and techniques continuously re-framing technology within a western epistemology. This paper discusses key challenges in attempts of co-constructing a digital...

  9. Balanced Contributions for Multi-Issue Allocation Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo-Freire, S.; Alonso-Meijide, J.M.; Casas-Mendez, B.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a property of balanced contributions in the context of multi-issue allocation situations.Using this property, we characterise the run-to-thebank rule for multi-issue allocation situations.

  10. Corps de la Paix Tunisie: Cours de situation (Peace Corps Tunisia: Situation Course).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps (Tunisia).

    This guide, entirely in French, is designed for language training of Peace Corps workers in Tunisia and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of 25 theme-based lessons, each containing a situational dialogue, vocabulary, and exercises. The exercises focus more on new vocabulary and its usage than on systematic grammar…

  11. Creating effective leader’s through situational leadership approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mwai, Esther

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to discuss situational leadership model as an approach to leading followers, as well as help the student to understand ways to implement different leadership styles in practice. It shares a few tips on how to be a situational leader hence being effective and how to apply different leadership style on different situations. The theoretical framework focuses on explaining situational leadership model and the different leadership styles there is as well as matc...

  12. The problem of a psychological definition of "Legally relevant situations"

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanovich N. V.; Delibalt V.V.; Degtyarev A.V.,

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the concept of "legally significant situation." Discusses the classification of situations from the point of view of criminology and forensic psychological assessment. Highlights the main features of this type of situations from the point of view of psychology: the nature of conflict, involving the participation of third parties, as well as the presence of certain psychological consequences. This allows to describe the Genesis of certain situations, and to identify the St...

  13. A Goal-Function Approach to Analysis of Control Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The concept of situations plays a central role in all theories of meaning and context. and serve to frame or group events and other occurrences into coherent meaningful wholes. Situations are typed, may be interconnected and organized into higher level structures. In operation of industrial...... to systems modeling like Multilevel Flow Modeling can be used to represent control situations. The paper will describe an action theoretical foundation for MFM and its use for the development of a theory of control situations....

  14. Aging village doctors in five counties in rural China: situation and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Huiwen; Zhang, Weijun; Gu, Linni; Qu, Zhiyong; Sa, Zhihong; Zhang, Xiulan; Tian, Donghua

    2014-01-01

    Background The aging population, rapid urbanization, and epidemiology transition in China call for the improvement and adaptation of the health workforce, especially in underserved rural areas. The aging of village doctors (the former “barefoot doctors”) who have served the rural residents for many decades has become a warning signal for the human resources for health in China. This study aims to investigate the village doctors’ aging situation and its implications in rural China. Methods The...

  15. Current Situation and Demand of Rural Endowment Security in Shaanxi Province

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chunmei; Li, Lutang

    2013-01-01

    With intensification of population aging and rise in elderly dependency ratio, the demand for endowment security becomes higher and higher, particularly in rural areas. Taking Shaanxi Province as an example, the authors selected people older than 65 in 18 natural villages in north Shaanxi, south Shaanxi and Guanzhong. With the aid of survey data and related official statistical data, they made an evaluation of current situation of the rural endowment security in Shaanxi Province. Results indi...

  16. An agent-based decision support system for ecological-medical situation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolova, Marina; Fernández Caballero, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture of an agent-based decision support system (ADSS) for ecological-medical situation assessment. The system receives statistical information in form of direct and indirect pollution indicator values. The ultimate goal of the modeled multi-agent system (MAS) is to evaluate the impact of the exposure to pollutants in population health. The proposed ADSS interacts with humans in real-time ?what-if? scenarios, providing the user with evidence for optimal decision ...

  17. Situation des peuples autochtones dans les regions metropolitaines de recensement, 1981 a 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rosalinda; Siggner, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Le present rapport porte sur les caracteristiques demographiques et socioeconomiques des Autochtones habitant dans onze centres metropolitains en 1981 et 2001; on y examine la taille, l'age et la mobilite, la structure familiale, la frequentation scolaire et le niveau de scolarite ainsi que les caracteristiques sur le marche du travail et la dependance a l'egard des transferts de la population autochtone. Les auteurs en arrivent a la conclusion que la situation des Autochtones vivant dans les...

  18. The use of photography as emancipatory action: an experience report with people in street situation

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana de Oliveira Perez; Regina Célia Fiorati; Leonardo Martins Kebbe; Beatriz Cardoso Lobato

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to present a reflection on the experience of the use of photography by the occupational therapist with the people living in the streets of a Specialized Reference Center for Social Assistance to People in Street Situation - CREAS-POP of a municipality in Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The Photography Workshop aimed to provide an insertion and a different relationship with the urban space and population to the person living in the streets. Participants were asked to photograph somet...

  19. Situations de conflit armé comme champs d’analyse des rapports de genre

    OpenAIRE

    Reysoo, Fenneke

    2016-01-01

    Armed conflicts are in the headlines. Yet the meaning of these conflicts for the different social actors involved, especially for civil populations, has only slowly emerged as a field for research. Gender disaggregated social roles and responsibilities can change dramatically in a situation where all the usual social relations are disrupted. During this colloquium, we intend to consider war as a deep social breaking and as gender relations analyser.In the introduction part, gender’s structuri...

  20. Taxonomies of situations from a trait psychological perspective. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Berge, MA; De Raad, B

    1999-01-01

    In this article we review studies of situations and situation taxonomies from the perspective of trait psychology. Objections to trait psychology are discussed and several refutations are recapitulated The relation between traits and situations is analysed, as well as the affinity that both concepts

  1. Situational Knowledge in Physics: The Case of Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; de Jong, Ton; Ferguson-Hessler, Monica G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates how situational knowledge differs across individuals of different competence levels. Analyzes participants' descriptions of physics problem situations. Discusses the relationship between competence and the structure of problem situations, differences between experts and novices, and implications for teaching. (Author/KHR)

  2. Game theoretic analysis of maximum cooperative purchasing situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote Schaarsberg, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Reijnierse, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces maximum cooperative purchasing (MCP)-situations, a new class of cooperative purchasing situations. Next, an explicit alternative mathematical characterization of the nucleolus of cooperative games is provided. The allocation of possible cost savings in MCP-situations, in whic

  3. The Effect of Firm Survival Situations in Managerial Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Grantham; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined whether certain strategic situations (profit versus survival situations) cause managers to act more ethically or less ethically. Results from multivariate repeated measures tests suggest that managers will vary their level of ethical response when faced with a situation in which the organization's survival is at stake. (Author/JBJ)

  4. Allelopathy of Conyza canadensis on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Three Types of Weed%小飞蓬对三种杂草种子萌发和幼苗生长的化感作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高源; 朱朝华; 李雪枫; 雷照鸣; 余树华

    2012-01-01

    以稗草[Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.]、鬼针草(Bidens pilosa L.)、含羞草(Mimosa pudica L.)3种杂草种子为受体,以小飞蓬[Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.]全株为供体,采用培养皿滤纸培养法研究小飞蓬水提取液的乙酸乙酯、正丁醇和水萃取物对受体植物种子萌发和幼苗生长的化感作用.结果表明,小飞蓬的乙酸乙酯萃取物强烈抑制稗草和鬼针草的种子萌发和幼苗生长,且抑制效应随萃取物浓度的升高而提高,高浓度的乙酸乙酯萃取物对含羞草的种子萌发和幼苗生长抑制作用明显.乙酸乙酯萃取物浓度为0.5 mg/mL时,其对3种杂草幼苗的根长、茎长和鲜重的抑制作用与对照组比较就有显著差异.乙酸乙酯萃取物浓度为2.0 mg/mL时,其对稗草和鬼针草根长的化感效应指数(RI)值均为-1.00,对茎长的RI值分别为-0.97和-0.78;二者种子的萌发率平均值分别为3.3%和2.2%.小飞蓬的正丁醇萃取物抑制3种杂草的种子萌发和幼苗生长,但比乙酸乙酯萃取物的抑制作用弱.高浓度小飞蓬水萃取物强烈促进3种杂草的幼苗生长.说明小飞蓬水提取液中的除草活性物质可能存在于乙酸乙酯和正丁醇萃取物中.%Ethyl acetate, butanol and water extracts from Conyza canadensis were used to test their allelopathic effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of three types of weed [Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv, Bidens pilosa L, and Mimosa pudica L]. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract could strongly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of E. Crusgalli and B. Pilosa. The inhibition increased with the increasing concentration of extract. High concentration of the,ethyl acetate extract could effectively inhibit the seed germination and seedling growth of M. Pudica L. When the concentration of ethyl acetate reached 0.5 mg/mL, significant differences of seedlings of the 3 species emerged on their root length, stem length

  5. FAWKES Information Management for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetka, S.; Ramseyer, G.; Tucker, S.

    2010-09-01

    Current space situational awareness assets can be fully utilized by managing their inputs and outputs in real time. Ideally, sensors are tasked to perform specific functions to maximize their effectiveness. Many sensors are capable of collecting more data than is needed for a particular purpose, leading to the potential to enhance a sensor’s utilization by allowing it to be re-tasked in real time when it is determined that sufficient data has been acquired to meet the first task’s requirements. In addition, understanding a situation involving fast-traveling objects in space may require inputs from more than one sensor, leading to a need for information sharing in real time. Observations that are not processed in real time may be archived to support forensic analysis for accidents and for long-term studies. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) requires an extremely robust distributed software platform to appropriately manage the collection and distribution for both real-time decision-making as well as for analysis. FAWKES is being developed as a Joint Space Operations Center (JSPOC) Mission System (JMS) compliant implementation of the AFRL Phoenix information management architecture. It implements a pub/sub/archive/query (PSAQ) approach to communications designed for high performance applications. FAWKES provides an easy to use, reliable interface for structuring parallel processing, and is particularly well suited to the requirements of SSA. In addition to supporting point-to-point communications, it offers an elegant and robust implementation of collective communications, to scatter, gather and reduce values. A query capability is also supported that enhances reliability. Archived messages can be queried to re-create a computation or to selectively retrieve previous publications. PSAQ processes express their role in a computation by subscribing to their inputs and by publishing their results. Sensors on the edge can subscribe to inputs by appropriately authorized

  6. Children Interactions in Literacy Tutoring Situations: A Study with Urban Marginalized Populations in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, Celia Renata; Alam, Florencia; Stein, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The study analyzed the conversational exchanges through which child tutors mediated literacy abilities and knowledge with young children in the framework of the project "From Child to Child: A Tutor-Child Literacy Program," that is being conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The analysis considered the conversational moves deployed by…

  7. Situation on zoonoses in Kyrgyz Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems of occurrence, distribution and control of zoonotic infections as factors to risk of biological threats are priority tasks of medical and veterinary services of the Kyrgyz Republic. The necessity of solving is also a question of maintenance of biosafety and biosecurity, and all these questions are extraordinary actual today. In our republic brucellosis of cattle and small cattle animals is spread widely that causes in difficult epidemiological situation in several areas. In addition the number of people who are suffering from brucellosis is increasing every year. The number of ill people is increasing respectively to the number of ill animals. In the Kyrgyz Republic at the moment to eradicate brucellosis carried out research and practical work: (1) Carried out serological monitoring of all susceptible animals, (2) As a result to serological monitoring of positive animals are sent for slaughter, and (3) at this time, started small-cattle vaccination of livestock in one area (sheep and goats), REV-1 vaccine. This experience will be spread across the country. In addition, are designing new methods for rapid - diagnosis. Serological blood researches of 974.2 thousand heads of cattle on brucellosis were carried out in 2008. Among which 8719 tests gave a positive result that makes 0,8 % from a total of the investigated tests. In 2008 have been existed not an easy epizootic situation of rabies and had been registered 196 pockets of the disease rabies, of which 157 were eliminated pockets. By type of animal's were showing: cattle - 64, sheep and goats - 11 horses - 12 dogs - 106 cats - 1, wild animals - 4. Antiepizootic and veterinary-sanitary measures were organized in the places where niduses of infection were registered. Veterinary experts carried out vaccination of 385 thousand heads of cattle, and also were provided liquidation of vagrant dogs and cats was done in order to prevent an epizootic of rabies. As shown in our study the cases of human and animal

  8. Owing to the force of circumstances? The impact of situational features and personal characteristics on coping patterns across situations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, D. de; Kerssens, J.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify situational impacts on coping compared to the impact of personal characteristics. A facet design was used to systematically vary three situational features (ambiguity, social context, and concern at stake) in twenty vignettes of stressful situations that we

  9. Population, Population Density, and Technological Change

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan; Nestmann, Thorsten

    2004-01-01

    In a model on population and endogenous technological change, Kremer combines a short-run Malthusian scenario where income determines the population that can be sustained, with the Boserupian insight that greater population spurs technological change and can therefore lift a country out of its Malthusian trap. We show that a more realistic version of the model, which combines population and population density, allows deeper insights into these processes. The incorporation of population densit...

  10. Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Luis; Chisholm, Rebecca; Clairambault, Jean; Escargueil, Alexandre; Lorenzi, Tommaso; Lorz, Alexander; Trélat, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations, be it of genetic, epigenetic or stochastic origin, has been identified as a main source of resistance to drug treatments and a major source of therapeutic failures in cancers. The molecular mechanisms of drug resistance are partly understood at the single cell level (e.g., overexpression of ABC transporters or of detoxication enzymes), but poorly predictable in tumours, where they are hypothesised to rely on heterogeneity at the cell population scale, which is thus the right level to describe cancer growth and optimise its control by therapeutic strategies in the clinic. We review a few results from the biological literature on the subject, and from mathematical models that have been published to predict and control evolution towards drug resistance in cancer cell populations. We propose, based on the latter, optimisation strategies of combined treatments to limit emergence of drug resistance to cytotoxic drugs in cancer cell populations, in the monoclonal situation, which limited as it is still retains consistent features of cell population heterogeneity. The polyclonal situation, that may be understood as "bet hedging" of the tumour, thus protecting itself from different sources of drug insults, may lie beyond such strategies and will need further developments. In the monoclonal situation, we have designed an optimised therapeutic strategy relying on a scheduled combination of cytotoxic and cytostatic treatments that can be adapted to different situations of cancer treatments. Finally, we review arguments for biological theoretical frameworks proposed at different time and development scales, the so-called atavistic model (diachronic view relying on Darwinian genotype selection in the coursof billions of years) and the Waddington-like epigenetic landscape endowed with evolutionary quasi-potential (synchronic view relying on Lamarckian phenotype instruction of a given genome by reversible mechanisms), to

  11. Notes on the present situation of Anastrepha fraterculus in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behavioural and karyotypical results from Anastrepha fraterculus samples received in our laboratory during the period 92-94 are discussed. The work represents the partial situation of this pest in Argentina. Data from guava fruits indicate 1) that the oviposition behaviour does not agree with the autocontrol mechanism via ODP previously described, 2) that a selection mechanism associated to fruit size and quality exists, allowing the female to choose the oviposition site, 3) if different varieties of fruits are available, then the fly shows preference for one of them. The oviposition behaviour in samples of peaches is different from that observed on guava samples and agrees with the ODP mechanism. In some localities, A. fraterculus and C. capitata share the same substrate or fruit (same unit). Samples from commercial oranges do not show evidence of Anastrepha attack. A more frequent karyotype fArg 1 (wild type karyotype) as well as high karyotypic variation, mainly measured through the polymorphism of sexual chromosomes, are present within different geographic populations sharing the same host species. To date, we do not have enough information to associate a particular behaviour to a karyotype. The chromosomal analysis is merely descriptive. (author)

  12. Environmental situation in Austria. Sixth environmental control report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sixth environmental control report gives an overall picture of the situation of the environment in Austria for the period from 1997 to 2000. It emphasizes the areas of the Austrian environmental policy where significant improvements were achieved, such as the reduction of air pollutant emissions and the improvement of the quality of running waters. It also deals with problem areas such as transport, climate protection and renewable energy, where new solutions will have to be found within the framework of the Austrian and European environmental policies and already agreed upon strategies will have to be translated into daily practice. This environmental control report was written by experts of the Federal Environment Agency, which is an agency subordinate to the Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, and which acquired independent status in the form of a limited company. The report gives comprehensive information on all aspects of environmental monitoring in Austria, with a huge amount of numerical, geographical and evaluated data. The report is structured by the following chapters: population and land use; air; global climate change; stratospheric ozone degradation; water; soil; forests; environmental protection; agriculture; traffic; industry; economic audit; waste; contaminated sites; energy; noise; secure handling of chemicals; plant-protective agents; gene technology; radioecology. Those chapters which are in the INIS subject scope, dealing with radioecology and ecological aspects of nuclear and non-nuclear energy are treated individually on analytical level for the INIS database. (a.n.)

  13. Bone marrow leishmaniasis: a review of situation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2011-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is an important tropical vector-borne disease. This infection can be seen in tropical area and it is considered to be one of the most important vector-borne infections at present. The general situation of the leishmaniasis in Thailand is hereby reviewed. Although Thailand is a tropical country, the leishmaniasis is not endemic but sporadic. The imported cases are documented in some literatures. The serious form of leishmaniasis, the visceral leishmaniasis is also detectable in Thailand. Also, the author performed an in depth literature review of the reports of bone marrow leishmaniasis, a specific kind of visceral leishmaniasis, in Thailand in order to summarize the characteristics of this infection among Thai patients. According to this review, there have been at least 5 reports in the literature of 6 cases of bone marrow leishmaniasis in the Thai population, of which no case was lethal. Concerning the clinical manifestations, all except had prolonged fever with unknown origin. From physical examination, all had hepatosplenomegaly. The striking findings were active hemophagocytosis with increased proliferation of lymphoidplasma cell line in the bone marrow and amastigotes of Leishmania donovani was demonstrated. Considering the treatment, pantavalent antimony compound was used and the excellent improvement and complete recovery. Finally, the author also discussed on the importance of leishmaniasis in Thailand relating to the present globalization and good traveling system.

  14. Cyber situational awareness and differential hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Anurag; Tebben, Dan

    2012-06-01

    The advent of cyber threats has created a need for a new network planning, design, architecture, operations, control, situational awareness, management, and maintenance paradigms. Primary considerations include the ability to assess cyber attack resiliency of the network, and rapidly detect, isolate, and operate during deliberate simultaneous attacks against the network nodes and links. Legacy network planning relied on automatic protection of a network in the event of a single fault or a very few simultaneous faults in mesh networks, but in the future it must be augmented to include improved network resiliency and vulnerability awareness to cyber attacks. Ability to design a resilient network requires the development of methods to define, and quantify the network resiliency to attacks, and to be able to develop new optimization strategies for maintaining operations in the midst of these newly emerging cyber threats. Ways to quantify resiliency, and its use in visualizing cyber vulnerability awareness and in identifying node or link criticality, are presented in the current work, as well as a methodology of differential network hardening based on the criticality profile of cyber network components.

  15. Situational awareness of a coordinated cyber attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael

    2005-03-01

    As technology continues to advance, services and capabilities become computerized, and an ever increasing amount of business is conducted electronically the threat of cyber attacks gets compounded by the complexity of such attacks and the criticality of the information which must be secured. A new age of virtual warfare has dawned in which seconds can differentiate between the protection of vital information and/or services and a malicious attacker attaining their goal. In this paper we present a novel approach in the real-time detection of multistage coordinated cyber attacks and the promising initial testing results we have obtained. We introduce INFERD (INformation Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision-making), an adaptable information fusion engine which performs fusion at levels zero, one, and two to provide real-time situational assessment and its application to the cyber domain in the ECCARS (Event Correlation for Cyber Attack Recognition System) system. The advantages to our approach are fourfold: (1) The complexity of the attacks which we consider, (2) the level of abstraction in which the analyst interacts with the attack scenarios, (3) the speed at which the information fusion is presented and performed, and (4) our disregard for ad-hoc rules or a priori parameters.

  16. Roles, responsabilities and situations faced by supervisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca VLASA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Supervision is a dinamic proces which includes changes, acquisitions which have as a result the improving of work conditions, the rise of eficiency, the satisfactions of the employees and the avoiding of professional exhaustion. Nowadays, supervisors are permanently challenged with continuous transformations. The success criteria of the leaders is no longer their capacity to manage teams and unexpected situations, but their real capacity to anticipate and guide their actions. A supervisor does not have the power to fire or hire employees, but he can recommend this to the superior level of management. However, the supervisor can have the following roles: guide, mentor, attorney (for organisation, atorney (for employees. One of the supervisor’s responsabilities is the organisation of the department, but he also has to revise employee’s needs, to set performance standards, to ensure that employees follow the politics, the confidentiality and the procedures of the organisation. Although the purpose to help the employee become efficient seems simple, it can become a frustrating experience. One study about stress factors among supervisors revealed that they confrunt with two kind of problems: their status and the pressure at the work place which affects their performance.

  17. Culture moderates children's responses to ostracism situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Harriet; Uskul, Ayse K

    2016-05-01

    Across a series of studies, we investigated cultural differences in children's responses to ostracism situations. Working with the children of farmers and herders, we focused on how painful children estimate ostracism to be. Study 1a showed that 4- to 8-year-old children from a socially interdependent farming community estimated ostracism to be less painful than did children from an independent herding community. Study 1b showed that this cultural difference was specific to social pain and did not apply to physical pain. Study 2 replicated the results of Study 1a and showed that individual differences in parents' level of social interdependence mediated the relationship between cultural group and how painful children estimate ostracism to be. Study 3 replicated this effect again and showed that children's tendency to recommend seeking social support following ostracism mediated the relationship between cultural group and the perceived pain of being excluded. Finally, Study 4 investigated cultural differences in moral responses to ostracism and showed that children from the farming community punished an individual who ostracized someone else less harshly than did children from the independent herding community. Thus different economic cultures are associated with striking differences in social interdependence and responses to ostracism from early in development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27176774

  18. Current Economic Situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Mirascic

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the current economic situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Beginning in the second half of 2008, macroeconomic conditions in B&H began precipitating a decline in economic activity. While the global financial crisis was among the factors contributing to this decline, it was far from the only factor. Problematic macroeconomic conditions were also a result of B&H’s own structural and political problems, caused largely by the shortcomings of a political entity comprising two autonomous entities. Due to such problems, the governments of B&H turned to the International Monetary Fund for assistance. This article analyzes the effects of the first two “stand by” arrangements made between the IMF and B&H and discusses implications for further, ongoing stand by arrangements made between the IMF and B&H. This paper also examines the lack of unified economic space between The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and The Republic of Srpska, which has resulted not only in ineffective monetary policy but also in different fiscal and taxation systems between the two entities. While various existing analyses claim that B&H has little hope of resolving its economic woes due to its current political and economic structure, this article offers solutions and measures that, if successfully implemented, would lead to more efficient recovery and self-sustainable economic growth.

  19. [Role of the implicit theories of intelligence in learning situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, D; Cury, F; Bailly, D; Rufo, M

    2004-01-01

    Most studies have tried to explain the school difficulties by analysing the intellectual factors that lead to school failure. However in addition to the instrumental capacities, authors also recognize the role played by other factors such as motivation. More specifically, the theory of achievement motivation aims to determine motivational factors involved in achievement situations when the students have to demonstrate their competencies. This paradigm attributes a central place to beliefs in order to explain children's behavior in academic situations. According to Dweck, it seems that beliefs about the nature of intelligence have a very powerful impact on behavior. These implicit theories of intelligence create a meaning system or conceptual framework that influences the individual interpretation of school situations. Thus, an entity theory of intelligence is the belief that intelligence is a fixed trait, a personal quality that cannot be changed. Students who subscribe to this theory believe that although people can learn new things, their underlying intelligence remains the same. In contrast, an incremental theory of intelligence is the belief that intelligence is a malleable quality that can increase through efforts. The identification of these two theories allows us to understand the cognition and behavior of individuals in achievement situations. Many studies carried out in the academic area show that students who hold an entity theory of intelligence (ie they consider intelligence like a stable quality) have a strong tendency to attribute their failures to a fixed trait. They are more likely to blame their intelligence for ne-gative outcomes and to attribute failures to their bad intellectual ability. In contrast, students who hold an incremental theory of intelligence (ie they consider intelligence as a malleable quality) are more likely to understand the same ne-gative outcomes in terms of specific factors: they attribute them to a lack of effort. This

  20. [How deaf people cope in routine and emergency situations - suggested paths for thought and action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum-Baruchi, Carolina; Feder-Bubis, Paula; Adini-Weisel, Bruria; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

    2014-09-01

    Deaf people have unique characteristics and needs. There is a limited amount of research regarding the needs of deaf people, and no studies were found concerning deaf people in emergency situations. The absence of the sense of hearing in deaf people is only one component of the complexity of their world. Many factors contribute to this complexity, but the most striking is the means of communication between the deaf and the hearing person and vice versa. Changes during emergency situations present a challenge for hearing individuals, and even more so, for deaf people. Deaf individuals experience difficulty in obtaining and transmitting information, accessing care and more. These difficulties often result in the dependency of the deaf person on others. The State of Israel enacted laws targeted to facilitate the access of individuals with disabilities in general, and deaf people in particular, to public services. In emergencies, the Home Front Command and the Ministry of Social Welfare distribute pagers to the deaf population, as a device to communicate warning alerts. However, these devices do not fulfil the need for accessible care, bi-directional flow of information, and additional needs that arise during times of emergency. The deaf population is a cultural minority, whose needs in emergency situations are unknown. Familiarity with the deaf population is the first step towards improving treatment and communication that are apt for this population. This paper reviews what is known in the literature about this topic and presents an attempt to bridge the gap of knowledge and barriers to communication between the deaf population and

  1. Survey of furbearer populations on the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge: Study plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Red fox (Vulpes vulpes), marten (Martes americana), and lynx (Lynx canadensis) have been identified by the USFWS as three of the most economically important...

  2. Treemap Visualizations for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, J.; Gorrell, Z.

    Making sense of massive data sets is a problem for many military domains including space. With unwieldy big data sets used for space situational awareness (SSA), important trends and outliers may not be easy to spot especially not at-a-glance. One method being explored to visualize SSA data sets is called treemapping. Treemaps fill screen space with nested rectangles (tiles) of various sizes and colors to represent multiple dimensions of hierarchical data sets. By mapping these dimensions effectively with a tiling algorithm that maintains an appropriate aspect ratio, patterns can emerge that often would have gone unnoticed. The ability to interactively perform range filtering (in our case with sliders) and object drill-downs (hyperlinking the tiles) make this technology powerful for in-depth analyses in addition to at-a-glance awareness. For one SSA analysis, the tiles could represent satellites that are grouped by country, sized by apogee, and colored/shaded by the launch date. Filter sliders could allow apogee range or launch dates to be narrowed for better resolution of a smaller data set. The application of this technology for the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) is being explored on a DARPA Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) effort as a plug-in to the existing User-Defined Operational Picture (UDOP). In addition, visualization of DARPA OrbitOutlook small telescope data will be demonstrated. This research will investigate what SSA analyses are best served by treemaps, the best tiling algorithms for these problems, and how the treemaps should be integrated into the existing JMS UDOP workflow. Finally, we introduce a variation of treemaps that help leaders allocate their time to tasks based on importance and urgency.

  3. Effective strategies of socio-educational intervention with adolescents in social risk situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Melendro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the characterization of teenagers and young population at risk of social exclusion has been thoroughly investigated, that’s not the case of the intervention strategies used. This article refers to a research performed between 2011 and 2012 which advances on the description, categorization and study of effective intervention strategies, so they can be used as an information source for good professional performance, reproducible and useful to improve the situation of teenagers at risk.From a research-action approach, the contributions from the professionals working with this population, collected from about a hundred tests and seven discussion groups, are a direct and well-documented source of knowledge. This information is useful in order to underline the most relevant elements of this intervention, as well as the obstacles, limitations and practices that can be improved in this field of work.Part of the results and the discussion about them are, among others, the proposals of effective intervention in conflictive familiar dynamics, the worrying and increasing violence, teenagers migratory grief and its effects of risk and marginalization, the limited and weak participation of teenagers in their own life decision making and the important educational needs of the group of people working with this population.Furthermore, relevant strategic elements are shaped as the base of the intervention with teenagers at risk situation. Among those elements we find the flexibility to deal with uncertain situations, the link, empathy and affective proximity as necessary tools in socio-educational action, the contextualization of intervention in conflict situations and the debate about resilience and its contributions to the field of Social Pedagogy.

  4. Statistical Dynamics of Regional Populations and Economies

    CERN Document Server

    Huo, Jie; Hao, Rui; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    A practical statistical analysis on the regional populations and GDPs of China is conducted. The result shows that the distribution of the populations and that of the GDPs obeys the shifted power law, respectively. To understand these characteristics, a generalized Langevin equation describing variation of population is proposed based on the correlation between population and GDP as well as the random fluctuations of the related factors. The equation is transformed into the Fokker-Plank equation, and the solution demonstrates a transform of population distribution from the normal Gaussian distribution to a shifted power law. It also suggests a critical point of time at which the transform occurs. The shifted power law distribution in the supercritical situation is qualitatively in accordance with the practical result. The distribution of the GDPs is derived based on the Cobb-Douglas production function, and presents a change from a shifted power law to the Gaussian distribution. This result indicates that the...

  5. Institutional impediments to population policy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnicoll, G

    1995-11-01

    Despite having almost the highest rate of population growth among OECD countries, Australia has no explicit population policy. The potential elements of such a policy, especially with regard to immigration, family, and environment, are deeply entrenched in separate political domains and responsive to separate clusters of interests. Vague, demographically ill-informed, and mutually inconsistent views of a desired population size or trajectory for Australia co-exist, with no arena for any systematic engagement and considered debate among them. Parallels to the case of Australia can be drawn with Canada and the US. Population policy may well be one of the issues that modern liberal democracies find particularly difficult to manage. There are, however, also specific historical circumstances which led to the outcome and perpetuate the situation. Population processes and the institution of citizenship, and contested policy domains are discussed. PMID:12321981

  6. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Information is provided under two topics, general background and…

  7. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  8. Medical exposures requirements, present situation and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scope of medical exposures is studied, these include: exposure to patients as part of their diagnosis or treatment, exposures to persons who knowingly have assisted patients, exposures volunteers included in biomedical research programs. Medical exposures have contributed their benefits for human health improvement: possess a necessary character that people have to be exposed to radiation doses to achieve their goals, convergence of risk and benefit in the same individual is presented, variability is implicated in dose given to patients in terms of size and distribution, have contributed significantly to the doses received by the world population. Despite the above attributes and generally contribute to the direct benefit of the patient, long has been given less attention than other forms of exposure, there still potential for dose reduction to patients as a result of the applications of ionizing radiation. Currently have used for nuclear medicine diagnostic x-ray procedures, exams MN, radiotherapy, tomography, both medical and dental radiology. (author)

  9. Public health equity in refugee situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisp Jeff

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Addressing increasing concerns about public health equity in the context of violent conflict and the consequent forced displacement of populations is complex. Important operational questions now faced by humanitarian agencies can to some extent be clarified by reference to relevant ethical theory. Priorities of service delivery, the allocation choices, and the processes by which they are arrived at are now coming under renewed scrutiny in the light of the estimated two million refugees who fled from Iraq since 2003. Operational questions that need to be addressed include health as a relative priority, allocations between and within different populations, and transition and exit strategies. Public health equity issues faced by the humanitarian community can be framed as issues of resource allocation and issues of decision-making. The ethical approach to resource allocation in health requires taking adequate steps to reduce suffering and promote wellbeing, with the upper bound being to avoid harming those at the lower end of the welfare continuum. Deliberations in the realm of international justice have not provided a legal or implementation platform for reducing health disparities across the world, although norms and expectations, including within the humanitarian community, may be moving in that direction. Despite the limitations of applying ethical theory in the fluid, complex and highly political environment of refugee settings, this article explores how this theory could be used in these contexts and provides practical examples. The intent is to encourage professionals in the field, such as aid workers, health care providers, policy makers, and academics, to consider these ethical principles when making decisions.

  10. Social Situation Of Diyarbakir Province Throughout The Ottoman Domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim YILMAZÇELİK

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Social Stratification can be described as “differentiation of a certain population hierarchically, namely, classes being located one after another in social terms”. As at present time, in the past periods as well, one of the most important factors that affected the social stratification was the posts of the persons, that is to say, the occupations and economic power they had. In Ottoman State, human communities living in cities were composed of different groups in general. It has been possible to arrange human groups especially with respect to their jobs or their economical situations and educational positions. As in the other Ottoman cities, in the city and the province of Diyarbakır, those groups constituted the social stratums. In this study, about social stratification in Diyarbakir city and state are given. Family and women issues form the main core of these layers are discussed in detail. Of the pillars of society throughout history and despite being one of the cornerstones of the nuclear family; this aspect of women in various cultures and periods or have been denied or ignored by hovering, has been reduced to a passive position. Islamic period, together with the woman, a former compared to a more realistic status gained Although, many Muslim states and cultures, traditions from a Ways must be, the status of women of Islam aiming at the level could be reached. In this study, which is expected to serve as an example to the status of women in the family and provincial organizations, in Diyarbakir Province were discussed between the situation of women in the social structure.Diyarbakir şeriyye sicils, social history and family gives important information about the woman. However, other resources will also be made. However, the issue constitutes the main source of şeriyye sicils. Diyarbakir when dealing with the family’s location in the social structure; first marriage and the family traditions and handled accordingly; Formation of

  11. Understanding situation awareness and its importance in patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluyas, Heather; Harris, Sarah-Jane

    2016-04-20

    Situation awareness describes an individual's perception, comprehension and subsequent projection of what is going on in the environment around them. The concept of situation awareness sits within the group of non-technical skills that include teamwork, communication and managing hierarchical lines of communication. The importance of non-technical skills has been recognised in safety-critical industries such as aviation, the military, nuclear, and oil and gas. However, health care has been slow to embrace the role of non-technical skills such as situation awareness in improving outcomes and minimising the risk of error. This article explores the concept of situation awareness and the cognitive processes involved in maintaining it. In addition, factors that lead to a loss of situation awareness and strategies to improve situation awareness are discussed. PMID:27097212

  12. SPECIFICITY OF SELF-PRESERVATION MOTIVATION IN EXTREME SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Anatolevna Karacheva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study motivation of self-preservation in an extreme situation. Usually extreme situation unfold from the point of view of functioning, health, high negative level mental stress and tension. The extreme situation is the situation of human activity to which man acts, carrying out certain activities. The article provides an overview of russian and foreign authors dealing with this problem. Theoretical models of motivation of self-preservation Z. Freud, A. Maslow, G. Murray, M. Magomed-Eminov. The study explores the leading motivation in an extreme situation and analyzed the levels of motivation of self-preservation. The study was conducted in the Afghan veterans, using a method of unfinished sentences and other. Identified two levels of motivation of self-preservation: individual and personal. Revealed that the motivation of self-preservation is the leading motivation in an extreme situation.

  13. A situational approach to the measurement of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Values and social norms are the main target of most approaches to the study of safety culture and many existing survey methodologies directly ask for these norms and values. However, a number of considerations point to the dangers of limiting the evaluation of safety culture to the analysis of these responses. Therefore the necessity is stressed to also consider how actual situations activate norms and behaviours. This relates to the fact that in any given situation both aspects of the appraisal of reality are present: the objective definition of the situation and its personal evaluation. The latter not only reflects the ''official'' norms and values but also ''basic underlying assumptions''. The situational approach introduced in this paper confronts people with situations which contain a dilemma with conflicting social norms and where various costs and benefits are associated with different types of behaviour. In addition, the prerequisites and limitations of the situational approach are discussed. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig

  14. The problem of a psychological definition of "Legally relevant situations"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanovich N. V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the concept of "legally significant situation." Discusses the classification of situations from the point of view of criminology and forensic psychological assessment. Highlights the main features of this type of situations from the point of view of psychology: the nature of conflict, involving the participation of third parties, as well as the presence of certain psychological consequences. This allows to describe the Genesis of certain situations, and to identify the States generated at each stage. It is also noted that the specificity of the legally significant cases involving minors is its group nature (the child as part of a family or other group. Thus, it is possible to give the following definition of a legally relevant situation within legal psychology, children and adolescents: a situation involving minors, subjects who are in relationships, conflict is caused by interactions in the legal context, which leads not only to legally relevant, but also to the psychological consequences for its participants.

  15. Simulated effects of recruitment variability, exploitation, and reduced habitat area on the muskellunge population in Shoepack Lake, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohnauer, N.K.; Pierce, C.L.; Kallemeyn, L.W.

    2007-01-01

    The genetically unique population of muskellunge Esox masquinongy inhabiting Shoepack Lake in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, is potentially at risk for loss of genetic variability and long-term viability. Shoepack Lake has been subject to dramatic surface area changes from the construction of an outlet dam by beavers Castor canadensis and its subsequent failure. We simulated the long-term dynamics of this population in response to recruitment variation, increased exploitation, and reduced habitat area. We then estimated the effective population size of the simulated population and evaluated potential threats to long-term viability, based on which we recommend management actions to help preserve the long-term viability of the population. Simulations based on the population size and habitat area at the beginning of a companion study resulted in an effective population size that was generally above the threshold level for risk of loss of genetic variability, except when fishing mortality was increased. Simulations based on the reduced habitat area after the beaver dam failure and our assumption of a proportional reduction in population size resulted in an effective population size that was generally below the threshold level for risk of loss of genetic variability. Our results identified two potential threats to the long-term viability of the Shoepack Lake muskellunge population, reduction in habitat area and exploitation. Increased exploitation can be prevented through traditional fishery management approaches such as the adoption of no-kill, barbless hook, and limited entry regulations. Maintenance of the greatest possible habitat area and prevention of future habitat area reductions will require maintenance of the outlet dam built by beavers. Our study should enhance the long-term viability of the Shoepack Lake muskellunge population and illustrates a useful approach for other unique populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  16. WOMEN SITUATION AT TEPEXILOTLA, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pimentel-Aguilar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Through the years, rural women have been immerse in different situations that have condemn them to suffer bad treatments or discrimination, machist treatments, and lack of equity. However, in recent years, Mexican public politics are looking after the improvement of women quality of life, particularly in the last ten years. Implementing governmental actions to prevent different ways of discrimination towards women, looking for gender equity in the Mexican society. In particular, Tepexilotla is a community of the Mexican state of Veracruz, that despite of being so small village, is actively its development. Regarding gender, after four years of continuous work in the community, there are initiating changes in social and familiar relationships, because is getting each time more involved in the economical activities, such as agroecotourism. Specifically, these have been observed on relation to their participation in the agro-ecoturistic activity that has started to be a resource of employment and development in the town. As far as Tepexilotla has been received the training from “Colegio de Postgraduados” to design rural touristic routes that have encouraged this activity en this community (between other active-research and projects in that microregion. Between these projects, Rural turism emerged from a integral participative diagnostic (DIP to detect potential projects of the microregion, where the people from the community raise their interest to learn “touristic guides” habilities, because they were interested on showing prehispanic ruins as well as caves and ecological areas, that emerged as potential resources for development. In this way, the project borned to achieve agro-ecoturistic activities that help to potentialize the agricultural, ecological and touristic activities, with the gender perspective view, (considering both men and women. In this project, rural women are being carrying out a very active role, which is empowering

  17. CURRENT SITUATION OF MEDICINE III AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Masako Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe the current situation of the area Medicine III of CAPES and detect challenges for the next four years of evaluation. Methods: The area's documents and reports of meetings were read from 2004 to 2013 Medicine III Capes as well as reports and evaluation form of each Postgraduate Program (PPG of the area and the sub-page of the area from the Capes website. The data relating to the evaluation process, the assessment form and faculty, student and scientific production data of all of Post-Graduate Programs of Medicine III were computed and analyzed. From these data were detected the challenges of the area for the next four years (2013-2016. Results: Among the 3,806 PPG, Medicine III had 41 PPG during last triennial evaluation and progressed from 18% to 43% of PPG very good or more concept (triennium 2001-2003 and 2010-2012. Most PPG were located in the South-East region (32, three in the South and two in the North-East. There was no PPG in North or Central-West regions. In 2013 and 2014 there were four approved Professional Master Degree Programs and one Master (M and Doctorate (PhD. The average of permanent professors was 558 teachers with about three students/professor. The number of PhD graduates has increased as well as the reason PhD/MD. The proportion of in high impact periodicals (A1, A2, B1 and B2 jumped from 30% to 50% demonstrating positive community response to the policy area. The challenges identified were: decrease regional asymmetry, increase the number of masters and doctors of excellence, reassessment of Brazilian journals, stimulate and set internationalization indicators, including post-doctors and definition of its indicators, the PPG nucleation analysis, PPG 3x3, include primary and secondary education, professional master and indicators of technological scientific production and solidarity. Conclusion: Medicine III has been scientifically consolidated and their scientific researchers demonstrated maturity

  18. Evidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in three species of sympatric wild ungulates in Nevada: Life history strategies may maintain endemic infections in wild populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was detected in 2009-10 during a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum) in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 ...

  19. Localization Services for Online Common Operational Picture and Situation Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Björkbom, Mikael (editor); Timonen, Jussi; Yigitler, Huseyin; Kaltiokallio, Ossi; Garcia, Jose Vallet; Myrsky, Matthieu; Saarinen, Jari; Korkalainen, Marko; Cuhac, Caner; Jäntti, Riku; Virrankoski, Reino; Vankka, Jouko; Koivo, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    Many operations, be they military, police, rescue, or other field operations, require localization services and online situation awareness to make them effective. Questions such as how many people are inside a building and their locations are essential. In this paper, an online localization and situation awareness system is presented, called Mobile Urban Situation Awareness System (MUSAS), for gathering and maintaining localization information, to form a common operational picture. The MUSAS ...

  20. New RFID System Architectures Supporting Situation Awareness under Ubiquitous Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Dongwon Jeong; Young-Gab Kim; Hoh In

    2005-01-01

    Many sensors providing situation data will be in everywhere under the ubiquitous environment. The current RFID system should be extended to recognize and use situation information from the sensors. This study proposes RFID system architectures that are suitable for the ubiquitous environment. This study applies the situation awareness concept to and extends the current RFID system architecture to be able to adapt to the environment. The key components include an inference&...

  1. Current situation and prospects of development of chosen hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Kozová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    My bachelor thesis is focused on analyzing of the situation in the chosen hotel, which is called hotel LUNA *** and situated in Martin, Slovakia. The aim of the thesis is to analyze this hotel, to evaluate its current situation and then to propose possible solutions and prospects of its future development. The theoretical part involves marketing facts and the organization of hotel establishments, the Slovak legislation and the condition in which the accommodation facilities in Slovakia are. T...

  2. TIP : An intermediate language for the description of temporal situations

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob, Jörg-Ingo

    1991-01-01

    A language for the description of temporal situations (called TIP) is presented. It incorporates the work of Allen, Rit and Becker on qualitative and quantitative representation of temporal situations and expresses this work in a unifying language approach, enhanced by arithmetic and procedural constructs. TIP is intermediate in the sense that it is a kind of assembler language for the declarative description of temporal situations. By careful choice of TIP's syntax, mnemonics and structure, ...

  3. TAR Channel Access Mechanism For VANET Safety-Critical Situations

    OpenAIRE

    KHOUFI, Ines; WEHBI, Bachar; Laouiti, Anis

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is among the most relevant forms of mobile ad-hoc networks. VANET helps improving traffic safety and efficiency. By exchanging information between each others, vehicles can warn drivers or even prepare for dangerous situation. These warnings can be about critical situations like vehicles merging in a highway. Detecting and warning about such situations require a reliable communication between vehicles increasing thus the need for an efficient medium access con...

  4. The role of trust in communication breakdowns in disaster situations

    OpenAIRE

    Scholander, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Disaster situations are, by their very nature, broad and complex situations. While it is intrinsically appealing to assume that communication breakdowns in these situations are due to technological barriers, this assumption overlooks the possibility that non-technological barriers to communication exist within and between agencies and individuals. High levels of social capital within or between groups will enable better communication and resource flows. Thus trust will clearly have a critical...

  5. Studies on the allelopathic effects of Solidago canadensis L. on algae%加拿大一枝黄花化感抑藻效应的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白羽; 黄莹莹; 孔海南; 王艳

    2012-01-01

      利用植物化感作用,可抑制有害藻类的生长,改善富营养化水体水质.文章选择我国重要的陆生入侵植物加拿大一枝黄花(Solidago canadensis L.),系统研究了其根部、茎部和叶部水浸液对5种常见藻类:铜绿微囊藻(Microcystis aeruginosa)、斜生栅藻(Scenedesmus obliquu)、蛋白核小球藻(Chlorella pyrenoidosa)、水华鱼腥藻(Anabaena flos-aguae)和羊角月牙藻(Selenastrum capricornutum)生长的化感效应.研究结果表明:(1)加拿大一枝黄花水浸液对铜绿微囊藻的生长有强烈的化感抑制效应,7 d 抑制率为90%左右,根、茎、叶部水浸液的72 h-EC50由高到低依次为34.84、12.54和9.57 g·L-1,叶部对铜绿微囊藻的抑制作用最强;(2)加拿大一枝黄花叶部水浸液除了对水华鱼腥藻的生长无显著影响外,对其余4种受试藻均有明显的抑制作用,即加拿大一枝黄花叶部的化感抑藻效应较具广谱性;(3)相同质量浓度、同一部位的加拿大一枝黄花水浸液对不同藻种的化感作用类型和作用强度有所不同,即化感抑藻效应存在选择性,且这种选择性与藻类的分类学特征无关;(4)对同一种藻,加拿大一枝黄花根、茎、叶等不同部位水浸液的化感效应也有所差异

  6. 加拿大一枝黄花提取物对铜绿微囊藻细胞膜和亚显微结构的影响研究%Effects of extracts of Solidago canadensis L.on cell membrane and ultrastructure of Microcystis aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白羽; 黄莹莹; 孔海南; 王艳

    2013-01-01

    In order to reveal the antialgal mechanisms of Solidago canadensis L.,the Solidago canadensis L.extract was used to treat Microcystis aeruginosa.The effects of extract on membrane properties of Microcystis aeruginosa were studied from several aspects of membrane liquid peroxidation,membrane permeability,compositions and proportions of fatty acid and so on.The ultrastructure of Microcystis aeruginosa was observed by scan electron microscope.The research results indicated that the content of maleic dialdehyde (MDA) in Microcystis aeruginosa was increased with the existence of Solidago canadensis L.extract,which also intensified the membrane liquid peroxidation and changed the compositions of fatty acid in Microcystis aeruginosa ; this was showed up by the uprising proportion of unsaturated fatty acid and the decreasing proportion of saturated fatty acids.After treated by extracts of Solidago canadensis L.,the algal cell membrane appeared a slight wrinkle or plasmolysis in the first phase,after then,the cell membrane was damaged or even seriously disrupted.Thus,the extract was more likely to enter the algal cell and further affect the internal structure of Microcystis aeruginosa,the ultrastructure of Microcystis aeruginosa cell was eventually damaged.%探讨了经加拿大一枝黄花(Solidago canadensis L.)提取物处理后,铜绿微囊藻(Microc ystis aeruginosa)细胞膜相关特性的变化,如膜脂过氧化程度、细胞膜透性、脂肪酸组成和所占比例变化等,并通过电子显微镜观察了铜绿微囊藻细胞的亚显微结构变化,以初步揭示加拿大一枝黄花提取物对铜绿微囊藻抑制效应的机制.结果表明,添加加拿大一枝黄花提取物可使铜绿微囊藻细胞内丙二醛(MDA)累积量增加,加剧了膜脂过氧化反应;改变了铜绿微囊藻细胞内脂肪酸的组成,使不饱和脂肪酸所占比例上升,饱和脂肪酸所占比例下降;经加拿大一枝黄花提取物处理过的藻细胞膜初期出

  7. 不同生态型小飞蓬对酸樱桃镉积累及土壤酶活性的影响%Effects of Different Ecotypes of Conyza canadensis on Cd Accumulation of Sour Cherry and Soil Enzyme Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程籍; 廖明安; 林立金; 刘娟; 汤福义; 罗丽; 梅洛银; 刘雨

    2013-01-01

    为研究镉污染下,不同生态型小飞蓬对酸樱桃镉积累及土壤酶活性的影响,通过盆栽试验研究了2类生态型(矿山生态型和非矿山生态型)小飞蓬与酸樱桃混种对2类植物生物量、镉含量及土壤酶活性的影响。结果表明,与矿山生态型和非矿山生态型小飞蓬混种的酸樱桃地上部生物量分别较单种降低了31.92%和34.62%,根系生物量较单种分别降低了42.47%和33.33%;地上部镉含量分别比单种下降35.42%和44.44%,根系的镉含量分别比单种下降17.01%和28.70%。2种混种方式均使土壤有效镉含量、土壤过氧化氢酶活性、土壤脲酶活性较各自单种有所增加,土壤蔗糖酶活性有所下降。因此,2种不同生态型小飞蓬混种酸樱桃,虽然使酸樱桃生长受到一定抑制,但对土壤微生物环境有一定改善效果,且能有效降低酸樱桃对镉的吸收,其中以混种矿山生态型小飞蓬的效果更好。%To study the effects of different ecotypes of Conyza canadensis on cadmium ( Cd ) accumulation of sour cherry and soil enzyme activity ,the pot experiment was adopted to study the effects of intercropping two eco-types(Mining and non-mining ecotype) of Conyza canadensis and sour cherry on their biomass,Cd content and soil enzyme activity .The results showed that , sour cherry intercropping with mining or non-mining ecotype of Conyza canadensis,the shoot biomass were respectively decreased by 31.92%and 34.62%than the monoculture,the root biomass were respectively decreased by 42 .47%and 33 .33%than the monoculture;the Cd content in shoot were respectively decreased by 35 .42%and 44 .44%than the monoculture ,the Cd content in root respectively decreased 17 .01%and 28 .70%than the monoculture .The soil available Cd content ,soil catalase activity ,soil urease activity were respectively increased than the monoculture in both two kinds of intercropping methods

  8. Establishing the situated features associated with perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebois, Lauren A M; Hertzog, Christopher; Slavich, George M; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2016-09-01

    We propose that the domain general process of categorization contributes to the perception of stress. When a situation contains features associated with stressful experiences, it is categorized as stressful. From the perspective of situated cognition, the features used to categorize experiences as stressful are the features typically true of stressful situations. To test this hypothesis, we asked participants to evaluate the perceived stress of 572 imagined situations, and to also evaluate each situation for how much it possessed 19 features potentially associated with stressful situations and their processing (e.g., self-threat, familiarity, visual imagery, outcome certainty). Following variable reduction through factor analysis, a core set of 8 features associated with stressful situations-expectation violation, self-threat, coping efficacy, bodily experience, arousal, negative valence, positive valence, and perseveration-all loaded on a single Core Stress Features factor. In a multilevel model, this factor and an Imagery factor explained 88% of the variance in judgments of perceived stress, with significant random effects reflecting differences in how individual participants categorized stress. These results support the hypothesis that people categorize situations as stressful to the extent that typical features of stressful situations are present. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to establish a comprehensive set of features that predicts perceived stress.

  9. Situation resolution with context-sensitive fuzzy relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Gabriel; Buford, John; Lewis, Lundy

    2009-05-01

    Context plays a significant role in situation resolution by intelligent agents (human or machine) by affecting how the situations are recognized, interpreted, acted upon or predicted. Many definitions and formalisms for the notion of context have emerged in various research fields including psychology, economics and computer science (computational linguistics, data management, control theory, artificial intelligence and others). In this paper we examine the role of context in situation management, particularly how to resolve situations that are described by using fuzzy (inexact) relations among their components. We propose a language for describing context sensitive inexact constraints and an algorithm for interpreting relations using inexact (fuzzy) computations.

  10. Spacio-temporal situation assessment for mobile robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anders Billesø; Risager, Claus; Andersen, Nils Axel;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a framework for situation modeling and assessment for mobile robot applications. We consider situations as data patterns that characterize unique circumstances for the robot, and represented not only by the data but also its temporal and spacial sequence. Dynamic Markov...... chains are used to model the situation states and sequence, where stream clustering is used for state matching and dealing with noise. In experiments using simulated and real data, we show that we are able to learn a situation sequence for a mobile robot passing through a narrow passage. After learning...

  11. Flash floods in Catalonia: a recurrent situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, M. C.; Llasat-Botija, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Lindbergh, S.

    2010-09-01

    This work focuses on the analysis and characterization of the flash flood events occurring during summer in Catalonia. To this aim, a database with information about the social impact produced by all flood events recorded in Catalonia between 1982 and 2007 has been built. The social impact was obtained systematically on the basis of news press data and, occasionally, on the basis of insurance data. Flood events have been classified into ordinary, extraordinary and catastrophic floods, following the proposal of Llasat et al.~(2005). However, bearing in mind flash flood effects, some new categories concerning casualties and car damage have also been introduced. The spatial and temporal distribution of these flood events has been analyzed and, in an effort to better estimate the social impact and vulnerability, some indicators have been defined and analyzed for a specific region. These indicators allow an analysis of spacial and temporal trends as well as characterization of the events. Results show a flash-flood increase in summer and early autumn, mainly due to inter-annual and intra-annual changes in population density.

  12. Brain activity in advantageous and disadvantageous situations: implications for reward/punishment sensitivity in different situations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangheng Dong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study modeled win and lose trials in a simple gambling task to examine the effect of entire win-lose situations (WIN, LOSS, or TIE on single win/lose trials and related neural underpinnings. METHODS: The behavior responses and brain activities of 17 participants were recorded by an MRI scanner while they performed a gambling task. Different conditions were compared to determine the effect of the task on the behavior and brain activity of the participants. Correlations between brain activity and behavior were calculated to support the imaging results. RESULTS: In win trials, LOSS caused less intense posterior cingulate activity than TIE. In lose trials, LOSS caused more intense activity in the right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral superior frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate, bilateral insula cortex, and left orbitofrontal cortex than WIN and TIE. CONCLUSIONS: The experiences of the participants in win trials showed great similarity among different win-lose situations. However, the brain activity and behavior responses of the participants in lose trials indicated that they experienced stronger negative emotion in LOSS. The participants also showed an increased desire to win in LOSS than in WIN or TIE conditions.

  13. Situation of nuclear industry in Japan; La situation du nucleaire au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    This document presents the situation of nuclear industry in Japan: cooperation with France in the domain of the fuel cycle (in particular the back-end) and of for the industrial R and D about fast reactors and nuclear safety; present day situation characterized by a series of incidents in the domain of nuclear safety and by an administrative reorganization of the research and safety organizations; power of local representatives, results of April 2003 elections, liberalization of the electric power sector, impact of the TEPCO affair (falsification of safety reports) on the nuclear credibility, re-start up of the Monju reactor delayed by judicial procedures, stopping of the program of MOX fuel loading in Tepco's reactors, discovery of weld defects in the newly built Rokkasho-mura reprocessing plant, an ambitious program of reactors construction, the opportunity of Russian weapons dismantling for the re-launching of sodium-cooled fast reactors; the competition between France and Japan for the setting up of ITER reactor and its impact of the French/Japanese partnership. (J.S.)

  14. Situated health promotion: reflections on implementing situated learning approaches in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieter, Andrea; Fröhlich, Michael; Emrich, Eike; Stark, Robin

    2010-07-01

    Handing down health knowledge and behavior patterns is a main objective of health promotion. Often, interventions do not bring about the intended change of behavior. This could be due, among other things, to the fact that the majority of intervention programs are not based on principles of instructional design to bridge the gap between knowledge and action. A situated design of health promotion measures is to be considered particularly suitable. That accounts for the fact that the acquisition and application of knowledge is an active construction process on the part of the individuals involved, and one that includes the possibility to improve the quality of learning processes in the area of health promotion, and thus increases the probability that acquired knowledge can be applied in real situations. In the context of the problem that most health promotion interventions frequently do not show the desired permanent behavioral changes of the participating individuals, from a pedagogical perspective, it is crucial that current didactic-methodological principles be taken into account. This, too, should be taken into account in connection with an empirical analysis of the reflections in this article. In the following paper, various suggestions for implementation are explained and discussed.

  15. La situation actuelle de la sociologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Caillé

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Même si l’on compte à travers le monde de plus en plus de sociologues, la sociologie se révèle en fait de plus en plus incertaine de son identité, de son sens et de sa légitimité. Elle est en effet marquée par un triple éclatement : le double éclatement interne entre théorie et empirie et entre écoles rivales et l’éclatement externe entre sociologie, histoire, critique littéraire et philosophie – auquel on pourrait ajouter un quatrième qui les recoupe et les redouble : l’absence de la sociologie des grands débats théoriques et politiques actuels. Il est donc urgent d’identifier le dénominateur commun à tous les courants de pensée évoqués dans l’article, de manière à pouvoir à la fois organiser une transmission raisonnée des acquis de la réflexivité moderne, et opposer une légitimité théorique alternative suffisamment puissante à la légitimité impérialiste de la science économique.Present situation of sociologyAlthough worldwide we can account for more and more sociologists, sociology is revealing in fact to be more and more uncertain of its identity, meaning and legitimacy. It is indeed marked by a triple burst : a double internal burst between theory and empiry and between rival schools and an external burst between sociology, history, literary criticism and philosophy – to which we can add a fourth one that overlaps and doubles them : the absence of sociology from major and current theoretical and political debates. It is then urgent to identify the common denominator to all these currents of thought mentioned in this paper, so that it can organize a reasoned knowledge transfer of modern reflexivity, powerful enough to oppose an alternate legitimate theory to economics’ legitimate imperialism.La situación actual de la sociologíaAunque cada vez hay más sociólogos la sociología es cada vez más incierta por que respecta a su propia identidad,  a su propio sentido y a su legitimidad

  16. Personality-situation transactions from adolescence to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela

    2016-05-01

    People presumably choose and create their daily environments according to their personality. Prior research shows that, for example, more extraverted people engage more often in social situations, and more conscientious people engage more often in work-related activities compared with less extraverted or less conscientious people, respectively. The current study examined such personality-situation transactions in people's daily life. Based on the assumption that older people know themselves and their personality better than younger people, we investigated whether momentary and proximate personality-situation associations (i.e., changing from 1 type of situation into another) increase with older age. Three-hundred and 78 people aged 14 to 82 years described their Big Five traits and took part in a 3-week experience-sampling phase. Using mobile-phone based assessments in daily life, participants reported on average 55 times on their momentary situation. Multilevel modeling results showed that personality-situation associations varied with the age of participants. Some of the "established" personality-situation associations, such as for extraversion and time spent with friends or conscientiousness and time spent with work activities, were only observed in adolescence and young adulthood. In contrast, other personality-situation associations appeared only in late adulthood, such as for openness and time spent with friends. Yet most personality-situation associations did not vary significantly with people's age. In addition, personality traits predicted maintaining or entering personality-congruent situations. The latter results point to the active role of personality in shaping one's environment. The findings imply that some personality-situation transactions may be largely similarly across the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26167797

  17. [The malaria situation in the WHO eastern Mediterranean region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beljaev, A E

    2000-01-01

    About 45% of the population of the Eastern Mediterranean Region live under the risk of both falciparum and vivax malaria, and additional 15% under the risk of P. vivax alone. The estimated annual number of malaria cases is about 14 million, out of which 95% occur in four countries: Afghanistan, Somalia, Sudan and Yemen. In Afghanistan malaria is endemic throughout the country at altitude below 1500 m. About 80-90% of malaria cases belong to P. vivax, the rest to P. falciparum (the latter is prevalent mostly in the South and in Badakhshan). In Islamic Republic of Iran 16% of the population live in initially non-malarious areas, 66% in areas freed from malaria, 12% in areas with sporadic transmission, mostly of P. vivax, and only 6% in areas of continuous transmission with a high proportion of P. falciparum. As much as 77% of the recorded cases belong to the latter territories. Iraq. After the Gulf war, the situation deteriorated in the three north-eastern governorates, and malaria spread outside this area and rooted in the south (Basra). Syria. Transmission of P. vivax still occurs, mostly along the western part of the border with Turkey and in the north-eastern corner of the country. At present, there are three areas that causes concern along borders between the European and Eastern Mediterranean Regions: Afghanistan is a source of importation of malaria to all its neighbours; areas on the borders between Iran, Azerbaijan and, to some extent, Armenia; 4 northern governorates of Iraq and parts of southeastern Turkey, with repercussions in Syria and, to a Lesser extent in Iran, along its western border. To some extent, Cyprus is also threatened, since importation of malaria to the northern part of the island from Turkey has been documented. In practical terms, there is a need for co-ordination of antivectorial activities and standardization of control methods between the countries with strong programmes and relatively intense transmission in border areas, i

  18. The current situation of personal dose monitoring in Chinese medicine radiation and undamaged detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The situation of personal dose monitoring in γ(X) external exposure in China is mainly outlined. Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) was adopted for personal dose measurement of the radiation workers. The computer software and data base for the work have been developed and applied. National intercomparison of TLD, monitoring control of personal dose monitoring in field, and technical training were carried out for quality control. In China, the dominant occupational exposures is X-ray diagnosis and it increases year by year, the highest values is about 22.6%. The highest values of annual collective dose and annual average of individual dose (AAID) are 272.8 man·Sv and 3.21 mSv respectively. This work shows that the fraction of the population receiving high dose is decreased with time rapidly. The situation for whole occupational exposures is also described. (3 tabs.)

  19. Situated clinical reasoning: distinguishing acute confusion from dementia in hospitalized older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Marianne

    2003-04-01

    In this study a dimensional analysis approach was used to explore the clinical reasoning of nurses who care for hospitalized older adults to identify factors that might explain their failure to detect acute confusion and to distinguish it from dementia in this patient population. Data analysis yielded a grounded theory of situated clinical reasoning, which proposes that the ability of nurses to identify acute confusion varies widely. This variation can be attributed to the differences in nurses' philosophical perspectives on aging. According to this theory, three distinct perspectives are unwittingly embraced by nurses who care for older patients. These perspectives influence how nurses characterize aging and the aged and condition the ways in which they judge and ultimately deal with older adults in clinical situations. PMID:12652606

  20. The Neglected Situation: Assessment Performance and Interaction in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Informed by Goffman's influential essay on "The neglected situation" this paper examines the contextual and interactive dimensions of performance in large-scale educational assessments. The paper applies Goffman's participation framework and associated theory in linguistic anthropology to examine how testing situations are framed and…